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Radiographic Interpretation

Part 3.
Course Reference WIS 20
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Radiographic Techniques

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Radiographic Techniques
Single Wall Single Image (SWSI)
- film inside, source outside

Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) panoramic


- film outside, source inside (internal exposure) Double Wall Single Image (DWSI) - film outside, source outside (external exposure) Double Wall Double Image (DWDI) - film outside, source outside (elliptical exposure)
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Single Wall Single Image


SWSI

Film
Film

IQIs should be placed source side

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M.S.Rogers

Single Wall Single Image Panoramic


SWSI panoramic

Film

IQIs are placed on the film side Source inside film outside (single exposure)
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Double Wall single Image


DWSI

Film IQIs are placed on the film side Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) This technique is intended for pipe diameters over 100mm
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Double Wall single Image

Identification Unique identification IQI placing Pitch marks indicating readable film length
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A
ID MR11

Radiograph
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Double Wall single Image

Radiograph
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Double Wall Double Image


DWDI

Film

IQIs are placed on the source or film side Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) A minimum of two exposures This technique is intended for pipe diameters less than 100mm
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Double Wall Double Image

Identification Unique identification IQI placing Pitch marks indicating readable film length
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4
EN W10

1
ID MR12

Shot A Radiograph
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Double Wall Double Image

Elliptical Radiograph
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Double Wall Double Image perpendicular


DWDI

Film IQIs are placed on the source or film side Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) A minimum of three exposures Source side weld is superimposed on film side weld This technique is intended for small pipe diameters
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Intensifying Screens
Radiographic film is usually sandwiched between two intensifying screens There are three main there are three main types of intensifying screens

Lead screens Fluorescent screens Fluorometallic screens


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Lead Intensifying Screens


Film placed between 2 intensifying screens Intensification action achieved by emitting particulate radiation (electrons/beta) Generally lead of 0.02mm to 0.15mm Front screen shortens exposure time and

improves quality by filtering out scatter


Back screen acts as a filter only
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Salt Intensifying Screens


Film placed between 2 intensifying screens Intensification action achieved by emitting Light radiation (Visible or UV-A) Intensification action twice that of lead screens No filtration action achieved Salt used calcium tungstate
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M.S.Rogers

Fluoromatallic Intensifying Screens


Film placed between 2 intensifying screens Intensification action achieved by emitting light

radiation (Visible or UV-A) and particulate


radiation electrons)

High cost
Front screen acts as a filter and intensifier

Salt used calcium tungstate


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Comparison Chart, Intensifying Screens


Screen type

Order of image quality


1 4 3 2

Order of speed

Intensification How factor intensificatio n is achieved


2-3 8-15 5-10 N/A

Lead Fluorescent

3 1

Electrons -ve Beta radiation


Light radiation Light radiation None

Fluorometallic
None

2
4

An intensification factor of 3 will reduce exposure from six minutes to two minutes
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Radiographic Film

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Radiographic Film

Base

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Radiographic Film

Subbing

Base
Subbing

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Radiographic Film
Supercoat

Emulsion AgBr
Subbing

Base
Subbing

Emulsion AgBr
Supercoat
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What are the advantages of Double Coated Film?

Improve contrast

Reduce the exposure time

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

Radiographic Film
Film Types
Grain size Coarse Speed Fast Medium Slow Quality Poor Medium Good V Good Film Factor 10

Medium
Fine Ultra Fine

35
90 200

V Slow

Note: Some film manufactures my use different film factor systems


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Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

Image Formation
When radiation passes through an object it is differentially absorbed depending upon the materials thickness and any differing densities The portions of radiographic film that receive sufficient amounts of radiation undergo minute changes to produce the latent image (hidden image) 1. The silver halide crystals are partially converted into metallic silver to produce the latent image

2. The affected crystals are then amplified by the


developer, the developer completely converts the affected crystals into metallic silver

3. The radiograph attains its final appearance by fixation


Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Film Processing
Film processing is carried out using the following

Developer tank - alkali


Stop bath or rinse tank - slightly acidic

Fixer tank - acidic


Final wash tank - running water

Wetting agent - detergent


Drying - drying cabinet or drying room
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M.S.Rogers

Processing Systems
Development
Metallic Silver converted into Black metallic silver 3-5 min at 20OC Main Constituents Developing agent metol-hydroquinone Accelerator keeps solution alkaline Restrainer ensures only exposed silver halides converted Preservative prevents oxidation by air Replenishment

Purpose to ensure that the activity of the developer and the


developing time required remains constant Guideline 1. After 1m2 of film has been developed,
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about 400 ml of replenisher needs to be added

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Film Processing
Development
Supplied as a liquid concentrated alkali mixed to 1 part developer to 4 parts water Developer temperatures for manual processing 20oC Development times are 4 to 5 minutes During the development process agitation should take place to avoid bromide streaking Replenishment may be added to maintain development times and the activity of the developer
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Film Processing
Fixer
Supplied as a liquid concentrated acid mixed to 1 part fixer to 3 parts water Fixing temperatures for manual processing 20oC Fixing times are twice the clearing time, clearing time about 3 minutes, fixing time about 6 minutes During the fixing process agitation should take place to avoid light spots on the radiograph

When fixing times exceed 10 minutes the fixer should be replaced, replenishment is not normally added
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Film Processing
Washing / Drying
After washing in running water the films may be placed in a wetting agent to reduce surface tension this results in even drying, preventing black streaky marks on the radiograph Before drying excess water should be removed with the use of a squeegee
Drying should take place in a dust free environment

Typical drying times in a drying cabinet 15 minutes


Typical drying times in a drying room 45 minutes Care should be taken not to allow drops of water to appear on the drying films, this may cause black marks to appear on the radiograph
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Film Characteristic Curve


Sensitometric curve H & D Curve (Hurter & Driffield)
The point of solarisation
3.5

Density (Log)

3.0

2.5 2.0
1.0

Maximum 0.5 inherent film density 0.3


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Log Relative Exposure


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Film Characteristic Curve


Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve
The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information about the films speed

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Film Characteristic Curve

Density
A B C D E

Film A is faster than Film B Film B faster then C

Log Relative Exposure


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M.S.Rogers

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M.S.Rogers

Film Characteristic Curve


Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve

The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information about the films speed
The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast

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M.S.Rogers

Film Characteristic Curve


Density obtained in a photographic emulsion does not vary linearly with applied exposure
Steeper gradient Highest contrast

Density (Log)

Log Relative Exposure


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M.S.Rogers

Film Characteristic Curve


Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve

The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information about the films speed
The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range within which the film is at its optimal

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M.S.Rogers

Film Characteristic Curve


Shoulder

Density (Log)

Straight line section


Toe

Log Relative Exposure


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M.S.Rogers

Film Characteristic Curve


Information which can be obtained from a films characteristic curve

The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information about the films speed
The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range range within which the film is at its optimal A new exposure can be determined for a change of film type
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Changing Density
Density achieved 1.5 Density required 2.5 Density
2.5

Determine interval between logs 1.8 - 1.3 = 0.5 Antilog of 0.5 = 3.18 Therefore multiply exposure by 3.18
(measured density is lower than the required density)

1.5

1.3 1.8

Original exposure 10 mA mins New exposure Ltd Copyright 2004 TWI 31.8mA mins

Log Relative Exposure


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Changing Film
Obtain Logs for Films A and B at required density Density
2.5
A B

Interval between logs = 0.15

Antilog of 0.15 = 1.42


Multiply exposure by 1.42
1.7 1.85

Original exposure 10 mA mins New exposure


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14.2 mA mins

Log Relative Exposure


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Determination of Exposure
Wavelength - Gamma fixed, X-ray variable

Intensity - Gamma curies fixed, X-ray mA variable


Film density to be achieved Film speed Source to film distance

Material type
Material thickness
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Determination of Exposure
Gamma exposures are calculated by the use of a gamma calculators/slide rule Gamma calculators take into consideration Film density to be achieved Source type Activity of the source Film speed Source to film distance Material type Material thickness
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd
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Determination of Exposure
X-ray exposures are less straight forward because the wavelength and intensity are variable
X-ray exposures are determined by the following By using exposure charts By reference to previous exposure records

By trial and error test shots


By a combination of the above

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M.S.Rogers

Exposure Chart
Kilo Volts
100 120 150 180 200 220 250 6.5 5.5 280 300

Milli Amps

4.5 3.5 2.5 1.5 1.0 0.5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50


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Chart based on Philips 300kV Screen = pb Dev = to spec

Density = 2.0

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Material thickness

Density Equivalent Factor


1 Density Achieved 0.50 0.75 1.00
st

Density Required 1.50 5.00 2.60 1.75 2.00 7.50 3.90 2.50 2.50 10.00 4.90 3.33 3.0 12.00 6.00 4.00

1.50
2.00 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.50 3.75 4.00

1.00
0.75 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.38 0.36 0.35

1.40
1.00 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.55 0.53 0.50

1.90
1.25 1.00 0.95 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.60

2.40
1.60 1.20 1.10 1.00 0.86 0.80 0.75

Multiply 1st

exposure by the above factors to achieve the density required.


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Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

Exposure Chart
Kilo Volts
100 120 150 180 200 220 250 6.5 5.5 280 300

Milli Amps

4.5
Chart based on

3.5 2.5 1.5 1.0 0.5 5 10 15 20 25 30

Philips 300kV Screen = pb Dev = to spec Density = 2.0 Material C/S

35

40

45 50
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Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

Material thickness

Exposure Equivalent Chart


Radiographic Equivalence Chart
50kv 100kV 150kV 220kV 400kV Mg
Al Ti Cu Steel 18 12

0.6
1

0.6
1

0.5
0.12 0.45 1.6 1 1.4

0.08
0.08 0.35 1.4 1 1.3 1.4 1 1.3
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Zi
Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

Exposure Chart
Kilo Volts
100 120 150 180 200 220 250 6.5 5.5 280 300

Milli Amps

4.5 3.5 2.5 1.5 1.0 0.5 5 10 15 20 25 30

Chart based on Philips 300kV Screen = pb Dev = to spec Density = 2.0

Material C/S
Film Type

35

40

45 50
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Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

Material thickness

Relative Film Exposures


Film Speed Chart

Agfa
CX

D7

D5

D4

Kodak
150

AX

MX

Fuji

100 3 3.5 4 5 6

80 7 8 10 12 14
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2 2.5
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Relative Film Exposures


Change of Film From CX to MX Original Exposure Film factor for CX Film factor for MX 4 mins 2.5 10

New Exposure = New film type X original exposure original film New Exposure = 10 x 4 = 16mins 2.5
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Exposure Chart
Kilo Volts
100 120 150 180 200 220 250 6.5 5.5 280 300

Milli Amps

4.5
Chart based on

3.5 2.5 1.5 1.0 0.5 5 10 15 20 25 30

Philips 300kV Screen = pb Dev = to spec Density = 2.0 Material C/S Film Type FFD = 900

35

40

45 50
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Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

Material thickness

Exposure Calculation
Exposure = intensity x time example 3 mA at 2 minutes = 6 mA minutes 1 mA at 6 minutes = 6 mA minutes

Exposure formula old exposure = old distance2 new exposure new distance2 E1 = D12 E2 D22
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Exposure control
For FFD/SFD change

T1 D1 2 = T2 D2 2
T1 = New exposure time T2 = Original exposure time D1 = New FFD D2 = Original FFD
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Exposure control
For FFD/SFD change Example: Calculate new exposure time for FFD = 600 mm

Original exposure at 500mm was 10 min

T1 =

(600) 2 (500)
2

10 = 14.4 mins

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M.S.Rogers

Any Questions

Copyright 2004 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers