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THE MAGAZINE FOR MATERIALS INSPECTION AND TESTING PERSONNEL

January 2013 / Vol. 16 / No. 1

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Inspector Responsibilities
Shear Wave UT Soundness Testing

awo.aws.org

Online Math for Welders Course Welders

Mathematics is a necessary part of a welding professionals activities. However, math can be However, welding professionals complicated and confusing for beginners, and difficult for adults who havent used math principles f difficult awhile. This course provides a combination of clear step-by-step verbal and visual explanations that clear make each mathematical concept easy to understand and remember. Topics include place value, remember. Topics understand o pla simplification, estimation, measurement, and the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of whole numbers, fractions, decimals and mixed numbers. Practical exercises allow welders, welding students, supervisors and inspectors to apply basic math skills to various aspects of the welding through AWS process. Eighteen PDHs are provided through this course toward AWS recertification.

Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/math-for-welders-level-1 Sample at awo.aws.org w aw rg/seminars/math-for-welders-leve w r e el-1 el-

IT
8669 Doral Blvd Doral FL 33166 Telephone (800) 443-9353 FAX (305) 443-5647 Visit our website: www.aws.org

Vol. 16 / No. 1

Features

19 What Are the Inspectors Roles and Responsibilities? by Neal A. Chapman and Jacqueline Mansfield/ Two inspectors one with plenty of experience and another just starting out offer their perspectives on inspectors roles and responsibilities / 15 What You Should Know about Soundness Testing by Albert J. Moore Jr. / Soundness testing is necessary whether the inspector is qualifying a welder or a welding procedure / 19
INSPECTION TRENDS (ISSN 1523-7168) is published quarterly by the American Welding Society. Editorial and advertising offices are located at 8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353. Printed by R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., Senatobia, Miss. Subscriptions $30.00 per year for noncertified, nonmembers in the United States and its possessions; $50.00 per year in foreign countries; $20.00 per year for noncertified members and students; $10.00 single issue for nonmembers and $7.00 single issue for members. American Welding Society is located at 8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353. Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Inspection Trends c/o American Welding Society, 8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166.
Readers of Inspection Trends may make copies of articles for personal, archival, educational, or research purposes, and which are not for sale or resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles, provided customary acknowledgment of authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items excluded from copyright.

What Is Your Role in Monitoring Shear Wave UT? by David J. Reid / These tips will help you better understand what takes place during shear wave ultrasonic testing / 22

Departments
Editors Note................................6 News Bulletins.............................8 Print and Product Showcase ......12 Just the Facts..............................14 Technology Notes ......................14 Inspection Trends / Winter 2013 5 The Answer Is ............................24 Mark Your Calendar...................26 Certification Schedule................27 Advertiser Index ........................28

AWS MISSION STATEMENT


The mission of the American Welding Society is to advance the science, technology, and application of welding and allied processes worldwide, including joining, brazing, soldering, cutting, and thermal spraying.

By Mary Ruth Johnsen Dear Readers,

Editors Note
Publisher Andrew Cullison cullison@aws.org Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen mjohnsen@aws.org Associate Editor Howard Woodward woodward@aws.org Associate Editor Kristin Campbell kcampbell@aws.org Production Editor Zaida Chavez zaida@aws.org Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores bflores@aws.org National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein salty@aws.org Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca lea@aws.org Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson fwilson@aws.org Subscriptions Representative Tabetha Moore tmoore@aws.org American Welding Society 8669 Doral Blvd., Ste. 130 Doral, FL 33166 (800/305) 443-9353 Copyright
Copyright 2013 by American Welding Society in both printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

Welcome to a new calendar year and a new year of Inspection Trends. I hope you survived the frenzy of the holiday season and the end of the work year without too much stress. I bet youre among those people who say they never make new years resolutions, and I also bet that, in fact, you do, even if you dont say them out loud. Now Im not talking about the personal eat more healthfully, lose weight, exercise more type resolutions. Im talking about the ones that relate to our work lives. Theres just something about coming back to work after New Years Day or opening up a blank calendar that compels us to say to ourselves, This is the year things will be different. This is the year I will meet all my deadlines keep all my paperwork in order and up to date keep my office/cubicle/desk/vehicle clutter free take that training class Ive been putting off. I know I make those kinds of resolutions all the time, not just at the new year, but whenever theres some sort of big change that occurs. Sometimes I even keep them. For instance, Im not a clean desk kind of girl. If I havent finished something Im working on by the end of the day and I know Ill start on it again in the morning, I just leave everything where it lies. But when we moved into the new AWS World Headquarters Building in late August, I told myself I would tidy up my desk every night before I left. Because truth be told, seeing the mess each morning bothered me, and Id end up with piles of stuff that Id lose track of. So far I accomplish it about eight nights out of ten, and Ive found I keep track of my paperwork much better because of it. So what does all that have to do with Inspection Trends? Well, as I was working on this issue and reexamining this years editorial calendar, I realized a lot of the articles and topics center on the business of being a CWI and offer advice on how to do the job better. Heres the schedule and the editorial deadlines. January (Winter) The CWIs Roles and Responsibilities April (Spring) Tips for Working Overseas Inspection of Pipes, Vessels, and Tanks. Editorial deadline: Feb. 19 July (Summer) The Benefits of the AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector Program Aids to Visual Inspection. Editorial deadline: May 15 October (Fall) Profiles of Top CWIs Update on Radiography and Radiographic Interpretation. Editorial deadline: Aug. 19 Im excited about this year. It contains some new topics, and we have some new authors submitting articles. My resolution for 2013 is to provide an even more useful magazine. Youll have to let me know in December whether I succeeded.
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Inspection Trends / January 2013

AWS Conferences & Exhibitions:

Weld Cracking Conference


March 26-27, 2013 / Las Vegas
AW invite AWS invites you to join us in Las Vegas to expand your weld cracking WS Ve egas expan knowledge! Our featured presenters will explore the many causes of weld cracking as well as provide information on preventive measures.
Gain practical knowledge on the types and causes of weld cracking. Network with industry peers to discuss the best solutions for business growth. AW Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional Development Hour) WS AWS Conf WS for each hour of conference attendance. These PDHs can be applied toward AW AWS recertifications and renewals.

For For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site registration at www.aws.org/conferences or call 800-443-9353, ext. 264. www.aws.org/conferences w. 264.

News Bulletins
TV Rheinland Opens NDE Services Operation in Mississippi
The new facility is located at 199 Interstate Dr., Suite A, Richland, Miss., and is managed by Daniel Britt. Britt has 11 years of experience in NDE. He is an AWS CWI and holds ASNT Level II certifications in radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle, penetrant, and phased array testing. Additional information is available by calling (601) 932-3830. In other news, the company has named Denny A. Stapp, CEO at its Caledonia, Mich., facility. He will be responsible for all operational aspects of TRIS. Most recently, Stapp served as vice president of TRIS where, in addition to operations management, he worked as a senior member of the acquisition team to integrate Woodstock, Ala., based Unified Testing & Engineering Services, Inc., into TV Rheinland.

TV Rheinland Industrial Solutions new 3000-sq-ft facility provides testing, inspection, and certification of materials, components, and structures. TV Rheinland Industrial Solutions, Inc. (TRIS), recently opened a new testing operation in Richland, Miss. The 3000-sqft facility provides testing, inspection, and certification of materials, components, and structures. The services feature a full range of NDE tests, including computed radiography, film radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle, visual, phased array, and positive material identification tests.

Laboratory Testing Names Director of Quality


Frank Peszka of Erdenheim, Pa., was recently promoted to the newly created position of director of quality at Laboratory Testing, Inc., Hatfield, Pa. For the past six years, Peszka has held the position of quality assurance manager. This new position was created to oversee the expanding operations of the Quality Assurance and Certification Departments. In his new position, Peszka will continue to implement and maintain the quality management system, oversee preparation of certified test reports and certificates of

Opportunity Knocks.
AWS agreement with ASNT offers ACCP to qualified CWIs & SCWIs.
Do you need visual testing certification which meets the guidelines for Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A as required by some sections of the ASME Code? Through this agreement, qualified SCWIs and CWIs can obtain ACCP Level II VT certification without examination. Enhance your credentials and satisfy work requirements with the addition of an ACCP credential.

To apply and for more details visit www.asnt.org or call 614.274.6003 or 800.222.2768 US/Canada.
Image Longview Inspection

Inspection Trends / January 2013

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

calibration, and administer the companys new program designed to manage industry specifications for testing and calibration.

CWI Recertification Group Tours Cowboys Stadium

The members of a nine-year CWI recertification class are shown during their tour of Dallas Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Tex. Members of a CWI nine-year recertification class in New Orleans had the opportunity to travel to Arlington, Tex., to tour the Dallas Cowboys Stadium, the largest domed stadium in the world. It is also the worlds largest column-free room. The expansive retractable roof is the largest of its kind in the world and measures approximately 661,000 sq ft. When closed, the roof encompasses 104 million ft3 of volume, making it the largest enclosed NFL stadium. The CWI seminar class included three 36th-year recertification inspectors, John B. Moore, Bob Johnson, and Michael Carciere. The class was facilitated by Ed Bohnart, an AWS past president and SCWI.

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

ASNT, Bringing Thousands of Minds To NDT Matters, Including Yours. Join the Professional Society That Brings the NDT Community & Its Resources To You.

The American Society for Nondestructive Testing Serving the Profession, Creating a Safer World. www.asnt.org

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Inspection Trends / Winter 2013

Survey Shows Quality Professionals Salaries Flat for First Time in More than 25 Years
The average salaries for quality professionals remained steady in 2012, showing no significant change compared to 2011, according to Quality Progress magazines annual salary survey. This was the first time since the magazine began the annual survey 26 years ago that salaries remained flat from the previous year. The magazine, published by the American Society of Quality (ASQ), conjectured the flat salaries could be a result of lingering effects of the recession. This was the first year since the recession began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009 that quality professionals salaries didnt increase in the United States. From 2008 to 2011, salaries increased an average of 2.24% per year. Like salaries, the number of unemployed quality professionals remained steady. In 2012, 2.5% of respondents said they were unemployed, retired, or laid off; in 2011, 2.7% claimed the same employment status. Quality professionals in the United States made an average of $86,743 in 2012, down from $87,086 in 2011. While quality professionals fared well during the recession, the flat salaries are likely indicative of the still-recovering economy, said ASQ CEO Paul Borawski. And even though salary increases slowed this year, there are factors quality professionals can control to earn a higher salary, like earning certifications or pursuing further education. The salary survey ran in the magazines December issue. ASQ members can view the entire salary survey results by visiting qualityprogress.com/salarysurvey.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index continued on page 28

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Inspection Trends / January 2013

www.AmericanWeldingOnline.com

Online Welding Safety Certificate Course Welding

OSHA estimates that 4 out of every 1,000 welders will experience a fatal injury or accident over their working lifetime

Earn PDHs and increase your ability to improve safety and health of your welding operations. Three-hour self-paced course covers electric shock, vision and skin protection, ventilation, fire protection, handling of gases, and much more.

Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/safety

Print and Product Showcase


Software Documents Pipe Inspections Using Tablet
software generates reports that include schematics and captured images. It can also export inspections to freely distributable viewer software, so clients can review video along with section detail. It works with all common video inspection hardware. Pipeline Analytics www.pipelineanalytics.com (877) 626-8386

Image Processing Systems Automate Surface Inspections


Designed for touch-screen data entry on a tablet PC, WinCan ProTouch software includes everything an operator needs to document pipe inspections with a video crawler, push camera, or zoom survey camera. The data are fully compatible with the companys WinCan v8 software. The The companys VINSPEC machine vision systems detect surface flaws such as scratches, notches, dents, bubbles, pores, cavities, spots, and changes in transparency, as well as edge defects such as cracks, burrs, bevel, rounding, and leveling errors.

The 2D and 3D camera-based systems are generally installed inline and inspect surfaces at production speed. The software learns on the basis of relevant defect patterns and CAD files, and records parts even when they are not properly positioned. Defective parts can be detected automatically and discharged in a timely manner. VITRONIC Machine Vision Ltd. www.vitronic.com (502) 266-2699New

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Inspection Trends / January 2013

New Hardware and Software Enhance Flaw Detector

strategy to determine the appropriate number of UT, PA, or TOFD beams and angles for a given test. OmniPC is a computer-based software program that provides comprehensive data analysis capabilities for data acquired with the flaw detector. It provides costsaving advantages because analysis of the inspection data can be conducted on a computer rather than on the flaw detector. Olympus NDT www.olympus-ims.com (781) 419-3900 produce a nominal steady-state UV-A intensity of 10,000 W/cm2 at 15 in. The standard intensity versions produce a maximum UV-A intensity of 4500 W/cm2. The lightweight flashlights come with a lanyard, belt holster, two rechargeable batteries, two-position charging cradle with AC power cord, UV-absorbing spectacles, and padded carrying case. They are useful for a wide variety of inspection applications. Spectronics Corp. www.spectroline.com (800) 274-8888

New phased array and ultrasound modules extend the capabilities of the OmniScan MX2 flaw detector. Included are the PA2 secondgeneration phased array module with a UT channel, UT2 two-channel conventional ultrasound module that can be used for time-of-flight diffraction, NDT SetupBuilder software program specifically designed for the companys line of automated and semiautomated ultrasonic testing instruments, and OmniPC software revision. The SetupBuilder software allows users to simulate an inspection

Flashlights Useful for a Variety of NDE Applications


The company offers four models of its OPTI-LUX 365 Series UV-A (365nm) LED flashlights. High-intensity and standard intensity versions are available, each with or without an internal black light filter. The black light filter reduces the output of wavelengths longer than 400 nm. The high-intensity versions

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Inspection Trends / Winter 2013

13

By Lyndsey Deckard

Just the Facts


Welders may not be qualified by RT alone using the GMAW-S process. It is very important to review WPSs for changes in mode of transfer. Following are some excerpts from AWS D1.1/D1.1 M:2010, Structural Welding Code Steel, related to this topic. 3.2.1 Prequalified Processes. SMAW, SAW, GMAW (except GMAWS), and FCAW WPSs which conform to all of the provisions of Clause 3 shall be deemed as prequalified and are therefore approved for use without performing WPS qualification tests for the process. For WPS prequalification, conformance with all of the applicable provisions of Clause 3 shall be required (see 3.1). 4.16.1 ESW, EGW, GTAW, and GMAW-S. ESW, EGW, GTAW, and GMAW-S may be used, provided the WPSs are qualified in conformance with the requirements of Clause 4. Note that the essential variable limitations in Table 4.5 for GMAW shall also apply to GMAW-S. 4.20.1.1 Substitution of RT for Guided Bend Tests. Except for joints welded by GMAW-S, radiographic examination of a welder or welding operator qualification test plate or test pipe may be made in lieu of bend tests described in 4.20.1(2) (see 4.31.3 for RT requirements). In lieu of mechanical testing or RT of the qualification test assemblies, a welding operator may be qualified by RT of the initial 15 in. [380 mm] of a production groove weld. The material thickness range qualified shall be that shown in Table 4.11.

GMAW-S: A Little Different Kind of Animal


I recently reviewed welding procedures for a fabricator who used constant voltage welding machines. The Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) called for multiple passes using rather widely varied voltages, and consequently even more widely varied amperages, in the passes of the same weld. The WPS indicated the weld joint configuration to be prequalified, and the welders were qualified by radiographic testing (RT) of their test weldment coupons. The review of the WPS and its supporting Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) indicated voltages and currents for some passes to be below the globular/short circuit transition range. A change in mode of metal transfer is an essential variable, requiring requalification of the welding procedure. Since short circuit gas metal arc welding (GMAW-S) is not a prequalified process, dropping into the GMAW-S volt/amp range required requalification of both the welds.

LYNDSEY DECKARD (Deckard@pbworld.com) is quality manager of the Vehicle Division of Parsons Brinckerhoff Transit & Rail Systems, Inc. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector, an ASQ Certified Quality Auditor, and a member of the AWS Certification Committee, Examination Question Bank Subcommittee, and Ethics Subcommittee.

Technology Notes
Errata AWS D3.6M:2010
Underwater Welding Code

The following errata, in addtion to previously announced corrections (visit www.aws.org), have been identified and will be incorporated into the next reprinting of this document. Page 60, Figure 7.2, note 2b. Correct to . Page 63, Figure 7.3, note a. Correct to . Page 63, Figure 7.3, note b. Correct to . Page 75, Figure 8.2, note 3b. Correct to . Page 77, Figure 8.3, note b. Correct to .

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Inspection Trends / January 2013

By Neal A. Chapman and Jacqueline Mansfield

Feature

What Are the Inspectors Roles and Responsibilities?


Inspectors duties are outlined both in respect to whats called for in the standards and what happens in practice
What are the roles and responsibilities of the participants in the AWS Certified Welding Inspector programs? You may be surprised to learn that those two terms roles and responsibilities are not found in the AWS documents associated with Senior Certified Welding Inspectors (SCWIs), Certified Welding Inspectors (CWIs), or Certified Associate Welding Inspectors (CAWIs). However, those are the terms we use every day when talking about inspectors duties. Therefore, we will describe some of our personal experiences regarding our roles and subsequent responsibilities that we believe are typical of others in this field. Jacqui and Neal are at the opposite ends of the spectrum regarding this certification. While both are employed as welding engineers, she is a newly tested CAWI, and he is a very experienced inspector first certified in 1981. We see the role of welding inspectors much like that of a local justice or judge. Inspectors ensure that welds are inspected to a known standard and that the variables used to make them have been verified and documented. This is much like at a trial presided over by a judge: The evidence is presented, evaluated, and ruled upon. into being an inspector; one chooses to become one. Typically, a person is hired to perform this role and the duties necessary to accomplish it. Many of us have the inspector role as a part of a larger occupation. Some inspectors are also qualified welders; others may be engineers, managers, NDE examiners, educators, and consultants in welding production. In fact, most certified inspectors do much more in their daily jobs than just inspect welds. Fortunately, for our society, there is a level of qualification needed for the role of welding inspector. These qualifications are addressed in AWS B5.1:2003, Specification for the Qualification of Welding Inspectors, and QC-1:2007, Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors. Both of these documents can be downloaded for free from the AWS Web site, www.aws.org. Neal gained his initial experience as a visual inspector and a NDE examiner with a testing company that served industries such as petrochemical, energy, power, and Dept. of Transportation bridges in numerous states. Currently, he is a leader in nuclear welding programs within his company and through the industry via his positions on the EPRI Welding Research Steering Committee and the AWS Certification Committee. In that experience of more than 30 years, Neal has seen a few inspectors who were of no value to their employers or the public in general. In the same breath, he can state that he has seen inspectors who were nothing less than heroic in their dedication to their products, employers, and the public. According to Neal, I can honestly say that the good outweigh the bad 99 to 1. A common theme among these good inspectors is that they can talk about all aspects of a job and to all of the personnel involved. As an example, good inspectors will not only validate the E7018 used on the job has been properly stored and maintained, but will also inform the welders and foremen why that is a needed practice. This level of involvement ensures the current products are good and also provides tools for all involved as they go forward. Neals experience in the last 20 years has been to ensure only the best welders are assigned to make welds deemed high risk and high value. This is based on inspection results from his own work and, more typically, that of other inspectors. His inspections are typically made after another inspector has found something and the company needs to evaluate for an engineering assessment to determine if a weld is fit for service (accept as is) or to determine a repair plan. Welding inspections are a part of a companys welding program and yes, an essential part but often inspection does not stand alone in our industry. Neal uses himself as an example as how many people with a CWI credential use it as only part of their job. Jacquis experience is newly gained, and she works with Neal in a mentor/protg relationship at a nuclear power plant. She is an AWS CAWI who achieved a high score on the exam and now waits out her time in grade. However, she is also qualified to inspect welds on her own under ANSI N45.2 rules at the plant. According to Jacqui, I have found one of the most difficult-to-grasp aspects of being a welding inspector is

What Do We Mean by Role?


In looking for an official definition, we found that Wikipedia distinguishes between two types of roles: social and achieved. The achieved role is a position a person assumes voluntarily that reflects personal skills, abilities, and effort. This definition fits nicely into our understanding as no one is conscripted

Inspection Trends / Winter 2013

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when to reject a weld and when to accept it. Under time pressure, if you do not correctly interpret the code you are working with, you may make the wrong call. I feel this is why so many struggle with the Part B portion of the AWS CWI exam. I was told one time, It doesnt have to be pretty to pass. This may be true depending on the code you are inspecting to. Learning the steps to an inspection can be challenging at first depending on the industry. It could be as simple as checking the inside and outside surfaces of the weld, and if those elements are satisfactory, then the weld is acceptable. In some industries, its not just the size and quality of the weld that must meet a particular code that the inspector must examine, but

was all appropriate paperwork included, were the referenced procedure(s) followed, and were the base material and filler metal slips checked. In particular, some industries and companies use software and standardized forms to specify the weld criteria. If these procedures and forms are not kept up to date with the codes, mistakes on weld size can be missed. In cases such as this, the SCWI and/or CWI must stay up to date on the changes to codes. Code hierarchy in some industries is a challenge the first few years as a new-to-the-industry CAWI. The question of how did they choose that specific code is always floating in our heads. Just when we think weve got the majority of it down, there is an

exception to the rule or a code change. For CAWIs who are not provided a code to follow by the owner, the question is then what do I do if they dont provide a code? So far, in my experience as a CAWI in the nuclear industry, I notice the minor mistakes such as preheat and purge hold points. Neal will direct us to use ASME Section VIII because the welding is on a pressure vessel, not ASME B31.1, which is applied to pipe. Learning this demarcation is especially important in the transition areas.

Responsibilities
The definition of responsibility according to dictionary.com is a

Table 1 Welding Inspection Capabilities Based on Qualification Level


Knowledge and Skills 1) prepare reports 2) communicate effectively orally and written 3) understand the fundamentals of SMAW, SAW, OFW, RW, GTAW, FCAW, GMAW, PAW, SW, ESW, and Thermal Spraying, Soldering, Mechanical Cutting, Thermal Cutting/Gouging, Brazing/Braze Welding 4) understand the fundamentals of VT, MT, AET, UT, PT, ET, RT, LT, quality procedures and quality audits/surveillance 5) understand the fundamentals of welding metallurgy 6) understand welding symbols and drawings 7) interpret drawings Standards 1) verify base material compliance 2) verify filler metal compliance 3) verify filler metal storage/handling compliance 4) verify inspection records compliance 5) verify proper documentation compliance 6) verify base material and filler metal compatibility 7) certify documented results compliance 8) verify procedure qualification records compliance 9) verify welding procedure compliance 10) verify NDE procedures compliance Procedure Qualification 1) verify welding equipment appropriateness 2) verify edge preparation compliance 3) verify joint geometry compliance 4) witness procedure qualification 5) verify welding procedure qualification compliance 6) review and approve welding procedures 7) develop welding procedures Performance Qualification 1) witness welder performance qualification 2) verify welder qualification compliance 3) verify welder qualification records compliance 4) request welder performance requalification Production 1) verify welder qualification appropriateness 2) verify production welding compliance 3) verify personnel qualifications Inspection 1) perform visual examinations 2) verify examination procedure compliance AWI X X X WI X X X SWI X X X

X X X X WI X X X X X X X X X X WI X X X X X X

X X X X SWI X X X X X X X X X X SWI X X X X X X X SWI

AWI X X X X X

AWI X X X

AWI

WI

X X X X
AWI WI

X X X X
SWI

X X X
AWI WI

X X X
SWI

X X

X X

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Inspection Trends / January 2013

particular burden of obligation upon one who is responsible. The welding inspectors responsibilities are to perform the following listed duties to reach his or her conclusion regarding the acceptance of a weld. Activities of the CAWI Remember that CAWIs are limited in responsibility; therefore, one of the CAWIs main responsibilities is to learn from CWIs and SCWIs. Learning from other resources such as welders, foremen, engineers, and other professionals they work with is important as well. Some of the CAWIs other responsibilities follow:

Perform visual inspections under the direction of a CWI or SWCI Learn the logic behind how to make their decisions and the process to document the results Learn their rights as an inspector Understand code hierarchy Understand welding in general and WPS compliance Learn the differences between the various NDE and welding techniques and processes. Activities of the CWI Following are some of the responsibilities of a CWI: Perform visual inspections Supervise CAWIs

Learn from and question the SCWI Share knowledge by serving as a mentor Model ethical behavior.

Activities of the SCWI


Following are some of the duties of SCWI: Supervise CWIs and CAWIs Assist CWIs and CAWIs with regard to their questions and concerns Perform visual inspection Share knowledge as a mentor Model ethical behavior. Different industries utilize welding inspectors in a variety of positions and in various ways. In some code fabrication shops, the CWI may be the entire quality

(Table 1 Continued) (Inspection continued) 3) review examination results compliance 4) develop visual inspection procedures (before, during, and after welding 5) provide NDE inspection planning and scheduling (before, during, and after a project) 6) review welding inspection reports 7) verify implementation of nondestructive and destructive evaluation methods 8) prepare visual inspection requirements 9) prepare NDE requirements 10) report investigation results of quality inspection disputes 11) prepare destructive testing requirements Safety 1) verify safety requirements compliance 2) develop safety procedures and policies Quality Assurance 1) perform audits and surveillance 2) develop quality assurance plans 3) prepare base material control requirements 4) prepare weld consumable control requirements 5) prepare audit and surveillance plans 6) prepare documentation control requirements Project Management 1) review contract requirements 2) review vendor proposal compliance 3) prepare weld inspection bid specifications 4) prepare purchase specifications 5) determine vendor capacity and capability 6) select vendor Training 1) develop and provide a training program for the AWI 2) develop visual inspection training 3) verify implementation of visual inspection training 4) develop and provide a training program for the WI 5) provide technical leadership for welding inspectors 6) develop quality assurance training program 7) verify implementation of quality assurance training 8) provide guidance and direction to inspectors for maintaining and upgrading their individual qualifications Evaluation 1) evaluate AWIs performance 2) evaluate WIs performance 3) perform inspection results trend analysis AWI WI SWI

X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X
SWI

AWI

WI

X
AWI

X
WI

X X
SWI

X X X X X X
SWI

AWI

WI

X X

X X X X
X X

AWI

WI X X X

SWI X X X X X X X X SWI X X X

AWI

WI X

Inspection Trends / Winter 2013

17

control department. In other industries, a CWI certification is the entry-level requirement along with possible NDE qualifications. None of these is wrong or better; they are just different. Responsibilities or duties are welldefined in AWS B5.1, Specification for the Qualification of Welding Inspectors. Following is an excerpt from that document. 4.1 Duties. The employer shall define the welding inspectors specific duties. 4.1.1 AWI. The AWI shall be able to perform inspections, under the active supervision of a SWI or WI. Supervision should be within visible and audible range. The SWI or WI shall maintain the responsibility for determining if welded assemblies conform to workmanship and acceptance criteria. 4.1.2 WI. The WI shall be able to supervise and train AWIs. The WI shall be able to perform inspections to applicable procedures and processes. The WI shall be able to conduct audits of suppliers and organizations providing

materials or services to the project. The WI shall ensure the work performed and associated records are maintained and conform to the requirements of the applicable standards or other contract documents. 4.1.3 SWI. The SWI shall be able to train, supervise, and evaluate WIs and AWIs. In addition to being able to perform the duties of the WI, the SWI shall be able to develop inspection requirements, safety procedures, quality assurance plans, project plans, and training programs. 4.2 Capabilities. As specified by qualification level, the welding inspector shall be able to perform the tasks listed in Table 1.

the succeeding generations of inspectors the how and why of performing the steps toward a good inspection. SCWIs and CWIs must also have patience with new CAWIs. Weld inspection is not an everyday practice; it takes time to thoroughly understand the codes and acceptance criteria. All levels of inspectors need to maintain a strong conviction that their real responsibility is to ensure the welds they inspect meet all of the applicable standards, knowing that the safety of the public depends on them.

Conclusions
CWIs and SCWIs need to share their experiences including mistakes they have made and how they learned from them openly with their subordinates. These individuals should take their mentorship seriously and teach

NEAL A. CHAPMAN (weldingengineer@inbox.com) is lead welding engineer, Entergy Nuclear Northeast, and JACQUELINE MANSFIELD is site welding engineer, Entergy Nuclear, Oswego, N.Y. CHAPMAN is an AWS CWI, a member of the AWS Certification Committee, and chair of the Subcommittee on the Code of Ethics and the Subcommittee on Supplemental CWI Inspection Programs.

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Inspection Trends / January 2013

By Albert J. Moore Jr.

Feature

What You Should Know about Soundness Testing


Review the applicable welding standard before performing soundness tests because the various standards may require different tests, specimen dimensions, and number of specimens
Soundness tests verify that welded samples are free of unacceptable surface-breaking and subsurface discontinuities such as incomplete fusion, incomplete joint penetration, inclusions, cracks, porosity, etc. Nondestructive or mechanical tests can be used to verify soundness. Soundness tests are required whether the inspector is involved in qualifying a welder or a welding procedure. These tests can consist of nondestructive or destructive tests; the applicable welding standard will stipulate what tests are required. It is presupposed that the test sample has already passed the requisite visual examination. Radiographic testing (RT), or in some cases ultrasonic testing (UT), can be used when permitted by the welding standard, but most standards require mechanical (destructive) tests for evaluation of test coupons. Mechanical tests include guided bend and fillet break tests. If testing is per API 1104, Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities, the nick break, tensile, and guided bend tests may be required. It is important to review the applicable welding standard to verify what soundness tests are required. Different welding standards require different tests, different specimen dimensions, and possibly different numbers of test specimens.

Fig. 1 A longitudinal guided root bend. The base metals are CuNi and HY80. Incomplete fusion between the weld and CuNi base metal is shown.

Welder Performance Qualification


Welding standards often list both RT and guided bend testing as options that can be used to evaluate a welder performance test coupon consisting of a grooved butt joint in either plate or pipe. Once a test method has been selected, only that method is used to evaluate the test coupon. Welding standards do not offer provisions for

Fig. 2 A typical transverse root bend for pipe. Notice the corner tears.

Inspection Trends / Winter 2013

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inclusions, etc., are causes to reject the weld. AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code Steel, offers an option that consists of a square groove with a wide root opening that requires the welder to deposit a fillet weld in each corner. The remaining groove is welded and the coupon subjected to guided bend tests as a means of determining weld soundness.

Guided Bend Tests Most welding standards utilize guided bend tests to evaluate welder performance test coupons and welding procedure qualification coupons. There are two types of guided bend tests, each requiring a different preparation for the test coupon. One type is a longitudinal guided bend test, and the other is the transverse guided bend test. The longitudinal guided bend test is used when dissimilar metals are joined or when the mechanical properties, i.e., yield strength or elongation, of the two base metals being joined are different. The transverse guided bend test is used when the same base metals are being welded together or when the mechanical properties are similar. The longitudinal guided bend test can be either a guided face bend or a guided root bend Fig. 1. The sample is called a longitudinal face bend when the bending fixture places the weld face of a single-sided weld into tension. The convex surface of the bend specimen is the face of the weld. When the weld root is placed into tension by the bending fixture, the convex face of the bent specimen is the root of the weld and the sample is called a longitudinal root bend. The transverse guided bend test can be a guided face bend, a guided root bend, or a guided side bend Fig. 2. Either the weld face, root, or cross section is placed into tension. In each case, the convex surface is evaluated for open discontinuities. The guided bend test places the face, root, or cross section of the weld in tension, and causes the convex surface to yield and elongate. Any unacceptable discontinuities near the convex surface will cause a surface tear (open discontinuity) that will be measured and compared to the acceptance criteria of the applicable standard. The bend radius and the thickness of the test specimen determine the amount of elongation the convex surface will experience. The applicable welding standard will specify the bend radius or it will provide a formula to calculate the required bend radius. Most welding standards, API 1104 excluded, require the bend test to produce an elongation that is equal to the specified elongation of the base metal. When dissimilar base metals are

Welding Procedure Qualification


The testing regimen for qualifying a welding procedure is more involved than that for qualifying a welder. Procedure qualification may require nondestructive testing before the destructive tests are performed. AWS D1.1 requires the test coupons, consisting of grooved plate or pipe, to be examined using a volumetric test method, i.e., radiographic or ultrasonic test. If the NDE method deems the test coupon is sound, the coupon then undergoes additional destructive tests. In addition to tensile testing, the coupon is subjected to guided bend testing. API 1104 requires nick break testing in addition to guided bend testing when qualifying a welding procedure. Tensile tests are also required, but not for the purpose of determining weld soundness. Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code does not require volumetric NDE, but there is nothing in the code prohibiting the contractor from using NDE to determine whether it is worthwhile to subject the test coupon to destructive testing. When RT or UT is performed, the test is not used as a means to determine where the test specimens are to be removed from the test coupon. The applicable code stipulates the locations at which the various test specimens are to be removed.

Fig. 3 Once the sample is welded, it is loaded so that the root is in tension and the weld fails through the throat. test coupons that have failed RT to be subjected to bend testing. Once a coupon has been tested with the selected method, it either passes or fails. No additional testing is permitted, i.e., the test coupon cannot be subjected to guided bend tests to override the failed RT. There are situations for which guided bend tests are required, and radiography is not an option. Such is the case when the applicable standard is ASME B31.3, Process Piping, and the fluid service is specified as high pressure. Likewise, many welding standards require guided bend tests when the welding process used is gas metal arc welding with short circuiting transfer. API 1104 is unique in that it allows the welder to be qualified using nick break tests or tensile tests when the test coupon consists of grooved plates or pipe nipples. In both cases, the goal is to fracture the weld so the cross section can be examined to verify the absence or presence of defects. Fillet welds are typically evaluated by the break test. The fillet weld is loaded such that it should fail along the throat so the fractured surfaces can be examined. Unacceptable defects such as incomplete fusion to the root, slag

Nondestructive Testing
Individuals with the proper qualifications and certification must perform the RT and UT. While some CWIs possess the necessary credentials to perform those tests, a CWI is not required to perform them. A detailed discussion of how those tests are performed and evaluated is a topic for another article.

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welded, the elongation must typically match that of the weaker component, i.e., base metal or filler metal. As such, the individual performing the bend test must know the following: Base metals Minimum elongation Coupon thickness Filler metal. The thickness of the test coupon and bend diameter used have been standardized in some welding standards. This is the case with the AWS Structural Welding Codes and ASME Section IX. However, they make provisions for job-sized pipe or plate having different thicknesses. When nonstandard thicknesses are used, the standard bend diameter is inappropriate. The applicable welding standard will usually provide a formula that can be used to determine the (100 t ) following required bend diameter. The t Diameter = formula is typical: E where t is the thickness of the test specimen, E is elongation as a percentage, and Diameter is the diameter of the bend mandrel. For example, given the following, Base metal: carbon steel Elongation: 20% Thickness: 38 in. Diameter = ((100 38)/20) 38 = 1 in. As shown by the example, the diameter of the bending fixture varies for different materials with different elongation properties and material thicknesses. The testing facility must have the proper bend mandrel or have it made if the test is to meet the applicable welding standard. A word of caution is warranted before continuing. If AWS B4.0, Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Welds, is the

working document, an elongation of 20% is the maximum required unless the customer specifies an elongation that is greater. API 1104 is an exception to the protocol given in the preceding. It specifies one bend mandrel diameter for all thicknesses and all carbon steel and high-strength, low-alloy-steel line pipe. Evaluation When guided bend tests are evaluated, only the convex face is examined. Different welding standards list different acceptance criteria. The inspector should always review the acceptance criteria provided by the appropriate welding standard. A case in point is the difference between ASME Section IX and AWS D1.1. ASME limits the maximum open discontinuity on the convex face of the bent sample to 18 in. or less. There is no maximum to the number of open defects. In comparison, AWS D1.1 limits the maximum open discontinuity to 18 in., and the sum of discontinuities cannot exceed 38 in. This difference in acceptance criteria means a guided bend sample that is acceptable per ASME Section IX may not be acceptable per AWS D1.1. Cracks extending from the corners of the bent sample are more liberal provided there is no evidence of incomplete fusion or slag inclusions. Discontinuities observed on the concave face of the bend samples are not subject to evaluation. When a fillet weld is evaluated by fracturing the weld, the method of breaking the weld is not specified. The welded T-joint can be clamped to a column and the butting member struck several times with a sledge hammer Fig. 3. An alternative is to break the coupon in a press, but be forewarned: The press may fail before the fillet

weld fails if the capacity is insufficient. A third method for breaking the welded coupon is to fabricate a robust hickey bar to apply a load to the butting member while securing the nonbutting member to a strong work bench or column. The fractured surfaces of the two pieces (butting and nonbutting members) are examined to see the following: Evidence of incomplete fusion to the root (but not necessarily beyond the root) Incomplete fusion, especially where the welder stops and restarts the weld bead near the middle of the weld Porosity, etc. Of all the soundness tests used to evaluate welds, the fillet break test is probably the easiest and fastest to perform. When the weld coupon consists of plates, the ends of the weld are trimmed back an inch. One of the ends removed from the weld is ground smooth and subjected to macroetching with a suitable etchant. Of the soundness tests described, the transverse guided bend test is performed more frequently than the fillet break test or the nick break test. However, keep in mind that the inspector should check the requirements of the specific welding standard to verify the welded coupon has been prepared properly and the correct procedures are followed when evaluating the samples.

ALBERT J. MOORE JR. (AMoore999@comcast.net) is vice president, Marion Testing & Inspection, Canton, Conn. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector and an ASNT ACCP NDT Level III. He is also a member of the AWS Certification Committee and the Committee on Methods of Inspection of Welds.

AWS Expands International Services


With international membership on the rise, the American Welding Society (AWS) launched a series of countryspecific Web sites known as microsites for members to access information in their native languages. Multilingual microsites are now live for Mexico at www.aws.org/mexico, China at www.aws.org/china, and Canada (English/French) at www.aws.org/canada. They feature information on services offered by AWS in each country, membership benefits, exposition information, online education, and access to AWS publications and technical standards. Other countries will be added later.

Inspection Trends / Winter 2013

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By David J. Reid

Feature

What Is Your Role in Monitoring Shear Wave UT?


Heres advice from an experienced CWI to help you understand whats happening during shear wave ultrasonic testing
One of the responsibilities of AWS Certified Welding Inspectors is to monitor nondestructive examinations (NDE). Most CWIs know enough about magnetic particle testing (MT) and liquid penetrant testing (PT) to feel comfortable monitoring these NDE methods. And some know enough about radiographic testing (RT) that they can review X-ray film. But how many CWIs know enough about ultrasonic shear wave inspections (UT SW) to have that same warm fuzzy feeling of confidence? Ultrasonic shear wave inspections are voodoo and witchcraft. I dont care what your magic box says, show me something I can believe in like an Xray film or a red line from a PT indication. How many times have you heard someone say that or even said something like it yourself? With that in mind, the goal of this article is to give you a little inside information about ultrasonic shear wave inspections. This is not going to be another rehash of basic ultrasonic theory there are plenty of other resources for that but some practical information from a practicing CWI and UT technician. Most of the rejectable indications I have seen were incomplete fusion or slag inclusions just above the root pass, along the square edge of a single-bevel groove weld. I recommend making this part of a complete-joint-penetration (CJP) weld a quality control (QC) hold point to minimize welds being rejected. What about that equipment the UT SW tech is using? If inspection is to AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code Steel, make sure the technician is using code-approved equipment. Shear transducers typically are rectangular and are attached to a wedge that together makes the search unit (Ref. 1). Straight beam transducers typically are

Fig. 1 UT shear wave legs. What are you going to see in the third leg that could not be seen in the first or second leg? round (Ref. 2). They do make round transducers that can be attached to a wedge, but they are not AWS D1.1 Code approved. Dont let the UT SW tech try to tell you that his or her round transducer is prequalified for AWS D1.1 shear wave inspections. If the inspection is to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, make sure the technician is using the code-approved calibration block (Ref. 3). Make sure an IIW (Ref. 4) or DSC block (Ref. 5) is not going to be used instead. How clean is the inspection area? You can get by with minimal surface prep and a bucket of dirty, nasty couplant (a.k.a. gel) when taking thickness measurements, but I would not recommend it for shear wave inspections. Ask the shear wave UT tech to do a straight beam examination of the base metal next to the weld (Ref. 6). Ask the technician to do this after the normal surface prep and using that bucket of dirty, nasty gel. Take note of how much gain had to be used to get a good signal at 75% full screen height (Ref. 7) and what it took to keep it up there during scanning. Now, ask the technician to do the same examination on a surface wiped clean with a solvent such as acetone and using clean couplant. You should notice a difference in the amount of gain that is needed and that it is much easier to keep it up there during scanning. So, what do you think happens when the technician calibrates for the shear wave exam on a clean calibration block but does an inspection on a dirty surface? If you guessed that some sensitivity was lost, you are right. The D1.1 Code mentions legs and faces (Ref. 8). I address legs first since they also apply to inspections done according to the ASME Code Fig. 1. Most of the rejectable indications I have seen were in Leg I, although there have been a few in Leg II. However, if you hear something said about Leg III (Ref. 8), you may want to question why it could not be seen in Legs I or II. This might be something that should be inspected using a different test angle

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Inspection Trends / January 2013

Fig. 2 A B-U4a column splice (scan from both top and bottom sides of Face A); B B-U4a beam-to-web moment connection (scan from only one side of Face A at two different angles); C T-U4a beam-to-flange moment connection (scan from both Face A and Face C). directions would be from both sides of Face A (Ref. 8) Fig. C 2A. However, on that same joint design BU4a as a beam-to-web moment connection, the continuity plate might not be long enough to use both sides of Face A. An alternative method would be to look at it twice from the flange side of Face A with two different angles (Ref. 11) Fig. 2B. As for a T-U4a beamto-flange moment connection, it can be examined from both Face A and Face C (Ref. 8) Fig. 2C. It should be noted that scanning from Face B is not normally done except on material thicknesses greater than 3 in. (Ref. 8). One issue I hope the D1.1 Committee will review is examination of material thicknesses less than 34 in. (Ref. 8). The current code-approved transducer, wedge, and frequency (Ref. 1) are too big to reach the root of a 45deg single-bevel groove weld in Leg I from Face A on material thicknesses less than 34 in. (Ref. 12). For this, the API Qualification of Ultrasonic Examiners (QUTE) procedure calls for a -in. transducer with a frequency of 5.0 MHz (Ref. 13). With this, I hope some of the mystery behind that voodoo and witchcraft we call ultrasonic shear wave inspections has been cleared up for the CWI. References 1. AWS D1.1:2010, Structural Welding Code Steel. 2010. Clauses 6.22.7.1 and 6.22.7.2, plus Fig. 6.18. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society. 2. AWS D1.1:2010, clause 6.22.6. 3. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 4, Figs. T-434.2.1 and T-434.3. New York, N.Y.: ASME. 4. ASME Section V, Article 4, Fig. B-461.2. 5. AWS D1.1:2010, Fig. H.1. 6. AWS D1.1:2010, clause 6.26.5. 7. AWS D1.1:2010, clause 6.25.4.2. 8. AWS D1.1:2010, Table 6.7. 9. AWS D1.1:2010, clause 6.26.6.2. 10. ASME Section V, Article 4, clauses T-472, T-472.2, and T-472.3. 11. AWS D1.1:2010, Fig. S.10. 12. Material thickness 70 TAN = distance from the index point of a 70deg search unit to a point on the surface directly above the intersection of Legs I and II. For a 45-deg singlebevel groove weld, this distance needs to be greater than (Material thickness 45 TAN) + (the measurement from the index point to the front surface of the search unit) + (116-in. for reinforcement toe lap). 13. API-UT-2 Rev. 1, clauses 6.3.1 and 6.4.2. Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute.

than what is called for (Ref. 8) or using a transducer that is not prequalified by the code (Ref. 1). What can be done once an indication has been identified without trying to second guess the UT SW tech? The following is a reasonable question to ask: Can it be identified as being in the same location from two different directions or angles? AWS D1.1 states, It is intended, as a minimum, all welds be tested by passing sound through the entire volume of weld and the heataffected zone (HAZ) in two crossing directions, whenever practical (Ref. 9). The ASME code book contains a similar statement (Ref. 10). My experience has been that if scanning from one direction shows an indication is here, but from the other direction it shows the indication is over there or there is no indication at all, I am inclined to dismiss it as a nonrelevant indication. That is a judgment call only the UT SW tech can make. But when scanning from two different directions points to the same location, it is a rejectable indication you can take to the bank. For a B-U4a column splice, the two

DAVID J. REID (flawgate@yahoo.com) is with Froehling & Robertson, Inc., Chesapeake, Va. He is an AWS CWI and ASNT Level II in MT, PT, and UT.

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By K. Erickson and A. Moore

The Answer Is
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) is to demonstrate that it will produce the required mechanical properties and meet the soundness requirements of the applicable welding standard. How is the WPS qualified? We weld a test coupon, typically a butt joint, replicating the welding parameters we expect to use when making the production welds. First, the welded coupon is examined to verify the weld meets the visual requirements. The coupon is then subjected to a volumetric test, i.e., radiographic testing (RT) or ultrasonic testing (UT), to verify the weld is sound and it is worthwhile to slice and dice the sample for the mechanical tests required to verify the minimum ultimate tensile strength is achieved. Guided bend tests are performed to verify the welded joint is sound. The weld joint is comprised of the aluminum alloy and filler metal we expect to use in production. Coupons are selected to provide a range of thicknesses that will include the thickest and thinnest sections that will be used in production. Judicious selection of the base metal, filler metal, and coupon thicknesses will maximize the return on your investment. Table 3.3 defines what positions and product forms can be welded in production based on the test position used when the coupon was welded. Simply stated, the table indicates separate test coupons do not need to be

The Society is not responsible for any statements made or opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors are for specific informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

Q: I have to qualify a welding procedure for a fillet weld on aluminum alloy. My employer has never qualified a welding procedure for aluminum before. The code specified by the customer is AWS D1.2:2003, Structural Welding Code Aluminum. After reading D1.2, it is not clear to me what I have to do. Help!

A: (from A. Moore) You are not alone


in your confusion: They dont call it a code for no reason. Unfortunately, a decoder ring is not supplied with any of the AWS Structural Welding Codes, so I can only offer my opinion and rationale of why I do what I do. The reason for qualifying a

Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation for U.S. Postal Service (Required by U.S.C. 3685) 1. TITLE OF PUBLICATION: Inspection Trends 2. PUBLICATION NO.: ISSN 1523-7168 3. DATE OF FILING: September 26, 2012 4. FREQUENCY OF ISSUE: Quarterly 5. NO. OF ISSUES PUBLISHED ANNUALLY: 4 6. ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: $30.00 7. MAILING ADDRESS OF KNOWN OFFICE OF PUBLICATION: 8669 Doral Blvd., Suite 130, Doral, Miami-Dade County, Florida 33166 8. MAILING ADDRESS OF THE HEADQUARTERS OR GENERAL BUSINESS OFFICES OF THE PUBLISHERS: 8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, Fl 33166 9. NAMES AND COMPLETE ADDRESS OF PUBLISHER, EDITOR, AND MANAGING EDITOR: PUBLISHER: Andrew Cullison, AWS, 8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166 EDITOR: Mary Ruth Johnsen, AWS, 8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166 10. OWNER: NAME: American Welding Society, Inc. ADDRESS: 8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, Fl 33166 11. KNOWN BONDHOLDERS, MORTGAGEES, AND OTHER SECURITY HOLDERS OWNING OR HOLDING 1 PERCENT OR MORE OF TOTAL AMOUNT OF BONDS, MORTGAGES, OR OTHER SECURITIES: None 12. The purpose, function, and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt status for federal income tax purposes: Has not changed during preceding 12 months 13. Publication Title: Inspection Trends 14. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: Fall October 2012 15. EXTENT AND NATURE OF CIRCULATION: Average No. Copies Each Actual No. Copies of Issue during Preceding Single Issue Published 12 Months Nearest to Filing Date A. Total No. Copies Printed (Net Press Run) B. Paid and/or Requested Circulation 1. Paid/Requested Outside-County Mail Subscriptions Stated on Form 3541 2. Paid In-County Subscriptions Stated on Form 3541 3. Sales through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales, and Other Non-USPS Paid Distribution 4. Other Classes Mailed through the USPS C. Total Paid/Requested Circulation D. Free Distribution by Mail (Samples, Complimentary and Other Free) 1. Outside-County as Stated on Form 3541 2. In-County as Stated on Form 3541 3. Other Classes Mailed through the USPS 4 Free Distribution Outside the Mail (Carriers or Other Means) E. Total Free Distribution F. Total Distribution G. Copies Not Distributed H. Total I. Percent Paid and/ or Requested Circulation 16. Statement of Ownership will be printed in the Winter January 2013 issue of this publication. I certify that the statements made by above are correct and complete: Andrew Cullison, Publisher 24,085 23,444 None None None 23,444 71 None None None 71 23,515 570 24,805 99.6% 24,740 23,773 None None None 23,444 74 None None None 74 23,847 893 24,740 99.6%

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Inspection Trends / January 2013

welded for each position required for production. I do not believe the table indicates the WPS qualified by the groove weld is also qualified for fillet welds without further testing. The butt joint previously qualified does not demonstrate the contractor can deposit sound fillet welds. AWS D1.2:2003 requires the contractor to weld what I would describe as a mock-up of a Tjoint. In addition to the butt joint that is required by AWS D1.2 to verify the mechanical properties are acceptable, a T-joint must be welded using the largest single-pass fillet weld that will be used in production. If multiple-pass fillet welds are also required for production, a T-joint with the smallest multiple-pass fillets welds must also be welded. The T-joints are then sliced and diced once the completed fillet welds have passed the required visual examination. The fillet welds are subjected to macroexamination to verify the weld size requirements are met, fusion to the root is achieved, and the cross section is free of unacceptable defects. The remaining portions of the T-joint are then fractured so the failed weld can be examined for fusion defects, inclusions, etc. These tests do not verify the mechanical properties are met; that was done using the butt joint. This test, i.e., T-joint fillet break test, only demonstrates the welding variables used are capable of depositing sound fillet welds. In conclusion, two or more tests are required to qualify fillet welds. The first test, a butt joint, demonstrates the combination of welding process, base metal, and filler metal using the prescribed parameters and techniques are capable of producing the required mechanical properties. The second test, consisting of the T-joint(s), demonstrates the welding procedure is capable of depositing sound fillet welds. Q: Our shop uses the short circuit gas metal arc welding (GMAW-S) process for complete-jointpenetration groove welds on 316- and 1 4-in. A36 plate. We currently do not use welders qualified to D1.1; however, we have been getting more and more pushback from customers about not using qualified welders. Table 4.11 of AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code Steel, lists 38-in.thick plate as the thinnest test sample for qualification on plate but

since the thickest material we weld with that process is 14 in., can we use 1 4-in. plate for the testing? If so, what range of thicknesses would they be qualified for?

Inspection Trends encourages question and answer submissions. Please mail to the editor (mjohnsen@aws.org). KENNETH ERICKSONis manager of quality at National Inspection & Consultants, Inc., Ft. Myers, Fla. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector, an ASNT National NDT Level III Inspector in four methods, and provides expert witness review and analysis for legal considerations. ALBERT J. MOORE JR. is vice president, Marion Testing & Inspection, Canton, Conn. He is an AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspector and an ASNT ACCP NDT Level III. He is also a member of the AWS Certification Committee and the Committee on Methods of Inspection of Welds.

A: (from K. Erickson) Since you are


qualifying welders to complete-jointpenetration welds in nontubular applications in accordance with AWS D1.1, 38-in. plate is the thinnest plate material thickness for which the welders can be tested. If the welders were being qualified for fillet welds, you would then have the option of using less than 38-in.-thick base materials but this test would not qualify the welders to complete-jointpenetration weldments. Upon successful completion of the 3 8-in. test, the welders shall then be qualified from 18- to 34-in. thickness of base materials. Also, keep in mind that you cannot use a prequalified WPS for the GMAW-S process.

Looking for a Welding Job?


The American Welding Society has enhanced its Jobs In Welding Web site at www.jobsinwelding.com. The redesigned career portal includes additional capabilities for companies seeking workers and individuals looking for jobs. Through relationships with many job boards and distributors, it offers direct access to more than 88% of the welding-related jobs posted on the Internet. Users may search various openings for welders, Certified Welding Inspectors, engineers, technicians, and managers/supervisors. In addition, the Web site contains the following highlights: The home page displays featured welding jobs along with the companies looking to fill them and city/state locations. The job seeker section connects individuals to new career opportunities by allowing them to post an anonymous rsum, view jobs, and make personal job alerts. This area has rsum tips, certification information, and a school locator. The employer area enables association with qualified applicants. Rsums, job postings, and products/pricing options may be viewed here. Visit the Web site to create or access job seeker and employer accounts.

Inspection Trends / Winter 2013

25

Mark Your Calendar


Note: A diamond () denotes an AWS-sponsored event.

ASNT 22nd Annual Research Symposium. March 1821. The Peabody Memphis, Memphis, Tenn. Contact American Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or www.asnt.org. AWS Weld Cracking Conference. March 26, 27. J.W. Marriott Las Vegas Resort, Las Vegas, Nev. Contact American Welding Society, (800) 443-9353, ext. 223, e-mail Alina Blanco at ablanco@aws.org, or visit www.aws.org/conferences. World Conference on Quality and Improvement. May 68. Indiana Convention Center, Indianapolis, Ind. Contact American Society for Quality (ASQ), (800) 248-1946 or http://wcqi.asq.org/. AWS Codes and Standards Conference. July 16, 17. Orlando, Fla. Contact American Welding Society, (800) 4439353, ext. 223, e-mail Alina Blanco at ablanco@aws.org, or visit www.aws.org/conferences. QNDE Conference (Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation). July 2126. Hilton Baltimore, Baltimore, Md. Contact QNDE, Sarah Kallsen, kallsen@iastate.edu, (515) 294-9749; FAX (515) 294-7771; or www.qndeprograms.org/QNDE.html. ASNT Annual Conference and Quality Testing Show. Nov. 47. Rio Hotel, Las Vegas, Nev. Contact American Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or www.asnt.org. FABTECH 2013. Nov. 1821. McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. Contact American Welding Society, (800) 4439353, or www.fabtechexpo.com.

EPRI NDE Training Seminars. EPRI offers NDE technical skills training in visual examination, ultrasonic examination, ASME Section XI, UT operator training, etc. Contact Sherryl Stogner, (704) 547-6174, e-mail: sstogner@epri.com. Nondestructive Examination Courses. A course schedule is available from Hellier, 277 W. Main St., Ste. 2, Niantic, CT 06357, (860) 739-8950, FAX (860) 739-6732. NDE Training Courses. GE Inspection Technologies offers training on topics such as eddy current, digital radiography, and remote visual inspection. For the complete schedule, contact (866) 243-2638; www.geit-info@ge.com; www.ge.com/inspectiontechnologies. Preparatory and Visual Weld Inspection Courses. One- and two-week courses presented in Pascagoula, Miss., Houston, Tex., and Houma and Sulphur, La. Contact Real Educational Services, Inc., (800) 489-2890; info@realeducational.com. CWI/CWE Course and Exam. A ten-day program presented in Troy, Ohio. Contact Hobart Institute of Welding Technology (800) 332-9448; www.welding.org; hiwt@welding.org. T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., Courses. CWI preparation, NDE courses, including ultrasonic thickness testing and advanced phased array. On-site training available. T.E.S.T. NDT, Inc., 193 Viking Ave., Brea, CA 92821; (714) 255-1500; FAX (714) 255-1580; ndtguru@aol.com; www.testndt.com. NDE Training. NDE training at the companys St. Louisarea facility or on-site. Level III services available. For a schedule of upcoming courses, contact Quality Testing Services, Inc., 2305 Millpark Dr., Maryland Heights, MO 63043; (888) 770-0103; training@qualitytesting.net; www.qualitytesting.net. CWI/CWE Prep Course and Exam and NDT Inspector Training Courses. An AWS Accredited Testing Facility. Courses held year-round in Allentown, Pa., and at customers facilities. Contact: Welder Training & Testing Institute (WTTI). Call (800) 223-9884, info@wtti.edu, or visit www.wtti.edu.

Educational Opportunities
NDE Classes. Moraine Valley Community College, Palos Hills, Ill., offers NDE classes in PT, MT, UT, RT, Radiation Safety, and Eddy Current, as well as API 510 exam prep and weld inspection. For more information, contact (708) 9745735; wdcs@morainevalley.edu; morainevalley.edu/NDE.

An Important Event on Its Way?


Send information on upcoming events to Inspection Trends, 8669 Doral Blvd., Suite 130, Miami, FL 33166. Items can also be sent via FAX to (305) 443-7404 or by e-mail to mjohnsen@aws.org.

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Inspection Trends / January 2013

Certification Schedule
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) LOCATION SEMINAR DATES New Orleans, LA Feb. 1015 Waco, TX Feb. 1015 San Diego, CA Feb. 24March 1 Atlanta, GA Feb. 24March 1 Mobile, AL March 38 Kansas City, MO March 38 Houston, TX March 38 Norfolk, VA March 38 Milwaukee, WI March 38 Birmingham, AL March 1015 Indianapolis, IN March 1015 Portland, OR March 1015 Miami, FL March 1722 Chicago, IL March 1722 Boston, MA March 1722 Mobile, AL Exam only Rochester, NY Exam only York, PA Exam only Corpus Christi, TX Exam only Springfield, MO April 712 Dallas, TX April 712 Miami, FL Exam only Minneapolis, MN April 1419 Las Vegas, NV April 1419 Syracuse, NY April 1419 San Francisco, CA April 2126 New Orleans, LA April 2126 Nashville, TN April 2126 Annapolis, MD April 28May 3 Detroit, MI April 28May 3 St. Louis, MO Exam only Fresno, CA May 510 Miami, FL May 510 Albuquerque, NM May 510 Oklahoma City, OK May 510 Corpus Christi, TX May 510 Knoxville, TN Exam only Birmingham, AL June 27 Hutchinson, KS June 27 Spokane, WA June 27 Miami, FL Exam only Bakersfield, CA June 914 Pittsburgh, PA June 914 Beaumont, TX June 914 Corpus Christi Exam only Hartford, CT June 2328 Orlando, FL June 2328 Memphis, TN June 2328 Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS) LOCATION SEMINAR DATES New Orleans, LA April 1519 CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites. IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our Web site www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. Verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online, visit www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars. Apply early to avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee. EXAM DATE Feb. 16 Feb. 16 March 2 March 2 March 9 March 9 March 9 March 9 March 9 March 16 March 16 March 16 March 23 March 23 March 23 March 23 March 23 March 23 April 6 April 13 April 13 April 18 April 20 April 20 April 20 April 27 April 27 April 27 May 4 May 4 May 4 May 11 May 11 May 11 May 11 May 11 May 18 June 8 June 8 June 8 June 13 June 15 June 15 June 15 June 29 June 29 June 29 June 29 EXAM DATE April 20 9-Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI No exam given. For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector. SEMINAR DATES LOCATION Denver, CO Feb. 1015 Dallas, TX March 1015 Miami, FL April 712 Sacramento, CA April 28May 3 Charlotte, NC May 510 Pittsburgh, PA June 27 Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI) SEMINAR DATES EXAM DATE LOCATION Seattle, WA Feb. 25March 1 March 2 Houston, TX April 1519 April 20 Las Vegas, NV May 610 May 11 Miami, FL June 37 June 8 The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification. Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR) CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites. Certified Welding Educator (CWE) Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days). Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW) The course dates are followed by the location and phone number Feb. 26; June 1721, Dec. 913 at ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421 Feb. 25March 1; May 2024, Aug. 1923, Dec. 26 at Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688 March 4, Oct. 14 at Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542 Feb. 1115, April 2226, July 1519, Oct. 2125 at OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800 Jan. 21, March 25, May 20, July 22, Sept. 23, Nov. 18 at Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736 On request at: MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996 Certified Welding Engineer; Senior Certified Welding Inspector Exams can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered. International CWI Courses and Exams Schedules Please visit www.aws.org/certification/inter_contact.html.

Inspection Trends / Winter 2013

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News Bulletins
continued from page 10

Business Products

Stork Technical Services Awarded Subsea 7 Inspection Agreement


Stork Technical Services, Aberdeen, Scotland, recently secured a global frame agreement with Subsea 7 to deliver a variety of inspection and expediting services. Stork provides knowledge-based asset integrity management services for the oil and gas, chemical, and power sectors. The company will deliver its services on a global basis in line with Subsea 7s key operating regions: Africa and Gulf of Mexico, Asia Pacific and Middle East, Brazil, and North Sea and Canada. The company held a similar seven-year agreement for Subsea 7s North Sea and Canada region. The companys Quality Services division will provide qualified discipline engineers, auditors, and inspection personnel to represent Subsea 7 at its approved suppliers.

Professional Service Industries Acquires Hi-Tech Testing


Professional Service Industries, Inc. (PSI), Oakbrook Terrace, Ill., recently acquired HiTech Testing, a full-service nondestructive examination, inspection, and consulting organization. Founded in 1996, Hi-Tech Testing employs more than 300 people and has annual revenues of approximately $55 million. It is headquartered in Longview, Tex.

Business Cards

Advertiser Index
American Society for Nondestructive Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8, 9 www.asnt.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 222-2768 AWS Certification Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OBC www.aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353 AWS Education Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7, 11 www.aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353 AWS Member Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10, 12, 18 www.aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353 EST Group/Curtis Wright Flow Control Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 www.estgroup.cwfc.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 355-7044 FlawTech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 www.FlawTech.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(704) 795-4401 G.A.L. Gage Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 www.galgage.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(269) 465-5750 NDT Seals, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 www.ndtseals.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 261-6261 Olympus NDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC www.olympusNDT.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(781) 419-3900 IFC = Inside Front Cover IBC = Inside Back Cover OBC = Outside Back Cover

Visit Our Interactive Ad Index: www.aws.org/ad-index

28

Inspection Trends / January 2013

IT
8669 Doral Blvd Doral FL 33166 Telephone (800) 443-9353 FAX (305) 443-5647 Visit our website: www.aws.org

Nondestructive Te ve Testin of Welds Testing Testing elds


Olympus NDT offers a wide range of innovative testing products and technologies T offers ff products to meet all requirements related to the following technologies and inspection requir equirements elated techniques: pulse-echo (PE), TOFD, combined TOFD/PE, phased array UT, linear UT T, and sectorial scans, and X-ray fluorescence. fluor

DELTA Handheld XRF for Welding Inspections


Positive material ID with Welding Grade Library Grade Match Messaging provides specications and weld instructions for common weld materials and substrates Fully customizable messages allow for renery-specic weld coding The small spot collimator allows for analysis of thin weld beads independent from substrate materials

For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

www.olym w. .olympus-ims.com

Plan ahead.
Even if your nine-year recertification deadline is years away, you can fulfill it now with a CWI endorsement.
Expand your credentials with an endorsement that fulfills your recertification requirements. Recertification every nine years requires either 80 hours of documented continuing education, retaking the Part B Practical Exam, or an endorsement to your certification. You can do this at any time, so why not do it now and secure the prestige and enhanced career potential of a credential in an additional welding code or skill?
A CWI or SCWI can take a Supplemental Inspection Exam anytime during the nine-year cycle. Qualifying for and passing one of these exams meets the requirements for recertification. Endorsements are listed on your endorsement card. Endorsements require passing a two-hour exam on one of the following:

AWS Welding AWS D1.1 Structural Welding AWS AWS D1.2 Aluminum AWS D1.5 Bridge AWS AWS D15.1 Railroad AWS API 1104 Pipeline 1104

ASME Section IX, B31.1 & B31.3 Boiler & Pressure Vessel Vessel oiler e ASME Section VIII, Div. 1 & Div. Section IX Boiler & Pressure Ves Vessel essel e Structural Drawing Reading

Seminars to prepare you for the two-hour exam on D1.1 or API 1104 are available at numerous 1104 country. seminar sites across the country. One other stand-alone credential can serve as an endorsement credit and also fulfills your recertification requirement. At any time during your nine-year cycle, if you meet the prerequisites, AWS aphic r you can apply to become certified as an AWS Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI). The five-day CRI seminar is designed to ensure that you have the knowledge to properly assess indications produced on radiographic media. It will prepare you for the CRI certification exam, which is given at the end of each seminar week. This is a valuable certification that fulfills your nine-year requirement. Upcoming seminars and exams for CRI are:

Seattle Feb. 25 - Mar. 2 Mar.

Houston Apr. 15-20 Apr. r

Las Ve Vegas May 6-11 egas 6-11

If you dont want to take any exams at all, you can fulfill the 80-hour education requirement by attending a six-day AWS 9-Year Recertification Course. Courses are scheduled for: AWS 9-Year

New Orleans Jan. 6-11 6-11 Denver Feb. 10-15 Dallas Mar. 10-15 Mar. r Miami Apr. 7-12 Apr. r
One more option is to recertify by taking the Part B CWI Practical Exam. This exam and refresher Visual Visual Inspection Workshop seminars, are offered at convenient CWI seminar/exam sites across pection Workshop seminars Wo s, offered ff C the country. country.

www.aws.org/certification (800) 443-9353 ext 273