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The art of Ninjutsu


NINJA : Ninjutsu epitomizes the fullest concept of self-protection of not only the physical body, but the mind and spirit as well. The way of the ninja is the way of enduring, surviving, and prevailing over all that would destroy one. More than merely delivering strikes and slashes, and deeper in significance than the simple out-witting of an enemy; ninjutsu is the way of attaining that which we need while making the world a better place. The skill of the ninja is the art of winning. In the beginning study of any combative martial art, proper motivation is crucial. Without the proper frame of mind, continuous exposure to fighting techniques can lead to ruin instead of selfdevelopment.
If an expert in the fighting arts sincerely pursues the essence of ninjutsu, devoid of the influence of the ego's desires, the student will progressively come to realize the ultimate secret for becoming invincible - the attainment of the 'mind and eyes of the divine.' The combatant who would win must be in harmony with the scheme of totality, and must be guided by an intuitive knowledge.

NINPO :
"Ninpo", the higher order of ninjutsu, should be offered to the world as a guiding influence for all martial artists... ...Without complete and total training in all aspects of the combative arts, today's martial artist cannot hope to progress any further than mere proficiency in the limited set of muscular skills that make up his or her training system. Personal enlightenment can only come about through total immersion in the martial tradition as a way of living. Principle of a warrior : A warrior must never deviate from his or her path of Bushido and he or she must
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endlessly seek knowledge to ever improve his or her path to enlightenment. Above all, a warrior must know that knowledge can only be attained from the obvious truth, by observation, and wisdom. It cannot be attained, gained, nor accepted from magic, superstitions, ghosts, spiritual messages, psychics, faith healers, conjurers, or mysticism. This is the important key to the principle of Bushido (500 BC), without this a warrior may fall into disillusion.

By opening his eyes and his mind, the ninja can responsively follow the subtle seasons and reasons of heaven, changing just as change is necessary, adapting always, so that in the end there is no such thing as surprise for the ninja.

What makes a Ninja special ? What makes a Ninja formidable is that they have to learn "Taijutsu" (hand to hand combat) which incorporates "Bugei Juhappan" (18 Samurai Arts) and "Ninjutsu Juhakkei" (18 Ninjutsu Arts). The "Bugei Juhappan" arts ranges from "Art of self defense" to "Art of throwing blades". The "Ninjutsu Juhakkei" arts ranges from "Art of spiritual refinement" to "Art of special disappearing". "Art of special disappearing" (Inton-jutsu) is the ability to trick the enemies senses.. ! Ninja needs not only to learn these arts but also to master them !!! Mysterious Art of Ninjutsu : Ninjutsu is a Martial Art based upon the use of strategy, fighting tactics of mountain warrior monks and the philosophy of Buddhism, all working together in accordance with the laws of nature. Ninja themselves had a number of secrets common to the Yamabushi. These secrets mainly concerned the same areas: Para psychological knowledge, resistance to pain, etc., essentially exploited by their concern for effiency. Written in the form of a code which was indecipherable to the unitiated, these secrets, which in modern times have been committed to the computers of the Japanese spy service, have been revealed, only to be shrouded once more in great secrecy.

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Ninja History : "Ninja" were professional spies during the age of the samurai. Their origins go back to the twelfth century, when the samurai class began to gain power. When the scale of fighting increased in the fourteenth century, it became necessary to conduct espionage activities against enemy forces, and ninja became even more active. Ninja were called upon by their feudal lords to gather information, plunder the enemy's food and weapon supplies, and lead the way in nighttime attacks. They received specialized training and were given special duties. Ninja remained active until the beginning of the Edo period (1600-1868), when social order was restored by the government in Edo (now Tokyo). It was from the latter half of the eighteenth century that ninja became popular subjects of books and dramas. In the twentieth century ninja have been depicted in films using special effects and comics as imaginary characters with superhuman powers. Myths & Mysticism :

Many movies that portray the Historical Ninja as a member of a mystical magical warrior family. The ninja in the movies cast magic spells, project their images, become invisible, fly through the air or even run across water. These inaccuracies are not particularly damaging to the legendary image of the ninja. They even add to the mystery and popularity of ninjutsu. The ninja seems to overlook all concepts of right and wrong and and all morality in order to achieve his self serving goals. None of these concepts are even close to describing the real ninja. More than eight hundred years of history stretch back to the founder of the system of ninjutu, Daisuke Nishina of Togakure Village. After defeat at the hands of Heike troops, Daisuke escaped from his place of birth in Nagano and moved to the remote region of Iga. He changed his name to Daisuke Togakure and later was credited with founding the Togakure ryu of ninjutsu. The ninja developed as a highly illegal counterculture to the ruling class of samurai elite. It is for
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this reason alone that the true origins of the art were shrouded in deliberate mystery and confusion.
Tactics :

The Ninja are revered for their seemingly mystical ability to enter any structure no matter how well guarded, without being seen or heard. Although this skill is a reality, it cannot happen without a great deal of pre-preparation. One does not simply decide to infiltrate on a whim. It requires an in-depth plan based on the extensive information gathering of the Teisatsunin (reconnaissance Ninja). A well planned infiltration operation would only be attempted when the enemy would offer the least resistance. The Shikomunin (infiltrating Ninja) must learn that patience is the key. Even on a well planned assignment the Ninja knows they may have to wait concealed for long periods of time before to opportunity to infiltrate presents itself. When the concept of infiltration is brought up, the first thing that comes to mind is a black-clad Ninja stealthily moving past an unsuspecting sentry and entering a structure using only the shadows for concealment. This is a totally simplistic view of a very complex craft. Although stealth is the basis for the Shikomunin's arsenal of skills, there are a multitude of specialized tactics that cannot be overlooked. Once the Ninja has successfully entered , they move on to complete whatever task they were sent to perform. Eavesdropping, assassination, poisoning food and water stores, planting false information, stealing or any other such task.

Shinobigatana-jutsu (art of the Ninja sword) :

The "Shinobigatana" is designed to allow for quick maneuvers. its short blade makes it an excellent single handed weapon, but because of its extended hilt it is equally effective when wielded with both hands. All of the Shinobigatanas unique uses make it the preferred weapon of the warrior. It should be known that the Samurais Katana is viewed as being an aggressive weapon, whereas the Ninjas shorter sword is considered to be more defensive. It is said that the sword can be maneuvered three or four times faster than other weapons, so speed is an important factor in its application. The Ninja sword is designed for speed and concealment. its blade length ranges from between 16 and 24 inches and is usually straight. The straight blade design is known as Muzori and this design is also used in the

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construction of the elusive Shinobi zue (Ninja sword cane) and Nagimaki (halberd). However, it is a common myth that Ninja of old were limited to the use of the straight bladed sword. This is inaccurate. Historical evidence dictates that the Ninja also wielded the curved blades (katana and wakizashi) that are most often associated with the Samurai class.

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TAI-JUTSU

The ninja were very competent hand-to-hand fighters. They were trained from birth to fight with their hands and feet. They knew where and how to hit to paralyse or even kill when needed. One reason that their style of fighting (Tai-jutsu) was so effective, was that they not only studied punching and kicking, but they studied the human body as well. Learning all about the weaknesses and strengths. For example, punching a man in the face can be painful, but it might just piss him off, whereas a punch to the throat will be much more devastating. Grappling was a strong part of the ninjas fighting technique. Along with bone-crunching kicks and punches, the ninja were equally as strong fighting from the ground. When on the ground grappling, it is not likely that a punch or kick could be used effectively, so techniques such as arm bars and joint locks were used. The grappling was very similar to todays judo or jui-jitsu. A ninja studies the art of Taijutsu or "body movement". Taijutsu doesn't teach rigid and fixed methods like almost every other martial art does. Instead, it stresses fluidity, natural movement and spontaneity. Also, the ninja learned to exploit the joints and pressure points of an enemy. When a punch or kick was thrown, a ninja wouldn't simply block the attack, he would strike a pressure point or nerve center to cause the limb to lose its function. Not only did the ninja learn to disable a person, he also learned to quickly and effectively kill. It is true that a ninja could kill with one blow by exploiting the weaknesses of the body. Another important aspect of Taijutsu was learning to reverse any situation or attack. They were trained from childhood to be extremely flexible and could therefore escape any hold or lock
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they might be put in. They even played games as children where they were tied up and the object of the game was to get yourself untied as quickly as possible; within a few years, a ninja learned to get out of any type of binding. "Taijitsu is really a tool used to aid one in moving closer to enlightenment.To not even engage the potential adversary is high level practice (to escape without fighting is a clean mission). To lead a life so impeccable that adversaries don't even appear is the highest." - Unknown "To overcome one's self is a greater victory than defeating every opponent that you encounter. When you overcome yourself, you will rise above all opposition into a place of oneness with all things, wherein lies true power" "The usefulness of the art is in it's activity. When empty, the art symbolizes the adaption of an individual to any circumstance while maintaining their center and flowing with whatever may be happening. When full, the art symbolizes the knowledge and wisdom that an individual has applied in their life's journey." "Warriorship begins in transformation and ends in transcendence."

NIN-PO :
Ninjutsu is best described as the collection of skills utilized by the Ninja while Ninpo, often referred to as "the higher order of Ninjutsu, " implies a philosophy for living based on the principles of Nin. Nin translates into patience, but can also imply perseverance, or stealth. The Japanese character for Nin consists of two parts or radicals. The upper radical is called yaiba which refers to the cutting edge of a blade. The lower radical can be read either as kokoro or shin, both of which mean heart. The character po, which implies natural law, is used rather than do (i.e.. judo, kendo, aikido,etc). Referring to our art as Ninpo rather than Ninjutsu stresses training which is concerned with the internal development of the individual's character along with the technical skills of martial training. It isn't enough just to know techniques, it is where your heart and spirit are as a person that is important. For this reason, Ninpo stresses philosophic and spiritual training in conjunction with the physical training. This refinement of one's spirit is known in Japanese as seishinteki kyoyo. Ninpo is concerned with the defense of the whole self, and recognizes that defense against a life-threat is dealt with by the spirit as much as with physical technique. The Mysterious Art of Ninjutsu : Ninjutsu is a Martial Art based upon the use of strategy, fighting tactics of mountian warrior monks and the philosophy of Buddhism, all working together in accordance with the laws of nature. The ninja were known throughout the centuries as dangerous men, like an early form of spy. Their Art came from the idea that as they would never turn their back on any action for selfish reasons, they were able to withstand extremely difficult training and were themselves capable of great sacrifice. The origin of the Ninja is uncertain. It seems to go back as far as ancient China which had already developed the science of spying. One of the greatest Chinese strategists in the field, named Sun Tzu, wrote a book of the same name: Sun-Tzu, a book about war strategy and a sort of spy manual which seems to foreshadow the science of the Ninja. In Japan itself, it was not until about 600 A.D. and especially at the end of the Heian period (1185) that the art of the Ninja or ninjutsu evolved. At that time three Yamabushi came to power in Kyoto. Yamabushi means 'mountain warrior'. In Japan there were tens of thousands of Yamabushi who, faithful to Shinto tradition, venerated the mountain and devouted at least 100 days a year to it in prayer and asceticism. The Yamabushi masters developed parapsychological knowledge and techniques of resisting pain, the cold, fire, ect. The Ninja are not Yamabushi, however they too were men of the mountain, not because they venerated it but because most of them came from the steep remote mountains of the Iga and Koga regions. Cut off like wolves in these areas, they could more easily resist the different governments which, from time to time, tried to destroy them. In the home of a famous Ninja from Iga, the bones of 80 corpses
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have been found, thrown into an oubliette by a trap door just inside the main entrance. It is probable that the Ninja themselves had a number of secrets common to the Yamabushi. These secrets mainly concerned the same areas: parapsychological knowledge, resistance to pain, etc., essentially exploited by their concern for effiency. Written in the form of a code which was indecipherable to the unitiated, these secrets, which in modern times have been commited to the computers of the Japanese spy service, have been revealed, only to be shrouded once more in great secrecy. In this strange world in fact, the use of parapsychological techniques is the order of the day more than ever before. The Japanese notion of michi (or do) expressing the force of energy or intrinsic power which exists in all things, is still relevant. To capture this force, whatever its nature, offers the possibility of developing different powers, of using a great variety of hypnotic 'tricks', especially as the boundary between real power and trickery was more often than not very imprecise as far as the Ninja, accomplished masters of deception, were concerned. A Ninja was neither an exceptional nor an ordinary man, rather a different sort of man, in so far as his long and very arduous training began at an early age, in childhood. He thus learnt to disjoint the bones in his body in order to squeeze thhrough narrow railings, to climb trees like a cat, to resist cold, to hide under water by breathing through a reed, to make himself invisible or disappear behind a smoke screen and to walk noiselessly on water. In a word, all his actions were aimed at finding the point of least resistance at all levels and at using it to conquer and destroy his enemies. A Ninja's training consisted of not The Ninja's weapons are numerous: the most well known being the shuriken, small iron devices of many different shapes such as crosses, six or eight sided stars, triangles, pointed instruments, etc. Exceedingly sharp and with poisoned points, these weapons could silently strike an enemy from a distance. The shuko or sort or iron gauntlet studded with sharp points on the palm of the hand, enabled the Ninja to attack sentries, to climb trees or walls. Armed with these gauntlets and hooked sandels, the Ninja could scale walls and penetrate the most heavily defended places. The Ninja's favourite weapon was the Kyotetsu-Koge, a sort of dagger with two blades, one curved. It was joined to a metal ring with a rope which could be wrapped around an enemy's arm or leg, and bring him down. Legends tell on Ninja's disappearing in a cloud of smoke. One of their tricks in fact consisted of letting off a smoke bomb at an opportune moment and so disappearing from the enemy's sight. They also knew how to walk very fast sideways, so that they could skirt walls in the shade with their back to them in readiness for any attack. The Ninja played an importent role in destroying the Daimyo who opposed the Tokugawa. Each side had its Ninja and it is probable that the Ninja could generally change camp and master according to the fortunes of the battle. Whatever happened, they were bound to absolute secrecy and would not talk no matter how much pain they were dealt. Once captured, Ninja's sometimes managed to disfigure themselves to become unrecognizable, before commiting suicide. The Ninja were divided into three groups: the Jonin, he who makes contact and offers his services, his assistant or chunin and the genin, the actual agent who carries out the missions. The last was considered to be the lowest class of Japanese society. Once captured, he was usually tortured and dismembered. The general consensus of the Ninja in comparison to the Samurai was the the Ninja had no honour, but in fact their honour was equal to that of the rival Samurai. The Ninja believe ego, pride and honour can mean the difference between life and death, failure and success. If ego , pride or honour had to be sacrificed to achieve a desired goal then it was done without question. The most significant code which has been the key to the Ninja's survival and success is Ninmujoku (Ninja has no shame). The ancient Samurai traditions despised the Ninja for this very motto, because they were bound by chains of honouristic virtues. Ninmujoku is of no use without the right frame of mind and intention. One cannot use this theory for one's own benefit, because it is not concerced with the ideals of self gain but rather the benevolence of the organisation. Seishin - the right consciousness, kept the Ninja on the right path, ensuring they would not become thieves, murderers or enemies of the people. Without Seishin the Ninja would not be able to justify their actions and would be classified as nothing but cold blooded murderers. A Ninja's training not only consisted of learning the art of Ninjutsu but also learning the fighting styles of the Samurai. The basis of Ninjutsu can be divided into four catergoies: 1. Fighting System

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Taijutsu which incorporates: Bugei Juhappan (18 Samurai Arts) and Ninjutsu Juhakkei (18 Ninjutsu Arts). Bugei Juhappan Nijutsu Juhakkei Jiu-jutsu - Art of self defence Ken-jutsu - Art of the wooden sword (Boken) Iai-jutsu - Art of drawing Kusarifundo-jutsu - Weighted chain technique Kusarigama-jutsu - Sickle and chain technique Bo-jutsu - Art of full lenght staff So-jutsu - Spearmanship Naginata-jutsu - Art of the halberd Suiren-jutsu - Art of swimming Ba-jutsu - Horsemanship Kisha-jutsu - Art of archery on horseback Jo-jutsu - Art of the three foot staff Kyu-jutsu - Archery Yoroi kumiuchi-jutsu - Art of armour combat Jutte-jutsu - Art of the jutte (Iron rode) including Tessen-jutsu (Iron fan technique) Hobaku-jutsu - Art of rope binding Ho-jutsu - Art of firearms (rifle/gun/cannon technique) Shuriken-jutsu - Art of throwing blades Seishin shugyo - Art of spiritual refinement Tai-jutsu - Art of unarmed combat Hiken-jutsu - Secret art of the sword (Tanto, Kodachi, Odachi, Ninjato, Choken & Nito) So-jutsu - Spearmanship Naginata-jutsu - Art of halberd Nagamaki-jutsu - Art of battlefield halberd Kusarigama-jutsu (Kyoketsu shoge) - Sickle and chain technique Rokushakubo-jutsu - Art of the six foot staff Sanjakubo-jutsu, Jo-jutsu & Hanbo - Art of the half and three quarter staff Shuriken-jutsu - Art of throwing blades Kisha-jutsu - Archery of horseback Inton-jutsu - Art of special disappearing Hoko-jutsu - Art of stalking Henso-jutsu - Art of disguise Kakushibuki - Art of secret weapon Gunryaku Heiho - Strategies Tenmon & Chimon - Strategy of Heaven and Earth Ninyaku - Special medicine and drug technique The Samurai had to know and perfect the Bugei Juhappan. The Ninja criteria was more severe, they had to be a skilled practioner of Ninjutsu Juhakkei and Bugei Juhappan known as Ninjutsu Sanjurokkei (36 arts and techniques). The knowledge of these arts and techniques only emphasized the Ninja's formidability. 2. Organisation Skills associated with networking and information gathering. 3. Strategy Encompassing espionage / assassination / spying 4. Shugendo/Mikkyo
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Attainment of supernatural powers and wisdom. The development of intuition (Jintsuriki).

Skills :
Since the Ninja had to survive in nature, they became trained naturalists capable of distinguishing edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, trapping, preparing and cooking animals, building shelter, finding water, and making fire. A few methods of finding water were by studying the insects in an area. For example, if there was a high concentration of ants or crickets, he knew there was water nearby. Another way of finding water was by recognizing the kinds of plants that live near water. If the Ninja found any of those plants, he knew water was near.

Kuji-in

: Kuji-in is a type of ninja training with its roots in Daoism. It is more of an energy kind of thing. "The term [Shuji Shuriken] also refers to Esoteric practices, such as "cutting the nine ideographs" (namely, reciting nine majic words) for protection. Originally Taoist, the practice of "cutting the nine ideographs" was taken up by yin-yang practioners, Esoteric Buddhists, Japanese swordsmen, and ninja. Some swordsmen and ninja executed it at daybreak every day, and many did so before an actual combat or mission.' Hiroaki Sato, trans., The Sword & The Mind, 81."

1. Rin. Invokes physical strength

2. Kyo. Helps direct energy (Etheric energy).

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3. Toh. Invokes balance between Yin and Yang

4. Sha. Helps with healing

5. Kai. Invokes premonition ( when someone is around you).

6. Jin. Lets you know the thoughts of others

7. Retsu. Invokes mastery of time and space

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8. Zai. Invokes control over others

9. Zen. Helps you to enlightenment

Kuji-in may be used in two different ways: alone or combined. Ways of using the Kuji : Well, the first way is to use them individually when you need them. For example: You are out in the wilderness chopping wood. You are a skinny person with no muscle mass, and the wood is too heavy to carry. You make the Kuji for Physical strength with your hands, and summon Chi to the sign, while focusing on the element of the Kuji. You easily carry the wood back to your cabin. The next way is to meditate every day, and go through each hand sign while focusing on each purpose. At the end of this practice you make a specialized hand sign (make it up) while focusing on shutting in all the energy from each element into you. Now, when you get into a fight....right before it, use the Kuji you made up to bring out all the energy you stored. This will help you greatly in a fight. "Kuji -in" : Is the spiritual and mental strength the ninja possessed in the form of hand signs. These hand signs were believed to be able to channel energy. The hand signs were taken from the practices of the early Buddhists. The Kuji-in was used to build confidence and strength in the ninja. It was also believed to enhance the senses of danger and foresee death for the ninja. In Kuji-in the thumb represents the source of power (Ku), and the fingers represent the four elemental manifestations. They are Chi (earth - solids), Sui (water - liquids), Ka (fire - combustion) and Fu (wind - gases). There are 81 hand symbols, total, but there are 9 primary ones: Rin, Hei, Toh, Sha, Kai, Jin, Retsu, Zai, and Zen. Each symbol invokes different strengths and abilities in a trained ninja. Rin brings strength to the mind and body; Hei generates psychic power in order to mask one's presence; Toh enables the ninja to reach a balance between the solid and liquid states of the body, which leads to a greater harmony with the universe; Sha is used to heal oneself or another; Kai gives complete control over the body's functions, enabling one to slow the heart rate, endure extreme heat and cold, etc. Jin increases the mind's telepathic powers, giving a highly trained Ninja the ability to read the character of another; Retsu gives telekinetic powers, enabling a ninja to stun an opponent with a shout or touch. Zai extends the harmony gained by merging with the universe. Zen brings enlightenment and understanding. These symbols take an entire lifetime to truly master.

Kuji Kiri :
Kuji Kiri (energy channeling, hypnotic) Ninjitsu is a hybrid system of ninjitsu that also employs techniques and theory from Jiu-Jitsu and Kenpo. The stealthy ways of the ninja (including sections on invisibility, smoke bombs, & vanishing) come to life in this system. This system includes seven belt levels of training to the first level of Black Belt. These seven levels are demonstrated on a 5 tape serious. This system includes seven belt levels of training to the first level of Black Belt. These seven levels are demonstrated on a 5
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tape serious. The system includes body movement of a Ninja. A section on blinding powders, weapons, and more. Kuji Kiri has influence from JiuJitsu and Kenpo as well. The course os instructed by Soke Joshua Carr who has studied the ways of the Ninja for several years. Soke Carr holds Black Belts in Kenpo and Jiu-Jitsu, as well as his rank in Ninjitsu. Soke Carr has devised the Kuji Kiri Ninjitsu system to help martial artist realize they should not limit themselves to one style, rather to study many styles so they may be true warriors, should the need arise. NINPO : "NINPO is a hybrid system of ninjitsu that also employs techniques and theory from Jiu-Jitsu and Kenpo. The stealthy ways of the ninja (including sections on invisibility, smoke bombs, & vanishing) come to life in this system. Ninpo is more commonly known as ninjutsu, or the warrior arts of the ninja but the term Ninpo is used as it has a deeper significance. The black clad assassin disappearing in a cloud of smoke, which usually springs to mind when talking of Ninja has nothing to do with the reality of learning true Ninpo Bugei. Ninpo is a traditional, non-competitive Japanese Martial Art whose history stretches back over many centuries. It contains Striking skills, joint locks, throws, grappling, and several different weapons. Genshirin Ninpo encompasses many different schools, each of which has a unique feeling and emphasis. The three pillars of the art are called Taijutsu (Unarmed techniques), Bo-jutsu (wooden staff techniques), and Biken-jutsu (Sword techniques), but there are many other disciplines which make up the complete Art. As a novice you will start by learning Taijutsu which is the backbone of Ninpo. The emphasis is placed on defending yourself from an attack such as a punch, kick or grab. The techniques are taught in a Japanese fashion as they have been for hundreds of years. Why learn Ninpo? Ninpo is not an easy Martial Art to learn. It takes about 4 years to get to Black Belt level under proper tuition. The training can be physically and sometimes mentally demanding, however, it is not an elitist pursuit. It is well within the capability of any well balanced, motivated individual to become skillful. The Japanese character "nin" in Ninpo means patience and perseverance which is the essence of success with this martial art. There is a great deal of satisfaction to be had from studying Ninpo along with the practical benefits of learning effective self-defense are the tangible benefits, including, agility, alertness and physical fitness. It can also be a lot of fun.

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Ninja Techniques :
POISON : The ninja were very knowledgeable about poisons. Poisoning a victim was as effective as stabbing them, but with very little mess or chance of failure. Once the poison was ingested by the victim it was already to late. The poisons were mostly organic based, but some were taken from animals. One method was to take the fungi poison out of the blowfish or puffer fish. This poison is very strong and can kill in small doses. Another animal based poison was the bufo marinus. The bufo marinus is a large toad with an extremely toxic poison behind its eyes. This poison was often used on darts, arrows and spear tips. Spiders and scorpions were also used. Not always just the poison extracted from them, but sometimes it was just as easy to slip a couple of scorpions in the bed of the victim. One of the organic poisons used was made from common fruit. Cyanide was extracted from a variety of sources, such as apple seeds, plum seeds, cherries seeds and many more. It was readily available to the ninja and was used often. Tomato and rhubarb leaves also held a poison. Eating the leaves cause cardiac problems, ultimately resulting in cardiac arrest. The amanita phalloides is a deadly mushroom. The poison in the mushroom was 10 times more powerful than that of cyanide. Eating the mushroom was certain death, and it was easy to slip a piece of the mushroom in almost any meal. The poison could be used in various ways, depending on the situation. For example, if the ninja could slip it into the victims food while its being prepared. Without knowing what kind of danger he was in, the victim would eat the food infested with the poison. Not all the poisons used by the ninja were fatal, some of them were used to merely paralyze or cause blindness. It was not always necessary to kill.

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Another thing the ninja did was dip their weapons, such as the shuriken or their sword, in the poison. This was so when it punctured the skin of their target, the fast acting poison would take its course, causing much more devastating than the blade itself. CLOTHING : When in full uniform, the ninja's flesh was all hidden, all except a small slit around the eyes and his hands. The tabi boots had a slit in between the big toe and the second toes. This was to make it easier for climbing and scaling walls The shinobi shozoko had many pockets all through it, inside and out. This was for storing all the small tools and weapons he needed, such as poison, shuriken, knives and so on. The ninja also carried a small, primitive, first aid kit, filled with potions and solutions Not all jobs required that the ninja wear the shinobi shozoko. Sometimes the ninja dressed up as priests, peasants or even samurai, depending on the job.

Ninja Weapons :
Ninja were experts in a variety of weapons. Weapons such as small and large swords, bow and arrows, knives, bo (staff), scythe and chain, shuriken and many others. When empty handed the ninja are very dangerous, but armed, they are very deadly. Below is a list of the weapons used. If you have any information on any weapons I might have missed, please let me know.

Sword :

The ninja sword (ninja-to) was different than that of the samurai. The long sword that the samurai carried was made of high-carbon steel, and took months to have made. They were hand made specially for each samurai, taking great care to make a very high quality sword. It was so sharp that it could easily cut a man in two, even through their armor. The length of the samurai swords averaged around 26 1/2 to 37 inches. The ninja sword was considerably shorter, only 24 inches, and the quality of the swords was much poorer. The reason for the poorer quality was the way they used the sword as opposed to the way the samurai used theirs. Samurai would swing their sword, severing limbs and slashing at the opponent. Ninja, on the other hand, used the sword more in a stabbing motion. To use the blade of the ninja sword effectively you would have to use a sawing motion when the blade came in contact with the opponents flesh. Another reason for the poor quality of the swors is that since ninja were mostly mountain people and outlaws, they could not afford to hire expert swordsmiths like the samurai could. Also their own swordsmiths did not have access to the right resources to be able to make curved edge swords with well constructed blades. If a Ninja could overcome a samurai he would take his swords, simply because they are better. Although the ninja sword was smaller and poorer quality, it still had its advantages. The scabbard for instance was made longer than the sword, about 3 to 4 inches longer. At the end of the scabbard there was a hidden compartment that was used to hide small weapons such as spikes, daggers or small amounts of poisons. Another use the sword had was that it could act as a small step by jamming the blade into the ground, the ninja could use the hand-guard as a step to get that extra height needed to scale a wall. Because the blade was not very sharp, the ninja could also use it as a hammer by holding onto the blade (carefully) and hitting with the handle. Also it was common to have the tip of the scabbard come off so it could be used as a snorkel.

Bo (Staff) & Jo (Short Staff) :


The staff was one of the most important weapons in the ninja's arsenal. It was generally around 6 feet in length, made of hard wood or bamboo and was hollow. The reason for the hollow was another trick of the ninja trade. By flicking the bow with great speed, the ninja could launch a poison tipped dart or small knife out of the open end of the staff, often catching the opponent off guard. Another trick they had for the bo was to conceal a chain inside it. Then, when engaged in battle, it
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could quickly be released and used as a weapon. This was called a shinobi zue, and was easily disguised as a walking stick or staff.

Kusarigama :
The Kusarigama is a combination of a sickle (short scythe) and a long chain with a weight attached to the end of it. The sickle was used in a slashing or stabbing motion, as well as used to block and hook opponents weapons. By holding the chain portion of the weapon, the sickle could be swung around to get a greater reach with it. The chain portion of the weapon was most often used for trapping an enemy or his weapon. Once tangled up with the chain, the ninja could finish him off with the sickle. This was a weapon the ninja invented out of farming tools they used. Shuriken (Throwing Star) & Poison Tipped Darts :

The Shuriken is the trade mark ninja weapon made famous by the movies and stories about the ninja. The Shuriken was simply a flat piece of metal with sharpened points that were thrown at the enemy. The Shuriken was not originally designed as a killing weapon. It was mostly used to distract or deter so the ninja could escape. While in the midst of a get-away, the Shuriken could be thrown at the samurai chasing the ninja, possibly making the samurai think twice about continuing the chase. Although the Shuriken was not intended to kill, it was easily made lethal by dipping the edges in poison. This was effective, but sometimes it backfired when the ninja would accidentally cut himself while digging around for it, thus poisoning himself. Shuriken were also designed to hit the opponent then bounce away out of sight. This way a ninja could fool an unsuspecting guard or sentry into believing he had been cut by an invisible swordsmen. (One of many mental tricks) The ninja would use the poison darts different depending on the situation. It was not un-common for the ninja to carry poison darts in his mouth so they could be blown into the enemy's face at close range. If they needed to kill someone quietly, a dart could easily enter the body and be withdrawn without leaving a mark. From a distance the dart could be shot with a blowgun. Ninja women would hide the poisonous darts in their hair. When the victim was preoccupied with something else, the ninja would stick them with the dart.

Tetsu-bishi (Calthrops) :
Calthrops are small metal weapons shaped to that one point is always up. They, like the shuriken, were a weapon used for distraction while fleeing. The ninja would scatter the calthrops behind them and anyone unlucky enough to step on them would not likely continue with the pursuit. They could also be thrown, and dipped in poison like the shuriken.

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Shuko (Tiger Claws):


Shuko were a pair of metal "claws" attached to the palm of the ninja's hand with a strap. There were usually four sharp spikes on the bottom. These were used in close combat acting like an animals claws. When used the ninja could rip open their enemy with a couple of swipes. The Shuko also acted as a tool that aided the ninja in climbing, much like the claws of a cat. This made scaling walls easier. Finally, the shuko could be used to block or break sword attacks. This is done by catching the sword between the claws and twisting. Probably not a good idea against a Katana or Wakizashi. But would work with weaker swords. Another variation of the Shuko was the Nekade. The Nekade were individual claws that were tied to each finger.

Manriki Gusari (Chain) :


The Manriki Gusari was a chain usually about 3 feet long, and weighted at both ends. It was developed as a self-defence weapon but was also a wicked offensive weapon in the hands of a ninja. It was small and easily concealed in the palm of the ninja's hand, or in a sash. While holding one end of the chain, it could be swung around and used as a whip. The weighted end could cause a great deal of damage.

Fukiya :
The fukiya, or blowgun, was a staple in the Ninja's arsenal since it was so versatile. The fukiya was used to shoot darts (sometimes poisoned) at an enemy from a distance and, since it made almost no noise, the Ninja's hiding place wasn't threatened by using this weapon. Aside from launching darts, the blowgun could be used as a snorkel while the Ninja was underwater. Since the fukiya was made of bamboo, it blended in with the reeds in the water, therefore enabling the Ninja to stay submerged for hours, if necessary. Metsubishi could also be delivered through the fukiya by shooting small paper containers filled with pepper and metal shavings at an enemy's face.

Nunchakus :
Though not a primary weapon of the Ninja, nunchakus (nunchucks) were also used since they could be adapted for many situations. Aside from being easy to carry, the nunchakus were used to defend against most any weapon from a bo to a sword. By trapping the blade of a sword with the chain between the two sticks, a Ninja could entangle and disarm a sword-weilding attacker. The same concept applies to almost every other weapon. The nunchakus were not just used for defense, they could also be effectively employed against an enemy in an offensive way. The Ninja could strangle an opponent or even execute joint locks with the chain or cord between the two sticks

Tanto :
The tanto, or knife, was an important weapon in the Ninja's arsenal. Like the ninja-to, the tanto was not made of the high quality steel that the Samurai's sword was but the Ninja made up for this by using the tanto as a multi-purpose tool. The tanto was used to pry open door, dig holes or small ditches, or it could be thrown like a shuriken. Of course, the tanto was also used to cut and stab an opponent.

TOOLS :
Metsubishi : Metsubishi, or "eye closer", were used to temporarily, or sometimes permanently, blind the enemy. Hollowed out egg shells, paper bags and short bamboo tubes were filled with a combination of sand, metal filings and pepper and were used to attack the eyes of an enemy. Egg shells and paper bags were used by throwing the fragile containers at the opponent's face, causing it to break on impact and scatter the contents across the face and into the eyes. Bamboo tubes were sealed with paper or wax and, when the seal was broken, the tube was flung in the direction of the opponent, sending the contents into the face, blinding him. Usually, metsubisi were used to make an escape when surrounded or cornered or if the Ninja felt there were too many opponents to fight at once. For example, if a Ninja were faced with 5 or 6 opponents, he might use metsubishi to blind 2 or 3 of them while he dispensed of the others. Kaginawa : The The kaginawa, or grappling hook, was a climbing device consisting of a pronged hook with
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12 to 15 feet of rope attached. The kaginawa was used to scale walls or to swing across large gaps, however, it could also be used as a weapon. By holding the rope and swinging the hook over the head, the Ninja could strike his opponent with the sharp prongs of the hook or the rope could be used to entangle the enemy and enable the Ninja to strike with another weapon. Shuko and Ashiko : These were steel or iron bands that were tied over the hands and feet and used as climbing aids. With the use of shuko and ashiko, a Ninja could scale a wall or climb a tree in a matter of seconds. In fact, many Samurai were reported as saying the Ninja could "climb like a bear." Metal grips : Since the Ninja had to be prepared to run over any and all terrain, they often carried metal strips with a spiked edge on one site. These strips were tied to the bottom of the Ninja's tabi to gain a better grip over uneven or slippery terrain. These would be the equivalent of the spiked shoes that many athletes wear today. Smoke Bomb : This circler bomb of smoke was made famous by the ninja movies in the 80's. For a quick get away this bomb could be filled with gun powder to make an explosion and smoke "Egg" : "Eggs" are hollowed out through little holes, and then the empty containers are used to store the various ninja powders. They shatter on impact, releasing the powder in a cloud to affect the target.

Skills to develop :
Art of STEALTH WALKING : Maintain balance control by allowing your body weight to sink and be carried by deeply flexed knees. Remember to breathe along with your movement. Unconsciously holding your breath can unknowingly produce unneeded muscle tension, and could result in gasping release of breathe if you are startled or accidentally unbalanced. Stay alert to the entire scene. Do not become so engrossed in watching your feet that you do not notice other people an elements entering the surroundings. Use all joints for movement, emphasizing fluidity through the engagement of the ankles, knees, and hips for stepping. Avoid the lazy and dangerous habit of stiffening knees and swinging the entire leg from the hip. Maintain your weight and balance on your grounded leg while you move the other leg into position to bear the weight. When absolute silence is a must, avoid distributing your weight over both legs at the same time. If practical, allow your hands to float lightly in front of and beside your torso, one arm higher and one arm lower, to detect possible obstructions before your committed body weight encounters them. Pause and hold your position if you feel that you have accidentally caused too much noise. Listen for signs that you were heard, such as the movement of others or the immediate silencing of background noise following your slip. Sink a little lower on your knees to physically relax that could normally jump into your body with alarm. Take a deep breathe and release it slowly to further relax. Continue your pause for as long as you feel is necessary to regain composure and allow possible listeners to decide they did not hear anything after all. Be as patient as possible. If speed of travel is not important, take as much time as you can. Impatience and the resultant hasty movement that it encourages are the greatest dangers to the person who must move silently without detection. Keep your movement appropriate to your surroundings. Do not go to greater lengths than necessary to conceal your movement, while at the same being aware of what others entering the area may see if they cannot hear. Total silence may not be needed when moving through wooded or densely populated areas where scattered noise is a natural part of the environment. Also be aware that low profile crawling or sliding ma be the only way to move silently without being seen
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in some locations.

The Knife : "That's not a knife... this here is a knife..."


Since the beginning of time, the knife has proven a very practical and efficient tool for survival. Familiarized most recently this century through a rage of Rambo and Crocodile Dundee type films, the knife is given its due respect. Even with advancements in todays technology, this easily concealed item will be the most confronted weapon on the street or in the work place. Knives and sharp objects can be found anywhere from the toolbox to your assailants back pocket. Practice makes perfect, the more training you have the better. It won't be as easy as learning a few fancy disarms. You have to perform each technique hundreds to thousands of times in order for it to be useful in combat. This could take years when incorporated with other training, that is what makes a real black belt in the warrior arts over a "wannabe" who just expends cash to buy the belt instead of earning it. We emphasize students to be prepared for a realistic situation. We are not saying a student will escape a knife attack unharmed while disarming and locking up his opponent. What we are saying, is that you must increase the odds of self protection through realistic repetition in training. Mind Set When defending against a blade wielding assailant or assailants, one must first accept the possibility of being cut. If one does not accept this likely chance of being wounded, it could result in unnecessary movements and incorrect timing. Fear of getting cut must be overrun with the fear of losing your life. Remember, the knife is just an object, harmless by itself, it is the attacker you are fighting not the blade. Defending against a blade attack is not easy and the focus of training should be directed towards increasing your chances of survival. Your objective is to survive, start to worry about a cut on the hand and you could be in big trouble. Sometimes it is important to sacrifice an area of the body to the blade in order to improve chances for escape or to subdue your opponent. Never underestimate your opponent or your chances If your attacker is unskilled, your odds of surviving are increased, but if your attacker is skilled, it is a dangerous situation giving little chance to go unharmed. There are ways of telling if the opponent is an amateur or expert. It is impossible to know exactly how much knowledge your attacker has. Each opponent should be treated with the same level of respect. The idea is to avoid all confrontations if possible. This concept is especially important when your opponent has a weapon or there are more attackers. This is where reflexive training will increase your chances of escape and survival. Observation of your environment might reveal something to give you an edge. By checking your surroundings you can improvise a weapon of your own. Below are a few you might find practical. Jacket - This can be used to wrap around the arm for protection or used as a weapon to entrap the incoming blade. Jackets can be swung or thrown to aid in self protection. You can use the jacket to strike to the eyes or even make use of the zipper to cut across the face. Belt - A belt or scarf can also be used to entangle the attacker for disarming purposes. A belt buckle may be used to slash at face or hands. Purse or bag - These can be used for protection and weapons alike. They might be used as distractions to allow a quick getaway or chance to attack. Items in a purse or bag might also prove useful. Trash cans, tables, etc. -These can be used as practical barriers between you and your opponent. A trash can lid could be used as a shield, a bottle or other items might also be found. You may even come up with a weapon more dangerous than your assailants. Reality Check Often you will see books, films, goof ninjas, basic karate and the self made black belt demonstrate very unrealistic knife defenses. Reacting to a blade or other weapon by actually catching the weapon with their bare hands. This type of action is complete nonsense and very UN-practical. This kind of demonstration will been seen with replica knives (rubber, wooden, etc.) and even then it is still rare.
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On the Offense When disarming a knife it is important to know your opponents vital points and primary striking areas - practical use of evasion, blocking or deflecting techniques, are important. An understanding of anatomy instructs a student on ways of striking or attacking the opponent. The following are a few primary striking areas that can be used to immobilize or distract your opponent. Knees (kicks) Eyes (clothing, dirt, objects, fingers, liquid, etc.) Throat (in close combat, locks, strikes and chokes) Whenever applying a strike it may be useful to kiai as well. A kiai is meant to break the concentration of your opponent, also to speed up your adrenaline flow which results in a sudden surge of power. A kiai is also good for controlling your own pain and fear. A kiai doesn't have to be loud - it just has to be harnessed. On the Edge The blade itself is another area of importance which can affect how you will defend yourself in a fight. A double edge may be more difficult than a single edge. A longer blade will give your assailant a good reach, however, when in close, it will be difficult to use. A small blade will be weak at long distances, but will prove valuable in tight situations. Whether your opponents knife is long, short, wide, pointed or shiny, they must all be treated with equal respect. Whether you're from Australia or not. Tip of the Tips When confronted with an assault it is imperative to remain calm and observe the situation. Quick tempers and hasty decisions can result in your own tragedy. This way you can get a clear perspective of all the available options. Often times you can work your way out of the attack using intelligent speech or psychology. However, when your opponent jumps from out of the shadows you have to rely on natural reactions (built with repetitive training) for self defense. Below are a few tips to remember that will help keep you from adding to the list of blade victims: * Avoid dangerous situations. Listen to your gut feelings, sometimes natural instinct is all you have between life and death. Avoid risky and hazardous surroundings where problem situations are more likely to occur. This includes people as well as places. * Stay in control. Never allow your friends, your ego or your emotions affect your reactions. Keep a clear head, avoid interference and make a rational decision. It is always better to respond than it is to react, whenever possible. * Never underestimate your opponent. Do not be trapped with a false confidence. Also, don't rely on looks alone and remember a knife can be easily concealed. If someone is over confident they might be armed, so be aware and be nice.. Look for signs that determine whether or not your attacker is an amateur or professional, but realize you will never know how much knowledge a person has. * Review and evaluate the situation and surroundings. Can you avoid the situation. Is the reason for combat worth the risk of your life? Can you escape? Is someone's life in danger? Where can you run and what can you use as an improvised weapon? * Stay calm and accept the possibility of being cut. Don't get the shakes because you are trying to protect yourself from being cut. Let your confidence and skill overrule. * Train often and realistically.
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Training under the supervision of a good instructor in a realistic setting will better prepare you for victory. Experiment with different scenarios and various approaches. Discover what works and what doesn't. Everyone is a potential target Whatever the cause or causes, the threat of a knife attack is real, the possibility of being mugged or physically attacked exists for everyone. It does not matter who you are, where you live or where you work. The fact is it is a possibility. In order for us to learn to defend against a weapon it is important to learn how one attacks or uses the weapon. If you wanted to learn the best ways of defending against a gun you would first have to learn how to use it. Thus giving you background in how your opponent might react or think. This concept is the same with knife training or any other weapon for that matter. The knife has many advantages for the would be assailants know what they are. 1. Easy to obtain 2. Easy to conceal 3. Simple to use 4. Silent and deadly All these advantages only lead us to realize that modern day martial artists should be skilled in knife training. Training The first and most important levels of training start with empty hand against the knife. Next is knife versus empty hand and then knife and weapons versus knife. Considering most people don't carry a readily accessible weapon with them at all times, we must put emphasis on the first area of empty hand training. Tew Ryu is one of the only martial arts schools that teaches its advanced students knife defenses against a real blade. If training only consisted of using a rubber or wooden knife, you would not respect the blade as you would a deadly edge. It must be noted that this or any other training must be done under the supervision of a qualified instructor. Training only with a rubber knife causes you to take chances and develop bad habits that can result in serious injury when confronted with a real life threatening situation. Of course it is important in the beginning to train with a safe replica to ensure safety until the fundamentals and special skills are learned. When you begin training with a real blade you begin to develop confidence in your own abilities and will not let fear overrule your actions in a real fight. Pay attention to your attackers eyes, fear, anger and security are all telegraphed by eye expression and movement. An example of a technique we often use is when you hand over your wallet you might slip it through his fingers or accidentally drop it, that split second he uses to focus on the wallet or ground gives you plenty of time to react. Even the blink of an eye, sudden sound, movement or the inhalation of breath may give you the chance you need if your speed and timing is right. It is usually best to avoid going for the weapon directly. Don't risk a cut leg, arm or worse a cut artery. Sometimes it is better to kick in order to keep distance and avoid getting close or cut. Kicking must only be used by skilled practitioners and best with protective shoes or boots, it is easy to fall or trip. All jumping spinning flying kicks should be left in the classroom. Learn to see a possible attack before it happens, so you can avoid it. You might be surprised how much body language an attacker will translate before he executes his move. If you learn to translate this language you can prepare yourself for better protection. If the situation is unavoidable then make sure you are prepared through hard realistic training by a professional instructor. Nothing can guarantee your survival, but with knowledge in the arts you can gain the skills necessary giving you the defensive edge.

Invisibility : "You might see me, but can you perceive me?"
The art of invisibility has always been a popular topic, especially in the media. But who are these masters of the "very hard to see?" Warriors in the woods, Ninja's in black or even the special
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forces - black, green and aquamarine? I guess it is safe to say that in today's world, we have many students of the art. This popularity was brought on by books, magazines and the ever growing Ninja films - not to mention the fact that it often serves as a realistic tool. Of course other forms of media and entertainment attention does its share to bring awareness to this art. For example, the villain in the "Blair Witch Project," David Copperfield, Rambo, all the good presidential candidates, and perhaps even OJ Simpson. All of which either were masters of stealth, invisibility, survival, hiding, and/or verbal claims such as, "I wasn't there." Let me start by saying, there are no deep dark secrets about the art of invisibility, (unless of course we really are talking about the above media sources) even though it may create an awe of mysticism in the eye of your adversary. Invisibility is the art of employing a simple technique (or techniques) and skills utilized in the most effective manner to make one hard to perceive or hear. None of what you learn here will teach you to just disappear. If an instructor boasts about his skills to turn invisible - simply bring him back down to earth by asking them for a visual demonstration. The problem with most schools on eclectic warrior arts is that they make claims that can never be proven. This and all articles on Total Warrior Internet Magazine are based on realistic approaches towards training. We will not (and I hope you don't either) concern ourselves with black magic or concepts based on ancient history and story telling. If you truly want to master the art of invisibility, I would suggest you throw away your ninja books and text guides to wearing black. Instead, turn to the real masters of the art - illusionists and magicians. These masters of perception will offer far more in the art of disappearance, than any real ninja could muster up. Please note, we are talking about the art of illusion and the way a person perceives reality. I highly doubt a magician will be able to teach you the physical side of invisibility: such as footwork, climbing, moving quietly etc. So, until you manage to track down David Copperfield - here are a few tips to improve skills in the physical realm. To be invisible, you must not be seen or heard in a way that would distinguish you as YOU. Remember that famous forest with that famous tree that falls with no one to hear? You know, the one that ends with this question: If there is no one there to hear, does it make a sound? Once and for all "yes," the tree does make a sound. Why, because if you were there - you would hear it and you would say, "wow that was loud." Regardless of your presence or your perception of reality, the tree will always make the sound. The real question is simply confusing how we define the word "sound" and associating that to our hearing. When in fact the falling of the tree creates a noise as a fact regardless of the way we perceive definitions. This is another concept of invisibility. Both the theory and the tree remain elusive and thus invisible. Okay, let me take you out of the woods before we all get lost. The concept of invisibility means that you can make sounds and even cross within your opponents visual sight, but you must not be perceived. So, you can be within your enemies eye sight, in fact he may even see you. However, because you have blended into the surroundings, you are not perceived. Another example is "Where's Waldo?" You may be looking for Waldo, who is well within your sight, but unless you perceive him, he remains invisible. Invisibility is the art of blending in, becoming an insignificant part of our environment and disappearing within it. Hey, this reminds me of high school. So, in order for us to remain invisible - we have to master the art masking any and all indicators. An indicator is something that would basically say, "hey, it's me and I'm hiding behind this rock." We mask indicators by developing our skills in one area - Camouflage Camouflage Obviously you want to remain quite when traversing through the woods or a dark alley. The key to concealment is learning and practicing a few techniques. Camouflage is usually seen as green patterned clothing for use in a forest. Camouflage (whether artificial or natural) is actually any and all skills you use to remain unseen. This includes - sight, sound, smell and sense.
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Sight The human eye sees movement first. So, this is your number one priority, in order to stay out of sight, you need to know what you can do and what your opponent is trying to do. This goes for all your invisibility training. Here are the basics: Don't be a jerk You need to lean to move with patience and fluidity. Jerky movements are easy to see. Also, don't go disturbing the peace in a natural environment. A flock of birds taking off is a sign that something is in the area. Better to make a loud sound than to quietly come into view. If you are heard - it does not mean that you will be perceived. Even if it is obvious that you are there. However, if you are seen - not only is it obvious that you are there, but your exact position is now revealed. What is that? Is that a big black head? Your visual goal is to remove the distinct shape of the human form. You will also need to pay attention to shape and lighting. Think of what might create a silhouette and know when you should hide, crawl, walk, stealth or run. What kind of uniform or outfit do you have on? Do you stand out or blend in? Are you carrying a big sword or a what looks like a tree branch? Form - an opinion Depending on your situation, jogging clothes often make a much better outfit for urban invisibility. Why? Well, what if you happened to be revealed? A jogging suit is much more believable than the embarrassment of having your tabi out in plain sight. For photographs and Ninja films the uniform portrayed looks great, but it is more effective to look like a fallen tree branch than a model for Ninja magazine. Colors for concealment In order to be invisible, it is crucial that you wear clothing or material that blends in with your surrounding environment. Colors should have the same intensity, brightness and contrast in order to remain consistent. Night: Dark blue, black, gray or other dark color Country: Green and browns City: Gray sometimes blue Just because it is night, does not mean a black uniform from head to toe will make you invisible. That outfit will make you stick out and be easy to spot when moving. Unless you remain deep in the shadows, a dark black outfit is not realistic. Remember, black isn't a very natural color - the sky is dark blue not black and trees, leaves and grass are usually made up of greens or browns. Also, a black uniform is limited to night work while a green and brown uniform can adapt when the sun comes out. Remember, the goal is to remove the distinct shape of the human form. Color choices can help to do this. Movement Always move from shadow to shadow, rock to rock, obstacle to obstacle. Other strategies and body control are used in combination with your movements. The more you look like part of the surroundings and the less you look like a human hiding behind a bush, the more likely you will remain invisible. You will usually use your environment in one of two ways: either to hide behind or blend beside. If the area you are hiding behind does not fully conceal your figure or form, then it is important that you shape your body to look like that of your cover. For example: laying down in a field, crouching amongst rocks and extending your arms and legs along tree limbs and branches. Night vision It can take a person up to thirty minutes for their eyes to adapt to the darkness so that they can see. Anyone without this timed night sight, will have greatly reduced vision when looking out into a darkened area. A flash of light is all that is necessary to ruin a persons night vision for another twenty to thirty minutes. What's the tip? Don't lose your night vision and if you can, keep your opponent from developing his. This will allow the shadow warrior to observe his enemy yet still remain invisible and camouflaged in the night. Note: when watching for things in low light, you will have a better chance of seeing them if your
http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/ninja3.html (10 de 18)31-07-2006 19:50:35

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eyes remain unfocussed. You can do this by looking in a circular motion around the object, for example a circular or figure eight pattern. Most of this is about awareness - your next step will be to develop skills to improve your ability to stay quiet and unseen. Sound Another major ingredient to the art of staying invisible is your ability to move quietly through various terrain. Following are some practical techniques for stealth, it is up to you to actually make them work. After time and training, you will begin to develop your own style of stealth. Some will be slight variations of what you learned here and some will be completely new and unique to your individual style. These techniques alone will not make you move through the night as quiet as the wind. This information is only a principle to aid in your practice and is of little use by itself. You must practice until you become very good at moving silently, in turn - staying quiet. In order to move in silence, we must pay attention (but not focus on) what it is that makes noise in the first place. The next step would be to reduce these "here I am's" as much as possible. In training, you can practice on various terrain's to get a feel of the different techniques you can use. Making choices Okay, you come to a point where you must choose one of two paths. One path is open and laid with sand while the other is narrow and laid with trees. Which path would you take? The sand path will be quieter to move across unlike the tree path which has leaves and branches strewn about. However, the tree path offers cover and camouflage and as we learned earlier, it is better to be heard than to be seen. These type of questions only help to explain the variety of choices you will have to deal with. If you prepare - you can handle the situation appropriately. Basic guide to STEALTH S - stepping T - touch E - exhale A - attention L - listen T - tolerance H - harmony Stepping This is your most important skill to staying quiet. You depend on your foot work. Practice won't make it perfect, but it will sure make a difference. Before completing a step, keep your weight on the ground leg until the other leg is in position. This requires balance and harmony to master. Touch Stepping is only half the battle. Use your hands and feet to feel for obstacles and for clearing the way. Thick soled shoes make it difficult to feel and manage over a noisy terrain. Either where light shoes or go barefoot. The more you can feel your surroundings, the better you chances are of moving through them quietly. Exhale Don't hold your breath when you move. Breath as you step, twist, turn or lower. This will keep you and your muscles relaxed and assist in your ability to adapt with your movements. Attention Pay attention to your surroundings and not just the ground below. Keep a circular vision at all times - focus when you step, but keep your attention on your environment. This includes all your senses and not just visual. Listen Stay alert to the sounds you are making and pay attention to the way these sounds correlate with your surroundings. Stop completely if you make a sound, listen for any reactions or any signs of being discovered. Keep a constant ear for any changes in the environment. Tolerance Patience is your key to staying quiet. If you are not patient, your movements will be jerky and

http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/ninja3.html (11 de 18)31-07-2006 19:50:35

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mistakes will occur. How long can you tolerate standing still? How long can you tolerate remaining absolutely quiet? How long can you tolerate holding your leg frozen in the air prior to stepping? Harmony Stay focused, keep the knees bent and move with all the muscles and joints flowing naturally. Move like a cat - balanced, patient and fluid. Techniques for stealth Below are the eight different techniques we teach at TRMS to develop your footwork skills. These skills must be taught to you by an instructor. Spend time with each one separately, then as your skill improves, combine the techniques, so that you are simulating practical use of each. 1. Normal stealthy step 2. Cross step stealth 3. Cat stealthy step 4. Sweeping cat step 5. Stealth crawling 6. The dropping squat 7. The cross crouch 8. The fall back Practice The only way to develop your skills is to actually practice. Since sneaking around other people may cause some trouble - I suggest you find some other means to practicing your footwork. Here are just a few ideas - expand on these and come up with a few of your own. 1. Here kitty kitty Try sneaking up to a sleeping cat and touching it before it discovers what you are doing. Please note, that this only works on cats that are active and healthy. Also, stuffed animals won't work and by "cat" I mean a house cat - not a mountain lion. 2. Snap, Crackle, Pop Another fun thing to sneak up on is a mini-cassette recorder. You need one that has voice activation. Create a distance between yourself and the recorder to sneak up on. Then, play it back to see if you could hear yourself getting closer. Pay attention to all the natural sounds in the environment. Try this in different terrains. 3. Don't turn around Games are a great way to improve you silent footwork. We play a lot of these at camp, the only requirement is having at least one more person to play with. Here is one that we use a lot. Have your partner stand about 50-100 feet away. Your job is to sneak up to him/her and touch them on the back or shoulder without them knowing you are there. Your partner is trying to listen and has one chance to turn around, but only if you are within touching distance. You win if you touch him/ her first and they win if they touch you first. 4. Boo! This next one requires that you know your partner or the other person very well. If you haven't guessed it yet - this exercise requires that you sneak up and scare someone. I used to do this to my family and friends all the time and I was lucky enough that they had a sense of humor. Some people are not very nice and will get very mad if you scare them. So, make sure you know who you are scaring. I have a few interesting stories that came about from the "boo" tactic - for example, my brother once did this (by accident) to a police officer on duty. Although he scared the beegeebers out of the officer - he almost got in a lot of trouble. The rest you will have to come up with on your own - either that, or join us at a training camp. A note on Terrain Dry areas are the loudest and unless you plan to carry a bucket of water with you, try to either avoid dry areas or practice moving through them. Snapping twigs are probably number one cause to losing your concealment. Smell You never want to hear, "I smelled you a mile away." Along with clothing, you should also conceal any and all other things that might give you away. This includes your smell. Although this may sound obvious it doesn't always smell that way. Cologne and perfumes are easy to smell, so

http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/ninja3.html (12 de 18)31-07-2006 19:50:35

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is Mcdonalds. The closer you are to your environment in all aspects, the more likely you are to remain camouflaged within it. Use natural oils from your surroundings to help mask your scent. Heck, take a mud bath. Other Factors Remaining invisible is not just a few concepts thrown together to give you an idea about stepping on twigs. You need an overall development. This requires expanding your thoughts and thinking laterally. Many things could have an affect your ability to stay concealed. Here are a few examples: Are the people you are hiding from are expecting company. Are you in a group - in which case if one member snaps - you all snap. Unexpected weather or terrain. The concealment you had last night - is gone. A dog is barking at what smells like a big mac and fries. There is a nearby accident and you are the only one to help. Did you go to the bathroom before you left the house. These are just a few - but, if you think about them, you could prepare and or develop a better understanding for the art of invisibility. Don't expect any article to offer you the secrets to mastering the martial arts. No matter how much you know, you still need to develop that knowledge into action. If you want to be good at kicking - kick. This is the same for vanishing into thin air.

Shuriken Jutsu :

Shuriken are primarily weapons of distraction. To be thrown to escape or to cover other actions such as a sword draw. I have only included bo shuriken in this essay as I consider senban shuriken very easy to throw, needing considerably less skill than bo shuriken. But then again, as a weapon of distraction it is not important whether or not the shuriken sticks to it's target, just that the target tries to avoid being hit.

Perhaps the first thing that should be discussed, is the difference between Bo and Senban shuriken. Senban shuriken are flat piece's of steel, have four points and are square shaped. Bo shuriken are rods with one or both ends ending in points.

http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/ninja3.html (13 de 18)31-07-2006 19:50:35

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Senban shuriken are very easily thrown by holding it in the palm of your hand with a finger on one edge. The shuriken is thrown by snapping the wrist forward. Bo shuriken is a little harder to throw. The shuriken should be gripped in the palm of the hand, upright, so it sits along side the middle and index finger. Start a short distance from the target and stand in Doko Ichimonji no Kamae, with the hand holding the shuriken well back behind your head. To throw the shuriken, push your palm toward the target, keeping your fingers upright. When the arm is straigh, the shuriken is released and flies straight toward the target without a rotation (short distance). This method is effective upto 8-10 feet. As you go further away from the target, you compensate by throwing the shuriken harder. It is important not to spin the shuriken at this point. Further distance's are achieved by placing the shuriken point down in the palm and allowing the shuriken to rotate 180 degrees (half a turn). The throwing method is the same. This may take some practice to get consistent.

There are several methods to throwing bo shuriken. The way described above is the way usually demonstrated by Shihan in demo's in Japan. I have learned several other methods for throwing shuriken which are also very interesting. One such method was taught by Dave Heald (Judan Shihan) while at a course in Liphook, Guildford. It involved using San Shin no Kata as a throwing method and was linked to Kenjutsu, bringing us back to the subject that shuriken are a distraction tool. Here are the techniques studied that day. Chi no Kata Tori is in Seigan no Kamae with daito drawn. Letting go with the right hand, thrust the daito into Uke's face while drawing the shuriken from obi at small of back.Perform Chi no Kata , releasing shuriken as though striking with san shitan ken.As the right hand swings forward the left hand draws the sword to the left and behind. After the shuriken is released, regrip the daito with the right hand and cut gyaku kesa giri (R-L). Sui no Kata Tori is in Seigan no Kamae with daito drawn. Letting go with the right hand, thrust the daito into Uke's face while drawing the shuriken from obi at small of back.Perform Sui no Kata. As right hand extends to stike ura kitan ken, release the shuriken. As right hand throws, the left hand moves the sword out to the left. After the shuriken is thrown right hand regrips the daito and cuts with kesa giri (R-L) Ka no Kata Tori is in Seigan no Kamae with daito drawn. Letting go with the right hand, thrust the daito into Uke's face while drawing the shuriken from obi at small of back.Perform Ka no Kata. Release shuriken instead of striking with omote kitan ken. As shuriken is thrown, left hand moves daito to the left side of you head. After shuriken is thrown, right hand regrips daito and cuts kesa giri (RL). Fu no Kata (The throwing techniques for this form was the style as described at the top of this page. ) Tori is in Seigan no Kamae with daito drawn. Letting go with the right hand, thrust the daito into Uke's face while drawing the shuriken from obi at small of back.Perform Fu no Kata. As the shuriken is being thrown the point of the daito was lowered to the floor. After throw the daito was regriped and tsuki at Uke. Ku no Kata (Ku no Kata comprised of throwing mulitple shuriken with both right and left hands.)

http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/ninja3.html (14 de 18)31-07-2006 19:50:35

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Tori is in Doko Ichimonji no Kamae, with shuriken in both hands. Throws multiple shuriken with right hand (any of the above methods), while stepping forward with the right foot, then throws the shuriken in the left hand ( any above method) while stepping with the left foot. These techniques were a lot of fun to do. Don't get to hung up on making the shuriken stick into the target. If uke flinches or tries to block the shuriken, then that's the opening your looking for to cut him down. Used in conjunction with metsubushi, shuriken can make an excellent tool for escape.

Drawing the sword

While the ninja did not regard their shinobigatana (short sword) with the same reverence the samurai gave their exquisitely forged katana, they nonetheless knew and greatly appreciated its incomparable value. It was an extremely versatile weapon/tool that often made the difference between escape and capture life and death. The saya scabbard was usually longer than the short blade, the extra space used to hide messages, blinding powders or explosives; the extra-long sageo scabbard cord could be used for any number or extracurricular activities, including tying up a captured enemy or as a trip wire across a doorway or forest path. And because it was short, the shinobigatana could be easily carried, especially in areas where the cunning ninja were most often to be found: in narrow corridors and alleyways, in tight crawl spaces, up among the tangle of branches of trees or down in a trough or a hollowed-out log. Also, because the blade was not honed as precisely as the supersharp katana, the ninja could not wield it in the same manner as the samurai; instead, he relied more on body weight in motion in order to execute effective cuts. The ninja made better use of his weapon with slamming stabs and thrusts and sawing dragged-edge cuts. In Part One I demonstrated for you the way of loosening the sword and then drawing it. If I am correct, most of you concentrated your attention entirely on the sword; perhaps some of you observed the body motion; I think very few of you noticed the feet. And so, in the following specially prepared photographs I have demonstrated the feet of the ninja in the iai sword drawing technique. After that I have instructed on different ways of carrying and drawing the sword from various positions. And then, in conclusion, I have demonstrated the proper way to sheathe the shinobigatana. After all, once a weapon has been drawn and served you well, it should be put away properly. Please note that I am holding the sword guard tightly with the thumb of my left hand while keeping my right foot diagonally to the right, backward. This shows my determination not to draw the sword at random.
http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/ninja3.html (15 de 18)31-07-2006 19:50:35

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However, I am obliged to draw the sword as I shift my body weight and my left foot diagonally backward in order to cripple the attacker's fighting power. THE EIGHT WAYS OF FOOTWORK The iai sword drawing techniques require free movement of the feet. Now let me show you the shinobi iai happou sabaki (eight ways of footwork of the ninja iai) (1). Please watch the cross carefully. First you move your feet sideways. Take a step to the right by moving your left foot before your right one (2). Moving to the left you move your right foot before your left one (3). Moving your left foot diagonally to the left backward (4). Moving your right foot diagonally to the right backward (5). Moving straight forward (with the right foot because the ninja is right handed)(6). Moving diagonally to the right forward (7). Moving diagonally to the left forward (8).

Attaining Invulnerability :
Invulnerability is an attitude, a quality, a way of being. It is not so much a static state as a fluid process. To become invulnerable is to become inaccessible rather than indestructible. There is no such thing as absolute physical invulnerability. Here are ten steps to achieving invulnerabiliy in your life. 1. Be calm, still and centered. Stillness is first a matter of physical arrangement, then of mental quietness. Calmness results from stillness maintained over time. By themselves, stillness and calm are fragile conditions. Centeredness is stillness and calm in the face of outwardly chaotic or threatening conditions. Centeredness is a function of motion and centricity. The centered person, though outwardly still and calm, operates at a minimum of two levels--one visible and apparent to others, a second hidden and invisible. It is this second level that is ceaselessly moving and changing, adding fluidity and unpredictability to one's life.
http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/ninja3.html (16 de 18)31-07-2006 19:50:35

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2. Be present focused. To divide your attention among past, present and future is to weaken yourself. To focus exclusively on the present is to vastly increase your powers of concentration and execution. The key to present focus is full awareness. The ronin's code, "Arise every morning, ready to die", represents an extreme example of internalized present focus and a major element in attaining practical invulnerability. When you follow this code, there is an implicit obligation to "keep the ledger balanced" with all others on a daily basis--a not inconsiderable task. Present focus enables you to experience the process fully without being preoccupied with the result. 3. Be open to experience. Experience is a chain of significant events. So there are two elements here: openness, and the capacity to discriminate between the significant and the trivial. This form of discrimination arises naturally from full awareness, particularly of the "still small voice" of intuition. Openness is true power, for only as you are open does it become possible to join, blend, and redirect. 4. Touch the earth gently. Experience should be savored rather than devoured. Think of touching a cloud, holding a newborn in your arms, or laying a needle on the surface of the water so gently that it does not sink. The secret of eliciting a positive response to life lies in touching it gently. Gentleness is true strength. 5. Become a warrior. To become a warrior is to be totally committed to what you are about in this life--to discover your own truth and live by it. Nothing less than total commitment results in mastery. Warriorship is neither a religion nor a philosophy. It is a way of life that demands everything you have to give, and rewards accordingly. But it is important to understand that neither the paths nor the rewards of warriorship are necessarily the "world's". Warriorship begins in transformation and ends in transcendence. 6. Live tactically. To live tactically is to deal with the issues of life and of this world wisely, effortlessly,and purposefully. Effective tactics are based upon overriding "strategies". A warrior lives tactically, a master lives strategically. Tactics are personal and situational; they depend on the person employing them and they can vary according to the situation. Here are seven examples of tactics: (1) Make decisions so carefully that nothing can disturb you or cause you to lose your balance (Don Juan) (2) Become inaccessible or accessible only by choice (3) Choose your time and your turf (4) Learn the wisdom of not-combatting (5) Know your enemy (6) Allow (and arrange) the facts to speak for you (7) Don't allow others to make you part of their problems. 7. Recognize paradox as a condition of this life. Paradox--when things are not as they seem to be, or when two truths appear inconsistent with one another--will always attend residence in the human body and in this world. Paradox is part of the "cloud of great unknowing" and evidence that the human and divine order are quite different. To admit the existence and legitimacy of paradox in your life is to increase your openness to new learning. 8. Acknowledge a higher power. This is faith put to the test, and it makes a difference between an ordinary and an extraordinary life. The key to acknowledgement is letting go--of your prejudices, your favorite positions, and your obsession with being "right". Faith is evidence of openness. 9. Be willing to act on faith in the absence of fact, and the presence of doubt. Faith can be "the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." Faith is acceptance of what you know even though it conflicts with your logical/factual mind set. 10. Practice loving unconditionally. Along with faith--unconditional love--can "move mountains", repair damaged relationships, heal wounds, and bring harmony into your experience as no other quality can. But, not only is it the final step in attaining invulnerabily; it is the most difficult.

Ninja Philosophy in our lifes :


http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/ninja3.html (17 de 18)31-07-2006 19:50:35

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The Ninja still exists today with its philosophy being practiced in business world. The ultimate strength of Ninja that turns impossible to possible is the result of the technique that was developed to bring discipline to body and mind in perfect balance. Learn and practice the ultimate strength of Ninja which will lead you to play an initiative role in business and interpersonal relationship. Ninja-Web believes in your freedom to think big thoughts and tackle important challenges. Why spend your day fussing with a computer when you took this job to care for patients? Or to preserve a dying forest? For us, technology is simply a tool to give you the information and freedom you need to solve real problems, the kind that require a human brain and an even bigger heart. That means our applications are swift, silent, and self-sustaining. The way they should be. In every endeavor we strive for: Simplicity and Elegance. Lean, fast, sensible applications using clean and intelligent code. Intuitive Interfaces. We flatten the learning curve by creating common-sense interfaces and offering built-in contextsensitive help. Distributed Labor. By involving your audience (e.g., customers, members) in the maintenance of the application through user preferences and other customizable options, your workload lightens while their interaction with you improves. The Right Answer for the Right Problem. We don't throw the latest or coolest technology at the nearest problem. We apply the right technology to the right problem, or we apply none at all.

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KARATE

Martial art styles can be divided roughly into two categories: External and Internal. External styles, which are also called "hard" styles and which include such American favorites as Japanese Karate and Korean Taekwondo, rely primarily upon muscular strength and less of internal energies, while internal or "soft" styles, such as Japanese Aikido and few other Chinese styles, cultivate a more mysterious energy called 'Chi.' An external style is one which relies primarily in strength and physical abilities to defeat an opponent. In contrast, an internal style is one that depends upon ch'i and timing rather than power. Aikido (at the master's level) would be an internal style, while most karate styles are external. Karate is considered to be the most efficient and effective martial art, as it has evolved over a long period of time and proved in real combat!. It has everything that a novice student would need to get initiated into Martial Arts and it builds the basic skills, attitude into a person. So its better to learn Karate a the base level and then build up or change over to other martial art styles later on.. Such students will have an edge over others and will prove to be better martial artists.

Eskrima -Kali Arnis Philippines skick fighting

Muay Thai (Thai Boxing)

Shaolin Martial Arts [Shaolin Temple]

(This note is strictly my personal view.. As I have understood and experienced this fact myself. In my opinion a martial artist must learn more than one style and should be open minded. Because Martial Arts has a long history of evolution and refinement and this should continue... All styles have some worth in it and will make you aware of all dimensions of the "Art of fighting" !). When you learn more/new styles then don't forget what you had already
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Aikido

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learned ! infact refine your old knowledge and add to the "New". At the same time "Empty your mind to absorb the new knowledge" (As said in Bruce Lee's philosophy). Most students learn martial arts to be able to beak bricks or win tournaments or get fit and healthy. This is Not a good trend as "Martial Arts" should be learned to defend yourself or your family/others. You must learn this art with this attitude if you want any benefit from it. After all its the "Art of Fighting". You get all other abilities/skills during this learning process. So see your goal as one. Note By : Jimmy George (Author/creator to this website).

Bruce Lee's JKD

Pressure Point Arts [Dim Mak, Kyusho-jutsu, ATEMIWAZA, Kyusho justu]

Qi Gong / Chi Kung


NINJA

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Sword Arts
Art of Hsing I (XingYi) And Pa-Kua Chang [(Internal Styles)

Karate, Shorin Ryu system of Okinawan Karate KickBoxing !

Taoism

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Indian martial arts ! Bruce Lee's JKD Martial Arts Secrets

About ME ! (author of Coolshack.com)


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Aikido

Muay Thai (Thai Boxing)

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Shaolin Martial Arts

Ninja [Ninjitsu ,Shinobi,Ninpo]

Eskrima [Kali, Arnis]


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Art of Hsing I (XingYi) And Pa-Kua Chang [(Internal Styles)

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Taoism ('Way of Life')


"When something unexpected happens, in that very moment, treat it as a meditation."

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"My words have meaning; my actions have reason; Yet these cannot be known and I cannot be known."

Qi Gong (Chi Kung) -[Art of Breathing


Body - Energy - Spirit

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"Movements of meditation and health for body, mind & spirit".

Dim Mak, Kyusho-jutsu, ATEMI-WAZA, Kyusho justu [Pressure Point Arts]

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Sword Arts (Kenjutsu, Iaido, Kendo)

Pankration (a combination of wrestling and boxing)

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Martial Arts Secrets & Words of Wisdom !

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KickBoxing !

Indian martial arts ! [Kalari or KalariPayatu & Marma Shastra, Thang-Ta (Cheibi Gad-Ga), Silambam, Gatka, Thoda]

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My Martial Art Page and about ME ! (Jimmy George, Website creator)

Click here to enter Jimmy's Martial Art's Gallary !


Quote : A teacher opens door, It's is up to the student to step through ...

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What is a martial arts style? The concept of a style is a rather complicated one, and Chinese martial arts claim as many as 1500 different styles. By "style" we mean a particular school of martial practice, with its own training methods, favored techniques, and emphasis on attack and defense. While it is impossible to quantify differences between most styles, it is easy to see the distinctions between such disparate approaches to combat as practiced by Tiger, Crane, and Monkey stylists. In choosing a style (a contemporary privilege; traditionally, styles were assigned by the teachers), try to find one that suits your physical attributes, interests, and sense of utility. It does no good to study the graceful single-leg and flying techniques of White Crane if you have the flexibility and grace of a turtle! On the other hand, and gung fu practice will enhance your physical skills, dexterity, and alertness, and it is not uncommon for a beginner in one style to change to a more "appropriate" style later. Whatever else may be said of styles, the first year basics are almost universal--punches, kicks, and stances show little variation at the beginner's level. Martial Arts: Hard vs. Soft, External vs. Internal Internal or "soft" styles, such as Japanese Aikido and few other Chinese styles, cultivate a more mysterious energy called 'Chi.' Although everybody has chi, few people have much of it, and fewer still know how to express it. But
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according to the Chinese, this precious elixir can be cultivated and controlled through the exercises of the internal martial arts styles. Specifically, they say chi can be brewed in the tan tien, a spot about an inch below the navel. Once the tan tien is filled, the chi supposedly spills out into other parts of the body, where it is stored in the marrow of the bones. It is said that as a martial artist develops chi energy, his bones become hard, his sinews tough, is muscles supple and relaxed, which allow the chi to circulate freely through the body. The concept of hard/soft and external/internal martial arts is not one easily described. In terms of styles which most people are familiar with, Karate would be an example of a hard style and Aikido or T'ai Chi examples of soft styles. A hard style is generally considered one where force is used against force; a block is used to deflect an incoming strike by meeting either head on, or at a 90 degree angle. A soft style does not use force against force, but rather deflects the incoming blow away from its target. There are uses for both hard and soft techniques. A practitioner may wish to break the attacker's striking arm with the block. On the other hand, a much smaller opponent would not be able to accomplish this, so instead may wish to deflect the incoming attack. An external style is one which relies primarily in strength and physical abilities to defeat an opponent. In contrast, an internal style is one that depends upon ch'i and timing rather than power. Aikido (at the master's level) would be an internal style, while most karate styles are external. However, the concepts of hard/soft internal/external are finding fewer proponents among senior martial artists. Both conceptual twins are impossible to separate in reality, and masters will generally acknowledge that any distinction is largely only a matter of subjective interpretation. Arguments about the reality of the concepts are often waged by novices and philosophical dilettantes, ignorant of the inseparable nature of duality. They see yin and yang as elements that can exist independently, while philosophical and physical reasoning demonstrate that they cannot. Without their union (=Tao), neither can exist. Ergo, a "hard" technique such as a straight fist is guided by the soft power of mind and the internal component of ch'i. Equally, the softest projection of Aikido requires the "hard" element of physical contact and movement, coupled with actively redirecting the opponent. In short, preoccupation with distinguishing soft from hard is a distraction from learning martial arts and moving towards a unifying technique and mastery. Gung Fu Styles Gung Fu styles may generally be divided into three classes: Shaolin Temple styles, temple-derived nontemple styles, and family styles, or Pai. Within the Temple styles are those arts generally and
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consistently taught in the temples, with many having their origins in pre-Shaolin history. There are two major divisions in Shaolin Kung Fu. The southern temples are predominantly hand technique oriented, while northern temples put more emphasis on kicks and foot techniques. The northern Shaolin styles primarily consist of Northern Praying Mantis, Black Crane, and Black Tiger. The southern Shaolin styles primarily consist of White Crane, Tiger, Dragon, Leopard, Snake, and Southern Praying Mantis. There were also styles that had their roots in the Shaolin temples, such as Wing Chun and Hung Gar. Many of the movements were representations of the behavior of animals. A system sometimes comprised the maneuvers of one specific animal and no other. All the blocks, attacks and stances were done in imitation of the bird or beast. Each system had certain aspects peculiar to it since each of the animals was designed differently by nature. However, most styles were not so rigid and limited; northern praying mantis, for example, uses mantis and tiger hand techniques, and monkey and generic northern style footwork. Differences Between the Styles In general terms, the styles followed specific training objectives (but there are always exceptions). The dragon movements were devised to develop alertness and concentration. These movements were executed without the application of strength, but with emphasis on breathing in the lower abdomen along with the coordination of mind, body and spirit. Movements are long, flowing and continuous, and provided Shaolin practitioners with the equivalent of t'ai chi or pakua. The tiger movements were formed to develop the bones, tendons and muscles. The execution of these movements was the opposite of that of the dragon, since emphasis was placed on strength and dynamic tension. Movements are short, snappy and forceful. The snake movements were used to develop temperament and endurance. Breathing was done slowly, deeply, softly and harmoniously. Movements are flowing and rippling with emphasis on the fingers. The crane movements were used to develop control, character and spirit. Emphasis is placed on light, rapid footwork and evasive attacking techniques. Movements in the one-legged stance are performed with a considerable amount of meditation.
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The Shaolin systems were developed from animal actions and were divided into low systems and high systems. The list used below is from the temple from the Honan province during the Ch'ing dynasty. The low systems of the Shaolin were choy li fut, crane, cobra, and tiger. The high systems of the order were snake, dragon, Wing Chun, and praying mantis. The primary features that separate high from low are the fantastic economy of movement and the differences in application of ch'i in the high systems. The low systems were so called because they had their basis both in physical maneuvers and in earthly creatures. Choy li fut was based on a posture called a riding horse stance, so called because when adopted, one appeared to be straddling a horse. The movements are very stiff and hard, depending primarily on muscular power to perform adequately. There are only three kicks in the original system, although recently the style has adopted many techniques of the Northern Shaolin system. According to legend, it was designed for use on the house boats of the south where a stable stance and powerful hand techniques were necessary. The certain portion of its history is that the system was named for two Chinese boxing masters, Choy and Li. Fut means Buddha, serving in this instance to refer to the Shaolin temple's Buddhist influence. The next system is crane, one of the traditional Shaolin systems. A legend is also attached to its birth. One day a monk stumbled on a battle between an ape and a crane. It seemed as if the ape would rend the bird in two. However, the bird continually stymied the ape, flapping its wings and darting in and out with its beak; at last the animal was driven away. The graceful movements of the bird were copied as well as its one leg stance. The principle weapons of the system are its long range kicks and a hand formation, the crane's beak. The cobra system is a strange, nearly dead system. Its basis is a stance that resembles a cobra risen from the grass with spread hood. The maneuvers are strictly defensive in nature, devastatingly effective and swift. Cobra is designed for speed and tenacity for once the reptile strikes, it hangs on and makes certain that its opponent will die. Most of its techniques are hand maneuvers aimed at the eyes and throat. It is primarily a dim mak style. Tiger is another natural system, this the opposite of crane. It is a vicious method of fighting utilizing powerful kicks and grim clawing motions. Like the tiger, its practitioner fights fiercely, rending, tearing and breaking any open space of skin or limb that is left unguarded. It is highly defensive in nature, waiting until being backed into a corner, then unleashing an unstoppable assault. Its principle hand weapon is the tiger claw, also useful for unarmed defense against weapons. By clasping the weapon between the hands or enmeshing it in the crushing grip of the hand, the enemy's advantage is
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lost. Snake is an interface between the high systems and low systems. It is one of the easiest systems to learn and also one of the most deadly. The reason that it is a transition system is because it has the movements of a spiritual system and the physical applications of a low system. The spiritual movements are all flowing and continuous, akin to the movements of a cloud. Physical applications of such movements are seen by the stabbing hand motions to the face, throat and genitals. Ch'i is present in the practitioner as his body mimics a snake in its coiling, undulating motions; for only through ch'i can the proper flow be achieved to allow the technique to work. It is an earthly animal by nature, yet still somewhat spiritual due to its mysterious character. The snake has thus been appointed as the guardian of the dragons. The basis of the dragon systems is ch'i, the inner power of Taoism. The movements and applications of the dragon systems are dependent on the use of ch'i. The special flow that distinguishes it from the flow of the crane system is due to ch'i. Also, the ch'i is substituted for muscular strength. For example, a tiger stylist would break a rock by sheer force and physical technique, while a dragon stylist would shatter it by ch'i projection. The praying mantis has as its watchwords silence and determination. Although it is a physical system in terms of its origin, it nonetheless is classified as a high system. Praying mantis warrants its prominence because of its extreme efficiency. Despite the fact that it is hand oriented and lacks the fancy leg maneuvers of dragon, it is versatile and overpowering. Characteristic of mantis, as well as dragon and snake, is the virtual lack of blocks. Since blocks are inefficient, the high systems follow the advice of the ancient sages and yield in order to conquer. Also, it combines ch'i and extreme awareness to be virtually invincible. The systems of the Shaolin can be arranged on the pyramid illustrated below. The best method for this is to take the tiger family as a representative of the low systems and the dragon family as a representative of the high systems. The remaining Shaolin systems will be placed in the appropriate tiers singly. The lowest level of the pyramid is composed entirely of basic techniques. These are common to all martial arts and can be claimed exclusively by no one system. The maneuvers are comprised of kicks, punches, stances and blocks. Since they are universal to most martial arts, it is very difficult to distinguish a student from a karate style as opposed to a choy li fut pupil. All of this class of basics belongs to the low systems and so are dependent on hard, muscular movements in order to carry them through properly.
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Next we progress to the low systems. As stated earlier, this level has its basis in earthly rather than ethereal beings. The subsystems of tiger are numerous at this level. Tiger, eagle, leopard, hung gar, the drunken system and the crab system all belong at this level. Tiger, leopard and hung gar are very oriented toward physical body strength and the destruction of an opponent by breaking his body's structural system. Eagle is a vicious ripping system with the bulk of its work directed against the eyes and throat. The drunken system is a lurching, seemingly unstable system that strikes with little power and thus tries to exhaust an opponent with an arrhythmic, oddly placed series of blows to tender, exposed areas. The crab system concentrated on closing off blood vessels and pinching nerves, thereby immobilizing part or all of an attacker's body. In the category of the higher low systems are found four different tiger subsystems: hong tiger, s'hu tiger, imperial tiger and white tiger. They are placed above the previous systems because ch'i and some concepts of spiritual motion have been incorporated into them. Hong tiger was a system which evolved from a mixture of tiger and white dragon. It was used by palace guards especially against weapons. S'hu tiger was the weapons training that went with the unarmed system of hong tiger. Imperial tiger is a modern adaptation of hong tiger. The techniques are sophisticated at this level. Also contained in the band of high low systems is monkey, placed there because of its liberal use of parries and advanced striking techniques, taking it out of the realm of brute strength. White tiger is a highly sophisticated, forbidden style similar to snow tiger. The main systems of the Shaolin that are left are placed thus: choy li fut, white crane, and tiger all low systems. Snake is a lower high system and may be classified as a low or a high system. Dragon, praying mantis, and Wing Chun are all classified as full high systems due to their efficiency of movement and the use of ch'i to both supplement and in some cases replace physical technique. These systems were taught to some extent to all monks as part of their training. The complete systems were reserved for the few, the priests that would remain in the temple after being granted their priesthood.

THE NINJITSU PEOPLE


by Peter Urban There was a time in Japan of the olden days that had originated in China but showed up there over three-hundred years later, a strange group of men and women. They always dressed in black. Such was the nature of their clothing that even their faces and feet were not distinguishable. The softest of black felt cushioned their steps to the sounds that black cats make stalking across thick rugs. They knew many things. Walking in silence and living at night was their way. Friends had they none. Fear and hatred by all had they won from centuries of tales not meek. Theirs was a mystique that few dared
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to seek. In such a group there were no weak. Reputations of evil traditions of being in league with the demons of power were described by foreign white men devils who called them magicians of Satan and wrote of them as such in terms that have been passed down through the centuries on pages of books that were hidden from view from ordinary people like us. These "black knights" of old days, who did not believe in magic themselves but who could perform seemingly magical feats, were known as "Ninja," or "Ninjitsu people." The word (nin) means stealth. The word (jitsu) means abilities. Ergo, the archaic Japanese word Ninjitsu literally translates to (the art of stealth). For some it became a way of life. For others it becomes a religion. They were known as professional assassins by the historians of feudal Japan. There were only two types of Ninjas. Those who were known to be Ninjas were pretenders. Those who were Ninjas were never ever known. real Ninjas were artists of life with the minds of scientists, hands of a surgeon, eyes of a hawk, emotions of a Maco shark and the morals of an ice cube. They kept the company of no one. They could not be recognized by their own kind. They were celibate, never married, not homosexual, fearless, highly educated, never indulged in alcohol, drugs or sinful human pleasures. They trusted only their own sanity. A Ninja could never be captured or tortured. They had the power to kill themselves at any time of the day of night and under any contingency. They had beads of poison that could be kept in their mouths for any length of time; only crushing down on them with their teeth would release a poison that was so lethal, painless and swift, that it was reserved for only themselves. They could certainly be killed, but never questioned. It took a Ninja to know a Ninja. It took a Ninja to kill a Ninja. They could be anyone at any time and at any place. They could be any tree in a forest of people. To pursue them would be like attacking a bag of quicksand in the darkness of night. They never solicited business. They were never without money. They were very contented to have many imitators and pretenders who would be killed by the righteous. They were more capable of teamwork than any army. They had no superiors or inferiors when they worked together. They could take orders and give orders with no badges of rank, no egos to feed. They had the brains of men with the efficiency of African red army ants. They had the courage and mercy of a squadron of South American killer bees. To incur the attention of a Ninja or society of Ninjas as a potential threat to them was to nakedly bathe in a river of ravenous paranas. The most interesting things that highly objective scholar historians ever recorded about them was that they never attracted attention. They were completely in capable of sadism. They would never assassinate children or pregnant women. If they were hired to do a job, they would always be paid in advance. No matter what the needs of a client would be. If it were a child or a pregnant woman targeted as the assignment, the Ninja or Ninjas would accept the money, guarantee the assignment and then kill the client and keep the money. There was never a body to be found in any such instance. They would always lie to a liar, as well as kill them for the very act of lying to a Ninja. For practice and for a general principle still not comprehensible to the finest minds, they would kill very cruel and evil men or women for free and without being hired to do so. This observation is mind-boggling to everyone.
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Ninjas devoted their childhood to training for mastery in their peculiar skills and thus were highly skilled in the martial arts. Raised utterly without morals, which they referred to as "imaginary restrictions." They were bereft of virtue as we know it or as is commonly defined by all cultures in the world. Since they thrived on darkness, their training halls were painted completely black; varying lengths of nails and spikes protruded from the walls. Upon these spikes and stone walls, they practiced jumping, grasping, climbing, and wall-scalling techniques. Acrobatic skills were second nature to them as well as swimming. They were superb masters of sword-handling, archery, horsemanship, Jiu-Jitsu, stick fighting, body balancing, and the art of throwing tiny poisoned darts and the small, sharp-cornered coins of that era. The latter was a particularly favorite weapon, for who would believe it possible to put out a man's eye and kill him at a distance of more than fifty feet by throwing a coin the size of a silver dollar? No weapon could ever be found -- just an ordinary coin lying in the street. Hundreds of hours were spent practicing walking across creaky wooden floors without making a sound. This was done by unwinding their long, black, felt waistband; rolling it across the floor; carefully, lightly, and quickly darting down its entire length; then rolling it up and repeating the maneuver until the desired distance was crossed. They did everything with their own inimitable magic and called it "ninjitsu." Disappearing was their most astoundingly developed ability. Their training, being supremely realistic and scientific, also took into consideration every adverse situation they could imagine. They called their "thing", scientific magic. They were the original practitioners of the "art of programming." They were taught from the cradle that nothing was impossible. Not knowing that a thing could not be done, they did it. They had many services to sell to the lords and ladies of the great houses of the day. Their specialty being murder and terror. Many provincial lords, in rivalry for one reason or another, often used the Ninja in preference to the expense of an all-out war against an enemy. A Ninjitsu man or woman could sneak past guards, fool alert watchdogs, do the job, and disappear with no traces of ever having been there at all. They used black coal dust and chemically-produced smoke screens to distort the sight of pursuers. Their visual memory and sense of direction was so exact that, with one swift glance, they could evaluate all means of egress from a building. This enabled them to leap from any second or third story window, knowing in advance that a tree would be underneath to break their fall. Rooftops were nothing but stepping stones to be adroitly traveled upon. Using their uniquely fashioned silken rope and grabbing hooks, they scaled - up the highest, most forbidding cliffs and walls. A skilled Ninjitsu man could run down a hallway, jump across the entrance area, grasp the eaves to a doorway, and pull himself up and over onto the roof in a matter of seconds. From the roof, where he blended into the night, he was in a perfect position for throwing darts, coins, or circular disks that looked like the blades of a power saw. No wonder everyone was afraid of them. Chasing them was almost certain death, for they would seem to disappear right in front of a pursuer's eyes. The next
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thing the pursuer felt would be the sting of a poisoned dart in the back of his neck. Even when stripped down to nothing but their "fundoshi," or loincloths, they almost always managed to escape without the necessity of having to kill themselves as they always did in a hopeless situation. When the guards led a Ninja out to be executed (a foregone conclusion), he would completely confound his captors by running full tilt toward the seemingly impregnable wall. Just before he did so, he had urinated into his fundoshi. Removing the sopping wet cotton cloth, he ran up the wall as far as he could, letting out a piercing scream and slapping the wet cloth with all his strength against the top of the stone wall. Without stopping his momentum for an instant, he would swing the remaining distance to the top of the wall, using the cloth as a rope, and before the astonished and terrified guards could move, he had disappeared. The mystique of these historically legendary oriental professional assassins increased as the centuries went by. Their secrets were handed down from family to family, generation after generation. Ninjas were never the natural children of living parents. Everyone was always an orphan or found baby. They were never recruited. It was always said that a Ninja was not made, they were born to be. Talent and destiny led them to be. A Ninja with family would not be a real one. Real Ninjas were asexual, did not need or desire any normal human ties. There could never be such a thing as a successful undercover Ninja impostor. They could not be fooled by anyone or anything or any situation. Real Ninjas had no ambitions, no greed, no passions, no need for power and recognition. They were honest unto their calling. No honest person can be conned. They desired nothing that the earth had to offer. They could not be bribed. The real ones were psychic and could not be lied to . Most of all there was nothing in life that could disappoint them or influence their thinking. They were just special people of a different ilk; born to be what they would become. Such as the world had its Mozart's, so did the martial arts have its Ninjas. All that is known now is that there are a few old martial arts teachers in southern Japan who, for the sake of tradition only, still practice the Ninjitsu training. These old Sensei's occasionally give an exhibition of the dead art at the more important martial arts cultural festivals. They are always looked upon a little fearfully by the younger participants in the exhibitions, for after all, who knows for sure about such matters? The portrait of a Ninja that you see in museums is of a very elite looking middle-aged man with a scroll clenched in his mouth; enigmatic looking with piercing eyes. Everyone tries to guess what he is holding in his mouth. I shouldn't tell you the answer to that secret but I will. He is not holding a diploma. He is holding a list of secrets that no person should know. What is that? Never disclose your mistakes, weaknesses or your superiority.

See our NINJA page here !

Building Super Kicks


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Why are so called "super kicking skills" important, when in a real fight, kicking above the waist would be unrealistic anyway? First, I believe if you can lift 100 pounds then it would be that much easier for you to lift 50 pounds. Thus, if you can kick high, then you can also kick lower without lack of ability. Second, if you only practice the Martial Science purely for self-defense and not for self-improvement, then your chances of growth are limited. Ask yourself these questions before training: 1. How would I like to improve my kicks? 2. How will I feel if I don't improve kicks? 3. How will I feel if I do improve kicks? By asking yourself these motivating questions and answering them with emotional honesty, you can create a little more motivation. These questions can be constantly reviewed and will outlast traditional willpower. Be sure and ask more questions like these as you train. Below I have listed a few primary ideas to help you improve your kicks. Though the following is for improving kicking the same principles can be used to develop other areas as well. 1. The way is in training With anything you want to become proficient in, practice makes perfect. Practice is consistent action towards our goals. One does not attend a few martial arts classes, buy a black belt and say, "okay, now I am a Total Warrior and I can defend myself." Yeah, maybe against an untrained mouse. Seriously though, think of something you are good at and ask yourself this question: did you become proficient in that skill in one lesson? Odds are you only learned the basics and it will take practice for you to become second nature and realistically proficient. 2. Stretch, Stretch, and Stretch If you don't have flexibility then you won't have the kick. As obvious as it sounds, people just don't do
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enough stretching, even when they know they should. So I will say it once again, "Stretch." Figure out which muscles that are involved with each kick you are trying to improve and take action by stretching. There are two specific ways of stretching, the first is for warming up and is done before a workout to decrease chance of injury (hold for about 9 seconds each stretch). The other is for increasing flexibility, which is done after the workout to improve the stretch (hold for longer periods of time). 3. Slow motion kicking When practicing to develop good ground kicks, it is valuable to utilize slow motion kicking. Slow motion kicking is the process of performing the kick as slow as possible to focus strain on all the parts used in the kick. It's easy to throw a side kick in one second, how about trying it for thirty seconds? You will feel the difference. Slow motion kicking will give you growth in four major areas: Balance, Control, Strength and Form. 4. Power, speed, and targeting Aside from the basic development of the kick, it is also important to build a powerful fast kick that is on target. You can have nice flashy kicks, however if they lack power or are off target, what good are they? Here are a few key notes for developing your kicks. A. Be careful throwing repetitious kicks in the air. Overextending can be damaging. B. Use a bag or pad when kicking with full power. C. Develop targeting by using harder to hit targets such as focus mitts. 5. Give and takes This is done with a partner, the attacker kicks to develop his or her targeting, application, flexibility, etc. The defender or receiver takes the kicks to develop toughness, reactions and awareness. Start by facing each other and let the kicker begin by throwing one kick with little force, the defender allows the kick to make contact and takes a step back. The attacker then throws his next kick and the process continues. You can adjust the power of the kicks so there is growth in both the attacker and the defender. After about ten different kicks the defender then takes his turn. 6. Coil and recoil
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This is an optional technique of bringing the knee up before the execution of each kick (with exceptions naturally). By doing so, you are protecting against incoming kicks and your opponent will not be sure what kick you are going to throw. When finishing a kick you can also come into recoil before grounding the kick. This process is very effective in sparring. 7. Break downs Important when learning or perfecting a new kick. Start by breaking the kick into parts: positions, pivots, balance, muscles, movements and application. Work on each development separately before combining. This helps to get a better understanding of the mechanics in your kick. 8. Ambidexterity A common mistake for many martial artists is the consistent training of one leg or one kick. Right and left kicks should be stressed equally if you are going to become the Total Warrior. Ambidexterity is important for all your training and keeps you from becoming right or left side dependent. What good are you if one of your legs become unusable? 9. Imagination Last and just as important is the use of your Creative Mental Training (CMT). Visualize your skills improving, create fight scenes and scenarios in your head and feel the abilities that you are looking for in your kicks. Practice in your minds eye as you would in training, mentally feeling and seeing your skill and improvement. Constantly ask, "How can I improve my kicks now?" Practice the principles with consistent physical and mental action and you will soon be on your way to having super kicks.

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BRUCE LEE's - WAY OF THE INTERCEPTING FIST JEET KUNE DO


Jeet Kune Do was founded by Bruce Lee because he felt the martial arts were too confined. You can't fight in pattern he used to say because an attack can be baffling and not refined. Jeet Kune Do was created by Bruce Lee to show us that an old art must transform. Like the day turns to night and night to day the way of fighting must also reform. Bruce Lee developed Jeet Kune Do but wished he didnt have a name for it! Because the very words, Jeet Kune Do, already indicate it's another martial arts form. Any form or style does restrict and his belief is now in conflict. FootWok in JKD : Your application of an effective technique depends on your footwork. The speed of your footwork leads the way for fast kicks and punches. If you are slow on your feet, you will be slow with your hands and feet. Jeet Rune do footwork should not only be easy, rlaxed and alive, it should also be firm. The traditional, classical horse stance seeks solidity in stillness. This unnecessary, strenuous stance is not functional because it is slow and awkward. when fighting, you have to move in any direction instantly. Yin/Yang symbol : In the Yin/Yang symbol there is a white spot on the black part, and black spot on the white one. This is to illustrate the balance in life, for nothing can survive long by going to either extremes, be it negativeness or positiveness. Therefore, firmness must be concealed in gentleness, and gentleness firmness, and that is why a Gung Fu man must be pliable as spring. Notice that the stiffest tree is most easily cracked, while the bamboo will bend with the wind. So in Gung Fu, or any other system, one must be gentle yet not giving away completely; be firm yet not hard, and even if he is strong, he should guard it with softness and tenderness. For if there is no softness in firmness, he is not strong; in a similar way, if one has firmness concealed in softness, no one can break through his

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defense. This principle of moderation provides a best means of preserving oneself, for since we accept this existence of the oneness (Yin/ Yang) in everything, and do not treat it dualistically, we thus secure a state of tranquility by remaining detached and not inclining to either extreme. Even if we do incline on one extreme, be it negative or positive, we will flow with it in order to control it. This flowing with it without clinging is the true way to get rid of it.

BRUCE LEE (1940 --- 1973) : At the age of thirteen he studied under Master Yip Man, leader of the Wing Chung School of Gung Fu. Bruce Lee did more to bring the martial arts to the attention of the general public than any other twentieth century man. Bruce Lee will live in our hearts forever! At the age of twenty-two, Bruce authored an extremely unique text which he titled "CHINESE GUNG-FU: The Philosophical Art of SELFDEFENSE." This book reflected his preoccupation with spiritual as well as physical development. JKD Literally, "jeet" means to intercept or to stop; "kune" is the fist; and "do" is the way, the ultimate reality---the way of the intercepting fist. Do remember, however, that "Jeet Kune Do" is merely a convenient name. I am not interested with the term itself; I am interested in its effect of liberation when JKD is used as a mirror for self-examination. Unlike a "classical" martial art, there is no series of rules or classification of technique that constitutes a distinct "Jeet Kune Do" method of fighting. JKD is not a form of special conditioning with its own rigid philosophy. It looks at combat not from a single angle, but from all possible angles. While JKD utilizes all the ways and means to serve its end (after all, efficiency is anything that scores), it is bound by none and is therefore free. In other words, JKD possesses everything, but is in itself possessed by nothing. There are no prearranged sets or "kata" in the teaching of JKD, nor are they necessary. Consider the subtle difference between "having no form" and having "no form"; the first is ignorance, the second is transcendence. Through instinctive body feeling, each of us 'knows' our own most efficient and dynamic manner of achieving effective leverage, balance in motion, economical use of energy, etc. Patterns, techniques or forms touch only the fringe of genuine understanding. The core of understanding lies in the individual mind, and until that is touched, everything is uncertain and
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superficial. Truth cannot be perceived until we come to fully understand ourselves and our potentials. After all, 'knowledge in the martial arts ultimately means self-knowledge.' you will have to find out all by yourself. You must accept the fact that there is in help but self-help. For the same reason I cannot tell you how to "gain" freedom, since freedom exists within you. I cannot tell you what 'not' to do, I cannot tell you what you 'should' do, since that would be confining you to a particular approach. Formulas can only inhibit freedom, externally dictated prescriptions only squelch creativity and assure mediocrity. Bear in mind that the freedom that accrues from self-knowledge cannot be acquired through strict adherence to a formula; we do not suddenly "become" free, we simply "are" free. Learning is definitely not mere imitation, nor is it the ability to accumulate and regurgitate fixed knowledge. Learning is a constant process of discovery, a process without end. In JKD we begin not by accumulation but by discovering the cause of our ignorance, a discovery that involves a shedding process. A Good Sensei or Teacher : A teacher, a really good sensei, is never a 'giver' of "truth"; he is a guide, a 'pointer' to the truth that the student must discover for himself. A good teacher, therefore, studies each student individually and encourages the student to explore himself, both internally and externally, until, ultimately, the student is integrated with his being. For example, a skillful teacher might spur his student's growth by confronting him with certain frustrations. A good teacher is a catalyst. Besides possessing a deep understanding, he must also have a responsive mind with great flexibility and sensitivity. A FINGER POINTING TO THE MOON : There is no standard in total combat, and expression must be free. this liberating truth is a reality only in so far as it is 'experienced and lived' by the individual himself; it is a truth that transcends styles or disciplines. Remember, too, that Jeet Kune Do is merely a term, a label to be used as a boat to get one across; once across, it is to be discarded and not carried on one's back. These few paragraphs are, at best, a "finger pointing to the moon." Please do not take the finger to be the moon or fix your gaze so intently on the finger as to miss all the beautiful sights of heaven. After all, the usefulness of the finger is in pointing away from itself to the light which illumines finger and all.

Life :

As a teenager, Lee had two major interests : cha-cha and kung fu. At the age of 13, he was beaten by a street gang. This incident incited Bruce to start studying the Wing Chun style of kung fu under the guidance of a martial arts master named Yip Man. In 1958, he won the Crown Colony Cha-Cha Championship. Lee became a problem for his parents, constantly getting involved in streetfights that sometimes drew the attention of the local police. At the age of 18, his parents decided it was safer for him to return to the US and exercise his American citizenship. After Bruce arrived in San Francisco, he soon moved to Seattle, where he did various part-time jobs around the Chinese community. He earned his high school diploma from the Edison Technical School. While he was studying Philosophy at University of Washington in 1961, the young man reperfected his martial arts skills and created his own system, which he later
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named 'Jun Fan Gung Fu'. He opened his first martial arts school, the 'Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute', near the university campus. Lee also met a fellow student named Linda Emery, who would later become his wife. Despite objections from their own families, they were married on August 17, 1964.

The Legend :

History was made in the summer of 1973. Bruce Lee was the first Asian actor to earn an international following. The popularity of 'Enter The Dragon' permitted the integration of martial arts into mainstream Western culture. His work has permitted other Chinese actors, such as Jackie Chan, Jet Li and Michelle Yeoh, to enjoy success in North America without ever having to worry that their ethnicity will get in the way of it. Unfortunately, Lee never saw the fruits of his labor. Bruce Lee died mysteriously on July 20, 1973, at the age of 32, from a cerebral edema, which is a swelling of the brain. The official cause of death is an allergic reaction to a headache tablet he took called Equigesic. The full circumstances surrounding his death have never been fully explained, and perhaps we will never, ever know exactly how or why he died so suddenly. The world may have lost an incredible hero, but we have also gained an immortal legend.

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Bruce Lee was the greatest Martial Artist of the 20th century, considered to be the Ultimate Fighter of all time. He is also considered the "FATHER" of the Modern Action Movie. His personal training consisted of day-by-day exercising (500 kicks per leg and up to 2000 punches per day) was well documented in his personal memoranda. This made Bruce Lee the deadliest man on the planet and the most physically fit. Twenty-six years after his death his art of Jeet Kune Do is still debated amongst the martial arts community (Is it an art, a method or concept). The reasons for these frequently asked questions were brought on by Bruce Lee's own description of Jeet Kune Do as "Using no way as way" and "Having no limitation as limitation". These phrases had sparked the controversy that had spanned more than two decades. In 1996, a breakthrough by the first lady of martial arts Linda Lee Cadwell (Widow of Bruce Lee) brought forth the formation of what is known as "The Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do Nucleus". This called together all surviving students of Bruce Lee. The Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do Nucleus is now known as The Bruce Lee Educational Foundation. Bruce started training in the martial arts mainly to overcome his fear of being humiliated in a street fight. As a teenager he began to get into more and more fights for no reason at all. And if he didn't win he was furious. As a result, under the great master Yip Man's Wing Chun (meaning "beautiful springtime") teachings, Bruce became a proficient martial artist, not to mention a feared street fighter. However, Bruce actually had more than one teacher. As time went by, Bruce grew. His enthusiasm towards martial arts was more apparent. He was young, energetic and competitive. He soon became acquainted with Wing-chun's basic Kung Fu. Since he was very clever, Mr Yip loved him very much and taught him many secret techniques in Win Chun Kung Fu. He became an expert in Wing Chun Kung Fu. When Bruce was about fourteen, he discovered that "dancing" could be a great deal of fun. He had a real Knack for it and rapidly became quite polished, never lacking eager partners. Much of the balance and footwork became evident in his later fighting style. His favorite was the Cha Cha, and he spent many hours practicing extremely complex dance routines. He eventually became the Hong Kong Cha Cha Champion. At the age of 19, Bruce was becoming more and more involved in street fighting. So in 1959 his parents decide to sent him to live with friends in the United States, Where he would finish high school. While he was staying in Seattle, Bruce was allowed to live in the restaurant's attic in exchange for his services as a busboy and waiter. Bruce finished high school and went on to college. By day he attended the University of Washington and nights he was working in the restaurant. After a few months of this, he decided that this lifestyle was not for him. He quit his job at the restaurant and began teaching Kung-fu. At the age of twenty-two, Bruce authored an extremely unique text which he titled "CHINESE GUNG-FU: The Philosophical Art of SELFDEFENSE." This book reflected his preocupation with spiritual as well as physical development. Before Bruce finished his Bachelor Degree in Philosophy, he meet Linda Emery, a pretty blonde coed, enrolled in his class and in 1964 they were married. Shortly afterward, they moved to California. In 1965, Bruce's son, Brandon, was born. Couples years later his daughter Shannon was born. When Bruce debuted to the world giving a demostration of Martial Arts at Ed Parker's 1964 internationals, Ed was getting it all down on film. Fate intervened a few years later while Ed was teaching Jay Sebring (one of the people later killed along with Sharon Tate in the Sharon Tate murders). Jay mentioned that his friend Bill Dozier (the producer of "Batman 1966 T.V. series") had bought the rights to the "Green Hornet" and needed a Kato. Parker showed Dozier the film on Bruce and the rest is history. As Kato on the popular T.V. series "The Green Hornet", Bruce introduced millions to the beauty, creativity and power of the martial arts.

In the U.S. Bruce knew many good friends in the field of martial arts. One of them was an expert in the nunchaku and Ka-li Mr. Dan Inosanto. (Bruce Lee is the one in the center without shirt and Dan is the one whom is in the Bruce's right.) They exchanged their techniques. In short while, Bruce grasped the essential points in the use of the nunchaku and Ka-li. The beginning of the seventies saw Bruce spending more and more time between Hollywood and Hong Kong. Offers began pouring in from many different sources and he was continually in transit firming up commitments and scouting locations for future projects. In constant demand, his fees escalated accordingly to such astronomical rates as $275.00 per hour. However the perpetuation of Jeet Kune Do was still very important to him so before he embarked for good on his glamorous new profession abroad, he turned the responsability of his teaching over to his head instructor and friend, Dan Inosanto.

Personal life of Bruce Lee ! :

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'Chi' of Bruce Lee : With one kick Bruce could snap eight two-inch boards held togather by masking tape. He could kick in the air and break the board that are dangled in the air. In 1965 Bruce would cut through two-inch boards dangled before him. There was a giant bag in Lee's garage of five feet wide and eight feet high. Bruce could send it flying with his best kick. One Inch Punch was his favorite stunt. He would punch one inch from solar plexus and send the guy across the room.

Workouts :
Running was the important part of Lee's workout. He used to cover atleast a couple of miles a day. After this, a series of Tai Chi movements, an ancient art that Bruce felt to be ideal for the purpose of keeping him both mentally and physically fit. Then there were the isometric exercises whereby the muscles are improved by pitting them against an immovable object such as wall. It is said that Bruce Lee through-out the day just never let up. If he was eating, he'd be pushing one hand up against the table; often whilst just standing around talking, he'd be pounding a fist into the cupped other hand. He frequently read a book with dumb-bell in other hand. The Lee's sensational kicks were the product of high bar training and kicking trees. Students says that Lee's home was filled with training devices. He had stretching device to stretch your legs. There were things available to toughen hands and feet. Lee used rice, sand and green peas. He also used special bags for punching and kicking

Bruce Lees' Philosophy :


Jeet Kune Do ultimately is not a matter of pretty technique but a highly developed personal spirituality and physique. JKD is not a matter of technology but of spiritual insight and training---Bruce Lee Jeet Kune Do is a most valuable theory for developing martial arts.As Bruce would explain, Jeet means to stalk or to intercept, Kune means fist or style and Do means the way or ultimate reality. There are six principle in JKD that should be considered by the martial artists who intend to gradually develop skills of their respective systems.Briefly the principles are: 1)Multicultural Arts:Since no one has a monopoly on knowledge, it behooves the prudent student to develop expertise in skill to be used in all four fighting ranges (Kicking, Punching, Trapping and Grappling), without the bounds of cultural restrains. 2)Range:All combat is governed by principle of range or fighting distance. A person who controls his distance controls the fight. If one's preferred range is kicking distance, then the other ranges must be supplemented to strengthen combative efficiency. 3)Five ways of Attack:There are five ways of offensively approaching an opponent. These methods are - Direct, Combination, Immobilization and Rhythm disruption attacks. 4)Individual and Instructor Preference: The often used phrase "My truth is not your truth" stems from the principles of individual and an instructor preference. Based on individual needs and abilities we tend to focus our skills in certain areas. 5)Environment: All combative forms reflects , to extent, a preferred social, political and structural environment. Understanding the limitation of a fixed system or technique and not being bound by these limitations is of common concern. 6)Absorb what is useful : Once the practitioner understands and can utilize the first five principles of JKD, the sixth principle " Absorb what is useful" takes on a new meaning. By investigating multicultural arts, experiencing the ways of attacks, appreciating the importance of instructor and individual preference and recognizing the restrains of environment and range, one can be more adapt at incorporating techniques into a system that has the potential to naturally flow. Once Bruce said"The hight of cultivation is really nothing special. It is merely simplicity, the ability to express the utmost with the minimum."

Bruce Lee's Life :


The Story begins with the small woman in San Francisco's Chinese hospital on November 27, 1940. The child she bore that

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day was her forth child. He was born in the year of the Dragon, during the morning hour of the Dragon. She named him Lee Yuen Kam. To his fan he became Lee Siu Loong, "The Little Dragon". A nurse in the hospital decided the infant needed an even more American name and dubbed the baby boy Bruce Lee. Bruce Lee was a precocious child. He was forever jumping, talking, playing or moving. Then just as suddenly he could disappear into his room or a far corner and read a book for hours or become completely self-absorbed. During Bruce's formative years they lived near the peak on Hong Kong island with an aunt and uncle. Even as a boy Bruce was considered fairly good looking and knew it. He liked to have his own way and by the time he was teenager he was an outand -out bully. He had a natural flair for leadership. In one encounter Bruce got his head nearly knocked off and was inspired at thirteen to begin serious study of the martial arts as self-defense. His father Lee Hoi Chuan had been a student of the martial arts and shared some of his knowledge with his son. Bruce always said his father was his first martial arts teacher. Bruce began studying Chinese Kung Fu which he always pronounced "Gung Fu" when he was thirteen. Bruce enrolled in Wing Cheun School and studied for the next two years with Yip Man. Once Bruce was committed to Kung Fu he was nearly fanatic. He would sit at dinner pounding one hand on a stool at his side to toughen it even as he ate and made conversation. Bruce was a fantastic dancer and in 1958, shortly before he left Hong Kong, he won a Crown Colony Cha-Cha championship. Since Bruce had been born in the US, he had to decide when he reach eighteen if he wanted to go to States to retain his U.S. citizenship. He did and in the fall of 1958, with only $100 to his name, Bruce booked passage to San Francisco, third-class on a freighter. Bruce Lee's immediate problem upon his arrival was his living conditions. He was placed with a friend of his father's in San Francisco. For a short time Bruce gave dancing lessons to earn pocket money. Bruce jumped at the chance a few months later to move to Seattle where he would live above a Chinese restaurant and work part-time as a waiter. At eighteen Bruce was outspoken and powerful. He was already teaching a few friends the way of Kung Fu and attended Edison Vocational Highschool days. Nights he would either work in the restaurant as a waiter or practice his Kung Fu. Bruce began taking pupils and shortly founded the Jun Fan Jung Fu Institute. During his final year at the University of Washington, Bruce met Linda, who became part of the group around him.They were married in a small Seattle Protestant church a short time later. In February 1965 that Brandon Bruce Lee was born, Lee Hoi Chuen, Bruce's father, died in Hong Kong.Bruce lived with Linda, Brandon and latter Shannon in Los Angeles and survived on some television and film parts his students helped him arrange. He told people close to him with fiery conviction, that he would be the biggest, most important film star in the world someday and he really meant it.

Opinions : What They Say?


Bruce was extremely fast.......he was fanatic. He was the most fanatical trainer of the martial arts that I have ever encountered. He lived it, breathed it and slept it. from morning to night his mind was martial arts. And what made him so great was that he wasn't bogged down in tradition. He was always looking for ways of improving himself. ---Chuck Norris He could make the air pop when he hit. ---Ed Parker Bruce Lee has passed away. To me he is my hero; he was the best in the world...... He will always be the best in my heart. ---Benny "The Jet" Urquidez Bruce kicks high, I kick lower; Bruce was serious, I' am comedy, Jackie is Jackie and Bruce is Bruce. Its a different style of approach. ---Jackie Chan I did not discover Bruce Lee, just as much as he did not discover me, as many people are now saying. what I really did was remember him... His charisma stack in my mind. I kept thinking of a screen vehicle for him. It would have to be a starring part. I was sure. I couldn't have seen him doing anything less. ---Raymond Chow

THE LEGEND ON SCREEN

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After the "Green Hornet" and "LongStreet" television series, Bruce was asked to star in the television series "Kung-Fu." But Bruce was later turned down by the producers of the "Kung-Fu" TV series, because they thought Bruce was too "Oriental" looking for mainstream american audiences. Then, after a little while, he went to Hong Kong to make a series of action movies, which propelled him into international superstardom. As time went on, Bruce was determined to upgrade his films. Eventually he incorporated his philosophy and Jeet Kune Do into his films. Bruce Lee only made 4 films about Martial Arts and another one incomplete (Game of Death). That's made 5 of them The Big Boss Fist of Fury With the box office success of The Big Boss behind him, Bruce asserted more of himself in each succeeding film. In The Chinese Connection his fight scenes were flawless and believable. His simple and direct fighting style of Jeet Kune Do would set the standard for all martial arts films to come. Return of The Dragon Return of The Dragon originally titled Way of The Dragon, was his third film, was a total Bruce Lee production. He wrote it, directed it, cast it and chose the locations. It was unheard of for a Chinese production company to go the expense of filming in the famed Coliseum in Rome. Chuck Norris, the famous American martial artist, was flown in to make the fight scenes still more exciting and to give this film a true international flavor.

Enter The Dragon Enter The Dragon is considered by many to be the ultimate martial arts film of all time. Major motion picture stars along with American cinematography techniques were futured. Bruce also showed his weapons ability with the nunchaku and the Filipino double sticks. This was also the only film using his own voice in English. Game Of Death "The Game of Death" was to be his crowing achievement and would have been if he were around to complete it. He wanted to show his gratitude to his former students and instructors by including them in this film. Dan Inosanto was his Filipino-Style opponent, Taky Kimura, unable to attend, was to have been his preying Mantis opponent and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was his unknown style opponent.

Lee's Death :

Probably the most believable and probable story is the following: Throughout Bruce's life, he was continually being challenged by other fighters. It was only natural for the Gung-fu legend to accept the challenge and kick some real ass. Although Bruce won all the fights he was involved in, he was probably hit numerous times in the head. Numerous blows to the head can in fact cause brain anyeurisms, the claimed "cause of death" from the autopsy. During the filming of Enter the Dragon, Bruce fainted during a voice dubing session. That day the air conditioning was turned off, so as not to cause abnormal background noise in the recording. When some crew memebers went to check on Bruce, Bruce woke up and pretended that he was looking for his glasses that he dropped.
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On July 20, 1973, Raymond and Bruce visit Betty Ting Pei at her apartment to discuss her role in Game of Death. That evening plans had been made for them all to meet George Lazenby over dinner and enlist him for a part. Bruce explains that he has a headache, takes a prescription pain killer offered by Betty, and lies down on her bed to rest prior to dinner. Bruce never woke up. The pain killer was believed to have caused an allergic reaction, which increased the brain aneurism. Some tabloid reporters, wanting to find "dirt" on everyone, spread a rumor that Bruce and Betty Ting Pei were having an affair, and that Bruce died while having sex with Betty. For several years after Bruce's death, Betty refused to be interviewed. She thought it was best for her and Bruce's reputation, to stay out of the media. Years later, Betty goes on television and denies that Bruce and here were ever involved intimately. As with most mysteries, only the parties involved will know the truth. Despite the rumors and proven causes of death, Bruce still remains the most brillant martial artist in the world. It is tragic that he died such a young death, but his short life was very rewarding. Bruce's acheivements will be noticed for years to come. On Bruce Lee's Death The circumstances surrounding Bruce Lee's death in July 20 of 1973 unleashed a storm of discontent which swept across Asia, and throughout the rest of the world, leaving in its wake a tangled welter of claims and counterclaims regarding the causes of his dying. His physical fitness was too well known for people to accept that he might have simply died of natural causes. (I'm personally think it was a natural causes.) No one had any premotions of the disaster to come when Bruce went to a meeting with Raymond Chow (Bruce's Producer) at Betty Ting Pei's apartment to talk about finish The Game of Death script, which contained a major role for Betty. Raymond had left them late in the afternoon, planning to meet again later for dinner. Bruce complained of a headache and Betty gave him Equagesic, an aspirin compound she often used herself. Bruce went to lie down in the bedroom. Raymond called in midevening to find out why they had not shown up at the restaurant and Betty told him Bruce was asleep. Chow went back to Betty's apartment and attempted to rouse Bruce, without success. They began to get alarmed and Betty called her doctor, who tried unsuccessfully for several minutes to revive him. They called for an ambulance. Bruce Lee the "Little Dragon," was dead on arrival at the hospital. Emergency treatment was used to try to stimulate his heart and breathing, but there was no life.

Linda arrived with Chow to be with Bruce at the end, but they were too late. How Bruce died is a matter of public record---a brain aneurysm in the vicinity of the cerebral edema, which surfaced in May of 1973. Whether it was present from birth or caused later by a blow to the head is pure conjecture. In any case, he was living on borrowed time with a damaged blood vessel in his head capable of exploding at any moment. The medicine prescribed for him, Dilantin, was not to deal with the problem of edema or aneurysm, but for the epilectic convulsions brought about by the edema. So a cerebral aneurysm claimed him as he slept, unfortunately in Betty Ting Pei's apartment. That Bruce suffered a severe brain trauma two months earlier was known to many people. That a weakness was present, whether congenital or brought about through stress or a hard blow to the head, was a matter of knowledge to many in Hong Kong, particulary in the film industry. Hong Kong is stunned by the announcement of Lee's death. Thousands line the streets to honour his symbolic burial parade and scores of spectators were injured in the crush. Steel barriers were erected along the coffin's route to restrain the crowd. Bruce Lee was buried in Lake View Cemetery in Seattle U.S.A. Then, Brandon Lee was buried next to his father on April 3, 1993. To this day, 24 years after the Bruce death, fresh flowers are found on his gravestone and his son every day. Bruce Lee will live in the movies and Martial Arts forever!

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Another Tragic Lost Actor and martial artist Brandon Lee, the son of the legendary Bruce Lee, died in Wilmington, North Carolina U.S.A. in March 31, 1993 after being shot in the abdomen during the filming of THE CROW movie. He was 28 years old. His father was only 32 years old when he passed away in 1973. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Basic Theory Of Yin And Yang In The Art Of Gung Fu

http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/lee.html (10 de 25)31-07-2006 19:56:09

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by Bruce Lee The basic structure of Gung Fu is based on the theory of Yin/Yang, a pair of mutually complementary forces that act continuously, without cessation, in this universe. This Chinese way of life can be applied to anything, but here we are interested in its relationship to the art of Gung Fu. The black part of the circle is called Yin. Yin can represent anything in the universe as: negativeness, passiveness, gentleness, insubstantiality, femaleness, moon, darkness, night, etc. The other complementary part of the circle is Yang, which represent positiveness, activeness, firmness, substantiality, maleness, sun, brightness, day, etc. The common mistake most people make is to identify this Yin/Yang symbol, T'ai-Chi, as dualistic; that is Yang being the opposite of Yin, and vice versa. As long as we separate this "oneness" into two, we won't achieve realization. Actually, all things have their complementary part; It is only in the human mind and his perception that they are being separated into opposites. The sun is not the opposite of the moon, as they complement and are interdependent on each other, and we cannot survive without either of them. In a similar way, a male is but the complement of the female; For without the male, how on earth do we know there is female, or vice versa. The "oneness" of Yin/Yang is necessary in life. If a person riding a bicycle wishes to go somewhere, he cannot pump on both the pedals at the same time or not pumping on them at all. In order to move forward, he has to pump one pedal and release the other. So the movement of going forward requires this "oneness" of pumping and releasing. Pumping then is the result of releasing, and vice versa; Each being the cause of the other. In the Yin/Yang symbol there is a white spot on the black part, and black spot on the white one. This is to illustrate the balance in life, for nothing can survive long by going to either extremes, be it negativeness or positiveness. Therefore, firmness must be concealed in gentleness, and gentleness firmness, and that is why a Gung Fu man must be pliable as spring. Notice that the stiffest tree is most easily cracked, while the bamboo will bend with the wind. So in Gung Fu, or any other system, one must be gentle yet not giving away completely; be firm yet not hard, and even if he is strong, he should guard it with softness and tenderness. For if there is no softness in firmness, he is not strong; in a similar way, if one has firmness concealed in softness, no one can break through his defense. This principle of moderation provides a best means of preserving oneself, for since we accept this existence of the oneness (Yin/Yang) in everything, and do not treat it dualistically, we thus secure a state of tranquility by remaining detached and not inclining to either extreme. Even if we do incline on one extreme, be it negative or positive, we will flow with it in order to control it. This flowing with it without clinging is the true way to get rid of it. When the movements in Yin/Yang flow into extremes, reaction sets in. For when Yang goes to the extreme, it changes to Yin; and when Yin (activated by Yang) goes to the extreme, it returns back to Yang (that is why each one is the result and cause of the other.) For example, when one works to the extreme, he becomes tired and has to rest (from Yang to Yin). This incessant changing of Yin/Yang is always continuous. The application of the theory of Yin/Yang in Gung fu is known as the Law of Harmony, in which one should be in harmony with, and not against the force of the opponent. Suppose A applies strength on B, B shouldn't oppose or gives way completely to it. For these are but the two extreme opposites of B's reaction. Instead, he should complete A's force, with a lesser force, and lead him to the direction of his own movement. As the butcher preserves his knife by cutting along the bone and not against it, a Gung Fun man preserves himself by following the movement of his opponent without opposition or even striving (Wu-Wai, spontaneous, or spirit action). This spontaneous assisting or A's movement as he aims it will result in his own defeat. When a Gung fu man finally understood the theory of Yin/Yang, he no longer "fusses" with so-called "gentleness" or "firmness"; he simply does what the movement requires him to do. In fact, all conventional forms and techniques are all gone, his movements are those of everyday movements. He doesn't have to "justify" himself like so many other masters have, claiming his spirit or his internal power; to him, cultivation of martial art in the long run will return to simplicity, and only people of half-way cultivation justify and brag about themselves.

Fancy Footwork : by Bruce Lee and M. Uyehara


http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/lee.html (11 de 25)31-07-2006 19:56:09

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In jeet kune do, mobility is heavily emphasized because to-hand combat is a matter of movements. Your application of an effective technique depends on your footwork. The speed of your footwork leads the way for fast kicks and punches. If you are slow on your feet, you will be slow with your hands and feet. Jeet Rune do footwork should not only be easy, relaxed and alive, it should also be firm. The traditional, classical horse stance seeks solidity in stillness. This unnecessary, strenuous stance is not functional because it is slow and awkward. when fighting, you have to move in any direction instantly. Proper footwork contributes to hitting power and your ability to avoid punishment. Good footwork will beat any kick or punch. A moving target is definitely more difficult to hit than a stationary one. The more skillful you are with your footwork, the less you have to use your arms to block or parry kicks and punches. By moving deftly, you can elude almost any blow and prepare your fists and feet to attack. Besides evading blows, footwork allows you to cover distance rapidly, escape out of a tight corner and conserve your energy to counter with more sting in your punch or kick. A heavy slugger with poor footwork will exhaust himself as he futilely attempts to hit his opponent. You should be able to move rapidly in any direction so you are wellbalanced to withstand blows from any angle. Your feet must always be directly under your body. The on-guard stance presents proper body balance and a natural alignment of your feet. The Shuffle To advance, do not cross or hop. Instead, shuffle your feet. At the outset you will feel clumsy and slow. As you keep practicing this movement daily, however, you will develop your speed and grace. To do the forward shuffle, stand in the on-guard position. Slide your front foot forward about a half-step, widening the space between your feet jus for a second as you slide your rear foot forward. When your rear foot is moved forward, you should be back at the original position. To advance further, repeat the process. While doing this, maintain your balance and keep your guard up. You should not be flat-footed; you should glide on the balls of your feet. Learn to move like a tightrope walker. Keep both of your knees slightly bent and relaxed. Your front foot should be flat, but do not plant it heavily on the floor. It should be light and raised intuitively about V8 of an inch. Your rear heel should almost always be raised in stillness or in motion. It is raised slightly higher than the front foot, about one-fourth or onehalf of an inch. When your rear heel is raised, it facilitates switching your weight immediately to your other foot when delivering a punch. Your raised back heel allows you to react quickly and act as a spring, giving in to blows from any angle. Naturally, your heel should drop at the impact of the blow. There is no fast rule that says your heels should be constantly raised or when they should be flat. This depends on several factors. including body position and your reactions. In the advanced shuffle, you should be light on your feet and your weight should be evenly distributed, except for just a split second when you are advancing your front foot. At that instant, your weight would shift to that foot just a little. In retreating or moving backward cautiously, reverse your movement. The basis behind the backward shuffle is like the advance. From the on-guard position, slide or shuffle your rear foot backward about half a step, widening the space between your feet for just a split second as you slide your front foot backward. When the front foot is in place, you should be in the on-guard position and perfectly balanced. Unlike the advance shuffle, your weight should shift slightly to your rear foot for just an instant. To retreat further, continue to repeat the process. Learn to be light on your feet continuously, and keep your rear heel raised. The forward and backward shuffle must be made with a series of short steps to retain complete balance. This position prepares you to shift your body quickly to any direction and is perfect for attacking or defending. Quick Movements The quick advance is almost like the forward shuffle. Begin in the jeet kune do on-guard position and step forward with your front foot about three inches. This seemingly insignificant movement keeps your body aligned and maintains your balance as you move forward. It also allows you to move with both feet evenly supplying the power. Without this short step, your rear foot does most of the work. As soon as you glide your front foot, quickly slide your back foot up to replace your front foot's previous position. Unless you move your front foot instantly, your rear foot cannot be planted properly because your front foot will be partially in the way. Just before your rear foot makes contact with your front foot, slide your front foot forward. At this position, if you have not taken another step, you should be back at the on guard position with your feet apart at a natural distance. The purpose of this drill is to move your body quickly, about eight feet or more, in several steps. Except for the first threeinch step, the series of steps should be made at a normal walking space. Quick Retreat The footwork for the quick retreat or rapid backward movement is similar to the quick advance except you move in the opposite direction. From the on-guard position, move your front foot back. Your front foot, like during the quick advance, initiates the movement. Your rear foot follows a split second later. Unless you move your rear foot before your front foot makes contact, your front foot cannot be planted properly. Unlike the quick advance, you do not have to slide any of your foot. It is just one quick motion, but your body should be in alignment and in balance. If you were to move just once, you should be at the on-guard position. But the purpose of this movement is to move your body four feet or more. The quick movement and shuffle can only be accomplished by being light on your feet. The best exercise for overcoming the force of inertia to your feet is skipping rope and shadowboxing several minutes. While exercising, you must constantly be conscious of keeping your feet "light as a feather." Eventually, you will be stepping around with natural lightness. You must move without any strain, gliding on the balls of your feet,
http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/lee.html (12 de 25)31-07-2006 19:56:09

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bending your knees slightly and keeping your rear heel raised. There should be sensitivity in your footwork. Quick or relaxed footwork is a matter of proper balance. In your training, as you return to an on-guard position after each phase of maneuvers, shuffle on the balls of your feet with ease and feeling before continuing on your next maneuver. This drill enhances your skill as it simulates actual fighting. Unless there is a strategic purpose, forward and backward movements should be made with short and quick slides. Lengthy steps or maneuvers that cause your weight to shift from one foot to the other should be eliminated except when delivering a blow. At that moment, your body is imbalanced-restricting your attack or defense effectively. Crossing your feet in motion is a bad habit because it tends to unbalance you and expose your groin area. The movement should not be a series of hops or jerks. Both feet should be slithering rhythmically just above the surface of the floor like a graceful ballroom dancer. Visually, your movement should not be like a kangaroo hopping across the open plain. Instead, it should be like a stallion galloping with even, rhythmic and graceful strokes. The Burst The forward burst or lunge is the quickest jeet kune do movement. It is also one of the hardest to learn because it depends on good coordination. It is used to attack with a side kick or to counter an attack such as a kick. The forward burst is one deep lunge. From an on-guard position, step forward about three inches with your front foot, like the quick advance movement. This will align and balance your body. For faster reactions, use your lead hand as an impetus. By sweeping your lead hand upward, you create momentum. This feeling is similar to what it would be like if someone was jerking you forward suddenly while you were holding onto a rope. This hand sweep also distracts your opponent and throws his timing off. While sweeping your hand upward, swing your hips forward simultaneously, dragging your rear foot forward. In that split instant, your weight is heavily on your front foot. At this moment, your leg straightens out to thrust your body forward. Sometimes, on an especially deep, penetrating leap, your rear foot may be ahead of your front foot while you are gliding in the air. You must land on your left foot only, as your right foot is delivering a side kick. As soon as you have completed your kick, you should quickly place your right foot down and assume the on guard position. That one leap should carry your body at least two wide steps. In a recent test with the forward burst, it took only 3/4 of a second to travel eight feet. By applying the classical lunge movement or stepping by crossing your feet, it took one and one-half seconds to reach the same distance-twice the time. The leap should be more horizontal than vertical. It is more like a broad jump than a high jump. You should try for distance by keeping your feet close to the floor. Your knees should always be bent slightly so that the powerful thigh muscles (springy expressiveness) are utilized. When practicing this footwork in the beginning, don't worry about your hands. Just keep them in the regular jeet kune do position and concentrate on your footwork. Once you are accustomed to the foot movement with proper balance, learn to sweep your hand forward just before each leap. To develop speed and naturalness in your movement, adopt the following exercise in your daily training. From an on-guard position, do the forward burst without penetrating too deeply. Sweep your hand upward and leap forward without straining yourself. Quickly place your front foot down without kicking. Continue to do this motion over and over again without stopping. But make sure you keep your balance and fluidity in motion. This exercise is excellent to adapt your body to move with ease, rhythm and grace. As you become more adaptable to the movement, increase your speed and work toward shortening the distance by more and more execution. Eventually, you can substitute a backfist punch for the sweeping movement of your hand. The backward thrust is like the quick backward movement except that it carries your body backward quicker and deeper. From an on guard position, push the ball of your front foot to initiate the motion which straightens your front knee and shifts the weight to the rear foot. Then the front foot, without pausing from the initial motion, leaves the floor and crosses your rear foot. Just before it lands, your rear leg, with its knee bent and acting like a spring, should thrust your body with a sudden straightening of its leg. You should land on the ball of your front foot just a second before your rear foot touches the floor. That one quick motion should carry your body backward at least two steps. The backward burst carries your body just as fast as the forward lunge. In the same test, it took exactly the same time to travel eight feet backward as forward-3/4 of a second. But by comparison, the classical movement covered the same distance in one second flat. For your daily training, do the backward burst for speed, balance and rhythm instead of deep penetration. Move with lightness of your feet and keep practicing toward shortening the distance. When jogging, rapidly shuffle your feet and keep jogging. Or you can do a forward burst while your partner does the backward burst. From an on-guard position, attempt to reach your partner with a light side kick as he tries to keep his distance. Then reverse your positions. Learn not to hurl yourself recklessly at your partner. Instead, try to narrow the gap of space in a calm and exact manner. Keep drilling faster and faster by lunging 200 to 300 times per day. Acceleration can be increased only by discipline in your workout.

Quotes From Bruce Lee


"Training deals not with an object, but with the human spirit and human emotions." "Optimism is a faith that leads to success."

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"I too challenged many established instructors. But I have learned that challenging means one thing but how you choose to react to it means something else entirely. What is your reaction to it? How does it get you? If you are secure within yourself, you treat it very, very lightly because you ask yourself: 'Am I really afraid of that man?' 'Do I have any doubts that that man is going to get me?' And if I do not have such doubts and if I do not have such feelings, then I would certainly treat it very lightly."

JEET KUNE DO The Art and Philosophy of Bruce Lee by Dan Inosanto "Bruce Lee showed me life and truth," states Dan Inosanto, the genius' premier disciple and the man Bruce Lee personally groomed to help point the way for those seriously interested in pursuing his recently conceived method of self-discovery, Jeet Kune Do. Aside from his immediate family, Dan Inosanto was as close to Bruce Lee as anyone. They experienced an immediate rapport based on mutual respect for each other's extraordinary martial capabilities, soon becoming fast friends. So much so, that in 1966, Dan named his first child, a girl, Diana Lee, after his now famous companion. The pair traveled together, trained together, gave demonstrations together, taught together, experimented together, socialized together, and yes, even made movies together - at the same thne cultivating one of the most heartwarming relationships in the torrid annals of martial arts. -- INSIDE KUNG-FU Magazine TAO OF JEET KUNE DO by Bruce Lee My husband Bruce always considered himself a martial artist first and an actor second. At the age of 13, Bruce started lessons in the wing chun style of gung-fu for the purpose of self-defense. Over the next 19 years, he transformed his knowledge into a science, an art, a philosophy and a way of life. He trained his body through exercise and practice; he trained his mind through reading and reflecting and he recorded his thoughts and ideas constantly over the 19 years. The pages of this book represent the pride of a life's work. In his lifelong quest for self-knowledge and personal expression, Bruce was constantly studying, analyzing and modifying all available relative information; his principle source was his personal library which consisted of over 2,000 books dealing with all forms of physical conditioning, martial arts, fighting techniques, defenses and related subjects. In 1970, Bruce sustained a rather severe injury to his back. His doctors ordered him to discontinue the practice of martial arts and to remain in bed to allow his back to heal. This was probably the most trying and dispiriting time in Bruce's life. He stayed in bed, virtually flat on his back for six months, but he couldn't keep his mind from workingthe result of which is this book. The bulk of these writings was done at that time, but many scattered notes were recorded at earlier and later times. Bruce's personal study notes reveal that he was particularly impressed by the writings of Edwin L. Haislet, Julio Martinez Castello, Hugo and James Castello and Roger Crosnier. Many of Bruce's own theories are directly related to those expressed by these writers. Bruce had decided to finish the book in 1971 but his film work kept him from completing it. He also vacillated about the advisability of publishing his work because he felt it might be used for wrong purposes. He did not intend it to be a "how-to" book or a "learn kung-fu in 10 easy lessons" book. He intended it as a record of one man's way of thinking and as a guide, not a set of instructions. If you can read it in this light, there is much to be aware of on these pages. And, you probably will have many questions, the answers to which you must seek within yourself. When you have finished this book, you will know Bruce Lee better, but hopefully you will also know yourself better.

http://coolshack.com/martial_arts/lee.html (14 de 25)31-07-2006 19:56:09

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Now, open your mind and read, understand, and experience, and when you've reached that point, discard this book. The pages are best used for cleaning up a mess as you will see. In the hands of a singular man, simple things carefully placed ring with an undeniable harmony. Bruce's orchestration of martial arts had that quality, most apparent in his combat motion. Immobilized for several months with an injured back, he picked up a pen. There, too, he wrote as he spoke, as he movedwith directness and with honesty. Like listening to a musical composition, understanding the elements within it adds a specialness to the sound. For this reason, Linda Lee and I are liberalizing the introduction of Bruce's book to explain how it came about. The Tao of Jeet Kune Do actually began before Bruce was born. The classical wing chun style that started him on his way was developed 400 years before his time. The 2,000 or so books he owned and the countless books he read, described the individual "discoveries" of thousands of men before him. There's nothing new within this book; there are no secrets. "It's nothing special," Bruce used to say. And so it wasn't. Bruce's special key was knowing himself and his own capabilities to correctly -- Linda Lee BRUCE LEE - VOLUME 3 JEET KUNE DO Bruce Lee's Commentaries On The Martial Way Edited by John Little In 1970, Bruce Lee suffered a back injury which confined him to bed. Rather than allowing this to slow his growth as a martial artist he read feverishly on Eastern philosophy and Western psychology, constructing his own views on the totality of combat and life. It was during this time that Lee wrote 7 volumes containing his thoughts, ideas, opinions, and research into the art of unarmed combat, and how it applies to everyday life. Some of this material was posthumously published in 1975, but much more existed. This lost material is now available for the first time. This landmark book serves as a complete presentation of Bruce Lee's art of jeet kune do. The development of his unique martial art form, its principles, core techniques, and lesson plans are presented here in Lee's own words. It also features Lee's illustrative sketches and his remarkable treatise on the nature of combat, success through martial arts, and the importance of a positive mental aptitude in training. In addition, there are a series of "Questions Every Martial Artist Must Ask Himself," that Lee posed to himself and intended to explore as part of his own development, but never lived to complete. Jeet Kune Do: Bruce Lee's Commentaries on the Martial Way is the book every Bruce Lee fan must have. John Little is considered one of the worlds's authorities on Bruce Lee, his training methods, and philosophies. Little is the only person who has ever been authorized to review the entirety of Lee's personal notes, sketches, and reading annotations. He is currently the Associate Publisher of Bruce Lee magazine and the managing editor of Knowing is Not Enough, the official newsletter of the Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do Nucleus. "Bruce Lee's long awaited magnum opus on his art of jeet kune do has finally arrived! An instant classic!" --Inside Kung-Fu "The Bruce Lee Library stands as the definitive presentation of Bruce Lee's magnificent legacy. Each volume belongs on the bookshelf of every serious martial artist." --Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do Nucleus BRUCE LEES TOUGHEST FIGHT by Michael Dorgan (from Official Karate, July 1980) Considering the skill of the opponents and the complete absence of referees, rules, and safety equipment, it was one hell of a fight that took place that day in December. It may have been the most savagely elegant exhibition of unarmed combat of the century. Yet, at a time when top fighters tend to display their skills only in huge closed-circuited arenas, this battle was fought in virtual secrecy behind locked doors. And at a time when millions of dollars can ride on the outcome of a championship fight, these champions of another sort competed not for money, but for more personal and passionate reasons. The time was late winter, 1964; the setting was a small kung fu school in Oakland, California. Poised at the center of the room, with approximately 140 pounds packed tightly on his 57" frame, was the operator of the school, a 24-year old martial artist of Chinese ancestry but American birth who, within a few years, would skyrocket to international attention as a combination fighter/film star. A few years after that, at age 32, he would die under mysterious circumstances. His name, of course, was Bruce Lee. Also poised in the center of the room was another martial artist. Taller but lighter, with his 135 pounds stretched thinly over 510", this fighter was also 24

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and also of Chinese descent. Born in Hong Kong and reared in the south of mainland China, he had only recently arrived in San Franciscos teeming Chinatown, just across the bay from Oakland. Though over the next 15 years he would become widely known in martial arts circles and would train some of Americas top martial artists, he would retain a near disdain for publicity and the commercialization of his art, and consequently would remain unknown to the general public. His name: Wong Jack Man. What happened after the fighters approached the center of the room has become a chapter of Chinatowns "wild history," that branch of Chinese history usually anchored in fact but always richly embellished by fantasy, a history that tells much about a time and place with little thats reliable about any particular incident. Exactly how the fight proceeded and just who won are still matters of controversy, and will likely remain so. But from the few available firsthand accounts and other evidence, it is possible to piece together a reasonably reliable picture that reveals two overriding truths. First, considering the skill of the opponents and the complete absence of referees, rules, and safety equipment, it was one hell of a fight that took place that day in December. And second, Bruce Lee, who was soon to rival Mao Tse Tung as the worlds most famous Chinese personality, was dramatically affected by the fight, perhaps fatally so. Due to the human desire to be known as an eye witness to a famous event, it is easier to obtain firsthand accounts of the fight from persons who were not there than from those who were. As to how many persons actually viewed the contest, even that is a point of dispute. Bruce Lees wife Linda recalls a total of 13 persons, including herself. But the only person that she identifies other than her husband and his associate James Lee, who died of cancer shortly before her husband died, is Wong Jack Man. Wong, meanwhile, remembers only seven persons being present, including the three Lees. Of the three persons other than the Lees and himself, only one, a tai chi teacher named William Chen (not to be confused with the William Chi Cheng Chen who teaches the art in New York), could be located. Chen recalls about 15 persons being present but can identify none other than Wong and the Lees. So except for a skimpy reference to the fight by Bruce Lee himself in a magazine interview, we are left with only three firsthand accounts of the battle. They are accounts which vary widely. Linda Lee, in her book Bruce Lee: The Man Only I Knew, initially dismisses the fight as follows: "The two came out, bowed formally and then began to fight. Wong adopted a classic stance whereas Bruce, who at the time was still using his Wing Chun style, produced a series of straight punches. "Within a minute, Wongs men were trying to stop the fight as Bruce began to warm to his task. James Lee warned them to let the fight continue. A minute later, with Bruce continuing the attack in earnest, Wong began to backpedal as fast as he could. For an instant, indeed, the scrap threatened to degenerate into a farce as Wong actually turned and ran. But Bruce pounced on him like a springing leopard and brought him to the floor where he began pounding him into a state of demoralization. "Is that enough?" shouted Bruce. "Thats enough!" pleaded Wong in desperation. So the entire matter was just another quick triumph for the man who frequently boasted he could whip any man in the world. Or was it? Later in her book, Linda Lee hints that the fight may have amounted to more than the brief moment of violent diversion she had earlier described. "Bruces whole life was an evolving process - and this was never seen to greater effect than in his work with the martial arts," she begins. "The clash with Wong Jack Man metamorphosed his own personal expression of kung fu. Until this battle, he had largely been content to improvise and expand on his original Wing Chun style, but then he suddenly realized that although he had won comparatively easily, his performance had been neither crisp of efficient. The fight, he realized, ought to have ended within a few seconds of him striking the first blows - instead of which it had dragged on for three minutes. In addition, at the end, Bruce had felt unusually winded which proved to him he was far from perfect condition. So he began to dissect the fight, analyzing where he had gone wrong and seeking to find ways where he could have improved his performance. It did not take him long to realize that the basis of his fighting art, the Wing Chun style, was insufficient. It laid too much stress on hand techniques, had very few kicking techniques and was, essentially, partial." Still later in the book, Linda Lee adds: "The Wong Jack Man fight also caused Bruce to intensify his training methods. From that date, he began to seek out more and more sophisticated and exhaustive training methods. I shall try to explain these in greater detail later, but in general the new forms of training meant that Bruce was always doing something, always training some part of his body or keeping it in condition."

Bruce Lee's Method of Training :


Aerobic Exercises
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One of the most neglected elements of martial artists is the physical workout. Too much time is spent on developing skill in techniques and not enough on physical participation. Practicing your skill in fighting is important, but so is maintaining your overall physical condition. Actually both are needed to be successful in a real fight. Training is a skill of disciplining your mind, developing your power and supplying endurance to your body. Proper training is for the purpose of building your body and avoiding activities or substances that will deteriorate or injure it. Bruce Lee was a specimen of health. He trained every day and consumed only the proper food. A1though he drank tea, he never drank coffee - instead he normally consumed milk. He was a martinet who never let his work interfere with his training. Even when he was sent to India to find suitable locations for filming, he took along his running shoes. Lee's daily training consisted of aerobic exercises, plus others which were patterned to develop his skill in fighting. He varied his exercise to avoid boredom. One of his favorite exercises was running four miles a day in 24 to 25 minutes. He would change his tempo while running - after several miles of constant, even strides, he would sprint several feet and then return to easier running. Between changes in running tempo, he would also shuffle his feet. Lee was not particular where he ran: at the beach, in parks or woods, up and down hills or on surfaced streets. Besides running, Lee also rode an exercycle to develop his endurance, legs and cardiovascular muscles. He usually rode full speed - 35 to 40 miles an hour - continuously for 45 minutes to an hour. Frequently, he would ride his exercycle right after his running. Another aerobic exercise that Lee scheduled in his routine was skipping rope, which you can adopt. This exercise not only develops your stamina and leg muscles, but also improves you, makes you light on your feet. Only recently, physiologists have learned, by several tests, that skipping rope is more beneficial than jogging. Ten minutes of skipping rope is equivalent to 30 minutes of jogging. Both are very beneficial exercises for the cardiovascular system. Skipping rope properly is one of the best exercises for developing a sense of balance. First, skip on one foot, holding the other in front of you, then rotate your foot, skipping on the alternate foot with each revolution of the rope, from a gradual pace to a really fast tempo. Minimize your arm-swing; instead, use your wrist to swing the rope over. Lift your foot slightly above the ground, just enough for the rope to pass. Skip for three minutes (equivalent to a round in a boxing match); then rest one minute only, before you continue for another round. Three rounds of this exercise are sufficient for a good workout. As you become conditioned to skipping, you can omit the rest period and do the exercise for as long as 30 minutes straight. The best rope is made of leather, with ball bearings in the handles. Additional endurance exercises are shadowboxing and actual sparring. Shadowboxing is a good agility exercise which also builds up your speed. Relax your body and learn to move easily and smoothly. At first, concentrate on your form, and move lightly on your feet until it becomes natural and comfortable - then work faster and harder. It is a good idea to start your workout with shadowboxing to loosen your muscles. Imagine your worst enemy stands before you and you are going to demolish him. If you use your imagination intensely, you can instill into yourself an almost-real fighting frame of mind. Besides developing stamina, shadowboxing increases your speed, creates ideas, and establishes techniques to be used spontaneously and intuitively. Going several rounds is the best way to learn proper footwork. Too many beginners are too lazy to drive themselves. Only by hard and continuous exercise will you develop endurance. You have to drive yourself to the point of exhaustion (you will be out of breath, and can expect to feel muscle aches in a day or two). The best endurance training method seems to be a lengthy period of exercise interspersed with many brief but high-intensity endeavors. Stamina-types of exercises should be done gradually and cautiously increased. Six weeks in this kind of training is a minimum for any sports that require considerable amounts of endurance. It takes years to be in peak condition, and unfortunately, stamina is quickly lost when you cease to maintain high-conditioning exercises. According to some medical experts, you lose most of your benefit from exercises if you skip more than a day between workouts.
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Warming Up To warm up, select light, easy exercises to loosen your muscles and to prepare them for more strenuous work. Besides improving your performance, warming-up exercises are necessary to prevent injury to your muscles. No smart athlete will use his hand or leg violently without first warming it up carefully. These light exercises should dictate as closely as possible the ensuing, more strenuous type of movement. How long should you warm up? This depends on several aspects. If you live in a colder area, or during the cold winter, you have to do longer warm-up exercises than do those who live in a warmer climate. A longer warm-up is recommended for the early morning rather than for the afternoon. Generally, five or ten minutes of warm-up exercises are adequate, but some people need much more. A ballet dancer spends at least two hours. He commences with very basic movements, gradually but consistently increasing the activity and intensity, until he is ready to make his appearance. Exercises Bruce Lee learned that certain exercises can help you greatly in your performance, and others can impede or even impair your execution of techniques. He found that beneficial exercises are those that do not cause antagonistic tension in your muscles. Your muscles respond differently to different exercises. During a static or slow exercise such as a handstand or lifting heavy weights such as a barbell, the muscles on both sides of the joints operate strongly to set the body in a desirable position. But in a rapid activity such as running, jumping or throwing, the muscles that close the joints contract and the muscles directly opposite elongate to allow the movement. Although there is still tension on both muscles, the strain is considerably less on the elongated, or lengthened one. When there is excessive or antagonistic tension on the elongated muscles, it hinders and weakens your movement. It acts like a brake, causing premature fatigue, generally associated only with new activity demanding different muscles to perform. A coordinated, natural athlete is able to perform in any sporting activity with ease because he moves with little antagonistic tension. On the other hand, the novice performs with excessive tension and effort, creating a lot of wasted motions. Although this coordination trait is more a native talent in some than in others, all can improve it by intensive training. Here are some of the exercises that you can adapt to your daily training. For flexibility, place your foot on a railing or other object, keeping your leg horizontal to the ground- it could be slightly lower or higher, depending on your flexibility. For the beginner, do not attempt any strenuous exercise. Instead, after placing your foot on the railing, just move your toes toward you, keeping your extended foot flexed straight. After a few minutes, rotate your foot. In a few days, as your leg muscles are limbered, you can proceed to the next step. Press your knee to keep your leg straight and lean forward from the hip as much as possible without injuring your muscles. From this exercise you then proceed to the next step. Keeping your extended leg straight, push your hand downward. As you progress, you'll notice that you are also beginning to lean forward, putting more stress on your leg muscles. Finally you are able to touch your toes. After some months, you may be able to wrap your hand around your foot even with the support raised higher. Other leg flexibility exercises include leg splits and hanging leg raises. To do this exercise, use a long rope supported by a pulley. A noose encircles your foot. Pull the other end of the rope to the maximum height your leg muscles will bear without hurting yourself. Try to keep your foot horizontally aligned throughout the exercise. This exercise allows you to execute high side kicks. You should rotate your legs in all these exercises.

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Advanced students who like to do exceptionally high kicking can progress into trampoline exercises. Lee uses two light dumbbells and jumps high to develop both balance and springy legs. Once he can control his body on a trampoline, he attempts leg splits, a high front kick, and a flying side kick. Other limbering exercises include body stretches. After you have developed elasticity in your leg muscles, you should be able to stretch your body as far back as possible, then bend forward as far as possible, until your head is touching your knees. Abdominal Exercises No one could help but notice Lee's abdominal muscles. "One of the most important phases of fighting," he used to say, his your midsection." To do this, Lee concentrated on several exercises that you can also adopt. The most popular are the sit-ups on a slant board. Secure your feet, bend your knees and after placing your hands behind your head, lift your body toward your feet. Do as many as you can until you feel the strain around your abdomen. After reaching 50 to 100 repetitions, you can place a weight such as a dumbbell or barbell plate behind your neck and do your sit-ups. Another excellent way of doing sit-ups is to sit at the edge of a bench, have someone secure your ankles, and lower your body as far down as possible toward the floor. This exercise stretches your mid- section much more, but it is more difficult to do. If you have a chinning bar, you can also develop your abdominal muscles by hanging onto the bar with both hands and slowly lifting both legs until they are extended horizontally. Keep them in that position for as long as possible and try to beat your last record each time you do the exercise. Buy a kitchen timer to help you keep track of time. Another excellent exercise is the leg raise. Lie on the floor, keeping your back flush to the floor by pushing in your midsection, and lift your head slightly until you can see your feet. Keep your legs together and straight. Then lift them upward slowly, as high as possible. Then slowly return them to the floor. To get the most out of this exercise, do not let your feet touch the floor. Keep them about an inch above the floor and start to raise them again. Do as many repetitions as possible. If you have a weight lifting bench, you can do it with the legs extending beyond the board. This exercise is also good for your lower back muscles. One advantage in executing an abdominal exercise is that it can be done while you are doing another activity. For instance, Lee used to watch television while lying on the floor with his head slightly up and keeping his feet spread out and slightly above the floor. To toughen your midsection, get a medicine ball and have someone drop it on your abdomen. To vary your exercise you can also have someone throw it directly to your midsection. Let the ball hit your body before catching it. If you do your workout alone, you can use your heavy punching bag as a substitute for the medicine ball. Swing the heavy bag and let it hit your body. You can adjust the spot of impact either by moving forward or backward. If you want a heavier impact, swing the bag harder. In your daily life, there's always an opportunity for more supplemental exercises. For instance, park your car several blocks from your destination and walk briskly. Avoid the elevator and use the stairs instead. While climbing the stairs, you can have a good workout, either by running up or by skipping a step or two.

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Modified Gung Fu Modified Gung Fu is a system that was developed by William C. Hamlin. This eclectic approach to martial arts draws on Hamlin's years of experience in Hapkido, Kali, Tai Chi, Western Boxing, Wing Chun, and Jun Fan Gung Fu. This defensive tactics system was developed as a result of training experience in certain martial systems, that over the years have become connected within and expressed as a connected body of unified martial art, as opposed to being expressed in a compartmentalized, non-unified fashion. Modified Gung Fu is not some new idea, nor is it some new classical martial art. Quite the contrary. Modified Gung Fu is William C. Hamlin's expression as previously stated of the connectedness that has come about as a result of the realization that all martial art is connected. If martial technique is viewed from this particular perspective, the martial practitioner will benefit greatly, as one's body of martial art becomes artless art, formless form, and above all else, void of self and all preconceived notions previously held. As the great martial philosopher Bruce Lee once said, "How can you taste my cup of tea, if you have not first emptied your cup?" The defensive Tactics of Modified Gung Fu is just a term that has been coined by William C. Hamlin to give his expression of martial art a name, nothing more. This system of defensive tactics would never have come to fruition were it not for the "Great Teachers" that have founded and passed on their genius to their students. It is their great shoulders that we who are benefiting from their genius stand upon, nothing more and certainly nothing less. It is to those "Great Teachers" that the Defensive Tactics of Modified Gung Fu are dedicated. For were it not for them, this personal expression of their genius would not be expressed. HAPKIDO : The foundation for the Defensive Tactics of Modified Gung Fu is the classical Korean martial system of Hapkido. Hapkido was founded by the late Yong Sool Choi in the early 1940's in Choi's home country of Korea. Founder Choi was taught the traditional principles of Hapkido at a very early age. Many beliefs surround the origins of Hapkido and how it truly originated. The account of one of Choi's closest disciples is as follows: "Today Hapkido has been brought to light by the Father of Hapkido, Yong Sool Choi . . . The Founder studied deep in the mountains of Korea since the age of nine years. By the time he had come back to the world, Korea had been liberated from Japanese colonial rule." Founder Choi at that time showed all that he had been taught during that time to a few select outstanding disciples. Kwang Sik Myoung, Korean Hapkido Ancient Art of Masters (World Hapkido Federation, 1976). Hapkido with it's hundreds of kickboxing techniques known as "Jok Sool", along with it's literally thousands of joint manipulation and ground grappling techniques, as well as it's adeptness at teaching various combat tools (weapons), has proven it's self to be not only a very classical combat system with countless victories on the ancient battlefields of Korea, but a martial system that is relevant to the modern combat environment as well. Hapkido has much to offer to not only the modern law enforcement officer, the battlefield solider, the spec ops trooper, but has much to offer to the civilian martial practitioner as well. Lineage of Hapkido Yong Sool Choi Hapkido The lineage of the Founder's system of Hapkido begins as he passed his art to his disciple, Han Jae Ji. Master Han Jae Ji passed his knowledge on to Master Jae Ok Myoung who passed his knowledge on to Master Han Bae Hyun, who passed his knowledge on to Master Armando Granados, who passed his knowledge directly on to William C. Hamlin. Combat Hapkido The lineage of Founder Master Pelligrinni's system of Combat Hapkido begins as his teacher In Sun Seo passed his art to Master Pelligrinni, and Master Pelligrinni passed knowledge of his system correspondingly on to William C. Hamlin. KALI : History of Kali-Arnis-Eskrima

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The word Kali is used to identify the martial art that was prevalent in the southern Philippines during the period prior to the nation of Spain conquering certain islands in the Philippine archipelago. The art of Kali is a combat art that finds its origins mainly in the southern islands in the Philippines that was used to defend the inhabitants of those islands from both foreign and domestic invaders. The art of Kali enabled its practitioners to win many decisive battles over those invaders, which made the martial art of Kali a very practical and effective system of combat art. (Wiley, 1997). The term Kali was outlawed by the Spanish conquerors of the Philippines. This meant that if anyone even uttered the word "Kali" (much less practiced the art), the Spanish authorities could sentence the violator to death. As a result outlawing the word Kali, the terms Eskrima, and Arnis were coined to describe the fighting art of Kali. The term Arnis is used to describe the use of three methods of classical combat related to the art of Kali. They are: espada y daga, which means sword and dagger; solo baston, which means single stick; and sinawali, which means weaving, but is translated to denote the utilization of two sticks in combat. (Corcoran and Farkas, 1993). The term Eskrima is another term used to describe the combat art of Kali, which was coined by the Spanish to describe the traditional European system of fencing (sword play). The combat art of Eskrima implements in combat the baston, sinawali, espada y daga, spear and shield, as well as empty hand weapon defense. (Draeger and Smith, 1969). Lineage The combat arts of Kali-Arnis-Eskrima were presented to me by my Teacher Punong Guro Leonard Trigg. My Teacher has studied these Filipino arts under many great Masters. Of those Masters he has studied the system of Modern Arnis under Professor Remy Presas as well as Professor Presas' brother Professor Ernesto Presas. He has also studied the Villabrille-Largusa Kali system. Moving on he has studied under the late Punong Guro Edgar G. Sulite in the Lameco Eskrima and is now the Grandmaster (Punong Guro) of the Lameco Eskrima System. He has also studied the LucayLucay Kali-Jun Fan-Jeet Kune Do system under the late Maestro Ted LucayLucay and is now the Grandmaster (Maestro) of that system of martial art as well. There are many other great Masters that Punong Guro Trigg has studied the Filipino martial arts under, but for the sake of belaboring the point, we have chosen to name the few Masters above. However, we in no way wish to take away from the significant contribution of the other Teachers that have been highly influential in the lineage of Punong Guro Trigg's martial development. The combat art of Natural Spirit Kali-Arnis-Eskrima founded by Datu Kelly S. Worden and was presented to me by Datu Worden. Datu Worden has studied under Professor Remy Presas and was granted the honorable status of Datu under Professor Presas. Datu Worden has integrated the many martial systems he has learned over the years into what he has termed "Natural Spirit" which instructs martial application from a very non-classical conceptual perspective designed to connect the systems, not systematize the connections. This unique approach to martial art instruction has been a tremendous asset to myself, my students, and the martial art community at large. Wing Chun : The Legend of Wing Chun Gung Fu After the burning of the Siu Lum Temple, Ng Mui, a Buddhist nun, would be the lone individual to propagate the Wing Chun Gung Fu system that the Siu Lum Monks had been developing for many years. The term "Wing Chun" literally translated means beautiful springtime and was the name of a woman that was the disciple of Ng Mui. Madam Wing Chun as this disciple was so named, learned this system of martial art to repel a man who wanted to take her as his wife, and steal her inheritance. According to legend, she studied under Ng Mui for 100 days, and when the man came to claim her, Madam Wing Chun repelled him with great skill. As time went on, Madam Wing Chun married a man of her choosing and instructed him in the art of Wing Chun. As the legend goes, Madam Wing Chun's husband went on to sell the secrets of the system to other instructors of that day. (Chun and Conner, 1992). Wing Chun Gung Fu From a Historical Perspective Wing Chun Gung Fu was developed by the Siu Lum Monks of Honan Province in China. The synthesis of this art took place during the Ching Dynasty over 250 years ago. History has it that the need for
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developing a system like Wing Chun was such because of the long period of time it would take to train a Siu Lum Monk in the fighting art of just one animal system. During the time of the Ching Dynasty, the Manchus were in control of China and as a result of the Manchus being in Power, there was much oppression in the land. The Hans, who were the minority nobles in China at that time, began to train an army to overthrow the Manchus. The Siu Lum Temple became the training place for this army of revolutionaries, and the laboratory with which the combat art of Wing Chun was developed. (Cheung, 1983). The Development of Wing Chun Gung Fu Wing Chun Gung Fu was synthesized by the Siu Lum Monks, by combining the most effective techniques from the animal systems of Gung Fu. This connecting the systems approach to the synthesis of Wing Chun, would enable the student to become a more proficient practitioner in half the time it would take students in other animal systems to become proficient. The art of Wing Chun was not implemented against the Manchus, beacuse the Shaolin Temple was raided, and burned by the Manchus before the implementation of the system of Wing Chun Gung Fu could occur. (Cheung, 1983). Lineage of Wing Chun Gung Fu Grandmaster Yip Man Grandmaster Yip Man passed his knowledge down to one of his top students Ho Kam Ming who passed his knowledge down to Master Augustine Fong who is correspondingly passing his knowledge down to William C. Hamlin. Master Augustine Fong is the founder of Fong's Wing Chun Federation located in Tuscon, Arizona. Master Fong Has studied Wing Chun Gung Fu for over 37 years. Master Fong was born in Macao where he bagan his formal training in Wing Chun Gung Fu under the renowned Master Ho Kam Ming, who was a top student under Grandmaster Yip Man. Master Fong moved to Kowloon in 1967 where he assisted Master Ho in founding a Wing Chun academy. In 1969 Master Fong emigrated to the U.S. where he settled in Tucson, Arizona where he resides to this day. Master Fong established his Wing Chun Headquarters (Fong's Wing Chun Gung Fu Federation). Master Fong to this day remains devoted to the exact principles of the complete system of Wing Chun Gung Fu.

WHEN PREPARATION MEETS OPPORTUNITY The following is excerpted from the book "Bruce Lee: The Art of Expressing the Human Body," . WHEN PREPARATION MEETS OPPORTUNITY By Linda Lee Cadwell

Allow me to describe to you a particular day in Bruce Lee's life - a day when he failed to achieve the level of expectation he had set for himself; a day that became a turning point in his life. The stage for the
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unfolding drama was the Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute on Broadway in Oakland, California, a training gym established by Bruce and James Y. Lee. Because I was about eight months pregnant with Brandon, I recall quite clearly that the events of this day took place either in late December 1964 or early in January 1965. Present to witness the historic milestone were Jimmy Lee and myself and several martial artists from San Francisco, whose names I never knew, although they appeared to be elder masters. The featured players were Bruce and a Chinese martial artist (younger than the elders), who undoubtedly had been picked to represent the interests of the San Francisco group. Discussion of the issue that led up to this meeting could be an essay in itself, when viewed from the perspective of Chinese encounters with the West going back at least to the Boxer Rebellion. Suffice it to say that, in this instance, the traditionally trained Gung Fu masters did not look favorably on Bruce's teaching martial art to Westerners, or actually to anyone who was not Chinese. So strongly did they harbor this historically bound belief, that a formal challenge was issued to Bruce, insisting that he participate in a confrontation, the result of which would decide whether he could continue to teach the "foreign devils." Bruce's philosophy echoed that of Confucius: "In teaching there should be no class distinctions." Therefore, without hesitation or doubt, Bruce accepted the challenge and the date was set. The fight that ensued is more important for the effect it had on the course of Bruce's life than for the result of the actual confrontation. However, here is a brief description of the physical action: Within moments of the initial clash, the Chinese Gung Fu man had proceeded to run in a circle around the room, out a door that led to a small back room, then in through another door to the main room. He completed this circle several times, with Bruce in hot pursuit. Finally, Bruce brought the man to the floor, pinning him helplessly, and shouted (in Chinese), "Do you give up?" After repeating this question two or three times, the man conceded, and the San Francisco party departed quickly. The entire fight lasted about three minutes, leaving James and me ecstatic that the decisive conquest was so quickly concluded. Not Bruce. Like it was yesterday, I remember Bruce sitting on the back steps of the gym, head in hands, despairing over his inability to finish off the opponent with efficient technique, and the failure of his stamina when he attempted to capture the running man. For what probably was the first time in his life, Bruce was winded and weakened. Instead of triumphing in his win, he was disappointed that his physical condition and Gung Fu training had not lived up to his expectations. This momentous event, then, was the impetus for the evolution of Jeet Kune Do and the birth of his new training regime. Let me emphasize that, to my or just about anybody else's observation, in early 1965 Bruce appeared to be in superb physical condition. Growing up in Hong Kong, Bruce was not an especially genetically gifted youngster. In fact, his mother recounted to me that Bruce was a skinny little kid whose schedule of attending school in the day and (often) working on films late into the night did not foster a healthy lifestyle. However, from the age of thirteen, when he began to study Wing Chun under Master Yip Man, Bruce trained continuously and arduously on a daily basis, so that when I met him in 1963 he appeared to be in great shape. After the Oakland confrontation, this was not good enough for Bruce -- he knew he had to do more and better to be prepared to realize his dreams when the opportunity arose. For Bruce, it was not simply a matter of running extra miles, doing more reps, or increasing poundage in his weight training. He approached the resolution of the "problem" in a scientific manner: (1) Set new goals for fitness and health, (2) research the best ways to accomplish the desired changes, and (3) implement the new methods using a scientific approach, recording progress and modifying the approach when necessary. There was nothing haphazard about Bruce's training regime, neither was he particularly "lucky" in having started out with natural physical gifts. The greatest talents that Bruce brought to realizing his dreams were intelligence and curiosity (hand in hand, a powerful combination), dedication and perseverance (stick-to-itiveness even in the face of intervening obstacles), and focus (enjoying the journey as much as the destination). Sometimes I am asked, "How did he have the time to do so much training?" The answer is simple-that was how he decided to spend his time. The choices he made in each of his 24-hour days included devoting several hours to training his body and mind in order to be the best that he could be. This is also where the wealth of his imagination came into play. In addition to regularly scheduled training times, it was "normal" for Bruce to be involved in several things at the same time: reading a book, curling a
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dumbbell, and stretching a leg, for example; or playing some kind of physical game with the children; or doing isometric-type exercises while driving his car. As a child he was nicknamed, "Never Sits Still"; he was the same as an adult. The process that Bruce undertook to achieve his goal of superior fitness forms the contents [of the book,] The Art of Expressing the Human Body, the title of which was so aptly coined by Bruce in describing his way of martial art. Bruce's martial art, Jeet Kune Do, which is an all-encompassing approach to living life at the pinnacle of developed potential, naturally includes training the physical body to achieve its peak performance. A fitting description of Bruce's devotion to his art is to say that he attained the apex of functional beauty. When reading this volume, it is more important that the reader recognize the process Bruce employed rather than dwell on the specific exercises and daily schedules. Rather than merely copy exactly what Bruce Lee did in his exercise sessions, one should take note of the numerous sources-both technical and through personal observation-Bruce employed in his research and seek to follow this scientific pattern of problem resolution. With the explosion of the fitness- health-wellness industries in the past several decades, there certainly is a great amount of information available to the inspired student. Bruce would have immersed himself in the new research and would encourage you to do likewise. Always improving, never arriving at the peak, but always undergoing the process, Bruce enjoyed the never-ending journey toward physical perfection. In other words, the means were as important as the goal, which was to be prepared when the opportunity arose to share his "art of expressing the human body." The record that survives of Bruce's preparation for opportunity consists, of course, of his classic films as well as the training notes he left, many of which are contained in this volume. For myself, Bruce has served as a lifelong inspiration to be physically active and health- conscious. Throughout our lives together he was my teacher as well as husband, friend, and father of my children. I continue to rely on his example for daily motivation. Now, in the form of this book, an opportunity arises for the reader to share in Bruce's art and inspiration. Paraphrasing Aristotle, the exclusive sign of a thorough knowledge is the power of teaching. It will become evident to the reader that Bruce had a thorough knowledge of fitness and training. Rather than clinging to the bits of factual information in this volume, it is more important to understand the method. We can all show our gratitude to Bruce for the example he left us by allowing the gift of Bruce's teaching to empower us to know "the way" to reach our maxi- mum potential so that preparation will arise to meet opportunity. " Using no way as way, using no limitation as limitation" --Bruce Lee

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Karate literally means 'empty hand', originated in the island of Okinawa -Japan. It is of no small interest that we find in Japanese history a tradition of fighting arts originally devised to inflict injury or death on the battle field, transformed into the way of Martial Arts, dedicated to perfecting the human self by integrating Body, Mind and Spirit. On the physical level mastery of form or 'Kata' is the crux of training. A Kata consists of sequence of moves, blocks and strikes that simulates a fighting form. Hence Kata movements should be spontaneous, accurate and powerful. For this to happen students (karateka) should train for years so that it becomes natural to him. His metal/spiritual abilities too play a vital role in the performance of Kata. The teacher provides a model form and the student keenly observes and repeats it countless times until he has completely mastered the form. The tedious, repetitions and monotonous learning routines tests the students commitment and willpower, but it also reduces stubbornness and eliminates bad habits of body and mind. In the process his or her real strength, character and potential begin to emerge . The spiritual mastery is inseparable from the psychological, but begins only after an intensive and lengthy period of training, as the body and mind takes time, effort and training to become one (or aligned..). The heart of spiritual mastery is this, the ego self becoming the ego less self ultimately, physical, psychological and spiritual mastery are one and the same. The hard physical discipline however cannot be separated from mental development and real spiritual growth. Karate is considered to be the most refined martial art in the world that exists today. Karate is the most effective system, of self defense because it uses only empty hands. Just think your hands, legs and body working like a weapon that can kill !. Karate is suitable for all kinds of people ie children, women, men and older people too. You can see some disabled people who perform incredible Karate feats and in the process also improve their quality of life. Over all Karate will boost your spiritual
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strengths and make you do things that you wouldn't otherwise dare to !. Note By the Author/Site creator : We should have the same respect for people of other martial arts as we have for our style.. They have their own ways and methods developed over years of hard fighting and training. If other styles borrow techniques from ours then we should be proud of it ! and NOT criticize it. Each martial art system has something to offer, it just depends on if it suits you. If it doesn't, it does not mean that it is no good. If you don't believe in "Mas Oyama (Masutatsu Oyama) could kill Bull in one punch" then don't, BUT that doesn't mean that he or his art is no good. Infact he could teach you some good things that may improve your skills !! After all Mas Oyama was a great Karate-Ka, master and was a legend in Karate.. I remind you of the various scriptures that talk about many miracles/ legends - these are subject to individual belief and no-one should be criticised for what they believe. But I only belief what 'I' see.. and I don't criticize others for their beliefs. Masutatsu Oyama's feat was witnessed and is well documented. It is tue !. Infact I think he did it using a special skill, focusing and not just brute force.. All his great students agree that the breaking tricks and the bull fights were what Oyama himself called monkey business i.e. fakes made to attract crowds in the game. Both Kenji Kurosaki(cofounder of Japanese kickboxing) and Jon Bluming (founder of MMA style kyokushin-derived called kyokushin budokai) said that he tried to fight first an old meak ox with his horns heavily hammered, that explains the apparent ease with which he slashes the horns. With the next and stronger bull he almost got killed (stabbed in the spleen and went to surgery), it is anyhow remarcable he had the guts to try ! He did a lot of harm to the kyokushin by arranging bouts in which Europeans faced tough Europeans and the Japanese only their own weak students to have foreigners reach slaughtered in the finals against his crew who was fresh ; even then, when a "gaijin" (foreigner) was winning he threatened the refs to change the decision. These are the minuses. Please click here to read more about Mas Oyama ! This is what I think/know about Mas Oyama's skill in killing a bull with one punch ! : Oyama mentions he was thought the trick by someone else - not a martial artist at all. It all boiled down to not just hitting hard, but knowing exactly where to hit. It is not the power that kills but the target. Maybe a man can kill a bull with empty hands by applying subtle pressure to specific points. There is a skill to accomplish any task. I respect all styles and allow each to consider theirs "the best". Martial arts is all about respect. Martial Art specially as a mean of fighting or self-defense is so broad that no style can possibly cover everything. Don't limit yourself and think that a lifetime practicing Muay Thai (considered to be the deadliest art) can teach everything !.. Autor : Jimmy George Email : WebMaster@CoolShack.com

Click on the image below to enter KARATE page !

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Please click here to see Karate Articles and Handbook !


Click above image to enter KARATE PAGES..

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Martial Arts Secrets and Words of Wisdom SHAOLIN is the nickname of the original Buddhist Temple where Chan Buddhism was created in Northern China by Bodhidharma. ZEN is the Japanese word for the Chinese word "Chan." CHAN is the Chinese word for "Universal Mind." UNIVERSAL MIND is the ability to see reality from All Perspectives. All Perspectives is the combination of All Truths or Universal Truth. "Into a soul absolutely free From thoughts and emotions Even the tiger finds no room To insert its fierce claws No thinking, no reflecting, Perfect emptiness Yet therein something moves, Following its own course." "Victory is for the one, Even before the combat Who has no thought of himself, Abiding in the no-mind-ness of Great Origin".

SPARRING & CONDITIONING-TIPS

Martial Arts Tips

IMPORTANT WORDS ON MARTIAL APPLICATIONS

Words of Wisdom

The Tao of Gung Fu

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Yogic Breathing

Women's Self-Defence through Martial Arts

The student must rely on himself and must honestly and bravely check himself. You cannot rely on the teacher. Many people train for decades but gain no results. This is because, at the most basic level, they have not developed the ability to be self-critical; to listen to their own movements, to listen to what their body is telling them. When you are "song" and you listen to whether your body ids balanced, whether if one part moves everything moves, then you can make progress.

SPARRING & CONDITIONING-TIPS TIPS ON DEFENSE When on the defensive there are some key elements and concepts to keep in mind to be successful in your counter-attacks and evasion skills. Although these are not rules chiseled in stone and never to be broken, they are fairly accurate for most situations and have been helpful in my own training as well as people I have trained. A direct counter-attack is usually the most devastating type of counter-attack because it is designed to stop the opponent dead in their tracks before they can execute their technique. The best time to counter an opponents attack is on their approach footwork. An example would be an opponent crosses their rear-foot behind their front foot to execute a sidekick. So therefore hit them while they are crossing behind. Always keep your elbows positioned so that your rib-cage is protected at all times. On a regular basis practice counter-attacks that can be used in almost all situations. For example the defensive sidekick can be used in just about any situation at medium to far range. Dont think you have to memorize every way to counter an opponent, rather just concentrate on 4 to 6 techniques that are once again useful in almost all situations. Use the K.I.S.S. rule. KEEP IT SIMPLE STUPID! When an opponent throws a punch at your head a part of their body becomes open. When an opponent throws a punch at your body a part of their head becomes open. When countering a charging kicker another great time to hit them is when they are on one foot because their balance will be much poorer. Also it is harder to avoid the counter-attack because you cant run away when you are on one foot. If you dont have time to counter with a kick or a punch and your opponents technique is coming in really fast, the next best thing to do is either step into the technique jamming/or smothering it rendering it harmless. Another option you have for the situation described in number 8) is to quickly sidestep and execute a circular footwork technique destroying any chance of your opponent being able to implement a combination attack.

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When on the defensive backing up in a straight line should always be your last option. Countering with a punch or kick, stepping forward jamming the opponents technique, or sidestepping is best from a tactical point of view. If you back up in straight-line to avoid an opponents technique you risk having them set you up with combination attack. It is more important to keep the rear hand (guard) up than the front hand because if you get hit on your open side you cant bend over to roll out of the technique. When someone takes a shot at your head on the blindside you can lean your head out of the way to avoid the blow or pull your lead shoulder in to your jaw to protect. When taking heavy unavoidable shots pulling your shoulder into your chin will prevent you from getting knocked out. Never stand flat-footed with your knees straight. Always keep your knees slightly bent coiled like springs so that you can move in any direction easily. On a regular basis practice evasion, blocking and covering-up drills. When sidestepping an opponent you must wait until the last split second to move. If you move too soon they will be able to follow you. If you move too late youll be hit. Never take your eyes off your opponent. Use your peripheral vision when fighting to enable you to see the opponents whole body. In order to read your opponents intentions one must be able to see the opponents hips, knees, shoulders and head. In a lot of cases opponents give away their intentions of attacking through their facial expressions. Some styles of martial arts say that you should always maintain eye contact with your opponent and that the eyes are the gateway to the soul. Realistically you can not rely on this method because this type of telegraphing is more commonly seen in beginners or inexperienced fighters. An experienced intelligent fighter usually has developed what some call a "poker face". The best fighters can fight without emotion which puts them tactically in a better predicament because you never really know what their up to until the last split second. Never show fear. This only builds your opponents confidence if they know youre uncomfortable. Always try to look relaxed and confident. This has a way of putting your opponent on edge and nervous. When an offensive opponent is nervous or scared they have a tendency to be less aggressive or less committed to their attack which in turn decreases their fighting ability. Remember that humans are extremely visually orientated creatures and are easily lead into certain types of reactions by what they see. Combat is based mostly on sight alone so one must learn to utilize every possible element to bring about success. SCIENCE OF COMBINATION ATTACKING The science of combination attacking is not as difficult to understand as some may think. However to accurately land combination attacks on your opponent is another story. Strong mental and physical skills for this art are quite demanding. Practice on a daily basis is necessary from the competitor to move quickly and fluently without hesitation. Hesitation is probably the biggest reason why combination attacks usually fail. Although there are many other variables that can ruin an attack sequence. Your first initial movement is extremely important during an attack sequence because of many reasons. Your first initial movement can be used to: Set your opponent up for your second move. Cover distance between you and your opponent. Check your opponents reaction time. Check your opponents response to that technique to see where a possible weakness or opening may lie. Draw your opponent to counter-attack or engage. Raise or lower your opponents guards.

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2-KICK-COMBINATIONS Two kick combinations are very simple and to the point. The initial kick is used to set up for the second kick. So in other words your first move can also be considered as a fake. Keep in mind your fake must seem real enough to your opponent so that they will react properly to your set-up. Your first move doesnt necessarily need to connect it just has to look like it has the potential of connecting. In the following you will see how to scientifically score on your opponent with two-kick-combination attacks. *OPEN-STANCE REAR-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), REAR-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (HIGH) 1. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg roundhouse kick to the opponents midsection to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute another rear-leg roundhouse kick (with the opposite foot) to the opponents head. REAR-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) 2. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg roundhouse kick to the opponents midsection to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute turn-back kick to the opponents midsection. REAR-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), REAR-LEG AXE-KICK (HIGH) 3. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg roundhouse kick to the opponents midsection to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute a rear-leg axe-kick high to the opponents head. REAR-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), SPINNING HOOK-KICK (HIGH) 4. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg roundhouse kick to the opponents midsection to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute a spinning hook-kick high to the opponents head. REAR-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), SPINNING ROUNDHOUSE KICK (HIGH) 5. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg roundhouse kick to the opponents midsection to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute a spinning roundhouse kick to the opponents head. *CLOSED-STANCE LEAD-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), BACK-LEG ROUNDHOUSE (HIGH) 1. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg front kick to the opponents mid-section to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute a back-leg roundhouse kick the opponents head. LEAD-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) 2. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg front kick to the opponents mid-section to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute a turn-back kick to the opponents mid-section. LEAD-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), SPINNING HOOK-KICK (HIGH) 3. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg front kick to the opponents mid-section to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute a spinning hook-kick high to the opponents head. SIDEKICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW)

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4. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg sidekick to the opponents mid-section to draw their guards down low. Then quickly execute a turn-back kick to the opponents mid-section. LEAD-LEG AXE KICK, SPINNING HOOK-KICK (HIGH) 5. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg axe-kick towards the opponents blindside to draw their guards to the blindside of the their head. Then quickly execute a spinning hook-kick high to the opponents head. LEAD-LEG AXE KICK, TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) 6. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg axe-kick towards the opponents blindside to draw their guards to the blindside of the their head. Then quickly execute a turn-back kick to the opponents mid-section. LEAD-LEG AXE KICK, LEAD-LEG ROUNDHOUSE (LOW) 7. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg axe-kick towards the opponents blindside to draw their guards to the blindside of the their head. Then quickly execute a lead-leg roundhouse kick to the opponents mid-section. TURN-BACK KICK (LOW), TURN BACK KICK (LOW) 8. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a penetrating turn-back kick to the opponents midsection to drive them backward. Then quickly execute another turn-back kick to the opponents midsection or rib-cage. BACK-LEG AXE KICK (OUTSIDE-INSIDE), SPINNING HOOK-KICK (HIGH) 9. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute an outside-inside back-leg axe kick to the blindside of the opponents head. Then quickly execute a spinning hook-kick high to the opponents head. BACK-LEG AXE KICK (OUTSIDE-INSIDE), BACK-LEG ROUNDHOUSE (LOW) 10. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute an outside-inside back-leg axe kick to the blindside of the opponents head. The quickly execute a back-leg roundhouse kick low to the opponents midsection. REAR-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), TURN BACK KICK (LOW) 11. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg front kick to the opponents mid-section to push them backwards. Then quickly execute a turn-back kick to the opponents mid-section or ribcage. REAR-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), SPINNING HOOK-KICK (HIGH) 12. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg front kick to the opponents mid-section to push them backwards. Then quickly execute a spinning hook-kick high to the opponents head. 3-KICK-COMBINATIONS CLOSED-STANCE LEAD-LEG AXE KICK, BACK-LEG AXE KICK, SPINNING HOOK-KICK 1. From a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg axe kick toward the blindside of the opponents head to draw your guards up high. Then quickly execute a turn-back kick to your opponents mid-section to draw your opponents guards down low. Then to finish off execute a spinning hook-kick high to your opponents head.

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BACK-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), BACK-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), BACKLEG AXE KICK 2. From a solid fighting stance execute a back-leg roundhouse kick mid-section level to draw the opponents guards/defenses low to the opponents blindside. Then execute another rear-leg roundhouse kick to the opponents open-side to draw their guards/defenses low to the opponents low to the opponents open-side. Then to finish off execute a back-leg axe kick to the opponents head from their blindside. LEAD-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), BACK-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) 3. From a solid fighting stance execute a lead-led front kick low to push the opponent backwards. Then execute a back-leg front kick low to push the opponent backwards again. Then to finish off execute a turn-back kick to the opponents mid-section. OPEN-STANCE BACK-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), LEAD-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (HIGH), TURNBACK KICK (LOW) From a solid fighting stance execute a back-leg roundhouse kick mid-section level to draw the opponents guards/defenses low to their open-side. Then execute a lead-leg roundhouse kick headlevel to draw their guards/defenses up high. Then to finish off execute a turn-back kick to the opponents mid-section. REAR-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), SPINNING ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), SPINNING HOOKKICK (HIGH) 2. From a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg front kick mid-section level to push the opponent backwards. Then execute a spinning roundhouse kick mid-section level to draw the opponents guards down low to their open-side. Then to finish off execute a spinning hook-kick high to the opponents head. LEAD-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), REAR-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), SPINNING HOOK-KICK (HIGH) 3. From a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg front kick mid-section level to push the opponent backwards. Then execute a rear-leg roundhouse kick mid-section level on the opponents open-side. Then to finish off execute a spinning hook-kick high to the opponents head. LEAD-LEG AXE KICK (HIGH), REAR-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) 4. From a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg axe kick coming up on your opponents open-side. Then execute a rear-leg front kick mid-section level to push them backward. Then to finish off execute a turn-back kick to the opponents mid-section. DRAWING/LURING COMBINATION ATTACKS OPEN-STANCE SIDEKICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) 1. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg sidekick towards the opponents midsection. The opponent skips backwards to avoid being hit and then attempts to counter-attack with a rear-leg roundhouse kick, but before you they can finish you execute a turn-back kick to their midsection. LEAD LEG AXE-KICK, SPINNING HOOK-KICK (HIGH)

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2. Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg axe kick towards the open side of your opponents head. The opponent skips backwards to avoid being hit and then attempts to counter-attack with a rear-leg roundhouse kick, but before you they can finish you quickly execute a spinning hookkick high to the head. LEAD-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg front kick mid-section level to push your opponent backward. The opponent skips backwards to avoid being hit and then attempts to counterattack with a rear-leg roundhouse kick, but before they can finish you quickly execute a turn-back kick to the mid-section. REAR-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg front kick mid-section level to push your opponent backward. The opponent skips backwards to avoid being hit and then attempts to counterattack with a spinning hook-kick, but before they can finish you quickly execute a turn-back kick to the mid-section. CLOSED-STANCE BACK-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), SPINNING HOOK-KICK (HIGH) Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a back-leg roundhouse kick mid-section level towards your opponents blind-side. The opponent skips backwards to avoid being hit and then attempts to counter-attack with a rear-leg roundhouse kick, but before they can finish you quickly execute a spinning hook-kick high to the head. BACK-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), INSIDE-OUTSIDE AXE KICK (HIGH) Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a back-leg front kick mid-section level to push your opponent backward. The opponent skips backwards to avoid being hit and then attempts to counterattack with a rear-leg roundhouse kick, but before they can finish you quickly execute an insideoutside axe kick to the open-side of your opponents face. LEAD-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), BACK-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW) Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg front kick mid-section level to push your opponent backward. The opponent skips backwards to avoid being hit and then attempts to counterattack with a turn-back kick, but before they can finish you quickly execute a back-leg front kick to the opponents hip area knocking them off balance short circuiting their movement. LEAD-LEG ROUNDHOUSE KICK (LOW), TURN-BACK KICK (LOW) Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a lead-leg roundhouse kick mid-section level towards your opponents open-side. The opponent steps backwards switching sides to avoid being hit and then attempts to counter-attack with a rear-leg roundhouse kick, but before they can finish you quickly execute a turn-back kick to the opponents mid-section. REAR-LEG FRONT KICK (LOW), REVERSE PUNCH (LOW) Starting from a solid fighting stance execute a rear-leg front kick mid-section level to push the opponent backward. The opponent skips backwards to avoid being hit and then attempts to counterattack with a rear-leg roundhouse kick, but before they can finish you quickly execute a reverse punch to the mid-section.

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Martial Arts Tips For Tournament Sparring : I feel the most important for beginners-intermediate to know is that TKD sparring is not a competition of number of kicks you can perform in a minute. It's not the quantity, it's the quality of the kicks that counts. You win by points, not by the number of kicks. The main difference in beginner and blackbelt sparring is the number of kicks. Beginners can kick 100 times in a single match and not score a point, whereas the a blackbelt can kick twice and get two points. Why? Because blackbelts are much more effective using their kicks, they perform kicks with power, speed, and great timing. Timing is very important when attacking and especially counter-attacking. This is can be 'learned' by sparring or doing reaction paddle drills. Concentrate on few kicks. There are countless kicks and combinations in TKD but you only need few of them to be successful in tournaments. Most important kicks are: 45 degree roundhouse, axe kick, and back kick. If you can do these kicks with power and speed, you should be able to challenge your most formidable opponent. Reason being those are the most effective and simple kicks. They do not require too much power (or skill) but they are more efficient than other more 'aesthetic' kicks (spin kick, 540 spin kick...). One word: Power. If you don't have power in your kicks, then you can forget about scoring. You have to kick your opponent with enough force to 'move' them back and without power, you can't score even with clean kicks. So it is recommended to conserve your energy (don't do a kick-a-thon) and save them for kicks you want to score with. More power can be gained by twisting your hip. Example: instead of doing a pure 45 degree roundhouse, you should twist your hip into your opponent and turn the 45 into a roundhouse kick just before your kick reaches your opponent. One problem that people have is that they stop their kicks at the chest protector. This will probably make a pretty loud sound but will not score a point. You won't be able to knock your opponent backwards. Simple solution: imagine that you're kicking at the center of your opponent. When your foot touches your opponent's chest protector, you should continue the kick for about 3-5 more inches, to fully extend your kick. Kick through your opponent. Try to conserve your energy for later rounds or matches. Most beginners are so tense and do so many 'air' kicks that after one round they're out of steam. So if you can conserve your energy, this is the time to use them. Endurance is important but managment of energy is more. Distance - When sparring, it's a lot less painful and tiringif, instead of blocking your opponent's kicks, you simply move out ofrange. This serves 2 purposes : you don't get bruises from blockingthe kicks of somebody who may be quite a bit bigger than you andyou frustrate your opponent, who looks like he doesn't know what he/she is doing since he/she/it [in the case of 'Animal'] keepskicking air. The flip side of this is when -you- are the person doingthe kicking - a fair number of people at various
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belt levels havebad distance judgement, so that their opponent doesn't even have to movein order not to get hit [watch a white belt sparring and you'll see whati mean]. All this is "sound and fury signifying nothing" - you waste yourown energy, you get nothing in return and your opponent will likely justset himself up for the counter and hit you like you've never been hitbefore. The key to all of this is DISTANCE - you need to learn 3 things : i) how to judge -your- distance from your opponent - is he in yourkicking range ? ii) how to judge -her- distance from you - are you in her kicking range ? iii) how to close and open distance as needed - realize that your opponentwill not voluntarily stand at just the right distance for you to do yourmagical 5-hit combo Fatality from Mortal Kombat. You need to close or openthe gap as needed - eg after you slide away from their kick, close for justthe right distance and score with a counter; after you attack, moveout of their range. Also, note that "out of range" doesn't necessarily mean "too far away" -it means "at a distance where your opponent can't kick you withouthaving to adjust their distance from you in some fashion"; you could be too close or too far from her. Blocks - if you can't avoid the kick, block it. Seems obvious, butthere are 2 points that need to be stressed : 1) It's usually more desirable to avoid the kick than to have toblock it, since, if you have to block it you're definitely in youropponent's kicking range. 2) If you block a kick, make sure it stays blocked. No half-hearted attemptsalong the lines of "I'll just put an arm out and hope that's good enough".Your opponent should -feel- that he's been blocked [if you get really good atit, you can use your elbows to block =)]. This means that you need toknow what kick you're blocking -and- what block you're using ... blockinga roundhouse kick with a high block is sure to be bad for your karma. Thekey to this is partly experience and partly knowing what each block is designed for. Experience : after a while, you can generally predict whatkick your opponent will throw as a second or third kick - there reallyaren't that many ways to follow a spinning hook without tearing a few ligaments. Thus, you know what you're looking for and can usually justconcentrate on the nastiest way to block the kick and what you're goingto do after the block [yes, there -is- life after blocks..]. Blocking well has the additional bonus that it makes life very frustratingto your opponent - she's thrown all she can at you and hasn't scored a singlepoint so she starts doing stupid things, which is when you start cleaningup. And, of course, there's the survival incentive : it's the thirdround, your feet are messed up beyond belief, you can't kick to saveyour life and your opponent is one of those [for guys] 130-lbwhippersnappers that just keeps going and going and going ... - whatdo you do ? Block. Follow-up : The 5-second idea is "Don't stop after you score a point.".Most people, after they score a point, step back and wait to see whethertheir opponent will crumple to the ground screaming "Uncle!" Fact of the matter is, it's not very likely to happen. Consider now youropponent's reaction, which is usually of the form "Doht! He just hit me!" Put these two together and you have the fact that you shouldexploit their momentary confusion and hit them a few more times [unless,of course, the referee, spoil-sport that she is, asks you in that politeway that referees do, to stop.]. Again, this can be extended to the otherside : if you get hit, don't stop to check for gaping flesh wounds - youropponent is currently probably doing the TKD touchdown dance in her head anddoesn't expect you to counter, so you get the point back with a quickcounter-attack. This is all very well, but aren't -you- guys supposed to teach usall this ? Yes, we are, and, yes, we -doteach it to you. However,learning is greatly speeded up if the pupil knows what to lookfor and has a general idea of how things are -supposed- to work. Giventhat we only have a limited time each class to spar and that we can'trun through all the points all the time, it helps a lot if you yourselfstart noticing these things and putting them into practice.
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Things to do: Head shots: Since you have to 'move' your opponent to score a point, axe kick or spin kick to the head are the easiest way to score and are the most effective. It is also more noticeable to the corner judges. However, your kicks has to be controlled and the contact has to be light oryou might be penalized, especially if you're a color belt. Only kick when you see an opening: Never trade kicks in a tournament, you will waste your energy and tend to make yourself vulnerable. Only kick when you see an opening, an opportunity. Never kick just for the hell of it because you never know what your opponent's counter move will be. Combinations: Have 2-3 kick combinations in mind. Don't kick once and back up because that'll give your opponent a chance to recover and attack you. The first kicks should always be light and mostly fake, you're concentrating on landing the second or the third kick. You will lose your balance if you use too much force for the first couple of kicks. Use fakes: Fake often and keep your opponent guessing. Things not to do: Walk into a kick: I know this sounds stupid but I've seen so many people do this. Never move towards your opponent without a planned attack. Show that you're frustrated: If you do this, not only will your opponent gain confidence but most of the time the judges will give him/her the 'superiority' point. Cheer yourself: Never show disrespect towards your opponent. Fighting a shorter opponent Your advantage is range and height which are very important. With shorter opponents, head shots are easier and requires less energy. Things to do: Use your range: Sidekicks and push kicks are useful. Keep your opponent away from you so there's no chance for them to score. Use your height: Since headshots are easier, use axe kicks or high 45 degree roundhouse. Things not to do: Punches: Punches aren't recommended since there's a great possibility that you might punch your opponent in the face. You won't be able to punch your opponent 'legally' unless you punch down and that requires practice. Fighting a taller opponent Most likely your opponent will try to keep you away so he/she can use the range to work against you. So the most effective attack plan is to get close to your opponent and use your speed. If you can get close enough to your opponent, he/she won't be able to kick you with full force since they cannot fully extend their kicks. Things to do: Close range fighting: Like I said before, if you can get close enough to your opponent, he/she won't be able to kick you with full force since they cannot fully extend their kicks. Spin: You should be more mobile than your taller opponent so try to use spin moves, these are harder to predict and harder to counter-attack. Things not to do: Trade kicks: You don't want to trade kicks with your opponent since there will be times that he/she is out of your range but you are in his/hers. Walk into kicks: When moving towards your opponent, always have an attack plan ready, don't just blindly walk into axe kicks.
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Jumping Kicks First of all, jumping kicks should NOT be attempted while sparringbecause it is dangerous to both you and your opponent, difficultto perform, and not always beneficial. Extreme caution and perfect timing is required to successfully perform jumping kicks. Jumpingkicks look aesthetic in practice, but when sparring there are few circumstances where jumping kicks would be useful (e.g. yourskill is much higher than your opponents, using jumping kicks asdefensive move, you're faster than your opponent, your opponent is THAT much taller than you, or you just want to show off). Defensive Jumping Kicks Jumping Spinkick Jumping Back kick Offensive Jumping Kicks Jumping Front Snapkick Jumping Sidekick (Flying Sidekick) Exercises to improve jumping height, speed, endurance Defensive Jumping Kicks Jumping Spinkick Jump first and then spin... I know this does not sound too difficultbut most people try to spin first and then their non-kicking foot never leave the ground. If you're kicking with your left, then try to lift your right as high as possible (to your butt, if you can) and then the spin will come naturally. Just make sure you tuck your non-kicking leg in. This kick is useful when you know you're THAT much better than youropponent, when your opponent walks in with his/her hands down then without steping back, you should perform a jumping spinkick to headlevel. NEVER USE THIS KICK AS AN OFFENSIVE MOVE. Jumping Back kick This kick can be used as both an offensive and a defensive move. On the offense, you might want to take a step forward and then throw the kick. As a defense technique, it's most effective against oppositeleg mid-section roundhouses. Wait until they start the kick and then turn with his/her kick to performa jumping back kick to his/her mid-section. One thing to bear in mind - Keep Your Guard Up. Offensive Jumping Kicks Jumping Front Snap Kick NEVER DO THIS IN A TOURNAMENT!! It doesn't work nearly as well inreality as in movies (Karate Kid series). Although this wouldbe a good board breaking technique. Board Breaking Technique: Tuck in your non-kicking legto your chest as high as possible. Make sure you're kicking withthe ball of your foot (bent your toes). Running start generally willhelp but just a few steps will do, you don't need a 100 meter dash. Jumping Sidekick (Flying Sidekick) This kick is also great for breaking boards, or, when you're acting in a movie and are about to finish somebody off (movie: Dragon). The key is to tuck in the non-kicking leg. It's less important for a jumping side kick than a jumping spinkick, but it looks a lot better if your leg is tucked in. Exercises There are a lot of different exercises that you can do to improve yourcontrol, speed,and height. We recommend the following exercises:

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Jumping up and pulling your knees all the way to your chest. A lot of people kick their feet back to touch their butt, but that reduces your jumping distance by about half. Set of four different jumps consecutively. Jump and pull your knees to chest Jump and legs shoot straight out in front of youand try and touch your toes with your hands Jump and do a split then touch your toes Jump and kick feet back and touch your toes Just How Do Some of Those Martial Artists Get So Good? You know? The ones that are truly a cut above everyone else. Are they just naturally gifted, or can anyone gain that skill? How did they learn? I can tell you one thing -- they didn't gain the martial arts advantage by practicing the same old kicks and punches as everyone else. And they didn't gain their expertise by watching the same videos that everyone else has. Sure, they may have a few videos.... But the really great practitioners have finely developed skills, because they have found their own way. Whether they stick to a classical style or they have gone the modern route, they all have followed a similar pattern of development. They build their repertoire of moves and techniques. As they build, they constantly evaluate. They tweak moves, until they work for them. And if the techniques still don't work, then they discard them -- but only after careful evaluation. And they don't reinvent the wheel, as they build techniques. They all have extensive libraries of books on martial arts (which, by the way, is an instant advantage over the video-only crowd). ESKRIMA : Full Contact "vs." Blade Fighting: Tuhon Gaje always emphasized that Pekiti-Tirsia was a blade oriented art, yet he also heavily emphasized the importance of full contact sparring. He did not see any dichotomy in this, and frankly neither do I, provided you keep your ultimate mission in mind. I tell my students that if your goal is survival on the street, then you have to spar keeping the strengths and weaknesses of your own weapons in mind while you train to deal with the potential weapons of your opponents. In our training with Tuhon Gaje, even through he emphasized Pekiti's blade orientation, he seemed to train us in what I latter came to realize was something of a "worst case scenario" mentality. That scenario being one in which you have a stick and your opponent has a sword. You could deduct this from the training in that the sparring was geared towards you trying not to get hit at all, while you would try to hit your opponent with several hard shots (sounds obvious, but if it was sword vs. sword, then the sparring would have been geared towards who could deliver the first "cut" and you would work under the assumption that that "cut" had a major effect). While a few parts of Pekiti-Tirsia work better with sword then stick, most of the system is quite effective with a stick (this would not be the case if Pekiti was "only" a blade art). Let me describe how Tuhon Gaje first started us in full contact sparring. The old NY Pekiti group in the 70's didn't begin stick sparring until we had our basics down. Prior to any actual sparring, we spent
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about a year on the two man timing drills of 64 attacks, working on these until our sub-components where strong, fast and polished. Next we began a process of combining these sub-components in realtime. First Tuhon Gaje gradually eased us into the "waters" of sparring, starting at the shallow end of the pool. (I'll barrow the very helpful terms from last year's Black Belt article by Crafty on stick ranges to describe the process). Tuhon Gaje had us start with what he called "range sparring" which was more like "virtual" sparring. We would stay well outside of stick contact range and "spar" trying to fake and create "openings" in our opponent's guard while avoiding his "attacks". After a time he moved us into stick contact range, in which we sparred, but could only make contact with our sticks. Next he gave us light rattan and had us spar with contact, but with the proviso that we only make contact to the opponent's weapon hand at largo range (with no gloves we had incentive to keep our weapon hands moving!). After this we put on head gear and football arm guards and targeted the hands and head at medio range. Next we added body armor at corto range in which any target was fair game. Soon we went to medium weight sticks and the body armor came off. (Heavy sticks were reserved for fighting guys from other systems at tournaments). We spent a total of three years on basics (64 Attacks) alternating between learning a new technique, drilling in it and sparring with it. There was not much in the way of grappling during this early training. It was only when we moved onto the third set of Solo Baston Seguidas that we began to see grappling during Pekiti-Tirsia single stick work. Latter in Pekiti single stick one also sees grappling elements in Solo Baston Contradas and Recontras. (There are also elements of grappling in Pekiti hand vs. knife and hand to hand, but it is limited to techniques that will work against an armed opponent and quick enough to use against multiple opponents. That cuts your available techniques down compared to an art that does not have these concerns). Looking back I can see certain common denominators in our training. We learned speed, timing and flow in our strikes and footwork before we learned any grappling. Why? Because we were training to deal with blades. Learning speed and avoidance skills has to come before grappling skills when dealing with someone who can take you out with just one strike like a fighter with a large blade can. While a grappler or boxer can use his arms to block ("take") a punch on the way in, obviously you don't want do this against a sword cut. In previous ED posts members have written complaining about fighters on a Dog Bros videos seeming to "take" hits on the way into a grappling technique. I have also seen this at my own seminars with students during their first few times at stick sparring, usually when someone with a strong empty hand background (but new to stick work) gets frustrated when getting hit at largo range. "Hey, if I am getting hit out here anyway, I might as well take one on the way in to get to a range I know I can work in." seems to be what these fighters are thinking. As a good empty hand fighter begins to get proficient with a stick you see less and less of this. I get the feeling that some list members are worried about getting their students into full contact sparring because they don't want them to get into the habit of "taking" a hit on the way in or, almost as bad, standing toe to toe and "kamikazeing" each other delivering strikes without any regard for defense. Instead of going from, "dry land" swimming practice right to dropping them into the "deep end" of the pool, try them at the shallow end working on one subcomponent at a time, so they can get used to the feeling of being in the water. Help them transition from drills to full sparring by starting them in full contact but with a concentration on only one particular skill at a time. Instead of starting them with the equation: FULL SKILLS + FULL CONTACT = FULL SPARRING, start them with ONE SKILL + FULL CONTACT = PARTIAL SPARRING to get them used to being in the water. Here are a few sparring drills that might help. 1. FIRST CUT: Each man is assumed to have a sword. The first one to make a good cut without getting cut in return wins. Start with 30 second rounds to develop their stalking and entry skills, but as soon as possible move them to short rounds (say 5 or 10 seconds) to discourage hesitation. This is a good warm-up drill, but don't stay to long here or they will train to hit only once in combat. 2. SWORD VS. STICK: Take a stick and wrap it with colored tape. This will be your "sword". Have two students spar, one with the "sword" and one with a stick. Explain that one cut from the sword can end the fight, but the man with the rattan will need to hit his opponent several time to have the same effect. You can also do this drill with a heavily armored advanced students

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as the sword man who "feeds" the stick man, gradually increasing the speed and complexity of his attacks. This is a good drill for the student who is willing to "take" a hit on the way in. You can make things really interesting by limiting the number of "cuts" the stick can sustain from the sword per round before the stick "breaks". The sword can also represent a crowbar, pipe, etc. 3. SINGLE STICK VS. STICK AND DAGGER: Another good drill for the student who is in such a rush to get inside where he has fighting experience that he neglects his defensive skills at largo and medio ranges. Using 1' diameter colored chalk as the "dagger" can help a student realize just how many times he "died" before he made his grappling takedown.

IMPORTANT WORDS ON MARTIAL APPLICATIONS "Important formula says: Hammer (fist) comes from heart (mind). Fist follows Intention, generally one should know himself and the opponent, adapt to changing conditions. Once heart and Qi emit, four extremities should move, legs rise (move) to a (certain) place, move and turn to a (certain) position, either stick (zhan) and move together (you), connect (lian) and follow (sui), jump (teng) and dodge (shan), turn over (zhe) and leave empty (kong), ward (peng) and roll (l), push (ji) and press down (na). Fist strikes within five feet (but) beyond three feet, far do not use elbow, close do not use hand, no matter (if you move) forward, backward, to the left of right, one step one strike, when you meet enemy, catching him is the standard, not showing the shape (of your strike) is the excellence. Fist method is like military tactics, attack where (he is) not prepared, hit where (he has) no Intention, take advantage of attack and hit, take advantage of hitting and attack, first empty (Xu) and then make solid (Shi), first solid and then make empty, avoid solid and attack empty, take root when you ask for branch, if you meet multiple opponents who suround you, appear strong like a living dragon or tiger, (then) attack one opponent, with a power of big cannon booming straight. Up, middle and botom should be handled by one Qi, body, hands and legs (move according to) established practise (like) bound by a rope, hand should not rise empty neither fall empty, the sensitivity of the spirit is completely in agility. The ancients said: good at moving out and coming back, hardness and softness, moving forward and backward, (when he does) not move, (he is) like a mountain, difficult to know as Yin and Yang, limitless like heaven and earth, full and substantial like a granary, vast like four seas, dazzling like three lights, watching the coming force (to find) opportunity, able to estimate advantages and disadvantages of the enemy, awaiting movement (of the opponent) with stillness, handling stillness with movement, (only if the above conditions are met one) can talk about (real) boxing method. Important formula says: method of borrowing (opponent's power) is easy, method of advancing is difficult, yet method of advancing is the most principal. Writings on tactics say: attacking hand should be bold and powerful, do not attack the extremities, facing the opponent take his middle hall (e.g. between the legs), like a tiger grab the upper (part of his body) or grab the lower, similar to eagle or hawk capturing chicken from above; one does not have to hurry in overturning rivers and seas, the most powerfull is Red Phoenix Facing Sun; clouds flow in the light of sun and moon heaven meets earth, (only) when (two) martial arts fight one with the other (one) can see weak and strong sides. Important formula says: taking a step and entering (one) must advance body, (the movement is) real only if body and hands arrive together, in the method there is a formula about where to get it from, (once) you understand this principle, (you will realize) how miraculous it is.
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From ancient times there were methods of dodging (shan), advancing (jin), striking (da) and protecting (gu): what is called dodging, what is called advancing, advancing is dodging, dodging is advancing, there is no need seek it far away. What is called striking, what is called protecting, protecting is striking, striking is protecting, just a hand movement. The ancients said: heart (mind; is) like gunpowder, hands (are) like bullets. A brainwave (sudden inspiration; and) bird will not escape easily. Body (is) like bowstring, hands like arrows. Bowstring sounds and bird falls down (this) shows miraculous (skill of the archer). Rise hands (fast) like flash of lightning, there is no time (even) to close eyes (when) lightning flashes. Strike the enemy like rapid thunder, there is no time to cover ears when thunder strikes. Chen Changxing hands Taiji classics to his disciple, Yang Luchan. Were "Important Words on Martial Applications" among them? Move to the left and come from the right, move to the right and come from the left; hands hit from inside of the heart, (then) fall forward. Strength rises from feet, feet rise just like fire does. (if you want to) advance the left (you should first) enter right, (if you want to) advance the right (you should first) enter left, taking step heel first touches ground, ten toes should grasp ground, steps should be steady, body should be serious and heavy, (when) moving out withdraw hands, when reaching the opponent (hands should) clench (into) fists, upper and lower Qi should all stop, (in) coming out and entering body should dominate; no deficiency, no shortage, no reaching, no leaving. Fist strikes from heart, hands are hastened by body, one extremity moves (and) one hundred (e.g. all) bones follow; once (you) bend (close), whole body also bends; once (you) extend (open), whole body should also extend; extending should be to the limit, bending should be tight. (it is) like loading a cannon, the tighter it is loaded, the more power the explosion has. Writings on tactics say: no matter (with no restrictions to; if you) strike (using) lifting (ti), pressing (an), attacking (ji), pounding (chong), arms (bo), elbows (zhou), hips (kua), legs (tui), head (tou), hands (shou), (hit) high (gao), low (di), along (shun), horizontally (heng), with step forward (jinbu), with step backward (tuibu), borrowing Qi (jieqi), stopping Qi (jieqi) as well as with hundreds methods of striking up and down, generally (speaking) (all body should form) one coherent whole (literally - be penetrated by one Qi). Moving body first take clever (e.g. favourable) place (position), this is called important formula of tactics. Joints of bones should be adjusted (dui), otherwise there is no strength. Hands should grasp with agility, otherwise (situation may) change (unexpectedly) (literally - change will be born). Hands should move (issue) fast, otherwise (they will be) delayed. Be ferocious when striking, otherwise (the strike is) of no benefit. Feet and hands must be alive, otherwise (one will) face danger. Cherish perfectly intentions (cunxin), otherwise (you will be) fooled. Issuing with body: should be fierce and courageous like raising eagle, (in) rude and brave (fashion), quick-wits and wisdom (should be) linked. Do not fear (and) hesitate; like Guan at Baima, Zhao at Changban (ann.1), awe-inspiring with invincible might, breaking waves, in stillness like a mountain, in movement like a thunder. Important formula says: make sure to examine the coming movement of the opponent, (how he) kicks with legs and advances with head, strikes with fists and spread (his) arms, step forward with (your) side to the opponent, (first) bend body (then) rise and hit. When leg arrives (e.g. opponent kicks) lift your knee, if fist arrives move it aside (bo) with elbow, attack horizontally (heng) (if the opponent strikes) straight (shun), ward off (peng) and press down (ya) a horizontal (attack), receive (the attack) coming from the left with (your) right, meet (the attack) coming from the right with (your) left, on long distance use hand, on short distance use elbow, on long distance kick, on short distance add (use) knee. (if one wants to) get upper hand in fighting, look around and examine the shape of ground (around you), hands must be fast (ji), feet light (qing), examine the (opponent's) movements like a cat, heart (mind) must be in order and clear, (when) body and hands arrive (at the target) together (this is) the
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beginning of success, if hands arrive and the body does not (then this is) striking without excellence. If hands arrive and body also arrives (at the same time), then defeating enemy is like smashing a weed. Writings on tactics say: (those) good at fighting, first look at (the opponent's) footwork and (only) then strike with hands. High strike throat, low strike groin. Left and right Ribs as well as center (line). (While) advancing striking (on the distance of) one zhang (e.g. 3.33m) is not considered far, striking in close range is within one inch. Important formula says: practice as if there was enemy in front of you, when facing enemy although there is opponent, (but fight) as if there was nobody. If a hand comes in front of your face do not look at it, if elbow comes in front of your chest do not look at it. When hands rise (qi) feet should fall (luo), when feet fall hands should rise. Heart (xin; mind) must take the lead, Intention (yi) must conquer the opponent, body must attack him, steps must pass through him, head must look up (yang), chest must be present (xian), waist must be upright (shu), Dantian must must move (yun), (body) from feet to nape must be one coherent whole. Writings on tactics say: those terrified will never achieve victory. Those who cannot examine situation will never protect (themselves). Moving first (e.g. before the opponent) is called master, moving later (e.g. after the opponent) is called younger brother, teach to advance do not teach to retreat. Bold but cautious, secrets of movements and applications, everything is simply in one heart (mind). One moves into two energies (qi), transmitts to three joints (jie), appears in four extremitites (shao), unites in five elements (wuxing). Practice all the time, move and transform everyday, it is difficult at the beginning (but) becomes natural after a long time. Philosophy of fist art ends here."

Words of Wisdom People will do anything, no matter how absurd, in order to avoid facing their own soul. ~Carl Gustav Jung Acquire the courage to believe in yourself. Many of the things that you have been taught were at one
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time the radical ideas of individuals who had the courage to believe what their own hearts and minds told them was true, rather than accept the common beliefs of their day. ~ Ching Ning Chu "When I despair, I remember that all through history the way of truth and love have always won. There have been tyrants, and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall. Think of it...always." ~Mahatma Ghandi Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust consume and where thieves break in and steal, but lay up for yourself treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. ~Jesus There's music in the sighing of a reed; There's music in the gushing of a rill; There's music in all things, if men had ears: Their earth is but an echo of the spheres. ~Lord Byron Do everything with a mind that lets go. Don't accept praise or gain or anything else. If you let go a little you will have a little peace; if you let go a lot you will have a lot of peace; if you let go completely you will have complete peace. ~Ajahn Chah You must understand the whole of life, not just one little part of it. That is why you must read, that is why you must look at the skies, that is why you must sing and dance, and write poems, and suffer, and understand, for all that is life. ~J.Krishnamurti Don't try to be a great man. Just be a man, and let history judge the rest. ~ Unknown To love what we do and feel that it matters - how could anything be more fun? ~ Katharine Graham "Never put anyone out of your heart..." ~Maharaj-ji Keep away from people who try to belittle your ambitions. Small people always do that, but the really great make you feel that you, too can become great. ~ Mark Twain Your daily agenda must be a goal driven. If not, a task driven agenda will perpetuate. ~ Glenn Crider Do not follow where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail. ~ Unknown Yesterday is a canceled check; tomorrow is a promissory note; today is the only cash you have - so spend it wisely. ~ Kay Lyons Our greatest glory is not in never failing but in rising each time we fall. ~ Confucius A good name, like a good will, is got by many actions and lost by one. ~ Lord Jeffery Only those who risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. ~ T. S. Eliot A person who has not done half his day's work by 10:00 runs the chance of leaving the other half undone. ~ Emily Bronte The most important thing about goals is having one. ~ Geoffrey F. Abert Every job is a self-portrait of the person who did it. Autograph your work with excellence. ~ Jessica Guidobono Life will always be to a large extent what we ourselves make it. ~ Samuel Smiles It is not fair to ask of others what you are not willing to do yourself. ~ Eleanor Roosevelt
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I passionately hate the idea of being 'with it,' I think an artist has always to be out of step with his time. ~ Orson Welles I am only one; but still I am one. I cannot do everything, but I can still do something. ~ Helen Keller Both tears and sweet are salty, but render a different result. Tears will get you sympathy, sweet will get you change. ~ Jesse Jackson The most important thing in communication is hearing what isn't being said. ~ Unknown There are only two rules for success: 1. Never tell everything you know. 2. See #1. ~ Unknown The trouble with the rat race is that even if you win, your still a rat. ~ Lily Tomlin All of us are always going to do better tomorrow, and we would, if only we started today! ~ Unknown You find the key to success under the alarm clock. ~ Benjamin Franklin We cannot really love anyone with whom we never laugh. ~ Agnes Repplier Responsibility equals the price of greatness. ~ Winston Chuchill Doing more things faster is no substitute for doing the right things. ~ Stephen R. Covey Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. ~ Don Marquis I am looking for a lot of men who have an infinite capacity to not know what can't be done. ~ Henry Ford. Do not be too timid and squeamish about your actions. All life is an experiment. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson In absence of clearly defined goals, we become strangely loyal to performing daily acts of trivia. ~ Unknown There are two ways of exerting one's strength: one is pushing down, the other is pulling up. ~ Booker T. Washington They always say that time changes things, but you actually have to change them yourself. ~ Andy Warhol Procrastination is self-delusional because, after all, you still have to do the work, someday. ~ Unknow When you can't have what you want, it's time to start wanting what you have. ~ Kathleen A. Sutton You have to recognize when the right place and the right time fuse and take advantage of that opportunity You can't sit back and wait. ~ Ellen Metcalf If you treat people right, they will treat you right - ninety percent of the time. ~ Franklin D Roosevelt Take time to deliberate, but when the time for action has arrived, stop thinking and go in. ~ Napoleon Bonaparte Let us make one point, that we meet each other with a smile, when it is difficult to smile. Smile at each other, make time for each other in you family. ~ Mother Tersea

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The bad thing about experience is that it teaches you the stuff you don't want to know. ~ Unknown Sure, there's no "i" in team, but there is an 'm' and an 'e.' ~ Kevin Meyers The fool doth think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself a fool. ~ William Shakespeare My philosophy is that not only are you responsible for your life, but doing the best at this moment puts you in the best place for the next moment. ~ Oprah Winfrey A government is like fire: a hand servant, but a dangerous master. ~ George Washington You can't have a light without a dark to stick it in. ~ Arlo Guthrie Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep. ~ Scott Adams, creator of Dilbert If I have ever made any valuable discoveries, it has been owing more to patient attention, than to any other talent. ~ Sir Isaac Newton It is unwise to be too sure of one's own wisdom. It is healthy to be reminded that the strongest might weaken and the wisest might err.~ Mohandas K. Gandhi The true secret of giving advice is, after you have honestly given it, to be perfectly indifferent whether it is taken or not. ~ Hanna Whithall Smith A problem is a chance for you to do your best. ~ Duke Ellington Lord, grant that I might always aspire to more than I can accomplish. ~ Michelangelo "Character is what you know you are, not what others think you are." - MARVA COLLINS and CIVA TAMRKIN "In order to succeed we must first believe that we can." - MICHAEL KORDA "Good judgement comes from experience, and experience comes from bad judgement." - BARRY LePATNER "The ornament of a house is the friends who frequent it." - RALPH WALDO EMERSON "If you want creative workers, give them enough time to play." - JOHN CLEESE " You may be disappointed if you fail, but you are doomed if you don't try." - BEVERY SILLS "I never feel age If you have creative work, you don't have age or time." - LOUISE NEVELSON "When I was born I was so surprised I couldn't talk for a year and a half." - GRACIE ALLEN "After the verb 'to love,' 'to help' is the most beautiful verb in the world." - BERTHA VON SUTTNER "A loud voice cannot compete with a clear voice, even if it's only a whisper." - BARRY NEIL KAUFMAN "The beautiful thing about learning is nobody can take it away from you." - B.B. KING "I generally avoid temptation, unless I can't resist it." - MAE WEST "Every exit is an entry somewhere else." - TOM STOPPARD "Home is a place you grow up wanting to leave, and grow old wanting to get back to." - JOHN ED PEARCE "Trust yourself. You know more than you think you do." - BENJAMIN SPOCK, MD "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent." - ELEANOR ROOSEVELT "What sunshine is to flowers, smiles are to humanity." - JOSEPH ADDISION "To err is human, but it is against company policy." - ANONYMOUS "Effective management always means asking the right questions." - REBERT HELLER "We always admire the other fellow more after we have tried to do his job." - WILLIAM FEATHER
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"A well informed employee is the best salesperson a company can have." - EDWIN J. THOMAS "In the space age the most important space is between the ears." - THOMAS J. BARLOW "There is no crisis to which academics will not respond with a seminar." - ANONYMOUS "Experience is the worst teacher; it gives the test before presenting the lesson." - VERNON LAW "Education is when you read the fine print. Experience is what you get if you don't." - PETE SEEGER "Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died." - ERMA BOMBECK "Part of the secret to success in life is to eat what you like and let the food fight it out inside." MARK TWAIN "When we are is what we want to be, that's happiness." - MALCOM FORBES "I couldn't wait for success so I went ahead without it." - JONATHAN WINTERS "Advice is what we ask for when we already know the answer but wish we didn't." ERICA JONG "Next week there can't be any crisis. My schedule is already full." - HENRY A. KISSINGER "Genius is the ability to put into effect what is in your mind." - F. SCOTT FITZGERALD "Opportunities are often things you haven't noticed the first time around." - CATHERINE DENEUVE "Happiness often sneaks through a door you didn't know you left open." - JOHN BARRYMORE "You only live once, but if you work it right, once is enough." - JOE E. LEWIS "I've been on a calendar, but never on time." - MARILYN MONROE "It's not true that nice guys finish last. Nice guys are winners before the game even starts." ADDISON WALKER "Some people march to a different drummer and some people polka." - Los Angeles Times Syndicate "The minute you start talking about what you're going to do if you lose, you have already lost." GEORGE P. SHULTZ "My formula for success? Rise early, work late, strike oil." - JEAN PAUL GETTY "The best career advice given to the young is 'Find out what you like doing best and get someone to pay you for doing it.'" - KATHERINE WHITEHORN "Bargain: something you can't use at a price you can't resist." - FRANKLIN P. JONES "I will say this about being an optimist - even when things don't turn out will, you are certain they will get better." - FRANK UGHES "He who knows others is clever; he who knows himself is enlightened." LAO-TZU "A desk is a dangerous place from which to watch the world." - JOHN le CARRE "Age is not important unless you're cheese." HELEN HAYES "Perpetual optimism is a fore multiplier." - COLIN POWELL "The older a man gets, the farther he had to walk to school as a boy." - Commercial Appeal "Beware what you set your heart upon. For it surely shall be yours." - RALPH WALDO EMERSON "Know the true value of time, snatch, seize and enjoy every moment of it." - LORD CHESTERFEILD "I'm an extraordinarily patient provided I get my own way in the end." - MARGRET THATCHER "Laughter is the sun that drives the winter from the human face." - VICTOR HUGO "Nothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood." - MARIE CURIE "One's own self is most difficult to subdue." -The Buddha "It does not matter how slowly you go foward, so long as you do not stop." -Confucius "To contract, you must first expand. To yell, you must have been silent at one time. To rise, you must have fallen at some point." -Lao Zi (paraphrased) "Once, I thought I was smart. Then, I realized I was so wrong. And once again, I thought I was smart. But then I uncovered another mistake. But I have rectified it, and how lucky I am to be smart now! Oh, wait a minute....." -Anonymous "There are only two kinds of people who cannot learn- the very smart and the very stupid." -Confucius "Tynck, I know you often contemplate the stars. Why do you think you do this?' 'Well, there are so many. With different sizes, shapes, making patterns they don't even know they are making. Hey, I heard Immortals can see the future. What is that like?' 'Well, it's a lot like looking at the stars. There are many different people, of different sizes and shapes making patterns they don't even know they are making." -Pictures Of the Floating World "Mr. Min-tin, what is this love?' 'Well.... Tynck, have you ever felt that you hated someone? So much that you wished to hurt them?' 'Yes.... I have.' 'Well, it's like I told you about yin and yang. Love is yin, hate is yang. Love is loving someone so much you'd never, ever want to see any harm come to them." -Pictures Of the Floating World

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"There, Edmund encountered a meditating Monk. 'Why do you exist?' queried the Monk. 'Well, I can see, for one thing.' The Monk rose off his mat and threw powder into Edmund's eyes. He couldn't see. 'Why do you exist?' The Monk repeated. 'I can... still Hear.' Rising again, the Monk stuffed two cloves of garlic in Edmund's ears. He could hear nothing, but the Monk communicated telepathicly. 'Why do you exist?' He said again. 'I can still feel things around me.' The Monk hit a point on his neck, and all feeling in his body went dead. 'Why do you exist?' 'I... Can still think.' With that, a mnetal pressure was exercised in his head, and he could no longer think. 'Why do you exist?' Edmund couldn't have replied if he had wanted to. 'I'll tell you why, Edmund. A human being is more then dimension, more then form, more then a being of stimuli and response, you are an emanation of Tao!" -Edmund's Cabin "Let sleeping Walruses lie." -Anonymous "And the beat goes on." True knowledge, beauty, power, abillity, all comes from the limitless microcosm, the Yellow Court Two roads diverged in a wood, and I-- I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken If we work upon marble, it will perish, If we work upon brass, time will efface it. If we rear temples, they will crumble to dust but, If we work on man's immortal minds, If we imbue them with high principles, with the just fear of God and love of their fellow man, We engrave upon those tablets something which no time can efface and which will brighten and brighten to eternity. Daniel Webster (Taken from the dedication plaque of the Hub at Haliburton Scout Reserve) "The greatest power is often simple patience." E. Joseph Cossman "Ideals are like stars; you will not succeed in touching them with your hands, but like the seafaring man on the desert of waters, you choose them as your guides, and, following them, you reach your destiny." Carl Schurz "There is nothing noble about being superior to some other person. The true nobility is in being superiour to your previous self." Hindustani proverb "Promote yourself, but do not demote another." Israel Salanter "No man can hold another man in the gutter without remaining there himself." Booker T. Washington "Never criticize a man until you've walked a mile in his moccasins." American Indian Proverb "Love all, trust a few. Do wrong to none." William Shakespeare "I always prefer to believe the best of everybody--it saves so much trouble." Rudyard Kipling "What do you despise? By this are you truly known." Frank Herbert, Dune--Manual of MuadDib by Princess Irulan "We have committed the Golden Rule to memory; let us now commit it to life." Edwin Markham "The longer I live the more I am convinced that the one thing worth living for and dying for is the priviledge of making someone more happy and more useful. No man who ever does anything to lift his fellows ever makes a sacrifice." Booker T. Washington "There is a wonderful mystical law of nature that the three things we crave the most in life--happiness, freedom, and peace of mind--are always attained by giving them to someone else." Unknown "Those who are lifting the world upward and onward are those who encourage more than criticize." Elizabeth Harrison "There's only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving, and that's your own self." Aldous Huxley "Love not what you are, but what you may become." Miguel de Cervantes "The only tyrant I accept in this world is the still voice within." Mahatma Gandhi "There is nothing that makes men rich and strong but that which they carry inside of them. Wealth is in the heart, not in the hand." John Milton "What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us." Ralph Waldo Emerson "He that respects himself if safe from others; He wears a coat of mail that none can pierce." Henry Wordsworth Longfellow "Integrity is what we do, what we say, and what we say we do." Don Galer "You should not live one way in private, another in public." Publilius Syrus "There is no such thing as a minor lapse of integrity." Tom Peters "That you may retain your self-respect, it is better to displease the people by doing what you know is right, than to temporarily please them by doing what you know is wrong." William J.H. Boetcker "When things go wrong--don't go wrong with them." Anonymous

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"No matter how far you have gone on the wrong road, turn back." Turkish Proverb "Sometimes I lie awake at night, and I ask, "Where have I gone wrong?" Then a voice says to me, "This is going to take more than one night."" Charlie Brown, Peanuts "It is the mind that makes the body." Sojourner Truth "A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices." William James "The mind is not a vessel to be filled but a fire to be kindled." Plutarch "Be modest! It is the kind of pride least likely to offend." Jules Renard "Be a good listener. Your ears will never get you into trouble." Frank Tyger "Remember, a closed mouth gathers no foot." Steve Post "When you have nothing to say, say nothing." Charles Caleb Colton "Drawing on my fine command of language, I said nothing." Unknown "Never lose a chance of saying a kind word." William Makepeace Thackeray "Good communication is as stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after." Anne Morrow Lindbergh "Once you get people laughing, they're listening and you can tell them almost anything." Herbert Gardner "Man is the only animal that laughs and weeps, for he is the only animal that is struck with the difference between what things are, and what they ought to be." William Hazlitt "If you are going to be able to look back at something and laugh about it, you might as well laugh about it now." Marie Osmond "The secret of contentment is the realization that life is a gift, not a right." Anonymous "The moment of victory is much to short to live for that and nothing else." Martina Navratilova "As long as you live, keep learning how to live." Seneca "Death is more universal than life; everyone dies but not everyone lives." A. Sachs "He who has health has hope; and he who has hope has everything." Anonymous "Man never made any material as resilient as the human spirit." Bern Williams "Generosity is giving more than you can, and pride is taking less than you need." Kahlil Gibran "If you have much, give of your wealth; if you have little, give of your heart." Arab Proverb "We should give as we would receive, cheerfully, quickly, and without hesitation; for there is no grace in a benefit that sticks to the fingers." Seneca "This is the final test of the gentleman: his respect for those who can be of no possible service to him." William Lyon Phelps "The world is my country, all mankind are my brethren, and to do good is my religion." Thomas Paine "To err is human, to forgive divine." Alexander Pope "There is no revenge so complete as forgiveness." Josh Billings "Deeds, not stones, are the true monuments of the great." John L. Motley "True dignity is never gained by place, and never lost when honors are withdrawn." Phillip Massinger "It is better to deserve honours and not have them than to have them and not to deserve them." Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) "If you want to truly understand something, try to change it." Kurt Lewin "To know a thing well, know its limits. Only when pushed beyond its tolerances will true nature be seen." Frank Herbert, Dune--The Amtal Rule "The hardest thing in life to learn is which bridge to cross and which bridge to burn" David Russel "The strongest man in the world is the man who stands alone." T. H. Huxley "To know a thing well, know its limits. Only when pushed beyond its tolerances will true nature be seen." ~Frank Herbert, Dune--The Amtal Rule The Amtal rule is something that is firmly rooted within ancient Greek philosophy. You see, a thing is defined by its own limitations. A bridge, for example, is a prime example. One can only know how true and strong it really is untill it is pushed beyond all of its limitations. However, in this case, the Amtal rule usually applies to humans for once we are pushed beyond what we percieve to be our limitations new worlds will be opened up to us. One can see a prime example of this in the mother who lifted the car that was crushing her child. Our true nature is something that goes beyond all that you could possibly conceive. As Nietzsche once said, "What does not kill us only makes us stronger." "Man is the only animal that laughs and weeps, for he is the only animal that is struck with the difference between what things are, and what they ought to be." ~William Hazlitt

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Of course man is an animal. He is driven by the primal desires of the id as well as all of the other forms of primal desires that reside within ourself. Furthermore, to seperate man from the rest of the animal kingdom, in my experience, is foolhardy. We are interconnected with the world around us and the other animals that live on this world. We are no higher, nor lower than anything else within this web of life. To set man apart from that sense of the world is, essentially, the spiritual suicide that the vast majority of the modern materialistic world is making. Two hearts, when joined, by yeild the strength of more than two. ~ Fremen Saying Beware the seeds you sow and the crops you reap. Do not curse God for the punishments you inflict upon yourself. ~ The Orange Catholic Bible, DUNE "Only the ignorant dedicate themselves to one particular style or way. It is when you master the art of letting go that you will accomplish your greatest achievements." - Me. "In void; all concerns, all thoughts, and all ego boil down to nothing. One can enjoy a sense of emptiness and nothingness." - Me. "You can only find the Buddha within you, just as you can only find living fish in the water." - Me. "All the insanity is brought about, By the simple fact that you cannot live without, All your fame, all your gloury, Constantly repeating, 'I really am sorry.'" - Some lyrics I wrote. Then of course, there are those times in which you have to include the wisdom of others along with yours... "Fancy talk and pretentious matter are seldom compatible with the benevolent." - Confucius. "Crystal clear, sharp and bright, the sacred sword allows no opening for evil to roost." - Morihei Ueshiba. "Frantic, faction, focus The world breathes. And out forms this misconception we call man." - Creed, "Say I." "All composite things decay, seek out your salvation with diligence." - Buddha's supposed dying words. "The work is done, but how no one can see; 'Tis this that makes the power not cease to be." Lao-Tzu ONE: What makes a good martial artist? A good martial artist does not become tense -- but ready. Not thinking, yet not dreaming. Ready for whatever may come. Bruce Lee, founder of Jeet Kune Do In the science of martial arts, the mind should remain the same as normal. In ordinary circumstances as well as when practising martial arts, let there be no change at all -- with the mind open and direct, neither tense nor lax, centering the mind so that there's no imbalance, calmly relax your mind, and savour this moment of ease thoroughly so that the relaxation does not cease for even an instant. Miyamoto Musashi, The Book Of Five Rings TWO: Do I always tolerate violent advances with the kind of patience advocated by exponents who believe in passive defence? Like the proverb says, there's no first hand (attack) in Karate. Naturally, it's not right to pick fights, but there are times when you can get involved in a fight whether you like it or not. Suppose you're alone with your girlfriend, and some slob starts bothering you. What do you do? Run away and leave her, or stand the other man down -- or maybe hide behind your girl? It's up to decide. Hideyuki Ashihara, founder of Ashihara Karate THREE: What is the spirit of Karate? Development of the mind rather than on techniques is what we should emphasise. In a time of grave public crisis, one must have the courage, if required for the sake of justice, to face a million and one opponents. For the Karate-do student, the most shameful trait is indecisiveness. Gichin Funakoshi, founder of Shoto-kan Karate FOUR: A road bully gets out of his car after you shout a few words at him. It's Sunday, you've got groceries in the boot, a girlfriend in the passenger seat. The panic in your body starts up, what now? End of the story, buddy. When you panic, your limbs freeze. At this stage, most people end up on the ground. Experienced fighters may tense up, but they do not panic. Their minds are clear, and they breath normally. Geoff Thompson (chief instructor of BCA) controls leg shaking by tapping the heel
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of one foot. A martial artist must always keep their mind alert, on the ready. Dan Loh FIVE: You tick off a stranger who jumps your queue. His wife jumps in the argument. She goes baloney. Do you hit them both? You don't. Your argument is with the person who jumped the queue. Anyone besides is irrelevant, unless the person becomes a physical threat. Direct your attention, verbal or otherwise, to the man. Refuse to encourage the woman.

The Tao of Gung Fu :

Gung fu is so extraordinary because it is nothing at all special. It is simply the direct expression of one's feeling with minimum of lines and energy. Every movement is being so of itself without the artificiality's with which we tend to complicate them. The closer to the true Way of Gung Fu, the less wastage of expression there is. Gung Fu is to be looked through without fancy suits and matching ties, and it remains an secret when we anxiously look for sophistication and deadly techniques. If there are really any secrets at all, they must been missed by the "seeing" and "striving" of its practitioners (after all, how many ways are there to com-in on an opponent without deviating too much from the natural course?). Gung Fu values the wonder of the ordinary and the idea is not daily increase but daily decrease. Being wise in Gung Fu does not mean adding more but being able to remove sophistication and ornamentation and be simply simple - like a sculptor building a statue not by adding but by hacking away the unessential so that the truth will be revealed unobstructed. Gung Fu is satisfied with one's bare hands without the fancy decoration of colorful gloves which tend to hinder the natural function of the hands. The height of cultivation always runs to simplicity while half way cultivation runs to ornamentation. There are three stages in the cultivation of Gung Fu; namely the primitive stage, the stage of art, and the stage of artlessness. The primitive Stage is the stage of original ignorance in which a person knows nothing of the art of combat. In a fight he "simply" blocks and strikes instinctively without a concern as to what is being right and wrong. Of course he might not be so-called "scientific" but he is nevertheless, being himself. The second stage, the stage of art, begins when a person starts his training. He is taught the different ways of blocking and striking, the various ways of kicking, of standing, of moving, of breathing, of thinking. Unquestionably he has gained a scientific knowledge of combat, but unfortunately his original self and sense of freedom are lost and his action no longer flows by itself. His mind tends to freeze at different movements for calculations and analysis. Even worse, he might be "intellectually bound" and maintaining himself outside the actual reality. The third stage, the stage of artlessness, occurs when, after years of serious and hard practice, he realizes that, after all, Gung Fu is nothing special and instead of trying to impose his mind, he adjust himself to the opponent like water pressing on an earthen wall - it flows through the slightest crack. There is nothing to "try" to do but be purposeless and formless like water. Nothingness prevails; he no longer is confined. These three stages also apply
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to the various methods being practiced in Chinese Gung Fu. Some methods are rather primitive with basic jerky blocking and striking. On the whole, they lack the flow and change of combinations. Some "sophisticated" methods on the other hand, tend to run to ornamentation and get carried away by grace and showmanship. They whether from the so-called "firm" or "gentle" school, often involve big, fancy movements with a lot of complicated steps toward a single goal (it is like an artist who, not satisfied with drawing a simple snake, proceeds to put four beautiful and shapely feet on the snake). When grasped by the collar, for example, these practioners would "first do this, then this and finally that" - but of course the direct way would be to let him have the pleasure of grasping the collar (he is grasping it anyway) and simply punch him straight on the nose! To some martial artists of distinguishing taste, this would be little bit unsophisticated; too ordinary and unartful. However, it is the ordinary that we use and encounter in everyday life. Art is the expression of the self; the more complicated and restrictive a method is, the lesser the opportunity for the expression of one's original sense of freedom. The techniques, although they play an important role in the earlier, should not be too complex, restrictive or mechanical. If we cling to them we will become bound by their limitations. Remember that man created method and not that method created man and do not strain yourself in twisting into someone's preconceived pattern, which unquestionably would be appropriate for him, but not necessarily for you. You yourself are "expressing" the technique and not "doing" the technique; in fact, there is no doer but the action itself. When someone attacks you, it is not technique number one (or is it "technique number two?") that you use, but the moment you're aware of his attack you simply move in like sound; an echo without any deliberation. It is as though when I call, you answer me or, when I throw something, you catch it. That's all.

Yogic Breathing :

Kundalini Yoga is an ancient system of exercise, breath control and meditation using safe and comprehensive techniques that enhance awareness and increase vitality. We can be healthier, unleash healing powers, strengthen our immune, nervous and glandular systems, enjoy greater stamina and flexibility. A happier life can be ours. We can stimulate creativity, increase mental energy, heighten concentration and experience greater joy with Kundalini Yoga. Yoga Breathing : Before we can improve our breathing we must remember that the process existed long before we did we have nothing to teach it. What we have to do is to prepare ourselves to receive its revitalising strength by removing any obstacles that might hinder its good effects. Proper breathing depends on our eliminating tension, correcting bad habits, wrong mental and physical attitudes; the moment we get rid of these obstacles it will come into its own and bring us vitality and good health. The corsets of 1900 are no longer in fashion, but there is still more than one item of clothing which prevents us from normal breathing - leather belts for men, girdles and bras for women. These must be as flexible as possible if they are not to hinder respiration. But the physical obstacles are even more daunting: the hard tense stomach which encumbers every breath, imprisoning the personality; the rib-cage as
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inflexible as a breast-plate; the diaphragm immobilised by the wind - itself caused by spasms - which has accumulated in the alimentary canal. The first step is to relax all these muscles, which when permanently tense are designed more successfully than any corset to prevent normal breathing; and this is why relaxation is the open door to yoga. PRIORITY GIVEN TO EXHALATION In the act of respiration, Westerners give precedence to the in-drawing of the breath. Yoga, on the other hand, maintains that all good respiration begins with a slow and complete exhalation, and that this perfect exhalation is an absolute prerequisite of correct and complete inhalation, for the very simple reason that, until a receptacle is emptied, it cannot be filled. Unless we first breathe out fully it is impossible to breathe in correctly. Normal respiration therefore, begins with a slow calm exhalation carried out by relaxing of the inspiratory muscles. The chest is depressed by its own weight, expelling the air. This out breath must be as silent as every other action involved in breathing (you should not hear yourself breathe), and because it is silent, it will also be slow. At the end of the expiration the abdominal muscles help the lungs to empty to their fullest extent, by means of a contraction which expels the last traces of tainted air. The spongy make-up of the lungs does not allow them to be emptied completely - there is always a residue of impure air in the lungs. We must attempt to minimise this "residue" because with the fresh air provided by inhalation it makes up the actual air we breathe. The more complete the exhalation, therefore, the greater the quantity of fresh air to enter the lungs, and so the purer the air in contact with the alveolar surfaces. The total volume of air which the lungs are able to contain is known as "the vital capacity". A more apt term cannot be imagined, and innumerable techniques have been thought up aimed at increasing this capacity. Before we can contemplate this improvement we must make use of what we already possess by carefully exhaling. Yoga recognises three separate forms of breathing - diaphragmatic, intercostal, and clavicular. Complete yogic breathing combines all three, and constitutes the ideal technique. DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING The majority of men breathe in this way. The diaphragm subsides while the breath is drawn in, and the abdominal region swells. This is the least faulty method of breathing. The base of the lungs fills with air, and the rhythmic lowering of the diaphragm produces a constant, gentle massage of the whole abdominal content, and helps these organs to function correctly. INTERCOSTAL BREATHING This is achieved by raising the ribs through dilating the thoracic cage or chest wall like a pair of bellows. It is a form of breathing which fills the middle section of the lungs, allowing less air to enter than the abdominal respiration, and more important, involving far more effort! This is 'athletic' respiration. When combined with abdominal breathing it ventilates the lungs satisfactorily. CLAVICULAR BREATHING Air is introduced by raising the collar-bone and shoulders. In this way, only the upper part of the lungs receives any fresh air. It is the least satisfactory method of breathing and is often characteristic of women. COMPLETE BREATHING Complete yogic respiration incorporates all three methods, integrated into one single, full and rhythmic movement. The method is best studied while you are lying on your back, here is a brief description of the various phases: 1.Empty the lungs entirely. 2.Slowly lower the diaphragm allowing air to enter the lungs. When the abdomen swells filling the bottom of the lungs with air... 3Expand the ribs without straining, then... 4Allow the lungs to completely fill by raising the collar-bones.
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Throughout this procedure, the air should enter in a continuous flow, without gasping. No noise must be made for it is essential to breathe silently! It is of the utmost importance to concentrate the mind entirely upon the action of breathing! When the lungs are completely filled, breathe out, in the same sequence as when inhaling. Now breathe in again in the same way. You may continue for as long as you wish. It should not induce any discomfort of fatigue. You can practice it at any time of day, whenever you think of it, at work, walking, any time; breathe consciously and as completely as possible. Gradually you will acquire the habit of complete respiration, and your method of breathing will improve as you go on. It is essential to reserve daily, for a few minutes' practice, a special time convenient to yourself (the morning when you wake up is a good time, and so is the evening before going to sleep). Whenever you feel tired, depressed or discouraged do a few complete breathing exercises; your fatigue will disappear magically, your mental balance will be re-established and you will set to work again with renewed will. Inspiration like exhalation must be silent, slow, continuous and easy. Do not blow yourself up like a balloon or tire! Breathe easily without straining. Remember that the ideal respiration is deep, slow, silent, easy. Those engaged in sedentary work are liable to accumulations of blood or to develop congestion in one organ or another. The slowing down of the bloodstream produces wear and premature ageing in the organism. With complete breathing, the bloodstream in our organs is prevented from slowing down to the point where it stagnates and degenerates from "stream" into "marsh". COMPLETE YOGIC RESPIRATION Remember, Inhalation is made up of three partial phases: 1.Diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing induced by lowering and flattening the dome-shaped diaphragm. 2.Intercostal breathing brought about by expanding the rib cage. 3.Clavicular breathing from the top of the lungs, produced by raising the upper part of the thorax. Each of these phases has its own merits, but yogic inspiration is only complete when all three are done in conjunction. How can this breathing be learned? Before attempting to combine them - that is to say before we can achieve in one single, smooth and continuos movement complete and easy filling of the lungs, thereby supplying them with reviving air, and expanding the pulmonary alveoli (all 70 million of them) - we must learn to dissociate the three phases. First of all we practice breathing from the diaphragm. "Strength" in martial arts is different from the strength in weight lifting. In martial applications the intent is to focus the body's strengths toward a small area of application. To execute a correct thrusting punch, the stable ground provides the basis of power, which goes from the feet and is aligned through knees, hips, waist, spine, shoulders, and elbows to the hand. This linked support of the entire body enable a practitioner to "focus" the power of the ground and thereby produce more power than a person using brute strength did. "Ability" according to "Kung Fu" is the general ability that can be used to describe any skill. In martial arts, "ability" refers to the composite strength, speed, endurance, agility, coordination, and technical skill. 1. In motion, move like a thundering wave. 2. When still, be like a mountain. 3. Rising up, be like a monkey. 4. Land swiftly and lightly like a bird. 5. Be steady like a rooster on one leg. 6. One's stance is as firm as a pine tree, yet expresses motion. 7. Spin swiftly and circularly like a wheel.

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8. Bend and flex like a bow. 9. Waft gracefully like a leaf in the wind. 10. Sink like a heavy piece of metal. 11. Prey like a watchful, gliding eagle. 12. Accelerate like a gusty wind. In real life, many martial-arts masters have been famous for using one simple technique to defeat opponents. The process of discovery in the form that one is learning is more important than the final answers at which one arrives, because there is no absolute answer. That is why there are so many varieties of martial arts. Strategy is another important consideration while learning the essences of a form. For example, if an opponent appears strong and maintains an overpowering stature, one can pretend to be weak, even insipid, in order to inducing him to drop his guard or relax his concentration. A sudden powerful attack from this weak-looking position can be physically and emotionally devastating. Conversely, sometimes a confrontation can be disarmed or won by a display of power, but tempered with caution. There is an applicable Chinese proverb: "Attaining victory by inducing fear in your opponent is better than expending yourself in a physical fight." There are many traditional strategies such as "attack by defense," "retreat to attack," and "stay in the center in order to attack from the sides." One can trap an opponent by exposing some area to attack but have a counterattack prepared. A sudden change in rhythm and direction can be effective. When sparring, martial artists need to remember not to hurry to succeed and to not try to win through strength. Wisdom and courage are the most important factors. The keys for winning are sharp eyes, fast hands, courage, strong stance, and solid strength, combined with a confusing combination of techniques. The bodyguards of the Dalai Lama have been rumored to be trained in various forms of martial arts. The training appears to be very much like the martial arts still practiced in India, not a surprising revelation considering the influence India has had over Tibet. The Indian martial arts tradition has a long and proud history dating back well before the birth of the Buddha. Its great classical epics, Rig Veda, Ramayana and Mahabharata, describe boxing, wrestling and virtually all forms of combat with weapons. The warrior caste had its own well developed martial art form, which was sometimes referred to as Vajra-mushti, literally "Thunderbolt fist." It consisted of grappling, boxing, gymnastics, weaponry and the study of vital point striking. It is known that the Buddha received similar instruction beginning at age seven. Among the rest of the population, two forms of combat flourished Chinese martial arts has a long history. There are two major opinions concerning the origin of Chinese martial arts. Some experts, on the one hand, say that the buds of Chinese martial arts started during the period of primitive society. In order to survive, humans had to fight against animals and against each other, and sometimes had to use simple "weapons" such as rocks, tree branches and so on to fight. An obvious weakness of the Shaolin monks exhibition was the lack of women, absolutely none were to be seen, yet the most popular style of Kung Fu was devised by a woman and improved upon by another woman whom the style is named after, it is called Wing Chun. A nun called Ng Mui worked for many years trying to develop a fighting system which did not require great muscular strength to be effective, after her death one of her students, Yim Wing Chun continued her work and to this day 'Wing Chun' Kung Fu is practised in the same manner all over the world the way Yim Wing Chun taught. The style is noted for its economy of movement, its no frills effectiveness, its simplicity and its ability to overcome opponents who may be many times stronger than the practicioner. To put simply, both these women realised that generally speaking, women did not have the muscular power of men and the principle of meeting force with force was a misguided macho one. Instead they drew power from Chi and met force with gentle responses that turned force back on the opponent, in doing so Yim Wing Chun was able to overpower all the male fighters in the temple and completely
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change peoples ideas about the fighting arts. Ki is the Japanese word for life force, spirit, or energy. The actual Kanji character used to represent its meaning is traditionally interpreted as representing steam, mist, or atmospheric pressure (such as in the word Kiatsu.) The usage of this particular character illustrates the nature of Ki: that it is something to be felt rather than seen or heard. It also represents the seemingly intangible quality of Ki. That is to say, that it is something to be experienced rather than discussed or written about. Its intangible aspects are further magnified by its subjective nature--each person's experience with it differing slightly. Steam never makes the same pattern twice as it rises through the air The Japanese are not the only culture to recognize the existence of Ki. The Chinese are probably the ones who introduced it to the Japanese in the first place. They refer to it as Chi. Much of the Chinese culture is formed from their aprior belief in it. Chi-Nese, Tai Chi, Chi Kung (Qi Gong), Feng Shui, acupuncture, and all aspects of Traditional Chinese medicine are based on the notion that the physical ills of the body are caused by a change in one's Chi. As a result, the state of one's Chi (excesses, deficiencies, blockages, etc.) must be addressed before any real permanent healing can take place in the body. Predating the Chinese, the Indian culture also has recognized the existence of a biological life-force or energy. In Traditional Indian Yoga, this energy carries the name Prana. It is an important aspect of Indian Yogic systems, and its cultivation and development is realized through the practice known as Pranayana. The Indian culture like the Chinese view this energy as being paramount to maintaining the health and well-being of the human body. Most systems of Ki development center around a spot in the body located two to four inches below the naval and about an inch inside. This spot is called the Seika Tanden (or Seika No Itten) in Japanese, the Dan Tian in Chinese, and is referred to as Svadishthana Chakra in Sanscrit (or Indian culture.) Ki is believed to originate from this spot, also referred to as the One Point (or one's center) in English. And through the practice of breathing and concentration exercises, one is able to gain mastery over the force already naturally present in one's organic makeup at birth. In many Asian societies, the quality of life is considered to directly correlate with the flow of Ki in the body: its strength and condition. Practitioners of healing arts such as Reiki, Acupressure, and Jin Shin Do work to balance and strengthen a client's Spirit by conducting Ki through their hands and into the acupoints (Tsubos) and meridians of the patient. Thus, positively affecting the person's physical condition and well-being. The application of Ki energy is not limited to the practice of healing arts, though. Many believe that the way to maintain a healthy existence is not to get injured in the first place. To that end, some have applied the practice of Ki development to the realization of combat skills in the martial arts. Many Chinese historians believe that the art of Kung Fu originated from Chi Kung (the Chinese practice of health and longevity through the cultivation of Chi.) In many respects, the practices of Chi Kung and Tai Chi are not far removed from the deadly strikes and kicks practiced in Kung Fu. This because students of the potentially dangerous art are taught to deliver their strikes with Chi rather than the more conventional methods used in the West of strength and body dynamics. Because of this emphasis, much time is spent learning to cultivate, control, and direct Chi. Ai (from the verb Au): meaning to fit or harmonize, Ki: meaning energy; written in semi-cursive script. In Japan, the presence of Ki in martial arts is represented by a whole host of disciplines. In the Bujutsu arts of the Samurai, many a sword strike, throw, or arm-breaking technique was applied in conjunction with the principles of AiKi (see above characters.) That is to say, the method of harmonizing one's Ki with that of an opponents, to ultimately bring about their defeat. In Traditional Okinawan Karate, it is realized through the practice of Ikken Hisatsu, or one-strike kill training. Practitioners of KyoKushinRyu Karate-Do were infamous for their ability to kill a bull with one strike to the head. The Japanese, like their Chinese predecessors, recognized the effectiveness of utilizing Ki for martial employment .
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This was a natural conclusion since the Chinese arts are credited as being the roots of their Japanese counterparts. Karate practitioners strengthen their Ki through intense training. In Aikido, the influence of Ki is even more readily apparent. The name itself betrays its relationship: Ai-Ki-Do. The locks, throws, pins, escapes, etc. found in the art are based almost entirely around Ki and moving from the Seika Tanden. Many of the throws are called AikiNage or KokyuNage techniques. Meaning, that they are powered entirely by AiKi rythmic principles. Aikido therefore quickly established itself as a martial discipline that allowed a smaller and physically weaker practitioner to easily topple and pin a much bigger and stronger opponent. It was so effective in fact, that many Aikidoists publicly exhibited their skills against multiple attackers, defeating them without causing serious injury. Koichi Tohei (10th Dan) made quite a splash in the martial arts community when he successfully defeated seven Judo masters at one time, while demonstrating Aikido on the island of Maui at the 1953 All-American Judo Championships. Make one's arm unbendable, and to make one's body unliftable. The sensation of Ki can be anything from a mild tingling to the experience of extreme heat. First time practitioners of Ki development exercises often feel warmth in the Seika Tanden and the palms of the hands. The tingling sensation is most often felt in the toes and fingertips. Advanced practitioners can sometimes tell if their Ki is blocked if they don't feel this tingling in their extremities when they practice their development exercises. Since ideally the Ki spreads out from the One Point to the limbs and head. Ki is often felt as a warmth or tingling in the hands One Ki meditation exercise, which comes from the Tempukai in Japan, involves focusing the mind in the Seika Tanden, and then allowing the focus to expand to the limbs; finally out into the Universe. This expansion exercise is often followed by a contraction exercise, in which one imagines Ki coming from the Universe, entering the body; finally finding its way back to the One Point. Through these and other exercises, one is able to direct and control their own Ki--becoming more sensitive to how it moves, where it flows, and where it might be blocked. YOGIC BREATHING TECHNIQUES 1. DEERGHA SWAASAM (DEEP BREATHING) Technique: Exhale slowly through the nose. At the end of the exhalation, pull the abdomen in slightly. Then inhale slowly. Begin by releasing the abdomen and allowing it to expand fully. Continue to inhale while expanding the lower chest and then the upper chest until the collarbones rise slightly. The abdominal muscles will automatically slightly contract as the chest becomes full. Soon after, without holding the breath, exhale slowly. First drop the col H. arbones, then contract the chest, and then the stomach, one section flowing into the other. In both the inhalation and the excalation, the breath should be one continuous flow. Repeat this breathing slowly and steadily. Benefits: This method of three-part deep breathing fills the lungs to capacity and empties them thoroughly, enabling you to supercharge the system with seven times as much oxygen and prana as in a normal breath. 2. NAADI SUDDHI (NERVE PURIFICATION) Technique: This is the same as deep breathing, but you alternate thc nostrils. Stage 1- Make a gentle fist with the right hand, releasing the tht: mb and the last two fingers. This is the Vishnu Mudra. It is used when alternating or closing off the nostrils in pranayama. Now, close the right nostril with the thumb and exhale slowly through the left as much air as possible without any strain. At the end of the exhalation, slowly, without any sudden jerk, start inhaling through the same, left nostril. Take a slow, steady, three-part deep breath. At the end of the inhalation, gently change the nostrils by closing the left nostril with the last two fingers, releasing the thumb, and
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exhaling through the right nostril. Start the exhalation slowly and steadily, without any sudden jerk. Exhale completely, pulling the abdomen in slightly at the end to expel the maximum amount of air. Now inhale through the right nostril, close it off, and then exhale through the left. This constitutes one round. Repeat this process as many times as feels comfortable, employing the slow, three-part deep breathing. The pattern is: exhale, inhale, switch nostrils. Stage 2- When you are comfortable with the practice, you can begin to make the exhalation take longer than the inhalation, s]Lowly creating a ratio of 1:2, so that the exhalation takes twice as long as the inhalation. For example, if you inhaled for a count of five, you would exhale for a count of ten. You can mentally count a.,,.~ you do the breathing. Count "OM 1, OM 2, OM 3, etc.," instead of simply, "1, 2., 3." This will give you an accurate second count, as well as the added beneficial vibration. Once you've established a 1:2 ratio, practice at a given count until you can comfortably do at least ten rounds in a sitting. Then, increase the count by one. For example, if you are breathing at a 5:10 count, once you can comfortably do ten rounds in a sitting, increase the count to 6:12. Then practice at the new count until you can comfortably do at least ten rounds in a sitting. In the same manner, increase the count to 7:14, 8:16, 9:18, and lastly to 10:20. After reaching 10:20, don't increase the count, but simply increase the number of rounds per sitting. Once you reach this final stage of Naadi Suddhi, and only then, are you, ready to begin the practice of retention. When you develop your practice of Naadi Suddhi in this slow, systematic way, the entire system gets purified and strengthened, making it fit for retention of the breath. So you should not practice Sukha Purvaka or Bastrika until you've developed your Naadi Suddhi to this point. If you ignore this caution, you could cause harm to your body and mind. But if you take your time and build slowly, you will enjoy enormous benefits. Benefits: Naadi Suddhi brings lightness of body, alertness of mind, good appetite, proper digestion, and sound sleep. 3. SUKHA PURVAKA (EASY, COMFORTABLE BREATH) Technique: When you can comfortably practice Naadi Suddhi at a 10:20 count for ten rounds in a sitting, you can add a retention after the inhalation. This is then Sukha Purvaka. The pattern is: exhale, inhale, retain, switch nostrils. Begin with a retention of five, so that your count is 10:5:20, inhaling to ten and exhaling to twenty. With this ratio, do several rounds, and gradually, week by week, increase the number of breaths till you can comfortably do at least ten rounds in a sitting. Then, increase the count to 10:10:20. Again, start with several rounds and gradually work up to at least ten rounds in a sitting. In this manner, gradually increase the retention in increments of five, till you reach forty, so the final count would be 10:40:20. The inhalation remains at ten, and the exhalation at twenty. This final count should be reached very slowly; it may even take several years to attain. After this is reached, you keep the same count, but increase the number of rounds per sitting. At no time as you develop your practice should there be the least strain in the system. The flow of the breath should remain slow arid steady, and there should be no dizziness or discomfort. Benefits: Sukha Purvaka has all the benefits of Naadi Suddhi, plus it enriches the quality of the blood and ensures perfect physical health. The mind becomes very Clear and steady, enabling good concentration. 4. KAPAALABHAATI (SKULL SHINING) Technique: This is rapid diaphragmatic breathing. Have a forceful exhalation caused by snapping the abdomen inward, and then an equally forceful inhalation caused by snapping the abdomen outward. Alternate the forceful exhalation and inhalation as many times as you can comfortably do. After the

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last expulsion, inhale deeply using the three-part breath and exhale as slowly as is comfortable. This constitutes one round. Do, three rounds. Start with a few expulsions per round, and gradually increase the number according to your capacity. Do not hurry this breathing at any point. If dizziness occurs, discontinue and let the breath return to normal. Between rounds, take a few normal breaths. Benefits: Kapaalabhaati is so called because it cleanses the naadis in the skull. It helps to burn out the excess mucous that causes sinus problems and allergies. Strictly speaking, Kapaalabhaati is a kriya or cleansing practice, but it is included in the pranayama section because it is helpful in learning Bastrika. 5. BASTRIKA (BELLOWS BREATHING), Technique: This, also, is rapid diaphragmatic breathing. Have a forceful exhalation caused by snapping the abdomen inward as in Kapaalabhaati, but for the inhalation, simply relax the abdomen and let the air return naturally. So there is a series of forced exhalations, followed by relaxed, natural inhalations. After the last expulsion, inhale deeply using the three-part breath. Retain the breath while bending the neck, bringing the chin as close to the chest as possible. This is called Jaalandhra Bandha or the Chin Lock. Then raise the head slowly and exhale slowly and evenly through the nose. This constitutes one round. Do three rounds. Start with a few expulsions per round, and gradually increase the number according to your capacity. Do not hurry this breathing at any point, nor retain the breath beyond your capacity. If the breath comes rushing out on the exhalation, then you've held the retention too long. If dizziness occurs, discontinue and let the breath return to normal. Between rounds, take a few normal breaths. Benefits: Bastrika exhilarates the blood circulation and stimulates the entire body quickly. It brings heat to the body when it is cold, and can be used to help keep the body warm during the winter. It improves digestion, removes phlegm, and helps in curing asthma and consumption. It builds up and strengthens the entire respiratory system. 6. SITALI (COOLING BREATH) Technique: First, exhale completely through the nose. Then, curl the tongue lengthwise like a tube. Project the tip of the tongue outside the mouth. Draw the air in through the tube with a hissing sound, concentrating on the cooling feeling. Fill the lungs completely. Draw in the tongue, close the mouth, and retain the air for a few seconds. Then, have a slow, complete exhalation through the nose. This constitutes one round. Do up to three rounds. The rounds can be in succession; you needn't take normal breaths between the rounds. Benefits: Sitali is very useful for cooling the body. It helps to remove heat, thirst, hunger, and sleep. It can be practiced more in the summer to cool down the system, and it can even be used to bring down a fever. 7. SITKAARI (WHEEZING BREATH) Technique: First, exhale completely through the nose. Then, curl the tip of the tongue back so that it touches the upper palate. Gently clench the teeth. Suck in the breath through the clenched teeth with a hissing sound. Fill the lungs completely. Hold for a few seconds, and then have a slow, complete exhalation through the nose. This constitutes one round. Do up to three rounds. The rounds can be in succession; you needn't take normal breaths between the rounds. Benefits: The same as for Sitali, as well as strengthening the gums. 8. BRAHMARI (HUMMING BEE) Technique: Inhale through the nostrils, filling the lungs completely. Exhale, making a humming sound. Feel the vibration on or behind the soft palate. You can repeat several times, varying the pitch with each round. Have a low pitch on the first round, then make the pitch higher on subsequent
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rounds, and then back to very low on the last round. Benefits: Brahmari tones the vocal chords and creates sound vibrations for concentration. 9. UJJAYI (HISSING BREATH) Technique: After a complete exhalation, inhale slowly and evenly while partially closing the glottis so that a continuous, soft hissing sound is heard within the head. The sound should be of even pitch and intensity throughout. Avoid all friction in the nose as you expand the lungs to capacity. Then exhale completely, producing the hissing sound in the same manner. Benefits: Ujjayi increases the control over the breath and is an aid to concentration. It relieves heat in the head and increases the digestive fire. It helps in the cure of asthma, consumption, and other pulmonary diseases. It adds luster to the face.

Women's Self-Defense through Martial Arts [Safety, confidence, self-empowerment, and positive interactions ] Question is not "Do I need martial arts to keep myself safe?", but "What might I gain from martial arts training?" Self-defence is not a single skill or a rigid set of rules. Rather, it is a collection of habits, attitudes, and activities -- resources, or tools, that you can use to form an overall approach to your own safety and well-being. Self-defense -- in other words, keeping yourself physically and emotionally safe -- usually boils down to stopping a dangerous situation as soon as you recognize that you're in it. Goal for women in Martial Arts is to give people access to verbal, emotional, and physical tools to stop abuse and assault, increase their skills and confidence, and improve the quality of their interactions. Is Martial Arts Training for Me? A lot of people feel that the only way to get real self-defence training is to invest years in taking a martial art. They point with pride at the awesome strength, speed, precision, and power of the experienced martial artist, and contend that in order to feel really confident in an attack situation, one needs to painstakingly acquire the skills that have been time-tested over centuries. The truth is that training in a traditional martial art has many benefits aside from self-defence skills, and that you can learn effective self-defence skills without traditional training. Fitness. A fit body is more able to defend you, as well as more able to get you through the day with energy, resilience, and enthusiasm. Martial arts are an unusually good way to get fit. Even within one martial art there is a lifetime of techniques and skills to master: it's easy to stay interested and motivated. And there is a place for everyone, regardless of their level of fitness: while the more vigorous martial arts provide the quickest results in terms of increasing your fitness, the gentler arts, such as Tai Ch'i, also provide a good workout, and are ideal for people who have been sedentary for a while. (At the more advanced levels they can be quite demanding!) Strength. Martial arts are unparalleled for helping your body get stronger. Most arts include exercises and warmups designed to work the large muscle groups (such as triceps or quadriceps). And martial arts fall into the category of "weight-bearing exercises": in other words, they make your bones stronger and help forestall and reduce the effects of osteoporosis.

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Coordination. The intricacy of many martial arts challenges body awareness and helps you learn about how your body moves. Many people experience a marked increase in overall coordination that carries over to other sports and activities. Fortitude. Training in a martial art is demanding, no doubt about it. Knowing you have prevailed in a strenuous and difficult activity can give you the emotional strength to accept other challenges in your life. Moreover, many martial arts include some degree of physical contact; learning to deal with this contact can help you keep your head in an attack situation. Focus. Martial arts traning requires a high degree of concentration. Students must pay attention to every muscle at all times, at the same time they are paying attention to the teacher, to their partner, and to their own attitude. After a while, the ordinary demands of work seem easier! Cross-cultural awareness. Most martial arts are the products of non-European cultures. Studying the traditions and conventions of a martial art can give you a window of understanding into the culture from which it comes. Good times. Martial arts are usually a group actvity. You're sure to meet people who share at least one of your interests! The shared demands of training can build friendship and camaraderie. Most schools also have social events and special training events. If this sounds attractive to you, you may be asking yourself whether you are the "right" kind of person to train in martial arts. The answer is that there is no "right" or "wrong" person. People of all backgrounds, athletic abilities, and ages have successfully begun -- and kept on -- training in a myriad of different arts. It's important, however, to spend some time and effort finding a style and a school that's right for you. It's more important to find the right school and teacher than it is to choose a particular style. Here are some guidelines for evaluating a school: The school should let you -- in fact, encourage you to -- observe a class. The instructors should be unfailingly polite, respectful, and cheerful to the students. Classes should look organised, with instruction appearing to follow a lesson plan. Students should behave respectfully and attentively at all times, and should continue their respectful behaviour when class is finished. There should never be any roughhousing or dangerous play, or displays of temper on anyone's part. If there are women in the class, they should be treated the same as the men, not given constant concessions to their supposed fragility, yet not brutalised or otherwise singled out. (If there are no women, it might be a good idea to ask why not.) The key to recognising a good school is to watch how they treat students without natural athletic ability. Do instructors focus only on the stars, leaving the strugglers to muddle along as best they can? Do they point out struggling students for ridicule? Do they appear irritated at questions or requests for help? All of these are trouble signs. In the end, the best guide is your gut feeling. And don't feel like you're stuck for life with your decision. If it turns out that the school just doesn't suit you, don't give up on martial arts entirely. Be patient and persistent, and you will find the right place to train. Here are some tips and thoughts for you to incorporate into your self-defence "toolbox". "None of us knows more than all of us." What can you do to reach out to others, give and receive help, and offer and learn new skills and information? Tell your friends some of the things you already know
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about self-defence, for example -- it's shocking how little information most women have been able to find, and something that you may have known for years or consider "just common sense" may be a crucial piece of new information for a friend or co-worker. Playing "observation games" during times when you're waiting for a train or bus (or otherwise just cooling your heels) is a good way to sharpen your environmental awareness. See if you can identify anyone by accent, for example, or if you can notice anyone wearing purple socks, or how many earrings the person down the platform has. Noticing detail is a skill that improves markedly with practice, and it could help you notice and avoid a potentially threatening situation. Tomorrow, on your way home from work or as you're out running, you can make it a point to spot places of refuge you can duck into should there ever be trouble on the way. If you carry a whistle or an aerosol horn (or other noisemaker), go to an isolated -- or soundproofed -spot and practise using it. If you're familiar with it before an emergency, you're more likely to be able to use it effectively and quickly. A cup of coffee, a handful of coins, sand, or pebbles, even a Diet Coke can all be emergency weapons to throw in a would-be attacker's face and buy you a few seconds to escape or plan your defence. Get to know your neighbours! They can be a resource for you in a frightening moment. Few people realise that running with your head down and your eyes glued to the ground in front of your feet also limits your field of perception. Lifting your head will not only improve your safety -- it will help your breathing, posture, and confidence, too! One of the most important facets of self-defence is keeping yourself as healthy and well-rested as possible. Why not take a nap, first chance you get? Another important aspect of self-defence is treating yourself with respect and regard. What nice thing can you do for yourself today? What new skill can you learn to boost your self-confidence? The attitudes of the people around you affect the strategies that will work for you. If you allow yourself to be aware of these attitudes, you will be better prepared to cope with them. Visualisation can be a powerful tool for learning and success. Picture yourself successfully defending yourself, verbally and physically. Imagine the scene in as great detail as possible. Most importantly, make sure the scenario has a happy ending! Ignore the temptation to go over all your worries and what-ifs. Practising success this way will help you teach yourself instant and appropriate action, and it will teach your mind to override potentially immobilising negative thoughts. If you go to a gym, consider adding weight training to your workout. If you already do weights, consider focusing more attention on upper-body strength. This can minimise the strength disadvantage most women have versus most men. It can be safer to ask for help from a passerby than to accept help that is unasked-for (for example, if your car has broken down). There is the chance, however slight, that someone who approaches you is not actually helpful, but instead has targeted you in your plight as a potential victim. Attacks come in thousands of different forms: a holdup, a beating, an argument, stalking, harassment, long-term physical or emotional abuse, attacks with weapons, attacks by strangers, by family members, by bosses, by friends -- in each situation the safest response may be completely different. When you're deciding on strategies for yourself, it helps to group attacks into several different categories. Property crimes -- the attacker wants your wallet, your car, your CD player -- some thing that you have.

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Attacks by strangers -- these are usually physical (such as an attempted beating or rape), although they can take the form of verbal intimidation, or combine both. They are usually a surprise to one degree or another. Acquaintance attacks -- these run the gamut in terms of mode (physical, verbal, or both), severity (from mere annoying to life-threatening), and suddenness. Virtually all attacks -- sudden or expected, planned or impulsive -- have one thing in common: the attacker has certain expectations about what is "supposed to happen" during the attack. You can use these expectations to maximize your own chances of escaping serious harm. NOTE: there are no certainties. Every situation, and every individual's response to a given situation, is unique. However, you can prepare yourself for dangerous situations and improve your odds. Property crimes Most of the time, the attacker in a property crime neither wants nor expects violence. Fine -- you both want the same thing, at least as far as your safety is concerned. In this case, the attacker's expectations -- that you will surrender your stuff and go your way unharmed -- work for you. Statistically, you are safest in a property attack if you immediately accede to the attacker's demands. Attacks by strangers In marked contrast to property crimes, attackers in an attempted rape or assault are expecting violence -- theirs. Your response depends on your gender. The overwhelming majority of violent attackers are men. However, men attack men with different motivations and methods than men attack women. Male versus male Usually, a man will attack another man when he wants a fight. Using the pretext of some perceived violation of space or rights, he relies on men's social conditioning to provoke and escalate a conflict. You can use his expectations to your own advantage by calmly and politely acknowledging his complaint and doing what you can to accommodate him. For example, if he starts trying to provoke a fight by accusing you of talking with his girlfriend, apologize and leave the situation as soon as you can. He is expecting either conflict or cowardice: thwart him by offering neither. If he continues to pursue you, keep yourself calm; don't let his insults trigger your "fight or flight" response. If the situation does deteriorate to the point where you have to defend yourself physically, strike quickly and effectively, with no posturing, swearing, or theatrics. If you choose to report the incident to the police, do it immediately. Male versus female In this case, the attacker is expecting you not to fight. His aim is to intimidate, humiliate, dominate. He is relying on the fact that most women don't know what to do in an attack, and that they've been told not to resist a physical or verbal assault. Again, you can use these expectations to your advantage. If the attack is verbal (such as insults, name-calling, or threats), you can often deter not only the shouting but possible physical violence as well by immediately and firmly telling the attacker to stop. Attacks by acquaintances While acquaintance attacks can happen suddenly, most of the time tensions build up slowly. An acquaintance attacker will often "test the boundaries," annoying or upsetting you in small ways to see how you react before escalating the attack. The attacker's expectation is that patterns of behavior that have developed over a period of time (often years or even decades) will persist unchallenged. As the defender, your strategy is particularly demanding: you must find a way to break the pattern not only for your attacker, but for yourself. This could involve something as simple as responding to a familiar taunt with a laugh instead of withdrawal, or as complex as professional counselling. Some strategies you might use for changing the pattern of a threatening or uncomfortable situation include: Suggesting an alternative activity instead of one that leads to tense situations (for example if you always fight when you go bowling together, try a movie or a trip to the climbing gym).

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Minimizing the time you spend alone with the person or people who make you uncomfortable. Practicing speaking your opinion in small matters without letting emotions or old habits of conflict take over; work your way up to being able to assert yourself in situations that are serious physical or emotional threats. Tell someone -- or many people -- about any of the possible attacker's behaviors that bother or upset you. Another expectation of the acquaintance attacker is that you will be too ashamed or afraid to speak out and tell what has happened or could happen. If the attack escalates suddenly or takes you unawares, you may need to use the verbal and physical defense techniques like these : Physical techniques These street-tested techniques rely on speed and decisiveness rather than strength: that is, if you decide you need to fight, do it wholeheartedly. Strike quickly, with no hesitation or vacillation, and remember to use the power of your voice. It doesn't matter what you yell; just make a lot of noise. It gives your strikes markedly more power, it can make your attacker reconsider and break off the attack, it can attract the attention of passers-by, and it keeps you breathing. Eyestrike This technique is a quick, snapping motion to the attacker's eyes. Keep the fingers and thumb together to form a strong, stable, and pointed striking tool. (Don't worry, you won't poke the attacker's eye out. But you will make the attacker blink, and may cause enough distraction and discomfort that you can get away, or at least get a clear opportunity for one of the other strikes listed below.) Palm strike This technique is also a quick, snapping upward (not out in front of you) motion to the attacker's nose or underneath the chin. (And don't worry, you won't drive the attacker's nose into his brain and kill him. However, you can seriously rattle the attacker, and may even knock him out with this strike, if you deliver it quickly and with gusto.) Stomp This strike is most effective if you stomp onto the part of the attacker's foot that joins the shin (rather than the toes). To keep your own knees safe, bend both knees when you stomp. (Incidentally, while fashionable shoes are usually a liability in a self-defense situation, they really come into their own on this technique: pointed heels, hard plastic soles, or heavy boots give your stomp extra emphasis.) Groin strike This strike is most effective after you've already distracted your attacker with one of the techniques above (the attacker is less able to anticipate your strike and protect his groin). The keys to making the groin strike really debilitating are: 1)to grab your attacker and pull yourself right close in as you raise your knee; and 2)to push off the ground with your back leg (not your front leg) up into the attacker's groin. Success Stories A graduate of one of women's self-defence classes was working in a store with another woman. A customer entered the store, assaulted the other worker with a knife held to her stomach, and demanded the contents of the till. The graduate stayed calm. Realising that any quick or aggressive movements could mean her friend would get badly -- perhaps fatally -- cut, she immediately handed over the money and concentrated on memorising every detail she could about the assailant's appearance and mannerisms, to aid police later. Her clear thinking, courage, and intelligent decision-making kept her and her friend safe in what could have been a tragic situation. (Later, the graduate found out that a person nearby had noticed someone matching the assailant's

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description hanging out in front of the store for quite some time, although he did not take any action to alert either the store employees or the police. Moral: even if it turns out in the end to be nothing, don't be afraid to call attention to something that doesn't seem right! Our instincts and "gut feelings" are powerful tools for our safety!) A woman who had participated in martial arts workshops was walking late at night when she noticed someone walking towards her. As he came nearer, he said, "Come over here so I can f... you." She immediately crossed to the other side of the street, hoping he was too drunk to follow. Unfortunately, he did follow her, continuing to make obscene suggestions. She turned to face him and shouted at him to leave her alone and go away. When he didn't leave immediately, she shouted again. At that, he left. The woman kept herself safe through a combination of observation and paying attention to her intuition, remaining alert even after she had crossed the street, refusing to be intimidated by the man's verbal assault, turning to confront him when it was obvious that he was not going to leave her alone, communicating clearly and forcefully that she was not a victim, and making it obvious through her demeanor that she could back up her demands that he leave her alone. Just as important, she kept herself safe with appropriate, non-physical techniques. With courage, resourcefulness, and intuition, she chose a self-defence strategy that worked without violence.

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