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lpe/Mc/caMe
E npoparaomom vypco ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa naaram1cn
vav 1papnnonnwo vaccnnocvno mo1opw, 1av n conpomon-
nwo, vo1opwo noannvn n nocopnno pocn1no1nn. oc1nn-
1ornwo nnca nnopn1cn avcnoma1nnocvn. 01o1 ny1r pao1
noamoxnoc1r nanooo vomnav1no n nono naoxn1r no-
oxopnmwo pn ananaa cnoponnn o nncax. Emoc1o c 1om on
n ornnocvn nanooo conopmonon, nocvorvy npn ppyrnx,
1av naawnaomwx vonc1pyv1nnnwx, mo1opax noc1poonnn
1oopnn poc1nn1ornwx nnco (vorpa aa ocnony opy1cn
ocvononnwo pocn1nnnwo ppon, nn cononnn n oac1n pa-
nonarnwx nnco, nn vaccw cvnnnaon1nwx qynpa-
mon1arnwx nocopona1ornoc1o panonarnwx nnco) nco
panno nooxopnmo nnopn1r avcnomy cymoc1nonannn (nonpo-
1nnoponnnoc1n) mnoxoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco, oa vo1o-
pwx nponopnmwo noc1poonnn no nmom1 ornnocvn aanop-
monnoro xapav1opa. Hoc1omy npomo ncoro cpaay, ncxopn na
avcnoma1nnocvoro aapannn poc1nn1ornwx nnco, nopo1n
v naynonnm ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa n coc1nonnom cmwco
cona.
E ocnonnom naoxonno ma1opnaa n vypco nopo1cn nnpyv-
1nnnwm mo1opom: no noamoxnoc1n nco nnopnmwo nonn1nn
naynam1cn cnanaa n npoc1omnx cn1yannx n nmr noco
oc1on1ornoro nx paccmo1ponnn n navononnn poc1a1onno-
ro nnca vonvpo1nwx npnmopon nponanopn1cn parnomno
oomonnn. Tav, nanpnmop, nonn1no npopoa cnanaa nayna-
o1cn pn nnconwx nocopona1ornoc1o, aa1om pn qynv-
n opnoro poc1nn1ornoro nopomonnoro, paoo nnopn1cn
nonn1no npopoa o1opaxonnn no mnoxoc1ny n onvnponom
4
npoc1panc1no, npopoa nn1orparnwx cymm n, navono, nco
aanopmao1cn paccmo1ponnom omoro nonn1nn npopoa no
qnr1py n 1onoornnocvom npoc1panc1no. 4opmya Toopa
paccma1pnnao1cn cnanaa pn poc1nn1ornoananno qynv-
nn na o1poavo, a n vono vypca - pn o1opaxonn n-
nonwx nopmnponannwx npoc1panc1n: paccmo1ponno mnoro-
nnconnwx vpn1opnon Komn cymoc1nonannn 1ox nn nnwx
npopoon aanopmao1cn vpn1opnom Komn cymoc1nonannn npo-
poa no qnr1py o1opaxonnn n nonoo mo1pnnocvoo npo-
c1panc1no; naynonno pnpon 4ypro nannnao1cn c paccmo1po-
nnn vaccnnocvnx 1pnronomo1pnnocvnx pnpon n aavannnna-
o1cn naynonnom pnpon 4ypro n rnrop1onwx npoc1panc1nax
no op1oronarnwm cnc1omam; cnoc1na nonpopwnnwx qynv-
n na o1poavax oomam1cn na o1opaxonnn mo1pnnocvnx
vomnav1on n von1nnyymon n 1. p.
ovaawnaomwo 1oopomw no ncorpa qopmynpym1cn c na-
normo omnoc1rm; nnorpa pn ynmoro nwnnonnn cym-
noc1n naynaomoro nonpoca n npon naaraomoro povaaa1orc1-
na paccmo1ponno nponopn1cn nmr pn poc1a1onno rapvnx
qynvn. Tavan 1onva aponnn onpanpana 1avxo 1om, n1o, n
cny no1noc1n rapvnx qynvn n coo1no1c1nymmnx qynv-
nonarnwx npoc1panc1nax, mnorno 1oopomw, povaaannwo
pn rapvnx qynvn, mory1 w1r opnnwm mo1opom c no-
momrm npopornoro nopoxopa noponoconw na ooo mnpovno
vaccw qynvn. K coxaonnm, c1y npom nonoamoxno po-
noc1n po vona oa cymoc1nonnoro ynonnonnn o+oma vnn-
rn. Hoc1omy nonpoc o no1noc1n xopomnx qynvn n paa-
nnnwx qynvnonarnwx npoc1panc1nax paccmo1pon n vyp-
co nmr n npoc1omnx cynanx.
Ha cymoc1nonnwx mo1opnnocvnx nonmoc1n, vo1opwo an-
1op cnn1ao1 oocoopaanwmn, copyo1 o1mo1n1r, n1o npn
onpopoonnn npopoa qynvnn no mnoxoc1ny npn r = r
0
no
1poyo1cn nwnononnn yconnn r = r
0
, 1av vav c1o noanon-
o1 naara1r nonpocw, cnnaannwo c 1oopno npopoon, npomo
n vopono: nanpnmop, camo onpopoonno npopoa poao1cn vo-
pono (na opno yconno monrmo), a 1om camwm ynpomam1cn n
povaaa1orc1na, n vo1opwx ynac1nym1 npopow qynvn; no
nyxno paccma1pnna1r o1porno o1 1oopnn npopoon qynvn

nonpopwnnwo qynvnn; poao1cn narnpnwm n yopn1or-


nwm y1nopxponno, n1o n ma1oma1nvo pncvpo1noc1r nnno1cn
nac1nwm cynaom nonpopwnnoc1n; ynpomam1cn qopmynpon-
va n povaaa1orc1no naxno 1oopomw o npopoo vomnoannn
qynvn n 1. p.
Ocnonnan nac1r ynonnva nocnnmona rannwm nonn1nnm
ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa n nx cnoc1nam. Onapon c1nm ma-
1opnaom, moxno oa ocooro 1pypa camoc1on1orno cnpa-
nn1rcn c naynonnom cnonarnwx nonpocon ma1oma1nvn, vo-
1opwo no1poym1cn n parnomom no popy npoqoccnonarno
pon1ornoc1n.
Bormoo nnnmanno n ynonnvo ypono1cn pomonnm aapan
mo1opamn, ocnonannwmn na naaraomo 1oopnn; vpomo 1oro,
pn camoc1on1orno pao1w povomonpym1cn ynpaxnonnn n
aapann. Pomonno ynpaxnonn nocrma nooano pn av1nnno-
ro ycnoonnn ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa. Emoc1o c 1om nx na-
op no cnoo nono1o nn n voo mopo no aamonno1 aapannnva.
O1pornwo xo na npoparaomwx aapan ponorno 1pypnw. Hx
pomonno no nnno1cn nooxopnmwm pn onaponnn ma1opna-
om n moxo1 no1poona1r ponorno pn1ornoro npomonn.
Kav npanno, onn cnnaanw c nn1opocnwmn n poc1a1onno ry-
ovnmn ma1oma1nnocvnmn qav1amn, nopponoo naoxonno
vo1opwx orpannnono o+omom vnnrn. Vnpaxnonnn nymopy-
m1cn o1porno n vaxpom naparpaqo, nymopann aapan n pn-
cynvon - cvnoanan.
Haoxonno ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa nopo1cn na yponno,
poc1ynnom mnpovomy vpyry c1ypon1on. Eonpocw, nwxopnmno
aa pamvn nporpamm no nwcmo ma1oma1nvo pn nnxonopnwx
n cvonomnnocvnx cnonarnoc1o n nocnnmonnwo ooo ry-
ovomy naynonnm paapoon ananaa, nooxopnmwx c1ypon1am
qnanvo-ma1oma1nnocvnx cnonarnoc1o, o1mononw anoapon-
vo. E cny c1oro ynonnv moxno ncnoraona1r n nwcmnx
ynonwx aanoponnnx c paanwm yponnom ma1oma1nnocvoro o-
paaonannn. 3nann1ornan nac1r ma1opnaa, nomopmoro n
vnnry, n 1ononno mnornx o1 nn1ao1cn an1opom n Mocvoncvom
qnanvo-1oxnnnocvom nnc1n1y1o n ovnonnom vypco ma1oma-
1nnocvoro ananaa.
6
Hac1onmn ynonnv npopc1anno1 coo nopopao1annw
1pox1omnw ynonnv an1opa Kypc ma1oma1nnocvoro anan-
aa, M.: Ewcman mvoa, l988-l989.
An1op nwpaxao1 ryovym aropapnoc1r cnonm vooram
no vaqoppo nwcmo ma1oma1nvn C. M. Hnvorcvomy, E. C. Ea-
pnmnpony, O. E. Bocony, C. A. Tonvoncvomy n I. H. Hvono-
ny, poayr1a1w mnoroo1nnx ocyxponn c vo1opwmn paa-
nnnwx acnov1on vypca namn cnoo nonocpopc1nonnoo o1pa-
xonno n copopxannn vnnrn.
Ocoonno an1op npnana1oon poonaon1am vnnrn -
H. E. Eqnmony n E. A. Hrnny, nopponwo n oc1on1ornwo
poonann vo1opwx noanonn no mnorom yynmn1r naoxo-
nno ma1opnaa.
An1op cnn1ao1 cnonm npnn1nwm porom nwpaan1r aro-
papnoc1r nponopana1onm vaqoppw nwcmo ma1oma1nvn
Mocvoncvoro qnanvo-1oxnnnocvoro nnc1n1y1a K. A. Boxano-
ny, H. A. Bopannncvomy, 4. I. Byaoncvo, A. . Ky1acony,
E. A. Xopavony, E. H. Hoxony, cpoanmnm mnoro nooanwx
aamonann, vo1opwo wn yn1onw npn ovonna1ornom popav-
1nponannn 1ovc1a.
7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bae/eMe
Hn opno noononocvoo nccoponanno no moxo1
naawna1rcn nc1nnno nayvo, ocn ono no npo-
mo nopoa ma1oma1nnocvno povaaa1orc1na.
Hnvavo poc1onopnoc1n no1 n nayvax 1am, rpo no-
ran npnoxn1r nn opny na ma1oma1nnocvnx na-
yv, n n 1om, n1o no nmoo1 cnnan c ma1oma1nvo
l
.
Jeouopoo oo Euuuu
Ma1oma1nva
2
nnno1cn 1onno ac1pav1no nayvo, naynam-
mo cnonarnwo ornnocvno c1pyv1ypw, naawnaomwo ma1o-
ma1nnocvnmn, y vo1opwx onncanw onpopoonnwo o1nomonnn
moxpy nx comon1amn. Kaxpan ma1oma1nnocvan c1pyv1y-
pa - anan1nnocvan, aropannocvan, 1onoornnocvan, nopo-
n1noc1nan n ppyrno nmom1, vononno, cnonarnwo onncannn.
Tonnoc1r ma1oma1nvn oananao1, n1o ocnonnwm mo1opom n
ma1oma1nnocvnx nccoponannnx nnnm1cn ornnocvno pac-
cyxponnn, a poayr1a1w nccoponann qopmynpym1cn n
c1poro ornnocvo qopmo. Ac1pav1noc1r xo ma1oma1nvn
oananao1, n1o o+ov1amn oo naynonnn nnnm1cn no ma1opn-
arnwo o+ov1w nn o1nomonnn moxpy nnmn, a ornnocvno
nonn1nn n o1nomonnn moxpy nnmn. Opnavo naxno nopnopv-
ny1r, n1o o1nomonnn n naanmopoc1nnn moxpy ma1opnarnw-
mn o+ov1amn moxno naynn1r c nomomrm nx ma1oma1nnoc-
voro moponponannn. Eoannvammno 1avnm opaaom ma1oma-
1nnocvno mopon nopopvo npnnopnn n cnom onopopr v coapa-
nnm nonwx ma1oma1nnocvnx c1pyv1yp. Cymoc1nonno 1o, n1o
opna n 1a xo ma1oma1nnocvan mopor moxo1 onncwna1r c on-
popoonnwm npnnxonnom cnoc1na ononr paovnx ppyr o1
ppyra no cnoomy vonvpo1nomy copopxannm poarnwx nno-
nn. n ma1oma1nvn naxna no npnpopa paccma1pnnaomwx
o+ov1on, a nmr cymoc1nymmno moxpy nnmn coo1nomonnn.
Ac1pav1noc1r ma1oma1nvn nopoxpao1 onpopoonnym 1pyp-
noc1r oo npnmononnn v onncannm n pomonnm vonvpo1nwx aa-
l
7 o o n a p p o p a E n n n n. Hapannwo oc1oc1nonnonaynnwo npona-
noponnn. M., l955.
2
(rpon.) - noananno, nayva.
S
pan, n 1o xo camoo npomn ac1pav1noc1r ma1oma1nvn npnpao1
o cny, ynnnopcanam n omnoc1r. Por ma1oma1nvn, vonon-
no, no cnopn1cn 1orvo v onncannm c nomomrm 1ox nn nnwx
mopoo onpopoonnwx c1opon vavnx-1o nnonn. Ona npop-
c1anno1 nn1opoc n nmoo1 ormym onnoc1r npoxpo ncoro
cama no coo vav nayva, vav ananno. Ma1oma1nva pao1 mom-
nwo mo1opw pn noanannn mnpa, pn naynonnn oro aavono-
mopnoc1o.
Ma1oma1nnocvno mo1opw nccoponannn ncorpa nrpan n
npopoxam1 nrpa1r orpomnym, nco ynonnnnammymcn por n
oc1oc1noanannn. E vanoc1no npnmopa moxno npnnoc1n yxo
c1anmno xpoc1oma1nnwmn 1avno 1oopo1nnocvno o1vpw1nn,
vav o1vpw1no nano1w Hon1yn, o1vpw1no cov1pomarnn1-
nwx non nn o1vpw1no noan1pona, cpoannwo cnanaa ma1o-
ma1nnocvn na vonnnvo nopa n nmr no1om namopmno cnoo
cvcnopnmon1arnoo nop1nopxponno.
Ma1oma1nva noyc1anno npopoxao1 paannna1rcn, n no co-
apam1cn nonwo mo1opw, nonnnm1cn nonwo paapow. Paann-
1no ma1oma1nvn n oom onpopono1 ypononr oo ncnoraona-
nnn n ovaawnao1 cymoc1nonnoo nnnnno na paann1no ppyrnx
nayv n 1oxnnvn. E cnom onopopr, aapann npav1nvn, nporpocc
ppyrnx qynpamon1arnwx n npnvapnwx nayv npnnopn1 v
coapannm nonwx nanpanonn ma1oma1nvn, c1nmynpym1 1y
nn nnym nanpanonnoc1r ma1oma1nnocvnx nccoponann,
pacmnpnm1 noamoxnoc1r npnmononnn ma1oma1nnocvnx mo1o-
pon. E cny c1oro oac1r npnmononnn ma1oma1nvn noc1onn-
no pacmnpno1cn. E nocopnoo npomn aropapn nonnonnm
wc1popoc1nymmnx nwnncn1ornwx mamnn n ncnoraona-
nnn ma1oma1nnocvnx mo1opon nponaomo ormo vanoc1-
nonnw cvanov. Onn c1an npnmonn1rcn no 1orvo n 1ox o-
ac1nx, rpo ma1oma1nva ncnoraonaacr yxo panno (nanpn-
mop, n moxannvo, qnanvo), no n n 1ox oac1nx noononocvoro
anannn, rpo ma1oma1nva omo concom nopanno no npnmonn-
acr mao, no oo npnmononno paxo no npopc1annocr noa-
moxnwm (mopnnna, cvonomnva, nnrnnc1nva, conoornn n
1. n.). Hponnvnononno vanoc1nonnwx n vonnoc1nonnwx ma-
1oma1nnocvnx mo1opon n ppyrno nayvn, ncnoraonanno n c1nx
nayvax yxo nmommorocn ma1oma1nnocvoro annapa1a, coapa-
nno nonwx ma1oma1nnocvnx nonn1n n mo1opon pn onncannn
n naynonnn paccma1pnnaomwx nnonn, 1. o. nco 1o, n1o own-
9
no naawnao1cn ma1oma1naano nayvn, nnno1cn xapav1op-
no nop1o ncoro oc1oc1noanannn namnx pno.
Conpomonnw naynnw pao1nnv nn nnxonop poxon n
poc1a1onno c1ononn xopomo napo1r vav vaccnnocvnmn,
1av n conpomonnwmn ma1oma1nnocvnmn mo1opamn nccopona-
nnn, vo1opwo mory1 npnmonn1rcn n oro oac1n. n 1oro
n1ow nmo1r noamoxnoc1r c ycnoxom npnmonn1r ma1oma1nno-
cvno mo1opw npn naynonnn 1oro nn nnoro nonpoca, nyxno,
vononno, npoxpo ncoro nmo1r nooxopnmwo anannn, ymo1r
npannrno opama1rcn c ma1oma1nnocvnm annapa1om, ana1r
rpannw ponyc1nmoro ncnoraonannn paccma1pnnaomo ma-
1oma1nnocvo mopon. 01nm, opnavo, no ncnopnwnam1cn xa-
pav1opnwo ocoonnoc1n pomonnn aapan ma1oma1nnocvnmn mo-
1opamn, pa n noomo ma1oma1nnocvoro 1nopnoc1na, 1. o. no-
anannn o+ov1nnno cymoc1nymmnx ma1oma1nnocvnx nc1nn.
n npannrno noc1anonvn aapann, pn oonvn oo pannwx,
pn nwpoonnn cymoc1nonnwx na nnx n pn nwopa cnocoa
pomonnn nooxopnmo oapa1r omo ma1oma1nnocvo nn1y-
nno, qan1aano n nync1nom rapmonnn, noanonmmnmn
npopnnpo1r nyxnw poayr1a1 npoxpo, nom on ypo1 noy-
non. Opnavo nn1yn1nnno nonync1nona1r oxnpaomw poayr-
1a1 n namo1n1r ny1r nccoponann c nomomrm npanponopo-
nwx paccyxponn - c1o paovo no nco. Hn1yn1nnnoo nync1no
rapmonnn nnno1cn n ma1oma1nvo nmr nopno, xo1n n nocr-
ma naxno c1ynonrm; nn1yn1nnnwo coopaxonnn n npanpo-
noponwo paccyxponnn o1pam1cn na cyp xoopnoro paccypva
pn nx naynonnn, povaaa1orc1na nn onponopxonnn. n aa-
nncn nponopnmwx nccoponann n noynammnxcn poayr1a-
1on ncnoraym1cn nawv nqp, paanoopaanwo ma1oma1nno-
cvno cnmnow n conocnwo ornnocvno onncannn.
Hpn ma1oma1nnocvom povaaa1orc1no rnno1oaw, npn ma1o-
ma1nnocvom pomonnn aapann npannrnw nwop annapa1a n
mo1opa - aaor ycnoxa n, ooo 1oro, nac1o npnnopn1 v 1omy,
n1o n poayr1a1o noynao1cn ormo nooano nnqopmann
o naynaomom npopmo1o, nom aapanoo npopnoaraocr. 01o
cnnaano c 1om, n1o ma1oma1nnocvn annapa1 1an1 n coo mnoro
cvpw1o nnqopmann n cvpw1oro ora1c1na, navannnan-
mnxcn n nom n 1ononno novon, aropapn nomy qopmyw mo-
ry1 ovaaa1rcn ymnoo npnmonnmmoro nx n pa1r ormo, nom
o1 nnx oxnpaocr.
10
Copyo1 o1mo1n1r, n1o n ma1oma1nvo cnpanopnnoc1r pac-
cma1pnnaomoro qav1a povaawnao1cn no nponopvo oro na pnpo
npnmopon, no nponoponnom pnpa cvcnopnmon1on, n1o no nmoo1
pn ma1oma1nvn povaaa1orno cnw, a nnc1o ornnocvnm
ny1om, no aavonam qopmarno ornvn.
Kononno, n cvcnopnmon1w n npnmopw 1avxo nrpam1 or-
mym por n ma1oma1nnocvnx nccoponannnx: onn mory1 nn
pa1r nmc1panm y1nopxponnn, nn onponoprny1r oro, nn
na1ovny1r na vavym-no (n 1om nnco n nonym) npom. 3a no-
copnno ropw n cnnan c wc1pwm paann1nom nwnncn1orno
1oxnnvn ocoonno noapoco ananonno ma1oma1nnocvoro cvcno-
pnmon1a n npnvapnwx nccoponannnx: apocr o1vpwncr vano-
c1nonno conopmonno nonwo noamoxnoc1n n nopcnov1nnw.
Boayconno, ncn c1a cxoma nocrma npoananponana. Hpoxpo
ncoro ncnoraonanno anann, ma1oma1nnocvoro annapa1a, nn-
1ynnn, nync1na rapmonnn, qan1aann, ornvn, cvcnopnmon1a
nponcxopn1 no nocopona1orno no c1anam - nco c1o nco npomn
naanmopoc1nyo1 moxpy coo n 1ononno ncoro npoocca. a-
oo, paovo no ncorpa ypao1cn ponoc1n nponopnmwo nccopona-
nnn po xoaomoro vona, no wo w, nanpnmop, ormnm
aayxponnom pyma1r, n1o pn ma1oma1nvn nmom1 ananonno
1orvo povaaannwo y1nopxponnn, 1orvo nccoponannn, pono-
ponnwo n nanoc1nom cmwco po ornnocvoro aanopmonnn. Moxno
npnnoc1n mnoro npnmopon ma1oma1nnocvnx 1oopn n nooxo-
nn, vo1opwo, ypynn cqopmynponanw nmr n nnpo rnno1oa,
1om no monoo ovaawnan nn ovaawnam1 cymoc1nonnoo nnn-
nno na paann1no ma1oma1nvn nn oo npnoxonn.
Ovonna1ornwo poayr1a1w, noynonnwo n ma1oma1nvo,
onncwnan 1o nn nnwo cnoc1na ornnocvnx ac1pav1nwx mo-
poo, nmom1 n onpopoonnom cmwco acom1nw n nonnw
xapav1op n, copona1orno, no monnm1cn n no mory1 namonn1r-
cn n cnnan c paann1nom namnx anann. Tav, nanpnmop, aa no-
copnno pno 1wcnnn o1 namn npopc1anonnn o ovpyxammom
nac mnpo n o ynpannmmnx nm aavonomopnoc1nx npo1opnon
cymoc1nonnwo namononnn, a 1oopoma Hnqaropa oc1aacr n oc-
1ano1cn ncorpa 1avo xo, vavo ona wa n ponno Iponn.
01o, vononno, no ncvmnao1 1oro, n1o n npoocco cnooro nc1o-
pnnocvoro paann1nn mnorno ma1oma1nnocvno nonn1nn n y1-
nopxponnn no cpaay opo1an n opo1am1 cnom ovonna1ornym
ornnocvn aavonnonnym qopmy, no ncvmnao1 n 1oro, n1o n
npoocco paann1nn opnn n 1o xo o+ov1w naynonnn ma1oma1n-
11
vn nocnpnnnmam1cn c paanwx 1onov aponnn, n1o npnnopn1 v
pacvpw1nm nx nonwx cnoc1n, nanonno1 nx nonwm copopxa-
nnom, n1o, n cnom onopopr, nopopvo cymoc1nonno monno1 namo
npopc1anonno o nx anannmoc1n n naxnoc1n.
Hpn ncnoraonannn ma1oma1nvn pn onncannn vavnx-no
vonvpo1nwx nnonn nopopvo wnao1 poc1a1onno nmr nn1y-
n1nnnwx npopc1anonn o coo1no1c1nymmnx ma1oma1nnocvnx
nonn1nnx, opnavo 1orpa, vorpa ma1oma1nva ncnorayo1cn n va-
noc1no mo1opa nccoponannn, vav npanno, pn aanopmonnn
nponopnmoro nccoponannn nooxopnmo no1voo npopc1anonno
o ncnorayomwx npn c1om ma1oma1nnocvnx nonn1nnx - 1or-
vo n c1om cynao moxo1 w1r o+ov1nnnan ynoponnoc1r n npa-
nnrnoc1n cpoannwx nwnopon. Hoc1omy, pn 1oro n1ow npn-
monn1r ma1oma1nvy vav mo1op nccoponannn, nocrma naxno
ocoana1r n xopomo ocnon1r cymnoc1r n naanmocnnar oo ocnon-
nwx npo n nonn1n, naxno c1pomn1rcn onapo1r npooccom
1nopnocvoro, a no qopmarnoro mwmonnn.
Cnoopnoo naponno ma1oma1nnocvnmn mo1opamn, anannn
n nn1ynnn npnopo1am1cn, navannnam1cn n paannnam1cn n
npoocco cnc1oma1nnocvnx aann1n, n poayr1a1o pn1orno
n nac1onnno pao1w. To1, v1o nocopona1orno onaponao1
ma1oma1nnocvnm annapa1om, v1o nocopona1orno noynao1
1noppwo n 1onnwo anannn ma1oma1nnocvnx qav1on, ypo1 yno-
ponno pnnra1rcn parmo, n ma1oma1nva c1ano1 nocymnwm
nnc1pymon1om n oro pyvax.
Hac1o mnonno o 1pypnoc1n naynonnn ma1oma1nvn cnnaano
c 1ymannwm n nono1vnm oo naoxonnom na nn1yn1nnnom
yponno. Kaxymancn 1pypnoc1r 1ox nn nnwx ma1oma1nno-
cvnx mo1opon nopopvo oyconona 1om, n1o c1n mo1opw no
wn cnoonpomonno poc1a1onno xopomo paa+ncnonw n noc1o-
my oc1ancr nononn1wmn.
Ho1voo nnoponno ma1oma1nnocvoro nonn1nn no cpannonnm
c nnoponnom na nn1yn1nnnom yponno, vav npanno, onpanpw-
nao1 con npn oro npnmononnn, noanono1 npannrno ncnor-
aona1r n no nyxpao1cn n pononn1ornwx noncnonnnx.
7ynmn n vpa1namn cnoco n npoocco oynonnn ma1o-
ma1nvo paa+ncnn1r vavoo-no nonn1no - c1o pa1r oro 1on-
nym qopmynponvy. 7ynmn cnoco na nopnom c1ano oyno-
nnn o+ncnn1r 1oopomy, nwncnn1r oo cmwc, yc1anonn1r oo
cnnar c panoo naynonnwmn qav1amn - c1o povaaa1r 1oopomy.
Cpoa1r c1o napo npoc1o, oc1oc1nonno n poxopnnno, n1o nac1o
1z
concom no orvo. E ymonnn ocymoc1nn1r c1o na poc1a1onno
nwcovom yponno n coc1on1 npoxpo ncoro n c v y c c 1 n o npo-
nopanannn ma1oma1nvn. Opnavo wo w nonpannrno py-
ma1r, n1o c onaponnom povaaa1orc1nom ma1oma1nnocvo 1oo-
pomw vonnao1cn npoocc oo noanannn. o vona cmwc n por
1oopom pacvpwnam1cn nmr npn nx npnmononnn v naynonnm
ppyrnx 1oopo1nnocvnx nonpocon n pomonnn 1ox nn nnwx
vonvpo1nwx aapan. Tpypno nopooonn1r orpomnym por ana-
naa o1pornwx npnmopon, nmc1pnpymmnx 1oopo1nnocvno
y1nopxponnn, n pomonnn c nomomrm nocopnnx coo1no1c1-
nymmnx nac1nwx aapan. Boayconno, npn poc1a1onno xopo-
mo ma1oma1nnocvo vyr1ypo nnono ponyc1nmo anavomc1-
no c pnpom y1nopxponn, orpannnnnammoocn nmr nx qop-
mynponvo oa nponoponnn povaaa1orc1na. Opnavo na
nopnom c1ano oynonnn c1o nnno nooocoopaano.
Kocnonnan noraa o1 naynonnn ma1oma1nvn coc1on1 n 1om,
n1o ono conopmonc1nyo1 omym vyr1ypy mwmonnn, pncnn-
nnnpyo1 oo, npnynao1 noonova ornnocvn paccyxpa1r, nocnn-
1wnao1 y noro 1onnoc1r n oc1on1ornoc1r aprymon1ann. Ma-
1oma1nva ynn1 no aarpomoxpa1r nccoponanno nonyxnwmn
nopponoc1nmn, no nnnmmnmn na cymnoc1r poa, n, naoo-
po1, no nponopora1r 1om, n1o nmoo1 npnnnnnarnoo ananonno
pn cymoc1na naynaomoro nonpoca. Eco c1o pao1 noamoxnoc1r
cqqov1nnno nccopona1r n ocmwcnna1r nonwo aapann, noann-
vammno n paannnwx oac1nx noononocvo pon1ornoc1n.
Vmonno ornnocvn mwcn1r, naponno ma1oma1nnocvnm
annapa1om, npannrnoo ncnoraonanno ma1oma1nvn pam1
ormym cvonomnm mwmonnn, noopyxam1 noonova mom-
nwm mo1opom nccoponannn.
Onapo1r n poc1a1onno mopo ma1oma1nnocvnm mo1opom,
ma1oma1nnocvo vyr1ypo mwmonnn, nonync1nona1r cny
n vpaco1y ma1oma1nnocvnx mo1opon - paovo no npoc1an
aapana. Ho pn 1oro, v1o cymoo1 c1oro poc1nnr, 1pyp no npona-
po1 apn. n noro o1vpom1cn nonwo nopcnov1nnw noonono-
cvo pon1ornoc1n, aamannnnwo poporn n nonanoc1noo, o1vpo-
m1cn vanoc1nonno nonwo noamoxnoc1n 1nopnoc1na n noana-
nnn mnpa. Hpnnom naxno o1mo1n1r, n1o nco c1o poc1ynno
vaxpomy, v1o xono1 onapo1r ma1oma1nvo, v1o coproano n
nocopona1orno aamo1cn oo naynonnom.
13
l/cac

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
/MqqepeuMc/|ce McMc/eMe
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
qykuMM c/cM nepe|ecM
4.
lcxecac M qykuMM. Ac|MeckMe cM|ac/|
4.4. Mnoxectso. OnepoMM nop unoxectsouM
E ma1oma1nvo nopnnnnwmn nonn1nnmn nnnm1cn nonn1nn
mnoxoc1na, comon1a n npnnapoxnoc1n comon1a mnoxoc1-
ny. Mnoxoc1na paoo ypom ooanana1r ormnmn yvnamn
a1nncvoro nn vavoro-no ppyroro aqann1a: A, E, ... ,
X, Y, ... , , , ... , a comon1w mnoxoc1n - mawmn yvna-
mn: o, b, ... , r, , ... , , , ... . Ecn o nnno1cn comon1om
mnoxoc1na A, 1o nnmy1 o - A (nn1ao1cn: o npnnapoxn1
mnoxoc1ny A) nn, n1o 1o xo, A o. Ecn xo o no npnnapo-
xn1 mnoxoc1ny A, 1o nnmy1 o - A nn A o.
Mnoxoc1na A n E naawnam1cn pooum+u, ocn onn coc1on1
na opnnx n 1ox xo comon1on. Tavnm opaaom, panonc1no A
E oananao1 npnmonn1orno v mnoxoc1nam, n1o opno n 1o xo
mnoxoc1no ooananono paanwmn yvnamn A n E.
3anncr A {o, b, c, ... oananao1, n1o mnoxoc1no A coc1on1
na comon1on o, b, c n, noamoxno, vavnx-1o ppyrnx, aapan-
nwx 1om nn nnwm cnocoom.
Ecn mnoxoc1no A coc1on1 na comon1on o

, rpo npoora-
o1 novo1opoo mnoxoc1no nnpovcon , 1o ypom nnca1r A {o

nn, nopponoo, A {o

, - , nn, ocn c1o no moxo1 npn-


noc1n v nopopaaymonnm, npoc1o A {o. Ecn mnoxoc1no A co-
c1on1 na ncox comon1on, oapammnx onpopoonnwm cnoc1-
nom, 1o ypom nnca1r A {o: ..., rpo n qnrypnwx cvovax noc-
o pnoo1onnn aanncano yvaaannoo cnoc1no comon1on
mnoxoc1na A. Hanpnmop, ocn o n b - pna 1avnx poc1nn-
-
14
1ornwx nnca, n1o o b, n nopoa [o, b ooananono mnoxoc1-
no ncox poc1nn1ornwx nnco r, ypono1nopnmmnx nopanon-
c1nam o r b, 1o onpopoonno c1oro mnoxoc1na (o1poava) c
nomomrm nnoponnwx cnmnoon moxno aannca1r copymmnm
opaaom:
[o, b {r: o r b.
n ypoc1na nnopn1cn nonn1no mnoxoc1na, no copopxa-
moro nnvavnx comon1on. Ono naawnao1cn ncnm+ +uoe
cnoo+ n ooananao1cn cnmnoom C. Ho onpopoonnm, ono no
copopxn1 comon1on, no npnnncno1cn v mnoxoc1nam.
Ecn vaxpw comon1 mnoxoc1na A nnno1cn comon1om
mnoxoc1na E, 1o ronopn1, n1o mnoxoc1no A oc1r nac1r mnoxo-
c1na E nn n1o A nnno1cn noo+uoecnoo+ mnoxoc1na E, n
nnmy1 A ~ E (nn1ao1cn: mnoxoc1no A copopxn1cn no mnoxo-
c1no E) nn, n1o 1o xo, E - A (nn1ao1cn: mnoxoc1no E co-
popxn1 mnoxoc1no A).
VHPAHEHHE 1. ovaaa1r, n1o nvmnonnn A ~ E n E ~ A nwnonnm1-
cn opnonpomonno 1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa A E.
Ha onpopoonnn nopmnoxoc1na copyo1, n1o A ~ A, vavono
w nn wo mnoxoc1no A; npnnn1o 1avxo cnn1a1r, no onpopo-
onnm, n1o nyc1oo mnoxoc1no nnno1cn nopmnoxoc1nom vax-
poro mnoxoc1na: C ~ A. Ecn A - nponanornoo mnoxoc1no,
1o C n A naawnam1cn oro uecocnoeuum+u noo+uoecnoo+u;
ocn xo A ~ E n cymoc1nyo1 1avo comon1 r - E, n1o r - A, 1o
mnoxoc1no A naawnao1cn cocnoeuum+ noo+uoecnoo+
mnoxoc1na E.
Ecn aapanw pna mnoxoc1na A n E (pnc. l, o), 1o nopoa
A ' E ooananao1cn mnoxoc1no, naawnaomoo nx oeouueuue+
nn c++ou n coc1onmoo na ncox 1ox comon1on, vaxpw na
vo1opwx npnnapoxn1 xo1n w opnomy na mnoxoc1n A n E
(pnc. l, ). Tavnm opaaom, ocn novo1opw comon1 npnna-
poxn1 mnoxoc1ny A ' E, 1o on npnnapoxn1 no 1orvo
Pnc. l
A E A E AE
o) ) e) o)
A E
o)
1
mnoxoc1ny A, no 1orvo mnoxoc1ny E, no oonm c1nm
mnoxoc1nam.
n moro mnoxoc1na A (nonyc1oro nn nyc1oro) noarao1cn
A ' C A.
Hopoa A E ooananao1cn mnoxoc1no, coc1onmoo na ncox
comon1on, vo1opwo opnonpomonno npnnapoxa1 vav mnoxo-
c1ny A, 1av n mnoxoc1ny E (pnc. l, o). Mnoxoc1no A E naaw-
nao1cn nepeceueuue+ +uoecno A n E. Ecn A n E no nmom1
omnx comon1on (n nac1noc1n, opno na nnx nn oa nyc1w),
1o noaram1 A E C. E c1om cynao mnoxoc1na A n E naaw-
nam1cn uenepeceuovu+ucn.
O1mo1nm, n1o nyc1oo mnoxoc1no connapao1 camo c coo:
C C, no nmoc1o c 1om ono no nopocovao1cn camo c coo: C
C C.
Hopoa A E ooananao1cn mnoxoc1no, naawnaomoo po:uo
cnov +uoecno A n E n coc1onmoo na ncox comon1on, vo1o-
pwo npnnapoxa1 mnoxoc1ny A, no no npnnapoxa1 mnoxo-
c1ny E (pnc. l, e). Ionopn1 1avxo, n1o A E noynao1cn na
mnoxoc1na A omuunouue+ na noro mnoxoc1na E.
Ecn E ~ A, 1o paanoc1r A E naawnao1cn oono.ueuue+
+uoecnoo E oo +uoecnoo A nn ponononnom E n A. Ho
onpopoonnm, noarao1cn A A C.
VHPAHEHHE z. ovaaa1r, n1o A ' E (A E) ' (E A) ' (A E).
Ecn aapana cnc1oma mnoxoc1n A

(1opmnnw mnoxo-
c1no, cnc1oma, conovynnoc1r, vacc ypy1 yno1po-
n1rcn vav cnnonnmw), rpo ananonnn opaaym1 novo1opym
conovynnoc1r nnpovcon , 1o oeouueuue+ A

+uoecno
A

naawnao1cn mnoxoc1no, vaxpw comon1 vo1oporo npnna-


poxn1 xo1n w opnomy na aapannwx mnoxoc1n A

, 1. o. yco-
nno r - A

pannocnrno copymmomy: cymoc1nyo1 1avoo


- , n1o r - A

.
Hepeceueuue+ +uoecno A

, - , naawnao1cn 1avoo mno-


xoc1no, ooananaomoo nopoa A

, n1o vaxpw oro comon1


npnnapoxn1 ncom mnoxoc1nam A

, 1. o. yconno r - A

oananao1: pn ncox - nmoo1 moc1o r - A

.
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n mo cnc1omw mnoxoc1n {A

, A

~ X, - , n mo-
ro mnoxoc1na X cnpanopnnw copymmno coo1nomonnn:
X A

(X A

); (l.l)
X A

(X A

). (l.2)
ovaxom, nanpnmop, panonc1no (l.l). Ecn r - X A

,
1o, n cny onpopoonnn paanoc1n mnoxoc1n, r - X n r - A

.
E cnom onopopr, c1o, coracno onpopoonnm o+opnnonnn
mnoxoc1n, cvnnnaon1no 1omy, n1o r - X n pn ncox - nmo-
o1 moc1o coo1nomonno r - A

. 01o xo, cnona no onpopoonnm


paanoc1n mnoxoc1n, pannocnrno y1nopxponnm, n1o pn ncox
- nmoom r - X A

. Havono, nocopnoo y1nopxponno,


no onpopoonnm nopocononnn mnoxoc1n, oananao1, n1o
r - (X A

). H1av, yconnn r - X A

n r - (X
A

) cvnnnaon1nw, noc1omy nwnonno1cn panonc1no (l.l).


Panonc1no (l.2) povaawnao1cn anaornnno. Hoponwmn xo
paccyxponnnmn povaawnao1cn cnpanopnnoc1r n copymmnx
panonc1n pn mwx mnoxoc1n A, E, C:
(A ' E) C (A C) ' (E C),
(A E) ' C (A ' C) (E ' C).
E nynv1o l.2

paccmo1pono nonn1no qynvnn, a nynv1 l.3

ypo1 nocnnmon nonn1nnm vononnoro mnoxoc1na n nocopo-


na1ornoc1n. Hynv1w n naparpaqw vypca, o1mononnwo anoa-
ponvo, npn nopnom n1onnn moxno onyc1n1r n nopny1rcn v
nnm nmr n cynao nny1ponno no1ponoc1n. E nac1noc1n,
pn nonnmannn parnomoro ma1opnaa poc1a1onno nmommo-
rocn n vypco comon1apno ma1oma1nvn npopc1anonnn o
qynvnn vav o onpopoonnom coo1no1c1nnn moxpy comon-
1amn pnyx mnoxoc1n. Hpn c1om nonn1no coo1no1c1nnn
copyo1 nonnma1r vav nopnnnnoo.
4.2'. OynkMM
Bypom ronopn1r, n1o uuc.o o.e+eunoo +uoecnoo A poouo
eouuuue, ocn n nom nmoo1cn comon1 o - A n no1 ppyrnx (nna-
-
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17
no ronopn, ocn na mnoxoc1na A nwnoc1r mnoxoc1no, coc1on-
moo na comon1a o, 1o noynn1cn nyc1oo mnoxoc1no).
Mnoxoc1no A naawnao1cn +uoecnoo+ u: 2 (oor) o.e
+eunoo, ocn noco nwnn1annn na noro mnoxoc1na, coc1on-
moro 1orvo na opnoro comon1a o - A, 1. o. mnoxoc1na, nnco
comon1on vo1oporo panno l, oc1ano1cn mnoxoc1no, nnco
comon1on vo1oporo 1avxo panno opnnno. Ho1pypno
yopn1rcn, n1o c1o onpopoonno no aanncn1 o1 nwopa yvaaan-
noro comon1a o - A, 1. v. ocn o - A n b - A, npnnom A{o co-
c1on1 na opnoro comon1a b, 1o n mnoxoc1no A{b 1avxo co-
c1on1 na opnoro comon1a (a nmonno na comon1a o).
Hyc1r 1onopr aapanw mnoxoc1na X {r n Y {. Mnoxo-
c1no, coc1onmoo na pnyx comon1on r - X n - Y, naawnao1cn
nopou {r, comon1on r, .
Hapa nnpa {r, {r, , rpo r - X, - Y, {r, - napa co-
mon1on r, , naawnao1cn nopnooueuuou nopou comon1on r n
. 0omon1 r naawnao1cn nopnwm comon1om ynopnpononno
napw {r, {r, , a comon1 - n1opwm. Vnopnpononnan napa
{r, {r, ooananao1cn nopoa (r, ). E parnomom nop napo
ownno nonnmao1cn ynopnpononnan napa.
Mnoxoc1no ncox ynopnpononnwx nap (r, ), r - X, - Y,
naawnao1cn npou:oeoeuue+ +uoecno X n Y n ooananao1cn
nopoa X ` Y. Hpn c1om no npopnoarao1cn, n1o onaa1orno
mnoxoc1no X o1nnno o1 mnoxoc1na Y, 1. o. noamoxon n cy-
na, vorpa X Y.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Ecnuoe +uoecnoo ] {(r, ) nopnooueuumr
nop (r, ), r - X, - Y nouoe, uno o.n .vmr nop (r, ) - ] u
(r, ) - ] u: c.ooun = c.eoen, uno r = r, uo:moo
encn quuuueu u.u, uno no e, onopoeuue+.
Hapnpy c 1opmnnamn qynvnn n o1opaxonno n onpo-
poonnwx cn1yannx yno1ponm1cn nm pannoanannwo 1op-
mnnw npoopaaonanno, mopqnam, coo1no1c1nno. 4ynv-
nn ypom ooanana1r paannnwmn yvnamn: ], g, ... , E, G, ...
... , , , ... .
Mnoxoc1no ncox nopnwx comon1on ynopnpononnwx nap
(r, ) novo1opo qynvnn ] naawnam1 +uoecnoo+ :ooouun
nn +uoecnoo+ (o.ocnov) onpeoe.euun c1o qynvnn n
ooananam1 nopoa X
]
, a mnoxoc1no ncox n1opwx comon1on -
+uoecnoo+ ee :uoueuuu n ooananam1 nopoa Y
]
.
1S
Ononnpno, n1o X
]
~ X, Y
]
~ Y. Camo mnoxoc1no ynopnpo-
nonnwx nap ] {(r, ), paccma1pnnaomoo vav nopmnoxoc1no
nponanoponnn X ` Y, naawnao1cn epoquuo+ quuuuu ].
0omon1 r - X
]
naawnao1cn ope+euno+ quuuuu ] nn
ue:ooucu+ou nepe+euuou, a comon1 - Y - :ooucu+ou nepe
+euuou.
Ecn ] {(r, ) oc1r qynvnn (o1opaxonno), 1o nnmy1
] : X
]
= Y n ronopn1, n1o ] o1opaxao1 mnoxoc1no X
]
n mno-
xoc1no Y. E cynao X X
]
nnmo1cn npoc1o ] : X = Y.
Ecn ] : X = Y - qynvnn, 1. o. mnoxoc1no ynopnponon-
nwx nap ] {(r, ), r - X, - Y, ypono1nopnmmnx yconnnm
onpopoonnn l, n (r, ) - ], 1o nnmy1 ](r) (nnorpa npoc1o
]r) nn ] : r
=
n ronopn1, n1o qynvnn ] c1ann1 n coo1-
no1c1nno comon1y r comon1 (o1opaxonno ] o1opaxao1
comon1 r n comon1 ) nn, n1o 1o xo camoo, comon1 coo1-
no1c1nyo1 comon1y r.
n napw (r, ), rpo ](r), ronopn1 1avxo, n1o comon1
nnno1cn ananonnom qynvnn ] n 1onvo r nn opaaom co-
mon1a r npn o1opaxonnn ].
Hapnpy c cnmnoom ](r
0
) pn ooananonnn ananonnn
qynvnn ] n 1onvo r
0
yno1ponm1 1avxo ooananonno
.
Hnorpa camy qynvnm ] ooananam1 cnmnoom ](r). Oo-
ananonno qynvnn ] : X = Y n oo ananonnn n 1onvo r - X op-
nnm n 1om xo cnmnoom ](r) no npnnopn1 v nopopaaymonnm,
1av vav n vaxpom vonvpo1nom cynao ncorpa ncno, o nom
nmonno npo1 ponr.
Ooananonno ](r) ownno yponoo ooananonnn ] : r
=

npn nwnnconnnx. Hanpnmop, aanncr ](r) r


2
anann1orno
yponoo n npomo ncnoraona1r npn anan1nnocvnx npoopa-
aonannnx, nom aanncr ] : r
=
r
2
.
Hpn aapannom - Y conovynnoc1r ncox 1avnx comon1on
r - X, n1o ](r) , naawnam1 npoopo:o+ o.e+euno n oo-
ananam1 ]
-l
(). Tavnm opaaom, ]
-l
() {r : r - X, ](r) .
Ononnpno, ocn - YY
]
, 1o ]
-l
() C.
Hyc1r aapano o1opaxonno ] : X = Y, 1. o. o1opaxonno
mnoxoc1na X n mnoxoc1no Y. Hnano ronopn, vaxpomy co-
mon1y r - X noc1anon n coo1no1c1nno, n npn1om opnnc1non-
] r ( )
r r
0
19
nw, comon1 - Y n vaxpw comon1 - Y
]
~ Y noc1anon n
coo1no1c1nno xo1n w opnomy comon1y r - X.
Ecn Y X, 1o ronopn1, n1o o1opaxonno ] o1opaxao1
mnoxoc1no X n con.
Ecn Y Y
]
, 1. o. mnoxoc1no Y connapao1 c mnoxoc1nom
ananonn qynvnn ], 1o ronopn1, n1o ] o1opaxao1 mnoxoc1-
no X uo mnoxoc1no Y nn n1o o1opaxonno ] nnno1cn cmp+-
ov1nnnwm o1opaxonnom, vopono - cvpeuuueu. Tavnm o-
paaom, o1opaxonno ] : X = Y oc1r cmp+ovnn, ocn pn m-
oro comon1a - Y cymoc1nyo1 no vpano mopo opnn 1avo
comon1 r - X, n1o ](r) .
Ononnpno, ocn ] : X = Y n Y
]
mnoxoc1no ananonn
qynvnn ], 1o ] : X = Y
]
nnno1cn cmp+ov1nnnwm o1opaxo-
nnom.
Ecn npn o1opaxonnn ] : X = Y paanwm r - X coo1no1c1-
nym1 paanwo - Y, 1. o. npn r = r nmoo1 moc1o ](r) = ](r),
1o o1opaxonno ] naawnao1cn naanmno opnoanannwm o1opa-
xonnom (naanmno opnoanannwm coo1no1c1nnom) X n Y, a 1av-
xo oouo.ucnum+ onopoeuue+ nn uueuuueu. Tavnm o-
paaom, o1opaxonno ] : X = Y opnonc1no (nn+ov1nnno) 1or-
pa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa npoopaa vaxporo comon1a ,
npnnapoxamoro mnoxoc1ny ananonn qynvnn ] : - Y
]
, co-
c1on1 n 1onnoc1n na opnoro comon1a.
Ecn o1opaxonno ] : X = Y nnno1cn opnonpomonno naa-
nmno opnoanannwm n na mnoxoc1no Y, 1. o. nnno1cn opnonpo-
monno nn+ovno n cmp+ovno, 1o ono oc1oc1nonno naawna-
o1cn o:ou+uo oouo:uouum+ onopoeuue+ mnoxoc1na X uo
mnoxoc1no Y nn, n1o 1o xo, ueunuoum+ onopoeuue+
(novno) n Y.
Tavnm opaaom, o1opaxonno ] : X = Y nnno1cn naanmno
opnoanannwm o1opaxonnom mnoxoc1na X na mnoxoc1no Y
1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa pn mwx r - X n r - X, r = r,
cnpanopnno nopanonc1no ](r) = ](r), n, vavono w nn wo
- Y, cymoc1nyo1 1avo comon1 r - X, n1o ](r) .
Eaanmno opnoanannoo o1opaxonno mnoxoc1na X na mno-
xoc1no Y nac1o naawnam1 1avxo naanmno opnoanannwm coo1-
no1c1nnom comon1on c1nx mnoxoc1n.
Ecn ] : X = Y n A ~ X, 1o mnoxoc1no
8 { : - Y, ](r), r - A,
z0
1. o. mnoxoc1no ncox 1ox , n vaxpw na vo1opwx npn o1opa-
xonnn ] o1opaxao1cn xo1n w opnn comon1 na nopmnoxoc1-
na A mnoxoc1na X, naawnam1 opo:o+ noo+uoecnoo A n nn-
my1 8 ](A). E nac1noc1n, ncorpa nmoom Y
]
](X).
n opaaon mnoxoc1n A ~ X n E ~ X cnpanopnnw co-
pymmno orvo nponopnomwo coo1nomonnn:
](A ' E) ](A) ' ](E),
](A E) ~ ](A) ](E),
](A)](E) ~ ](AE),
a ocn A ~ E, 1o ](A) ~ ](E).
Ecn ] : X = Y n E ~ Y, 1o mnoxoc1no
A {r : r - X, ](r) - E
naawnam1 npoopo:o+ +uoecnoo E n nnmy1 A ]
-l
(E). Ta-
vnm opaaom, npoopaa mnoxoc1na E coc1on1 na ncox 1ox co-
mon1on r - X, vo1opwo npn o1opaxonnn ] o1opaxam1cn n
comon1w na E nn, n1o 1o xo camoo, on coc1on1 na ncox npo-
opaaon 1onov - E:
]
-l
(E) ]
-l
().
n npoopaaon mnoxoc1n A ~ Y n E ~ Y cnpanopnnw
copymmno 1avxo orvo povaawnaomwo coo1nomonnn:
]
-l
(A ' E) ]
-l
(A) ' ]
-l
(E),
]
-l
(A E) ]
-l
(A) ]
-l
(E),
]
-l
(AE) ]
-l
(A)]
-l
(E),
a ocn A ~ E, 1o ]
-l
(A) ~ ]
-l
(E).
Ecn A ~ X, 1o qynvnn ] : X = Y oc1oc1nonnwm opaaom
nopoxpao1 qynvnm, onpopoonnym na mnoxoc1no A, c1ann-
mym n coo1no1c1nno vaxpomy comon1y r - A comon1 ](r).
01y qynvnm naawnam1 ceuue+ quuuuu ] na mnoxoc1no
A n nnorpa ooananam1 nopoa ]
A
nn npoc1o nopoa ]
A
. Tavnm
opaaom, ]
A
o1opaxao1 A n Y n pn moro r - A nmoo1 moc1o
]
A
: r
=
](r). Ecn mnoxoc1no A no connapao1 c mnoxoc1nom X,
1. o. nnno1cn coc1nonnwm nopmnoxoc1nom mnoxoc1na X, 1o
cyxonno ]
A
qynvnn ] na mnoxoc1no A nmoo1 ppyrym oac1r
onpopoonnn, nom qynvnn ], n, copona1orno, nnno1cn
ppyro, nom ], qynvno. Hopopvo cyxonno qynvnn ] : X =
' '
'
E
' '
z1
=Y na mnoxoc1no A ~ X ooananam1 1om xo cnmnoom ] n na-
awnam1 qynvno ] na mnoxoc1no A.
Ecn pno qynvnn ] n g paccma1pnnam1cn na opnom n 1om
xo mnoxoc1no X, 1onnoo, ocn paccma1pnnam1cn cyxonnn
qynvn ] n g na opno n 1o xo mnoxoc1no X, 1o aanncr ] g
na X oananao1, n1o ](r) g(r) pn vaxporo r - X. E c1om cy-
nao ronopn1, n1o qynvnn ] 1oxpoc1nonno panna qynvnn g
na mnoxoc1no X.
Hnorpa anav ypo1 yno1pon1rcn moxpy cnmnoamn,
ooananammnmn opnn n 1o1 xo o+ov1 (ownno opnn na yno1-
poonnwx n c1om cynao cnmnoon copopxn1 ooo noppo-
noo onncanno o+ov1a, nom ppyro cnmno), nanpnmop aanncr
](r) ](r
l
, ... , r
n
) oananao1, n1o r (r
l
, ... , r
n
), n 1om camwm
aanncr ](r) n ](r
l
, ... , r
n
) ooananao1 opny n 1y xo qynvnm.
O1mo1nm, n1o qynvnn, y vo1opwx ncom comon1am novo-
1oporo mnoxoc1na coo1no1c1nyo1 opnn n 1o1 xo comon1, 1. o.
qynvnn, y vo1opwx npn namononnn ananonnn aprymon1a
ananonno qynvnn no monno1cn, naawnam1cn nocnonuum+u
(na pannom mnoxoc1no) nn uoucnouno+u.
H1av, ocn npn namononnn opno nopomonno (aprymon1a
qynvnn) ppyran nopomonnan, nnnmmancn qynvno nop-
no, no monno1cn (1. o. no aanncn1 o1 nopno nopomonno),
1o c1o nac1nw n n onpopoonnom cmwco npoc1omn cyna
qynvnonarno aanncnmoc1n.
Ecn ] : X = Y n vaxpw comon1 - Y
]
npopc1anno1 co-
o mnoxoc1no vavnx-1o comon1on {:, npnnom cpopn
c1nx mnoxoc1n {: nmoo1cn no vpano mopo opno nonyc1oo
mnoxoc1no, coc1onmoo no na opnoro comon1a, 1o 1avan qynv-
nn ] naawnao1cn +uoeo:uouuou quuuueu. Hpn c1om comon-
1w : mnoxoc1na ](r) {: nac1o 1avxo naawnam1 ananonnnmn
qynvnn ] n 1onvo r.
Ecn vaxpoo mnoxoc1no ](r) coc1on1 1orvo na opnoro co-
mon1a, 1o qynvnm ] naawnam1 1avxo oouo:uouuou quuuueu.
Ecn ] : X = Y n g : Y = Z, 1o qynvnn E : X = Z, onpopo-
onnan pn vaxporo r - X panonc1nom E(r) g(](r)), naawna-
o1cn uo+no:uuueu (nnorpa cnepno:uuueu) qynvn ] n g nn
c.ouou quuuueu n ooananao1cn nopoa g].
Tavnm opaaom, no onpopoonnm pn vaxporo r - X
(g

])(r) g(](r)).
zz
Hyc1r aapana qynvnn ] : X = Y n Y
]
- mnoxoc1no oo ana-
nonn. Conovynnoc1r nconoamoxnwx ynopnpononnwx nap nn-
pa (, ]
-l
()), - Y
]
, opaayo1 qynvnm, vo1opan naawnao1cn
oponuou quuuueu pn qynvnn ] n ooananao1cn nopoa ]
-l
.
Opa1nan qynvnn ]
-l
c1ann1 n coo1no1c1nno vaxpomy co-
mon1y - Y
]
oro npoopaa ]
-l
(), 1. o. novo1opoo mnoxoc1no
comon1on. Tom camwm opa1nan qynvnn nnno1cn, noomo
ronopn, mnoroananno qynvno. Hpn c1om pn mo 1onvn
r - X nmoo1 moc1o nvmnonno ]
-l
(](r)) r, a pn mo 1onvn
- Y
]
- panonc1no ](]
-l
()) .
O1opaxonnn ] n ]
-l
naawnam1cn o:ou+uo oponum+u.
Ecn o1opaxonno ] : X = Y opnonc1no (nn+ov1nnno),
1o opa1noo o1opaxonno, onpopoonnoo, vav ncorpa na Y
]
,
nnno1cn opnoananno qynvno n o1opaxao1 Y
]
na X, 1. o.
]
-l
: Y
]
= X. oc1nn1orno, n c1om cynao npoopaaw ncox
1onov - Y
]
coc1on1 1onno na opno 1onvn r - X.
Ononnpno, n1o pn nn+ov1nnnoro o1opaxonnn opa1noo
o1opaxonno ]
-l
ypono1nopno1 copymmnm yconnnm: npn
mom r - X nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no ]
-l
(](r)) r, a npn mom
- Y
]
- panonc1no ](]
-l
()) . Hpn c1om pn aapannoro nn+-
ov1nnnoro o1opaxonnn ] vaxpoo na yvaaannwx pnyx yco-
nn opnoananno onpopono1 opa1noo o1opaxonno ]
-l
.
4.3'. konenme unoxectso M notypoAonme McAo.
RocAeposoteAonoctM
E onpopoonnom cmwco npoc1omnmn mnoxoc1namn nnnm1-
cn 1av naawnaomwo vononnwo mnoxoc1na. Onpoponm c1o no-
nn1no.
E n. l.2

wn onpopoonw nonn1nn mnoxoc1n, coc1onmnx


na opnoro n pnyx comon1on. Hanomnnm c1n onpopoonnn,
cnapnn nx novo1opwmn vommon1apnnmn. Ecn mnoxoc1no X
copopxn1 novo1opw comon1 r n no copopxn1 nnvavoro ppyro-
ro, 1. o. noco nwnn1annn na mnoxoc1na X mnoxoc1na, coc1on-
moro 1orvo na comon1a r, noynao1cn nyc1oo mnoxoc1no
X{r C,
z3
1o mnoxoc1no X naawnao1cn mnoxoc1nom, coc1onmnm na op-
noro comon1a. Tavnm opaaom, nonn1no mnoxoc1na, coc1on-
moro na opnoro comon1a, pannocnrno nonn1nm comon1a.
Ononnpno, n1o pna mnoxoc1na, coc1onmno na opnoro comon-
1a, moxno o1opaan1r ppyr na ppyra naanmno opnoananno.
Ionopn1, n1o nnco comon1on vaxporo mnoxoc1na, co-
c1onmoro na opnoro comon1a, panno opnnno, n cono opn-
nna ooananam1 cnmnoom l.
Ecn mnoxoc1no X noco nwnn1annn na noro mnoxoc1na,
coc1onmoro na opnoro vavoro-no comon1a r - X, nponpa-
mao1cn n mnoxoc1no, coc1onmoo 1orvo na opnoro comon1a
- X, 1. o. X{r {, 1o mnoxoc1no X naawnao1cn mnoxoc1-
nom, coc1onmnm na pnyx comon1on. Hcno, n1o mwo pna
mnoxoc1na, coc1onmno na pnyx comon1on, 1avxo moxno o1o-
paan1r ppyr na ppyra naanmno opnoananno. Ionopn1, n1o nnc-
o comon1on vaxporo mnoxoc1na, coc1onmoro na pnyx co-
mon1on, panno pnym, n cono pna ooananam1 cnmnoom 2.
Ecn mnoxoc1no X noco nwnn1annn na noro mnoxoc1na,
coc1onmoro na opnoro comon1a r - X, nponpamao1cn n mno-
xoc1no, coc1onmoo na pnyx comon1on, 1o mnoxoc1no X naaw-
nam1 mnoxoc1nom, coc1onmnm na 1pox comon1on, nn mno-
xoc1nom, nnco comon1on vo1oporo panno 1pom, n cono
1pn ooananam1 cnmnoom 3.
Anaornnno, nocopona1orno onpoponm1cn mnoxoc1na,
coc1onmno na no1wpox, nn1n, moc1n n 1. p. comon1on, nn,
n1o 1o xo camoo, mnoxoc1na, nnco comon1on vo1opwx panno
no1wpom, nn1n, moc1n n 1. p. Cona no1wpo, nn1r,
moc1r n 1. p. ooananam1cn cnmnoamn 4, 5, 6 n 1. p.
0omon1w mnoxoc1na
{l, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... (l.3)
naawnam1cn uonpo.oum+u uuc.o+u. Mnoxoc1no ncox na1y-
parnwx nnco ooananam1 nopoa N.
Ooanannm nopoa n nponanorno qnvcnponannoo na1y-
parnoo nnco: n - N, a na1yparnoo nnco, nonocpopc1nonno
copymmoo aa nncom n n mnoxoc1no (l.3), ooanannm nopoa
n - l. Hnco n ypom naawna1r npopmoc1nymmnm nncy n - l.
Ononnpno, n1o ncnvoo na1yparnoo nnco n, vpomo l, nmoo1
npopmoc1nymmoo, vo1opoo ypom ooanana1r n - l. Tavnm o-
paaom, (n - l) - l n.
z4
Coracno onpopoonnm na1yparnwx nnco, vaxpoo na1y-
parnoo nnco n npopc1annmo n nnpo
n (...((l - l) - l ... - l) - l. (l.4)
(Paccma1pnnan mnoxoc1na, coc1onmno na opnnavonwx co-
mon1on, moxno cvaaa1r, n1o n qopmyo n npano nac1n c1on1
mnoxoc1no na n opnnn, coopnnonnwx nocopona1orno ana-
vom -.)
Coracno vonc1pyvnn, onpoponmmo na1yparnwo nnc-
a, nnco n - l - N xapav1opnayo1cn 1om cnoc1nom, n1o vax-
poo mnoxoc1no, coc1onmoo na n - l comon1a, noco ypaonnn
moro na nnx nponpamao1cn n mnoxoc1no, vo1opoo coc1on1
na n comon1on.
Coracno 1o xo vonc1pyvnn, mwo pna mnoxoc1na, co-
c1onmno na n - N comon1on, o1opaxam1cn ppyr na ppyra
naanmno opnoananno.
Ecn na pnyx na1yparnwx nnco n n n nnco n nc1pona-
o1cn panrmo, nom n n pnpo na1yparnwx nnco (l.3), 1. o. nnc-
o n c1on1 onoo nnca n, 1o nnco n naawnam1 +euouu+
uuc.o n n nnmy1 n n nn, n1o 1o xo, nnco n naawnam1
o.ouu+ uuc.o n n nnmy1 n n.
Hanpnmop, n - l n n - l, n = l. n mwx pnyx paa-
nnnwx na1yparnwx nnco n n n nmoo1 moc1o 1onno opno na
coo1nomonn n n nn n n. Hpn c1om ocn n n n n p,
1o n p, n, n, p - N.
Ecn nnco n - N monrmo nnca n - N, 1o n vaxpom mno-
xoc1no, coc1onmom na n comon1on, nmom1cn nopmnoxoc1na,
coc1onmno na n comon1on. 01o copyo1 na camo vonc1pyv-
nn nocopona1ornoro onpopoonnn na1yparnwx nnco.
Mnoxoc1no na1yparnwx nnco N oapao1 copymmnm
aamona1ornwm cnoc1nom.
Ec.u +uoecnoo M nouooo, uno:
l) M ~ N;
2) l - M;
3) u: n - M c.eoen, uno n - l - M, no
M N. (l.5)
oc1nn1orno, coracno yconnm 2), nmoom l - M, noc1omy,
coracno cnoc1ny 3), n 2 - M; 1orpa, coracno 1omy xo cno-
c1ny 3), noynaom 3 - M. Ho moo na1yparnoo nnco n - N
noynao1cn na l nocopona1ornwm npnanonnom v no 1o
z
xo l, noc1omy n - M, 1. o. N ~ M, a 1av vav no yconnm l)
nwnonno1cn nvmnonno M ~ N, 1o M N. H1av, panonc1no
(l.5) povaaano.
Ha ncoro cvaaannoro copyo1, n1o mnoxoc1no na1yparnwx
nnco N oapao1 copymmnmn cnoc1namn.
l
0
. Kooo+ o.e+eun n - N nocnoo.eu o coonoencn
oue nouuo oouu o.e+eun onoeo +uoecnoo, oo:uouoe+mu
uepe: n - l u uo:mooe+mu o.e+euno+, c.eovu+ :o o.e
+euno+ n.
2
0
. Koomu o.e+eun u: N +oen c.eoooono no.ouo :o
oouu+ o.e+euno+ n - N.
3
0
. Cecnoen eouucnoeuumu o.e+eun, oo:uouoe+mu
cu+oo.o+ l, uonopmu ue c.eoen uu :o uouu+ o.e+euno+.
4
0
. Ec.u +uoecnoo M ~ N nouooo, uno l - M, u u:
ou.vueuun n - M c.eoen, uno n - l - M, no M N.
Cnpanopnno n opa1noo y1nopxponno n 1om cmwco, n1o
ncnvoo mnoxoc1no, ypono1nopnmmoo yconnnm l
0
-4
0
, mo-
xo1 w1r naanmno opnoananno o1opaxono na mnoxoc1no N c
coxpanonnom coo1nomonnn ormo - monrmo.
01o oc1on1orc1no noanono1 noynn1r avcnoma1nnocvoo
onpopoonno mnoxoc1na na1yparnwx nnco: poc1a1onno npn-
nn1r y1nopxponnn l
0
-4
0
aa avcnomw (onn naawnam1cn av-
cnomamn Hoano
l
).
Tavnm opaaom, avcnoma1nnocvoo onpopoonno mnoxoc1na
na1yparnwx nnco nwrnpn1 copymmnm opaaom.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Muoecnoo, ooo.enoopnvee c.ooun+
l
0
-4
0
, uo:mooencn +uoecnoo+ uonpo.oumr uuce..
Hpn 1avom onpopoonnn cnoc1no 4
0
naawnao1cn oucuo+ou
uuouuuu.
Ha povaaannoro panonc1na (l.5) copyo1 1av naawnaomw
npnnnn povaaa1orc1na +enooo+ +one+onuuecuou uuouuuu.
Ec.u u+eencn +uoecnoo noepoeuuu, uooo+ u:
uonopmr npunucouo uonpo.ouoe uuc.o (eeo uo+ep) n
l, 2, ... , u ec.u oouo:ouo, uno:
l) cnpooeo.uoo noepoeuue c uo+epo+ l;
l
. Hoano (l858-l932) - n1arnncvn ma1oma1nv.
z6
2) u: cnpooeo.uoocnu noepoeuun c .vm+ uo+epo+
n - N c.eoen cnpooeo.uoocno noepoeuun c uo+epo+ n - l,
no ne+ co+m+ oouo:ouo cnpooeo.uoocno ocer pocc+onpu
ooe+mr noepoeuuu, n. e. cnpooeo.uoocno noepoeuun c
npou:oo.oum+ uo+epo+ n - N.
Hpnmop povaaa1orc1na, nponoponnoro mo1opom ma1oma-
1nnocvo nnpyvnn, cm., nanpnmop, n n. l.4 1oopomy l.
Hpo nyc1oo mnoxoc1no ronopn1, n1o nnco oro comon1on pan-
no nym. Cono nyr ooananao1cn cnmnoom 0. Mnoxoc1no na-
1yparnwx nnco, v vo1opomy poanon nyr, ooananao1cn N
0
:
N
0
N ' {0. (l.6)
Hyr cnn1ao1cn monrmnm moro na1yparnoro nnca:
0 n, n - N.
Ha1yparnwo nnca moxno cvapwna1r moxpy coo n c
nyom: onepouun c.oeuun n mnoxoc1no N
0
onpopono1cn c
nomomrm onopann o+opnnonnn mnoxoc1n. C++ou n - n
nnco n - N n n - N naawnao1cn nnco comon1on o+opnno-
nnn pnyx nonopocovammnxcn mnoxoc1n, opno na vo1opwx co-
popxn1 n, a ppyroo - n comon1on.
01o onpopoonno no aanncn1 o1 nwopa yvaaannwx mno-
xoc1n. 7orvo nnpo1r, n1o n cynao n l nnco n - n n - l n
cmwco onopann coxonnn connapao1 co copymmnm aa n
nncom, ooananonnwm panrmo 1om xo cnmnoom n - l.
Tavxo nonocpopc1nonno na onpopoonnn nw1ovam1 co-
pymmno cnoc1na onopann coxonnn n mnoxoc1no N
0
.
l
0
. n - 0 n, n - N
0
.
2
0
. 3 a v o n v o m m y 1 a 1 n n n o c 1 n:
n - n n - n, n, n - N
0
.
3
0
. 3 a v o n a c c o n a 1 n n n o c 1 n:
n - (n - p) (n - n) - p, n, n, p - N
0
.
Onepouun omuunouun n mnoxoc1no N
0
onpopono1cn c
nomomrm onopann nwnn1annn mnoxoc1n.
Ecn n n
l
, n, n - N
0
, 1o paanoc1rm n - n naawnao1cn
nnco comon1on mnoxoc1na, vo1opoo noynao1cn na mnoxo-
l
T. o. no n n, no n n.

do
z7
c1na, copopxamoro n comon1on, c nomomrm nwnn1annn na
noro mnoxoc1na, copopxamoro n comon1on. 01o onpopoonno
no aanncn1 o1 nwopa paccma1pnnaomwx mnoxoc1n, copopxa-
mnx n n n comon1on.
Onopann nwnn1annn n mnoxoc1no N
0
nnno1cn opa1no
pn onopann coxonnn: ocn
n - n p, n, n - N
0
,
1o
n p - n.
Ha onpopoonnn na1yparnoro nnca n copyo1, n1o mno-
xoc1no {l, 2, ... , n coc1on1 na n comon1on. Hoc1omy vaxpoo
mnoxoc1no, coc1onmoo na n comon1on, naanmno opnoananno
o1opaxao1cn na mnoxoc1no {l, 2, ... , n.
OnpepeAenMe 3. Ec.u o.n +uoecnoo cecnoen nouoe uo
npo.ouoe n, uno uuc.o eeo o.e+eunoo poouo n, no nouoe
+uoecnoo uo:mooencn uoueuum+ (cocnonu+ u: n o.e
+eunoo).
Ecnvoo mnoxoc1no, no nnnmmoocn vononnwm, naawnao1-
cn ecuoueuum+. Hpnmopom ocvononnoro mnoxoc1na nnno1-
cn mnoxoc1no N ncox na1yparnwx nnco.
Hyc1oo mnoxoc1no, no onpopoonnm, npnnncno1cn v vo-
nonnwm mnoxoc1nam.
VHPAHEHHE 3. ovaaa1r panonc1no
n - n . (l.?)
Ewpaxonno n paa oananao1 apocr, n1o opo1cn mnoxoc1no na n
comon1on, vaxpw na vo1opwx ooananon l, n nco c1n opnnnw
nocopona1orno npnannm1cn v na1yparnomy nncy n.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hcno X uouoe.uo +uoecnoo u N
+uoecnoo uonpo.oumr uuce.. Ecnuoe onopoeuue ] : N =
= X (cm. n. l.2

) uo:mooencn noc.eoooone.ouocnov o.e+eu


noo +uoecnoo X. 3.e+eun ](n) oo:uouoencn uepe: r
n
u uo
:mooencn n+ u.euo+ noc.eoooone.ouocnu ] : N = X, o co+o
ono noc.eoooone.ouocno oo:uouoencn uepe: {r
n
u.u r
n
, n
l, 2, ... .
(...((n - l) - l)... - l) - l
n paa
zS
Kaxpw comon1 r
n
nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
npopc1ann-
o1 coo ynopnpononnym napy, coc1onmym na nnca n - N n
coo1no1c1nymmoro omy npn o1opaxonnn ] : N = X comon1a
r mnoxoc1na X, 1. o. r
n
(n, r). E1opo comon1 c1o napw
naawnao1cn :uoueuue+ o.e+euno r
n
nocopona1ornoc1n
{r
n
, a nopnw - oro uo+epo+.
Mnoxoc1no comon1on nocopona1ornoc1n ncorpa ocvo-
nonno. na paannnwx comon1a nocopona1ornoc1n mory1
nmo1r opno n 1o xo ananonno, no aanopomo o1nnam1cn nomo-
pamn, vo1opwx ocvononnoo mnoxoc1no.
Mnoxoc1no ananonn comon1on nocopona1ornoc1n (own-
no ronopn1 vopono: mnoxoc1no ananonn nocopona1ornoc-
1n) moxo1 w1r vononnwm. Hanpnmop, ocn ncom n - N noc-
1anon n coo1no1c1nno opnn n 1o1 xo comon1 o - X, 1. o. npn
ncox n - N nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no ](n) o, 1o mnoxoc1no ana-
nonn nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
o, n l, 2, ... , coc1on1 na op-
noro comon1a o - X. Tavno nocopona1ornoc1n naawnam1cn
cnouuouopum+u.
Ecn n
l
n
2
, n
l
- N, n
2
- N, 1o non nocopona1or-
noc1n {r
n
naawnao1cn nonom, npopmoc1nymmnm nony ,
a non - nonom, copymmnm aa nonom . E c1om
cmwco nonw nocopona1ornoc1n ncorpa ynopnpononw.
Hnorpa n vanoc1no nomopon wnao1 ypono yno1pon1r no
nco na1yparnwo nnca, a nmr novo1opwo na nnx. Hanpn-
mop, na1yparnwo nnca nannnan c novo1oporo na1yparnoro
nnca n
0
: r
n
, n n
0
, n
0
- l..., nn opnn no1nwo nnca: r
n
,
n 2, 4, ... . Cynao1cn, n1o pn nymopann yno1ponm1cn
no 1orvo na1yparnwo, no n ppyrno nnca, nanpnmop r
n
,
n 0, l, 2, ... (apocr n vanoc1no omo opnoro nomopa poanon
nyr). Eo ncox c1nx cynanx moxno noponymopona1r aanono
r
n
, ncnorayn nco na1yparnwo nnca n n 1orvo nx. E nop-
nom npnmopo copyo1 nooxn1r n n - n
0
- l, no n1opom -
n , n 1po1rom - n n - l. Hoc1omy n noponwx cynanx
1avxo ronopn1, n1o r
n
opaaym1 nocopona1ornoc1r, n, vo-
nonno, yvaawnam1, vavno ananonnn npnnnmam1 nomopa n.
r
n
l
r
n
2
r
n
2
r
n
l
n
2
---
z9
4.4. IpynnMposkM aAeuentos konenoro unoxectso
Ecn aapano vavoo-no vononnoo mnoxoc1no, 1o wnao1 no-
oanwm coc1ann1r na oro comon1on novo1opwo rpynnw, ypon-
o1nopnmmno 1om nn nnwm yconnnm, n naynn1r nx cnoc1-
na, nanpnmop nwncnn1r, cvorvo ncoro moxno coc1ann1r 1a-
vnx rpynn. Paccmo1pnm rpynnw comon1on, naawnaomwo
paamomonnnmn, nopoc1anonvamn n cono1annnmn.
Hyc1r aapano mnoxoc1no, coc1onmoo na n comon1on,
r
l
, r
2
, ... , r
n
(l.8)
n qnvcnponano novo1opoo na1yparnoo nnco h n. E par-
nomom n nac1onmom nynv1o nop comon1amn ncorpa ypy1
nonnma1rcn comon1w (l.8), ocn, vononno, no oronopono
n1o-no ppyroo.
OnpepeAenMe 5. Ipnnm o.e+eunoo, cocnonue u: h o.e+eu
noo o uooou u on.uuovuecn ope on opeo .uo co+u+u
o.e+euno+u, .uo ur nopnouo+, uo:moovncn po:+eeuun
+u u: n o.e+eunoo no h.
Hanpnmop, rpynnw {l, 2, {2, l, {l, 3, {3, l, {2, 3, {3, 2
opaaym1 nconoamoxnwo paamomonnn na 1pox na1yparnwx
nnco l, 2, 3 no pna na nnx.
Hnco ncox paamomonn na n comon1on no h comon1on
ooananao1cn nopoa , n l, 2, ... , h l, 2, ... , n.
A E M M A. Ec.u h n, no
(n - h). (l.9)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ha vaxporo paamomonnn no h comon-
1on na n, 1. o. na vaxpo ynopnpononno rpynnw h comon1on
{ , , ... , , poanonnom opnoro na no nxopnmnx n no-
ro comon1a (1avnx comon1on ncoro n - h) moxno noy-
nn1r n - h paamomonn no h - l comon1on nnpa { , , ...
..., , , npnnom 1avnm cnocoom noynam1cn nco paamo-
monnn no h - l comon1on n 1onno no opnomy paay. Hoc1omy
(n - h) .
A
n
h
A
n
h - l
A
n
h
r
i
l
r
i
2
r
i
h
r
i
h - l
r
i
l
r
i
2
r
i
h
r
i
h - l
A
n
h
A
h - l ( )
n
30
I E O F E M A 4. H+een +ecno qop+.o
n(n - l) ... (n - h - l), h l, 2, ... , n. (l.l0)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ononnpno, n1o
n. (l.ll)
aoo,
(n - l) n(n - l), (l.l2)
(n - 2) n(n - l)(n - 2).
Eoomo, ocn
n(n - l) ... (n - h - 2), (l.l3)
1o
(n - (h - l)) n(n - l) ... (n - h - l),
1. o. nmoo1 moc1o qopmya (l.l0). Toopoma povaaana. Ononnp-
no, n1o, coracno mo1opy ma1oma1nnocvo nnpyvnn, poc1a-
1onno wo nponopn1r cnpanopnnoc1r panonc1na (l.ll) n no-
vaaa1r, n1o na qopmyw (l.l3) nw1ovao1 qopmya (l.l0).
OnpepeAenMe . Ipnnm, cocnonue u: oouoeo u noeo e uuc
.o o.e+eunoo u on.uuovuecn ope on opeo no.ouo no
pnouo+ o.e+eunoo, uo:moovncn nepecnouoouo+u.
Tavnm opaaom, nopoc1anonvn - c1o paamomonnn na n
comon1on no n comon1on n vaxpom, n l, 2, ... .
Hanpnmop, rpynnw {l, 2, 3, {l, 3, 2, {2, l, 3, {2, 3, l,
{3, l, 2 n {3, 2, l opaaym1 nconoamoxnwo nopoc1anonvn na
nopnwx 1pox na1yparnwx nnco l, 2, 3.
Hnco ncox nopoc1anonov na n comon1on ooananao1cn P
n
.
I E O F E M A 2. H+een +ecno qop+.o P
n
l 2 ... n.
01o cpaay copyo1 na qopmyw (l.l0) npn h n. Hpona-
noponno l 2 ... n ooananao1cn n! (nn1ao1cn: cn qav1o-
pna). E npnnn1wx ooananonnnx
P
n
n! (l.l4)
n ypoc1na noaram1 P
0
0! l.
A
n
h
A
n
l
A
n
2

(l.9)
A
n
l - l
A
n
l

(l.ll)
A
n
3

(l.9)
A
n
2 - l
A
n
2

(l.l2)
A
n
h - l ( )
A
n
h

(l.9)
A
n
h - l

(l.l3)
31
OnpepeAenMe 7. Ipnnm, cocnonue u: h o.e+eunoo o uo
oou u on.uuovuecn ope on opeo no upouueu +epe oouu+
o.e+euno+, uo:moovncn couenouun+u.
Hanpnmop, rpynnw {l, 2, {l, 3 n {2, 3 opaaym1 nco cono-
1annn na na1yparnwx nnco l, 2, 3 no pna na nnx.
Hnco ncox cono1ann na n comon1on no h comon1on n
vaxpom ooananao1cn .
I E O F E M A 3. H+een +ecno qop+.o
, (l.l5)
n. e.
. (l.l6)
C A E p C I 8 H E. Cnpooeo.uoo qop+.o
. (l.l?)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn n vaxpom cono1annn na n comon-
1on no h (nx ncoro ) cpoa1r nconoamoxnwo nopoc1anonvn
oro comon1on (nnco 1avnx nopoc1anonov panno P
h
), 1o noy-
na1cn paamomonnn na n comon1on no h, npnnom 1avnm cnoco-
om noynam1cn nco paamomonnn na n comon1on no h, n npn-
1om no opnomy paay. Hoc1omy
P
h
,
o1vypa n copyo1 qopmya (l.l5). 4opmya (l.l6) noynao1cn
na qopmy (l.l0), (l.l4), (l.l5).
Ecn ymnoxn1r nncn1or n anamona1or ppon, c1onmo
n npano nac1n qopmyw (l.l6), na (n - h)!, 1o noynn1cn qop-
mya (l.l?).
I E O F E M A 4. H+een +ecno qop+.o
, h 0, l, 2, ... , n, (l.l8)
eoe l.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. 4opmyy (l.l8) orvo noynn1r nono-
cpopc1nonno na onpopoonnn cono1ann: ocn na n comon1on
nwpa1r vavym-no rpynny (cono1anno), coc1onmym na h
comon1on, 1o oc1ano1cn rpynna (cono1anno) na n - h comon-
1on, npn c1om 1avnm cnocoom noynam1cn nco cono1annn na n
comon1on no n - h comon1on n no opnomy paay. Hoc1omy nnc-
C
n
h
C
n
h
A
n
h
P
h
-------
C
n
h n n - l ( ) n - h - l ( )
n!
-------------------------------------------------------------
C
n
h n!
h! n - h ( )!
---------------------------
C
n
h
C
n
h
A
n
h
C
n
h
C
n
n - h
C
n
0

do
3z
o cono1ann na n comon1on no h, 1. o. , panno nncy cono-
1ann na n comon1on no n - h, 1. o. .
4opmya (l.l8) copyo1 cpaay n na panonc1na (l.l?), n cn-
y vo1oporo
, ,
1. o. nnca n pannw.
I E O F E M A 5. H+een +ecno qop+.o
- . (l.l9)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r pan n - l comon1, na vo1opwx
coc1annm1cn cono1annn no h - l comon1on. 3aqnvcnpyom
opnn na c1nx comon1on; 1orpa nnco cono1ann, n vo1opwo
nomo c1o1 comon1, panno (1av vav ocn oro o1pocn1r n
vaxpom 1avom cono1annn, 1o noyna1cn nconoamoxnwo cono-
1annn na n comon1on no h comon1on n no opnomy paay), a
nnco cono1ann, n vo1opwo on no nxopn1, panno (no
onn opaaym1 nconoamoxnwo cono1annn no h - l comon1on na
oc1anmnxcn n comon1on). 01o n povaawnao1 qopmyy (l.l9).
3 a m o n a n n o. Hnca moxno naxopn1r c nomomrm
copymmo 1poyrorno 1anw, naawnaomo npeeo.ouu
uo+ Hocuo.n
l
, rpo nopnwo n nocopnno nnca no ncox c1pon-
vax pannw l, n nannnan c 1po1ro c1ponvn vaxpoo nnco, o1-
nnnoo o1 nopnoro n nocopnoro, noynao1cn coxonnom pnyx
nxamnx v nomy nnco npopmoc1nymmo c1ponvn:
l
l l
l 2 l
l 3 3 l
l 4 6 4 l
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l. . . . . . . l
l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l
B. Hacvar (l623-l662) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv.
C
n
h
C
n
n - h
C
n
h n!
h! n - h ( )!
---------------------------
C
n
n - h n!
n - h ( )!h!
---------------------------
C
n
h
C
n
n - h
C
n - l
h - l
C
n
h
C
n
h - l
C
n
h
C
n
h - l
C
n
h
C
n
h
C
n
h - l
C
n - l
h - l
33
Ha panonc1n l n qopmyw (l.l9) copyo1, n1o n
n c1ponvo c1o 1anw c1on1 nnca
l, , ... , , ... , , l.
4.5. AorMeckMe cMusoAm
E ma1oma1nnocvnx paccyxponnnx nac1o nc1ponam1cn nwpa-
xonnn cymoc1nyo1 comon1, oapammn novo1opwmn
cnoc1namn, n mo comon1 cpopn comon1on, nmommnx
novo1opoo cnoc1no. Emoc1o cona cymoc1nyo1 nn panno-
cnrnoro omy cona napo1cn nnorpa nnmy1 cnmno , 1. o.
noponopny1ym a1nncvym yvny E (o1 anr. ExIsIonco - cy-
moc1nonanno), a nmoc1o con mo, vaxpw, ncnvn -
cnmno \, 1. o. noponopny1oo a1nncvoo A (o1 anr. Any - m-
o). Cnmno naawnao1cn cnmnoom cecnoooouun, a cnm-
no \ - cnmnoom oceouocnu.
Rp M ue p m. 4 . Onpopoonno o+opnnonnn A

mno-
xoc1n A

, - , aanncwnao1cn c nomomrm ornnocvoro cnm-


noa cymoc1nonannn copymmnm opaaom:
A

{r : - , r - A

,
a onpopoonno nopocononnn A

, aanncannoo c nomomrm
cnmnoa ncoomnoc1n, nmoo1 nnp
A

{r : \ - , r - A

.
2 . Hyc1r R - mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco n nyc1r
aapana qynvnn ] : R = R, 1. o. qynvnn, onpopoonnan na
mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco n npnnnmamman poc1nn-
1ornwo ananonnn. 4ynvnn ] naawnao1cn uenuou quuuu
eu, ocn pn moro r - R nwnonno1cn panonc1no ](-r)
](r). Hcnorayn ornnocvym cnmnonvy, c1o yconno mox-
no aannca1r vopono:
\ r - R : ](-r) ](r).
3 . 4ynvnn ] : R = R naawnao1cn nepuoouuecuou, ocn cy-
moc1nyo1 1avoo nnco T 0, n1o, vavono w nn wo r - R, cnpa-
C
n
0
C
n
n
C
n
l
C
n
h
C
n
n - l
-
'
-
'
-
'
-
'
34
nopnno panonc1no ](r - T) ](r). Vno1ponn ornnocvno cnm-
now, c1o onpopoonno moxno aannca1r copymmnm opaaom:
( T 0)(\ r - R) : ](r - T) ](r).
Ownno pn ypoc1na n1onnn y1nopxponn, aanncannwx c
nomomrm nocvorvnx ornnocvnx cnmnoon, nco, n1o o1no-
cn1cn v vaxpomy na nnx o1porno, aavmnao1cn n vpyrwo
cvovn, vav c1o n cpoano n nocopno qopmyo. noo1onno n
noponwx qopmyax oananao1 nmoo1 moc1o. Hac1o nopo-
nwo nwpaxonnn aanncwnam1 pn vpa1voc1n oa cvoov (mw
ypom noc1yna1r 1av xo):
T 0 \ r - R : ](r - T) ](r).
4 . 4ynvnn ] : R = R no nnno1cn no1no, ocn yconno
](-r) ](r) no nwnonno1cn pn ncox r - R. Opnavo noponwo
o1pna1ornwo qopmynponvn no ononr yponw, vorpa npn-
xopn1cn nx ncnoraona1r, 1av vav 1pypno poa1r nwnopw na
1oro, noro no1. Iopaapo yponoo nmo1r poo c noan1nnnwmn,
vav nx naawnam1, y1nopxponnnmn, vo1opwo no copopxa1 o1pn-
ann. E pannom cynao y1nopxponno, n1o panonc1no ](-r)
](r) no nwnonno1cn pn ncox r - R, pannocnrno y1nopxpo-
nnm, n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo r - R, n1o ](-r) = ](r), nn n cnm-
nonnocvo aanncn
r - R : ](-r) = ](r).
5 . 4ynvnn ] : R = R no nnno1cn nopnopnnocvo, ocn
moo nnco T 0 no nnno1cn oo nopnopom, 1. o. pn moro
T 0 panonc1no ](r - T) ](r) no poxno nwnonn1rcn pn
ncox r - R, nn n noan1nnno qopmo: pn moro T 0 na-
po1cn r - R, pn vo1oporo ](r - T) = ](r). C nomomrm ornno-
cvnx cnmnoon c1o onpopoonno aanncwnao1cn copymmnm
opaaom:
\ T 0 r - R : ](r - T) = ](r).
Cpannnn aanncr c nomomrm ornnocvnx cnmnoon y1nopx-
ponn n npnmopax 2 n 3 c nx o1pnannom n npnmopax 4 n 5,
nnpnm, n1o npn noc1poonnn o1pnann cnmnow cymoc1nona-
nnn n ncoomnoc1n aamonnm1 ppyr ppyra. n 1oro n1ow n
novo1opom mnoxoc1no no cymoc1nona comon1, oapammn
vavnm-1o cnoc1nom, napo, n1ow nco comon1w no oapan
c1nm cnoc1nom, 1. o. n c1om cynao npn o1pnannn cnmno
cymoc1nonannn nopoxopn1 n cnmno ncoomnoc1n \. Ecn
3
xo vavnm-1o cnoc1nom oapam1 no nco comon1w paccma1-
pnnaomoro mnoxoc1na, 1o c1o oananao1, n1o n nom cymoc1nyo1
comon1, no oapammn pannwm cnoc1nom: cnmno ncoom-
noc1n aamonncn cnmnoom cymoc1nonannn.
Cnmno = oananao1 copyo1 (opno nwcvaawnanno copy-
o1 na ppyroro), a cnmno = oananao1 pannocnrnoc1r nwcva-
awnann, c1onmnx no paanwo o1 noro c1oponw. 3nanov do oa-
nanao1, n1o cqopmynponannoo y1nopxponno cnpanopnno no
onpopoonnm (o1 anr. doInIIIon - onpopoonno). Hanpnmop,
A ~ E (\ r - A = r - E), (g

])(r) g(](r)).
Onpopoonno nac1o ncnorayomoro n ma1oma1nvo cnmnoa
(rponocvan aarannan yvna cnrma) pn ooananonnn cym-
mw caraomwx moxno aannca1r copymmnm opaaom:
o
h
o
l
- o
2
- ... - o
n
.
Kav npanno, naoxonno ma1opnaa nopo1cn n vaccnno-
cvom c1no oa ncnoraonannn ornnocvnx cnmnoon. Onn
yno1ponm1cn nmr napaorno c ocnonnwm 1ovc1om. 01o,
c opno c1oponw, nomoxo1 nn1a1om npnnwvny1r v nx npn-
mononnm, n1o, nanpnmop, nooano npn voncnov1nponannn, a c
ppyro - ooo vpa1vo n, copona1orno, nnorpa ooo nwpa-
an1orno paa+ncnn1r nyxnym mwcr.
E parnomom vono nponopnmoro povaaa1orc1na cqop-
mynponannoro y1nopxponnn ypo1 o1mona1rcn cnmnoom .
2.
/eMcaMe/||e Mc/c
2.4. CsoMctso peMctsMteAonmx MceA
E comon1apno ma1oma1nvo naynam1cn poc1nn1ornwo (no-
moc1nonnwo) nnca. Cnanaa n npoocco cno1a noannvao1 1av
naawnaomw uonpo.oumu pno nnco l, 2, 3, ... , n, ... .
E apnqmo1nvo nnopn1cn poc1nnn coxonnn n ymnoxonnn
nap na1yparnwmn nncamn. H1o xo vacao1cn onopan nw-
nn1annn n poonnn, 1o onn yxo ovaawnam1cn no ncorpa noa-
moxnwmn n mnoxoc1no na1yparnwx nnco. H1ow nco no1w-
=
do

do

h l
n

do
36
po apnqmo1nnocvno onopann wn noamoxnw pn mo
napw nnco (vpomo onopann poonnn na nyr, vo1opo nor-
an npnnnca1r cmwca), npnxopn1cn pacmnpn1r vacc pac-
cma1pnnaomwx nnco. K nooxopnmoc1n 1avoro pacmnponnn
aanaca nnco npnnopn1 1avxo no1ponoc1n namoponnn 1ox
nn nnwx roomo1pnnocvnx n qnannocvnx nonnnn. Hoc1omy
nnopn1cn nnco nyr n owo onpuuone.oume nnca (nnpa
-l, -2, ... , -n, ...), a aa1om n pouuouo.oume (nnpa p,q, rpo
p, q - owo, q = 0).
Ta xo no1ponoc1r namoponnn nonnnn n nponoponnn 1a-
vnx onopan, vav nanononno vopnn, nwnnconno orapnq-
mon, pomonno aropannocvnx ypannonn, npnnopn1 v par-
nomomy pacmnponnm aanaca paccma1pnnaomwx nnco: nonn-
nm1cn uppouuouo.oume n, navono, uo+n.eucume uuc.o.
Eco panonarnwo n nco nppanonarnwo nnca opaaym1
mnoxoc1no ncox poc1nn1ornwx nnco.
Mnoxoc1no ncox poc1nn1ornwx nnco, vav npnnn1o, y-
pom ooanana1r nopoa R (o1 a1. roaIus - poc1nn1ornw).
01o mnoxoc1no opaayo1 conovynnoc1r, n vo1opo onpopoo-
nw naanmocnnanwo onopann coxonnn, ymnoxonnn n cpan-
nonnn nnco no nonnnno n vo1opan oapao1 onpopoonnoro
popa nonpopwnnoc1rm. Hanomnnm vpa1vo cnoc1na poc1nn-
1ornwx nnco, nanoc1nwo na comon1apno ma1oma1nvn, n
pononnm nx onncannom novo1opwx cnoc1n, ownno no pac-
cma1pnnaomwx 1am poc1a1onno nono.
I. O n o p a n n c o x o n n n. n mo ynopnponon-
no napw poc1nn1ornwx nnco o n b onpopoono, n npn1om
opnnc1nonnwm opaaom, nnco, naawnaomoo nx c++ou n oo-
ananaomoo nopoa o - b, 1av n1o npn c1om nmom1 moc1o copym-
mno cnoc1na.
I
l
. ].n .vou nopm uuce. o u b
o - b b - o.
01o cnoc1no naawnao1cn nepe+ecnune.oum+ nn uo++
nonuoum+ :ououo+ c.oeuun.
I
2
. ].n .vmr uuce. o, b u c
o - (b - c) (o - b) - c.
01o cnoc1no naawnao1cn couenone.oum+ nn occouu
onuoum+ :ououo+ c.oeuun.
37
I
3
. Cecnoen uuc.o, oo:uouoe+oe 0 u uo:mooe+oe u
.e+, nouoe, uno o.n .voeo uuc.o o
o - 0 o.
I
4
. ].n .voeo uuc.o o cecnoen uuc.o, oo:uouoe+oe
-o u uo:mooe+oe nponuoono.oum+ oouuo+, nouoe, uno
o - (-o) 0.
II. O n o p a n n y m n o x o n n n. n mo ynopnpo-
nonno napw nnco o n b onpopoono, n npn1om opnnc1non-
nwm opaaom, nnco, naawnaomoo nx npou:oeoeuue+ n ooana-
naomoo ob (nn ob), 1av n1o npn c1om nmom1 moc1o copym-
mno cnoc1na.
II
l
. ].n .vou nopm uuce. o u b
ob bo.
01o cnoc1no naawnao1cn nepe+ecnune.oum+ nn uo++no
nuoum+ :ououo+ +uoeuun.
II
2
. ].n .vmr uuce. o, b, c
o(bc) (ob)c.
01o cnoc1no naawnao1cn couenone.oum+ nn occouuonuo
um+ :ououo+ +uoeuun.
II
3
. Cecnoen uuc.o, oo:uouoe+oe l u uo:mooe+oe
eouuuueu, nouoe, uno o.n .voeo uuc.o o
o l o.
II
4
. ].n .voeo uuc.o o = 0 cecnoen uuc.o, oo:uouoe
+oe l,o u.u u uo:mooe+oe oponum+ oouuo+, nouoe, uno
o l.
III. C n n a r o n o p a n c o x o n n n n y m n o x o-
n n n. ].n .vmr uuce. o, b, c
(o - b)c oc - bc.
01o cnoc1no naawnao1cn pocnpeoe.une.oum+ nn oucnpu
nuoum+ :ououo+ +uoeuun o1nocn1orno coxonnn.
IV. V n o p n p o n o n n o c 1 r. ].n uoooeo uuc.o o on
peoe.euo oouo u: coonuoueuuu o 0 (o o.oue u.n), o 0
l
o
---
l
o
---
3S
(o poouo u.v) u.u o 0 (o +euoue
u.n) nou, uno c.ooue o 0 poouo
cu.ouo c.oouv -o 0.
Hpu ono+ ec.u o 0, b 0, no
u+evn +ecno uepooeucnoo:
IV
l
. o - b 0.
IV
2
. ob 0.
Cnoc1no IV pao1 noamoxnoc1r nnoc1n nonn1no cpannonnn
nn, vav nnorpa ronopn1, cpannonnn no nonnnno pn mwx
pnyx nnco.
Hnco b naawnam1 nncom, ormnm nnca o, n nnmy1 b o,
nn, n1o 1o xo camoo, nnco o naawnam1 monrmnm nnca b n
nnmy1 o b, ocn b - o 0.
Hannno cpannonnn ormo nn monrmo pn mo
napw poc1nn1ornwx nnco naawnao1cn cooucnoo+ nopnoo
ueuuocnu +uoecnoo ocer oeucnoune.oumr uuce..
oc1nn1ornwo nnca oapam1 omo 1av naawnaomwm
cnoc1nom nonpopwnnoc1n.
V. C n o c 1 n o n o n p o p w n n o c 1 n. Kouoom m uu m
.u uencnme +uoecnoo A ~ R u E ~ R, uonopmr o.n .v
mr oor o.e+eunoo o - A u b - E omno.unencn uepooeu
cnoo o b, cecnoen nouoe uuc.o , uno o.n ocer o - A
u b - E u+een +ecno (pnc. 2) coonuoueuue
o b.
Cnoc1no nonpopwnnoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco cnnaano c
camwm npoc1omnm ncnoraonannom ma1oma1nvn na npav1n-
vo - c namoponnom nonnnn. Hpn namoponnn vavo-no qn-
annocvo nn vavo-nnypr ppyro npnpopw nonnnnw nac1o
noynam1 c ormo nn monrmo 1onnoc1rm oo npnnxon-
nwo ananonnn. Ecn n poayr1a1o cvcnopnmon1arnoro namo-
ponnn panno nonnnnw noynao1cn pnp nnco, pammnx ana-
nonno ncvomo nonnnnw c nopoc1a1vom (onn nrpam1 por
mnoxoc1na A n npnnoponno nwmo qopmynponvo cnoc1na
nonpopwnnoc1n) n c naw1vom (mnoxoc1no E), 1o cnoc1no no-
npopwnnoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco nwpaxao1 o+ov1nnnym
ynoponnoc1r n 1om, n1o namopnoman nonnnna nmoo1 onpopo-
onnoo ananonno, pacnooxonnoo moxpy oo npnnxonnwmn
ananonnnmn, nwnnconnwmn c nopoc1a1vom n naw1vom.
Ha cnoc1n I-V poc1nn1ornwx nnco nw1ovam1 ppyrno
mnoronnconnwo nx cnoc1na, noc1omy moxno cvaaa1r, n1o
poc1nn1ornwo nnca npopc1annm1 coo conovynnoc1r
comon1on, oapammym cnoc1namn I-V.
Pnc. 2

E A
39
n npymnnnoro nn1a1on aamo1nm, n1o
ccwva n nanao naparpaqa na 1o, n1o po-
c1nn1ornwo nnca n nx cnoc1na nanoc1nw
na vypca comon1apno ma1oma1nvn, no nn-
no1cn nooxopnmo. Cqopmynponannwo
nwmo cnoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco moxno nan1r aa ncxop-
noo onpopoonno. Copyo1 1orvo ncvmnn1r 1pnnnarnw cy-
na: orvo nponopn1r, n1o pn mnoxoc1na, coc1onmoro 1orvo
na opnoro nyn, nwnonnm1cn nco cnoc1na I-V (n 1avom mno-
xoc1no 0 l). Mnoxoc1no, n vo1opom nmoo1cn xo1r opnn co-
mon1, o1nnnw o1 nyn, ypom apocr pn vpa1voc1n naawna1r
no1pnnnarnwm.
Hopoqpaanpyn cvaaannoo, noynnm copymmoo onpopoo-
nno.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Henpuouo.ouoe +uoecnoo o.e+eunoo, o
.ooovur cooucnoo+u I-V, uo:mooencn +uoecnoo+ oeu
cnoune.oumr uuce.. Koomu o.e+eun onoeo +uoecnoo
uo:mooencn oeucnoune.oum+ uuc.o+.
Hoc1poonno 1oopnn poc1nn1ornwx nnco, ocnonwnammoo-
cn na 1avom nx onpopoonnn, naawnao1cn oucuo+onuuecuu+,
a cnoc1na I-V - oucuo+o+u oeucnoune.oumr uuce..
Ioomo1pnnocvn mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco naopa-
xao1cn nanpanonno (opnon1nponanno) npnmo, a o1por-
nwo nnca - 1onvamn c1o npnmo. Hoc1omy conovynnoc1r
poc1nn1ornwx nnco nac1o naawnam1 nncono npnmo, a
1avxo nncono nn poc1nn1orno ocrm, a o1pornwo nnc-
a - oo 1onvamn (pnc. 3).
Hpn 1avo nn1opnpo1ann poc1nn1ornwx nnco nnorpa
nmoc1o o monrmo b (o ormo b) ronopn1, n1o 1onva o oxn1
onoo 1onvn b (n1o o oxn1 npanoo b).
E n. 2.2

-2.6

ypy1 ooo po1arno npoanananponanw


cnoc1na I-V poc1nn1ornwx nnco n nwnoponw novo1opwo
nx copc1nnn. Kav n nco nynv1w, o1mononnwo anoaponvamn,
c1n nynv1w npn nopnom n1onnn moxno oa cymoc1nonnoro
ymopa pn ycnoonnn vypca ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa onyc-
1n1r. n nonnmannn parnomoro ma1opnaa (n 3 n copym-
mnx) nnono poc1a1onno npopc1anonnn o poc1nn1ornwx
nncax, vo1opoo pao1cn n vypco comon1apno ma1oma1nvn.
2.2'. CsoMctso cAoxenMs M yunoxenMs
Paccmo1pnm novo1opwo cnoc1na coxonnn n ymnoxonnn, vo-
1opwo nw1ovam1 na cnoc1n I, II n III. Hpoxpo ncoro aamo1nm,
0 l
o b
Pnc. 3
40
n1o pn onopann coxonnn cymoc1nyo1 opa1nan onopann -
nwnn1anno; onpoponm oo.
n mo ynopnpononno napw nnco o - R n b - R nnco
o - (-b) naawnao1cn po:uocnov nnco o n b n ooananao1cn no-
poa o - b, 1. o.
o - b o - (-b). (2.l)
Ecn
o - b c, (2.2)
1o, npnannn v oonm nac1nm c1oro panonc1na nnco -b, no-
ynaom (o - b) - (-b) c - (-b). O1cmpa, coracno accona1nn-
nomy aavony I
2
n onpopoonnm paanoc1n, nmoom
o - (b - (-b)) c - b,
no b - (-b) 0; copona1orno,
o c - b. (2.3)
Tavnm opaaom, noco npnanonnn v nncy o nnca b nnc-
o o nocc1anannnao1cn nwnn1annom na cymmw o - b nnca b,
noc1omy onopann nwnn1annn n naawnao1cn onepouueu, o
ponuou onepouuu c.oeuun.
Hopopom 1onopr v cnoc1nam coxonnn n ymnoxonnn
poc1nn1ornwx nnco.
l
0
. 9uc.o, o.ooovee cooucnoo+ u.n, eouucnoeuuo.
oc1nn1orno, ponyc1nm, n1o cymoc1nym1 pna nyn 0 n
0; 1orpa, n cny I
3
: 0 - 0 0, 0 - 0 0. Coracno vommy1a-
1nnnomy aavony I
2
, onwo nac1n c1nx panonc1n pannw, copo-
na1orno, pannw n npanwo, 1. o. 0 0.
2
0
. 9uc.o, nponuoono.ouoe oouuo+, eouucnoeuuo.
Hyc1r nnca b n c npo1nnonooxnw novo1opomy nncy o,
1. o. o - b 0 n o - c 0. Torpa na nopnoro panonc1na nmoom
(o - b) - c 0 - c, 1. o. (o - b) - c c, o1vypa (o - c) - b c; no
o - c 0, copona1orno, b c.
3
0
. ].n .voeo uuc.o o cnpooeo.uoo pooeucnoo
-(-o) o.
Ha panonc1na o - (-o) 0, onpoponmmoro npo1nnonoox-
nw comon1, n cny vommy1a1nnnoc1n coxonnn, noynnm
(-o) - o 0. 01o n oananao1, n1o o -(-o).
4
0
. ].n .voeo uuc.o o cnpooeo.uoo pooeucnoo
o - o 0.
E camom poo, o - o o - (-o) 0.

do
41
5
0
. ].n .vmr uuce. o u b u+ee+
-o - b -(o - b),
n. e. uuc.o, nponuoono.ouoe c++e oor uuce., poouo c+
+e nponuoono.oumr u+ uuce..
oc1nn1orno, o - b - (-o - b) (o - o) - (b - b) 0.
6
0
. Vpooueuue o - r b u+een o R peueuue, u npuno+
eouucnoeuuoe: r b - o.
E camom poo, ocn pomonno cymoc1nyo1, 1o, n cny
qopmy (2.2)-(2.3), r b - o. 01nm n povaaana opnnc1non-
noc1r pomonnn ypannonnn o - r b. n cymoc1nonannn po-
monnn poc1a1onno nponopn1r, n1o nnco r b - o nnno1cn
pomonnom. 01o poc1nn1orno 1av:
o - (b - o) o - [b - (-o) [o - (-o) - b b.
n onopann ymnoxonnn 1avxo cymoc1nyo1 opa1nan
onopann; ona naawnao1cn poonnom n onpopono1cn copym-
mnm opaaom.
n mo ynopnpononno napw nnco o n b, b = 0, nnco
o naawnao1cn uocnum+ on oe.euun o na b n ooananao1cn
nopoa , nn o,b, nn o : b, 1. o.
o , b = 0.
3anncr nac1noro o1 poonnn o na b n nnpo (nn o,b)
naawnao1cn pporm c nncn1oom o n anamona1oom b.
Cnoc1na, anaornnnwo cnoc1nam l
0
-6
0
pn coxonnn,
cnpanopnnw n pn onopann ymnoxonnn:
?
0
. 9uc.o, o.ooovee cooucnoo+u eouuuum, eouu
cnoeuuo.
8
0
. 9uc.o, oponuoe oouuo+ uuc., on.uuuo+ on u
.n, eouucnoeuuo.
9
0
. ].n .voeo uuc.o o = 0 cnpooeo.uoo pooeucnoo
o.
l
b
---
o
b
---
o
b
---

do l
b
---
o
b
---
l
l o
----------
4z
l0
0
. ].n .voeo uuc.o o = 0 cnpooeo.uoo pooeucnoo
l.
ll
0
. ].n .vmr uuce. o = 0 u b = 0 u+ee+ pooeucnoo
,
1. o. nnco, opa1noo nponanoponnm nnco, o1nnnwx o1 ny-
n, panno nponanoponnm opa1nwx nm nnco.
l2
0
. Vpooueuue or b, o = 0, u+een o +uoecnoe oeucn
oune.oumr uuce. u npuno+ eouucnoeuuoe peueuue r .
Cnoc1na ?
0
-l2
0
povaawnam1cn anaornnno cnoc1nam
l
0
-6
0
.
l3
0
. Pooeucnoo , b = 0, J = 0, cnpanopnno 1orpa n
1orvo 1orpa, vorpa oJ bc.
C A E p C I 8 H E (ocnonnoo cnocvno po6n). Kouoom m uu m.u
opoo o,b, b = 0, u uuc.o c = 0, u+een +ecno pooeucnoo
.
oc1nn1orno, ymnoxan oo nac1n panonc1na o,b c,J
na bJ n ncnorayn onpopoonno poonnn, nmoom copymmym
ononvy cvnnnaon1nwx panonc1n:
= bJ Jb = o bJ c Jb = oJ cb.
Eco paccmo1ponnwo cnoc1na l
0
-l3
0
vacam1cn 1orvo
onopan coxonnn n ymnoxonnn. 01n onopann noanonm1
onpopon1r na1yparnwo, owo n panonarnwo nnca, ono-
panm noanoponnn n oym c1ononr n onopanm nanononnn
vopnn. Hpopoaom c1o.
Hnco l - l ooananao1cn nopoa 2, nnco 2 - l - nopoa 3 n
1. p. Hnca l, 2, 3, ... naawnam1cn uonpo.oum+u uuc.o+u.
Hx ooananonno n naananno connapam1 c nncamn comon1on n
vononnwx mnoxoc1nax (cm. n. l.3

). 01o no cynano, no-


cvorvy, pn 1oro n1ow noynn1r na1yparnoo nnco n n no-
nom cmwco, napo nan1r vononnoo mnoxoc1no opnnn, nnco
comon1on vo1oporo n n. l.3

wo ooananono 1om xo cnmno-


om n, n coxn1r nx (cm. (l.4)). Hpn c1om o1nomonno nopnp-
o
o
---
l
o
---
l
b
---

l
ob
------
b
o
---
o
b
---
c
J
---
o
b
---
oc
bc
------
o
b
---
c
J
---
o
b
---
c
J
---
l
b
---
l
J
---
43
va, nnoponnoo n mnoxoc1no na1yparnwx nnco (cm. n. l.3

),
connapao1 c nopnpvom, nmommnmcn n c1om mnoxoc1no corac-
no ynopnpononnoc1n mnoxoc1na ncox poc1nn1ornwx nnco
(cm. cnoc1no IV n n. 2.l), npnnom na1yparnwm nncom, nono-
cpopc1nonno copymmnm aa n, nnno1cn n - l. Kav yxo o1mona-
ocr, mnoxoc1no na1yparnwx nnco ooananao1cn nopoa N.
3amo1nm, n1o, xo1n, vav c1o wo povaaano nwmo, opnnn-
a opnnc1nonna, moxno paccma1pnna1r nocvorvo cvaomnn-
pon opnnnw (vav n noomo nocvorvo cvaomnnpon moro
comon1a novo1oporo mnoxoc1na) xo1n w pn 1oro, n1ow
moxno wo nannca1r nwpaxonno l - l.
Hnca 0, l, 2, ... naawnam1cn ue.m+u uuc.o+u. Mno-
xoc1no owx nnco ownno ooananao1cn nopoa Z.
E parnomom ypo1 novaaano (cm. cnoc1no 8
0
n n. 2.3

),
n1o na ncox noponnconnwx n n. 2.l cnoc1n poc1nn1ornwx
nnco copyo1: l 0.
Hnca nnpa n,n, rpo n n n - owo, a n = 0, naawnam1cn
pouuouo.oum+u uuc.o+u. Mnoxoc1no ncox panonarnwx
nnco ooananao1cn ownno nopoa Q. oc1nn1ornwo nnca,
no nnnmmnocn panonarnwmn, naawnam1cn uppouuouo.o
um+u. Hx mnoxoc1no ooananao1cn nopoa I.
O1mo1nm 1onopr nocvorvo cnoc1n, vo1opwo cnnawnam1
onopann coxonnn n ymnoxonnn.
l4
0
. ].n .vmr uuce. o, b u c u+een +ecno pooeucnoo
o(b - c) ob - oc.
E camom poo,
o(b - c) o(b - c) - oc - oc o(b - c - c) - oc ob - oc.
l5
0
. ].n .voeo uuc.o o omno.unencn pooeucnoo
o 0 0.
oc1nn1orno, noarmom vavoo-no nnco b; 1orpa b - b
0 (cm. cnoc1no 4
0
). Hoc1omy, coracno cnoc1ny l4
0
, nmoom
o 0 o(b - b) ob - ob 0.
Ha cnoc1na l4
0
, moxpy nponnm, nw1ovao1, n1o y1nopxpo-
nno l = 0 npn nwnononnn cnoc1n I-III cvnnnaon1no 1omy,
n1o cymoc1nyo1 xo1n w opno nnco, o1nnnoo o1 nyn. Ononnp-
no, poc1a1onno novaaa1r, n1o ocn cymoc1nyo1 nnco o = 0, 1o
l = 0. ovaxom c1o: nyc1r cymoc1nyo1 o = 0; 1orpa na panon-
44
c1na o l o copyo1, n1o l = 0, 1av vav n npo1nnnom cynao,
coracno cnoc1ny l5
0
, nmoo w moc1o panonc1no o 0.
l6
0
. Ec.u ob 0, no no upouueu +epe oouu u: co+uou
ne.eu o u b pooeu u.v.
Hyc1r, nanpnmop, o = 0; 1orpa, ymnoxnn panonc1no ob 0
na , noynnm (ob) 0, o1vypa o b 0, copona1or-
no, b 0.
l?
0
. ].n .vmr uuce. o u b u+ee+
(-o)b -ob, (-o)(-b) ob;
o uocnuocnu, (-l)o -o.
E camom poo,
(-o)b (-o)b - ob - ob (-o - o)b - ob -ob.
O1cmpa, n cny vommy1a1nnnoc1n ymnoxonnn (monnn o n b
moc1amn), nmoom o(-b) - ob. Hcnorayn c1o panonc1no, noy-
naom
(-o)(-b) -o(-b) (-l)[o(-b) (-l)(-ob) -(-ob) ob.
Ha cnoc1n I, II, III poc1nn1ornwx nnco n noponnconnwx
nwmo nx copc1nn moxno noynn1r npanna apnqmo1nnocvnx
poc1nn c pponmn, 1. o. nncamn nnpa o,b, b = 0, o - R, b - R.
l8
0
. C.oeuue opoeu npou:ooouncn no npoou.
- , b = 0, J = 0.
ovaxom cnpanopnnoc1r c1oro panonc1na. Hcnoraonan
onpopoonno poonnn, pnc1pny1nnnoc1r coxonnn o1nocn-
1orno ymnoxonnn n ocnonnoo cnoc1no ppon, noynnm
(oJ - bc) oJ - bc - - .
l9
0
. V+uoeuue opoeu npou:ooouncn no npoou.
, b = 0, J = 0.
Hcnoraonan onpopoonno poonnn n cnoc1no ll
0
, noynnm
oc oc o c .
20
0
. Oponum+ o.e+euno+ opou , o = 0, b = 0 no.nen
cn opoo , n. e. l.
01o cpaay copyo1 na npanna ymnoxonnn ppoo.
l
o
---
l
o
---
l
o
---
l
o
---

,
_
o
b
---
c
J
---
oJ - bc
bJ
---------------------
oJ - bc
bJ
---------------------
l
bJ
------
l
bJ
------
l
bJ
------
oJ
bJ
-------
bc
bJ
------
o
b
---
c
J
---
o
b
---
c
J
---
oc
bJ
------
oc
bJ
------
l
bJ
------

(ll
0
)
l
b
---
l
J
--- -

l
b
---
,
_
-

l
J
---
,
_
o
b
---
c
J
---
o
b
---
b
o
---
o
b
---
b
o
---
4
2l
0
. ]e.euue opoeu npou:ooouncn no npoou.
: , b = 0, c = 0, J = 0.
Hcnoraonan onpopoonno poonnn, npopwpymoo cnoc1no
n npanno ymnoxonnn ppoo, ypom nmo1r
: .
Hyc1r aapanw poc1nn1ornoo nnco o n na1yparnoo nnc-
o n. Hnco o, ymnoxonnoo n paa na con, naawnao1cn n
cneneuov nnca o n ooananao1cn nopoa o
n
. Tavnm opaaom,
o
n
.
Ho onpopoonnm noarao1cn o
0
l n pn moro n - N
o
-n
.
Ewnopom 1onopr na noynonnwx nwmo cnoc1n coxonnn
n ymnoxonnn poc1nn1ornwx nnco npanna poc1nn co
c1ononnmn.
22
0
. Ec.u n u n ue.me uuc.o, npuue+ o c.uoe, uoeoo
n 0 u.u n 0, u+een +ecno o = 0, no
o
n
o
n
o
n - n
, (o
n
)
n
o
nn
.
Ecn n 0 nn n 0, 1o cnpanopnnoc1r qopmy ononnpna.
E 1om cynao, vorpa n n n - na1yparnwo nnca, coracno
onpopoonnm c1ononn,
o
n
o
n
o
n - n
.
Ecn n 0, n 0 n o = 0, 1o, noaran h -n n ncnorayn
ocnonnoo cnoc1no ppon (noamoxnoc1r opnonpomonnoro poo-
nnn nncn1on n anamona1on ppon na opno n 1o xo no pannoo
nym nnco oa napymonnn panonc1na), npn h n ypom nmo1r
o
n
o
n
o
-h
o
n
o
n - h
o
n - n
,
o
b
---
c
J
---
oJ
bc
-------
o
b
---
c
J
---
o
b
---
l
c
J
---
---
o
b
---
J
c
---
oJ
bc
-------

do
oo ... o
n paa

do

do l
o
n
------
o ... o
n paa
o ... o
n paa
o
n
o
h
------
o ... o
h paa
o ... o
n paa
46
a npn h n
o
n
o
n
o
n - h
o
n - n
.
Ecn n 0, n 0 n o = 0, 1o, noaran, h -n, l -n n nc-
norayn cnoc1no ll
0
, noynaom
o
n
o
n
o
-h
o
-l
o
-(h - l)
o
n - n
.
Anaornnno nponopno1cn n n1opan qopmya cnoc1na 22
0
.
7orvo novaaa1r, n1o cnoc1na I
l
, I
2
, II
l
, II
2
n III pacnpoc1-
pannm1cn no nnpyvnn na moo vononnoo nnco nonon.
E vanoc1no npnmopa novaxom, n1o pn mwx nnco o
l
, o
2
, ... ,
o
n
(n . 2) n b
(o
l
- o
2
- ... - o
n
)b o
l
b - o
2
b - ... - o
n
b. (2.4)
E camom poo, npn n 2 c1a qopmya cnpanopnna corac-
no cnoc1ny III.
Hyc1r 1onopr qopmya (2.4) cnpanopnna npn n h, nova-
xom, n1o ona ypo1 cnpanopnna n npn n h - l. Hpnmonnn
cnoc1no I
2
pn h - l caraomwx (cnn1an, n1o ono yxo povaaa-
no), aa1om cnoc1no III n ncnoraonan npopnooxonno nnpyv-
nn, noynnm
(o
l
- o
2
- ... - o
h - l
)b [(o
l
- ... - o
h
) - o
h - l
b
(o
l
- ... - o
h
)b - o
h - l
b o
l
b - ... - o
h
b - o
h - l
b.
Ha qopmyw (2.4) n cynao o
l
o
2
... o
n
l copyo1, n1o
nb ,
1. o. n1o ymnoxonno nnca na na1yparnoo nnco n cnopn1cn v
coxonnm c1oro nnca n paa.
3 a m o n a n n o. O1mo1nm, n1o cnoc1na I-III n. 2.l no
onncwnam1 nonoc1rm poc1nn1ornwo nnca n 1om cmwco,
n1o cymoc1nym1 n ppyrno mnoxoc1na, o1nnnwo o1 conovyn-
noc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco, ypono1nopnmmno 1om xo
cnoc1nam I-III, ocn n nnx cono nnco ncmpy aamonn1r
conom comon1 paccma1pnnaomoro mnoxoc1na. Hmonno n
c1om cmwco ncmpy n parnomom nonnmao1cn nwpaxonno
mnoxoc1no, ypono1nopnmmoo vavnm-no na cnoc1n I-III.
o
n
o
h
------
l
o
h - n
---------------
l
o
h
------
l
o
l
-----
l
o
h - l
--------------
b - ... - b
n paa
47
Hpnmopom mnoxoc1n, ypono1nopnmmnx yconnnm I, II n
III, nnnm1cn opnn 1orvo panonarnwo nnca nn nanoc1-
nwo na comon1apno ma1oma1nvn vomnovcnwo nnca, a 1av-
xo conovynnoc1r panonarnwx qynvn, 1. o. qynvn nn-
pa ](r) , rpo P(r) n Q(r) - mnorononw.
0omon1w ncox noponnconnwx mnoxoc1n moxno cvapw-
na1r n ymnoxa1r, npnnom c1n onopann ypy1 nopnnnn1rcn
yconnnm I, II n III. Mnoxoc1na, ypono1nopnmmno c1nm 1po-
onannnm n copopxamno xo1n w opnn comon1, o1nnnw o1
nyn, naawnam1cn no.n+u.
Tavnm opaaom, panonarnwo nnca, poc1nn1ornwo
nnca, vomnovcnwo nnca n panonarnwo qynvnn opaay-
m1 non.
Hpoanananpyom 1onopr cnoc1na, nwponmmno noo po-
c1nn1ornwx nnco cpopn ncox ppyrnx noo. Opnnm na 1avnx
cnoc1n nnno1cn cnoc1no ynopnpononnoc1n oro comon1on.
2.3'. CsoMctso ynopspoennoctM
Ewnopom novo1opwo copc1nnn na cnoc1n ynopnpononnoc1n
IV n cnoc1n coxonnn n ymnoxonnn I, II n III.
Hpoxpo ncoro nanomnnm nonn1no cpannonnn no nonnnno
pn mwx pnyx nnco npn yconnn, n1o pn moro nnca o
onpopoono, monrmo n ono nyn, panno n nym nn ormo
oro, npnnom nnvavoo nnco n npo1nnonooxnoo omy no mory1
w1r opnonpomonno ormo nn, coo1no1c1nonno, monrmo ny-
n (n c1om coc1ono cnoc1no IV): nnco b naawnao1cn nncom,
ormnm nnca o: b o, ocn b - o 0.
Coo1nomonno o b nn pannocnrnoo omy b o naawnam1-
cn uepooeucnoo+u (nnorpa c1pornmn nopanonc1namn).
3amo1nm, n1o coo1nomonno o b n cynao o 0 nn b 0
connapao1 c ncxopnwm coo1nomonnom IV. oc1nn1orno,
ocn, nanpnmop, b 0 n o 0 n nopnonanarnom cmwco,
1o, coracno cnoc1ny IV, nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no -o 0. Ho
-o 0 - o, noc1omy 0 - o 0 n, copona1orno, o 0 n n cmwc-
o nocopymmoro onpopoonnn. Opa1no: ocn o 0 n cmwco
nocopymmoro onpopoonnn, 1. o. 0 - o 0, copona1orno,
-o 0, 1o, coracno cnoc1ny IV, c1o pannocnrno yconnm
o 0 n nopnonanarnom cmwco.
P r ( )
Q r ( )
-------------
4S
Paccmo1pnm 1onopr ocnonnwo cnoc1na cpannonnn nnco
no nonnnno.
l
0
. Ec.u o b u b c, no o c.
01o cnoc1no naawnao1cn 1 p a n a n 1 n n n o c 1 r m yno-
pnpononnoc1n (cpannonnn no nonnnno) nnco.
Ecn o b n b c, 1o, coracno onpopoonnm, c1o oanana-
o1, n1o o - b 0 n b - c 0. Cvapwnan c1n nopanonc1na, co-
racno IV
l
noynaom (o - b) - (b - c) 0, 1. o. o - c 0. 01o n
oananao1, n1o o c.
2
0
. Ec.u o b, no o.n .voeo uuc.o c u+ee+ o - c b - c.
E camom poo, nopanonc1no o b oananao1, n1o o - b 0.
Tav vav, coracno cnoc1ny 5
0
na n. 2.2

, o - b o - c - c - b
(o - c) - (b - c), 1o (o - c) - (b - c) 0 n, copona1orno,
o - c b - c.
Coo1nomonno o b nn1ao1cn: o monrmo b. Coo1nomonno
o b nn1ao1cn: o panno b. Coo1nomonno o b nn1ao1cn:
o ormo b.
Hannno 1panan1nnnoro o1nomonnn nopnpva ormo,
monrmo moxpy mwmn pnymn nncamn naawnao1cn own-
no cooucnoo+ nopnooueuuocnu +uoecnoo oeucnoune.o
umr uuce. nn onuoueuue+ nopnouo.
3anncr o b pannoananna aanncn b . o n oananao1, n1o n-
o o b, no o b. Hanpnmop, moxno nannca1r 2 2, 2 5.
Kononno, moxno nannca1r ooo 1onno: 2 2, 2 5, opnavo
nopanonc1na 2 2 n 2 5 1avxo nopnw, 1av vav oananam1,
n1o pna no ormo pnyx, coo1no1c1nonno n1o pna no or-
mo nn1n.
3
0
. ].n .vmr oor uuce. o u b u+eencn o nouuocnu oo
uo u: nper onuoueuuu nopnouo o b, o b u.u o b.
oc1nn1orno, nyc1r aapanw pna nnca o n b. n nx paa-
noc1n o - b, coracno cnoc1ny IV, nmoo1 moc1o 1onno opno na
coo1nomonn o - b 0, o - b 0 nn 0 o - b.
Ecn o - b 0, 1o, no onpopoonnm, o b. Ecn o - b 0,
1o, npnannn v oonm nac1nm panonc1na nnco b, noynnm o b.
Havono, ocn 0 o - b, 1o, npnannn nocopona1orno v oo-
nm nac1nm nopanonc1na 0 o - b nnca -o n b (cm. npopwpy-
moo cnoc1no), noynnm b - o 0. 01o n oananao1, n1o b o,
nn, n1o 1o xo, o b.
49
4
0
. Ec.u o b, no -o -b.
oc1nn1orno, na o b n cny onpopoonnn nmoom b - o 0.
Hoc1omy -o -o - b - (-b) (b - o) - (-b) 0 - (-b) -b.
5
0
. Ec.u o b u c J, no o - c b - J, n. e. +ouo npo
u:ooouno nou.euuoe c.oeuue uepooeucno oouoeo :uouo.
E camom poo, ocn o b n c J, 1o, coracno cnoc1ny 2
0
c1oro nynv1a, o - c b - c n c - b J - b, noc1omy, n cny
1panan1nnnoc1n ynopnpononnoc1n, nmoom o - c b - J.
6
0
. Ec.u o b u c . J, no o - c b - J, n. e. uepooeucnoo
nponuoono.oumr :uouoo +ouo omuunono o uo:ouuo+
c+mc.e.
oc1nn1orno, na c . J nmoom, coracno cnoc1ny 4
0
c1o-
ro nynv1a, -c -J. Coxnn nopanonc1na o b n -c -J, no-
ynnm o - c b - J.
?
0
. Ec.u o b u c 0, no oc bc.
E camom poo, coracno cnoc1ny 4
0
c1oro nynv1a, -c 0,
noc1omy, n cny cnoc1na IV
2
, nmoom o(-c) b(-c). O1cmpa,
coracno cnoc1ny l?
0
n. 2.2

, noynnm -oc -bc n, copona-


1orno (cm. cnoc1na 4
0
c1oro nynv1a), oc bc.
Ha cnoc1na ?
0
copyo1, n1o ocn b 0, J 0, 1o yconno
pannocnrno yconnm oJ bc. E camom poo, n1opoo na
nopanonc1n noynao1cn na nopnoro ymnoxonnom oonx oro
nac1o na bJ, a nopnoo na n1oporo - poonnom na bJ.
Ha cnoc1na ?
0
(npn o = 0) n na cnoc1na IV
2
nw1ovao1 npa-
nno anavon npn ymnoxonnn poc1nn1ornwx nnco: npou:oe
oeuue oor co+uoune.eu oouoeo :uouo (no opnonpomonno
nooxn1ornwx, no opnonpomonno o1pna1ornwx) no.o
une.ouo, o npou:oeoeuue oor co+uoune.eu po:umr :uo
uoo (opnn na nnx nooxn1oon, ppyro - o1pna1oon) on
puuone.ouo.
8
0
. E nopnooueuuo+ no.e oceeoo cnpooeo.uoo uepooeu
cnoo l 0.
E camom poo, vav yxo wo novaaano (cm. aamonanno noc-
o cnoc1na l4
0
n n. 2.2

), na yconnn cymoc1nonannn comon-


1a o = 0 (c1o yconno nxopn1 n onpopoonno non, cm. vono
n. 2.2

) copyo1, n1o l = 0. Hovaxom, n1o nopanonc1no l 0


nonoamoxno. onyc1nm npo1nnnoo, nyc1r l 0. Eoarmom va-
o
b
---
c
J
---
0
voo-no o 0. Coracno onpopoonnm opnnnw, nmoom
o l o. Ho npanny anavon nponanoponno nooxn1ornoro
nnca o n o1pna1ornoro, no npopnooxonnm l, nnno1cn
o1pna1ornwm nncom, 1. o. o 0, n1o npo1nnoponn1 yco-
nnm.
oc1nn1ornwo nnca cnona no nnnm1cn opnnc1nonnwm
o+ov1om, vo1opw ypono1nopno1 avcnomam I-IV. Mnoxo-
c1na, pn vo1opwx cnpanopnnw c1n avcnomw, naawnam1cn
nopnooueuum+u no.n+u. Hpnmopom ynopnpononnoro non,
o1nnnoro o1 non poc1nn1ornwx nnco, nnno1cn noo pa-
nonarnwx nnco. Opnavo yxo nn noo vomnovcnwx nnco,
nn noo panonarnwx qynvn no nnnm1cn ynopnponon-
nwm noom.
Eo ncnvom ynopnpononnom noo moxno nnoc1n nonn1no a-
com1no nonnnnw oro comon1on. Hpn oo onpopoonnn n
naynonnn oo cnoc1n pn opnnoopaann naoxonnn ypom nco
npomn ronopn1r o nncax, a no o comon1ax nponanornoro
ynopnpononnoro non.
n moro nnca o nnco, ooananaomoo o n onpopono-
moo no qopmyo
o
naawnao1cn oco.vnuou oe.uuuuou nnca o, nn, n1o 1o xo,
oro +oo.e+.
O1mo1nm pnp cnoc1n acom1no nonnnnw.
l
0
. ].n .voeo uuc.o o omno.unvncn coonuoueuun
o . 0, (2.5)
o -o, (2.6)
o o, -o o. (2.?)
ovaxom nopanonc1no (2.5). Ecn o . 0, 1o o o . 0; ocn
xo o 0, 1o o -o 0.
ovaxom panonc1no (2.6). Ecn o . 0, 1o o o n -o 0,
noc1omy, coracno onpopoonnm acom1no nonnnnw n
cnoc1ny 3 na n. 2.2

, noynnm -o -(-o) o o. Ecn xo


o 0, 1o o -o n -o 0; c1o oananao1, n1o -o -o.
ovaxom nopanonc1no (2.?). Ecn o . 0, 1o o o n -o
0 o o, 1. o. (2.?) nwnonno1cn. Ecn xo o 0, 1o o 0
-o o, 1. o. (2.?) 1avxo nwnonno1cn.
o, ocn o . 0,
-o, ocn o 0,
1
2
0
. ].n .vmr uuce. o u b
o - b o - b, (2.8)
o - b o - b. (2.9)
ovaxom c1n nopanonc1na. Coracno (2.?), nmoom:
o o, -o o, b b, -b b.
O1cmpa, n cny cnoc1na 5
0
na n. 2.3

n cnoc1na 5
0
na n. 2.2

,
o - b o - b, -(o - b) o - b.
Opno na nnco o - b nn -(o - b) noo1pna1orno n, copona-
1orno, connapao1 c o - b. Hopanonc1no (2.8) povaaano.
Hopanonc1no xo (2.9) nnno1cn copc1nnom (2.8). E camom
poo,
o - b (o - b) - b - b o - b - b - b o - b;
anaornnno,
b - o b - o o - b.
Coracno cnoc1ny 5
0
n. 2.2

, b - o -(o - b). Opno na


nnco o - b n -(o - b) connapao1 c o - b. Hopanonc1no (2.9)
1avxo povaaano.
3
0
. ].n .vmr uuce. o u b omno.unencn pooeucnoo
ob ob.
01o cpaay copyo1 na onpopoonnn acom1no nonnnnw,
cnoc1na l?
0
n. 2.2

n npanna anavon npn ymnoxonnn.


Paccmo1pnm 1onopr cnoc1no nonpopwnnoc1n, vo1opoo nw-
pono1 noo poc1nn1ornwx nnco cpopn ncox nponnx ynopn-
pononnwx noo.
2.4'. CsoMctso nenpepmsnoctM peMctsMteAonmx MceA
Vnopnpononnoo noo, ypono1nopnmmoo cnoc1ny V, naawna-
o1cn uenpepmoum+ nopnooueuum+ no.e+. Hoo panonar-
nwx nnco yxo no nnno1cn nonpopwnnwm ynopnpononnwm
noom: n nom nmom1cn mnoxoc1na A n E, pn mwx comon-
1on o - A n b - E vo1opwx nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no o b,
nmoc1o c 1om no cymoc1nyo1 1avoro panonarnoro nnca r,
z
n1ow pn ncox b - E n o - A nwnonnocr coo1nomonno o
r b. 01nm cnoc1nom oapam1, nanpnmop, mnoxoc1no E,
vo1opoo coc1on1 na ncox nooxn1ornwx panonarnwx nn-
co r, ypono1nopnmmnx nopanonc1ny r
2
2, n mnoxoc1no A,
n vo1opoo o1noconw nco oc1arnwo panonarnwo nnca, 1av
vav no cymoc1nyo1 panonarnoro nnca, vnappa1 vo1oporo
pannncn w nncy 2.
E 1opmnnax ynopnpononnwx noo onpopoonno mnoxoc1-
na poc1nn1ornwx nnco moxno cqopmynpona1r copym-
mnm opaaom.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Muoecnoo+ oeucnoune.oumr uuce. uo:m
ooencn uenpepmouoe nopnooueuuoe no.e.
Hoo panonarnwx nnco, vav yxo o1monaocr nwmo, no
oapao1 cnoc1nom nonpopwnnoc1n, a noo poc1nn1ornwx
nnco - oapao1. Hoc1omy aanopomo cymoc1nym1 poc1nn-
1ornwo nnca, no nnnmmnocn panonarnwmn, 1. o. cy-
moc1nym1 nppanonarnwo nnca. Tavnm opaaom, mnoxoc1-
no poc1nn1ornwx nnco nnno1cn pacmnponnom mnoxoc1na
panonarnwx nnco n 1om cmwco, n1o mnoxoc1no pan-
onarnwx nnco nnno1cn coc1nonnwm nopmnoxoc1nom mno-
xoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco. Hpn c1om pacmnponnn coxpa-
nnm1cn cnoc1no ynopnpononnoc1n n onopann coxonnn n
ymnoxonnn. Ovaawnao1cn, n1o poc1nn1ornwo nnca, n o1-
nnno o1 panonarnwx, yxo noran pacmnpn1r po ormoro
mnoxoc1na 1av, n1ow coxpannncr yvaaannwo cnoc1na
(ynopnpononnoc1r n onopann coxonnn n ymnoxonnn). 01o
cnoc1no naawnao1cn cnoc1nom no.uonm oeucnoune.oumr
uuce. o1nocn1orno nx ynopnpononnoc1n, coxonnn n ymno-
xonnn. Ero povaaa1orc1no ypo1 pano n n. 3.8

.
2.5'. CeenMs s unoxectse peMctsMteAonmx MceA
Cnoc1no nonpopwnnoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco moxno qop-
mynpona1r n paannnwx 1opmnnax. Paccmo1pnm qopmynpon-
vy c1oro cnoc1na n 1opmnnax 1av naawnaomwx c o n o n n
poc1nn1ornwx nnco. Hpoxpo ncoro onpoponm c1o nonn1no.
OnpepeAenMe 3. ]oo +uoecnoo A ~ R u E ~ R uo:moovncn
ceueuue+ +uoecnoo oeucnoune.oumr uuce. R, ec.u:
l
0
) oeouueuue +uoecno A u E cocnoo.nen oce +uoe
cnoo oeucnoune.oumr uuce. R, A ' E R;
3
2
0
) uoooe u: +uoecno A u E ue ncno, A = C, E = C;
3
0
) uoooe uuc.o +uoecnoo A +euoue .voeo uuc.o
+uoecnoo E: ec.u o - A, b - E, no o b.
Cnoc1no l
0
) oananao1, n1o vaxpoo poc1nn1ornoo nnco
npnnapoxn1 no vpano mopo opnomy na mnoxoc1n A n E.
Ha cnoc1na 3
0
) ononnpno copyo1, n1o mnoxoc1na A n E no
nopocovam1cn: A E C. oc1nn1orno, ocn w namocn
comon1 r - A E, 1. o. r - A n r - E, 1o na cnoc1na 3
0
) copo-
nao w, n1o r r.
Cononno mnoxoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco, opaaonannoo
mnoxoc1namn A n E, ooananao1cn nopoa AE. Mnoxoc1no A
naawnao1cn uuuu+, a mnoxoc1no E - oepruu+ vaccom
pannoro cononnn.
Hpoc1wo npnmopw cononn moxno noynn1r copymmnm
opaaom. 3aqnvcnpyom vavoo-no nnco - R. O1nocom cna-
naa v mnoxoc1ny A nco nnca r , a v mnoxoc1ny E - nco
nnca :
A {r : r , E { : . (2.l0)
Tav onpopoonnwo mnoxoc1na A n E opaaym1 cononno, n1o
yc1anannnao1cn nonocpopc1nonno nponopvo nwnononnn
yconn l
0
), 2
0
) n 3
0
) onpopoonnn 3.
Moxno noc1ynn1r nnano: o1noc1n v mnoxoc1ny A nco nnc-
a r , a v mnoxoc1ny E - nco nnca . :
A {r : r , E { : . . (2.ll)
Cnona mnoxoc1na A n E opaaym1 cononno. E oonx cynanx
(2.l0) n (2.ll) ronopn1, n1o cononno nponanopn1cn nncom ,
n nnmy1 AE.
O1mo1nm pna cnoc1na cononn, nponanopnmnxcn novo1o-
pwm nncom.
l
0
. E c.uoe (2.l0) o u.occe A ecno uouo.ouee uuc.o,
u+ no.nencn uuc.o , o o u.occe E uen uou+euoueeo uuc.o.
E c.uoe (2.ll) o u.occe A uen uouo.oueeo, o o u.occe E
ecno uou+euouee uuc.o, u+ no.nencn uuc.o .
Paccmo1pnm, nanpnmop, nopnw cyna (2.l0). To, n1o
nnno1cn nanormnm nncom n vacco A, ncno na nopno
qopmyw (2.l0), aapammo mnoxoc1no A.
'
'

do

do

do

do
4
Hovaxom, n1o n mnoxoc1no E no1 nanmonrmoro nnca. o-
nyc1nm npo1nnnoo: nyc1r n E oc1r nanmonrmoo nnco. Oo-
anannm oro nopoa . Ha yconnn - E, n cny n1opo qopmyw
(2.l0), cnpanopnnw nopanonc1na , copona1orno, -
- - , 1. o. , o1vypa cnona, n cny n1opo qop-
myw (2.l0), noynaom, n1o - E. Anaornnno na
nmoom - - , 1. o. , n 1av vav - nanmonrmoo
nnco n vacco E, 1o - A. Hoynonnoo npo1nnoponno po-
vaawnao1 y1nopxponno.
2
0
. 9uc.o, npou:ooonee ceueuue, eouucnoeuuo.
E camom poo, ponyc1nm, n1o cymoc1nyo1 cononno, vo1opoo
onpopono1cn pnymn paanwmn nncamn: AE n AE.
Hyc1r, nanpnmop, . Torpa, vav wo novaaano npn pova-
aa1orc1no npopwpymoro cnoc1na, cnpanopnnw nopanonc1na
. Ha nopanonc1na copyo1, n1o vav n cy-
nao (2.l0), 1av n n cynao (2.ll) nmoo1 moc1o yconno - E.
Anaornnno na nopanonc1na copyo1, n1o - A.
01o npo1nnoponn1 1omy, n1o mnoxoc1na A n E no nopocova-
m1cn.
Cnoc1no nonpopwnnoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco coc1on1 n
1om, n1o nnvavnx ppyrnx cononn poc1nn1ornwx nnco,
vpomo 1ox, vo1opwo nponanopn1cn novo1opwm nncom, no cy-
moc1nyo1. Hnano ronopn, nonpopwnnoc1r poc1nn1ornwx
nnco moxo1 w1r onncana copymmnm opaaom.
V
l
. ].n uoooeo ceueuun AE +uoecnoo oeucnoune.o
umr uuce. cecnoen uuc.o , npou:ooonee ono ceueuue:
AE.
01o nnco, coracno povaaannomy nwmo, nnno1cn no
nanormnm n nnxnom vacco, 1orpa n nopxnom vacco no1
nanmonrmoro nnca, no nanmonrmnm n nopxnom vacco,
1orpa n nnxnom no1 nanormoro nnca.
-
2
--------------
-
2
--------------
-
2
--------------
-
2
--------------
-
2
--------------
-
2
--------------
-
2
--------------
-
2
--------------
-
2
--------------

Tavnm opaaom, ocn AE nnno1cn cononn-


om mnoxoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco, 1o, co-
racno cnoc1ny nx nonpopwnnoc1n, cqopmy-
nponannomy n qopmo V
l
, no moxo1 cynn1rcn
1av, n1o n vacco A ypo1 nanormoo nnco n
opnonpomonno n vacco E ypo1 nanmonrmoo
nnco (pnc. 4, o). Ho moxo1 1avxo w1r n 1o-
ro, n1ow n vacco A no wo nanormoro
nnca n opnonpomonno n vacco E no wo nanmonrmoro nnc-
a (pnc. 4, ). Opaano ronopn, nonpopwnnoc1r poc1nn1or-
nwx nnco oananao1, n1o n nx mnoxoc1no no1 nn cvanvon, nn
npooon, vopono, no1 nyc1o1.
Cononno AE roomo1pnnocvn oananao1 paanonno nncono
npnmo na pna yna, nmommnx omoo nanao n npymnx n
npo1nnonooxnwx nanpanonnnx, npnnom opnn na nnx co-
popxn1 nx omoo nanao (aamvny1w yn), a ppyro - no1
(o1vpw1w yn).
Cqopmynponannoo cnoc1no nonpopwnnoc1n poc1nn1or-
nwx nnco V, 1av xo vav n cvnnnaon1noo omy cnoc1no V
l
,
naawnao1cn npuuuuno+ uenpepmouocnu oeucnoune.oumr
uuce. no ]eoeuuuo
l
.
E parnomom mw nc1po1nmcn c ppyrnmn nopxopamn v no-
nn1nm nonpopwnnoc1n mnoxoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco
(cm. n. 3.?).
Hovaxom, n1o cnoc1no V
l
pannocnrno cnoc1ny V. Hyc1r
cnanaa nwnonono cnoc1no V n aapano vavoo-no cononno
AE. E cny 1poonannn 3
0
n onpopoonnn cononn pn mwx
o - A n b - E nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no o b, noc1omy napa
mnoxoc1n A n E ypono1nopno1 yconnm, cqopmynponanno-
my n cnoc1no V. Copona1orno, coracno c1omy cnoc1ny, cy-
moc1nyo1 1avoo nnco , n1o pn ncox o - A n b - E nwnonno1-
cn coo1nomonno o b. Hnco , coracno nopnomy cno-
c1ny cononn, npnnapoxn1 opnomy na vaccon A nn E. Ecn
- A, 1o pn ncox o - A n b - E nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
o b, 1. o. nnco nponanopn1 cononno AE n nnno1cn na-
normnm n nnxnom vacco. Anaornnno, ocn - E, 1o nnc-
o 1avxo nponanopn1 cononno AE n nnno1cn nanmonrmnm
n nopxnom vacco E.
l
P. opovnnp (l83l-l9l6) - nomovn ma1oma1nv.
o)
)
E A
E A
Pnc. 4
6
Hyc1r 1onopr, naoopo1, nwnonono yconno V
l
n aapanw
pna 1avnx nonyc1wx mnoxoc1na A ~ R n E ~ R, n1o pn
mwx o - A n b ~ R nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no o b. Ooana-
nnm nopoa E

1avoo mnoxoc1no nnco, n1o, vavono w nn w-


o b

- E

, pn moro o - A nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no o b

(nnco b

, oapammoo c1nm cnoc1nom, naawnao1cn uuc.o+,


oepouuuuoovu+ coepr +uoecnoo A). Ononnpno,
E ~ E

. (2.l2)
Hopoa A

ooanannm nco oc1arnwo poc1nn1ornwo nnca:


A

RE

.
Hovaxom, n1o mnoxoc1na A

n E

opaaym1 cononno n mnoxo-


c1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco n n1o nnco , nponanopnmoo c1o
cononno, ypono1nopno1 yconnm, yvaaannomy n qopmynpon-
vo cnoc1na V, pn aapannwx mnoxoc1n A n E.
Hpoxpo ncoro nponopnm, n1o mnoxoc1na A

n E

ypono1-
nopnm1 ncom yconnnm, vo1opwm poxnw ypono1nopn1r
mnoxoc1na, opaaymmno cononno. oc1nn1orno, n mnoxo-
c1no A

o1noconw nco nnca, no nonanmno n mnoxoc1no E

, no-
c1omy nx o+opnnonno A

' E

nnno1cn mnoxoc1nom ncox


poc1nn1ornwx nnco R:
A

' E

R. (2.l3)
Mnoxoc1no E

aanopomo no nyc1o n cny nvmnonnn


(2.l2), 1av vav, no yconnm, mnoxoc1no E no nyc1o. H1av,
E

= C. (2.l4)
ovaxom, n1o n mnoxoc1no A

no nyc1o. Ho yconnm, mno-


xoc1no A no nyc1o
l
. 01o oananao1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 no vpano
mopo opno nnco o - A. Torpa nnco o - l aanopomo no npnna-
poxn1 mnoxoc1ny E

. oc1nn1orno, o - l o, a nco nnca


b

na mnoxoc1na E

ypono1nopnm1 nopanonc1ny b

. o. Ho-
l
3amo1nm, n1o no onaa1orno A ~ A

. Booo 1oro, n cynao, vorpa


mnoxoc1no A coc1on1 na opno 1onvn o - E (c1o ponyc1nmo), mnoxoc1na A
n A

paxo no nopocovam1cn, 1av vav n c1om cynao A {o ~ E ~ E

.
7
c1omy o - l - A

, nocvorvy v mno-
xoc1ny A

o1nocn1cn nco nnca, no


nomopmno n mnoxoc1no E

. H1av,
mnoxoc1no A

1avxo no nyc1o:
A

= C. (2.l5)
ovaxom 1onopr, n1o vaxpoo nnco o

- A

monrmo moro
nnca b

- E

:
o

. (2.l6)
onyc1nm npo1nnnoo: nyc1r napy1cn 1avno nnca o

- A

n
b

- E

, n1o o

. b

. Torpa, n cny onpopoonnn mnoxoc1na E

,
pn moro o - A nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no o b

, a copona-
1orno, n nopanonc1no o o

. 01o oananao1, n1o o

- E

. Tavnm
opaaom, nnco o

opnonpomonno npnnapoxn1 vav mnoxoc1-


ny A

, 1av n mnoxoc1ny E

. 01o nonoamoxno, 1av vav v mno-


xoc1ny A

wn o1noconw 1orvo 1o nnca, vo1opwo no copop-


xa1cn n mnoxoc1no E

. Hoynonnoo npo1nnoponno novaawnao1,


n1o nopanonc1no o

. b

npn yconnn o

- A, b

- E nonoamox-
no, a 1om camwm nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no (2.l6).
Ewnononno yconn (2.l3)-(2.l6) oananao1, n1o mnoxo-
c1na A

n E

poc1nn1orno opaaym1 cononno n mnoxoc1no


poc1nn1ornwx nnco (cm. onpopoonno 3).
Hyc1r - nnco, nponanopnmoo c1o cononno: A

.
Tavoo nnco cymoc1nyo1 n cny npopnooxonnn o nwno-
nonnn cnoc1na V
l
. Hovaxom, n1o - E

. Ecn w c1o wo
no 1av, 1o namocr w 1avoo nnco o
0
- A, n1o o
0
. Ewo-
pom vavoo-no nnco r 1av, n1ow r o
0
(pnc. 5),
nanpnmop, . Ha yconn r n A

nw1ovao1, n1o
r - E

, copona1orno, pn moro o - A poxno nwnonn1rcn


nopanonc1no r . o, 1av vav E

coc1on1 1orvo na 1avnx nnco.


Opnavo c1o nopanonc1no no nwnonno1cn npn o o
0
. Hoynon-
noo npo1nnoponno povaawnao1, n1o - E

, n noc1omy nnco
nnno1cn nanmonrmnm n nopxnom vacco E

; no E ~ E

, copo-
Pnc. 5

r
o
0
- o
0
2
------------------
S
na1orno, pn mwx b - E nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no b.
Havono, n cny camoro onpopoonnn mnoxoc1na E

, na nvm-
nonnn - E

nw1ovao1, n1o pn moro nnca o - A cnpanopn-


no nopanonc1no o .
H1av, pn ncox o - A, b - E nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no o
b. 01o n oananao1, n1o nannno cnoc1na V

nono1 aa coo
nannno cnoc1na V.
Anaornnno onpopoonnm 3 qopmynpyo1cn onpopoonno
cononnn n mnoxoc1no panonarnwx nnco Q. Ecnvoo poc1-
nn1ornoo nnco nponanopn1 1avoo cononno, n moxno pova-
aa1r, n1o ncnvoo cononno n Q nponanopn1cn poc1nn1ornwm
nncom.
VHPAHEHHE 1. Hyc1r E {r : r
2
2, r 0, r - Q n A QE. ova-
aa1r, n1o mnoxoc1na A n E opaaym1 cononno n noo panonarnwx nnco
Q n n1o c1o cononno no onpopono1cn nnvavnm panonarnwm nncom.
2.'. FoMonoAonme ctenenM peMctsMteAonmx MceA
Hnco b 1avoo, n1o b
n
o (ocn ono, vononno, cymoc1nyo1),
naawnao1cn uopue+ n c1ononn na nnca o n ooananao1cn
nopoa , nn o
l,n
, 1. o. o.
O1mo1nm, n1o n mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco pn mo-
ro nnca o . 0 n moro na1yparnoro nnca n ncorpa cymoc1ny-
o1 nnco b . 0, nnnmmoocn vopnom n c1ononn na o, 1. o. cy-
moc1nyo1 . Mw no ypom nova oc1anannna1rcn na povaaa-
1orc1no c1oro naxnoro y1nopxponnn, xo1n oro moxno wo w
nponoc1n n apocr, nanpnmop na ocnono nonn1nn cononnn, a pova-
xom oro noaxo (cm. npnmop n n. ?.2). Kononno, n novo1opwx
cynanx voponr moxo1 cymoc1nona1r n pn o 0. Hanpnmop,
cymoc1nyo1 -2, no yxo voponr no cymoc1nyo1 n 1om
cmwco, n1o no cymoc1nyo1 poc1nn1ornoro nnca b , 1av
vav n npo1nnnom cynao wo w cnpanopnno panonc1no b
2

-4, vo1opoo npo1nnoponn1 npanny anavon npn ymnoxonnn.


o
n
o
n
( )
n

do
o
n
8
3
4
4
9
Ecn o . 0, b n b . 0, 1o nnco b naawnao1cn opuq+e
nuuecuu+ :uoueuue+ vopnn n c1ononn na nnca o. E par-
nomom nop vopnom na noo1pna1ornoro poc1nn1ornoro
nnca ypom nonnma1r apnqmo1nnocvoo ananonno vopnn, oc-
n no oronopono n1o-no ppyroo.
Cqopmynpyom cnocvna uopns. Hyc1r n n n - na1ypar-
nwo nnca n o . 0, b . 0; 1orpa cnpanopnnw copymmno qop-
myw:
l
0
. . 2
0
. .
3
0
. . 4
0
. , b = 0.
5
0
. .
Eco c1n qopmyw povaawnam1cn opnnavonwm npnomom.
ovaxom, nanpnmop, nopnym na nnx.
Hyc1r b . Coracno onpopoonnm vopnn n cnoc1ny
22
0
na n. 2.2

, c1o oananao1, n1o b


n
n n1o b
nn
o. O1cm-
pa, n cny 1oro xo onpopoonnn vopnn, copyo1, n1o b .
Tavnm opaaom, nmoom b .
Ecn o 0 n nco vopnn, nxopnmno n qopmyy l
0
, cymoc1ny-
m1, 1o ona 1avxo cnpanopnna n npnnoponnoo oo povaaa1orc1-
no coxpanno1 cny. Eoomo, ocn o 0 n nco vopnn, nxopnmno
n vavym-no na qopmy l
0
-5
0
, cymoc1nym1, 1o onn cnpanop-
nnw npn coo1no1c1nymmom nwopo ananonn vopno.
Hmon nonn1no oonnconno c1ononn n vopnn, onpopo-
nm nonn1no panonarno c1ononn. Hyc1r o 0 n r - Q, 1. o.
r n,n, n - Z, n - Z, n = 0.
C1ononr o
r
onpopono1cn panonc1nom o
r
.
O1mo1nm ocnonnmo cnocvna panonaAnno cvononn.
Hyc1r o 0, b 0, r
l
- Q, r
2
- Q; 1orpa:
6
0
. o
-r
. ?
0
. .
8
0
. . 9
0
. (ob)
r
o
r
b
r
.
o
n
o
n
n
o
nn
o
n
o
n
nn
ob
n
o
n
b
n
o
b
--- n
o
n
b
n
--------
o
n
( )
n
o
n
n
o
n
n
o
n
o
nn
o
n
n
o
nn

do
o
n n
l
o
r
-----
o
r
l
o
r
2
o
r
l
- r
2
o
r
l
( )
r
2
o
r
l
r
2
60
ovaxom cnoc1no 6
0
. Ecn r , rpo n n n - owo nnc-
a, n = 0, 1o
o
-r
.
Ha qopmy ?
0
, 8
0
n 9
0
povaxom, nanpnmop, qopmyy ?
0
(oc1arnwo povaawnam1cn anaornnno). Ecn r
l
, r
2
,
q = 0, n = 0, p, q, n, n - Z, 1o, ncnoraonan onpopoonno pa-
nonarno c1ononn, cnoc1na vopno 2
0
, 3
0
n cnoc1no 22
0
na 2.2

, noynnm

.
Ha cnoc1na 9
0
copyo1, n1o . oc1nn1orno,
(ob
-l
)
r
o
r
(b
-l
)
r
o
r
b
-r
.
3aaua 1. ovaaa1r c nomomrm cononn, n1o pn moro nnca o 0
n moro na1yparnoro n cymoc1nyo1 voponr .
2.7. OopuyAo Mnouo Homtono
Mnorononw, npopc1annmmno coo cymmy pnyx caraomwx,
naawnam1cn pnynonamn nn nnomamn. Ewnopom qopmyy
pn n c1ononn nnoma r - o, naawnaomym qop+.ou uuo+o
Hovnouo
l
:
(r - o)
n
r
n
- r
n - l
o - r
n - 2
o
2
- ... - ro
n - l
- o
n
.
(2.l?)
C nomomrm cnmnoa qopmya (2.l?) aanncwnao1cn n nnpo
(r - o)
n
r
n - h
o
h
. (2.l8)
Hpnnopom pna povaaa1orc1na c1o qopmyw: nopnoo -
cnpnc1nnocvoo, ono noanon1 opnonpomonno yc1anonn1r nnp
l
H. Hrm1on (l643-l?2?) - anrncvn qnanv, moxannv, ma1oma1nv
n 1ooor.
n
n
-----
o
-
n
n
-----
o
-n
n
---------
o
n
n l
o
n
-------
n
l
o
n
n
-------------
l
o
n
n
-----
-------
l
o
r
-----
p
q
---
n
n
-----
o
r
l
o
r
2
o
p
q
---
o
n
n
-----
o
p
q
o
n
n
o
np
nq
o
nq
nq
o
np - nq
nq
o
np - nq
nq
------------------------
o
p
q
---
-
n
n
-----
o
r
l
- r
2
o
b
---
,
_
r
o
r
b
r
-----
o
b
---
,
_
r
o
r
b
r
-----
o
n
C
n
l
C
n
2
C
n
n - l

h 0
n
C
n
h
61
qopmyw (2.l8), n1opoo, ooo vopo1voo, ypo1 coc1on1r npoc-
1o n nponopvo nanncanno qopmyw (2.l8).
l e p a c e / c k c s c e / | c a c. Ewnncnm nponanoponno n
nnomon, n1opwo nonw vo1opwx ooananonw yvno o c paa-
nnnwmn nnpovcamn:
(r - o
l
)(r - o
2
) ... (r - o
n
). (2.l9)
Ononnpno, n1o n nponanoponnn noynn1cn mnoronon c1o-
nonn n o1nocn1orno r. Cocnn1aom nocopona1orno vocqqn-
non1w y paannnwx c1onono r, nannnan c nanormo.
E nponanoponnn (r - o
l
), (r - o
2
), ... , (r - o
n
) non c r
n
mo-
xo1 noynn1rcn 1orvo n poayr1a1o nopomnoxonnn rn, nan-
1wx na vaxpo cvovn; noc1omy vocqqnnon1 y r
n
panon l:
(r - o
l
)(r - o
2
) ... (r - o
n
) r
n
- ... .
Hon c r
n - l
npn nwnnconnn nponanoponnn (2.l9) moxo1
noynn1rcn 1orvo n 1om cynao, vorpa no ncox cvovax, vpo-
mo opno, nwpan r, a na oc1anmocn - cnoopnw non, vo-
1opwm moxo1 w1r moo na o
l
, o
2
, ... , o
n
. Hoc1omy vocqqn-
non1 n nponanoponnn (2.l9) npn r
n - l
panon o
l
- o
2
- ... o
n
:
(r - o
l
)(r - o
2
) ... (r - o
n
) r
n
- r
n - l
(o
l
- o
2
- ... - o
n
) - ... .
Hon c r
n - 2
moxo1 noynn1rcn 1orvo ocn na ncox com-
noxn1oo nponanoponnn (2.l9), vpomo pnyx, nwpan non r,
a n oc1anmnxcn pnyx - cnoopnwo nonw; noc1omy vocqqn-
non1 npn r
n - 2
n nponanoponnn (2.l9) nnno1cn cymmo nco-
noamoxnwx nponanoponn paannnwx n , npn-
nom nx ncorpa moxno pacnooxn1r n nopnpvo noapac1annn
nnpovcon, 1. o. 1av, n1o i
l
i
2
, i
l
, i
2
l, 2, ... , n:
(r - o
l
)(r - o
2
) ... (r - o
n
)
r
n
- r
n - l
o
i
- r
n - 2
- ... .
Hnco caraomwx n cymmo panno nncy nconoa-
moxnwx nwopon nap paannnwx nonon na o
l
, o
2
, ... , o
n
,
1. o. nncy cono1ann .
o
i
l
o
i
2
o
i
l
o
i
2

i l
n

i
l
, i
2
l
n
i
l
i
2
o
i
l
o
i
2

i
l
, i
2
l
n
i
l
i
2
o
i
l
o
i
2
C
n
2
6z
Eoomo, non c r
n - h
, h l, 2, ... , n - l, moxo1 noynn1r-
cn 1orvo ocn na ncox comnoxn1oo nponanoponnn (2.l9),
vpomo h, nwpan non r, a n oc1anmnxcn h - cnoopnwo no-
nw. Hoc1omy vocqqnnon1 npn r
n - h
n nponanoponnn (2.l9)
nnno1cn cymmo nconoamoxnwx nponanoponn ...
paannnwx . Comnoxn1on n c1nx nponanoponnnx ncorpa
moxno pacnooxn1r n nopnpvo noapac1annn nx nnpovcon, 1. o.
cnn1a1r, n1o i
l
i
2
... i
h
, i
]
- {l, 2, ... , n, ] l, 2, ... , h:
(r - o
l
)(r - o
2
) ... (r - o
n
) r
n
- r
n - l
o
i
-
- r
n - 2
- ... - r
n - h
... - ... .
Hnco caraomwx n cymmo, nnnmmocn vocqqnnon1om
npn r
n - h
, panno nncy cono1ann na n comon1on no h, 1. o.
panno .
Havono, cnoopnw non nponanoponnn (2.l9) noynn1cn
nmr n 1om cynao, vorpa nopomnoxam1cn cnoopnwo nonw
vaxpo na cvoov, 1. o. cnoopnw non nponanoponnn (2.l9)
panon o
l
o
2
...o
n
. H1av,
(r - o
l
)(r - o
2
) ... (r - o
n
) r
n
- r
n - l
o
i
- r
n - 2
-
- ... - r
n - h
... - ... - o
l
o
2
...o
n
. (2.20)
Hnco caraomwx n vaxpo na cymm, nanncannwx co ana-
vom , panno, coo1no1c1nonno, , , ... , , ... , a y
nopnoro n nocopnoro caraomoro pn aanncn vocqqnnon1a l
moxno ncnoraona1r panonc1na l. Hoc1omy npn
o
l
o
2
... o
n
o na qopmyw (2.20) noynnm
(r - o)
n
r
n
- r
n - l
o -
- r
n - 2
o
2
- ... - r
n - h
o
h
- ... - o
n
,
1. o. qopmyy (2.l8).
B c p c e / c k c s c e / | c a c nponopom mo1opom ma1oma1n-
nocvo nnpyvnn (pn noro napo aapanoo ana1r qopmyy
(2.l8), 1orpa vav n npn nopnom povaaa1orc1no mw oo namn).
Hpn n l qopmya (2.l8) ononnpno nopna, 1av vav n c1om
cynao ona nmoo1 nnp r - o r - o.
o
i
l
o
i
2
o
i
h
o
i
]
o
i
]

h l
n

i
l
, i
2
l
n
i
l
i
2
o
i
l
o
i
2

i
l
, i
2
, ..., i
h
l
n
i
l
i
2
... i
h
o
i
l
o
i
2
o
i
h
C
n
h

i l
n

i
l
, i
2
l
n
i
l
i
2
o
i
l
o
i
2

i
l
, i
2
, ..., i
h
l
n
i
l
i
2
... i
h
o
i
l
o
i
2
o
i
h
C
n
l
C
n
2
C
n
h
C
n
n - l
C
n
0
C
n
n
C
n
0
C
n
l
C
n
2
C
n
h
C
n
n
63
Hyc1r qopmya (2.l8) nopna npn novo1opom n - N. ova-
xom, n1o 1orpa ona nopna n npn n - l:
(r - o)
n - l
(r - o)
n
(r - o) (r
n
- r
n - l
o - r
n - 2
o
2
- ...
... - r
n - h
o
h
- r
n - h - l
o
h - l
- ... - o
n
)(r - o)
r
n - l
- r
n
o - r
n - l
o
2
- ... - r
n - h
o
h - l
- ... - ro
n
-
- r
n
o - r
n - l
o
2
- ... - r
n - h
o
h-l
- ... - o
n-l

r
n - l
- ( - ,r
n
o - ( - )r
n - l
o
2
- ...
... - ( - )r
n - h
o
h - l
- ... - o
n - l
.
Ecnomnnn, n1o - (cm. (l.l9)), noynnm
(r - o)
n - l
r
n - l
- r
n
o -
- r
n - l
o
2
- ... - r
n - h
o
h - l
- ... - o
n - l
,
1. o. qopmyy (2.l?), n vo1opo n aamonono na n - l.
3 a m o n a n n o. O1mo1nm pna nn1opocnwx cnoc1na nno-
mnarnwx vocqqnnon1on , h 0, l, ... , n: nx cymma pan-
na 2
n
, npnnom cymma vocqqnnon1on, c1onmnx na no1nwx
moc1ax, panna cymmo vocqqnnon1on, c1onmnx na nono1nwx
moc1ax. oc1nn1orno, nopc1annn n qopmyy nnoma Hrm1o-
na (2.l8) r o l, noynnm 2
n
, a nopc1annn r l,
o -l, nmoom (-l)
h
0.
VHPAHEHHE z. ovaaa1r, n1o
(r
l
- r
2
- ... - r
n
)
n
... .
3.
Mc/ca|e |cxecac
3.4. FocmMpennos McAosos npsuos
Hac1o wnao1 ypono pononn1r mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx
nnco R comon1amn, ooananaomwmn nopoa -~ n -~ n naaw-

(2.l?)
C
n
l
C
n
2
C
n
h
C
n
h - l
C
n
l
C
n
2
C
n
h - l
C
n
l
C
n
h
C
n
l
C
n
0
C
n
2
C
n
l
C
n
h - l
C
n
h
C
n
h - l
C
n
h
C
n - l
h - l
C
n - l
l
C
n - l
2
C
n - l
h - l
C
n
h

h 0
n
C
n
h

h 0
n
C
n
h

n
l
- ... - n
n
0
n
n!
n
l
!n
n
!
----------------------------
r
l
n
l
r
n
n
n
64
naomwmn coo1no1c1nonno nmc n mnnyc ocvononnoc1nmn,
cnn1an npn c1om, n1o, no onpopoonnm,
-~< +~,
(-~) - (-~) -~, (-~) - (-~) -~,
-~ - (- ~) -~, -~- (- ~) -~,
(-~)(- ~) (-~)(- ~) -~,
(-~)(- ~) (-~)(- ~) -~.
Ho, nanpnmop, onopann (-~) - (-~) nn yxo no onpo-
poonw. Kpomo 1oro, pn moro o - R no onpopoonnm noa-
rao1cn nwnononnwm nopanonc1no -~< a < +~ n cnpanopn-
noc1r copymmnx onopan:
o - (-~) -~- o -~, -~- o o - (-~) -~;
pn o 0
o(-~) (-~)o -~, o(-~) (-~)o -~;
pn o 0
o(-~) (-~)o -~, o(-~) (-~)o -~.
Bocvononnoc1n -~ n -~ naawnam1 nnorpa ecuoueuum
+u uuc.o+u n o1nnno o1 poc1nn1ornwx nnco o - R, vo1o-
pwo naawnam1cn 1avxo uoueuum+u uuc.o+u.
Mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco R, ponononnoo
comon1amn -~ n -~, naawnao1cn pocuupeuum+ +uoecn
oo+ oeucnoune.oumr nnco (nn pacmnponno nnco-
no npnmo) n ooananao1cn nopoa R. 0omon1w -~ n -~
naawnam1cn nnorpa ocvononno ypaonnwmn 1onvamn pacmn-
ponno nncono npnmo n npo1nnonoc1anonno 1onvam nnc-
ono npnmo R, vo1opwo naawnam1cn 1avxo n uoueuum+u
nouuo+u.
E parnomom nop nncom ncorpa nonnmao1cn vononnoo
poc1nn1ornoo nnco, ocn no oronopono n1o-no ppyroo.
3.2. RpouexytkM peMctsMteAonmx MceA.
OkpectnoctM
Hanomnnm onpopoonnn novo1opwx ocnonnwx nopmnoxoc1n po-
c1nn1ornwx nnco, vo1opwo nac1o ypy1 nc1pona1rcn n par-
nomom. Ecn o b, o - R, b - R, 1o mnoxoc1no {r : o r b
- ~
- ~
-------------
6
naawnao1cn onpe:uo+ pacmnponno nncono npnmo R n oo-
ananao1cn nopoa [o, b, 1. o.
[o, b {r : o r b, o - R, b - R.
E cynao o b o1poaov [o, b coc1on1 na opno 1onvn.
Ecn o b, 1o mnoxoc1no {r : o r b naawnao1cn uunep
oo.o+ n ooananao1cn nopoa (o, b), 1. o.
(o, b) {r : o r b.
Hn1opna (o, b) naawnao1cn ounpeuuocnov onpe:uo [o, b.
Mnoxoc1na
[o, b) {r : o r b n (o, b {r : o r b
naawnam1cn no.uunepoo.o+u.
O1poavn [o, b, nn1opnaw (o, b) n noynn1opnaw [o, b),
(o, b naawnam1cn npo+enuo+u, 1onvn o n b - nx uouuo
+u: o - onwm vonom, a b - npanwm, a 1onvn r 1avno, n1o
o r b, - nx ounpeuuu+u nouuo+u.
Ecn o n b vononnw, 1. o. o - R n b - R, 1o npomoxy1ov c
vonamn o n b naawnao1cn 1avxo uoueuum+ npo+enuo+, a
nnco b - o - oro o.uuou.
Ecn xo1n w opno na o n b nnno1cn ocvononnwm, 1o npo-
moxy1ov c vonamn o n b naawnao1cn ecuoueuum+.
3 a m o n a n n o l. Hpomoxy1vn ncox 1nnon pacmnponno
nncono npnmo oapam1 copymmnm cnoc1nom: ec.u nou
uu - R u - R, , npuuoo.eon ueuonopo+ npo+e
nu c uouuo+u o - R u b - R, no u oeco onpe:ou [,
npuuoo.eun ono+ npo+enu.
n npomoxy1va vaxporo 1nna c1o nonocpopc1nonno co-
pyo1 na oro onpopoonnn.
Eaxnwm nonn1nom pn parnomoro nnno1cn nonn1no
-ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn pacmnponno nncono npnmo.
E cynao o - R, 1. o. vorpa o nnno1cn poc1nn1ornwm
nncom, -oupecnuocnov U(o, )
l
, 0, uuc.o o naawnao1cn
nn1opna (o - , o - ):
U(o, ) (o - , o - ).
l
Ooananonno ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn cnmnoom U nponcxopn1 o1 cona
Ungobung (nom.) - ovpoc1noc1r.

do

do

do

do

do
66
Ecn xo o -~, 1o
U(-~, ) , -~ ,
a ocn o -~, 1o
U(-~, ) -~, - .
Tavnm opaaom, no ncox cynanx, 1. o. vorpa o - poc1nn-
1ornoo nnco nn vorpa o - opna na ocvononnoc1o -~, -~,
npn ymonrmonnn nnca coo1no1c1nymmno -ovpoc1noc1n
U(o, ) ymonrmam1cn: ocn 0
l

2
, 1o U(o,
l
) ~ U(o,
2
).
Hnorpa wnao1 ypono nononn1r mnoxoc1no poc1-
nn1ornwx nnco no pnymn, a opno ocvononnoc1rm (oa
anava) ~. Eo -ovpoc1noc1r U(~, ), 0, onpopono1cn pa-
nonc1nom
U(~, ) r : r - R, r ' {~.
Hnano ronopn, -ovpoc1noc1r U(~, ) coc1on1 na pnyx oc-
vononnwx nn1opnaon -~, - , , -~ n camoro comon-
1a ~. 01o1 comon1 1avxo naawnao1cn nnorpa ocvononno
ypaonno 1onvo nncono npnmo. E o1nnno o1 ocvo-
nonnoc1o co anavom -~ n -~ ocvononnoc1r ~ oa anava
no cnnaana c poc1nn1ornwmn nncamn o1nomonnom no-
pnpva.
Ecnvan -ovpoc1noc1r vononno nn ocvononno ypaonno
1onvn nncono npnmo naawnao1cn oo oupecnuocnov n nac1o
ooananao1cn npoc1o nopoa U(o). Hnorpa mw ypom ooanana1r
ovpoc1noc1n n ppyrnmn yvnamn, nanpnmop \, W.
Hopopvo wnao1 yponwm naawna1r ovpoc1noc1rm U(o)
vononno 1onvn o no 1orvo nn1opna, on1pom vo1oporo
nnno1cn 1onva o, a ncnvn oo copopxamn nn1orpa. Hcno,
n1o man 1avan ovpoc1noc1r 1onvn copopxn1 oo -ovpoc1-
noc1r npn novo1opom 0.
Hapnpy c onpopoonnwmn nwmo ovpoc1noc1nmn ocvonon-
noc1o n nonononnnx nmn mnoxoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco
nnorpa paccma1pnnam1 n ovpoc1noc1n ocvononnoc1o ~, -~ n
-~ n camom mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco: U(~) R,
U(-~) R n U(-~) R. Camn ocvononnoc1n, vononno, yxo no
nonapam1 n c1n ovpoc1noc1n. Mw ypom npnpopxnna1rcn nop-
nonanarno pannwx onpopoonn (o1mo1nm, nnponom, n1o pova-
awnaoman nnxo omma cnpanopnna n n cynao, vorpa n no
nop ovpoc1noc1nmn ocvononnoc1o nonnmam1 nx ovpoc1noc1n
n mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco).

do l

---

do
-
l

---
,
_

do

'
l

---

---
,
_
l

---

-
,
_
'
' '
67
Cqopmynpyom n nnpo ommw op-
no naxnoo cnoc1no ovpoc1noc1o.
AE MMA. V .vmr oor po:.uuumr
noueu pocuupeuuou uuc.ooou npn
+ou (pocuupeuuou c no+oov oor
ecuoueuuocneu co :uouo+ u.u
npu no+ou no.ouo oouou ecuo
ueuuocnu e: :uouo) cecnovn
uenepeceuovuecn oupecnuocnu.
/c k c s c e / | c a c. Paccmo1pnm
cnanaa cyna pacmnponno nnc-
ono npnmo R, noynonno po-
anonnom v mnoxoc1ny poc1nn-
1ornwx nnco R pnyx ocvononnoc-
1o co anavom. Hovaxom, n1o pn
mwx o - R n b - R, o b, cymoc1-
nym1 1avno
l
0 n
2
0, n1o
U(o,
l
) U(b,
2
) C. E camom poo,
ocn o n b - poc1nn1ornwo nnc-
a, 1o moxno nan1r
l

2

(pnc. 6, o). Ecn o - poc1nn1ornoo nnco, a b -~, 1o n va-
noc1no yvaaannwx
l
0 n
2
0 nopxopn1, nanpnmop,
l
l n

2
(pnc. 6, ). Ecn o -~, b - poc1nn1ornoo nnco,
1o moxno nan1r
l
,
2
l (pnc. 6, o). Havono, ocn o
-~, b -~, 1o npn nponanornom 0 ovpoc1noc1n U(-~, )
n U(-~, ) no nopocovam1cn (pnc. 6, e). Ecn xo nnconan npn-
man R pononona nmr opno ocvononnoc1rm ~, 1o poc1a1on-
no paccmo1po1r nmr cyna o - R n b ~ (1av vav cyna
o - R n b - R paccmo1pon nwmo), n vo1opom moxno cnona (vav n
npn o - R, b -~) nan1r
l
l, a
2
.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. E cynao o b, o - R, b - R n nx
nonopocovammnxcn ovpoc1noc1o U(o,
l
) U(b,
2
) C pn
mwx r - U(o,
l
) n - U(b,
2
), ononnpno, cnpanopnno nopa-
nonc1no r .
Ero cnpanopnnoc1r yc1anannnao1cn nonocpopc1nonno npo-
nopvo no ncox noamoxnwx apocr cynanx, 1. o. npn o - R, b - R,
npn o - R, b -~, npn o -~, b - R n npn o -~, b -~.
o
U o;
b o -
2
----------------
,
_
b
U b;
b o -
2
----------------
,
_
o)
0
o
U o; l ( )
b -~
U -~;
l
o l -
--------------------
,
_
)
b
U b; l ( )
o -~
U -~;
l
b l -
-------------------
,
_
o)
o -~
U -~; ( )
b -~
U -~; ( )
l

---
l

---
e)
Pnc. 6
'
b - o
2
-------------
l
o - l
-----------------
l
b - l
-----------------
l
o - l
-----------------
'
6S
7orvo yopn1rcn, n1o nopocononno pnyx ovpoc1noc1o 1on-
vn (vononno nn ocvononno ypaonno) nnno1cn 1avxo ov-
poc1noc1rm c1o 1onvn.
3.3. OrponMennme
M neorponMennme unoxectso
Enopom pnp nyxnwx pn parnomoro nonn1n n naynnm no-
vo1opwo cnoc1na nnconwx mnoxoc1n.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Ec.u o.n noo+uoecnoo X oeucnoune.oumr
uuce. cecnoen nouoe uuc.o b, uno ouo ue +euoue uo
ooeo uuc.o r - X, n. e. o.n .voeo r - X omno.unencn uepo
oeucnoo r b, no +uoecnoo X uo:mooencn oepouuueuum+
coepr, o uuc.o b uuc.o+, oepouuuuoovu+ coepr +uo
ecnoo X.
C nomomrm ornnocvnx cnmnoon onpopoonno orpann-
nonnoro cnopxy mnoxoc1na aanncwnao1cn n nnpo:
X orpannnono cnopxy = b - R \ r - X : r b;
o1cmpa
X no orpannnono cnopxy = \ b - R r - X : r b,
1. o. mnoxoc1no X no orpannnono cnopxy, ocn, vavono w nn
wo nnco b - R, napo1cn 1avoo nnco r - X, n1o r b.
Mnoxoc1no, no nnnmmoocn orpannnonnwm cnopxy mno-
xoc1nom, naawnao1cn ueoepouuueuum+ coepr +uoecnoo+.
3amo1nm, n1o ocn nnco b orpannnnnao1 cnopxy mnoxoc1no
X, 1. o. pn ncox r - X nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no r b n b b,
1o pn ncox r - X, ononnpno, nmoo1 moc1o n nopanonc1no r b,
copona1orno, nnco b 1avxo orpannnnnao1 cnopxy mnoxo-
c1no X.
Ecn n mnoxoc1no X nmoo1cn nnco b, vo1opoo no monrmo
ncox ppyrnx nnco na X, 1. o. b - X, n pn ncox r - X nwnonn-
o1cn nopanonc1no r b, 1o nnco b naawnao1cn nanormnm
nn +oucu+o.oum+ uuc.o+ +uoecnoo X: b max X.
Ononnpno, n1o ocn n mnoxoc1no X nmoo1cn nanormoo
nnco, 1o ono opnnc1nonno, a camo mnoxoc1no X n c1om cynao
orpannnono cnopxy c1nm nncom.
O1mo1nm omo, n1o ocn mnoxoc1no X no orpannnono cnop-
xy, 1o, coracno onpopoonnm, c1o oananao1, n1o pn moro
nnca b - R cymoc1nyo1 no vpano mopo opnn 1avo comon1
r - X, n1o r b. Opa1nm nnnmanno na 1o, n1o na camom po-
o 1avnx comon1on ocvononno mnoro. oc1nn1orno, po-
69
nyc1nm, n1o nx ovaaaocr nmr vononnoo nnco: r
l
, ... , r
n
,
n - N. Hnano ronopn, pn ncox r - X n r = r
h
, h l, 2, ... , n,
cnpanopnno nopanonc1no r b. Torpa ncno, n1o pn b
0

max {b, r
l
, ... , r
n
n ncox r - X ypo1 nwnonn1rcn nopanon-
c1no r b
0
, 1. o. nonpovn npopnooxonnm mnoxoc1no X ova-
aaocr orpannnonnwm.
Anaornnno mnoxoc1ny, orpannnonnomy cnopxy, onpopo-
no1cn mnoxoc1no, orpannnonnoo cnnay.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Ec.u o.n noo+uoecnoo X oeucnoune.o
umr uuce. cecnoen nouoe uuc.o o, uno ouo ue o.oue
uoooeo uuc.o r - X, n. e. o.n .voeo r - X omno.unencn
uepooeucnoo o r, no +uoecnoo X uo:mooencn oepouu
ueuum+ cuu:, o uuc.o o uuc.o+, oepouuuuoovu+ cuu:
ono +uoecnoo.
Mnoxoc1no, no nnnmmoocn orpannnonnwm cnnay mnoxo-
c1nom, naawnao1cn ueoepouuueuum+ cuu: +uoecnoo+.
C nomomrm ornnocvnx cnmnoon onpopoonno orpann-
nonnoro cnnay mnoxoc1na aanncwnao1cn n nnpo: X orpannno-
no cnnay = o - R \ r - X : r . o; o1cmpa X no orpannnono
cnnay = \ o - R r - X : r o, 1. o. mnoxoc1no X no orpann-
nono cnnay, ocn, vavono w nn wo nnco o - R, napo1cn
1avo comon1 r - X, n1o r o.
Ononnpno, n1o ocn nnco o orpannnnnao1 cnnay mnoxoc1-
no X, 1o n moo nnco o o 1avxo orpannnnnao1 cnnay c1o
mnoxoc1no.
Ecn n mnoxoc1no X nmoo1cn nnco o, vo1opoo no ormo
ncox ppyrnx nnco na X, 1. o. o - X, n pn ncox r - X nwnonn-
o1cn nopanonc1no o r, 1o nnco o naawnao1cn nanmonrmnm
nn +uuu+o.oum+ uuc.o+ +uoecnoo X : o mIn X.
Ecn n mnoxoc1no X nmoo1cn nanmonrmoo nnco, 1o ono
opnnc1nonno, a camo mnoxoc1no X n c1om cynao orpannnono
cnnay c1nm nncom.
OnpepeAenMe 3. Muoecnoo, oepouuueuuoe u coepr u cuu:,
uo:mooencn oepouuueuum+ +uoecnoo+.
pyrnmn conamn, mnoxoc1no X ~ R naawnao1cn orpann-
nonnwm, ocn cymoc1nym1 1avno nnca o n b, n1o pn moro
r - X nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no o r b.
Mnoxoc1no, no nnnmmoocn orpannnonnwm, naawnao1cn
ueoepouuueuum+. Ononnpno, n1o noorpannnonnoo mnoxoc1no
70
moxo1 w1r noorpannnonnwm n cnopxy n cnnay nn 1orvo
cnopxy nn cnnay.
VHPAHEHHE 1. ovaaa1r, n1o mnoxoc1no X ~ R orpannnono 1orpa n
1orvo 1orpa, vorpa cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnco o . 0, n1o pn ncox r - X nw-
nonno1cn nopanonc1no r o.
Hpnmopamn orpannnonnwx mnoxoc1n nnnm1cn o1poaov
[l, 2, nn1opna (0, l), mnoxoc1no ananonn qynvnn sIn r.
Bocvononnw nn1opna (-5, -~), mnoxoc1no na1yparnwx
nnco l, 2, 3, ... nnnm1cn mnoxoc1namn, orpannnonnwmn
cnnay, no noorpannnonnwmn cnopxy. Havono, mnoxoc1no
ncox owx nnco, ncox panonarnwx nnco cy1r mnoxoc1-
na, noorpannnonnwo vav cnopxy, 1av n cnnay.
4opmarnoo oomonno nonn1n orpannnonnoro cnopxy,
orpannnonnoro cnnay n npoc1o orpannnonnoro mnoxoc1na na
nopmnoxoc1na pacmnponnoro mnoxoc1na R poc1nn1ornwx
nnco R (cm. n. 2.5) no npnnopn1 v copopxa1ornwm nonn1n-
nm, 1av vav nco nopmnoxoc1na pacmnponnoro mnoxoc1na po-
c1nn1ornwx nnco orpannnonw cnopxy cnmnoom -~ n cnnay
cnmnoom -~, a noc1omy n npoc1o orpannnonw n R. Opnavo
nonn1no nanormoro (nanmonrmoro) comon1a mnoxoc1na
nnno1cn copopxa1ornwm n n c1om cynao. Ero onpopoonno
qopmarno connapao1 c coo1no1c1nymmnm onpopoonnom pn
nopmnoxoc1n no pacmnponnoro mnoxoc1na poc1nn1ornwx
nnco:
uoueuuoe u.u ecuoueuuoe uuc.o c - X ~ R uo:mooencn
uouo.ouu+ (uou+euouu+) o +uoecnoe X ~ R, ec.u o.n
ocer r - X omno.unencn uepooeucnoo r c (coonoencnoeu
uo r . c).
E parnomom mw nocnorayomcn c1nm nonn1nom.
3.4. 8epxnss M nMxnss rponM McAosmx unoxects
Cpopn ncox nnco, orpannnnnammnx cnopxy (cnnay) pannoo
mnoxoc1no, nanmonrmoo (nanormoo) na nnx nmoo1 cnon-
arnoo naananno.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hou+euouee cpeou ocer uuce., oepouuuuoov
ur coepr +uoecnoo X ~ R, uo:mooencn eeo oeprueu
epouov u oo:uouoencn
l
sup X u.u {r.
l
7a1. supromum - nanormn.
sup
r X
71
OnpepeAenMe 5. Houo.ouee cpeou ocer uuce., oepouuuuoov
ur cuu: +uoecnoo X ~ R, uo:mooencn eeo uuueu
epouov u oo:uouoencn
l
In X u.u {r.
Hnorpa nopxnmm (nnxnmm) rpanr mnoxoc1na naawnam1
nouuou oeprueu (uuueu) epouov c1oro mnoxoc1na.
O1mo1nm, n1o n cpoannwx onpopoonnnx no ocyxpao1cn
nonpoc o 1om, cymoc1nyo1 nn no1 nanmonrmoo (nanormoo)
nnco cpopn ncox nnco, orpannnnnammnx cnopxy (cnnay)
pannoo mnoxoc1no, - c1o ypo1 cpoano noaxo. 3pocr xo
nmr ronopn1cn, n1o ocn 1avoo nnco cymoc1nyo1, 1o ono na-
awnao1cn nopxno (nnxno) rpanrm paccma1pnnaomoro mno-
xoc1na. Ha camoro onpopoonnn nopxno (nnxno) rpann co-
pyo1, n1o ocn y pannoro mnoxoc1na c1a rpanr cymoc1nyo1, 1o
ona opnnc1nonna, 1av vav no ncnvom mnoxoc1no mavcnmar-
noo (mnnnmarnoo) nnco moxo1 w1r 1orvo opno.
Hpoanananpyom onpopoonnn 4 n 5. Hyc1r sup X. 01o
oananao1, no-nopnwx, n1o nnco orpannnnnao1 cnopxy mno-
xoc1no X, 1. o. pn vaxporo r - X cnpanopnno nopanonc1no
r ; no-n1opwx, n1o nnco nnno1cn nanmonrmnm cpopn
ncox nnco, orpannnnnammnx cnopxy mnoxoc1no X, 1. o., va-
vono w nn wo nnco , ono yxo no orpannnnnao1 cnop-
xy mnoxoc1no X, a c1o oananao1, n1o n mnoxoc1no X napo1cn
1avoo nnco r, n1o r .
Tavnm opaaom, n apnqmo1nnocvo qopmo onpopoonno 4
moxno aannca1r n copymmom nnpo.
OnpepeAenMe 4. 9uc.o uo:mooencn oeprueu epouov +uoe
cnoo X, ec.u:
l
0
) \ r - X : r ;
2
0
) \ r - X : r .
Vconno 2
0
) moxno noponnca1r copymmnm opaaom:
2) \ 0 r - X : r - .
n 1oro n1ow yopn1rcn n pannocnrnoc1n yconn 2
0
n
2, poc1a1onno nan1r n , cnnaannwo panonc1nom - ,
na vo1oporo copyo1, n1o yconno 0 cvnnnaon1no yconnm
.
l
7a1. InImum - nanmonrmn.
In
r X
7z
Anaornnnwm opaaom, ocn In X, 1o, coracno onpo-
poonnm 5, no-nopnwx, nnco orpannnnnao1 cnnay mnoxoc1-
no X, a no-n1opwx, moo nnco yxo no orpannnnna-
o1 cnnay c1o mnoxoc1no, no nnco nnno1cn nanormnm
cpopn ncox 1avnx nnco. 01o oananao1, n1o pn moro
napo1cn 1avo r - X, n1o r . Copona1orno, onpopoo-
nno 5 moxno nopoqpaanpona1r copymmnm opaaom.
OnpepeAenMe 5. 9uc.o uo:mooencn uuueu epouov +uoe
cnoo X, ec.u:
l
0
) \ r - X : r . ;
2
0
) \ r - X : r .
Vconno 2
0
) cvnnnaon1no yconnm
2) \ 0 r - X : r - .
n 1oro n1ow yopn1rcn n cvnnnaon1noc1n yconn 2
0
)
n 2), poc1a1onno nan1r - .
Cpoaom nocvorvo ononnpnwx aamonann. Ecn nonyc1oo
mnoxoc1no X ~ R nmoo1 nopxnmm rpanr - R (nmoo1 nnx-
nmm rpanr - R), 1o ono orpannnono cnopxy (cnnay). 01o co-
pyo1 na yconnn l
0
onpopoonnn 4 (onpopoonnn 5).
Ecn sup X ( In X) n nnco b (nnco o) orpannnnnao1
cnopxy (cnnay) mnoxoc1no X, 1o b (coo1no1c1nonno o ).
01o copyo1 na 1oro, n1o nopxnnn (nnxnnn) rpanr mnoxoc1na
nnno1cn nanmonrmnm (nanormnm) nncom cpopn ncox nn-
co, orpannnnnammnx cnopxy (cnnay) pannoo mnoxoc1no.
Ecn n mnoxoc1no cymoc1nyo1 nanormoo (nanmonrmoo)
nnco, 1o ono nnno1cn nopxno (nnxno) rpanrm c1oro mno-
xoc1na. E nac1noc1n, 1avan cn1yann nmoo1 moc1o pn vonon-
nwx mnoxoc1n: moo vononnoo mnoxoc1no nnco nmoo1 na-
normoo n nanmonrmoo nnca, a no1omy nnxnmm n nopx-
nmm rpann. E npnnnno nx moxno na1n npoc1wm nopoopom
ncox nnco na pannoro mnoxoc1na, 1av vav ono vononno. Op-
navo, noomo ronopn, 1orvo n npnnnno, a no na npav1nvo:
ocn n pannom vononnom mnoxoc1no, aapannom vavnmn-1o
cnoc1namn oro comon1on, ypo1 poc1a1onno mnoro comon-
1on, 1o nopopa1r nx nco ypo1, noamoxno, no nop cny paxo
cnopxmomno conpomonno nwnncn1orno mamnno.
Hpnnopom npnmopw, nmc1pnpymmno nonn1no nopxno
n nnxno rpano mnoxoc1na.
73
Mnoxoc1no ncox nooxn1ornwx poc1nn1ornwx nnco
(ooanannm oro nopoa R
-
) orpannnono cnnay nncom nyr, no
pn moro r - R
-
nmoo1 moc1o r 0; ooo 1oro, In R
-
0.
Mnoxoc1no R
-
no orpannnono cnopxy, 1av vav no1 nnca, vo-
1opoo w orpannnnnao cnopxy nco nooxn1ornwo nnca.
Ecn X [o, b - o1poaov, 1o In X o, sup X b. Ecn
X (o, b) - nn1opna, 1o 1avxo In X o, sup X b. Ecn,
navono, mnoxoc1no X coc1on1 na pnyx 1onov o n b, o b, 1. o.
X {o ' {b, 1o cnona In X o, sup X b. 01n npnmopw no-
vaawnam1, n nac1noc1n, n1o nopxnnn (nnxnnn) rpanr mnoxo-
c1na moxo1 vav npnnapoxa1r camomy mnoxoc1ny, 1av n no
npnnapoxa1r omy.
Ecn AE - cononno n oac1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco
(cm. n. 2.5

), 1o
sup A In E. (3.l)
Ewncnnm 1onopr nonpoc: ncorpa n y nnconoro mnoxoc1na
cymoc1nyo1 oro nopxnnn (nnxnnn) rpanr? Ecn mnoxoc1no no
orpannnono cnopxy (cnnay), 1o no cymoc1nyo1 nnco, vo1opwo w
orpannnnnan oro cnopxy (cnnay). Copona1orno, no cymoc1ny-
o1 cpopn nnx n nanmonrmoro (nanormoro). Tavnm opaaom,
ocn mnoxoc1no no orpannnono cnopxy (cnnay), 1o y noro no1
nopxno (nnxno) rpann. E c1om cynao o1no1 na noc1anonnw
nonpoc noynncn concom npoc1o. Ecn xo mnoxoc1no orpann-
nono cnopxy (cnnay), 1o o1no1 pao1cn copymmo 1oopomo.
I E O F E M A 4. Ecnuoe oepouuueuuoe coepr uencnoe uuc.oooe
+uoecnoo u+een oepruvv epouo, o ocnuoe oepouuueuuoe
cuu: uencnoe uuc.oooe +uoecnoo u+een uuuvv epouo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r X - orpannnonnoo cnopxy no-
nyc1oo nnconoo mnoxoc1no. Ooanannm nopoa Y mnoxoc1no
ncox nnco, orpannnnnammnx cnopxy mnoxoc1no X. Mnoxo-
c1no X orpannnono cnopxy, noc1omy mnoxoc1no Y no nyc1o.
Kaxpw comon1 - Y orpannnnnao1 cnopxy mnoxoc1no X,
1. o. pn moro comon1a r - X nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
r . 0omon1w r n nnnm1cn nponanornwmn comon1amn
coo1no1c1nonno mnoxoc1n X n Y, noc1omy, n cny cnoc1na no-
npopwnnoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco (cm. cnoc1no V n n. 2.l),
cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnco , n1o pn mwx r - X n - Y nmoo1
moc1o nopanonc1no
r . (3.2)
74
Ewnononno nopanonc1na r
pn ncox r - X oananao1, n1o nnco
orpannnnnao1 cnopxy mnoxoc1no X,
a nwnononno nopanonc1na pn
ncox - Y, 1. o. pn ncox nnco, orpa-
nnnnnammnx cnopxy mnoxoc1no X, oananao1, n1o nnco nn-
no1cn nanmonrmnm cpopn ncox 1avnx nnco, 1. o. nopxno
rpanrm mnoxoc1na X:
sup X. (3.3)
H1av, cymoc1nonanno nopxno rpann y orpannnonnoro
cnopxy nonyc1oro mnoxoc1na povaaano.
Ecn 1onopr Y - nonyc1oo orpannnonnoo cnnay nnconoo
mnoxoc1no, 1o o1nocom v mnoxoc1ny X nco nnca, orpannnn-
nammno cnnay mnoxoc1no Y. aoo, paccyxpan anaornnno
paccmo1ponnomy cynam nopxno rpann, orvo yoxpaomcn,
n1o, n cny cnoc1na nonpopwnnoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco,
cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnco , n1o pn mwx r - X n - Y nw-
nonno1cn nopanonc1no
r . (3.4)
01o, ononnpno, n oananao1, n1o In Y.
Enponom, y1nopxponno o cymoc1nonannn nnxno rpann y
orpannnonnoro cnnay nonyc1oro mnoxoc1na moxno noynn1r
n na yxo povaaannoro y1nopxponnn o cymoc1nonannn nopxno
rpann y nonyc1oro orpannnonnoro cnopxy mnoxoc1na.
oc1a1onno aamo1n1r, n1o ocn X - orpannnonnoo cnnay mno-
xoc1no, 1o mnoxoc1no -X ncox nnco -r, rpo r - X, 1. o. mno-
xoc1no na nncono npnmo, cnmmo1pnnnoo c mnoxoc1nom
X o1nocn1orno nyn, nnno1cn yxo orpannnonnwm cnop-
xy mnoxoc1nom, n, naoopo1, ocn X - orpannnonnoo cnop-
xy mnoxoc1no, 1o mnoxoc1no -X orpannnono cnnay (pnc. ?).
oc1nn1orno, ocn nnco o orpannnnnao1 cnnay mnoxoc1no
X, 1o nnco -o orpannnnnao1 cnopxy mnoxoc1no -X, a ocn
nnco b orpannnnnao1 cnopxy mnoxoc1no X, 1o nnco -b orpann-
nnnao1 cnnay mnoxoc1no -X. O1cmpa copyo1, n1o
sup(-X) -In X, In(-X) -sup X. (3.5)
Ha cymoc1nonannn nopxno rpann y orpannnonnoro cnopxy
nonyc1oro mnoxoc1na n vaxporo na panonc1n (3.5) copyo1 cy-
moc1nonanno nnxno rpann y orpannnonnoro cnnay nonyc1oro
mnoxoc1na.
Pnc. ?
0
-X
-o
X
o
7
Toopoma o cymoc1nonannn nopxnnx n nnxnnx rpano npn-
napoxn1 v 1av naawnaomwm nnc1wm 1oopomam cymoc1nona-
nnn: n no povaawnao1cn, n1o npn onpopoonnwx yconnnx y
mnoxoc1na cymoc1nyo1 nopxnnn (nnxnnn) rpanr. Opnavo na
paccyxponn, nponoponnwx npn povaaa1orc1no c1o 1oopo-
mw, no copyo1 cnoco naxoxponnn c1nx rpano n vonvpo1nom
cynao. 01o ncno na 1oro, n1o noc1poonno mnoxoc1na Y, c no-
momrm vo1oporo nponopnocr povaaa1orc1no 1oopomw n vo-
1opoo coc1ono na ncox nnco, orpannnnnammnx cnopxy pac-
cma1pnnaomoo mnoxoc1no, pannocnrno o1wcvannm nopxno
rpann c1oro mnoxoc1na. E poc1nn1ornoc1n aapana naxox-
ponnn nopxno (nnxno) rpann mnoxoc1na, aapannoro vavn-
mn-no cnonmn cnoc1namn, moxo1 ovaaa1rcn ononr 1pypno
aapano.
Ecn mnoxoc1no no orpannnono cnopxy (cnnay), 1o, vav
yxo o1monaocr, nnvavoo nnco no moxo1 nnn1rcn oro nopx-
no (nnxno) rpanrm, 1av vav noomo no1 nnco, vo1opwo oro
orpannnnnam1 cnopxy (cnnay). n ypoc1na nnopn1cn co-
pymmoo onpopoonno.
Eeprueu epouov ueoepouuueuuoeo coepr uuc.oooeo +uo
ecnoo uo:mooencn -~, o uuueu epouov ueoepouuueuuoeo
cuu: uuc.oooeo +uoecnoo uo:mooencn -~.
01o onpopoonno oc1oc1nonno, 1av vav npn coramonnnx, npn-
nn1wx o1nocn1orno yno1poonnn cnmnoon -~ n -~ n n. 2.5,
onpopoonnwo 1avnm opaaom ocvononnwo rpann mnoxoc1n 1av-
xo ypono1nopnm1 yconnnm l
0
n 2
0
onpopoonn 4 n 5.
Vpoc1no xo c1oro onpopoonnn coc1on1 n 1om, n1o 1onopr
uoooe uencnoe uuc.oooe +uoecnoo u+een oepruvv
epouo, npuuoo.eov pocuupeuuo+ +uoecno oeucn
oune.oumr uuce.. Hpn c1om ocn aapannoo mnoxoc1no orpa-
nnnono cnopxy, 1o oro nopxnnn rpanr v o n o n n a, ocn xo ono
no orpannnono cnopxy, 1o o c v o n o n n a n panna -~. Ana-
ornnnoo y1nopxponno cnpanopnno n pn nnxno rpann.
3.5'. ApMuetMeckMe csoMctso
sepxnMx M nMxnMx rponeM
Paccmo1pnm no1wpo cnoc1na nopxnnx n nnxnnx rpano mno-
xoc1n, cnnaannwo c apnqmo1nnocvnmn onopannmn nap nnc-
onwmn mnoxoc1namn.
76
Hpoxpo ncoro onpoponm 1avno onopann.
Apuq+enuuecuou c++ou X
l
- ... - X
n
nnconwx mno-
xoc1n X
l
, ... , X
n
naawnao1cn mnoxoc1no ncox nnco r, npop-
c1annmwx n nnpo r r
l
- ... - r
n
, r
l
- X
l
, ... , r
n
- X
n
.
Apuq+enuuecuou po:uocnov X - Y nnconwx mnoxoc1n
X n Y naawnao1cn mnoxoc1no ncox nnco :, npopc1annmwx n
nnpo : r - , r - X, - Y.
Copyo1, vononno, o1nna1r nonn1no apnqmo1nnocvo
cymmw X
l
- ... - X
n
n paanoc1n X - Y o1 nonn1nn 1oopo1n-
vo-mnoxoc1nonnwx cymmw (o+opnnonnn) X
l
' ... ' X
n
n paa-
noc1n XY 1ox xo mnoxoc1n.
Hpou:oeoeuue+ X uuc.o uo uuc.oooe +uoecnoo X
naawnao1cn mnoxoc1no ncox nnco nnpa r, r - X.
Hpou:oeoeuue+ XY oor uuc.oomr +uoecno X u Y na-
awnao1cn mnoxoc1no nnco :, npopc1annmwx n nnpo : r, r -
- X, - Y.
H o p n o o c n o c 1 n o.
sup(X
l
- ... - X
n
) sup X
l
- ... - sup X
n
, (3.6)
In(X
l
- ... - X
n
) In X
l
- ... - In X
n
. (3.?)
E 1 o p o o c n o c 1 n o.
sup(X - Y) sup X - In Y. (3.8)
ovaxom nopnoo cnoc1no. Ecn r - X
l
- ... - X
n
, 1. o. r
r
l
- ... - r
n
, r
l
- X
l
, ... , r
n
- X
n
, 1o r
h
sup X
h
, h l, 2, ...
..., n, copona1orno,
r r
l
- ... - r
n
sup X
l
- ... - sup X
n
. (3.9)
Ecn
sup X
l
- ... - sup X
n
, (3.l0)
1o pn moro h l, 2, ... , n napo1cn 1avoo nnco
h
, n1o

h
sup X
h
, h l, 2, ... , n,
l
- ... -
n


. (3.ll)
E camom poo, ocn nco nopxnno rpann sup X
l
,

... , sup X
n
vononnw, 1o moxno nan1r

h
sup X
h
- .
Torpa
l
- ... -
n


. Ecn xo cpopn nopxnnx rpano
sup X
l
, ..., sup X
n
nmoo1cn xo1n w opna pannan -~,
supX
l
-...-sup X
n

n
'
-
77
nanpnmop X
n
-~, 1o n vanoc1no
l
, ... ,
n - l
moxno nan1r
mwo nnca
i
sup X
i
, i l, 2, ... , n - l, a aa
n
- nnco

n
- (
l
- ... -
n - l
).
E c1om cynao
n
-~ sup X
n
n, ononnpno,
l
- ... -
n
,
1. o.

cnona nwnonnm1cn yconnn (3.ll).
Ha nopanonc1n (3.ll) copyo1, n1o cymoc1nym1 1avno r
h
-
- X
h
, n1o

h
r
h
sup X
h
, h l, 2, ... , n.
Hoaran r r
l
- ... - r
n
, noynaom
r - X
l
- ... - X
n
, (3.l2)
r r
l
- ... - r
n

l
- ... -
n
. .
Tavnm opaaom, nwnonnm1cn oa yconnn onpopoonnn
nopxno rpann (cm. qopmyw (3.9) n (3.l2)), 1. o. sup X
l
-
- ... - sup X
n
poc1nn1orno nnno1cn nopxno rpanrm mno-
xoc1na X
l
- ... - X
n
.
Anaornnno povaawnao1cn qopmya (3.?).
ovaxom n1opoo cnoc1no. Ecn : - X - Y, 1. o. : r - ,
r - X, - Y, 1o r sup X, . In Y n, copona1orno,
: r - sup X - In Y. (3.l3)
Ecn
:
:
sup X - In Y, (3.l4)
1o napy1cn 1avno nnca
:
l
sup X, :
2
In Y, (3.l5)
n1o :
l
- :
2
:. Tavno :
l
n :
2
cymoc1nym1 n cny nopanonc1na
(3.l4) vav n cynao, vorpa rpann sup X, In Y - vononnwo,
1av n n cynao, vorpa opna na nnx nn oo ocvononnwo.
Ha nopanonc1n (3.l5) copyo1, n1o cymoc1nym1 1avno nnc-
a r - X n - Y, n1o
:
l
r sup X, :
2
. In Y. (3.l6)
E poayr1a1o r - - X - Y n
r - :
l
- :
2
:. (3.l?)
Tavnm opaaom, cnona nwnonnm1cn oa yconnn onpopo-
onnn nopxno rpann (cm. (3.l3) n (3.l?)), 1. o. sup X - In Y
poc1nn1orno nnno1cn nopxno rpanrm mnoxoc1na X - Y.
T p o 1 r o c n o c 1 n o. Ec.u . 0, no
sup X sup X, In X In X, (3.l8)
7S
o ec.u 0, no
sup X In X, In X sup X. (3.l9)
ovaxom nopnoo na panonc1n (3.l8). Hyc1r 0. Ecn
- X, 1. o. - r, rpo r - X n, copona1orno, r sup X, 1o
r sup X. Ecn sup X, 1. o. sup X, 1o napo1cn
1avoo r - X, n1o r n, copona1orno, r , rpo r - X.
Tavnm opaaom, sup X nnno1cn nopxno rpanrm mnoxoc1na
X, 1. o. nopnoo na panonc1n (3.l8) povaaano. Anaornnno po-
vaawnao1cn n n1opoo panonc1no (3.l8).
Hyc1r 1onopr 0. Ecn - X, 1. o. r, rpo r - X n,
copona1orno, r . In X, 1o r In X. Ecn In X,
1. o. In X, 1o napo1cn 1avoo r - X, n1o r , noc1omy
r , rpo r - X. 01o oananao1, n1o In X nnno1cn
nopxno rpanrm mnoxoc1na X. Hopnoo panonc1no (3.l9)
povaaano. Anaornnno povaawnao1cn n n1opoo panonc1no
(3.l9).
H o 1 n o p 1 o o c n o c 1 n o. Ec.u oce uuc.o, oroonue o
+uoecnoo X u Y, ueonpuuone.oum, no
sup XY sup X sup Y, In XY In X In Y. (3.20)
ovaaa1orc1no c1oro cnoc1na nponopn1cn 1om xo mo-
1opom, n1o n povaaa1orc1no npopwpymnx 1pox cnoc1n
nopxnnx n nnxnnx rpano mnoxoc1n, n npopoc1anno1cn nn-
1a1om.
Hovaxom 1onopr, n1o na 1oopomw o cymoc1nonannn nopx-
nnx n nnxnnx rpano nw1ovam1 pna naxnwx cnoc1na poc1-
nn1ornwx nnco, 1av naawnaomwo npnnnn Apxnmopa
l
n
npnnnn noxonnwx o1poavon.
3.. RpMnMn ApxMuepo
Hpnnnn Apxnmopa poc1nn1ornwx nnco coc1on1 n co-
pymmom.
l
Apxnmop (28?-2l2 po n. c.) - pponnorponocvn ma1oma1nv n moxa-
nnv.

---

---

---

---
79
I E O F E M A 2. Kouooo m uu m.o oeu
cnoune.ouoe uuc.o o, cecnoen
nouoe uonpo.ouoe uuc.o n, uno
n o, n. e.
\ o - R n - N : n o. (3.2l)
/c k c s c e / | c a c. onyc1nm, n1o npnnnn Apxnmopa no
nwnonno1cn. 01o oananao1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnco o, n1o
pn ncox na1yparnwx n nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no n o, 1. o.
o - R \ n - N : n o. 01o oananao1, n1o nnco o orpannnnnao1
cnopxy mnoxoc1no na1yparnwx nnco. Hoc1omy mnoxoc1no
na1yparnwx nnco, vav ncnvoo nonyc1oo orpannnonnoo cnopxy
nnconoo mnoxoc1no, coracno 1oopomo l n. 3.4 nmoo1 vonon-
nym nopxnmm rpanr. Ooanannm oo nopoa , sup N.
Tav vav - l , 1o, coracno cnoc1ny 2
0
nopxno rpann
n onpopoonnn 4 n. 3.4, cymoc1nyo1 1avoo na1yparnoo nnco
n, n1o n - l. Ho 1orpa n - l , npnnom, coracno onpopo-
onnm na1yparnwx nnco, n - l - N. Hopanonc1no n - l
npo1nnoponn1 1omy, n1o sup N, 1av vav nopxnnn rpanr
mnoxoc1na orpannnnnao1 oro cnopxy (cm. cnoc1no l
0
nopxno
rpann n onpopoonnn 4 n. 3.4). Hoynonnoo npo1nnoponno no-
vaawnao1, n1o yvaaannoro nnca o no cymoc1nyo1, 1. o. npnn-
nn Apxnmopa cnpanopnn.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Kouoom m uu m.u uuc.o o u b, 0 o b, c
ecnoen nouoe uonpo.ouoe uuc.o n, uno
no b. (3.22)
oc1nn1orno, coracno npnnnny Apxnmopa, pn nnca
cymoc1nyo1 1avoo na1yparnoo n, n1o n b,o. 01o nnco nc-
vomoo, 1av vav, ymnoxan nopanonc1no n b,o na nooxn-
1ornoo nnco o, noynaom no b.
01o y1nopxponno nmoo1 npoc1o roomo1pnnocvn cmwc:
ocn nan1r pna o1poava coo1no1c1nonno pnnw o n b, 0 o b,
1o, nocopona1orno o1vapwnan na ormom o1poavo o1 op-
noro na oro vonon monrmn o1poaov, mw nopoa vononnoo nnc-
o maron nwpom aa npopow ormoro o1poava (pnc. 8).
Rp M ue p. Hyc1r mnoxoc1no X coc1on1 na nnco nnpa l,n,
n l, 2, ... . Hapom sup X n In X.
o
Pnc. 8
no
b 0
b
o
---
S0
Mnoxoc1no X nmoo1 nanormoo
nnco l, noc1omy ono n nnno1cn oro
nopxno rpanrm: {l,n l.
n o1wcvannn nnxno rpann mno-
xoc1na X aamo1nm, n1o pn mo-
ro n l, 2, ... cnpanopnno nopanonc1no l,n 0, 1. o. nnco
nyr orpannnnnao1 cnnay mnoxoc1no X. Hovaxom, n1o ono
nanormoo cpopn ncox 1avnx nnco. Hyc1r 0; 1orpa, co-
racno npnnnny Apxnmopa, cymoc1nyo1 1avoo na1yparnoo n,
n1o n l,, nn, n1o 1o xo camoo, l,n . 01o nopanonc1no
novaawnao1, n1o moo nnco 0 yxo no orpannnnnao1 cnn-
ay mnoxoc1no X, no l,n - X npn mom n l, 2, ... . H1av,
nyr - nanormoo na ncox nnco, orpannnnnammnx cnnay
mnoxoc1no X, 1. o. {l,n 0.
3.7. RpMnMn sAoxennmx otpeskos
Hpoxpo ncoro noncnnm, vavan cnc1oma o1poavon naawnao1cn
noxonno.
OnpepeAenMe . Cucne+o uuc.oomr onpe:uoo
[o
l
, b
l
, [o
2
, b
2
, ... , [o
n
, b
n
, ... o
n
- R, b
n
- R, n l, 2, ... ,
uo:mooencn cucne+ou o.oeuumr onpe:uoo, ec.u
o
l
o
2
... o
n
... b
n
... b
2
b
l
, (3.23)
n. e. ec.u uoomu c.eovuu onpe:ou [o
n - l
, b
n - l
cooep
uncn o npeomoe+ [o
n
, b
n
(pnc. 9):
[o
l
, b
l
- [o
2
, b
2
- ... - [o
n
, b
n
- ... .
I E O F E M A 3. ].n ocnuou cucne+m o.oeuumr onpe:uoo c
ecnoen ronn m oouo uuc.o, uonopoe npuuoo.eun
oce+ onpe:uo+ oouuou cucne+m.
01o cnoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco naawnam1 1avxo ue
npepmouocnov +uoecnoo oeucnoune.oumr uuce. o c+mc
.e Kounopo
l
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r aapana cnc1oma noxonnwx o1-
poavon [o
n
, b
n
, n l, 2 ... . Ooanannm nopoa A mnoxoc1no
ncox onwx vonon o
n
- o1poavon c1o cnc1omw, a nopoa E -
l
I. Kan1op (l845-l9l8) - nomovn ma1oma1nv.
Pnc. 9
o
l
o
2
o
3
o
n
b
n
b
3
b
2
b
l
sup
n N
In
n N
S1
mnoxoc1no nx npanwx vonon b
n
. n mwx nomopon n n n
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
o
n
b
n
. (3.24)
E camom poo, ocn n . n, 1o na nopanonc1n (3.23) copyo1,
n1o o
n
o
n
b
n
, a ocn n n, 1o o
n
b
n
b
n
.
Hoc1omy na nopanonc1n (3.24), n cny cnoc1na nonpopwn-
noc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco, copyo1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo
nnco , pn vo1oporo npn ncox nomopax n n n nwnonno1cn
nopanonc1no o
n
b
n
, n nac1noc1n nopanonc1no o
n
b
n
,
n l, 2, ... . 01o n oananao1, n1o nnco npnnapoxn1 ncom
o1poavam [o
n
, b
n
.
Hpnnopom yconno, npn vo1opom nopocononno cnc1omw
noxonnwx o1poavon coc1on1 1orvo na opno 1onvn.
OnpepeAenMe 7. Hcno :ooouo cucne+o onpe:uoo [o
n
, b
n
,
o
n
- R, b
n
- R, n l, 2, ... . Eoe+ eooopuno, uno o.uuo b
n
- o
n
onpe:uoo onou cucne+m cnpe+uncn u u.v, ec.u o.n uo
ooeo uuc.o 0 cecnoen nouou uo+ep n

, uno o.n ocer


uo+epoo n n

omno.unencn uepooeucnoo
b
n
- o
n
. (3.25)
E vypco comon1apno ma1oma1nvn nnopn1cn nonn1no npo-
poa nocopona1ornoc1n. Cqopmynponannoo onpopoonno,
ocn ncnoraona1r 1opmnn npopoa, oananao1, n1o (b
n
-
-o
n
) 0. E pannom vypco npopoy nocopona1ornoc1n ypo1
nocnnmon copymmn naparpaq.
O1mo1nm, n1o 1opmnn nomop nnno1cn cnnonnmom 1op-
mnna na1yparnoo nnco. Hnpovc y nnca n

novaawnao1,
n1o c1o nnco aanncn1 o1 aapanaomoro nnca 0.
I E O F E M A 4. ].n ocnuou cucne+m [o
n
, b
n
, n l, 2, ... , o.o
euumr onpe:uoo c o.uuo+u, cnpe+nu+ucn u u.v, c
ecnoen eouucnoeuuon nouuo , npuuoo.eoon oce+
onpe:uo+ oouuou cucne+m (cm. pnc. 9), npuue+
{o
n
{b
n
. (3.26)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn 1onvn n npnnapoxa1 ncom o1-
poavam paccma1pnnaomo cnc1omw, 1. o.
- [o
n
, b
n
, - [o
n
, b
n
, n l, 2, ... ,
IIm
n
sup
n N
In
n N
Sz
1o pn ncox nomopon n nwnonnm1cn nopanonc1na
- b
n
- o
n
,
copona1orno, n cny yconn (3.25), pn moro 0 cnpa-
nopnno nopanonc1no
- . (3.2?)
Tav vav - nponanornoo nooxn1ornoo nnco, 1o nopanon-
c1no (3.2?) moxo1 nmo1r moc1o 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa (ocn
w = , 1o, nanpnmop, npn - nopanonc1no (3.2?) w-
o w npo1nnoponnno). 01o oananao1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 opnnc1-
nonnoo nnco , npnnapoxamoo ncom o1poavam [o
n
, b
n
:
o
n
b
n
, n l, 2, ... . (3.28)
Ha c1nx nopanonc1n nnpno, n1o nnco orpannnnnao1 cnopxy
nnca o
n
n cnnay nnca b
n
, noc1omy, n cny onpopoonnn nopx-
no n nnxno rpano, cnpanopnnw nopanonc1na
o
n
sup {o
n
In {b
n
b
n
, n l, 2, ... . (3.29)
Ecn w, nanpnmop, ovaaaocr, n1o sup {o
n
, 1o moo
nnco 1avoo, n1o sup {o
n
, n cny nopanonc1na (3.29),
pn ncox n l, 2, ... ypono1nopno w yconnm o
n
b
n
, 1. o.
1avxo w npnnapoxao ncom o1poavam [o
n
, b
n
, n1o nonoamox-
no, 1av vav = . Anaornnno povaawnao1cn nonoamoxnoc1r no-
panonc1na In {b
n
. H1av, coo1nomonno (3.26) povaaano.
Ononr nac1o n paannnwx povaaa1orc1nax npnmonno1cn
copymman vonc1pyvnn noc1poonnn cnc1omw noxonnwx
o1poavon c pnnamn, c1pomnmnmncn v nym. Bopo1cn o1poaov
[o, b n 1onvo pon1cn na pna pannwx o1poava o;
n ; b pnnw . aoo nwnpao1cn opnn na c1nx o1-
poavon (vavo nmonno - c1o aanncn1 o1 yconn vonvpo1no
aapann), ooananao1cn nopoa [o
l
, b
l
n cnona cnoo copopnno
pon1cn na pna pannwx o1poava, opnn na vo1opwx ooananao1-
cn [o
2
, b
2
n 1. p. E poayr1a1o noynao1cn cnc1oma noxon-
nwx o1poavon [o
n
, b
n
, n l, 2, ... , c pnnamn b
n
- o
n
.
l
2
---
o - b
2
-------------- -
o - b
2
--------------
o - b
2
--------------
2
-
b - o
2
-------------
b - o
2
n
-------------
S3
Hovaxom, n1o c1n pnnw c1pomn1cn v nym.
oc1nn1orno, pn ncnvoro 0, coracno npnnnny
Apxnmopa, napo1cn 1avoo na1yparnoo n

, n1o n

, no
1orpa n pn ncox n . n

ypo1 nwnonn1rcn nopanonc1no n


n, copona1orno, nopanonc1no . 3amonan, n1o
2
n
(l - l)
n
l - n - - ... n, (3.30)
noynaom pn n l, 2, ... . Hoc1omy pn ncox n n

cnpanopnno nopanonc1no . 01o n oananao1


c1pomonno v nym pnn o1poavon [o
n
, b
n
npn noapac1annn n.
3amo1nm, n1o npnnnn noxonnwx o1poavon nnno1cn
cnoc1nom, npncymnm nmonno mnoxoc1ny poc1nn1ornwx
nnco. Tav, noo opnnx 1orvo panonarnwx nnco yxo no
oapao1 anaornnnwm cnoc1nom.
Hanpnmop, ocn nan1r nocopona1ornoc1n panonarnwx
o1poavon [l; 2, [l,4; l,5, [l,4l; l,42, [l,4l4; l,4l5
l
... ,
1. o. nocopona1ornoc1r mnoxoc1n panonarnwx nnco,
oxamnx na o1poavax, vonw o
n
n b
n
, n l, 2, ...
vo1opwx nnnm1cn ananonnnmn , nwnnconnwmn coo1no1-
c1nonno c nopoc1a1vom n c naw1vom c 1onnoc1rm l,l0
n
, n 0,
l, 2, ...
2
, 1o, ononnpno, no cymoc1nyo1 nnvavoro panonarno-
ro nnca, npnnapoxamoro ncom c1nm o1poavam. E camom po-
o, 1avnm nncom moro w1r 1orvo nnco (nonomy?), vo-
1opoo, opnavo, no nnno1cn panonarnwm
3
.
Moxno povaaa1r n ooo 1onnoo y1nopxponno. Haaonom
noo opru+eooom+, ocn pn noro nwnonno1cn npnnnn Ap-
xnmopa, 1. o. cnpanopnno y1nopxponno 1oopomw 2 na n. 3.6.
Cnoc1no ynopnpononnoro non (onpopoonno non cm. n aamo-
nannn n vono n. 2.2

), coc1onmoo n 1om, n1o pn oro comon-


l
E 1om cynao, vorpa vonw o1poava [o, b aanncanw n nnpo pocn1nn-
no ppon, aann1an moxpy o n b aamonno1cn 1onvo c aann1o.
2
01o oananao1, n1o 2 n b
n
- o
n
, n 0, l, 2, ... .
3
ovaaa1orc1no nppanonarnoc1n nnca , ownno nponopnmoo n
comon1apno ma1oma1nvo, nocnponanopono nnxo n n. 6.3.
b - o

-------------
b - o

-------------
b - o
n
-------------
n n - l ( )
2
-----------------------
l
2
n
------
l
n
---
b - o
2
n
-------------
b - o
n
-------------
2
o
n
2
b
n
2 l
l0
n
-----------
2
2
S4
1on nwnonno1cn cnoc1no V na n. 2.l, naawnao1cn uenpepmo
uocnov no.n no ]eoeuuuo (cm. 1avxo n. 2.5

), a cnoc1no
ynopnpononnoro non, nwpaxammoocn n 1om, n1o vaxpan
cnc1oma oro noxonnwx o1poavon nmoo1 nonyc1oo nopocono-
nno, - uenpepmouocnov no.n no Kounop.
n apxnmoponwx ynopnpononnwx noo moxno nova-
aa1r, n1o nx nonpopwnnoc1r no opovnnpy, nonpopwnnoc1r no
Kan1opy n cymoc1nonanno vononno nopxno rpann y vaxpo-
ro nonyc1oro orpannnonnoro cnopxy mnoxoc1na cvnnnaon1nw
moxpy coo, 1. o. na moro na c1nx cnoc1n, npnnn1oro aa
avcnomy, nw1ovam1 oc1arnwo pna.
Bwo novaaano, n1o na nonpopwnnoc1n no opovnnpy copy-
o1 cymoc1nonanno vononno nopxno rpann y orpannnonnoro
cnopxy mnoxoc1na, o1vypa, n cnom onopopr, copyo1 nonpopwn-
noc1r no Kan1opy. n 1oro n1ow aanopmn1r povaaa1orc1no
yvaaanno cvnnnaon1noc1n 1pox nonn1n nonpopwnnoc1n ap-
xnmoponwx noo, poc1a1onno novaaa1r, n1o na nonpopwnnoc1n
no Kan1opy copyo1 nonpopwnnoc1r no opovnnpy. ovaaa-
1orc1no c1oro y1nopxponnn moxno na1n, nanpnmop, n vnnro:
Kopnoueo J. ]. Ma1oma1nnocvn anana. T. l. M., l9?3.
O1mo1nm omo copymmoo: npn povaaa1orc1no y1nopxpo-
nnn, n1o ynopnpononnoo noo, nonpopwnnoo no opovnnpy,
nnno1cn nonpopwnnwm n no Kan1opy, 1poonanno apxnmopo-
noc1n non moxno o1pocn1r. oc1nn1orno, n n. 3.6 wo
povaaano, n1o na nonpopwnnoc1n ynopnpononnoro non no o-
povnnpy, 1. o. na nannnn cnoc1na V, cqopmynponannoro n
n. 2.l, copyo1 nwnononno npnnnna Apxnmopa.
E parnomom ynopnpononnoo no opovnnpy noo ypom
npoc1o pn vpa1voc1n naawna1r uenpepmoum+.
E aavmnonno opa1nm nnnmanno na 1o, n1o y1nopxponno,
anaornnnoo 1oopomo 3, ovaawnao1cn yxo nonopnwm pn nnc-
onwx npomoxy1von ppyrnx 1nnon, nom o1poavn. Hanpnmop,
cnc1oma noxonnwx nn1opnaon 0, , n l, 2, ... : vaxpw
nocopymmn nn1opna copopxn1cn n npopwpymom, 1. o.
0, ~ 0, , n l, 2, ... ,
nmoo1 nyc1oo nopocononno. Ho, vononno, cymoc1nym1 n 1avno
cnc1omw noxonnwx nn1opnaon, vo1opwo nmom1 nonyc1oo
nopocononno.

l
n
---
,
_

l
n - l
---------------
,
_

l
n
---
,
_
S
3.8'. EpMnctsennocto nenpepmsnoro ynopspoennoro noAs
Mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco nnno1cn n novo1opom
cmwco opnnc1nonnwm nonpopwnnwm ynopnpononnwm no-
om, 1onnoo opnnc1nonnwm c 1onnoc1rm po naomopqnama.
Paa+ncnnm, n1o c1o oananao1.
na non n

naawnam1cn u:o+opqum+u, ocn cymoc1-


nyo1 1avoo naanmno opnoanannoo o1opaxonno ] non na no-
o

, n1o pn mwx pnyx comon1on r - n - nwnonn-


m1cn yconnn
](r - ) ](r) - ](), ](r) ](r)]().
O1opaxonno ] naawnao1cn n c1om cynao u:o+opqu:+o+
nn naomopqnwm o1opaxonnom.
Kopono, pna non naawnam1cn naomopqnwmn, ocn cy-
moc1nyo1 naanmno opnoanannoo o1opaxonno opnoro na nnx
na ppyroo (novnn), coxpannmmoo coxonno n ymnoxonno
nx comon1on.
Ecn non n

ynopnpononnwo n cymoc1nyo1 naomopqnoo


o1opaxonno ] non na noo

, coxpannmmoo o1nomonno no-


pnpva, 1. o. 1avoo, n1o pn mwx r - n - , pn vo1opwx
r , nmoo1 moc1o coo1nomonno ](r) ](), 1o non n

na-
awnam1cn u:o+opqum+u nopnooueuum+u no.n+u.
ovaxom, n1o mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco opno-
ananno onpopono1cn cnc1omo avcnom I-V (cm. n. 2.l) c 1on-
noc1rm po npnpopw comon1on.
I E O F E M A 5. Ece uenpepmoume nopnooueuume no.n u:o
+opqum +eo coou.
/c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r panw pna nonpopwnnwx ynopnpo-
nonnwx non R n R

. Bypom nocopona1orno yc1anannna1r


coo1no1c1nno moxpy nx comon1amn r - R n r

- R

. 01o coo1-
no1c1nno ooanannm nopoa ]. E vaxpom na noo R n R

oc1r
nyr n opnnna, coo1no1c1nonno 0 n l n R n 0

n l

n R

. Hoc1a-
nnm n coo1no1c1nno nym 0 nyr 0

, a opnnno l - opnnny l

:
](0) 0

, ](l) l

. (3.3l)
do

do
S6
0omon1y n noc1annm n coo1no1c1nno co-
mon1 , 1avnm o-
paaom,
](n) , (3.32)
a comon1y -n comon1 -](n)
](-n) -](n). (3.33)
Vc1anononnoo coo1no1c1nno ] nnno1cn naanmno opno-
anannwm, npn c1om vaxpw ow comon1 non R

, 1. o. oro
nyr 0

, comon1 nnpa n

- l

- ... - l

nn -n

, ovaawna-
o1cn, n cny panonc1n (3.3l)-(3.33), noc1anonnwm n coo1-
no1c1nno vavomy-1o oomy comon1y non R. Tavnm opa-
aom, o1opaxonno ] yc1anannnao1 naanmno opnoanannoo co-
o1no1c1nno moxpy mnoxoc1namn Z n Z

owx comon1on
noo R n R

. 01o coo1no1c1nno coxpanno1 o1nomonno nopnp-


va: ocn 0 n n, 1o
](n) ](n). (3.34)
E cny coo1no1c1nnn (3.33), o1nomonno nopnpva coxpanno1cn
n pn ncox owx comon1on moro anava.
Coxpannm1cn n onopann coxonnn n ymnoxonnn: pn
mwx n - Z n n - Z nmom1 moc1o copymmno panonc1na:
](n - n) ](n) - ](n), (3.35)
](nn) ](n)](n). (3.36)
oc1nn1orno, ocn n 0 n n 0, 1o
](n - n) -
- ](n) - ](n). (3.3?)
Ecn xo n 0 n 0 -n n, 1o
](n - n) - -
- -](-n) - ](n) ](n) - ](n). (3.38)
l - l - ... - l
n paa
'
] l ( ) - ] l ( ) - ... - ] l ( )
n paa
'
l

- l

- ... - l

n paa
'

do
l

- l

- ... - l

n paa
'
l

- l

- ... - l

n paa
'
l

- l

- ... - l

n paa
'
l

- ... - l

n - n paa
'
l

- ... - l

n paa
'
l

- ... - l

n paa
'
l

- ... - l

n - n n - (-n) paa
(l

- ... - l

)
-n paa
(l

- ... - l

)
n paa

(3.33)
S7
Cyna 0 n -n cnopn1cn v npopwpymomy:
](n - n) -](-n - n) -(](-n) -
- ](-n)) ](n) - ](n).
Havono, ocn n 0, n 0, 1o
](n- n) -](-n- n) -(](-n) - ](-n)) ](n) - ](n).
Ecn n 0 nn n 0, 1o coo1nomonnn (3.35) n (3.36) ono-
nnpnw. n povaaa1orc1na coo1nomonnn (3.36) aamo1nm, n1o
n nonx R n R

, vav n noomo no ncox ynopnpononnwx nonx,


nmoo1cn nonn1no acom1no nonnnnw comon1on n pn nx
ymnoxonnn cnpanopnnw coo1nomonnn:
ocn r . 0, . 0 nn r 0, 0, 1o r r, (3.39)
ocn r 0, 0 nn r 0, 0, 1o r -r. (3.40)
Ha panonc1n (3.32) n (3.33) copyo1, n1o pn vaxporo n - Z
nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no
](n) ](n). (3.4l)
Ecn pn comnoxn1oo n, n - Z nmoo1 moc1o cyna
(3.39), 1o, n cny (3.33), 1avo xo cyna nmoo1 moc1o n pn
comnoxn1oo ](n), ](n), noc1omy
](nn) ](nn)

](n)](n) ](n)](n) ](n)](n). (3.42)
Ecn xo comnoxn1on n n n paanoro anava, 1o, n cny (3.32) n
(3.33), ](n) n ](n) 1avxo nmom1 paanwo anavn; copona1orno,
](nn) ](-nn) -](nn)
-](n)](n) -](n)](n) ](n)](n).
H1av, o1opaxonno ] naanmno opnoananno o1opaxao1
mnoxoc1no Z na Z

, coxpanno1 o1nomonno nopnpva n onopa-


nn coxonnn n ymnoxonnn.

(3.33)

(3.38)

(3.33)

(3.33)

(3.3?)

(3.33)

(3.39)

(3.32)
l

- ... - l

n n paa
'
l

- ... - l

( )
n paa
'
l

- ... - l

( )
n paa
'

(3.32)

(3.4l)

(3.39)

(3.40)

(3.33)

(3.42)

(3.4l)

(3.40)
SS
Hoc1annm paoo vaxpomy panonarnomy comon1y non
R, 1. o. comon1y nnpa , rpo n - Z, n - Z, n = 0, comon1
non R

, 1. o. nooxnm
] . (3.43)
Tonopr (vav c1o orvo nponopn1r) ] o1opaxao1 naanmno
opnoananno noo Q ncox panonarnwx comon1on non R na
noo Q

ncox panonarnwx comon1on non R

. 01o coo1no1-
c1nno nnno1cn naomopqnamom ynopnpononnwx noo Q n Q

.
E camom poo, ocn
0 , n, n, p, q - Z, n 0, q 0, (3.44)
1o nq np, a 1orpa, n cny (3.34), ](nq) ](np), o1vypa
](n)](q) ](n)](p) n, copona1orno, , 1. o., co-
racno (3.43),
] ] . (3.45)
n panonarnwx comon1on c nponanornwmn anavamn
coxpanonno o1nomonnn nopnpva npn o1opaxonnn ] copyo1
na (3.44)-(3.45) n 1oro, n1o
] ] -] . (3.46)
aoo, pn mwx - Q n - Q nmoom
] - ]
- ] - ] (3.4?)
n, navono,
] ]
] ] . (3.48)
Hppanonarnwo comon1w, 1. o. comon1w, no nnnm-
mnocn panonarnwmn, onpoponm1cn cononnnmn n oac1nx
panonarnwx comon1on, npnnom, n cny naomopqnama mox-
n
n
-----
] n ( )
] n ( )
------------
n
n
-----
,
_

do ] n ( )
] n ( )
------------
n
n
-----
p
q
---

(3.36)
] n ( )
] n ( )
------------
] p ( )
] q ( )
----------
n
n
-----
,
_
p
q
---
,
_
n
n
-----
,
_
n
n
--------
,
_

(3.43)
] n ( )
] n ( )
----------------

(3.33)
- ] n) (
] n ( )
----------------------
n
n
-----
,
_
n
n
-----
p
q
---
n
n
-----

p
q
---
,
_
nq - np
nq
-----------------------
,
_

(3.43)
] nq - np ( )
] nq ( )
-------------------------------

(3.35)
(3.36)
] n ( )] q ( ) - ] n ( )] p ( )
] n ( )] q ( )
------------------------------------------------------
] n ( )
] n ( )
------------
] p ( )
] q ( )
----------

(3.43)
n
n
-----
,
_
p
q
---
,
_
n
n
-----

p
q
---
,
_
np
nq
--------
,
_

(3.43)
] np ( )
] nq ( )
----------------

(3.36)
] n ( )] p ( )
] n ( )] q ( )
------------------------
] n ( )
] n ( )
------------
] p ( )
] q ( )
----------

(3.43)
n
n
-----
,
_
p
q
---
,
_
S9
py mnoxoc1namn Q n Q

panonarnwx comon1on, moxpy nx


cononnnmn 1avxo cymoc1nyo1 naanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1-
c1nno: ocn AE - cononno n Q, 1o ](A)](E) - cononno n Q

n
mw nooxnm
](AE) ](A)](E). (3.49)
Tonopr naanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno yc1anonono
moxpy ncomn comon1amn noo R n R

. Hovaxom, n1o ono


1avxo coxpanno1 o1nomonno nopnpva n onopann coxonnn n
ymnoxonnn comon1on, 1. o. nnno1cn naomopqnamom noo R
n R

. n c1oro aamo1nm, n1o (cm. n. 3.4)


AE sup A In E, ](A)](E) sup ](A) In ](E). (3.50)
Ecn pn aapannoro mnoxoc1na X ~ Q ooanann1r nopoa A
mnoxoc1no 1avnx panonarnwx nnco r, n1o pn vaxporo
r - A cymoc1nyo1 r - X, pn vo1oporo r r, n nooxn1r
E QA, 1o mnoxoc1na A n E opaaym1 cononno AE n noo Q n
sup X sup A AE.
E cny xo naomopqnama noo Q n Q

nmoom
sup ](X) sup ](A) ](A)](E) ](AE) ](sup X).
Hoponwm xo opaaom povaawnao1cn anaornnnoo coo1no-
monno pn nnxnnx rpano. Copona1orno, nmom1 moc1o pa-
nonc1na
sup ](X) ](sup X), In ](X) ](In X), X ~ Q. (3.5l)
Hyc1r 1onopr AE n CD - cononnn n noo Q n
AE CD, (3.52)
1orpa A ~ C n, copona1orno, ](A) ~ ](C), o1vypa nw1ovao1, n1o
](A)](E) ](C)](D). (3.53)
aoo, pn mwx cononn AE n CD non Q nmoom
](AE - CD) ](sup A - sup C) ](sup (A - C))
sup ](A - C) sup (](A) - ](C))
sup ](A) - sup ](C) ](A)](E) - ](C)](D).

(3.49)

(3.50)

(3.6)

(3.5l)

(3.5l)

(3.4?)

(3.6)

(3.6)

(3.50)
90
Anaornnno pn AE . 0, CD . 0 nmoom
](AE CD) ](In E In D) ](In ED)
In ](ED) In (](E)](D))
In ](E) In ](D) ](A)](E) ](C)](D). (3.54)
Coo1nomonno
](AE CD) ](AE)](CD)
pn nponanornwx cononn copyo1 na qopmy (3.39), (3.40),
(3.54) n panonc1na
](-(AE)) ](-sup A) ](In (-A)) In ](-A)
In (-](A)) -sup ](A) -(](A)](E)).
Haomopqnam R n R

povaaan.
E aavmnonno povaxom, n1o mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx
nnco noran pacmnpn1r po ormoro nonpopwnnoro ynopn-
pononnoro non c coxpanonnom coo1nomonnn ynopnpononnoc-
1n n onopan coxonnn n ymnoxonnn. Hpopnapn1orno
cqopmynpyom opno onpopoonno.
Hopmnoxoc1no non naawnao1cn noono.e+ no.n , oc-
n c1o nopmnoxoc1no camo nnno1cn noom n cny onopann
coxonnn n ymnoxonnn comon1on non . Hopnoo non na-
awnao1cn coc1nonnwm, ocn ono no connapao1 co ncom noom.
Hopnoo ynopnpononnoro non c coo1nomonnom ynopnpo-
nonnoc1n, nopoxponnwm coo1nomonnom ynopnpononnoc1n no-
n, naawnao1cn nopnooueuum+ noono.e+.
Hanpnmop, noo ncox panonarnwx nnco nnno1cn co-
c1nonnwm ynopnpononnwm nopnoom non ncox poc1nn1or-
nwx nnco.
3amo1nm, n1o nyr n opnnna nopnon novo1oporo non
nnnm1cn nyom n opnnno non.
E camom poo, nyc1r - nopnoo non

, a 0 n 0

- co-
o1no1c1nonno nyn nopnon n non

. Ooanannm nopoa o
comon1, npo1nnonooxnw comon1y 0 n noo

:
0 - o 0

. (3.55)

(3.50)

(3.5l)

(3.5l)

(3.36)

(3.50)

(3.50)

(3.5)

(3.5l)

(3.46)

(3.46)

(3.5)

(3.50)
91
E nopnoo nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no 0 - 0 0. Hpnannm v
oonm oro nac1nm comon1 o : 0 - (0 - o) 0 - o, o1cmpa, n cn-
y (3.55), noynaom 0 - 0

. Ho onan nac1r c1oro panonc1-


na, coracno onpopoonnm nyn 0

non

, panna nym; co-


pona1orno, 0 0

.
Anaornnno, ocn l n l

- coo1no1c1nonno opnnnw nop-


non n non

, 1o na panonc1na l l l, ymnoxan oro na


comon1 l
-l
, opa1nw n noo

comon1y l: l l
-l
l

, no-
ynaom l l

, no l l

l, copona1orno, l l

.
I E O F E M A . He cecnoen uenpepmouoeo nopnooueuuoeo
no.n, cooepoeeo o cee no.e oeucnoune.oumr uuce. o uo
uecnoe cocnoeuuoeo nopnooueuuoeo noono.n.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Muoecnoo oeucnoune.oumr uuce. ue u:o
+opquo uuuouou cooeu cocnoeuuou uocnu.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r R

- nonpopwnnoo ynopnponon-
noo noo, copopxamoo n coo noo poc1nn1ornwx nnco R
vav ynopnpononnoo nopnoo. Hovaxom, n1o na c1oro copyo1,
n1o R

R.
Hpn povaaa1orc1no 1oopomw 5 wo novaaano, n1o mox-
py pnymn mwmn ynopnpononnwmn nonmn, a copona1or-
no, n nac1noc1n, moxpy nonmn R n R

, moxno yc1anonn1r
naomopqnam ], npopoxnn coo1no1c1nymmnm opaaom o1o-
paxonno
](0) 0

, ](l) l

(3.56)
na nco comon1w non R, rpo 0 n l - nyr n opnnna non R,
a 0

n l

- nyr n opnnna non R

.
Coracno cvaaannomy nwmo, na 1oro, n1o noo R nnno1cn
nopnoom R

, nw1ovao1, n1o 0 0

n l l

, n, copona1orno,
panonc1na (3.56) nponpamam1cn n panonc1na
](0) 0, ](l) l. (3.5?)
Hovaxom, n1o na c1nx coo1nomonn nw1ovao1, n1o n pn
moro comon1a r - R nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no
](r) r. (3.58)
E camom poo, ocn n - na1yparnoo nnco, 1o na qopmy
(3.32) n (3.5?) copyo1, n1o
](n) l - l - l - ... - l n. (3.59)
9z
Ecn n - ooo nnco, 1o na qopmy (3.33) n (3.59) nmoom
1avxo
](n) n. (3.60)
aoo, ocn r - panonarnoo nnco, 1o
] .
Eco panonarnwo nnca npn o1opaxonnn ] oc1am1cn na
moc1o, noc1omy pn moro cononnn AE n oac1n panonar-
nwx nnco nmoom
](A) A, ](E) E (3.6l)
n, copona1orno,
](AE) ](A)](E) AE. (3.62)
Kaxpoo poc1nn1ornoo nnco onpopono1 pna cononnn n
oac1n panonarnwx nnco. n pannoro nnca r - R oo-
anannm nopoa AE opno na 1avnx cononn: r AE. Torpa y-
pom nmo1r
](r) ](AE) AE r.
H1av, panonc1no (3.58) povaaano pn ncox poc1nn1ornwx
nnco r.
O1opaxonno ], ypynn naomopqnamom noo R n R

, nn-
no1cn o1opaxonnom non R na nco noo R

, noc1omy coo1no-
monno (3.58) oananao1, n1o ] nnno1cn 1oxpoc1nonnwm o1o-
paxonnom non R na noo R

, 1. o. R

R.
4.
lpe/e/ Mc/cacM ncc/e/cace/|ccM
4.4. OnpepeAenMe npepeAo
McAosoM nocAeposoteAonoctM
Opnnm na naxnomnx nonn1n ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa nn-
no1cn nonn1no npopoa. Mw nannom oro naynonno c npopoa
nocopona1ornoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco (onpopoonno no-
copona1ornoc1n cm. n n. l.3

). Hop ocvononno ypaonno


n
n
-----
n
n
-----
,
_

(3.43)
] n ( )
] n ( )
------------
n
n
-----

(3.49)

(3.6l)

(3.62)
93
1onvo nncono npnmo ypom nonnma1r opny na ocvonon-
noc1o -~, -~ nn ~ (cm. n. 3.l).
OnpepeAenMe 4. Touuo o (uoueuuon u.u ecuoueuuo oo.eu
uon) uuc.ooou npn+ou uo:mooencn npeoe.o+ ueuonopou uuc
.ooou noc.eoooone.ouocnu oeucnoune.oumr uuce., ec.u,
uouooo m uu m.o oupecnuocno nouuu o, ouo cooepun
oce u.eum pocc+onpuooe+ou noc.eoooone.ouocnu uouuuon
c ueuonopoeo uo+epo.
01o1 nomop aanncn1, noomo ronopn, o1 nwopa ovpoc1noc-
1n 1onvn o.
Cqopmynponannoo yconno pannocnrno 1omy, n1o nno
mo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn o naxopn1cn nmr vononnoo mno-
xoc1no nonon paccma1pnnaomo nocopona1ornoc1n, n nac1-
noc1n nn opnoro (1. o. nyc1oo mnoxoc1no, vo1opoo npnnncn-
o1cn v vononnwm mnoxoc1nam).
Ecnomnnn, n1o ovpoc1noc1n vononnwx n ocvononno ypa-
onnwx 1onov nncono npnmo onpoponm1cn aapannom no-
vo1oporo nnca 0 (cm. n. 3.2), onpopoonno npopoa noco-
pona1ornoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco moxno nopoqpaanpo-
na1r copymmnm opaaom.
Touuo o (uoueuuon u.u ecuoueuuo oo.euuon) uuc.ooou
npn+ou uo:mooencn npeoe.o+ noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n

oeucnoune.oumr uuce., ec.u o.n .voeo 0 cecnoen


nouou uo+ep n

, uno o.n ocer uo+epoo n n

u.eum r
n
co
oeponcn o oupecnuocnu U(o; ):
r
n
- U(o; ).
Ecn nwnonno1cn c1o yconno, 1o nnmy1 o nn
r
n
= o npn n = ~ n ronopn1, n1o nonw nocopona1ornoc1n
{r
n
c1pomn1cn v o.
C nomomrm ornnocvnx cnmnoon cymoc1nonannn n nco-
omnoc1n onpopoonno npopoa aanncwnao1cn copymmnm o-
paaom:
o n

\ n n

: r
n
- U(o; )
(apocr n n parnomom yvno n, w1r moxo1 c 1om nn nnwm
nnpovcom, ncorpa ypom ooanana1r na1yparnoo nnco, ocn
cnonarno no oronopono n1o-no ppyroo).
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm =
do
94
Hnpovc y nomopa n

nopnopvnnao1, n1o c1o1 nomop aann-


cn1, noomo ronopn, o1 nwpannoro 0. 01a aanncnmoc1r o1-
paxona, vononno, yxo n camo qopmynponvo onpopoonnn
npopoa, noc1omy oo moxno n no o1paxa1r n aanncn (n1o wo
cpoano nmr pn ormo narnpnoc1n). oc1nn1orno,
nac1o nmoc1o n

nnmy1, nanpnmop, n
0
- N nn N - N.
Ecn npopo nocopona1ornoc1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco
nnno1cn vononno 1onvo nncono npnmo, 1. o. nncom, 1o
ronopn1, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r nmoo1 vononnw npopo.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Ec.u uuc.ooon noc.eoooone.ouocno u+een
uoueuumu npeoe., no ouo uo:mooencn crooneucn.
Ecn ncnoraona1r ornnocvno cnmnow, 1o c1o onpopoo-
nno moxno aannca1r copymmnm opaaom:
o - F \ 0 n

- N \ n n

: {r
n
- o .
Hoc.eoooone.ouocno, ue no.nvoncn crooneucn, uo
:mooencn pocrooneucn.
n cynan vononnoro npopoa onpopoonno l npopoa
moxno nopoqpaanpona1r copymmnm opaaom.
9uc.o o no.nencn npeoe.o+ noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n

oeucnoune.oumr uuce., ec.u o.n .voeo 0 cecnoen


nouou uo+ep n

, uno o.n ocer uo+epoo n n

omno.unencn
uepooeucnoo
r
n
- o . (4.l)
C nomomrm ornnocvnx cnmnoon c1o onpopoonno aann-
cwnao1cn copymmnm opaaom:
o \ 0 n

\ n n

: r
n
- o .
Ononnpno, n1o nopanonc1no (4.l) pannocnrno nopanonc1ny
o - r
n
o - .
Ecn o n r
n
o (coo1no1c1nonno r
n
o) pn ncox
n l, 2, ... , 1o ronopn1, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
cxopn1-
cn v nncy o c.eoo (coo1no1c1nonno cnpooo), n nnorpa nmoc1o
o n c1om cynao nnmy1 o - 0 (coo1no1-
c1nonno o - 0).
E 1om cynao, vorpa o 0, nmoc1o 0 - 0 n 0 - 0 nnmy1 coo1-
no1c1nonno npoc1o -0 n -0.
r
n
n ~
IIm =
do
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
9
Cqopmynpyom na nawvo onpopoonno npopoa nncono
nocopona1ornoc1n n 1om cynao, vorpa c1o1 npopo nnno1-
cn 1o nn nno ocvononno ypaonno 1onvo (nn, vav ro-
nopn1, panon ocvononnoc1n).
Hanpnmop, ~ nnno1cn npopoom nocopona1ornoc1n
{r
n
, ocn pn moro 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n

, n1o
pn ncox nomopon n n

nwnonno1cn nvmnonno r
n
- U(~; ),
nn, n1o 1o xo camoo, nopanonc1no r
n
. C nomomrm orn-
nocvnx cnmnoon c1o y1nopxponno aanncwnao1cn copymmnm
opaaom:
~ \ 0 n

\ n n

: r
n
.
Anaornnno onpopoonno npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n no-
poqpaanpyo1cn pn cynan, vorpa c1o1 npopo panon ocvo-
nonnoc1n c onpopoonnwm anavom. n vpa1voc1n orpann-
nnmcn aanncrm c1nx onpopoonn 1orvo c nomomrm ornno-
cvnx cnmnoon:
-~ \ 0 n

\ n n

: r
n
;
-~ \ 0 n

\ n n

: r
n
- .
Ononnpno, n1o ocn r
n
-~ nn r
n
-~, 1o n
~.
OnpepeAenMe 3. Hoc.eoooone.ouocno, npeoe.o+ uonopou no
.nencn ecuoueuuocno, uo:mooencn ecuoueuuo o.ouou.
Honn1no vononnoro npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n cnnaano
n onpopoonnom cmwco c nc1ponammocn na npav1nvo aapa-
no noynonnn ananonnn novo1opo nn1opocymmo nac non-
nnnw c nanopop aapanno qnvcnponanno 1onnoc1rm 0.
Hocopona1ornwo npnnxonnwo ananonnn r
n
paccma1pn-
naomo nonnnnw mory1 noyna1rcn n poayr1a1o nponoponnn
vavnx-no cvcnopnmon1on nn nwnnconnn no vavnm-nn-
ypr povyppon1nwm qopmyam nn vavnm-1o ppyrnm ny1om.
01a aapana ypo1, ononnpno, pomona, ocn napo1cn nomop n

,
nannnan c vo1oporo nco ananonnn r
n
ypy1 o1vonn1rcn o1
1onnoro ananonnn paccma1pnnaomo nonnnnw n npopoax aa-
panno 1onnoc1n. Kononno, ocn yvaaannoo n

cymoc1nyo1
l

---
r
n
n ~
IIm =
do
l

---
r
n
n ~
IIm =
do
l

---
r
n
n ~
IIm =
do
l

---
IIm
n
IIm
n
r
n
n ~
IIm
96
nmr pn opnoro pannoro 0, c1o omo no oananao1, n1o no-
copona1ornoc1r {r
n
cxopn1cn: n onpopoonnn npopoa no-
copona1ornoc1n 1poyo1cn, n1ow coo1no1c1nymmn nomop
n

moxno wo nopopa1r pn moro 0.


E parnomom ncorpa nop npopoom nocopona1ornoc1n
ypom nonnma1r v o n o n n w n p o p o , 1. o. nnco, ocn,
vononno, no oronopono npo1nnnoo.
Rp M ue p m. 4. Hocopona1ornoc1r cxopn1cn n nmoo1
cnonm npopoom nyr. E camom poo, vavono w nn wo 0,
coracno npnnnny Apxnmopa (cm. n. 3.6) poc1nn1ornwx
nnco, cymoc1nyo1 1avoo na1yparnoo nnco n

, n1o n

.
Hoc1omy pn ncox n n

nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no 0
, a c1o n oananao1, n1o 0. Hocopona1or-
noc1r cxopn1cn v nym cnpana.
2. Hocopona1ornoc1r sIn n nnno1cn pacxopnmocn.
E camom poo, vavono w nn wo nnco o, nno oro -ovpoc1-
noc1n, nanpnmop npn 0 l, aanopomo oxn1 ocvononnoo
nnco nonon panno nocopona1ornoc1n, n, anann1, ono no
nnno1cn oo npopoom.
3. Hocopona1ornoc1r sIn n cxopn1cn n
sIn n 0.
01o copyo1 (nonomy?) na 1oro, n1o
sIn n n 0.
Cxopnmancn nocopona1ornoc1r sIn n no nnno1cn no-
copona1ornoc1rm, cxopnmocn v cnoomy npopoy cona nn
cnpana.
4 . Hocopona1ornoc1r {n pacxopn1cn. oc1nn1orno,
vavono w nn wo nnco o, pn moro 0, n nac1noc1n
pn l, napo1cn, coracno npnnnny Apxnmopa, 1avoo na-
1yparnoo n
0
, n1o n
0
o - l. Copona1orno, n pn ncox na1y-
l
n
---

' ;

l

---
l
n
---
l
n

------
n ~
IIm
l
n
---
l
n
---

' ;

'

2
---

l
n
---

'

2
---

n ~
IIm
l
n
---

2
---
l
n
---

2
---
n
l
n
---
n ~
IIm
l
n
---
l
n
---

'

2
---
n

97
parnwx n n
0
nmoom n o - l. Hoc1omy nnvavoo nnco o no
moxo1 nnn1rcn npopoom nocopona1ornoc1n {n.
E npnmopax 2 n 4 npn povaaa1orc1no pacxopnmoc1n no-
copona1ornoc1o wo ncnoraonano no:unuouoe onpeoe.e
uue 1oro oc1on1orc1na, n1o novo1opoo nnco o no nnnocr
npopoom panno nocopona1ornoc1n.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Koueuuon u.u ecuoueuuo oo.euuon nouuo
o uuc.ooou npn+ou R ue no.nencn
l
npeoe.o+ noc.eoooone.o
uocnu r
n
- R, n l, 2, ... , ec.u cecnoen nouoe 0, uno
o.n ocnuoeo uonpo.ouoeo n cecnoen nouoe uonpo.o
uoe n n, uno r
n
- U(o; ).
C nomomrm ornnocvnx cnmnoon c1o onpopoonno aann-
cwnao1cn copymmnm opaaom:
= o = 0 \ n - N n n : r
n
- U(o; ).
Hanomnnm, n1o npn qopmynponannn o1pnannn vavo-
ro-no y1nopxponnn ornnocvno cnmnow cymoc1nonannn
n ncoomnoc1n \ monnm1cn moc1amn. Hmonno 1av n nponaom-
o n pannom cynao, n nom orvo yopn1rcn, cpannnn aanncr
onpopoonn l n 4, aanncannym c nomomrm ornnocvnx cnm-
noon.
3amo1nm, n1o onpopoonno 4 no nnno1cn camoc1on1or-
nwm onpopoonnom - ono nnno1cn ornnocvnm copc1nnom
onpopoonnn l.
VHPAHEHHE 1. Cqopmynpona1r noan1nnnoo onpopoonno nonn1nn
pacxopnmocn nocopona1ornoc1n.
VHPAHEHHE z. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn o, 1o o.
3aaua 2. ovaaa1r, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
pacxopn1cn 1orpa
n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnco 0, n1o, vavono w nn
wo poc1nn1ornoo nnco o n vavon w nn w nomop n, napo1cn 1avo
nomop n n, pn vo1oporo nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no r
n
- o . .
VHPAHEHHE 3. 3annca1r noan1nnnoo onpopoonno pacxopnmocn
nocopona1ornoc1n n yconno aapann 2 n ornnocvnx cnmnoax n cpan-
nn1r nx.
E paccmo1ponnwx nwmo npnmopax cymoc1nonanno nn o1-
cy1c1nno npopoon y pannwx nocopona1ornoc1o wo po-
l
3pocr nac1na no nxopn1 no n onpopoonno, a n onpoponomoo nonn-
1no, n1o no nnno1cn npopoom. Camo onpopoonno nannnao1cn co cona
ocn.
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
9S
c1a1onno ononnpnwm, a povaaa1orc1na cnopnncr v comon-
1apno nponopvo onpopoonnn npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n.
E vanoc1no ooo coxnoro npnmopa o1wcvannn npopoa
nocopona1ornoc1n paccmo1pnm npopo cpopnnx apnqmo1n-
nocvnx nonon aapanno cxopnmocn nocopona1ornoc1n.
Rp M ue p 5. Ec.u noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
croouncn,
no noc.eoooone.ouocno cpeouur opuq+enuuecuur ee u.euoo

n
, n l, 2, ... ,
noue croouncn u npuno+ u no+ e npeoe., uno u co+o
noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
.
Hyc1r o. Hpoxpo ncoro aamo1nm, n1o pn mwx
na1yparnwx nnco n
0
n n n
0
nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no

n
- o - o
- . (4.2)
Ecn 1onopr aapano 0, 1o, coracno onpopoonnm npo-
poa, cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox n n
0
nwno-
nno1cn nopanonc1no
r
n
- o . (4.3)
Hnco r
l
- ... - - n
0
o qnvcnponano, a 0, no-
c1omy
0.
Copona1orno, cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox
n n
0
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
. (4.4)
Hyc1r n

max {n
0
, n
0
. Torpa pn ncox nomopon n n

n cny
qopmy (4.2)-(4.4) noynnm

n
- o -
- - .
01o n oananao1, n1o
n
o.
r
l
- r
2
- - r
n
n
-------------------------------------------------
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
l
- - r
n
n
-----------------------------------
r
l
- - r
n
0
- n
0
o
n
-------------------------------------------------------
r
n
0 - l
- o ( ) - - r
n
- o ( )
n
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

2
---
r
n
0
n ~
IIm
l
n
---
n ~
IIm
r
l
- - r
n
0
- n
0
o
n
-------------------------------------------------------
r
l
- - r
n
0
- n
0
o
n
-------------------------------------------------------

2
---
r
l
- - r
n
0
- n
0
o
n
-------------------------------------------------------
r
n
0 - l
- o - ... - r
n
- o
n
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

2
---
n - n
0
n
-----------------

2
---

2
---

2
---
n ~
IIm
99
VHPAHEHHE 4. ovaaa1r: l) n1o o1pacwnanno nn aamona vononnoro
nnca comon1on nocopona1ornoc1n no nnno1 na oo cxopnmoc1r, npnnom n
cynao cxopnmocn nocopona1ornoc1n no nnno1 n na nonnnny npopoa;
2) ocn r
n
o,
n
o n :
n
h l, 2, ... ,
1o n :
n
o.
Hapnpy c nnconwmn nocopona1ornoc1nmn n pannom
vypco ypy1 nc1pona1rcn nocopona1ornoc1n 1onov pacmn-
ponno nncono npnmo, 1. o. aanymoponannwo na1yparnw-
mn nncamn conovynnoc1n {r
n
comon1on pacmnponnoro mno-
xoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco R (cm. n. 3.l). Tavnm opaaom,
comon1amn c1nx nocopona1ornoc1o napnpy c poc1nn1or-
nwmn nncamn mory1 w1r ocvononno ypaonnwo 1onvn -~
n -~. n 1avnx nocopona1ornoc1o 1avxo moxno nnoc1n
nonn1no npopoa, anaornnnoo npopoy nnconwx nocopona-
1ornoc1o n copopxamoo oro n coo vav nac1nw cyna.
OnpepeAenMe 5. Touuo o pocuupeuuou uuc.ooou npn+ou R uo
:mooencn npeoe.o+ noc.eoooone.ouocnu noueu onou npn
+ou, ec.u, uouooo m uu m.o oupecnuocno nouuu o, ouo
cooepun oce u.eum pocc+onpuooe+ou noc.eoooone.ouoc
nu uouuuon c ueuonopoeo uo+epo.
O1nnno o1 paccmo1ponnoro nwmo cynan coc1on1 n 1om,
n1o apocr nonamn nocopona1ornoc1n mory1 w1r no 1orvo
poc1nn1ornwo nnca, no n ocvononnoc1n c onpopoonnwm
anavom.
Kononno, nonn1no npopoa moxno oomn1r n na cyna
nocopona1ornoc1n 1onov npnmo, pacmnponno c nomomrm
1orvo opno ocvononno ypaonno 1onvn - ocvononnoc1n
oa anava.
3 a m o n a n n o. n mo ovpoc1noc1n U(o, ), 0, rpo
o - no nnco: o - R, no opna na ocvononnoc1o -~, -~
nn ~, cymoc1nyo1 1avoo na1yparnoo n, n1o nwnonno1cn
nvmnonno U o, ~ U(o, ). H1ow n c1om yopn1rcn, poc1a-
1onno nan1r 1avoo n - N, n1o .
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm
r
h
npn n 2h - l,

h
npn n 2h,
n ~
IIm

l
n
---
,
_
l
n
---
100
Hoc1omy, ocn nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
- R 1avona, n1o pn
moro n l, 2, ... nwnonno1cn nvmnonno r
n
- U o,
(apocr o - no poc1nn1ornoo nnco, no opna na ocvo-
nonnoc1o ~, -~ nn -~), 1o r
n
o. E camom poo, pn
mo ovpoc1noc1n U(o) cymoc1nyo1 1avoo na1yparnoo n
0
,
n1o U o, ~ U(o); 1orpa pn ncox nomopon n n
0
ypom
nmo1r r
n
- U o, ~ U o, ~ U(o). 01o n oananao1, n1o
r
n
o.
E parnomom nop nocopona1ornoc1rm ncorpa nonnma-
o1cn n n c o n a n n o c o p o n a 1 o r n o c 1 r, 1. o. noco-
pona1ornoc1r, comon1amn vo1opo nnnm1cn poc1nn1or-
nwo nnca, ocn, vononno, cnonarno no oronopono n1o-no
ppyroo.
VHPAHEHHH. . Hpnnoc1n npnmop noorpannnonno nocopona1or-
noc1n, no nnnmmocn ocvononno ormo.
6. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn o
n
b
n
, n l, 2, ... , n -~, 1o ~.
7. ovaaa1r, n1o nononnoo nponanoponno ocvononno ormo nocopona-
1ornoc1n na nocopona1ornoc1r, acom1nan nonnnna ncox nonon vo-
1opo orpannnona cnnay nooxn1orno noc1onnno, nnno1cn ocvonon-
no ormo nocopona1ornoc1rm.
4.2. EpMnctsennocto npepeAo McAosoM
nocAeposoteAonoctM
ovaxom npoxpo ncoro voppov1noc1r onpopoonnn npopoa n
1om cmwco, n1o ocn on cymoc1nyo1, 1o on opnnc1non.
I E O F E M A 4. Hoc.eoooone.ouocno noueu pocuupeuuou uuc
.ooou npn+ou +oen u+eno uo onou npn+ou no.ouo oouu
npeoe..
C A E p C I 8 H E. 9uc.ooon noc.eoooone.ouocno +oen u+eno
no.ouo oouu npeoe., uoueuumu u.u onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo
ecuoueuumu.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c p e | |. onyc1nm, n1o y1nopxpo-
nno 1oopomw nocnpanopnno. 01o oananao1, n1o cymoc1nyo1
nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
- R, n l, 2, ... , y vo1opo nmoo1cn

l
n
---
,
_
n ~
IIm

l
n
0
------
,
_

l
n
---
,
_

l
n
0
------
,
_
n ~
IIm
o
n
n ~
IIm b
n
n ~
IIm
101
no vpano mopo pna paannnwx npopoa: o - R n b - R. Ew-
opom
l
0 n
2
0 1av, n1ow
l
-ovpoc1noc1r 1onvn o no
nopocovaacr c
2
-ovpoc1noc1rm 1onvn b. 01o ncorpa moxno
cpoa1r coracno ommo n. 3.2 (cm. pnc. 6, o, , o, e). E cny
onpopoonnn npopoa, na yconnn o copyo1, n1o
cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n
l
- N, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
l
,
n - N, nmoo1 moc1o nvmnonno r
n
- U(o,
l
), a na yconnn
b copyo1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo n
2
- N, n1o pn
ncox n n
2
, n - N, cnpanopnno nvmnonno r
n
- U(b,
2
).
Copona1orno, ocn ooanann1r nopoa n
0
nanormn na
nomopon n
l
n n
2
; n
0
max {n
l
, n
2
, 1o pn moro n n
0
opnonpomonno ypom nmo1r r
n
- U(o,
l
) n r
n
- U(b,
2
), 1. o.
r
n
- U(o,
l
) U(b,
2
). 01o npo1nnoponn1 yconnm
U(o,
l
) U(b,
2
) C.
Copc1nno nnno1cn nac1nwm cynaom y1nopxponnn 1oo-
pomw.
n opnnc1nonnoc1n ocvononnoro npopoa nocopona-
1ornoc1n comon1on na R cymoc1nonnwm nnno1cn pac-
cmo1ponno nmr ocvononnoc1o onpopoonnoro anava, 1av
vav ocn nocopona1ornoc1r nmoo1 cnonm npopoom ocvo-
nonnoc1r c onpopoonnwm anavom, 1o opnonpomonno oo npopo-
om nnno1cn n ocvononnoc1r oa anava. Hanpnmop, ocn
r
n
-~, 1o, vononno, n r
n
~.
ovaxom 1onopr novo1opwo npoc1wo cnoc1na vononnwx n
ocvononnwx npopoon.
4.3. Repexop k npepeAy s neposenctsox
Cqopmynpyom n povaxom 1pn nac1o ncnorayomwx cnoc1na
npopoon nocopona1ornoc1o 1onov pacmnponno nncono
npnmo, cnnaannwo c panonc1namn n nopanonc1namn pn no-
non nocopona1ornoc1o.
I. Ec.u o.n ocer n l, 2, ... u+een +ecno pooeucnoo
r
n
o - R (n. e. noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
cnouuouopuo),
no o.
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm

do
'
'
IIm
n
IIm
n
r
n
n ~
IIm
10z
Kopo1vo ronopn, npopo noc1o-
nnno panon camo c1o noc1onn-
no.
/c k c s c e / | c a c. oc1nn-
1orno, n c1om cynao pn mo
ovpoc1noc1n U(o) 1onvn o n vanoc1no nomopa n
0
, yvaaannoro n
onpopoonnn 5, moxno nan1r, nanpnmop, n
0
l, 1av vav pn
ncox nomopon n l, 2, ... nmoo1 moc1o nvmnonno
r
n
o - U(o).
II. Ec.u
r
n
- R,
n
- R, :
n
- R, r
n

n
:
n
, n l, 2, ... , (4.5)
u
o - R, (4.6)
no
o. (4.?)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. 3aqnvcnpyom nponanorno ovpoc1-
noc1r U(o) 1onvn o. E cny yconn (4.6), cymoc1nym1 1avo
nomop n
l
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
l
nwnonno1cn nvm-
nonno
r
n
- U(o), (4.8)
n 1avo nomop n
2
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
2
- nvmnonno
:
n
- U(o). (4.9)
Eoarmom n vanoc1no nomopa n
0
nanormn na nomopon n
l
n n
2
: n
0
max {n
l
; n
2
. Torpa pn nomopon n n
0
opnonpo-
monno nwnonnm1cn nvmnonnn (4.8) n (4.9); 1orpa (pnc. l0),
n cny yconnn (4.5), pn ncox n n
0
nwnonno1cn nvmno-
nno
n
- U(o), a c1o n oananao1 cnpanopnnoc1r y1nopxponnn
(4.?).
C A E p C I 8 H E. Ec.u r
n

n
, r
n
- R,
n
- R, n l, 2, ... , u
-~, (4.l0)
no
-~, (4.ll)
o ec.u -~, no -~.
Pnc. l0
:
n
o
n
r
n
U(o)
:
n
o
n
r
n
U(o)
r
n
n ~
IIm :
n
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
103
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r
nwnonono yconno (4.l0). Pac-
cmo1pnm ncnomora1ornym no-
copona1ornoc1r :
n
-~, n
l, 2, ... , 1orpa, ononnpno, pn
nocopona1ornoc1o {r
n
, {
n
, {:
n
nwnonnm1cn yconnn (4.5)
n (4.6) npn o -~, a noc1omy, n cny y1nopxponnn (4.?), nmo-
o1 moc1o n panonc1no (4.ll).
Anaornnno paccma1pnnao1cn n cyna -~.
III. Ec.u r
n
- R,
n
- R, n l, 2, ... , u
o, b, (4.l2)
npuue+
o b, o - R, b - R, (4.l3)
no cecnoen nouou uo+ep n
0
, uno o.n ocer uo+epoo n n
0
omno.unencn uepooeucnoo
r
n

n
. (4.l4)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r U U(o) n \ \(b) - vavno-n-
o nonopocovammnocn ovpoc1noc1n 1onov o n b, 1orpa na yco-
nnn o b copyo1, n1o pn mwx r - U n - \ nwnonno1cn
nopanonc1no (pnc. ll)
r . (4.l5)
E cny yconnn (4.l2), cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o
pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonnm1cn nvmnonnn
r
n
- U,
n
- \, (4.l6)
a noc1omy, coracno nopanonc1ny (4.l5), nmom1 moc1o nopa-
nonc1na (4.l4).
C A E p C I 8 H E 4. Hcno o, b, r
n
npuuoo.eon R, n l, 2, ... .
Ec.u o u o b (coonoencnoeuuo o b), no c
ecnoen nouou uo+ep n
0
, uno o.n ocer uo+epoo n n
0
omno.unencn uepooeucnoo
r
n
b (4.l?)
(coonoencnoeuuo uepooeucnoo r
n
b).
Pnc. ll

n
b r
n
U(b)
o
U(o)

n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
104
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r o b. Paccmo1pnm ncnomora-
1ornym nocopona1ornoc1r
n
b, n l, 2, ...; 1orpa pn
nocopona1ornoc1o {r
n
n {
n
nwnonnm1cn yconnn (4.l2)
n (4.l3), copona1orno, n yconno (4.l4), vo1opoo n pannom
cynao nponpamao1cn n nopanonc1no (4.l?).
Anaornnno paccma1pnnao1cn cyna o b.
C A E p C I 8 H E 2. Ec.u o, b, r
n
- R,
n
- R,
n l, 2, ... , o - R, b - R u o.n ocer n l, 2, ... omno.unencn
uepooeucnoo
r
n

n
, (4.l8)
no
o b. (4.l9)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r nwnonono yconno (4.l8). Ecn
w ovaaaocr, n1o o b, 1o, coracno cnoc1ny III npopoon,
namocn w 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nw-
nonnocr w nopanonc1no r
n

n
, n1o npo1nnoponn1 yconnm
(4.l8). Copona1orno, nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no (4.l9).
Ha copc1nnn 2 nw1ovao1, n nac1noc1n, n1o ocn r
n
b,
n l, 2, ... , n o, 1o nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no o b.
E camom poo, ocn nan1r ncnomora1ornym c1anonapnym
nocopona1ornoc1r
n
b, n l, 2, ... , 1o pn nocopona-
1ornoc1o {r
n
n {
n
ypy1 nwnonn1rcn yconnn
copc1nnn 2, 1. o. o, r
n
- R, n l, 2, ... , o - R, n
pn ncox n l, 2, ... cnpanopnnw nopanonc1na r
n

n
b.
Hoc1omy, coracno copc1nnm 2, nmoo1 moc1o n nopanonc1no
o b.
Copc1nno 2 oananao1, n1o ocn nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
n
{
n
nmom1 npopow o, b, o - R, b - R, 1o
n nopanonc1nax r
n

n
n r
n

n
moxno nopoxopn1r v npopo-
y, npnnom paxo n nopnom cynao n poayr1a1o noynao1cn,
noomo ronopn, noc1poroo nopanonc1no
o b.
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
10
O1mo1nm, n1o nac n ocnonnom nn1opocym1 nnconwo noco-
pona1ornoc1n. Hocopona1ornoc1n xo 1onov pacmnponno
nncono npnmo nnoponw npoxpo ncoro pn ormo vom-
nav1noc1n naoxonnn: onn noanonm1 no paccma1pnna1r o1-
porno cynan vononnwx n onpopoonnoro anava ocvonon-
nwx npopoon nocopona1ornoc1o. E parnomom onpopoo-
nnn n y1nopxponnn ypy1 n ocnonnom qopmynpona1rcn pn
nnconwx nocopona1ornoc1o, xo1n mnorno na nnx oa ncn-
voro 1pypa oomam1cn na cyna nocopona1ornoc1o 1o-
nov pacmnponno nncono npnmo.
3 a m o n a n n o l. n 1oro n1ow nnconan nocopona-
1ornoc1r {r
n
nmoa cnonm npopoom nnco o, nooxopnmo,
n1ow pn mwx pnyx nnco 0 n c 0 cymoc1nona 1avo
nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonno1cn nopanon-
c1no r
n
- o c n poc1a1onno, n1ow namocr 1avoo nnco
c 0, n1o pn moro 0 cymoc1nona 1avo nomop n
0
,
n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonnocr 1o xo nopanonc1no
r
n
- o c.
Oa c1nx y1nopxponnn copym1 na 1oro, n1o npn
qnvcnponannom c 0 npn nponanornom 0 nnco c 1avxo
nnno1cn nponanornwm nooxn1ornwm nncom.
Hanpnmop, ocn o, 1o pn ncnvoro 0 cymoc1-
nyo1 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonno1-
cn nopanonc1no r
n
- o ,2.
Hnorpa wnao1 nooano paccmo1po1r nocopona1ornoc1r,
noynammymcn na panno nocopona1ornoc1n noponymopa-
no ncox oo nonon nn novo1oporo ocvononnoro nopmno-
xoc1na. E parnomom pn 1avnx nocopona1ornoc1o ypo1
noopnovpa1no ncnoraona1rcn copymman omma.
A E M M A. Ec.u noc.eoooone.ouocno r
n
- R, n l, 2, ... , u+e
en uoueuumu u.u ecuoueuumu npeoe. u {n
h
nouon no
c.eoooone.ouocno uonpo.oumr uuce., uno
-~, (4.20)
no noc.eoooone.ouocno { u+een non e npeoe., uno u
noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
.
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
h
h ~
IIm
r
n
h
106
E ooananonnn nona nocopona1ornoc1n { nomop
n
h
nnno1cn nomopom c1oro nona n nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
,
a nomop h oro nomopom n nocopona1ornoc1n { .
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r o. 01o oananao1, n1o
pn mo ovpoc1noc1n U(o) 1onvn o cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop
n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonno1cn nvmnonno r
n
-
- U(o). E cny nwnononnn yconnn (4.20), pn nomopa n
0
cy-
moc1nyo1 1avo nomop h
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon h h
0
cnpa-
nopnnw nopanonc1na n
h
n
0
n, copona1orno, nmoo1 moc1o
nvmnonno - U(o). 01o n oananao1, n1o o.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ecn ~ n -~, 1o
nnorpa o npopoo nocopona1ornoc1n { moxno cvaaa1r
ormo, nom 1orvo 1o, n1o ~: moxo1 ovaaa1rcn,
n1o -~ nn -~. Hanpnmop,
~, a -~,
[-(2h - l)
2h - l
-~.
OnpepeAenMe . Hoc.eoooone.ouocno { , uonopon cocnoo
.euo u: u.euoo noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
u o uonopou nopn
oou c.eoooouun ee o.e+eunoo coonoooen c ur nopnouo+ c.e
oooouun o ucroouou noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
, uo:mooencn
noonoc.eoooone.ouocnov onou noc.eoooone.ouocnu.
Tavnm opaaom, nocopona1ornoc1r { nnno1cn nop-
nocopona1ornoc1rm nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, ocn yconno
h h pannocnrno yconnm n
h
n
h
, h, h l, 2, ... .
Tav, nocopona1ornoc1r l, 3, 5, ... , 2n - l, ... nnno1cn,
a nocopona1ornoc1r 2, l, 3, 4, ... , n, ... no nnno1cn nopnoc-
opona1ornoc1rm na1yparnoro pnpa nnco l, 2, ... , n, ... .
E oonx cynanx comon1w nocopona1ornoc1o opaaym1
nopmnoxoc1no
l
mnoxoc1na na1yparnwx nnco, no n nopnom
l
Hanomnnm (cm. n. l.l), n1o camo mnoxoc1no 1avxo cnn1ao1cn cnonm
nopmnoxoc1nom.
r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
h
r
n
h
h ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm n
h
h ~
IIm
r
n
h
r
n
h
h ~
IIm
r
n
h
h ~
IIm r
n
h
h ~
IIm
n ( )
n
n ~
IIm 2 h ( )
2h
h ~
IIm
h ~
IIm
r
n
h
r
n
h
107
cynao nonw nocopona1ornoc1n pacnooxonw n 1om xo no-
pnpvo, n1o n n na1yparnom pnpo nnco, a no n1opom cynao
c1o1 nopnpov napymon.
Ecn { - nopnocopona1ornoc1r nocopona1ornoc1n
{r
n
, 1o, ononnpno, n
h
. h, h l, 2, ... , n, copona1orno,
-~. O1cmpa copyo1, n cny ommw, n1o ocn no-
copona1ornoc1r nmoo1 vononnw nn ocvononnw npopo,
1o n man oo nopnocopona1ornoc1r nmoo1 1o1 xo npopo.
VHPAHEHHE S. Hyc1r na nonon nocopona1ornoc1n na1yparnwx
nnco {n opaaonana nonan nocopona1ornoc1r n
h
1av, n1o paanwo nonw
nocopona1ornoc1n {n nopoxopn1 n paanwo nonw nono n vaxpw non
nocopona1ornoc1n {n nopoxopn1 n novo1opw non nono. 01o panno-
cnrno 1omy, n1o aapana novnn n= n
h
mnoxoc1na na1yparnwx nnco N
na con. ovaaa1r, n1o n c1om cynao ~.
4.4. OrponMennocto cxopsMxcs
nocAeposoteAonocteM
Copyo1 paanna1r noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
, 1. o. mnoxoc1-
no comon1on r
n
n +uoecnoo :uoueuuu ee o.e+eunoo. Hop-
noo mnoxoc1no ncorpa ocvononno, 1av vav coc1on1 na cono-
vynnoc1n comon1on, o1nnammnxcn no vpano mopo nomo-
pamn n l, 2, ... . E1opoo mnoxoc1no coc1on1 na ncox nnco,
nnnmmnxcn ananonnnmn comon1on panno nocopona1or-
noc1n, ono moxo1 w1r n vononnwm. Hanpnmop, c1anonap-
nan nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
l, n l, 2, ... , vav n ncnvan
nocopona1ornoc1r, coc1on1 na ocvononnoro nnca comon-
1on, a mnoxoc1no ananonn oo comon1on coc1on1 na opnoro
nnca l.
OnpepeAenMe 7. Hoc.eoooone.ouocno uo:mooencn oepouu
ueuuou coepr (cuu:), ec.u +uoecnoo :uoueuuu ee o.e+eu
noo oepouuueuo coepr (cuu:).
E 1opmnnax comon1on nocopona1ornoc1n c1o onpopoo-
nno moxo1 w1r nopoqpaanponano copymmnm opaaom.
OnpepeAenMe 7. Hoc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
uo:mooencn oepo
uuueuuou coepr (cuu:), ec.u cecnoen nouoe uuc.o b,
r
n
h
n
h
h ~
IIm
n
h
h ~
IIm
10S
uno o.n ocer uo+epoo n l, 2, ... omno.unencn uepooeucn
oo r
n
b (coonoencnoeuuo uepooeucnoo r
n
. b).
OnpepeAenMe 8. Hoc.eoooone.ouocno, oepouuueuuon coepr
u cuu:, uo:mooencn npocno oepouuueuuou.
Ononnpno, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
orpannnona 1orpa
n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnco b, n1o pn ncox
nomopon n l, 2, ... nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no r
n
b.
OnpepeAenMe . Hoc.eoooone.ouocno, ue no.nvoncn oepo
uuueuuou (coepr, cuu:), uo:mooencn ueoepouuueuuou
(coepr, cuu:).
Hanpnmop, nocopona1ornoc1n n sIn n orpannno-
nw. Hocopona1ornoc1r {n no orpannnona, 1onnoo, ona orpa-
nnnona cnnay, no no orpannnona cnopxy, a nocopona1or-
noc1r n sIn n nnno1cn noorpannnonno vav cnopxy, 1av n
cnnay.
I E O F E M A 2. Ec.u uuc.ooon noc.eoooone.ouocno u+een uo
ueuumu npeoe., no ouo oepouuueuo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r pana cxopnmancn nocopona-
1ornoc1r {r
n
n nyc1r r
n
o. Eoarmom, nanpnmop, l.
Coracno onpopoonnm npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n, cymoc1-
nyo1 1avoo n
l
, n1o pn ncox n n
l
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
r
n
- o l. Hyc1r J - nanormoo na nnco l, r
l
- o, ...
... , - o. Torpa pn ncox n l, 2, ... cnpanopnno nopanon-
c1no r
n
- o J, 1. o. pn ncox n
o - J r
n
o - J.
3no u o:uouoen oepouuueuuocno :ooouuou noc.eoooone.o
uocnu.
4.5. Monotonnme nocAeposoteAonoctM
OnpepeAenMe 40. Eeprunn (uuunn) epouo +uoecnoo :uo
ueuuu o.e+eunoo noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
uo:mooencn
oeprueu (uuueu) epouov oouuou noc.eoooone.ouocnu u
l
n
---

' ;

-

'

2
---
n

'

2
---
n

IIm
n
r
n
l
109
oo:uouoencn sup {r
n
u.u r
n
(coonoencnoeuuo
In {r
n
u.u r
n
).
Ecn nopxnnn (nnxnnn) rpanr nnno1cn nncom, 1o c1o on-
popoonno moxno cqopmynpona1r copymmnm opaaom.
OnpepeAenMe 44. 9uc.o o no.nencn oeprueu (uuueu) epouov
noc.eoooone.ouocnu r
n
, n l, 2, ... , ec.u:
l) o.n ocer n l, 2, ... omno.unencn uepooeucnoo r
n
o (ue
pooeucnoo r
n
. o);
2) o.n .voeo 0 cecnoen nouou uo+ep n

, uno
o - (coo1no1c1nonno o - ).
Anaornnno moxno cqopmynpona1r onpopoonno nopx-
no (nnxno) rpann nocopona1ornoc1n n 1om cynao, vorpa
yvaaannan rpanr ocvononna. (Cpoa1o c1o.)
E vanoc1no npnmopon o1mo1nm, n1o sup {l,n l, In {l,n
0, sup {n -~, In {n l. 3pocr noapo n l, 2, ... .
OnpepeAenMe 42. Hoc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
uo:mooencn oo:
pocnoveu (mooveu) noc.eoooone.ouocnov, ec.u o.n
uoooeo n l, 2, ... omno.unencn uepooeucnoo r
n
r
n - l
(coonoencnoeuuo uepooeucnoo r
n
. r
n - l
)
l
.
Eoapac1ammno n ywnammno nocopona1ornoc1n naawna-
m1cn +ouonouum+u.
Hanpnmop, nocopona1ornoc1r ywnao1, nocopona-
1ornoc1r {n noapac1ao1, a nocopona1ornoc1r sIn n no
nnno1cn mono1onno.
I E OF E M A 3 (teopeuo 8eMepmtpocco
2
). Ecnuon oo:pocnovon
uuc.ooon noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
u+een npeoe., uoueu
umu, ec.u ouo oepouuueuo coepr, u ecuoueuumu, pooumu
-~, ec.u ouo ue oepouuueuo coepr, npuue+
sup {r
n
. (4.2l)
l
Eoapac1ammno (ywnammno) nocopona1ornoc1n naawnam1cn 1avxo
noywnammnmn (nonoapac1ammnmn).
2
K. Eoopm1pacc (l8l5-l89?) - nomovn ma1oma1nv.
sup
n l, 2, ...
In
n l, 2, ...
r
n

r
n

l
n
---

' ;

'

2
---

r
n
n ~
IIm
110
Auo.oeuuuo, ocnuon moovon uuc
.ooon noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
u+e
en npeoe., uoueuumu, ec.u ono noc.e
oooone.ouocno oepouuueuo cuu:, u
ecuoueuumu, pooumu -~, ec.u ouo
ue oepouuueuo cuu:, npuue+
In {r
n
. (4.22)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
noapac-
1ao1. ovaxom panonc1no (4.2l). Oc1arnwo y1nopxponnn
1oopomw pn noapac1ammnx nocopona1ornoc1o copym1 na
noro ononnpnwm opaaom.
Hyc1r sup {r
n
(ananonno moxo1 w1r vav vononnwm,
1av n ocvononnwm, pannwm -~). Eoarmom nponanornym
ovpoc1noc1r U() 1onvn n ooanannm nopoa oo onw vo-
no (pnc. l2). Ononnpno, .
Coracno onpopoonnm nopxno rpann:
l) pn moro nomopa n - N nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no
r
n
; (4.23)
2) cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o
. (4.24)
E cny noapac1annn nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, na (4.23) n
(4.24) copyo1, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonno1cn no-
panonc1no
r
n
, (4.25)
noc1omy npn n n
0
nmoo1 moc1o nvmnonno
r
n
U(),
a c1o n oananao1, n1o nnno1cn npopoom nocopona1or-
noc1n {r
n
.
Anaornnno paccma1pnnao1cn cyna ywnammo noco-
pona1ornoc1n.
3 a m o n a n n o l. Tavnm opaaom, ncnvan mono1onnan no-
copona1ornoc1r nmoo1 npopo: vononnw, ocn ona orpann-
nona, n ocvononnw, ocn ona no orpannnona. 01o1 npopo
panon -~, ocn mono1onnan nocopona1ornoc1r no orpann-
nona cnopxy, n panon -~, ocn ona no orpannnona cnnay.
Pnc. l2
r
n
0

U()

r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
0

(4.24)
r
n
0

(4.23)
-
(4.25)
111
Ecnvan nopnocopona1ornoc1r mono1onno nocopona-
1ornoc1n 1avxo mono1onna, noc1omy ona, n cnom onopopr,
ncorpa nmoo1 vononnw nn ocvononnw npopo, vo1opw,
ononnpno, connapao1 c npopoom nco nocopona1ornoc1n
(cm. ommy n n. 4.3).
Bwo novaaano, n1o ocn nocopona1ornoc1r cxopn1cn, 1o
ona orpannnona (1oopoma 2), o1cmpa, n nac1noc1n, copyo1, n1o
ocn noapac1amman nocopona1ornoc1r cxopn1cn, 1o ona orpa-
nnnona cnopxy; c ppyro c1oponw, ocn noapac1amman nocopo-
na1ornoc1r orpannnona cnopxy, 1o ona cxopn1cn (1oopoma 3).
Tavnm opaaom, cnpanopnno copymmoo y1nopxponno.
C A E p C I 8 H E. ].n noeo unom oo:pocnovon noc.eoooo
ne.ouocno croou.oco, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo, unom
ouo m.o oepouuueuo coepr.
Anaornnnoo y1nopxponno cnpanopnno n pn ywnam-
mo nocopona1ornoc1n.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ecn {[o
n
, b
n
- cnc1oma noxonnwx
o1poavon, no pnno c1pomnmnxcn v nym, a - 1onva, npn-
napoxaman ncom o1poavam panno cnc1omw, 1o
. (4.26)
E camom poo, n n. 3.? wo novaaano, n1o sup {o
n

In {b
n
. C ppyro c1oponw, nocopona1ornoc1r {o
n
, coo1-
no1c1nonno {b
n
noapac1ao1 (ywnao1), o1vypa n cny panonc1n
(4.2l) n (4.22) n copyo1 (4.26).
Rp M ue p. Hnco e.
Hyc1r r
n
l - , n l, 2, ... .
Hovaxom, n1o c1a nocopona1ornoc1r cxopn1cn. Hpnmo-
nnn qopmyy nnoma Hrm1ona, noynaom
r
n
l - l - n - - - ...
... - - ... -
l - l - l - - l - l - - ... -
- l - l - ... l - - ... - l - ... l - .
(4.2?)
o
n
n ~
IIm b
n
b ~
IIm

l
n
---
,
_
n

l
n
---
,
_
n
l
n
---
n n - l ( )
l 2
-----------------------
l
n
2
------
n n - l ( ) n - 2 ( )
l 2 3
-------------------------------------------
l
n
3
------
n n - l ( ) n - h - l ( )
l 2 h
----------------------------------------------------------------
l
n
h
------
n n - l ( ) l
l 2 n
-------------------------------------
l
n
n
------
l
2!
-----

l
n
---
,
_
l
3!
-----

l
n
---
,
_

2
n
---
,
_
l
h!
-----

l
n
---
,
_

2
n
---
,
_

h - l
n
--------------
,
_
l
n!
-----

l
n
---
,
_

n - l
n
--------------
,
_
11z
Hpn nopoxopo o1 n v n - l n cymmo, c1onmo n npano nac-
1n panonc1na (4.2?), nnco caraomwx, vo1opwo nco nooxn-
1ornw, noapac1ao1 n, vpomo 1oro, vaxpoo caraomoo nannnan
c 1po1roro ynonnnnao1cn, 1av vav
l - l - , c l, 2, ... , n - l, n 2, 3, ... ,
noc1omy
r
n
r
n - l
, n l, 2, ... .
aoo, aamonan, n1o n (4.2?) vaxpan na cvoov nnpa l -
monrmo opnnnw n n1o
2
n - l
l 2 3 ... n n!,
copona1orno, , pn ncox n l, 2, 3, ... , nmoom
r
n
2 - - - ... - 2 - - - ... - . (4.28)
Cymma - - ... - vo1opym orvo nopcnn1a1r no
nanoc1no na comon1apno ma1oma1nvn qopmyo pn cymmw
nonon roomo1pnnocvo nporpoccnn: ona panna l - npn
mom n l, 2, ... monrmo opnnnw, noc1omy ovonna1orno
noynnm
2 r
n
r
n - l
3. (4.29)
H1av, nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
noapac1ao1 n orpannnona
cnopxy, a noc1omy, coracno 1oopomo 3, nmoo1 npopo. 01o1
npopo n ooananao1cn yvno e.
Hopoxopn v npopoy n (4.29), noynnm 2 e 3. Booo
1onnwmn oonvamn moxno noynn1r, n1o cnpanopnno npn-
nxonnoo panonc1no
e - 2,?l828l828459045.
ovaawnao1cn 1avxo, n1o nnco e nppanonarno (cm.
n. 34.l4

) n, ooo 1oro, 1panconpon1no, 1. o. no nnno1cn


vopnom nnvavoro aropannocvoro ypannonnn c owmn vo-
c
n
---
c
n - l
---------------

c
n
---
,
_
l 2 2 ... 2
n comnoxn1oo
l
n!
-----
l
2
n - l
---------------
l
2!
-----
l
3!
-----
l
n!
-----
l
2
---
l
4
---
l
2
n - l
---------------
l
2
---
l
2
2
------
l
2
n - l
---------------

l
2
n - l
---------------
,
_
113
cqqnnon1amn. Hnco e n ma1oma1nnocvom ananao nrpao1
ocoym por. Ono, n nac1noc1n, nnno1cn ocnonannom na1y-
parnwx orapnqmon.
4.. Ieopeuo EoAoono8eMepmtpocco
E n. 4.4 wo povaaano, n1o ncnvan cxopnmancn nocopona-
1ornoc1r orpannnona. Opa1noo y1nopxponno, vononno, no-
nopno. Hanpnmop, nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
(-l)
n
, n l, 2, ...,
orpannnona n pacxopn1cn. Opnavo ovaawnao1cn, n1o ncnvan
orpannnonnan nocopona1ornoc1r copopxn1 cxopnmymcn
nopnocopona1ornoc1r. 01o y1nopxponno naawnao1cn 1oopo-
mo Borano-Eoopm1pacca
l
nn cnoc1nom vomnav1noc1n
orpannnonno nocopona1ornoc1n.
I E O F E M A 4. H: .vou oepouuueuuou noc.eoooone.ouocnu
+ouo omoe.uno croonvcn noonoc.eoooone.ouocno, o u:
.vou ueoepouuueuuou noc.eoooone.ouocnu ecuoueuuo
o.ouv noonoc.eoooone.ouocno, u+evv coou+ npeoe
.o+ ecuoueuuocno onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
orpann-
nona, 1. o. cymoc1nyo1 1avo o1poaov [o, b, n1o o r
n
b pn
ncox n l, 2, ... . Paaponm o1poaov [o, b na pna pannwx o1poa-
va. Ho vpano mopo opnn na noynnnmnxcn o1poavon copop-
xn1 ocvononno mnoro comon1on panno nocopona1ornoc1n.
Ooanannm oro nopoa [o
l
, b
l
. Hyc1r - vavo-no na no-
non panno nocopona1ornoc1n, oxamn na o1poavo [o
l
, b
l
.
Paaponm o1poaov [o
l
, b
l
na pna pannwx o1poava; cnona
xo1n w opnn na noynnnmnxcn o1poavon copopxn1 ocvonon-
no mnoro nonon ncxopno nocopona1ornoc1n; ooanannm
oro nopoa [o
2
, b
2
. E cny 1oro n1o na o1poavo [o
2
, b
2
ocvonon-
no mnoro nonon nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, napo1cn 1avo oo
non , n1o - [o
2
, b
2
n n
2
n
l
. Hpopoxan c1o1 npo-
occ, noynnm nocopona1ornoc1r o1poavon [o
h
, b
h
, n vo1o-
po vaxpw nocopymmn nnno1cn noonnno npopwpymo-
ro, n nocopona1ornoc1r 1avnx comon1on panno noco-
l
B. Borano (l?8l-l848) - nomcvn ma1oma1nv.
r
n
l
r
n
2
r
n
2
r
n
h
114
pona1ornoc1n, n1o - [o
h
, b
h
, h l, 2, ... , n n
h
n
h
npn
h h. Hocopona1ornoc1r { nnno1cn, n cny noc1poo-
nnn, nopnocopona1ornoc1rm nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
. Ho-
vaxom, n1o c1a nopnocopona1ornoc1r cxopnmancn.
Hocopona1ornoc1r o1poavon [o
h
, b
h
, h l, 2, ... , nnno1-
cn nocopona1ornoc1rm noxonnwx o1poavon, no pnno c1po-
mnmnxcn v nym, 1av vav b
h
- o
h
= 0 npn h = ~. Co-
racno npnnnny noxonnwx o1poavon (cm. n. 3.?), cymoc1-
nyo1 opnnc1nonnan 1onva , npnnapoxaman ncom c1nm
o1poavam. Kav wo novaaano (cm. qopmyy (4.26)) n aamo-
nannn 2 v 1oopomo 3, , no o
h
b
h
,
h l, 2, ... , noc1omy, coracno cnoc1ny II (cm. n. 4.3 cxopn-
mnxcn nocopona1ornoc1o), nocopona1ornoc1r { 1av-
xo cxopn1cn n .
Hyc1r 1onopr nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
no orpannnona. Tor-
pa ona no no orpannnona cnopxy, no no orpannnona cnnay,
no nmoo1 moc1o n 1o n ppyroo. Hyc1r pn onpopoonnoc1n
nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
no orpannnona cnopxy. Torpa cymoc1-
nyo1 1avo nomop n
l
- N, n1o l.
Ononnpno, nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
, n n
l
- l, n
l
- 2, ... ,
1avxo no orpannnona cnopxy, 1av vav noynao1cn na panno
noorpannnonno cnopxy nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
, n l, 2, ... ,
o1pacwnannom vononnoro nnca oo nonon. Hoc1omy cymoc1-
nyo1 1avoo n
2
n
l
, n
2
- N, n1o 2.
Hpopoxan c1o1 npoocc, noynaom nocopona1ornoc1r
1avnx nomopon n
h
, n1o n
l
n
2
... n
h
... n l,
2, ... h ... . O1cmpa copyo1, n1o { - nopnocopo-
na1ornoc1r nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
n, coracno copc1nnm
cnoc1na II n. 4.3, n1o -~.
3 a m o n a n n o. E1opoo y1nopxponno 1oopomw 4 moxno
y1onnn1r. E povaaa1orc1no 1oopomw 4 wo novaaano, n1o
ocn nocopona1ornoc1r no orpannnona cnopxy, 1o y noo cy-
r
n
h
r
n
h
b - o
2
h
-------------
o
h
h ~
IIm b
h
h ~
IIm r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
h ~
IIm
r
n
l
r
n
2
r
n
l
r
n
2
r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
h ~
IIm
11
moc1nyo1 nopnocopona1ornoc1r, c1pomnmancn v -~. Ana-
ornnno, ocn nocopona1ornoc1r no orpannnona cnnay, 1o y
noo cymoc1nyo1 nopnocopona1ornoc1r, c1pomnmancn v -~.
OnpepeAenMe 43. Hpeoe., uoueuumu u.u onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo
ecuoueuumu, noonoc.eoooone.ouocnu oouuou noc.eoooo
ne.ouocnu uo:mooencn ee uocnuuum+ npeoe.o+.
Toopoma Borano-Eoopm1pacca (nopnan nac1r 1oopomw 4)
n oo anaor pn noorpannnonnwx nocopona1ornoc1o (n1o-
pan nac1r 1oopomw 4) novaawnam1, n1o
ocnuon noc.eoooone.ouocno u+een ronn m oouu uoc
nuuumu uoueuumu u.u ecuoueuumu npeoe., npuue+ :ooeoo+o
uoueuumu, ec.u oouuon noc.eoooone.ouocno oepouuueuo.
Tavnm opaaom, vaxpan nnconan nocopona1ornoc1r
{r
n
, r
n
- R, nmoo1 xo1n w opnn nac1nnnw npopo n pacmn-
ponnom mnoxoc1no poc1nn1ornwx nnco, 1. o. mnoxoc1no
nac1nnnwx npopoon n R pn mo nocopona1ornoc1n ncor-
pa no nyc1o.
VHPAHEHHH. 9. ovaaa1r, n1o, pn 1oro n1ow nocopona1ornoc1r
wa cxopnmocn, nooxopnmo n poc1a1onno, n1ow ona wa orpannnona
n nmoa opnnc1nonnw nac1nnnw npopo.
10. ovaaa1r, n1o comon1 o (nnco nn opna na ocvononnoc1o co ana-
vom: -~ nn -~) nnno1cn nac1nnnwm npopoom nocopona1ornoc1n
1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa n mo oro ovpoc1noc1n copopxn1cn ocvo-
nonno mnoro nonon panno nocopona1ornoc1n.
4.7. kpMtepMM komM cxopMuoctM
nocAeposoteAonoctM
o cnx nop no wo pano poc1a1onno omoro vpn1opnn, c no-
momrm vo1oporo moxno wo w yana1r, cxopn1cn n pannan
nocopona1ornoc1r. Camo onpopoonno cxopnmocn nocopo-
na1ornoc1n pn c1oro noypono, 1av vav n noro nxopn1 anano-
nno npopoa, vo1opoo moxo1 w1r n nonanoc1nwm. Hoc1omy
xoa1orno nmo1r 1avo vpn1opn pn onpopoonnn cxopn-
moc1n n pacxopnmoc1n nocopona1ornoc1o, vo1opw ocno-
nwnacn w 1orvo na cnoc1nax comon1on panno nocopo-
na1ornoc1n. Copymman nnxo 1oopoma 5 n pao1 vav paa no-
ponw vpn1opn.
116
OnpepeAenMe 44. Eoe+ eooopuno, uno noc.eoooone.ouocno
{r
n
ooo.enoopnen c.oouv Kouu
l
, ec.u o.n .voeo 0
cecnoen nouou uo+ep n

, uno o.n ocer uo+epoo n u n,


ooo.enoopnvur c.oouv n n

, n n

, cnpooeo.uoo ue
pooeucnoo
r
n
- r
n
. (4.30)
Hocopona1ornoc1n, ypono1nopnmmno yconnm Komn, na-
awnam1cn 1avxo quoo+euno.oum+u noc.eoooone.ouocnn+u.
C nomomrm ornnocvnx cnmnoon yconno Komn aanncw-
nao1cn copymmnm opaaom:
\ 0 n

- N \ n - N \ n - N, n n

, n n

: r
n
- r
n
.
Vconno (4.30) moxno cqopmynpona1r n 1av:
o.n .voeo 0 cecnoen nouou uo+ep n

, uno o.n
ocer uo+epoo n n

u ocer ue.mr ueonpuuone.oumr p


r
n - p
- r
n
. (4.3l)
n 1oro n1ow yopn1rcn n pannocnrnoc1n yconn
(4.30) n (4.3l), poc1a1onno nooxn1r p n - n, ocn n . n, n
p n - n, ocn n n.
I E OF E M A 5 (kpMtepMM komM). ].n noeo unom noc.eoooone.o
uocno croou.oco, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo, unom ouo
ooo.enoopn.o c.oouv Kouu.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c G x c / M | c c M. Hyc1r nocopo-
na1ornoc1r {r
n
cxopn1cn n o. 3apapnm 0; 1or-
pa, coracno onpopoonnm npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n, cy-
moc1nyo1 1avoo n

, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n

nwnonno1cn
nopanonc1no r
n
- o .
Hyc1r 1onopr n n

n n n

; 1orpa
r - r
n
(r
n
- o) - (o - r
n
) r
n
- o - r
n
- o - ,
1. o. nwnonno1cn yconno Komn.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c / c c c c c c M. Hyc1r nocopo-
na1ornoc1r ypono1nopno1 yconnm Komn, 1. o. pn ncnvo-
ro 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avoo n

, n1o ocn n n

n n n

, 1o
l
O. Komn (l?98-l85?) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv.
r
n
n ~
IIm

2
---

2
---

2
---
117
r
n
- r
n
. Eoarmom, nanpnmop, l; 1orpa cymoc1nyo1
1avoo n
l
, n1o npn n n
l
n n n
l
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
r
n
- r
n
l. E nac1noc1n, ocn n n
l
n n n
l
- l, 1o
- r
n - l
l, 1. o.
- l
- l r
n

- l
- l npn n n
l
.
01o anann1, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
, n n
l
- l, n
l
- 2, ... ,
orpannnona. Hoc1omy, n cny 1oopomw 4, cymoc1nyo1 oo cxo-
pnmancn nopnocopona1ornoc1r { .
Hyc1r o. Hovaxom, n1o ncn pannan nocopona-
1ornoc1r {r
n
1avxo cxopn1cn n nmoo1 npopoom nnco o. 3a-
papnm novo1opoo 0. Torpa, no-nopnwx, no onpopoonnm
npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n, cymoc1nyo1 1avoo h

, n1o pn
ncox nomopon h h

nn, n1o 1o xo camoo, coracno onpopoo-


nnm nopnocopona1ornoc1n, pn ncox n
h
nwnonno1cn
nopanonc1no - o .
Eo-n1opwx, 1av vav nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
ypono1nopn-
o1 yconnm Komn, 1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo n

, n1o pn ncox n n

n ncox n n

nwnonnm1cn nopanonc1na r
n
- r
n
.
Hooxnm N

max {n

, n aaqnvcnpyom novo1opoo
n
h
N

. Torpa pn ncox n N

noynnm
r
n
- o (r
n
- ) - ( - o)
r
n
- - - o - ,
a c1o n povaawnao1, n1o o.
VHPAHEHHH. 11. Cqopmynpona1r noan1nnnwo nooxopnmwo n po-
c1a1onnwo yconnn, nnnmmnocn o1pnannom vpn1opnn Komn, pn 1oro
n1ow nocopona1ornoc1r no nmoa npopoa.
1z. ovaaa1r, n1o, pn 1oro n1ow nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
wa cxopn-
mocn, nooxopnmo n poc1a1onno, n1ow pn moro 0 cymoc1nonao
1avoo n

- N, n1o pn ncox n n

nwnonnocr nopanonc1no r
n
- .
r
n
l
r
n
l
r
n
l
r
n
h
r
n
h
h ~
IIm
n
h

r
n
h

2
---

2
---
n
h

r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h

2
---

2
---
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n

11S
3aaua 3. Ewncnn1r, nw1ovao1 nn no1 cxopnmoc1r nocopona1or-
noc1n {r
n
na yconnn, n1o pn moro na1yparnoro p cymoc1nyo1 npopo
0.
4.8. Eeckoneno uoAme nocAeposoteAonoctM
Hap nocopona1ornoc1nmn moxno nponanopn1r apnqmo1nno-
cvno onopann coxonnn, nwnn1annn, ymnoxonnn n poo-
nnn. Onpoponm nx.
OnpepeAenMe 45. Hcno :oooum uuc.oome noc.eoooone.ouoc
nu {r
n
u {
n
: c++ou, po:uocnov u npou:oeoeuue+ onur
noc.eoooone.ouocneu uo:moovncn coonoencnoeuuo noc.e
oooone.ouocnu {r
n
-
n
, {r
n
-
n
u {r
n

n
. Ec.u
n
= 0, n
l, 2, ... , no uocnum+ on oe.euun noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n

uo noc.eoooone.ouocno {
n
uo:mooencn noc.eoooone.ouocno
{r
n
,
n
. Hououeu, npou:oeoeuue+ noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
uo
uuc.o c uo:mooencn noc.eoooone.ouocno {cr
n
.
Ecn nocopona1ornoc1r {
n
1avona, n1o n no nmoo1cn
nmr vononnoo nnco comon1on, pannwx nym, 1. o. cymoc1-
nyo1 1avoo n
0
- N, n1o npn n . n
0
, n - N, nwnonno1cn nopa-
nonc1no
n
= 0, 1o moxno paccma1pnna1r nocopona1ornoc1r
{r
n
,
n
, nonnman nop no nocopona1ornoc1r c nomopamn
n . n
0
.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hoc.eoooone.ouocno {
n
uo:mooencn ec
uoueuuo +o.ou noc.eoooone.ouocnov, ec.u 0.
E n. 3.l yxo wn paccmo1ponw ocvononno mawo noco-
pona1ornoc1n
n
,
n
sIn n, n l, 2, ... .
O1mo1nm nocvorvo cnoc1n ocvononno mawx nnconwx
nocopona1ornoc1o.
I. Jvon uoueuuon .uueuuon uo+uuouun ecuoueuuo +o
.mr no.nencn ecuoueuuo +o.ou.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r nnconwo nocopona1ornoc1n
{
n
n {
n
- ocvononno mawo, 1. o.
0, (4.32)
r
n - p
- r
n
( )
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm
l
n
---
l
n
---

2
---

n
n ~
IIm
n
~
IIm
119
a n - vavno-no poc1nn1ornwo nnca. Hovaxom, n1o
nocopona1ornoc1r {
n
-
n
1avxo ocvononno maan. 3a-
papnm nponanorno 0 n noarmom vavoo-no nnco c 1a-
voo, n1o
c - . (4.33)
Torpa, coracno onpopoonnm npopoa, na (4.32) copyo1, n1o
cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nw-
nonnm1cn nopanonc1na

n
,
n
, (4.34)
copona1orno, n nopanonc1no

n
-
n

n
-
n
.
01o n oananao1, n1o
(
n
-
n
) 0,
1. o. n1o nocopona1ornoc1r {
n
-
n
- ocvononno ma-
an.
Coo1no1c1nymmoo y1nopxponno pn mo vononno n-
nono vomnnann ocvononno mawx copyo1 na povaaan-
noro mo1opom ma1oma1nnocvo nnpyvnn.
3aaua 4. Onpoponn cymmy ocvononnoro nnca aanymoponannwx
caraomwx (oomammym nonn1no cymmw vononnoro nnca caraomwx), a
aa1om cymmy ocvononnoro nnca nocopona1ornoc1o, noc1pon1r npnmop
ocvononnoro nnca ocvononno mawx nocopona1ornoc1o, cymma vo1o-
pwx no nnno1cn ocvononno mao nocopona1ornoc1rm.
II. Hpou:oeoeuue ecuoueuuo +o.ou noc.eoooone.ouocnu
uo oepouuueuuv noc.eoooone.ouocno no.nencn ecuoueuuo
+o.ou noc.eoooone.ouocnov.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r {
n
- ocvononno maan noco-
pona1ornoc1r, a {r
n
- orpannnonnan nocopona1ornoc1r,
1. o. cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnco b 0, n1o pn ncox nomopon
n l, 2, ... nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no r
n
b.
3apapnm 0; n cny onpopoonnn ocvononno mao no-
copona1ornoc1n, cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n

, n1o pn ncox

c
--

c
--

(4.33)
(4.34)
-
c
--------------------
n ~
IIm
1z0
n n

nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
n
. Hoc1omy pn ncox
n n

nmoom

n
r
n

n
r
n
b ,
n1o n oananao1, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r {
n
r
n
ocvononno
maan.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Hpou:oeoeuue uoueuuoeo uuc.o ecuoueuuo +o
.mr noc.eoooone.ouocneu no.nencn ecuoueuuo +o.ou no
c.eoooone.ouocnov.
01o cpaay copyo1 no nnpyvnn na cnoc1na II, ocn aamo-
1n1r, n1o ocvononno maan nocopona1ornoc1r, vav n ncn-
van nocopona1ornoc1r, nmomman npopo, orpannnona (cm.
1oopomy 2 n. 4.4).
3aaua 5. Onpoponn nponanoponno ocvononnoro nnca aanymopo-
nannwx comnoxn1oo (oomammoo nonn1no nponanoponnn vononnoro
nnca comnoxn1oo), a aa1om nponanoponno ocvononnoro nnca nocopo-
na1ornoc1o, noc1pon1r npnmop ocvononnoro nnca ocvononno mawx
nocopona1ornoc1o, nponanoponno vo1opwx no nnno1cn ocvononno ma-
o nocopona1ornoc1rm.
VHPAHEHHE 13. ovaaa1r, n1o, pn 1oro n1ow nocopona1ornoc1r
r
n
= 0, n l, 2, ... , wa ocvononno mao, nooxopnmo n poc1a1onno,
n1ow nocopona1ornoc1r , n l, 2, ... , wa ocvononno ormo.
4.. CsoMctso npepeAos, csssonnme c opMuetMeckMuM
onepoMsuM nop nocAeposoteAonoctsuM
A E M M A. ].n noeo unom uuc.o o no.n.oco npeoe.o+ uuc.o
oou noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo,
unom ee u.eum r
n
u+e.u ouo r
n
o -
n
, n l, 2, ... , eoe
{
n
- ecuoueuuo +o.on noc.eoooone.ouocno.
E camom poo, nyc1r aapanw vavan-no nocopona1or-
noc1r {r
n
n nnco o; nooxnm
n
r
n
- o. Torpa yconno
o, coracno onpopoonnm npopoa nocopona1or-
noc1n, pannocnrno copymmomy: pn moro 0 cymoc1ny-
o1 1avoo n
0
- N, n1o pn ncox n n
0
, n - N, nwnonno1cn nopa-

b
---

b
---
l
r
n
------

do
r
n
n ~
IIm
1z1
nonc1no r
n
- o , 1. o. nopanonc1no
n
, a c1o n panno-
cnrno 1omy, n1o 0.
01a omma novaawnao1 ocoym por ocvononno mawx no-
copona1ornoc1o npn naynonnn nonn1nn npopoa, 1av vav
omoo nonn1no npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n c nomomrm c1o
ommw cnopn1cn v nonn1nm nyonoro npopoa. 01o oc1o-
n1orc1no paoo mnpovo ncnorayo1cn npn naynonnn pnpa
cnoc1n cxopnmnxcn nocopona1ornoc1o.
ovaxom cnoc1na npopoon nocopona1ornoc1o, cnn-
aannwo c novo1opwmn onopannmn nap nonamn nnconwx
nocopona1ornoc1o.
l
0
. Ec.u noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
croouncn, no crooun
cn u noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
, npuue+ ec.u o, no
o.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn o, 1o pn vaxporo 0
cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n

, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n

nw-
nonno1cn nopanonc1no r
n
- o , no r
n
- o r
n
- o.
Copona1orno, pn ncox nomopon n n

nmoo1 moc1o nopa-


nonc1no r
n
- o , a c1o n oananao1, n1o o.
2
0
. Koueuuon .uueuuon uo+uuouun croonurcn noc.e
oooone.ouocneu noue no.nencn crooneucn noc.eoooo
ne.ouocnov, u ee npeoe. pooeu nouou e .uueuuou uo+u
uouuu npeoe.oo oouumr noc.eoooone.ouocneu.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r
o - R, b - R. (4.35)
Torpa, n cny nooxopnmoc1n yconn ommw pn cymoc1no-
nannn vononnoro npopoa, nonw nocopona1ornoc1o {r
n
n
{
n
moxno npopc1ann1r n nnpo
r
n
o -
n
,
n
b -
n
, n l, 2, ... , (4.36)
rpo {
n
n {
n
- ocvononno mawo:
0. (4.3?)

n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
1zz
Hyc1r 1onopr n - vavno-no nnca. Torpa nonw no-
copona1ornoc1n {r
n
-
n
npopc1annmw n nnpo
r
n
-
n
(o - b) - (
n
-
n
), n l, 2, ... , (4.38)
rpo nocopona1ornoc1r {
n
-
n
, n cny ocvononno ma-
oc1n nocopona1ornoc1o {
n
n {
n
, 1avxo ocvononno ma-
an (cm. cnoc1no l
0
ocvononno mawx nocopona1ornoc1o
n n. 4.8):
0. (4.39)
Hoc1omy, n cny poc1a1onnoc1n yconn ommw pn cy-
moc1nonannn vononnoro npopoa, na panonc1n (4.38) copyo1,
n1o nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
-
n
nmoo1 npopo, pannw
o - b:
o - b,
1. o. (cm. (4.35))
- .
Coo1no1c1nymmoo y1nopxponno pn mo vononno n-
nono vomnnann cxopnmnxcn nocopona1ornoc1o co-
pyo1 na povaaannoro, ocn nocnoraona1rcn mo1opom ma1oma-
1nnocvo nnpyvnn.
3
0
. Ec.u noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
u {
n
croonncn, no
ur npou:oeoeuue {r
n

n
noue croouncn u
,
n. e. npeoe. npou:oeoeuun croonurcn noc.eoooone.ouoc
neu cecnoen u pooeu npou:oeoeuuv npeoe.oo oouumr
noc.eoooone.ouocneu.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r o, b; 1orpa
r
n
o -
n
,
n
b -
n
, n l, 2, ... ,
rpo 0; noc1omy
r
n

n
(o -
n
)(b -
n
) ob - (
n
b -
n
o -
n

n
).

(4.36)

n
-
n
( )
n ~
IIm
(4.3?)
r
n
-
n
( )
n ~
IIm
r
n
-
n
( )
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
r
n

n
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
1z3
E cny cnoc1n I n II ocvononno mawx nocopona1or-
noc1o (cm. n. 4.8), (
n
b -
n
o -
n

n
) 0; noc1omy
ob .
C A E p C I 8 H E 4. Ec.u noc.eoooone.ouocno {r
n
croouncn, no
o.n .voeo uuc.o c noc.eoooone.ouocno {cr
n
noue cro
ouncn u
c ,
n. e. nocnonuuv +ouo omuocuno :o :uou npeoe.o.
01o y1nopxponno cpaay nw1ovao1 na cnoc1na 3
0
, vorpa
nocopona1ornoc1r {
n
c1anonapnan:
n
c, n l, 2, ...
(a 1avxo n na cnoc1na 2
0
, vorpa
n
0, n l, 2, ...).
C A E p C I 8 H E 2. Ec.u {r
n
croononcn noc.eoooone.o
uocno u h uonpo.ouoe uuc.o, no
.
01o y1nopxponno copyo1 no nnpyvnn na cnoc1na 3
0
.
4
0
. Ec.u noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
u {
n
croonncn,
n
= 0,
n l, 2, ... , u
n
= 0, no noc.eoooone.ouocno
croouncn u
,
n. e. npu coe.ouumr npeono.oeuunr npeoe. uocnuoeo cro
onurcn noc.eoooone.ouocneu cecnoen u pooeu uocn
uo+ on npeoe.oo oouumr noc.eoooone.ouocneu.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r o, b = 0 n
pn onpopoonnoc1n b 0. Torpa
r
n
o -
n
,
n
b -
n
, n l, 2, ... ,
rpo 0, a coracno copc1nnm l na cnoc1-
na III npopoon nocopona1ornoc1o n n. 4.3, cymoc1nyo1 1a-
n ~
IIm
r
n

n
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
cr
n
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
( )
h
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm ( )
h
n ~
IIm
r
n

n
------

' ;

n ~
IIm
r
n

n
------
r
n
n
IIm

n
n
IIm
-------------------
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
1z4
vo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonno1cn nopa-
nonc1no
n
0 (poc1nn1orno, b, apocr ncnorayo1cn
npopnooxonno, n1o b 0); noc1omy npn n n
0
nmoom
(
n
= 0, noc1omy na noro moxno pon1r).
aoo
- - (
n
b -
n
o). (4.40)
3pocr 0 , 1. o. nocopona1ornoc1r
, n n
0
- l, n
0
- 2, ... , orpannnona (o1cmpa, vononno,
copyo1, n1o c1a nocopona1ornoc1r orpannnona n npn ncox
n l, 2, ...).
Coracno cnoc1nam ocvononno mawx nocopona1ornoc-
1o, nocopona1ornoc1r {
n
b -
n
o nnno1cn ocvononno ma-
o, noc1omy n nocopona1ornoc1r (
n
b -
n
o) oc-
vononno maan. E cny c1oro, na panonc1na (4.40) copyo1, n1o
.
Anaornnno paccma1pnnao1cn cyna, vorpa b 0.
3 a m o n a n n o l. E cynao nocopona1ornoc1o, nmom-
mnx ocvononnwo npopow, y1nopxponnn, anaornnnwo
cnoc1nam 2
0
-4
0
, noomo ronopn, no nmom1 moc1a. Hanpn-
mop, nyc1r r
n
n - l,
n
n, n l, 2, ...; 1orpa
-~ n (r
n
-
n
) l.
Ecn r
n
2n,
n
n, n l, 2, ... , 1o
-~ n (r
n
-
n
) -~.
Ecn xo r
n
n - sIn ,
n
n, n l, 2, ... , 1o
-~,
b
2
---
b
2
---
l

n
------
2
b
---
r
n

n
------
o
b
---
o -
n
b -
n
------------------
o
b
---
l
b b -
n
( )
-------------------------
l
b b -
n
( )
-------------------------
l
b
n
---------
2
b
2
-----
l
b b -
n
( )
-------------------------
l
b b -
n
( )
-------------------------

'

n ~
IIm
r
n

n
------
o
b
---
r
n
n
IIm

n
n
IIm
-------------------
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm
n
2
-------
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
1z
a nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
-
n
sIn , n l, 2, ... , no nmoo1
nn vononnoro, nn ocvononnoro npopoa.
01n npnmopw novaawnam1, n1o npn opnnavonwx npopno-
oxonnnx o nocopona1ornoc1nx {r
n
n {
n
, nmommnx ocvo-
nonnwo npopow, pn nocopona1ornoc1o {r
n
-
n
mory1
nc1po1n1rcn camwo paanoopaanwo cynan. Emoc1o c 1om o1por-
nwo oomonnn cnoc1n 2
0
-4
0
na cyna nocopona1ornoc1o
c ocvononnwmn npopoamn nco-1avn nmom1 moc1o. Hanpnmop,
ocn -~ n -~ (nn vononon),
1o -~, nn ocn 0 n -~, 1o
-~ (povomonpyo1cn povaaa1r camo-
c1on1orno), n1o onpanpwnao1 onopann, nnoponnwo pn oc-
vononnoc1o -~ n -~ n n. 3.l.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ecn paanoc1r {r
n
-
n
nocopona1or-
noc1o {r
n
n {
n
nnno1cn ocvononno mao, 1o onn opno-
npomonno nmom1 nn no nmom1 vononnwo npopow, npnnom
ocn c1n npopow cymoc1nym1, 1o onn pannw.
E camom poo, nyc1r r
n
-
n

n
, n l, 2, ..., rpo
0. Ecn cymoc1nyo1 vononnw npopo o,
1o cymoc1nyo1 n vononnw npopo
- o.
Hocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
n {
n
pannonpannw, noc1omy y1-
nopxponno povaaano.
VHPAHEHHH. 14. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn paanoc1r {r
n
-
n
nocopona-
1ornoc1o {r
n
n {
n
nnno1cn ocvononno mao, 1o onn opnonpomonno
nmom1 nn no nmom1 ocvononnwo npopow, npnnom ocn c1n npopow cy-
moc1nym1, 1o onn pannw.
1. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn -~, a nocopona1ornoc1r {
n
orpann-
nona, 1o
-~.
n
2
-------
r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
-
n
( )
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm

n
n ~
IIm r
n
-
n
( )
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
-
n
( )
n ~
IIm
1z6
Rp M ue p 4. Hyc1r o 0, r
0
0 n
r
n
r
n - l
- , n l, 2, ... . (4.4l)
ovaxom, n1o . Ho nnpyvnn cpaay ncno,
n1o r
n
0 pn ncox n 0, l, 2, ... . Booo 1oro, novaxom, n1o
r
n
. , n l, 2, ... . (4.42)
n c1oro npopnapn1orno aamo1nm, n1o na ononnpnoro nopa-
nonc1na (| - l)
2
. 0 n cynao | 0 copyo1 nopanonc1no | - . 2.
Hcnorayn c1o nopanonc1no npn | , n cny (4.4l) noynaom
r
n - l
r
n
- - . 2 ,
n 0, l, 2, ... .
Hovaxom 1onopr, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
, n l, 2, ... ,
ywnao1. Hpnmonnn nopanonc1no (4.42), noynaom
r
n - l
r
n
-
l - 2 r
n
, n l, 2, ... . (4.43)
H1av, ... r
n - l
r
n
... r
l
, rpo w nn wo pac-
nooxono nyonoo npnnxonno r
0
0, 1. o. nocopona-
1ornoc1r {r
n
orpannnona cnnay n mono1onno ywnao1, noc1o-
my, coracno 1oopomo 3, ona nmoo1 npopo.
Hyc1r r. Hopoxopn v npopoy n panonc1no (4.4l)
npn n = ~, noynaom panonc1no r r - , o1vypa r
2
o,
n 1av vav r
n
. 0, 1o n r . 0, noc1omy r .
4opmya (4.4l) moxo1 cyxn1r pn npnnxonnoro nw-
nnconnn ananonn vnappa1noro vopnn na nnca o. Eo po-
c1nn1orno npnmonnm1 c c1o orm na npav1nvo.

do l
2
---

o
r
n - l
---------------
,
_
r
n
n ~
IIm o
o
l
|
---
r
n
o
-------
l
2
---

o
r
n
------
,
_
o
2
-------
r
n
o
-------

o
r
n
-------
,
_
o
2
-------
o
l
2
---

o
r
n
------
,
_
r
n
2
------

o
r
n
2
------
,

_
r
n
2
------
o
r
n
n ~
IIm
l
2
---

o
r
---
,
_
o
1z7
Ho1pypno nopcnn1a1r n 1onnoc1r, c vo1opo no npnn-
xonno, 1. o. non r
n
, pao1 ananonno vopnn .
Ha povyppon1no qopmyw (4.4l) nmoom
r
n - l
- r
n
- -
( - 2r
n
- o) (r
n
- )
2
, n 0, l, 2, ... .
Hpnmonnn nopanonc1no (4.42), o1cmpa naxopnm
0 r
n - l
- (r
n
- )
2
, n l, 2, ... .
Hoynonnan oonva no concom ypona na npav1nvo, nocvor-
vy mw no anaom ananonnn vopnn - mw oro nmom. Opnavo
ncorpa moxno na1n npnnxonno 1avoo c, n1o 0 c ,
npnnom moxno nwpa1r n r
0
. c, 1orpa na noynonno oon-
vn ypom nmo1r
0 r
n - l
- (r
n
- )
2
, n 0, l, 2, ...,
nn
(r
n - l
- ) (r
n
- ) , n 0, l, 2, ... .
O1cmpa no nnpyvnn naxopnm
(r
n
- ) (r
n - l
- )
(r
n - 2
- ) ... (r
0
- ) . (4.44)
Ecn nwpa1r nyonoo npnnxonno r
0
1av, n1ow
q r
0
- l,
1o na (4.44) noynn1cn, n1o
0 r
n
- 2c , n l, 2, ... ,
1. o. nocopona1ornoc1r (4.4l) cxopn1cn v ananonnm vopnn
ropaapo wc1poo roomo1pnnocvo nporpoccnn co anamona1o-
om 0 q l.
o
o
l
2
---

o
r
n
------
,
_
o
l
2r
n
----------
r
n
2
o
l
2r
n
----------
o
o
l
2 o
-----------
o
o
o
o
l
2c
------
o
l
2c
------
o
l
2c
------
o
c
2
l
2c
------
o
l
2c
------
o
c
2
l
2c
------

o
c
-
,
_
2 2
l
2c
------
o
2
n

do l
2c
------
o
o q
2
n
1zS
n nmc1pann npnnxonnoro nwnnconnn vopnn no qopmyo
(4.4l) npnnopom poayr1a1w nwnnconnn na 0EM n cynao, vorpa n va-
noc1no nyonoro npnnxonnn r
0
nwpano r
0
l:
r
l
1,5000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000,
r
2
1,416666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666,
r
3
1,4142156862?450980392l56862?450980392l56862?450980392l56862?,
r
4
1,4142135623746899l06262955?8890l349l0ll6559622ll5?4404458490,
r
5
1,4142135623730950488016896235025302436l498l925??6l9?42849828,
r
6
1,4142135623730950488016887242096980785696718753??23400l56l0l,
r
?
1,41421356237309504880168872420969807856967187537694807317667.
3pocr noyxnpnwm mpnq1om nwpoonw nnca, nnnmmnocn npa-
nnrnwm npnnxonnom c 1onnoc1rm po nnca ananamnx nqp, nxo-
pnmnx n nwpoonnoo nnco (c1n nqpw c1annanpym1cn n npoocco nw-
nnconnn). Hnco npannrnwx n c1om cmwco nqp ypnannao1cn (vav c1o
nnpno na 1anw) npn nopoxopo v copymmomy npnnxonnm: n r
l
nmo-
o1cn opna npannrnan nqpa, n r
2
- yxo 3, n r
3
- 6, n r
4
- l2, n r
5
-
24, n r
6
- 48, a r
?
pao1 yxo npannrnoo npnnxonno c 60 ananamn-
mn nqpamn, 1. o. co ncomn ncnoraonannwmn paapnpamn.
3amo1nm, n1o ocn nnco o 0 1avono, n1o voponr na noro
nwnncno1cn n vononnom nnpo n 1om cmwco, n1o cymoc1nyo1
1avan vononnan pocn1nnnan ppor r, n1o r
2
o, 1o c1a ppor
moxo1 w1r napona (no ncnvom cynao, npnnnnnarno) c
nomomrm vaccnnocvoro mo1opa nanononnn vopnn c1on-
vom. E cynao xo nanononnn vopnn na c1oro nnca c no-
momrm qopmyw (4.4l), ocn r
0
nwpano o1nnnwm o1 1onno-
ro ananonnn vopnn: r
0
= , 1o yvaaannoo 1onnoo ananonno
vopnn no noynn1cn nn na vavom maro. 01o copyo1 na 1oro,
n1o n cynao r
0
= nocopona1ornoc1r (4.4l) c1poro yw-
nao1: r
n - l
r
n
, n l, 2, ... .
Hpoxpo nom paccma1pnna1r parnomno npnmopw, pova-
xom copymmoo nooanoo nopanonc1no.
2
2
2
o
o
1z9
A E MM A (neposenctso EepnyAAM
l
). Hcno 0, noeoo o.n .v
oeo uonpo.ouoeo n cnpooeo.uoo uepooeucnoo
(l - )
n
l - n. (4.45)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ho qopmyo nnoma Hrm1ona nmoom
(l - )
n
l - n -
2
- ... -
n
.
Eco caraomwo n npano nac1n panonc1na nooxn1ornw:
o1pocnm nco na nnx, vpomo nopnoro n n1oporo, n poayr1a1o
npanan nac1r moxo1 1orvo ymonrmn1rcn n mw noynnm nc-
xopnoo nopanonc1no (4.45).
Eopnomcn v paccmo1ponnm npnmopon.
Rp M ue p 2. Ecn p l, 1o p
n
-~, a ocn 0 p l,
1o p
n
0.
Hyc1r cnanaa p l; 1orpa p l - , rpo 0, n, coracno
nopanonc1ny Bopnyn (cm. (4.l9)),
p
n
(l - )
n
l - n n.
Tav vav n n -~, 0, 1o n p
n
-~. Ec-
n 1onopr 0 p l, 1o q l n
p
n
0,
no, no povaaannomy, q
n
-~.
Rp M ue p 3. n moro o 0
o
l,n
l, (4.46)
o
-l,n
l. (4.4?)
l
H. Bopnyn (l654-l?05) - mnoapcvn ma1oma1nv.
n n - l ( )
2
-----------------------
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
l
p
---
IIm
n
IIm
n
l
q
n
------
l
q
n
n
IIm
-------------------
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
130
Hyc1r cnanaa o l, 1orpa b l. E camom poo, co-
racno onpopoonnm vopnn, b
n
o. Ecn b l, 1o, nopomno-
xnn c1o nopanonc1no n paa, mw noynnm, n1o o b
n
l, no c1o
npo1nnoponn1 yconnm o l. Hooxnm
r
n
- l. (4.48)
Coracno cvaaannomy, r
n
0. Ha (4.48) copyo1, n1o o
(l - r
n
)
n
. Hpnmonnn nopanonc1no Bopnyn, noynnm
o (l - r
n
)
n
l - nr
n
nr
n
.
Copona1orno, 0 r
n
, noc1omy 0; o1vypa, co-
racno (4.48),
l.
Ecn 1onopr 0 o l, 1o b l, n 1av vav, n cny po-
vaaannoro, l, 1o
l.
Ecn o l, 1o l, n l, 2, ... , n, copona1orno, 1av-
xo l.
Tavnm opaaom, (4.46) povaaano npn mom o 0. O1cmpa
cpaay copyo1 (4.4?):
l.
Rp M ue p 4. 0, o 0. (4.49)
oc1nn1orno, nyc1r n
0
- N 1avono, n1o . Torpa
npn ncox n n
0
cnpanopnno nopanonc1no , noc1omy
... .

do
o
n

do
o
n
o
n
---
r
n
n ~
IIm
o
n
n ~
IIm

do l
o
---
b
n
n ~
IIm
o
n
n ~
IIm IIm
n
l
b
--- n IIm
n
l
b
n
--------
l
b
n
n
IIm
---------------------
o
n
o
n
n ~
IIm
o
l n /
n ~
IIm IIm
n
l
o
l n /
-----------
l
o
l n /
n
IIm
------------------------
IIm
n
o
n
n!
------
o
n
0
------
l
2
---
o
n
---
l
2
---
o
n
n!
------
o
n
0
n
0
!
--------
o
n
0
- l
------------------
o
n
0
- 2
------------------
o
n
---
o
n
0
n
0
!
--------
l
2
---
,
_
n - n
0
131
3amo1nn, n1o 0, noynnm
0.
Panonc1no (4.49) moxno povaaa1r n nnano. Paccmo1pnm
nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
; 1orpa r
n - l
r
n
n npn
n - l o nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no r
n - l
r
n
, 1. o. nannnan c
novo1oporo nomopa nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
ywnao1. Kpomo
1oro, npn ncox n - N nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no r
n
0, noc1omy
c1a nocopona1ornoc1r orpannnona cnnay n, copona1orno,
nmoo1 vononnw npopo. Hyc1r r . Hopoxopn v npo-
poy npn n = ~ n panonc1no r
n - l
r
n
, noynnm
r r 0 0,
1. o. cnona nmoom (4.49).
Rp M ue p 5. -~. (4.50)
Hpn mom o 0 nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no (4.49), noc1omy
pn moro o 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avoo n
o
- N, n1o pn ncox n n
o
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
l,
1. o. npn n n
o
nmoo1 moc1o o, n 1av vav o 0 npona-
norno, 1o c1o n oananao1 cnpanopnnoc1r panonc1na (4.50).
Rp M ue p . l - - - ... - e. (4.5l)
Hanomnnm (cm. n. 4.5), n1o nnco e nnno1cn npopoom no-
copona1ornoc1n
r
n
l - , n l, 2, ... ,
1. o.
e, (4.52)
IIm
n
o
n
0
n
0
!
--------
l
2
---
,
_
n - n
0
2
n
0
o
n
0
n
0
!
-----------------
IIm
n
l
2
---
,
_
n
IIm
n
o
n
n!
------
o
n
n!
------
o
n - l
---------------
r
n
n ~
IIm
o
n - l
---------------
r
n - l
n ~
IIm r
n
n ~
IIm IIm
n
o
n - l
---------------
n!
n
n ~
IIm
o
n
n!
------
n!
n
IIm
n
-

l
l!
-----
l
2!
-----
l
n!
-----
,
_
-

l
n
---
,
_
n
r
n
n ~
IIm
13z
npnnom n cny c1pororo noapac1annn nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n

nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no


r
n
e. (4.53)
Hooxnm
c
n
l - - - ... - .
Bwo novaaano (cm. (4.28)), n1o
r
n
c
n
, n l, 2, ... . (4.54)
C ppyro c1oponw, aaqnvcnponan n qopmyo (4.2?) npona-
nornoo h . l n nwpan n h, o1pocnm n npano nac1n panon-
c1na (4.2?) nco caraomwo nannnan c (h - 2)-ro. E poayr1a1o
noynnm nopanonc1no
r
n
l - - l - - ... - l - l - ... l - .
Hopopn n c1om nopanonc1no v npopoy npn n = ~ n qnv-
cnponannom h n aamo1nn, n1o npanan nac1r nmoo1 cnonm npo-
poom c
h
, noynnm, n cny (4.52), nopanonc1no
e . c
h
, h l, 2, ... . (4.55)
O+opnnnn (4.54) n (4.55), noynnm
r
n
c
n
e, n l, 2, ... .
O1cmpa, coracno (4.52), nonocpopc1nonno copyo1, n1o
e, 1. o. panonc1no (4.5l).
3 a m o n a n n o. n npnnxonnoro nwnnconnn nnca e
qopmya e - l - no ononr ypona, 1av vav npn nopoxopo
o1 n v n - l npnxopn1cn nco nwnnconnn nponanopn1r aanono.
Hpnnxonnan qopmya e - c
n
ooo ypona pn nnconwx
pacno1on, no npn nopoxopo o1 n v n - l napo v yxo naponno-
my ananonnm c
n
npnann1r nnco :
c
n - l
c
n
- ,
l
l!
-----
l
2!
-----
l
n!
-----
l
l!
-----
l
2!
----- -

l
n
---
,
_
l
h!
----- -

l
n
---
,
_
-

2
n
---
,
_
-

h - l
n
--------------
,
_
c
n
n ~
IIm
-

l
n
---
,
_
n
l
n - l ( )!
---------------------
l
n - l ( )!
---------------------
133
1. o. npopoannwo npn naxox-
ponnn ananonnn c
n
nwnnconnn
no nponapam1 apn. Kpomo 1o-
ro, n c1om cynao orvo yc1a-
nonn1r n oonvy norpomnoc1n
npn aamono nnca e na anano-
nno cymmw c
n
. (01o ypo1 cpoano n n. 34.l4

, npnmop 4.)
VHPAHEHHE 16. Hooxnm o
0
0, b
0
. 0, o
n
, b
n

, n l, 2, ... . ovaaa1r, n1o nocopona1ornoc1n {o
n
n {b
n

c1pomn1cn v opnomy n 1omy xo npopoy o n n1o 0 o - o


n
,
0 b
n
- o .
4.40. HsopoxenMe peMctsMteAonmx MceA
eckonenmuM pecstMnmuM pposuM
Hyc1r aapano vavoo-no nnco o, pn onpopoonnoc1n o . 0.
Coracno npnnnny Apxnmopa, cymoc1nyo1 ooo nnco n
0
o.
Cpopn nnco n l, 2, ... , n
0
noarmom nanmonrmoo, oapam-
moo cnoc1nom n o, n ooanannm oro
0
- l, 1orpa
0
o

0
- l.
Paaorom o1poaov I
0
[
0
;
0
- l na pocn1r pannwx o1poa-
von, 1. o. paccmo1pnm o1poavn
0
,
l
;
0
,
l
- , rpo

0
,
l
- pocn1nnnan ppor, npnnom
l
ooananao1 nopnpvo-
nw nomop o1poava, copopxamoro nnco o n noynnnmorocn npn
paanonnn o1poava I
0
na pocn1r pannwx o1poavon npn noco-
pona1orno nx nymopann cona nanpano nncamn 0, l, 2, ...
..., 9. E vanoc1no paapon1ornoro anava moxpy vonamn
o1poavon ypom yno1pon1r apocr no aann1ym, vav ownno, a
1onvy c aann1o, n1ow o1nna1r c1o1 anav o1 aann1o n
pocn1nnno ppon.
Eoamoxnw pna cynan: no 1onva o no connapao1 nn c op-
no 1onvo poonnn (pnc. l3), no 1onva o connapao1 c opno
Pnc. l3

0
- l
0
o
o
n - l
b
n - l
o
n - l
- b
n - l
2
------------------------------------------
b
0
- o
0
2
n
-----------------------
b
0
- o
0
2
n
-----------------------
l
l0
------
134
na 1onov poonnn (pnc. l4, l5). E nopnom cynao 1onva o npn-
napoxn1 1orvo opnomy na c1nx o1poavon. Ooanannm oro I
l
,
1. o. I
l

0
,
l
;
0
,
l
- . Eo n1opom cynao 1onva o mo-
xo1 npnnapoxa1r pnym cocopnnm o1poavam (pnc. l5). Torpa
nopoa I
l

0
,
l
;
0
,
l
- ooanannm 1o1 na nnx, pn vo-
1oporo 1onva o nnno1cn onwm vonom. E oonx cynanx o - I
l
.
Paaorom o1poaov I
l
, n cnom onopopr, na pocn1r pannwx o1poa-
von n nopoa I
2

0
,
l

2
;
0
,
l

2
- ooanannm 1o1 na
noynnnmnxcn o1poavon, vo1opw copopxn1 o n pn vo1oporo
1onva o no nnno1cn npanwm vonom. Hpopoxnn c1o1 npo-
occ, noynnm cnc1omy noxonnwx o1poavon
I
n
[o
n
,
n
, n 0, l, 2, ... ,
rpo
o
n

0
,
l

2
... ,
n

0
,
l

2
...
n
- ,
a
n
- opna na nqp 0, l, 2, ... , 9. Kaxpw na o1poavon I
n
co-
popxn1 o, npnnom o no nnno1cn oro npanwm vonom,
o - I
n
, o =
n
, n 0, l, 2, ...;
pnna o1poava I
n
panna l0
-n
n, copona1orno, c1pomn1cn v
nym npn n = ~.
Kononnwo pocn1nnnwo ppon o
n
n
n
naawnam1cn oecnnuu
um+u opon+u, npu.uovu+u uuc.o o. Booo 1onno, nnc-
o o
n
uo:mooencn uuuu+ oecnnuuum+ npu.ueuue+ no-
pnpva n, a nnco
n
- oepruu+ oecnnuuum+ npu.ueuue+
1oro xo nopnpva nnca o. Onn oapam1 copymmnmn cnoc1-
namn, nonocpopc1nonno nw1ovammnmn na nx onpopoonnn:
o
n
o
n
, (4.56)
o
n
o
n - l
, o
n - l

n
, (4.5?)
n
- o
n
l0
-n
. (4.58)
l
l0
------
l
l0
------
Pnc. l4

0
- l
0
o
Pnc. l5

0
- l
0
o
l
l0
2
---------
o
o
l
l0
n
----------
o
o
o
o
o
o
13
E 1om cynao, ocn o 0, noaran b -o, onpoponom
o
n
-b
n
,
n
-b
n
,
npn c1om cnoc1na (4.56)-(4.58), ononnpno, coxpannm1cn,
nmr n nopanonc1no (4.56) anavn n nomonnm1cn moc1amn.
Cnoc1no (4.5?) oananao1, n1o o1poavn [o
n
,
n
opaaym1
noxonnym cnc1omy o1poavon. Ha cnoc1na (4.58) copyo1,
n1o pnnw o1poavon [o
n
,
n
c1pomn1cn v nym. Havono,
(4.56) oananao1, n1o 1onva o npnnapoxn1 ncom c1nm o1poa-
vam, noc1omy, coracno aamonannm 2 n. 4.5, ona nnno1cn
npopoom nx vonon o
n
n
n
.
H1av, n nac1noc1n, povaaana copymman omma.
A E M M A 4. Kouooo m uu m.o uuc.o o, noc.eoooone.ouocno
{o
n
oo:pocnoen, noc.eoooone.ouocno {
n
mooen u

n
o.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Ecnuoe oeucnoune.ouoe uuc.o no.nencn npe
oe.o+ noc.eoooone.ouocnu pouuouo.oumr uuce..
Copc1nno ommw nw1ovao1 na 1oro, n1o o
n
n
n
cy1r pan-
onarnwo nnca.
Hyc1r 1onopr cnona o . 0 n o
n

0
,
l

2
...
n
. Hoc1annm
n coo1no1c1nno nncy o ocvononnym pocn1nnnym ppor

0
,
l

2
...
n
... . Hopnopvnom, n1o apocr
0
nnno1cn noo1pn-
a1ornwm owm nncom, a
n
, n l, 2, ... , - opno na
nqp 0, l, 2, ..., 9. Hnco o nnno1cn opnnc1nonnwm nncom,
npnnapoxamnm ncom o1poavam I
n
, n l, 2, ... , noc1omy npn
yvaaannom coo1no1c1nnn paanwm nncam coo1no1c1nym1 paa-
nwo pocn1nnnwo ppon, 1. o. o1nnammnocn xo1n w opnnm
h
(h 0, l, 2, ...).
3amo1nm paoo, n1o npn 1avom noc1poonnn no moxo1 no-
ynn1rcn ppor c nopnopom, coc1onmnm na opno nqpw 9.
oc1nn1orno, nyc1r nncy o coo1no1c1nyo1 copymman
ppor:
0
,
l
... 9...9... , rpo n cynao n
0
= 0 nwnonno1cn
nopanonc1no = 9. Torpa, coracno noc1poonnm,
o -
0
,
l
... 9... 9;
0
,
l
...
o
o
o
o
o
o
n
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm o
o

n
0

n
0
-

n
0

n
0
136
pn ncox n n
0
, rpo n - nnco pocn1nnnwx anavon noco aa-
nn1o n ppon
0
,
l
, ... 9 ... 9. O1cmpa copyo1, n1o o nn-
no1cn npanwm vonom ncox o1poavon I
n
, n n
0
, n1o npo1nno-
ponn1 nwopy c1nx o1poavon.
Tavnm opaaom, n cny yc1anononnoro coo1no1c1nnn vax-
pomy poc1nn1ornomy nncy o . 0 coo1no1c1nyo1 novo1opan
ocvononnan pocn1nnnan ppor, no nmomman nopnopa, co-
c1onmoro na opno nqpw 9. Tavno pocn1nnnwo ppon naaw-
nam1cn ooncnu+m+u.
Havono, vaxpan ocvononnan ponyc1nman pocn1nnnan
ppor
0
,
l
,
2
...
n
... n poayr1a1o onncannoro coo1no1c1-
nnn ovaawnao1cn noc1anonno n coo1no1c1nno novo1opomy
nncy o, a nmonno 1omy opnnc1nonnomy nncy, vo1opoo npn-
napoxn1 ncom o1poavam:

0
,
l
...
n
;
0
,
l
...
n
- , n l, 2, ... .
01o coo1no1c1nno moxno pacnpoc1pann1r n na o1pna1ornwo
nnca: ocn nncy o 0 coo1no1c1nyo1 ppor
0
,
l
...
n
... ,
1o nncy -o noc1annm n coo1no1c1nno ppor -
0
,
l
...
n
... ,
vo1opym 1avxo ypom naawna1r ponyc1nmo.
Hoynonnwo poayr1a1w moxno cqopmynpona1r n nnpo
copymmo 1oopomw.
I E O F E M A . Meo +uoecnoo+ ocer oeucnoune.oumr
uuce. u +uoecnoo+ ooncnu+mr oecnnuuumr opoeu
cecnoen o:ou+uo oouo:uouuoe coonoencnoue; npuue+
ec.u npu ono+ coonoencnouu uuc. o coonoencnoen
opoo
0
,
l

2
...
n
... , no
,
l

2
...
n
o.
Bocvononnan pocn1nnnan ppor
0
,
l

2
...
n
... , coo1no1-
c1nymman nncy o, naawnao1cn oro oecnnuuuou :onucov n nc-
norayo1cn pn oro ooananonnn; noc1omy nnmy1
o
0
,
l

2
...
n
... .
Ecn ocvononnan pocn1nnnan ppor nmoo1 nopnop, co-
c1onmn 1orvo na nyo:
0
,
l

2
...
n
0 0 ... 0 ... , npnnom

n
= 0, 1o ronopn1, n1o c1a ppor nmoo1 n ananamnx nqp noc-
o aann1o; npn c1om ownno nyr n nopnopo no nnmo1cn,

n
0
l
l0
n
----------

0
n ~
IIm
137
1. o. yvaaannoo nnco aanncwnao1cn vononno pocn1nnno
pporm
0
,
l

2
...
n
(nmonno 1avan aanncr n yno1ponacr
nwmo).
3 a m o n a n n o l. 7mo ocvononno pocn1nnno ppon

0
,
l

2
...
n
... (no onaa1orno ponyc1nmo) moxno 1avxo
oc1oc1nonnwm opaaom noc1ann1r n coo1no1c1nno opnnc1non-
noo poc1nn1ornoo nnco, npnnapoxamoo ncom o1poavam:

0
,
l
, ... ,
n
;
0
,
l
, ... ,
n
- .
Opnavo noynnnmoocn npn c1om coo1no1c1nno yxo no
nnno1cn n a a n m n o o p n o a n a n n w m: nmom1cn paanwo
ocvononnwo pocn1nnnwo ppon, vo1opwm coo1no1c1nyo1 opno
n 1o xo poc1nn1ornoo nnco. Hmonno pponm nnpa

0
,
l

2
...
n
99...9... n
0
,
l

2
... (
n
- l) 0 0...0... (
n
= 9)
coo1no1c1nyo1 opno n 1o xo nnco. E onncanno nwmo vonc1-
pyvnn coo1no1c1nnn poc1nn1ornwx nnco n ocvononnwx
pocn1nnnwx ppoo mw noynnn w no 1orvo ponyc1nmwo
pocn1nnnwo ppon, ocn w o1vaaancr o1 yconnn vaxpw
paa nwnpa1r 1avo o1poaov I
n
, n1o nnco o no nnno1cn oro
npanwm vonom.
Hcnorayn aanncr poc1nn1ornwx nnco, c nomomrm oc-
vononnwx pocn1nnnwx ppoo moxno noynn1r npanno pn
nx cpannonnn no nonnnno n npanna apnqmo1nnocvnx poc1-
nn nap nnmn. H 1o n ppyroo cnopn1cn v anaornnnwm onopa-
nnm nap coo1no1c1nymmnmn nx pocn1nnnwmn npnnxo-
nnnmn n, w1r moxo1, npopornomy nopoxopy. Cqopmynpy-
om c1n poayr1a1w n nnpo omm.
A E M M A 2. Hcno o u b oeucnoune.oume uuc.o. Toeoo
o b o no+ u no.ouo o no+ c.uoe, uoeoo cecnoen
nouoe uonpo.ouoe n
0
, uno o.n ocer n n
0
u+een +ecno
uepooeucnoo
o
n
b
n
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r o b. Ha o
n
o, b
n
b,
coracno cnoc1ny III npopoon nocopona1ornoc1o (cm.
n. 4.3), cpaay copyo1 cymoc1nonanno 1poyomoro nomopa n
0
,
-
l
l0
n
----------
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm
13S
1. o. 1avoro, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonno1cn nopa-
nonc1no o
n
b
n
.
Opa1no: ocn yvaaannw nomop n
0
cymoc1nyo1, 1o cyna
o b nonoamoxon n cny 1orvo n1o povaaannoro. Honoamo-
xon n cyna o b, 1av vav 1orpa w, n cny opnoanannoc1n
aanncn nnco c nomomrm ponyc1nmwx pocn1nnnwx ppoo,
pn ncox n l, 2, ... nmoo w moc1o panonc1no o
n
b
n
. Copo-
na1orno, o b.
AE MMA 3. Hcno o u b ooo oeucnoune.oumr uuc.o, noeoo
(o
n
- b
n
) o - b, (o
n
- b
n
) o - b,
o
n
b
n
ob,
o npu b = 0
.
Eco y1nopxponnn c1o ommw nonocpopc1nonno copym1
na ommw l n cnoc1n npopoon, cnnaannwx c apnqmo1nno-
cvnmn poc1nnnmn nap nocopona1ornoc1nmn (cm. n. 4.9).
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ha ommw 3 copyo1, n1o, pn 1oro n1o-
w nponanoc1n c aapanno c1ononrm 1onnoc1n vavoo-no
apnqmo1nnocvoo poc1nno nap nncamn, aanncannwmn n nnpo
ponyc1nmwx pocn1nnnwx ppoo, napo nan1r c poc1a1onno
1onnoc1rm vononnwo pocn1nnnwo npnnxonnn n nwnonn1r
coo1no1c1nymmno poc1nnn. Hpn c1om npn coxonnn, nwnn-
1annn n ymnoxonnn n poayr1a1o noynao1cn cnona vononnan
pocn1nnnan ppor. E cynao xo poonnn nac1noo pnyx vonon-
nwx pocn1nnnwx ppoo ypo1, noomo ronopn, ocvononno
pocn1nnno pporm, npnnom, vav c1o nanoc1no na comon1ap-
no ma1oma1nvn, nopnopnnocvo. Opnavo n n c1om cynao
moxno c mo c1ononrm 1onnoc1n noynn1r poayr1a1, nw-
paxonnw vononno pocn1nnno pporm. Hanpnmop, ocn
(o
n
,b
n
)
n
nnno1cn nnxnnm pocn1nnnwm npnnxonnom no-
pnpva n pn nac1noro , 1o
(4.59)
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm
l
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm
o
n
b
n
------
o
b
---

o
n
b
n
------
,
_
n ~
IIm

o
n
b
n
------
,
_
n
o
b
---
139
n, copona1orno, nac1noo o,b, b = 0, moxno c mo c1o-
nonrm 1onnoc1n nwpaan1r c nomomrm vononnwx pocn1nnnwx
ppoo nnpa .
n povaaa1orc1na panonc1na (4.59) nooxnm

n
- ;
n cny ommw 3, nmoom (cm. ommy n n. 4.9) 0. To-
nopr, ncnorayn (4.56) n (4.58), noynaom
- - - - -
n
.
H, nocvorvy -
n
0, panonc1no (4.59) povaaano.
3 a m o n a n n o 3. E poayr1a1o yvaaannwx nwmo nwnnc-
onn c nnxnnmn pocn1nnnwmn npnnxonnnmn nopnpva n
n cynao coxonnn o
n
- b
n
, nwnn1annn o
n
- b
n
n poonnn
mw cnona noynnm vononnwo pocn1nnnwo ppon c no
ooo nom n ananamnmn nqpamn noco aann1o. Hpn ymno-
xonnn xo o
n
b
n
noynao1cn, noomo ronopn, pocn1nnnan ppor
c 2n ananamnmn nqpamn noco aann1o. Ecn nn-
no1cn nnxnnm pocn1nnnwm npnnxonnom nponanoponnn
o
n
b
n
, 1o anaornnno (4.59) povaawnao1cn, n1o
ob.
Tavnm opaaom, npn npnnxonnwx nwnnconnnx cymm
o - b, paanoc1o o - b, nponanoponn ob n nac1nwx o,b, b = 0,
coo1no1c1nonno no qopmyam
o
n
- b
n
, o
n
- b
n
, n ,
n poayr1a1o yvaaannwx poc1nn nap vononnwmn pocn1nn-
nwmn pponmn o
n
n b
n
, nmommnmn no ooo nom n ananamnx
nqp noco aann1o, noynam1cn cnona pocn1nnnwo ppon c
no ooo nom n ananamnmn nqpamn noco aann1o, npn c1om
poayr1a1 moxo1 w1r noynon c mo aapanno c1ononrm

o
n
b
n
------
,
_
n
o
n
b
n
------
o
b
---

n
n ~
IIm

o
n
b
n
------
,
_
n
o
b
---

o
n
b
n
------
,
_
n
o
n
b
n
------
o
n
b
n
------

o
b
---
,
_
l
l0
n
----------
n ~
IIm
l
l0
n
----------

n
-
,
_
o
n
,b
n
( )
n
o
n
b
n
( )
n
n ~
IIm o
n
b
n
( )
n
o
n
b
n
( )
n
o
n
,b
n
( )
n
140
1onnoc1n. Hmonno 1avnm opaaom n nwnonnm1 ownno po-
c1nnn c nncamn na npav1nvo.
3 a m o n a n n o 4. O1mo1nm, n1o npn noc1poonnn cnocoa
aanncn poc1nn1ornwx nnco nocopona1ornoc1nmn nqp
aa ocnony wo nan1o nnco l0 (o1poavn nocopona1orno po-
nncr na pocn1r pannwx nac1o). Emoc1o nnca l0 moxno
nan1r moo na1yparnoo nnco n. Hpn ncnoraonannn
wc1popoc1nymmnx nwnncn1ornwx mamnn nac1o yno1po-
no1cn 1av naawnaoman pnonnnan cnc1oma aanncn nnco, co-
o1no1c1nymman cynam n 2. Hpn aanncn nnca n pnonnno
cnc1omo ynac1nym1 1orvo pno nqpw: 0 n l. Hanpnmop, nnc-
o l4,625 n pnonnno cnc1omo nmoo1 nnp lll0,l0l. oc1-
nn1orno, aamo1nn, n1o l4 2
3
- 2
2
, 0,5 2
-l
, 0,l25 2
-3
,
noynnm
l4,625 l2
3
- l2
2
- l2
l
- 02
0
- l2
-l
- 02
-2
- l2
-3
,
a nqpw n pnonnno cnc1omo aanncn nnca nnnm1cn coo1no1-
c1nymmnmn vocqqnnon1amn oro paaoxonnn no c1ononnm
nnca 2.
Anaornnno 1oopomo 6 povaawnao1cn, n1o moxpy ncomn po-
c1nn1ornwmn nncamn n ncomn ocvononnwmn pnonnnwmn
pponmn, no nmommnmn nopnopa, coc1onmoro 1orvo na opnnx
opnnn, cymoc1nyo1 naanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno.
H1ow c1o povaaa1r, napo nocopona1orno pon1r o1poavn
[n, n - l, n 0, l, 2, ... , no na pocn1r nac1o, vav c1o mw po-
an npn povaaa1orc1no 1oopomw 6, a na pna pannwx o1poava.
3 a m o n a n n o 5. Hpn naoxonnn 1oopnn poc1nn1ornwx
nnco moxno paccyxpa1r n n opa1nom nopnpvo: onpopon1r
poc1nn1ornwo nnca vav ocvononnwo ponyc1nmwo pocn-
1nnnwo ppon n, ncnorayn c1y aanncr, nnoc1n n nnx coo1no1-
c1nymmnm opaaom coo1nomonno nopnpva n apnqmo1nnocvno
poc1nnn.
Cymoc1nym1 n ppyrno cnocow noc1poonnn poc1nn1ornwx
nnco, vo1opwo ncxopn1 na ppyrnx vonvpo1nwx o+ov1on, op-
navo nco onn npnnopn1 v conovynnoc1nm comon1on, ypono1-
nopnmmnx cnoc1nam I-V n. 2.l. Hanomnnm (cm. n. 3.8

), n1o
cnoc1na I-V opnoananno onpoponm1 conovynnoc1r comon-
1on, oapammnx c1nmn cnoc1namn. Opnoananno n 1om cmwc-
o, n1o mwo pno conovynnoc1n, pn comon1on vo1opwx nw-
nononw yconnn I-V, naomopqnw o1nocn1orno onopan
coxonnn, ymnoxonnn n cnoc1na ynopnpononnoc1n. 3pocr mw
141
nc1ponaomcn c xapav1opno nop1o ma1oma1nnocvnx mo1opon
nccoponannn, pn vo1opwx conopmonno oapaannna npnpopa
comon1on, a naxnw nmr vonnoc1nonnwo cnnan moxpy nn-
mn, vo1opwo n pannom cynao nwpaxam1cn cnoc1namn I-V.
4.44'. Cetnme M necetnme unoxectso
Eoannvao1 oc1oc1nonnw nonpoc: nco n ocvononnwo mno-
xoc1na copopxa1 opnnavonoo nnco comon1on nn ocvo-
nonnoc1n wnam1 paanwmn? Hpoxpo ncoro ovaawnao1cn no-
nonn1nwm, n1o noomo oananao1 1opmnn opnnavonoo nnco
comon1on pn ocvononnwx mnoxoc1n. Cpannonno ocvo-
nonnwx mnoxoc1n no vonnoc1ny copopxamnxcn n nnx co-
mon1on, nn, vav npnnn1o ronopn1r, no nx momnoc1n, ypono
nwnonn1r c nomomrm nonn1nn naanmno opnoanannoro coo1-
no1c1nnn moxpy comon1amn mnoxoc1n (cm. n. l.2

).
OnpepeAenMe 47. ]oo +uoecnoo uo:moovncn poouo+oum
+u, ec.u +eo ur o.e+euno+u +ouo cnouoouno o:ou+
uo oouo:uouuoe coonoencnoue.
C c1o 1onvn aponnn na1yparnwo nnca l, 2, ... , n, ... o-
paaym1 mnoxoc1no, pannomomnoo mnoxoc1ny no1nwx nnco
2, 4, ... , 2n, ... , xo1n na nopnw narnp nocopnnx vaxo1cn n
pna paaa monrmo. Tpoyomoo naanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1-
nno noynao1cn, ocn na1yparnomy nncy n noc1ann1r n co-
o1no1c1nno nnco 2n, n l, 2, ... .
Ho1nwo nnca coc1annm1 nac1r mnoxoc1na na1yparnwx
nnco, opnavo c1n mnoxoc1na pannomomnw, copona1orno, n
cynao ocvononnwx mnoxoc1n nac1r moxo1 w1r panna n na-
mom cmwco oomy!
OnpepeAenMe 48. Muoecnoo, poouo+ouoe +uoecno ocer
uonpo.oumr uuce., uo:mooencn cuenum+.
Tavnm opaaom, ocn X cno1no, 1o moxpy mnoxoc1nom X n
mnoxoc1nom na1yparnwx nnco moxno yc1anonn1r naanmno
opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno, nn, vav ronopn1, moxno aanymo-
pona1r comon1w mnoxoc1na X, nonnman nop nomopom vaxpo-
ro comon1a r - X coo1no1c1nymmoo omy npn yvaaannom coo1-
no1c1nnn na1yparnoo nnco.
Cno1nwo mnoxoc1na nnnm1cn n onpopoonnom cmwco
npoc1omnmn ocvononnwmn mnoxoc1namn. Hmonno, cnpa-
nopnna copymman omma.
14z
A E M M A 4. Jvoe ecuoueuuoe +uoecnoo cooepun cuen
uoe noo+uoecnoo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. oc1nn1orno, nyc1r X - ocvonon-
noo mnoxoc1no. Eoarmom vavo-no oro comon1 n ooana-
nnm oro r
l
. E cny 1oro, n1o X - ocvononnoo mnoxoc1no, n
nom aanopomo nmoo1cn xo1n w opnn comon1, o1nnnw o1
comon1a r
l
. Ewopom vavo-no na 1avnx comon1on n oo-
anannm oro r
2
.
Hyc1r n mnoxoc1no X yxo nwpanw comon1w r
l
, ... , r
n
.
Tav vav X - ocvononnoo mnoxoc1no, 1o n nom aanopomo oc1r
omo n ppyrno comon1w; nwopom vavo-no na oc1anmnxcn
comon1on n ooanannm oro nopoa r
n - l
n 1. p. E poayr1a1o
mw noynnn comon1w r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , vo1opwo opaay-
m1 cno1noo nopmnoxoc1no mnoxoc1na X.
A E M M A 2. Jvoe ecuoueuuoe noo+uoecnoo cuenuoeo +uo
ecnoo cuenuo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r X- cno1noo mnoxoc1no, oro co-
mon1w mory1 w1r noponymoponanw: X {o
l
, o
2
, ... , o
n
, ....
Hyc1r Y - ocvononnoo nopmnoxoc1no mnoxoc1na X. Ooana-
nnm nopoa b
l
nopnw nc1po1nnmncn n pnpo o
l
, o
2
, ... , o
n
, ...
comon1 mnoxoc1na Y, 1. o. 1o1 na comon1on o
n
- X, vo1opw
npnnapoxn1 mnoxoc1ny Y n nmoo1 nanmonrmn nomop n
0
:
b
l
. Hopoa b
2
ooanannm 1o1 na comon1on o
n
, vo1opw
npnnapoxn1 mnoxoc1ny Y n nmoo1 nanmonrmn nomop cpopn
nomopon n n
0
n 1. p. Kaxpw comon1 mnoxoc1na Y nmoo1cn n
pnpo o
l
, o
2
, ... , o
n
, ... , noc1omy nopoa vavoo-1o vononnoo nnco
maron on ypo1 ooananon nopoa b
n
, n 1av vav mnoxoc1no Y oc-
vononno, 1o nnpovc n npnmo1 moo ananonno l, 2, 3, ... . Ta-
vnm opaaom, nco comon1w mnoxoc1na Y ovaxy1cn aanymopo-
nannwmn na1yparnwmn nncamn n l, 2, ... . 01o n oananao1,
n1o mnoxoc1no Y nnno1cn cno1nwm mnoxoc1nom.
Copymman 1oopoma pao1 nn1opocnw npnmop cno1noro
mnoxoc1na.
I E O F E M A 7. Muoecnoo ocer pouuouo.oumr uuce. cuenuo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Pacnooxnm panonarnwo nnca n
1any copymmnm cnocoom. E nopnym c1ponvy nomoc1nm
nco owo nnca n nopnpvo noapac1annn nx acom1no non-
nnnw n 1av, n1o aa vaxpwm na1yparnwm nncom noc1anono
omy npo1nnonooxnoo:
0, l, -l, 2, ... , n, -n, ... , n - N.
o
n
0
143
Eo n1opym c1ponvy nomoc1nm nco nocovpa1nmwo panonar-
nwo ppon co anamona1oom 2, ynopnpononnwo no nx acom1-
no nonnnno, npnnom cnona aa vaxpwm nooxn1ornwm
nncom noc1annm omy npo1nnonooxnoo:
, - , , - , , - ... .
Eoomo, n nm c1ponvy nomoc1nm nco nocovpa1nmwo pan-
onarnwo ppon co anamona1oom n, ynopnpononnwo no nx a-
com1no nonnnno, n 1av, n1o aa vaxpwm nooxn1ornwm
nncom copyo1 omy npo1nnonooxnoo. E poayr1a1o noy-
nnm 1any c ocvononnwm nncom c1pov n c1oon:
0 -l l 2 -2 ...
- - ...
- - ...
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ononnpno, n1o vaxpoo panonarnoo nnco nonapao1 na
vavoo-1o moc1o n c1o 1ano.
3anymopyom 1onopr comon1w noynnnmocn 1anw co-
racno copymmo cxomo (n vpyxonvax c1on1 nomopa coo1no1-
c1nymmnx comon1on, c1povn yvaawnam1 nanpanonno ny-
mopann):
E poayr1a1o nco panonarnwo nnca ovaawnam1cn aanymo-
ponannwmn, 1. o. mnoxoc1no Q panonarnwx nnco cno1no.
Eoannvao1 oc1oc1nonnw nonpoc: a cymoc1nym1 n ocvo-
nonnwo mnoxoc1na, no nnnmmnocn cno1nwmn? Ovaawnao1-
cn, n1o pa, cymoc1nym1, n onn naawnam1cn, oc1oc1nonno, ue
l
2
---
l
2
---
3
2
---
3
2
---
5
2
---
5
2
---
l
2
---
l
2
---
3
2
---
3
2
---
5
2
---
l
3
---
l
3
---
2
3
---
2
3
---
4
3
---
l
n
---
l
n
---
l 2 4 ?
l0
3 5 8
6 9
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
144
cuenum+u +uoecnoo+u. Eaxnw npnmop nocno1nwx mno-
xoc1n yc1anannnao1cn copymmo nnxo 1oopomo.
I E OF E M A 8 (teopeuo kontopo). Muoecnoo ocer oeucnoune.o
umr uuce. uecuenuo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. onyc1nm npo1nnnoo: nyc1r ypaocr
aanymopona1r nco poc1nn1ornwo nnca: r
l
, r
2
, ... , r
n
, ...;
aannmom nx c nomomrm ponyc1nmwx pocn1nnnwx ppoo:
r
l
, ... ... ,
r
2
, ... ... ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4.60)
r
n
, ... ... ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3pocr , n l, 2, ... , n l, 2, ... , ooananao1 opny na nqp
0, l, 2, ... , 9, a , n l, 2, ... , - ooo nnco c 1om nn
nnwm anavom. Ewopom nqpy
n
, n l, 2, ... , 1av, n1ow

n
= n
n
= 9. Torpa ppor 0,
l

2
...
n
... nnno1cn ponyc-
1nmo, no nnca o 0,
l

2
...
n
... aanopomo no1 cpopn nnco
r
n
, n l, ... , 2, ... , 1av vav pocn1nnnan ppor 0,
l
, ... ...
n
...
xo1n w opnnm pocn1nnnwm anavom o1nnao1cn o1 vaxpo na
pocn1nnnwx ppoo (4.60). Hoynonnoo npo1nnoponno n pova-
awnao1 1oopomy.
C A E p C I 8 H E 4. Muoecnoo oeucnoune.oumr uuce., opo
:vur .vou uunepoo., uecuenuo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hovaxom, n1o, ooo 1oro, mnoxoc1no
poc1nn1ornwx nnco moro nn1opnaa pannomomno mno-
xoc1ny ncox poc1nn1ornwx nnco.
E camom poo, npoxpo ncoro mo nn1opna pannomomon
nn1opnay (-l, -l). Eaanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno mox-
py nn1opnaom (o, b) n nn1opnaom (-l, -l) moxno yc1ano-
nn1r, nanpnmop, c nomomrm nnonoro o1opaxonnn r
. Ecn o | b, 1o -l r -l. Hn1opna (-l, -l)
naanmno opnoananno c nomomrm o1opaxonnn
](r) , -l r l,
o1opaxao1cn na ncm poc1nn1ornym ocr (nponopr1o c1o).
Tavnm opaaom ovaawnao1cn, n1o nn1opna (o, b) pannomomon

0
l ( )

l
l ( )

2
l ( )

n
l ( )

0
2 ( )

l
2 ( )

2
2 ( )

n
2 ( )

0
n ( )

l
n ( )

2
n ( )

n
n ( )

n
n ( )

0
n ( )

n
n ( )
2| - o - b
b - o
---------------------------
r
l - r
-----------------
14
nco poc1nn1orno ocn n, copona1orno, nnno1cn nocno1-
nwm mnoxoc1nom.
Eaanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno moxpy nn1opnaom n
nco npnmo moxno narnpno ocymoc1nn1r roomo1pnnocvnm
mo1opom: cnanaa cnpoonpyom o1vpw1ym noyovpyxnoc1r,
1. o. noyovpyxnoc1r oa vononwx 1onov, c nomomrm napa-
orno npoovnn na nn1opna (pnc. l6) n 1om camwm yc1ano-
nnm moxpy nx 1onvamn naanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno.
3a1om c nomomrm on1parno npoovnn na on1pa noyov-
pyxnoc1n cnpoonpyom oo na npnmym (pnc. l?). 01a npoovnn
1avxo yc1anannnao1 naanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno, no
na c1o1 paa moxpy noyovpyxnoc1rm n nco npnmo.
C A E p C I 8 H E 2. Ho .vo+ uunepoo.e u+evncn uppouuouo.o
ume uuc.o.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. oc1nn1orno, ocn w na novo1opom
nn1opnao no ovaaaocr nppanonarnoro nnca, 1o c1o oanana-
o w, n1o nco 1onvn c1oro nn1opnaa nnnm1cn panonarnw-
mn nncamn, 1. o. nopmnoxoc1nom cno1noro mnoxoc1na pan-
onarnwx nnco, n, anann1, opaaym1 vononnoo, nn cno1noo,
mnoxoc1no (cm. ommy 2), n1o npo1nnoponn1 copc1nnm l.
3 a m o n a n n o. E n. 4.l0 povaaano, n1o poc1nn1ornoo
nnco oc1r npopo nocopona1ornoc1n panonarnwx nnco
(nanpnmop, cnonx nopxnnx pocn1nnnwx npnnxonn). O1-
cmpa cpaay copyo1, n1o ncnvn nn1opna copopxn1 ocvo-
nonno mnoro panonarnwx nnco. E camom poo, nyc1r aapan
nn1opna (o, b). Ewopom vavoo-no nnco - (o, b), nanpn-
mop . Hyc1r pn onpopoonnoc1n 0. Torpa ocn
n
,
n l, 2, ... , - nopxnno pocn1nnnwo npnnxonnn pn , 1o
na onpopoonnn nopxnnx pocn1nnnwx npnnxonn (cm. n. 4.l0)
copyo1, n1o cpopn nnco
n
nmoo1cn ocvononno mnoro paa-
Pnc. l6 Pnc. l?
o - b
2
--------------

146
nnnwx moxpy coo n n1o . Hn1opna (o, b) nnn-
o1cn ovpoc1noc1rm nwpanno 1onvn , noc1omy, coracno on-
popoonnm npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n, non1n nco pan-
onarnwo nnca
n
copopxa1cn n c1om nn1opnao. Hnano
ronopn, napo1cn 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
ypo1 nwnonn1rcn nopanonc1no o
n
b, 1. o.
n
, n n
0
- l,
n
0
- 2, ... , - ncvomwo panonarnwo nnca.
Tavnm opaaom, na mom nn1opnao nncono ocn copop-
xa1cn vav panonarnwo, 1av n nppanonarnwo nnca. 01o
cnoc1no vpa1vo nwpaxam1, ronopn, n1o panonarnwo n
nppanonarnwo nnca opaaym1 ncmpy no1nwo nopmnoxo-
c1na mnoxoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco.
VHPAHEHHE 17. ovaaa1r, n1o mnoxoc1na 1onov nn1opnaa, o1poava
n noynn1opnaa pannomomnw.
Mo1op, vo1opwm wa povaaana cno1noc1r panonarnwx
nnco, noanono1 povaaa1r copymmoo npopoxonno.
I E O F E M A . C++o uoueuuoeo u.u cuenuoeo +uoecnoo ue
ncnmr uoueuumr u.u cuenumr +uoecno no.nencn uoueu
um+ u.u cuenum+ +uoecnoo+.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ooanannm nopoa N
n
mnoxoc1no
nomopon panonarnwx nnco, nonanmnx n nm c1povy npn
nymopann panonarnwx nnco, naopaxonno na cxomo na
c. l43. Torpa N N
n
nnno1cn npopc1anonnom mnoxo-
c1na na1yparnwx nnco n nnpo o+opnnonnn cno1noro mno-
xoc1na nonapno no nopocovammnxcn cno1nwx mnoxoc1n.
Ecn X
n
, n l, 2, ... , - vononnwo nn cno1nwo mnoxoc1-
na, 1o mnoxoc1na
Y
l
X
l
, Y
2
X
2
X
l
, ... , Y
n
X
n
X
h
, ...
nonapno no nopocovam1cn n
X X
n
Y
n
.
Kaxpoo na mnoxoc1n X
n
vononno nn cno1no, copona-
1orno, n vaxpoo mnoxoc1no Y
n
vononno nn cno1no. Hoc1o-
my pn vaxporo n l, 2, ... cymoc1nyo1 naanmno opnoanannoo

n
n ~
IIm


'
n l

'
h l
n - l

do
'
n l

'
n l

147
coo1no1c1nno moxpy comon1amn mnoxoc1na Y
n
n novo1opwm
nopmnoxoc1nom A
n
~ N
n
. E cny xo 1oro, n1o mnoxoc1na Y
n
nonapno no nopocovam1cn, c1o coo1no1c1nno nopoxpao1 naa-
nmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno moxpy mnoxoc1namn
X Y
n
n A
n
~ N.
Coracno ommo 2, mnoxoc1no A
n
vononno nn cno1-
no, vav nopmnoxoc1no cno1noro mnoxoc1na. Copona1orno,
vononno nn cno1no mnoxoc1no X.
Ha c1o 1oopomw nw1ovao1 copymmoo y1nopxponno.
I E OF E M A 40. Muoecnoo ocer uoueuumr noo+uoecno
cuenuoeo +uoecnoo cuenuo.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Muoecnoo oceoo:+oumr uoueuumr po:+e
euuu u: o.e+eunoo cuenuoeo +uoecnoo no.nencn cuen
um+.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r X - cno1noo mnoxoc1no n
r
l
, r
2
, ... , r
n
, ... - nco oro comon1w. Ononnpno, n1o mnoxo-
c1no ncox oro nopmnoxoc1n, coc1onmnx na opnoro comon1a:
{r
l
, {r
2
, ... , {r
n
, ... , nnno1cn cno1nwm mnoxoc1nom. Hyc1r
yxo povaaano, n1o mnoxoc1no ncox nopmnoxoc1n mnoxoc1na
X, coc1onmoo na n comon1on, n . l, cno1no. Ooanannm c1n
nopmnoxoc1na , n l, 2, ... . Ecn pn vaxporo n l, 2, ...
v mnoxoc1ny noonopopno poann1r no opnomy no npn-
napoxamomy omy comon1y mnoxoc1na X, 1o noynn1cn
cno1noo mnoxoc1no mnoxoc1n, vo1opwo ypom ooanana1r
nopoa , h l, 2, ... . Conovynnoc1r ncox mnoxoc1n ,
n l, 2, ... , h l, 2, ... , coc1anno1 conovynnoc1r ncox nop-
mnoxoc1n mnoxoc1na X, coc1onmnx na n - l comon1on. 01nx
mnoxoc1n npn qnvcnponannom n l, 2, ... cno1noo mnoxoc1-
no (nnpovc h npnnnmao1 ananonnn l, 2, ...), copona1orno,
ncoro cno1noo mnoxoc1no cno1nwx mnoxoc1n, o+opnnonno
vo1opwx, coracno 1oopomo 9, 1avxo nnno1cn cno1nwm mno-
xoc1nom.
H1av, pn moro n l, 2, ... mnoxoc1no ncox nopmno-
xoc1n mnoxoc1na X, coc1onmnx na n comon1on, cno1no, a
'
n l

'
n l

'
n l

X
n
n ( )
X
n
n ( )
X
n h ,
n ( )
X
n h ,
n ( )
14S
1orpa, coracno 1o xo 1oopomo 9, cno1no n mnoxoc1no ncox
vononnwx nopmnoxoc1n mnoxoc1na X.
/ c k c x e | c / e / c a M e. H1ow noynn1r nconoamoxnwo
vononnwo paamomonnn na comon1on pannoro mnoxoc1na, na-
po no ncox oro vononnwx nopmnoxoc1nax cpoa1r nconoamox-
nwo nopoc1anonvn comon1on, vo1opwx pn vaxporo 1avoro
nopmnoxoc1na vononnoo mnoxoc1no. Ecn ncxopnoo mnoxoc1-
no X wo cno1nwm, 1o, coracno 1oopomo l0, mnoxoc1no ncox
oro vononnwx nopmnoxoc1n cno1no, a noc1omy mnoxoc1no
ncox vononnwx paamomonn na comon1on mnoxoc1na X nnn-
o1cn cno1no cymmo vononnwx mnoxoc1n n, copona1orno,
ypo1 cno1nwm.
C nomomrm 1oopomw l0 orvo yc1anannnao1cn cno1noc1r
mnoxoc1na ncox aropannocvnx nnco, 1. o. poc1nn1ornwx
nnco, nnnmmnxcn vopnnmn mnorononon c owmn vocq-
qnnon1amn.
I E OF E M A 44 (teopeuo kontopo). Muoecnoo ocer o.eepouue
cuur uuce. cuenuo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Kaxpw mnoronon c owmn vocqqn-
non1amn aapao1cn naopom cnonx vocqqnnon1on, 1. o. n
pannom cynao vononnwm mnoxoc1nom na1yparnwx nnco,
nan1wx n onpopoonnom nopnpvo, 1. o. novo1opwm vononnwm
paamomonnom na1yparnwx nnco. Coracno copc1nnm na
1oopomw l0, 1avnx mnorononon ncoro nmr cno1noo mnoxo-
c1no. Ho vaxpw mnoronon nmoo1 nmr vononnoo mnoxoc1-
no poc1nn1ornwx vopno: nx nnco no nponwmao1 c1ononn
mnoronona. Copona1orno, mnoxoc1no ncox 1avnx vopno
no ooo nom cno1no (mnoxoc1na vopno paannnwx mnoro-
nonon mory1 nmo1r nonyc1oo nopocononno, noc1omy noran
omo y1nopxpa1r cno1noc1r ncoro paccma1pnnaomoro mnoxoc1-
na vopno). Opnavo vaxpoo na1yparnoo nnco nnno1cn a-
ropannocvnm - ono nnno1cn vopnom ypannonnn r - n 0.
Hoc1omy aropannocvno nnca poc1nn1orno coc1annm1
cno1noo mnoxoc1no.
E 1oopomo l0 no cynano paccma1pnnancr no nco, a 1or-
vo vononnwo nopmnoxoc1na cno1noro mnoxoc1na. n ncox
nopmnoxoc1n cnpanopnno ppyroo y1nopxponno.
I E OF E M A 42. Muoecnoo ocer noo+uoecno cuenuoeo +uo
ecnoo uecuenuo.
149
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r X {r
l
, r
2
, ... , r
n
, ... - cno1-
noo mnoxoc1no. Hoc1annm n coo1no1c1nno vaxpomy oro nop-
mnoxoc1ny E qynvnm
E
, onpopoonnym na mnoxoc1no na1y-
parnwx nnco n aapanaomym copymmnm opaaom:

E
(n) (4.6l)
(qynvnn
E
naawnao1cn ropounepucnuuecuou quuuueu
+uoecnoo E). 01o coo1no1c1nno nnno1cn naanmno opno-
anannwm moxpy mnoxoc1nom ncox nopmnoxoc1n mnoxoc1na X
n mnoxoc1nom ncox qynvn, onpopoonnwx na mnoxoc1no
na1yparnwx nnco N n npnnnmammnx 1orvo ananonnn 0 n
l. Kaxpo qynvnn (4.6l) noc1annm n coo1no1c1nno poc1nn-
1ornoo nnco, pnonnnan aanncr vo1oporo nmoo1 nnp
0,
l
,
2
, ... ,
n
, ... , (4.62)
rpo
n
l, ocn
E
(n) l, n
n
0, ocn
E
(n) 0. 01o coo1no1-
c1nno nnno1cn naanmno opnoanannwm coo1no1c1nnom moxpy
mnoxoc1nom ncox qynvn (4.6l) n mnoxoc1nom ocvonon-
nwx pnonnnwx ppoo nnpa (4.62). Hocopnoo mnoxoc1no co-
popxn1 nopmnoxoc1no nconoamoxnwx ppoo nnpa (4.62), no
nmommnx n nopnopo l. 01o nopmnoxoc1no naxopn1cn no naa-
nmno opnoanannom coo1no1c1nnn c nocno1nwm mnoxoc1nom
ncox poc1nn1ornwx nnco noynn1opnaa [0, l). Hoc1omy
mnoxoc1no pnonnnwx ppoo (4.62), vav ncnvoo mnoxoc1no,
copopxamoo nocno1noo nopmnoxoc1no, 1avxo nnno1cn no-
cno1nwm. Copona1orno, nocno1nwm nnno1cn n mnoxoc1no
ncox nopmnoxoc1n cno1noro mnoxoc1na.
3aaua 6. ovaaa1r, n1o pn moro mnoxoc1na no cymoc1nyo1 naa-
nmno opnoanannoro coo1no1c1nnn moxpy ncomn oro comon1amn n ncomn
oro nopmnoxoc1namn.
4.42'. 8epxnMM M nMxnMM npepeAm
nocAeposoteAonoctM
E n. 4.6 wo novaaano, n1o man nnconan nocopona1or-
noc1r ncorpa nmoo1 no vpano mopo opnn nac1nnnw npopo,
vononnw nn ocvononnw. Hanormn n nanmonrmn na
nnx (nnxo ypo1 novaaano, n1o onn ncorpa cymoc1nym1) nrpa-
l, ocn r
n
- E,
0, ocn r
n
- E
10
m1 ocoym por n 1oopnn nocopona1ornoc1o. 3pocr nonn-
1nn nanormn n nanmonrmn nonnmam1cn n cmwco
pacmnponnoro mnoxoc1na poc1nn1ornwx nnco R (cm.
n. 3.l), 1. o., n nac1noc1n, nanormnm (nanmonrmnm) co-
mon1om mnoxoc1na X ~ R moxo1 ovaaa1rcn -~ (coo1no1-
c1nonno -~). 01o nmoo1 moc1o 1orpa, vorpa -~ - X (-~ - X).
E pannom cynao c1o ypo1 oanana1r, n1o ocvononnoc1r coo1-
no1c1nymmoro anava nnno1cn nac1nnnwm npopoom paccma1-
pnnaomo nocopona1ornoc1n.
Ho ncnvoo mnoxoc1no na pacmnponno nncono npnmo
nmoo1 nanormn (nanmonrmn) comon1. Opnavo ocn c1o
mnoxoc1no nnno1cn mnoxoc1nom nac1nnnwx npopoon novo-
1opo nocopona1ornoc1n, 1o, vav c1o ypo1 novaaano nnxo,
n nom ncorpa cymoc1nym1 nanormn n nanmonrmn co-
mon1w.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Houo.ouuu uocnuuumu npeoe. noc.eoooo
ne.ouocnu {r
n
uo:mooencn ee oepruu+ npeoe.o+ u oo:uo
uoencn , o uou+euouuu uocnuuumu npeoe. uu
uu+ npeoe.o+ u oo:uouoencn .
I E OF E M A 43. V .vou noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
cecnoen
uou uouo.ouuu, nou u uou+euouuu uocnuuumu npeoe..
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. ovaxom cymoc1nonanno nanormoro
nac1nnnoro npopoa. n aapanno nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n

noamoxnw pna cynan: no ona orpannnona cnopxy, no


no1. Ecn ona no orpannnona cnopxy, 1o nooxn1ornan
ocvononnoc1r -~ nnno1cn oo nac1nnnwm npopoom n, ono-
nnpno, nanormnm, 1. o. -~.
Ecn xo nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
orpannnona cnopxy, 1o
cnona noamoxnw pna cynan: no mnoxoc1no oo vononnwx
npopoon, vo1opoo mw ooanannm nopoa A, no nyc1o, no ono
nyc1o. Paccmo1pnm cnanaa nopnw cyna. Ha orpann-
nonnoc1n cnopxy panno nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
copyo1 n
orpannnonnoc1r cnopxy nonyc1oro mnoxoc1na A oo vononnwx
nac1nnnwx npopoon. E cny c1oro, mnoxoc1no A nmoo1
vononnym nopxnmm rpanr. Hovaxom, n1o b sup A nnno1cn
nac1nnnwm npopoom, 1. o. n1o b - A. oc1nn1orno, ocn
IIm
n ~
r
n
IIm
n ~
r
n
IIm
n ~
r
n
11
w b - A, 1o cymoc1nonao w 1avoo 0, n1o n nn1opnao
(b - , b - ) copopxaocr w nmr vononnoo nnco nonon
nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
(n nac1noc1n, nn opnoro) n noc1omy
(nonomy?) n c1om nn1opnao no wo w nn opnoro comon1a A,
n1o npo1nnoponn1 yconnm b sup A.
Tavnm opaaom, b - A n, copona1orno, nnno1cn nanor-
mnm comon1om mnoxoc1na A, noc1omy b .
E oc1anmomcn cynao, 1. o. vorpa nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n

orpannnona cnopxy n mnoxoc1no oo vononnwx nac1nnnwx npo-


poon A nyc1o, 1o -~ (povaxn1o c1o), 1. o. n c1om
cynao mnoxoc1no oo nac1nnnwx npopoon coc1on1 na opnoro
comon1a -~, vo1opw 1om camwm nnno1cn n nanormnm n
c1om mnoxoc1no, 1. o. apocr -~.
Anaornnno pn mo nocopona1ornoc1n povaawnao1cn
n cymoc1nonanno nanmonrmoro (vononnoro nn ocvononnoro)
nac1nnnoro npopoa.
VHPAHEHHE 1S. Hyc1r r
n
- , n l, 2, ... . Ha1n
, , In {r
n
, sup {r
n
.
I E OF E M A 44. ].n noeo unom uuc.o o m.o oepruu+ npeoe
.o+ noc.eoooone.ouocnu {r
n
, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo
omno.ueuue o.n .voeo uuc.o 0 cooounuocnu c.eov
ur oor c.oouu.
l. Cecnoen uo+ep n

nouou, uno o.n ocer uo+epoo n n

cnpooeo.uoo uepooeucnoo r
n
o - .
2. ].n .voeo uo+epo n
0
cecnoen uo+ep n (:ooucnuu
on u on n
0
) nouou, uno n n
0
u r
n
o - .
Vconno l oananao1, n1o npn mom qnvcnponannom 0
n nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
cymoc1nyo1 nmr vononnoo nnco
nonon r
n
1avnx, n1o r
n
o - (nx nomopa no ormo n

).
Vconno xo 2 oananao1, n1o npn mom qnvcnponannom
0 n nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
cymoc1nyo1 ocvononno mnoro
nonon r
n
1avnx, n1o r
n
o - .
IIm
n ~
r
n
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm IIm
n ~
r
n
l ( )
n
n
---------------
l - l ( )
n
2
--------------------------
IIm
n ~
r
n
IIm
n ~
r
n
1z
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c G x c / M | c c M. Hyc1r o
n 0 qnvcnponano. Ecn w na noynn1opnao [o - , -~)
ovaaaocr ocvononno mnoro nonon nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
,
1o namacr w nopnocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
, comon1w vo1o-
po npnnapoxa1 c1omy noynn1opnay n vo1opan nmoo1 vo-
nonnw nn ocvononnw npopo. Ooanannm oro nopoa b.
Ononnpno, b . o - o, n1o npo1nnoponn1 1omy, n1o o - na-
normn nac1nnnw npopo nocopona1ornoc1n. Vconno l
povaaano.
aoo, nopxnn npopo nnno1cn n nac1nnnwm npopoom,
copona1orno, cymoc1nyo1 nopnocopona1ornoc1r { 1a-
van, n1o o. Hon1n nco nonw nocopona1ornoc1n
{ ormo o - n, copona1orno, cymoc1nyo1 ocvononno
mnoro nonon panno nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, ormnx, nom
o - . Vconno 2 1avxo povaaano.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c / c c c c c c M. Hyc1r nnco o
ypono1nopno1 yconnnm l n 2. Hovaxom, n1o 1orpa o nnn-
o1cn nac1nnnwm npopoom. Eoarmom l,h, h l, 2, ... .
n vaxporo na1yparnoro h cymoc1nyo1 nomop n
h
1avo,
n1o o - l,h (coracno yconnm 2) n o - l,h
(coracno yconnm l). Tav vav pn moro h mnoxoc1no
comon1on r
n
panno nocopona1ornoc1n, pn vo1opwx nw-
nonnm1cn nopanonc1na o - l,h r
n
o - l,h ocvononno, 1o
nomopa n
h
moxno nocopona1orno (h l, 2, ...) nwpa1r 1av,
n1ow npn h
l
h
2
. E poayr1a1o mw noynnm
nopnocopona1ornoc1r { panno nocopona1ornoc1n
{r
n
. Ha nopanonc1na o - copyo1, n1o o,
1. o. n1o o nnno1cn nac1nnnwm npopoom nocopona1ornoc-
1n {r
n
.
Hovaxom 1onopr, n1o nnco o nnno1cn nanormnm nac-
1nnnwm npopoom. oc1nn1orno, ocn w namocn nac1nn-
nw npopo b nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
1avo, n1o b o, 1o,
IIm
n ~
r
n
r
n
h
r
n
h
n ~
IIm
r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
n
h
l
n
h
2
r
n
h
r
n
h
l
h
---
r
n
h
n ~
IIm
13
nwpan 0 1av, n1o o - b, noynnm, n1o na npomoxy1vo
(o - , -~) ypo1 naxopn1rcn ocvononno mnoro nonon
nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
(a nmonno non1n nco nonw nop-
nocopona1ornoc1n, cxopnmocn v b). 01o npo1nnoponn1
yconnm l.
VHPAHEHHH. 19. ovaaa1r, n1o, pn 1oro n1ow nocopona1ornoc1r
nmoa npopo (vononnw nn ocvononnw, pannw opnomy na cnmnoon
-~ nn -~), nooxopnmo n poc1a1onno, n1ow .
z0. ovaaa1r, n1o
-
n
) - .
z1. ovaaa1r, n1o
{ r
n
{ r
n
,
{ r
n
{ r
n
.
5.
lpe/e/ M enpep|acc| qykuMM
5.4. peMctsMteAonme ynkMM
Hpn naynonnn npooccon poarnoro mnpa (qnannocvnx, xn-
mnnocvnx, noornnocvnx, cvonomnnocvnx n nconoamoxnwx
ppyrnx) mw noc1onnno nc1ponaomcn c xapav1opnaymmnmn nx
nonnnnamn, monnmmnmncn n 1ononno paccma1pnnaomwx
npooccon. Hpn c1om nac1o wnao1, n1o namononnm opno
nonnnnw cony1c1nyo1 n namononno ppyro nn paxo, ooo
1oro, namononno opno nonnnnw nnno1cn npnnnno namo-
nonnn ppyro. Eaanmocnnanwo namononnn nnconwx xapav1o-
pnc1nv paccma1pnnaomwx nonnnn npnnopn1 v nx qynvno-
narno aanncnmoc1n n coo1no1c1nymmnx ma1oma1nnocvnx
moponx. Hoc1omy nonn1no qynvnn nnno1cn opnnm na ca-
mwx naxnwx nonn1n n ma1oma1nvo n oo npnoxonnnx.
E pannom vypco ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa ypy1 cnanaa
nayna1rcn 1orvo poc1nn1ornwo qynvnn opnoro poc1-
IIm
n ~
r
n
IIm
n ~
r
n
IIm
n ~
r (
n
IIm
n ~
r
n
IIm
n ~

n
IIm
n ~
r
n
In
n
sup
n . n
n ~
IIm sup
n . n
IIm
n ~
r
n
sup
n
In
n . n
n ~
IIm In
n . n
14
nn1ornoro aprymon1a, 1. o. qynvnn ]: X = R, rpo X ~ R n
X = C. Hoaanncnmwo n aanncnmwo nopomonnwo naawnam1cn n
c1om cynao oeucnoune.oum+u (oeecnoeuum+u) nopomon-
nwmn. 3a1om nonnn1cn qynvnn mnornx nopomonnwx, 1. o.
qynvnn, onpopoonnwo na novo1opom mnoxoc1no comon1on,
vaxpw na vo1opwx npopc1anno1 coo ynopnpononnym co-
novynnoc1r nnco. Bypy1 1avxo nayna1rcn qynvnn, npnnn-
mammno vomnovcnwo ananonnn, qynvnn, aprymon1amn vo-
1opwx nnnm1cn vomnovcnwo nnca, n ppyrno qynvnn o-
oo omo npnpopw.
O1mo1nm, n1o qynvnn, npnnnmammno nnconwo anano-
nnn (poc1nn1ornwo nn vomnovcnwo) naawnam1cn uuc.o
om+u nn cuo.npum+u.
Hap qynvnnmn, npnnnmammnmn nnconwo ananonnn,
moxno nponanopn1r paannnwo apnqmo1nnocvno onopann.
Ecn panw pno nnconwo qynvnn ] n g, onpopoonnwo na op-
nom n 1om xo mnoxoc1no X, a c - novo1opoo nnco (nn, vav
nac1o ronopn1, noc1onnnoo), 1o qynvnn c] onpopono1cn vav
qynvnn, npnnnmamman n vaxpo 1onvo r - X ananonno
c](r); qynvnn ] - g - vav qynvnn, npnnnmamman n
vaxpo 1onvo r - X ananonno ](r) - g(r); ]g - vav qynvnn,
n vaxpo 1onvo npnnnmamman ananonno ](r)g(r); navono,
],g - vav qynvnn, n vaxpo 1onvo r - X pannan ](r),g(r)
(n1o, vononno, nmoo1 cmwc nmr npn g(r) = 0).
Hnconan qynvnn ], onpopoonnan na mnoxoc1no X, na-
awnao1cn orpannnonno cnopxy (cnnay), ocn mnoxoc1no oo
ananonn orpannnono cnopxy (cnnay). Hnano ronopn, qynvnn
] orpannnona cnopxy (cnnay), ocn cymoc1nyo1 1avan noc1o-
nnnan M, n1o pn vaxporo r - X nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
](r) M (coo1no1c1nonno ](r) . M).
4ynvnn ], orpannnonnan na mnoxoc1no X vav cnopxy,
1av n cnnay, naawnao1cn npoc1o oepouuueuuou na c1om mno-
xoc1no. Ononnpno, n1o qynvnn ] orpannnona na mnoxoc1-
no X n 1om n 1orvo 1om cynao, ocn cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnc-
o M. 0, n1o pn vaxporo r - X nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
](r) M.
Eopxnnn (nnxnnn) rpanr mnoxoc1na ananonn Y
]
nnco-
no qynvnn ](r), onpopoonno na mnoxoc1no X, naaw-
nao1cn oeprueu (uuueu) epouov qynvnn ] n ooananao1cn
sup ], ], ](r) (In ], ], ](r)). sup
X
sup
r X
In
X
In
r X
1
Booo noppono c1o oananao1, n1o, nanpnmop, sup ], oc-
n, no-nopnwx, pn vaxporo r - X nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
](r) , n, no-n1opwx, pn moro cymoc1nyo1 1avoo
r

- X, n1o ](r

) . Hnpovc y comon1a mnoxoc1na X no-


vaawnao1, n1o on aanncn1 o1 nwopa nnca .
E npnnoponnom onpopoonnn nopxnnn (nnxnnn) rpanr
qynvnn moxo1 w1r vav vononno, 1av n ocvononno.
Coracno poayr1a1am n. 3.4, qynvnn ] orpannnona cnopxy
(cnnay) na mnoxoc1no X 1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa ona nmo-
o1 na c1om mnoxoc1no vononnym nopxnmm (nnxnmm) rpanr.
VHPAHEHHH. 1. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn ] no orpannnona cnopxy
(cnnay) na o1poavo [o, b, 1o cymoc1nyo1 1avan nocopona1ornoc1r 1onov r
n
-
- [o, b, n l, 2, ... , n1o -~ (coo1no1c1nonno -~).
z. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn no orpannnona na o1poavo, 1o cymoc1nyo1
1onva c1oro o1poava, n vaxpo ovpoc1noc1n vo1opo qynvnn no orpann-
nona. Cnpanopnno n c1o y1nopxponno pn nn1opnaa?
3. Hoc1pon1r npnmop qynvnn, onpopoonno na o1poavo n noorpannnon-
no na nom.
Bypom ronopn1r, n1o nnconan qynvnn ], onpopoonnan
na mnoxoc1no X, npnnnmao1 n 1onvo r
0
- X uouo.ouee :uo
ueuue (uou+euouee), ocn ](r) ](r
0
) (coo1no1c1nonno ](r) .
. ](r
0
)) pn vaxpo 1onvn r - X. E c1om cynao ypom nnca1r
](r
0
) ] nn ](r
0
) max ] (coo1no1c1nonno ](r
0
) ]
nn ](r
0
) mIn ]).
Hanormoo (nanmonrmoo) ananonno qynvnn naawnao1-
cn 1avxo oo +oucu+o.oum+ (+uuu+o.oum+) ananonnom.
Mavcnmarnwo n mnnnmarnwo ananonnn naawnam1cn ouc
npe+o.oum+u.
Ononnpno, n1o ocn qynvnn ] npnnnmao1 n 1onvo r
0
na-
normoo (nanmonrmoo) ananonno, 1o ](r
0
) sup ] (coo1no1-
c1nonno ](r
0
) In ]).
O1mo1nm omo, n1o ocn aapanw mnoxoc1na X, Y n coo1-
no1c1nno ], c1annmoo n coo1no1c1nno vaxpomy comon1y mnoxo-
c1na X opnnc1nonnw comon1 mnoxoc1na Y, 1o c1nm qynvnn
], onpopoonnan na mnoxoc1no X n c mnoxoc1nom ananonn, co-
popxamnmcn n mnoxoc1no Y, nonoc1rm onpopoona. E nac1-
noc1n, oapaannno, vavo yvno ooanann1r aprymon1 n
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm ] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
max
X
mIn
X
16
vavo - ananonno qynvnn. Tav, npn aapannom yvaaannom
coo1no1c1nnn ] aanncn ](r), r - X, - Y n t ](u), u - X,
t - Y, ooananam1 opno n 1o xo. Hanpnmop, Iog
o
r, r 0,
n r Iog
o
, 0 ooananam1 opny n 1y xo qynvnm.
Cpoaom n aavmnonno omo opno aamonanno. E cynao ov-
poc1noc1n 1onvn napnpy c nwpaxonnom qynvnn onpopoo-
na na ovpoc1noc1n ncnorayo1cn 1opmnn qynvnn onpopo-
ona n ovpoc1noc1n. E noponwx nwpaxonnnx npoporn n
n na nmom1 opnnavonw cmwc.
5.2. Cnocom soponMs ynkMM
E c1o rano naynam1cn 1orvo poc1nn1ornwo qynvnn op-
no poc1nn1orno nopomonno, 1. o. 1avno qynvnn ], n1o
]: X = R, X ~ R, X = C. Hoc1omy oc1anonnmcn apocr 1orvo
na cnocoax aapannn 1avnx qynvn.
Hpoxpo ncoro qynvnn mory1 aapana1rcn c nomomrm
qopmy: a n a n 1 n n o c v n c n o c o . n c1oro ncnor-
ayo1cn novo1opw aanac naynonnwx n cnonarno ooananon-
nwx qynvn, aropannocvno poc1nnn n npopornw no-
poxop. Hanpnmop, or - b, or
2
, sIn r, ,
l - .
Hpn c1om ncorpa nop qynvno, aapanno novo1opo qop-
myo, nonnmao1cn qynvnn, onpopoonnan na mnoxoc1no
ncox 1ox poc1nn1ornwx nnco, pn vo1opwx, no-nopnwx, yva-
aannan qopmya nmoo1 cmwc n, no-n1opwx, n npoocco npono-
ponnn ncox nooxopnmwx nwnnconn no c1o qopmyo noy-
nam1cn 1orvo poc1nn1ornwo nnca, npnnom ovonna1ornw
poayr1a1 nwnnconn pn pannoro nnca r na oac1n onpopo-
onnn paccma1pnnaomo qynvnn nnno1cn oo :uoueuue+ n
1onvo r. Tav, oac1rm cymoc1nonannn qynvnn ](r)
nnno1cn nn1opna (-l, l), xo1n c1a qynvnn npnnnmao1 po-
c1nn1ornwo ananonnn n na noynpnmo r -l (npn ncox r 0
ona panna nym, no npn r -l ananonno vopnn
nnno1cn cymoc1nonno vomnovcnwm nncom).
O1mo1nm, n1o npn 1avom onpopoonnn poc1nn1ornwo
qynvnn ](r) r n ](r) ( )
2
nmom1 paanwo oac1n onpo-
poonnn: nopnan onpopoona na mnoxoc1no ncox poc1nn1or-
l - r
2
Ig cos 2r
r - r
l - r
2
---------------------
l - r
2
r
17
nwx nnco, a n1opan - 1orvo na mnoxoc1no ncox noo1pna-
1ornwx.
Hnorpa qynvnn aapao1cn c nomomrm nocvorvnx qop-
my, nanpnmop
](r) (5.l)
4ynvnn moxo1 w1r aapana 1avxo npoc1o c nomomrm onn-
cannn coo1no1c1nnn. Hoc1annm n coo1no1c1nno vaxpomy nncy
r 0 nnco l, nncy 0 - nnco 0, a vaxpomy r 0 - nnco -l.
E poayr1a1o noynnm qynvnm, onpopoonnym na nco nnco-
no ocn n npnnnmammym 1pn ananonnn: l, 0 n -l. 01a qynv-
nn nmoo1 cnonarnoo ooananonno
l
sIgn r n moxo1 w1r aa-
nncana c nomomrm nocvorvnx qopmy:
sIng r (5.2)
pyro npnmop: vaxpomy panonarnomy nncy noc1annm
n coo1no1c1nno nnco l, a vaxpomy nppanonarnomy - nnco
nyr. Hoynonnan qynvnn naawnao1cn quuuueu ]upur.e
2
.
O1mo1nm, n1o ncnvan qopmya nnno1cn cnmnonnocvo
aanncrm novo1oporo onncannoro panoo coo1no1c1nnn, 1av n1o,
n vono vonon, no1 npnnnnnarnoro paannnn moxpy aapa-
nnom qynvnn c nomomrm qopmyw nn c nomomrm onnca-
nnn coo1no1c1nnn; c1o paannno nnc1o nnomnoo.
Copyo1 1avxo nmo1r n nnpy, n1o ncnvan nnonr onpopoon-
nan qynvnn, ocn pn noo nnoc1n cnonarnoo ooananonno,
moxo1 cyxn1r pn onpopoonnn ppyrnx qynvn c no-
momrm qopmy, nvmnammnx c1o1 nonw cnmno.
Ecn ponr npo1 o poc1nn1ornwx qynvnnx opnoro po-
c1nn1ornoro aprymon1a, 1o pn narnpnoro npopc1anonnn o
xapav1opo qynvnonarno aanncnmoc1n nac1o c1pon1cn rpa-
qnvn qynvn na vooppnna1no nocvoc1n (vooppnna1no
naawnao1cn nocvoc1r, na vo1opo aapana npnmoyrornan po-
vap1ona cnc1oma vooppnna1).
l
SIgnum (a1.) oananao1 anav.
2
7. npnxo (l805-l859) - nomovn ma1oma1nv.
2
r
pn r 0,
0 pn r 0,
r - l pn r 0.
l pn r 0,
0 pn r 0,
-l pn r 0.
1S
Ha omoro onpopoonnn rpaqnva qynvnn (cm. n. l.2

)
copyo1, n1o rpaqnv qynvnn ](r) (r n - nnca, r - X)
npopc1anno1 coo mnoxoc1no 1onov (r, ](r)), r - X, na voop-
pnna1no nocvoc1n nopomonnwx r n .
Tav, rpaqnv qynvnn (5.l) nmoo1 nnp, naopaxonnw na
pncynvo l8, rpaqnv qynvnn sIgn r (cm. qopmyw (5.2)) -
na pncynvo l9, a rpaqnv qynvnn l - coc1o-
n1 na o1pornwx 1onov, coo1no1c1nymmnx owm ananonnnm
aprymon1a r 0, l, 2, ... , 1av vav npn oc1arnwx anano-
nnnx aprymon1a nwpaxonno nop anavom papnvaa npnnnmao1
o1pna1ornwo ananonnn (pnc. 20).
Mnoxoc1no 1onov {(r, ): r - X, . ](r) naawnao1cn
uooepoquuo+ panno qynvnn ], a mnoxoc1no {(r, ): r - X,
](r) - oo nooepoquuo+.
Ipaqnnocvoo naopaxonno qynvnn 1avxo moxo1 cy-
xn1r pn aapannn qynvnonarno aanncnmoc1n. Hpanpa,
c1o aapanno ypo1 npnnxonno, no1omy n1o namoponno o1-
poavon npav1nnocvn moxno nponanopn1r nmr c onpopoon-
no c1ononrm 1onnoc1n. Hpnmopamn rpaqnnocvoro aapannn
qynvn, nc1ponammnmncn na npav1nvo, mory1 cyxn1r, na-
npnmop, novaaannn ocnorpaqa.
4ynvnm moxno aapa1r omo c n o m o m r m 1 a n ,
1. o. pn novo1opwx ananonn nopomonno r yvaaa1r coo1-
no1c1nymmno ananonnn nopomonno . annwo 1an mory1
w1r noynonw vav nonocpopc1nonno na onw1a, 1av n c no-
momrm 1ox nn nnwx ma1oma1nnocvnx pacno1on. Hpnmopamn
1avoro aapannn qynvn nnnm1cn orapnqmnnocvno 1an-
w 1pnronomo1pnnocvnx qynvn. Camo coo paaymoo1cn,
Ig cos 2r
r
l
l
-l
0

Pnc. l9 Pnc. 20

r
l
l
0
2 3 4 -l -2 -3 -4

r
l
l
-l
0
2
r
Pnc. l8
r - l
19
n1o qynvnn, aapannan c nomomrm 1anw, onpopoona na
vononnom mnoxoc1no 1onov.
Havono, npn nponoponnn nnconwx pacno1on na vomnrm-
1opax qynvnn aapam1cn c nomomrm nporpamm pn nx nw-
nnconnn npn nyxnwx ananonnnx aprymon1a nn 1poyomwo
ananonnn qynvnn n ro1onom nnpo aavapwnam1cn 1om nn
nnwm cnocoom n namn1r vomnrm1opa.
Paccmo1pnm ooo noppono novo1opwo cnonarnwo ana-
n1nnocvno cnocow aapannn qynvnn.
H o n n n w o q y n v n n. Hyc1r pano ypannonno nnpa
E(r, ) 0, (5.3)
1. o. aapana qynvnn E(r, ) pnyx poc1nn1ornwx nopomon-
nwx r n , n paccma1pnnam1cn 1orvo 1avno napw r, (ocn
onn cymoc1nym1), pn vo1opwx nwnonno1cn yconno (5.3).
Hyc1r cymoc1nyo1 1avoo mnoxoc1no X, n1o pn vaxporo
r
0
- X cymoc1nyo1 no vpano mopo opno nnco , ypono1no-
pnmmoo ypannonnm E(r
0
, ) 0. Ooanannm opno na 1avnx
nnco nopoa
0
n noc1annm oro n coo1no1c1nno nncy r
0
- X.
E poayr1a1o noynnm qynvnm ], onpopoonnym na mnoxo-
c1no X n 1avym, n1o E(r
0
, ](r
0
)) 0 pn ncox r
0
- X. E c1om
cynao ronopn1, n1o qynvnn ] aapao1cn nonnno ypannonnom
(5.3). Opno n 1o xo ypannonno (5.3) aapao1, noomo ronopn, no
opny, a novo1opoo mnoxoc1no qynvn.
4ynvnn, nonnno aapanaomwo ypannonnnmn nnpa (5.3),
naawnam1cn uenoum+u quuuun+u n o1nnno o1 qynvn,
aapanaomwx qopmyo, paapomonno o1nocn1orno nopomon-
no , 1. o. qopmyo nnpa ](r).
Topmnn nonnnan qynvnn o1paxao1 no xapav1op qynv-
nonarno aanncnmoc1n, a nmr cnoco oo aapannn. Opna n
1a xo qynvnn moxo1 w1r aapana vav nnno, 1av n nonnno.
Hanpnmop, qynvnn ]
l
(r) n ]
2
(r) - mory1
w1r aapanw 1avxo n nonnnwm opaaom c nomomrm ypanno-
nnn r
2
-
2
- l 0 n 1om cmwco, n1o onn nxopn1 n conovyn-
noc1r qynvn, aapanaomwx c1nm ypannonnom.
C o x n w o q y n v n n. Hanomnnm, n1o ocn aapanw
qynvnn ](r) n : E(), npnnom oac1r aapannn qynv-
nn E copopxn1 oac1r ananonn qynvnn ], 1o vaxpomy r
na oac1n onpopoonnn qynvnn ] oc1oc1nonnwm opaaom co-
l - r
2
l - r
2
160
o1no1c1nyo1 : 1avoo, n1o : E(), rpo ](r). 01a qynvnn,
onpoponoman coo1no1c1nnom : E[](r), naawnao1cn, vav na-
noc1no, c.ouou quuuueu nn uo+no:uuueu (cnepno:uuu
eu) qynvnn ] n E n ooananao1cn nopoa E], 1. o.
(E])(r) E(](r)).
Coxnan qynvnn o1paxao1 no xapav1op qynvnonar-
no aanncnmoc1n, a nmr cnoco oo aapannn: moxo1 cynn1r-
cn, n1o opna n 1a xo qynvnn moxo1 w1r aapana vav c no-
momrm vomnoann vavnx-no qynvn, 1av n oa nx nomo-
mn. Hanpnmop, coxnan qynvnn : 2

, Iog
2
(l - sIn
2
r),
aapannan c nomomrm cynopnoann novaaa1orno n ora-
pnqmnnocvo qynvn, moxo1 w1r aapana n oa c1o vomno-
annn: : l - sIn
2
r.
Hoponwm opaaom moxno paccma1pnna1r coxnwo qynv-
nn, nnnmmnocn vomnoanno ooo nom pnyx qynvn, na-
npnmop qynvnm u sIn Ig l - moxno paccma1pnna1r
vav vomnoannm copymmnx qynvn:
u sIn t, t Ig u, u l - :, : , .
5.3. OAeuentopnme ynkMM M Mx kAoccMMkoMs
4ynvnn: noc1onnnan c, c - vonc1an1a, c1ononn an r

,
novaaa1ornan o
r
(o 0), orapnqmnnocvan Iog
o
r
(o 0, o = l), 1pnronomo1pnnocvno sIn r, cos r,
Ig r, cIg r n opa1nwo 1pnronomo1pnnocvno arcsIn r,
arccos r, arcIg r, arccIg r - naawnam1cn ocuooum
+u o.e+eunopum+u quuuun+u.
Ecnuon quuuun, uonopon +oen mno noum+ opo:o+
:ooouo c no+oov qop+.m, cooepoeu .uuo uoueuuoe
uuc.o opuq+enuuecuur onepouuu u uo+no:uuuu ocuooumr
o.e+eunopumr quuuuu, uo:mooencn o.e+eunopuou quu
uueu.
Hop oac1rm cymoc1nonannn comon1apno qynvnn n
coo1no1c1nnn c omnm coramonnom o qynvnnx, aapannwx
qopmyamn (cm. n. 5.2), ownno nonnmam1 mnoxoc1no ncox
poc1nn1ornwx nnco r, pn vo1opwx, no-nopnwx, qopmya,

do

l
r
-------
,
_
l

---
r
161
aapamman paccma1pnnaomym comon1apnym qynvnm, nmoo1
cmwc n, no-n1opwx, n npoocco nponoponnn ncox nooxopn-
mwx nwnnconn no c1o qopmyo noynam1cn 1orvo poc1-
nn1ornwo nnca.
Ewmo paccmo1ponnwo qynvnn, aapanaomwo qopmyamn
or - b, or
2
, , l - ,
sIn In l - , (aamo1nm, n1o r -
comon1apnan qynvnn), nnnm1cn comon1apnwmn qynv-
nnmn.
0omon1apnwo qynvnn ownno pon1 na copymmno
vaccw.
l. M n o r o n o n w (n o n n o m w). K mnorononam o1no-
cn1cn qynvnn, vo1opwo mory1 w1r aapanw qopmyamn nnpa
P
n
(r) o
0
- o
l
r - ... - o
n
r
n
o
h
r
h
.
Hnca o
0
, o
l
, ... , o
n
naawnam1cn uooqquuueuno+u +uoeo
u.euo P
n
(r).
Ecn o
n
= 0, 1o nnco n naawnao1cn cneneuov oouuoeo
+uoeou.euo. Mnorononw nopno c1ononn naawnam1cn 1avxo
.uueuum+u quuuun+u. Mnoronon, y vo1oporo nco vocqqn-
non1w pannw nym, naawnao1cn u.eom+ +uoeou.euo+.
C1ononr mnorononon oapao1 1om cnoc1nom, n1o npn no-
pomnoxonnn nonyonwx mnorononon c1ononr nponanoponnn
panna cymmo c1onono comnoxn1oo. H1ow c1o cnoc1no co-
xpannocr n npn ymnoxonnn na nyono mnoronon, c1ononr
nyonoro mnoronona npnnnmam1 panno mnnyc ocvononnoc-
1n -~ n pn moro poc1nn1ornoro nnca r no onpopoo-
nnm cnn1am1 (cm. n. 3.l), n1o oro cymma c -~ panna -~: -~-
- r -~, n n1o (-~) - (-~) -~. E poayr1a1o c1nx cora-
monn c1ononr nponanoponnn mnorononon, na vo1opwx no
vpano mopo opnn nyono, ovaawnao1cn panno -~, 1. o.
cymmo c1onono comnoxn1oo.
2. P a n o n a r n w o q y n v n n (p a n o n a r n w o
p p o n). K c1omy vaccy o1nocn1cn qynvnn, vo1opwo mory1
w1r aapanw n nnpo
,
l - r
2
Ig cos 2r

l
r
-------
,
_
r - r
l - r
2
---------------------
r
2

h 0
n
P r ( )
Q r ( )
-------------
16z
rpo P(r) n Q(r) - mnorononw, npnnom Q(r) nonyono mno-
ronon.
3amo1nm, n1o vacc mnorononon copopxn1cn n vacco pa-
nonarnwx qynvn.
3. H p p a n o n a r n w o q y n v n n. Hppanonar-
no naawnao1cn qynvnn, no nnnmmancn panonarno, vo-
1opan moxo1 w1r aapana c nomomrm vomnoann vononnoro
nnca panonarnwx qynvn, c1ononn wx qynvn c pan-
onarnwmn novaaa1onmn n no1wpox apnqmo1nnocvnx poc1-
nn. Hanpnmop, qynvnn nnno1cn
nppanonarno qynvno.
4. T p a n c o n p o n 1 n w o q y n v n n. 0omon1apnwo
qynvnn, no nnnmmnocn nn panonarnwmn, nn nppan-
onarnwmn, naawnam1cn 1panconpon1nwmn comon1apnwmn
qynvnnmn. Moxno novaaa1r, n1o nco npnmwo n opa1nwo
1pnronomo1pnnocvno qynvnn n novaaa1ornan n orapnq-
mnnocvan qynvnn nnnm1cn 1panconpon1nwmn qynvnnmn.
E pannom vypco ananaa naynam1cn n ocnonnom poc1nn-
1ornwo qynvnn o1 opnoro nn nocvorvnx poc1nn1or-
nwx aprymon1on, noc1omy nmoc1o poc1nn1ornan qynvnn
ypom ronopn1r n nnca1r npoc1o qynvnn. E 1ox cynanx,
vorpa ypy1 paccma1pnna1rcn qynvnn ppyro npnpopw, c1o
ypo1 cnonarno oronapnna1rcn nn ncno na von1ovc1a.
5.4. Repsoe onpepeAenMe npepeAo ynkMM
Hopopom 1onopr v naynonnm opnoro na camwx ocnonnwx no-
nn1n ma1oma1nnocvoro ananaa - nonn1nm npopoa qynv-
nn. Hop 1onvamn ypom nonnma1r no vononnwo 1onvn,
no ocvononno ypaonnwo, 1. o. no poc1nn1ornwo nnc-
a, no opny na ocvononnoc1o ~, -~ nn -~. apnm cna-
naa onpopoonno npopoa qynvnn ] : X = R, X ~ R n 1op-
mnnax npopoon nocopona1ornoc1o. 01o onpopoonno nac1o
naawnam1 onpopoonnom npopoa qynvnn no Iono
l
.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Touuo o uo:mooencn npeoe.o+ quuuuu
] : X = R o nouue r
0
(u.u, uno no e, npu r = r
0
2
), ec.u
l
I. Iono (l82l-l88l) - nomovn ma1oma1nv.
2
3anncr npn r = r
0
nn1ao1cn: npn r, c1pomnmomcn v r
0
.
r - l ( ), r
2
- r ( )
5
163
o.n .vou noc.eoooone.ouocnu r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , u+ev
eu coou+ npeoe.o+ nouu r
0
, n. e. nouou, uno
r
0
, (5.4)
noc.eoooone.ouocno {](r
n
) u+een coou+ npeoe.o+ nouu o,
n. e.
o. (5.5)
E 1om cynao, vorpa o nnno1cn npopoom qynvnn ] n 1on-
vo r
0
, nnmy1
o nn ](r) = o npn r = r
0
,
a ocn r
0
- nnco: r
0
- R, 1o nnorpa nnmy1 1avxo
o.
E cnmnonnocvo qopmo onpopoonno npopoa qynvnn aann-
cwnao1cn copymmnm opaaom:
o
{\ r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , r
0
= o.
Hopnopvnom, n1o n onpopoonnn l r
0
n o mory1 w1r vav
poc1nn1ornwmn nncamn, 1av n ocvononnoc1nmn: ~, -~ n
-~. Ecn o n o - poc1nn1ornoo nnco, 1o
ronopn1, n1o n 1onvo r
0
qynvnn ] nmoo1 v o n o n n w
n p o p o (pannw o).
Onpopoonno npopoa npn aapanno qynvnn ] : X = R co-
popxa1orno, vononno, 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa pn 1onvn r
0
po-
c1nn1orno cymoc1nym1 nocopona1ornoc1n 1onov r
n
- X,
n l, 2, ... , nmommno cnonm npopoom (vononnwm nn ocvo-
nonnwm) 1onvy r
0
: r
0
.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Hcno X ~ R. Touuo r
0
, o.n uonopou c
ecnoen noc.eoooone.ouocno r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , u+ev
on coou+ npeoe.o+ nouu r
0
,
r
0
(5.6)
uo:mooencn nouuou npuuocuooeuun +uoecnoo X.
r
n
n ~
IIm
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
] r ( )
r - r
0
0
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm =
do
=
do
r
n
r ~
IIm ] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
164
Ecn 1onva npnvocnononnn r
0
mnoxoc1na X nnno1cn op-
no na ocvononnoc1o ~, -~ nn -~, 1o ona naawnao1cn
1avxo n ecuoueuuo oo.euuou nouuou npuuocuooeuun. Ono-
nnpno, n1o ocn r
0
~- ocvononno ypaonnan 1onva npn-
vocnononnn mnoxoc1na X, 1o ono no orpannnono, ocn r
0
-~
(r
0
-~) nnno1cn ocvononno ypaonno 1onvo npnvocno-
nonnn mnoxoc1na X, 1o ono no orpannnono cnopxy (cnnay).
Ononnpno, n1o man 1onva r
0
, npnnapoxaman camomy
mnoxoc1ny X, nnno1cn oro 1onvo npnvocnononnn, 1av vav
c1anonapnan nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
r
0
- X, n l, 2, ... ,
ypono1nopno1 yconnnm onpopoonnn 2: r
0
n r
n
- X,
n l, 2, ... . Ho, oayconno, y mnoxoc1n mory1 cymoc1nona1r n
vononnwo 1onvn npnvocnononnn, no npnnapoxamno c1nm mno-
xoc1nam. Tav, nanpnmop, 1onvn r o n r b nnnm1cn 1onvamn
npnvocnononnn nn1opnaa (o, b) n no copopxa1cn n nom.
VHPAHEHHE 4. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn 1onva r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo npnvoc-
nononnn mnoxoc1na X n X ~ Y ~ R, 1o 1onva r
0
nnno1cn n 1onvo npn-
vocnononnn mnoxoc1na Y.
3 a m o n a n n o l. Ho1pypno yopn1rcn, n1o novo1opan
1onva nnno1cn 1onvo npnvocnononnn pannoro mnoxoc1na
1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa man oo ovpoc1noc1r nopocovao1-
cn c c1nm mnoxoc1nom.
oc1nn1orno, ocn r
0
- 1onva npnvocnononnn mnoxo-
c1na X, 1o cymoc1nyo1 1avan nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
- X, n
l, 2, ... , n1o r
0
n, copona1orno, n mym ov-
poc1noc1r 1onvn r
0
nonapy1 nco nonw c1o nocopona1or-
noc1n nannnan c novo1oporo nomopa (a onn nnnm1cn 1onvamn
mnoxoc1na X).
Haoopo1, ocn n mo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
nmom1cn
1onvn mnoxoc1na X, 1o, nwpan pn vaxporo na1yparnoro n
vavym-no 1onvy n nonyc1om no yconnm nopocononnn
X U r
0
, n ooanannn oo nopoa r
n
, 1. o.
r
n
- X U r
0
, , n l, 2, ... ,
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
'

l
n
---
,
_
'

l
n
---
,
_
16
noynnm 1avym nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
, n1o r
n
= r
0
(cm.
aamonanno l n n. 4.2) n r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... . 01o n oananao1,
n1o r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na X.
n moro nonyc1oro mnoxoc1na X ~ R oro nopxnnn
rpanr sup X n nnxnnn rpanr In X nnnm1cn oro 1on-
vamn npnvocnononnn (onn mory1 w1r vononnwmn nn ocvo-
nonnwmn). 01o cpaay copyo1, n cny ommw l, na
onpopoonnn 4 nopxno rpann n onpopoonnn 5 nnxno rpa-
nn mnoxoc1na, 1av vav n c1nx onpopoonnnx 1poyo1cn, n1o-
w n mo ovpoc1noc1n coo1no1c1nymmo rpann mnoxoc1na
naxopnacr oro 1onva (n paxo c opno c1oponw o1 paccma1pn-
naomo rpann).
Ha onpopoonnn l npopoa qynvnn nonocpopc1nonno co-
pyo1, n1o n 1onvo npnvocnononnn cnooro mnoxoc1na onpopoo-
nnn qynvnn no moxo1 nmo1r pnyx paannnwx npopoon, 1. o.
yvaaannoo onpopoonno opnoananno.
aoo na onpopoonnn npopoa qynvnn copyo1, n1o ana-
nonnn, vo1opwo npnnnmao1 qynvnn n 1onvax, oxamnx nno
mo qnvcnponanno ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
, no nnnm1 nn
na cymoc1nonanno, nn na ananonno npopoa qynvnn n 1onvo
r
0
. Opaano ronopn, cymoc1nyo1 nn no1 npopo qynvnn n
panno 1onvo r
0
, a ocn cymoc1nyo1, 1o vavono oro ananonno,
nonoc1rm onpopono1cn ananonnnmn qynvnn na nopocono-
nnn U(r
0
) X mo ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
(nnnmmo-
cn 1onvo npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na X) c camnm c1nm mno-
xoc1nom.
oc1nn1orno, vavona w nn wa ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) n
vavona w nn wa nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... ,
r
0
, napo1cn 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o npn n n
0
, n - N,
ypo1 nmo1r moc1o nvmnonno r
n
- U(r
0
) X, a vononnoo nnc-
o nonon ](r
l
), ](r
2
), ... , ]( ) nocopona1ornoc1n {](r
n
)
no nnno1 nn na cymoc1nonanno oo npopoa, nn na oro anano-
nno, ocn on cymoc1nyo1.
Cnoc1na qynvnn, vo1opwo aanncn1 nmr o1 ananonn
qynvnn n mwx ovpoc1noc1nx paccma1pnnaomo 1onvn,
1onnoo ronopn, vo1opwo no monnm1cn npn nopoxopo v cyxo-
nnm qynvnn na nopocononno oo mnoxoc1na onpopoonnn c
mo ovpoc1noc1rm 1onvn, naawnam1cn .ouo.oum+u coou
'
r
n
n ~
IIm
'
r
n
0
166
cnoo+u quuuuu o oouuou nou
ue. Ha cvaaannoro copyo1, n1o
vav cymoc1nonanno npopoa n
1onvo, 1av n oro ananonno, ocn
on cymoc1nyo1, nnnm1cn o-
varnwmn cnoc1namn qynvnn
n c1o 1onvo.
Rp M ue p m. 4. Hyc1r
](r) . (5.?)
Mnoxoc1no X, na vo1opom onpopoona qynvnn (5.?), noy-
nao1cn na mnoxoc1na ncox poc1nn1ornwx nnco R ypaonn-
om na noro opnnnw: X R{l. Ewncnnm, cymoc1nyo1 nn
no1 npopo qynvnn ] (5.?) n 1onvo r
0
0.
Eoarmom vavym-no nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
- X, n
l, 2, ... , 1avym, n1o 0. Torpa na ocnonannn 1o-
opom n. 4.9 noynaom
l.
Tavnm opaaom, cymoc1nyo1 l, a 1av vav
on no aanncn1 o1 nwopa nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
= 0, r
n
- X,
n l, 2, ... , 1o cymoc1nyo1 n npopo l.
2. Paccmo1pnm (pnc. 2l) qynvnm
](r) sIn . (5.8)
Ona onpopoona na mnoxoc1no X R{0. Cnona nwncnnm,
cymoc1nyo1 nn no1 y qynvnn ] npopo n 1onvo r
0
0. Eoar-
mom pno nocopona1ornoc1n
r
n
n , n l, 2, ... .
Ononnpno, n1o 0, r
n
= 0, = 0 (yco-
nno r = 0 n pannom cynao oananao1, n1o r - X), ](r
n
)
sIn n 0, ]( ) sIn - 2n l, n l, 2, ... . Hoc1omy
Pnc. 2l

r 0
2r
2
- r - l
r - l
--------------------------------
r
n
n ~
IIm
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm
2r
n
2
- r
n
- l
r
n
- l
------------------------------------
2 IIm r
n
( )
2
-
IIm r
n
- l
n n
IIm r
n
- l
n
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
] r ( )
n ~
IIm
l
r
---
l
n
-------
r
n
l
,2 - 2n
-----------------------------
r
n
n ~
IIm r
n

n ~
IIm r
n

r
n


2
---
2
-
,
_
167
0 n ) l, a c1o oananao1, n1o npopoa
qynvnn (5.8) npn r = 0 no cymoc1nyo1.
3. Hyc1r
](r) .
Hapom npopo c1o qynvnn npn r = ~. Eo oac1rm onpo-
poonnn nnno1cn mnoxoc1no X R{ , - . Eann vavym-
no nocopona1ornoc1r r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , ~,
ypom nmo1r

l.
O1cmpa copyo1, n1o l.
VHPAHEHHE . ovaaa1r, n1o npopo no cymoc1nyo1, a
npopow n cymoc1nym1, n na1n nx.
Hpn paccmo1ponnn npopoon qynvnn nac1o npnxopn1cn
nmo1r poo c npopoamn cyxonn qynvn na 1om nn nnom
mnoxoc1no, 1. o. c npopoamn qynvn: noynammnxcn na
pannwx qynvn, paccmo1ponnom nx no na ncom mnoxoc1no,
na vo1opom onn aapanw, a na vavom-1o copopxamomcn n nom.
OnpepeAenMe 3. Hcno ] : X = R. Hpeoe. o nouue r
0
ce
uun ]
E
: E = R, E ~ X, quuuuu ] uo +uoecnoo E uo:moo
encn npeoe.o+ quuuuu ] no +uoecno E o onou nouue u
oo:uouoencn uepe:
.
Tavnm opaaom,
, (5.9)
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm ] r
n
(
n ~
IIm
r
2
- r - l
r
2
- 2
-----------------------------
2 2
r
n
n ~
IIm
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm
r
n
2
- r
n
- l
r
n
2
- 2
--------------------------------
n ~
IIm
l -
l
r
n
------
-
l
r
n
2
------
l -
2
r
n
2
------
---------------------------------
l
-
IIm
l
r
n

------
- IIm
l
r
n
2
-------
n ~ n ~
l - 2IIm
l
r
n
2
-------
n ~
-----------------------------------------------------------------
n ~
IIm
r
2
- r - l
r
2
- 2
-----------------------------
n ~
IIm
r
r
2
- l
----------------------
n -~
IIm
r
r
2
- l
----------------------
n -~
IIm
r
r
2
- l
----------------------
] r ( )
r r
0

r E
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

r E
IIm
do
]
E
r ( )
r r
0

IIm
16S
1. o. npopo qynvnn no mnoxoc1ny E ~ X no nnno1cn nonwm
nonn1nom no cpannonnm c npopoom qynvnn - c1o npoc1o
npopo n cmwco onpopoonnn l qynvnn, nnnmmocn cyxo-
nnom panno na novo1opoo mnoxoc1no E.
Hnorpa npn ooananonnn npopoa no mnoxoc1ny E nmoc1o
yvaaannn, n1o r - E, yno1ponm1cn pn vpa1voc1n ppyrno
ooananonnn, cmwc vo1opwx wnao1 ncon na von1ovc1a. Ha-
npnmop, npn E X {r
0
nnmy1 .
Honn1no npopoa qynvnn no mnoxoc1ny n 1onvo r
0
copop-
xa1orno 1orvo pn 1avoro mnoxoc1na E, pn vo1oporo 1onva
r
0
nnno1cn oro 1onvo npnvocnononnn (n c1om cynao ona nn-
no1cn, ononnpno, n 1onvo npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na X).
Vno1ponn 1opmnnoornm onpopoonnn 3, moxno cva-
aa1r, n1o npopo qynvnn n cmwco onpopoonnn l nnno1cn
oo npopoom n 1onvo r
0
no ncomy mnoxoc1ny onpopoonnn X
qynvnn ]:
.
E 1om cynao, ocn qynvnn ] aapana novo1opo qopmy-
o, nop nonnmao1cn npopo c1o qynvnn n 1onvo
r
0
no ncomy mnoxoc1ny ananonn X, pn vo1opwx yvaaannan
qopmya nmoo1 cmwc n pn vo1opwx n npoocco nponoponnn
ncox nwnnconn no c1o qopmyo noynam1cn 1orvo poc1-
nn1ornwo nnca (cm. n. 5.2).
Rp M ue p 4. Hyc1r ] - qynvnn npnxo (cm. n. 5.2),
1. o. qynvnn, pannan l na mnoxoc1no Q ncox panonarnwx
nnco n nym na mnoxoc1no I ncox nppanonarnwx nnco.
Torpa n 1onvo r
0
0 oo npopo no mnoxoc1ny panonarnwx
nnco panon l:
l,
a no mnoxoc1ny nppanonarnwx nnco - nym:
0.
] r ( )
r r
0
r = r
0
,
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm ] r ( )
r r
0

r X
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
] r ( )
r 0
r Q
IIm
] r ( )
r 0
r I
IIm
169
Ho ncomy xo mnoxoc1ny poc1nn1or-
nwx nnco (1. o. no mnoxoc1ny onpopoo-
nnn qynvnn npnxo) npopo oo n 1onvo
r
0
0 no cymoc1nyo1, 1av vav yxo cy-
moc1nonanno nn no1 npopoa nocopona-
1ornoc1n {](r
n
) npn n = ~ aanncn1 n
pannom cynao o1 nwopa nocopona1or-
noc1n {r
n
, c1pomnmocn v nym.
O1mo1nm copymmoo npoc1oo y1nopx-
ponno.
A E M M A 4. Ec.u ] : X = R, E ~ X, r
0
- nouuo npuuocuooe
uun +uoecnoo E u cecnoen npeoe. quuuuu
] o nouue r
0
(n. e. npeoe. no +uoecno X), no o onou nou
ue cecnoen u npeoe. quuuuu ] no +uoecno E u :uo
ueuun oour npeoe.oo pooum:
. (5.l0)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn pn mo nocopona1ornoc1n
r
n
- X, n l, 2, ..., r
0
nco nocopona1ornoc1n
{](r
n
) nmom1 opnn n 1o1 xo npopo o, 1o c1o aanopomo nopno n
pn mo nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
- E, n l, 2, ... ,
r
0
, 1av vav E ~ X.
O1mo1nm opnn nac1o nc1ponammncn cyna npopoa
qynvnn n 1onvo, vorpa npopo opo1cn no npovoo1o ov-
poc1noc1n (ona onpopoona nnxo) c1o 1onvn nn no nopoco-
nonnm npovoo1o ovpoc1noc1n c mnoxoc1nom onpopoonnn
paccma1pnnaomo qynvnn.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hpouo.onou oupecnuocnov nouuu r
0
uo:m
ooencn +uoecnoo, no.uoveecn oo.euue+ nouuu r
0
u:
ee oupecnuocnu.
Hpovoo1an ovpoc1noc1r 1onvn r
0
ooananao1cn nopoa (r
0
):
(r
0
) U(r
0
){r
0
. (5.ll)
E nac1noc1n, npovoo1an -ovpoc1noc1r 1onvn r
0
ooananao1
(r
0
,

).

r 0
l
Pnc. 22
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

r E
IIm ] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
r
n
n r
0

IIm
U
U
do
U
170
Rp M ue p 5. Paccmo1pnm qynvnm ](r) sIgn r (onpopo-
onno qynvnn sIgn r cm n n. 5.2). Eo rpaqnv naopaxon na
pncynvo 22. Kavona w nn wa ovpoc1noc1r nyn U(0), y
c1o qynvnn n 1onvo r
0
0, ononnpno, cymoc1nyo1 npopo
no npovoo1o ovpoc1noc1n (0):
l.
Emoc1o c 1om npopo no nco ovpoc1noc1n
U(0) n 1onvo r
0
0 y qynvnn sIng r no cymoc1nyo1, 1av vav,
nanpnmop, pn nocopona1ornoc1n
r
n
h l, 2, ... ,
nmoom 0 (n, copona1orno, nco oo nonw nannnan c
novo1oporo ypy1 oxa1r n aapanno ovpoc1noc1n U(0)), a no-
copona1ornoc1r sIgn r
n
no nmoo1 npopoa (na no1nwx moc-
1ax y noo c1on1 opnnnw, a na nono1nwx - nyn).
Paccmo1ponnwo npnmopw 4 n 5 novaawnam1, n nac1noc1n,
n1o opna n 1a xo qynvnn moxo1 no opnomy mnoxoc1ny nmo1r
npopo n novo1opo 1onvo, a no ppyromy no nmo1r npopoa n
1o xo 1onvo nn nmo1r, no ppyro.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ecn qynvnn ] n g onpopoonw n novo-
1opo ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, vpomo, w1r moxo1, camo
1onvn r
0
, n npn vaxpom r, npnnapoxamom npovoo1o ov-
poc1noc1n (r
0
): r - U(r
0
), onn npnnnmam1 pannwo ananonnn
](r) g(r), 1o 1orpa nx npopow no npovoo1o ovpoc1noc1n
(r
0
) opnonpomonno cymoc1nym1 nn no1, a ocn cymoc1nym1,
1o pannw moxpy coo:
](r) g(r),
no n nx onpopoonnn ynac1nym1 1orvo ananonnn qynvn n
1onvax npovoo1o ovpoc1noc1n (r
0
).
U
sIgnr
r 0
r 0 ( )
IIm
U

sIgnr
r 0
r U 0 ( )
IIm
, ocn n 2h,
0, ocn n 2h - l,
l
n
---
r
n
n ~
IIm
U
U
IIm
r r
0
r U(r
0
)
IIm
r r
0
r U(r
0
)
U
171
Ha c1om npoc1om aamonannn ocnonano npoou.o pocupm
nun ueonpeoe.euuocneu ouoo c no+oov coupoeuun opo
eu. Honcnnm oro na npnmopo.
Rp M ue p . Hapom
. (5.l2)
Hon1opnn paccyxponnn, anaornnnwo 1om, c nomomrm vo1o-
pwx w nwnncon npopo n npnmopo l, npnxopnm v nwpaxo-
nnm , 1. o. v noonpopoonnoc1n, n 1om camwm no noynaom
o1no1a nn na nonpoc o cymoc1nonannn npopoa (5.l2), nn na
nonpoc o oro ananonnn, ocn on cymoc1nyo1. Hoc1omy paccmo1-
pnm qynvnm
](r) ,
noynammymcn na qynvnn
g(r) ,
c1onmo nop anavom npopoa n nwpaxonnn (5.l2), covpamonn-
om npano nac1n panonc1na na r. 4ynvnn ] n g connapam1 n
npovoo1o ovpoc1noc1n (0, l) (-l,l){0 1onvn r
0
0 n no-
c1omy, coracno cpoannomy nwmo aamonannm, opnonpomonno
nmom1 nn no1 npopow n c1o 1onvo no yvaaanno npovoo1o
ovpoc1noc1n, npnnom n cynao cymoc1nonannn c1nx npopoon
onn pannw. E npnmopo xo l wo novaaano, n1o l no
nco oac1n onpopoonnn qynvnn ], copona1orno, n no oo
nopmnoxoc1ny (0, l). Tavnm opaaom,
g(r) ](r) ](r) l
(nopnoo panonc1no cnpanopnno n cny 1oro, n1o npopo nnn-
o1cn ovarnwm cnoc1nom qynvnn). 01n paccyxponnn nn-
nm1cn oocnonannom nwnnconn, vo1opwo n ownno yno1-
ponomo aanncn nmom1 copymmn nnp:
l.
0
0
---
IIm
r 0
2r
2
- r - l ( )r
r
2
- r
-----------------------------------------
0
0
---
2r
2
- r - l
r - l
--------------------------------
2r
2
- r - l ( )r
r
2
- r
-----------------------------------------
U
] r ( )
r 0
IIm
U
g r ( )
r 0
IIm IIm
r r
0
r U(0,l)
IIm
r r
0
r U(0,l)
IIm
r 0
r 0
IIm
2r
2
- r - l ( )r
r
2
- l
-----------------------------------------
r 0
IIm
2r
2
- r - l
r - l
--------------------------------
17z
3 a m o n a n n o 3. Hac1nwm cynaom npopoa qynvnn
(vononnoro nn ocvononnoro) nnno1cn npopo nocopona-
1ornoc1n (vononnw nn ocvononnw). oc1nn1orno, no-
copona1ornoc1r r
n
- R, n l, 2, ... , nnno1cn qynvno,
onpopoonno na mnoxoc1no na1yparnwx nnco: ] : N = R,
npnnom ](n) r
n
, n l, 2, ... . annoo panrmo onpopoonno npo-
poa nocopona1ornoc1n (cm. onpopoonno l n
n. 4.l) n onpopoonno oo npopoa vav nac1noro cynan onpopo-
onnn npopoa qynvnn (cm. onpopoonno l c1oro
nynv1a) pannocnrnw n cny 1oro, n1o ocn nocopona1or-
noc1r {r
n
nmoo1 npopo (vononnw nn ocvononnw) n cmwc-
o onpopoonnn l n. 4.l, 1o npn mom nwopo nocopona-
1ornoc1n na1yparnwx nnco {n
h
1avo, n1o -~,
nocopona1ornoc1r { nmoo1 1o1 xo npopo, n1o n noco-
pona1ornoc1r {r
n
(cm. ommy n n. 4.3), vav c1o n 1poyo1cn n
onpopoonnn l.
5.5. Henpepmsnme ynkMM
Hpn paccmo1ponnn npopoa qynvnn ] : X = R npn r = r
0
mo-
xo1 ovaaa1rcn, n1o r
0
- X (1orpa r
0
nnno1cn nncom: r
0
- R)
nn, naoopo1, n1o r
0
- X. Cyna r
0
- X npopc1anno1 oco-
w nn1opoc, 1av vav npnnopn1 v naxnomy nonn1nm nonpo-
pwnno qynvnn. Ero naynonno nannom c povaaa1orc1na co-
pymmo ommw.
A E M M A 2. Hcno ] : X = R u r
0
- X. Toeoo, o.n noeo unom
quuuun ] u+e.o npeoe. o nouue r
0
, ueoroou+o u oocno
nouuo, unom
](r
0
). (5.l3)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. oc1a1onnoc1r yconnn (5.l3) pn cy-
moc1nonannn npopoa qynvnn ] n 1onvo r
0
ononnpna: c1o yco-
nno paxo cnrnoo, 1av vav ono y1nopxpao1 no 1orvo cymoc1-
nonanno npopoa, no n onpopono1 oro ananonno, pannoo ](r
0
).
r
n
n ~
IIm
] n ( )
n ~
IIm
n
h
n ~
IIm
r
n
h
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
173
ovaxom nooxopnmoc1r yconnn (5.l3) pn cymoc1nona-
nnn npopoa qynvnn ] n 1onvo r
0
. Hyc1r y qynvnn ] n 1onvo
r
0
cymoc1nyo1 npopo, pannw o:
o. (5.l4)
Coracno onpopoonnm npopoa, c1o oananao1, n1o pn mo
nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , r
n
r
0
, cnpa-
nopnno panonc1no
o. (5.l5)
E nac1noc1n, nocvorvy r
0
- X, c1o panonc1no cnpanopnno n
pn c1anonapno nocopona1ornoc1n, coc1anonno na opno
1onvn r
0
, 1. o. pn nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
r
0
, n l, 2, ... .
E c1om cynao (5.l5) nmoo1 nnp
o. (5.l6)
C ppyro c1oponw, 1av vav npopo noc1onnno panon ca-
mo c1o noc1onnno, 1o
](r
0
). (5.l?)
Cpannnn (5.l6) n (5.l?), noynnm ](r
0
) o.
Onpoponm 1onopr nonn1no qynvnn, nonpopwnno n pan-
no 1onvo.
OnpepeAenMe 5. duuuun ] : X = R uo:mooencn uenpepmouou
o nouue r
0
- X, ec.u
](r
0
). (5.l8)
Vconno (5.l8) oananao1, n1o n cynao nonpopwnnoc1n
qynvnn n 1onvo r
0
npopo ] n c1o 1onvo naxopn1cn no ononr
npoc1omy npanny: copyo1 nwnncn1r ananonno camo qynv-
nn ] n 1onvo r
0
.
Coracno ommo 2, yconno (5.l8) pannocnrno 1omy, n1o
qynvnn ] : X = R nmoo1 npopo n 1onvo r
0
n n1o r
0
- X. Camo
coo paaymoo1cn, n1o n 1om cynao, vorpa pn qynvnn
] : X = R npopo panon opno na ocvononnoc1o
~, -~ nn -~, aanopomo r
0
X. E npo1nnnom cynao pn
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
IIm
n
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
] r
0
( )
n ~
IIm
] r
0
( )
n ~
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
-
174
c1anonapno nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
r
0
, n l, 2, ... , nmo-
o w moc1o ](r
0
), n 1av vav, no yc-
onnm, qynvnn ] npnnnmao1 1orvo nnconwo ananonnn, 1o
nonpovn npopnooxonnm npopo w w vonon-
nwm. Ha cvaaannoro copyo1, n nac1noc1n, n1o ocn y qynv-
nn n novo1opo 1onvo cymoc1nyo1 ocvononnw npopo, 1o n
no qynvnn aanopomo no nnno1cn nonpopwnno.
O1mo1nm omo, n1o n onpopoonnn 5 1onva r
0
, n vo1opo on-
popono1cn nonn1no nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn, npnnapoxn1
nncono npnmo R, 1. o. no nnno1cn ocvononno ypaonno
1onvo.
n nponoponnn ananaa nonn1nn nonpopwnnoc1n qynv-
nn n 1onvo papnm onpopoonnn naonponannwx n npopor-
nwx 1onov mnoxoc1n.
OnpepeAenMe . Touuo r
0
- X uo:mooencn u:o.upooouuou
nouuou +uoecnoo X ~ R, ec.u cecnoen oupecnuocno
U(r
0
) onou nouuu, nepeceueuue U(r
0
) X uonopou c +uoe
cnoo+ X cocnoun no.ouo u: oouou nouuu r
0
:
U(r
0
) X {r
0
. (5.l9)
Eco 1onvn mnoxoc1na na1yparnwx nnco N naonpona-
nw, a mnoxoc1no Q ncox panonarnwx nnco nonco no nmoo1
naonponannwx 1onov.
OnpepeAenMe 7. Touuo r
0
- R uo:mooencn npeoe.ouou nouuou
+uoecnoo X ~ R, ec.u o .vou ee oupecnuocnu ce
cnoen on.uuuon on uee nouuo, npuuoo.eoon +uoe
cno X.
Hnano ronopn, nouuo r
0
uo:mooencn npeoe.ouou nouuou
+uoecnoo X, ec.u ocnuon ee npouo.onon oupecnuocno
u+een c onu+ +uoecnoo+ uencnoe nepeceueuue: o.n .v
ou npouo.onou oupecnuocnu (r
0
) omno.unencn c.ooue
(r
0
) X = C.
Hpopornan 1onva mnoxoc1na moxo1 vav npnnapoxa1r
camomy mnoxoc1ny, 1av n no npnnapoxa1r. Hanpnmop, vax-
pan 1onva o1poava [o, b nnno1cn npoporno 1onvo nn1op-
naa (o, b). Hpn c1om 1onvn o n b no npnnapoxa1 yvaaannomy
nn1opnay, a nco oc1arnwo copopxa1cn n nom.
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm ] r
0
( )
n ~
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
'
'
U
U
'
17
Ecn 1onva npnnapoxn1 mnoxoc1ny, 1o, n cny onpopoo-
nn 6 n ?, ona nnno1cn oro naonponanno 1onvo 1orpa n
1orvo 1orpa, vorpa no nnno1cn oro npoporno 1onvo.
Ecnvan 1onva npnvocnononnn r
0
mnoxoc1na nnno1cn n-
o naonponanno 1onvo c1oro mnoxoc1na, no oro npopor-
no 1onvo, 1av vav no n mo ovpoc1noc1n copopxn1cn
1onva mnoxoc1na, o1nnnan o1 r
0
(1orpa r
0
- npopornan),
no y r
0
cymoc1nyo1 ovpoc1noc1r, no copopxaman no conna-
pammnx c r
0
1onov mnoxoc1na, n 1orpa, n poayr1a1o 1oro n1o
n c1o ovpoc1noc1n nco-1avn cymoc1nyo1 1onva mnoxoc1na
(nocvorvy 1onva r
0
no yconnm nnno1cn oro 1onvo npnvoc-
nononnn), c1o 1onvo ovaawnao1cn r
0
; copona1orno, no-
nopnwx, r
0
npnnapoxn1 paccma1pnnaomomy mnoxoc1ny, a
no-n1opwx, nnno1cn oro naonponanno 1onvo.
Cnpanopnno copymmoo npopoxonno.
A E M M A 3. Ecnuon quuuun uenpepmouo o uooou u:o.upo
oouuou nouue +uoecnoo cooeeo onpeoe.euun.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r r
0
- naonponannan 1onva mno-
xoc1na onpopoonnn X qynvnn ]. Torpa, coracno
onpopoonnm 6, cymoc1nyo1 ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, no-
pocononno vo1opo c mnoxoc1nom X coc1on1 na opnnc1nonno
1onvn r
0
, 1. o. U(r
0
) X {r
0
. Kavona w nn wa nocopona-
1ornoc1r r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , r
0
, pn yvaaanno
ovpoc1noc1n, n cny onpopoonnn npopoa nocopona1ornoc-
1n, cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nwnonno1cn nvmnonno r
n
- U(r
0
) n, copona1orno, nvm-
nonno r
n
- U(r
0
) X. Ho U(r
0
) X {r
0
, noc1omy pn ncox
n n
0
nmoom r
n
r
0
. 01o oananao1, n1o nannnan c nomopa
n
0
- l nocopona1ornoc1r {](r
n
) c1anonn1cn c1anonap-
no: ](r
n
) ](r
0
) npn n n
0
. Hoc1omy cymoc1nyo1 npopo
](r
0
), n1o, n cny nponanornoro nwopa nocopo-
na1ornoc1n r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , r
0
, oananao1 nw-
nononno yconnn (5.l8), 1. o. nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn ] n
1onvo r
0
.
Honpopwnnoc1r qynvnn n naonponanno 1onvo oanana-
o1, n1o n ma1oma1nvo oucupenuoe no.nencn uocnum+ c.uo
'
r
n
n ~
IIm
' '
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
r
n
n ~
IIm
176
e+ uenpepmouoeo. Hanpnmop, qynvnn, onpopoonnan nmr
na opno 1onvo, nn na pnyx 1onvax, nn, ooo omo, na m-
om vononnom mnoxoc1no 1onov, nnno1cn nonpopwnno. Ho-
npopwnno nnno1cn n comon1apnan qynvnn ](r) l -
- (cm. n. 5.2), onpopoonnan 1orvo pn oonnc-
onnwx ananonn aprymon1a r, 1. o. pn r 0, l, 2, ... , n
vo1opwx ona panna l (n oc1arnwx 1onvax nwpaxonno nop
anavom vopnn o1pna1orno n noc1omy qynvnn no onpopoo-
na). Ipaqnv c1o qynvnn coc1on1 na o1pornwx naonpo-
nannwx 1onov (0, l), (l, l), (-l, l), (2, l), (-2, l)... (cm.
pnc. 20).
Ha ommw 3 copyo1, n1o nonpoc o npopoo qynvnn n nao-
nponanno 1onvo mnoxoc1na oo onpopoonnn pomao1cn con-
com npoc1o: on ncorpa cymoc1nyo1 n panon ](r
0
). Hoc1omy no-
nn1no npopoa qynvnn (n nac1noc1n, oo nonpopwnnoc1r) co-
popxa1ornw nmr pn npopornwx 1onov mnoxoc1na
onpopoonnn qynvnn.
VHPAHEHHE 6. ovaaa1r, n1o qynvnn ] : X = R nonpopwnna n npo-
porno 1onvo r
0
- X mnoxoc1na X 1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa
](r
0
).
Hopono 1omy, vav paccma1pnnacn npopo qynvnn no
vavomy-no mnoxoc1ny, npnnapoxamomy oo oac1n onpo-
poonnn, moxno, n nac1noc1n, paccmo1po1r n nonpopwnnoc1r
qynvnn no coo1no1c1nymmomy mnoxoc1ny.
OnpepeAenMe 8. Hcno ] : X = R u r
0
- E ~ X. duuuun ] uo
:mooencn uenpepmouou o nouue r
0
no +uoecno E, ec.u
](r) ](r
0
).
Hnano ronopn, qynvnn ] uo:mooencn uenpepmouou o
nouue r
0
- E no +uoecno E, ec.u o onou nouue uenpe
pmouo ceuue ]
E
onou quuuuu uo +uoecnoe E:
]
E
(r
0
).
Ig cos 2r
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
r - X U(r
0
)
'
IIm
r r
0
r E
]
E
r ( )
r r
0

IIm
177
Hanpnmop, qynvnn npnxo ] (cm. npnmop 4 n n. 5.4) no-
npopwnna n 1onvo r
0
0 no mnoxoc1ny Q ncox panonarnwx
nnco, 1av vav
](r) l ](0),
n no nnno1cn n no nonpopwnno no mnoxoc1ny ncox poc1-
nn1ornwx nnco, 1av vav npopo n 1onvo r
0
0 no mnoxoc1-
ny ncox poc1nn1ornwx nnco y qynvnn npnxo npoc1o no
cymoc1nyo1. Ononnpno, n1o qynvnn npnxo no nnno1cn
nonpopwnno nn n vavo 1onvo nncono ocn.
Hpo qynvnm ] : X = R, nonpopwnnym n 1onvo r
0
- X n
cmwco onpopoonnn 5, moxno cvaaa1r, n1o ona nonpopwnna n
c1o 1onvo no mnoxoc1ny X.
5.. YcAosMe cyectsosonMs npepeAo ynkMM
Coracno onpopoonnm npopoa, qynvnn ] : X = R nmoo1
npopo n 1onvo r
0
, ocn, vavona w nn wa nocopona1or-
noc1r r
n
= r
0
, r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , nocopona1ornoc1r coo1-
no1c1nymmnx ananonn qynvnn {](r
n
) nmoo1 npopo (vonon-
nw nn ocvononnw), n c1n npopow no aanncn1 o1 nwopa
yvaaannwx nocopona1ornoc1o {r
n
, 1. o. nco nocopona-
1ornoc1n {](r
n
) nmom1, n npn 1om opnn n 1o1 xo, npopo o:
o. 01o ananonno o n nnno1cn npopoom qynvnn
] n 1onvo r
0
.
Hovaxom, n1o ocn npopnooxn1r nocvorvo monrmo, a
nmonno 1orvo cymoc1nonanno vononnoro nn onpopoonnoro
anava ocvononnoro npopoa y vaxpo paccma1pnnaomo no-
copona1ornoc1n {](r
n
), 1o yxo na opnoro c1oro copyo1, n1o
nco c1n npopow connapam1 n 1om camwm qynvnn ] n c1om
cynao nmoo1 npopo n 1onvo r
0
.
A E M M A 4. ].n noeo unom quuuun ] : X = R u+e.o uoueu
umu u.u onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo ecuoueuumu npeoe. o nouue
r
0
, no.nveucn nouuou npuuocuooeuun +uoecnoo X, ueo
roou+o u oocnonouuo, unom o.n .vou noc.eoooone.ouoc
nu r
n
= r
0
, r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , noc.eoooone.ouocno coon
IIm
r 0
r Q
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
17S
oencnovur :uoueuuu quuuuu {](r
n
) u+e.o uoueuumu
u.u onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo ecuoueuumu npeoe..
CA E pCI 8 H E. ].n noeo unom quuuun ] : X = R u+e.o
uoueuumu npeoe. o nouue r
0
, no.nveucn nouuou npuuocuo
oeuun +uoecnoo X, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo, unom o.n
.vou noc.eoooone.ouocnu r
n
= r
0
, r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , no
c.eoooone.ouocno coonoencnovur :uoueuuu quuuuu
{](r
n
) m.o crooneucn.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c / e | | |. Hooxopnmoc1r cqopmynpo-
nannoro n yconnnx ommw yconnn pn cymoc1nonannn npo-
poa qynvnn ] npn r = r
0
copopxn1cn n camom onpopoonnn
c1oro nonn1nn (cm. onpopoonno l n n. 5.4), n vo1opom y1-
nopxpao1cn cymoc1nonanno npopoa pn ncox pac-
cma1pnnaomwx nocopona1ornoc1o {r
n
.
ovaxom poc1a1onnoc1r yvaaannoro n ommo yconnn pn
cymoc1nonannn npopoa qynvnn. Hyc1r ] : X = R n pn m-
o nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
= r
0
, r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , noco-
pona1ornoc1r {](r
n
) nmoo1 npopo (vononnw nn onpopo-
onnoro anava ocvononnw).
Paccmo1pnm vavno-no pno nocopona1ornoc1n = r
0
n
= r
0
, - X, - X, n l, 2, ... . Torpa nocopona1ornoc1r
r
n
n l, 2, ... ,
1avxo nmoo1 cnonm npopoom (vononnwm nn ocvononnwm)
1onvy r
0
n r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... . Hoc1omy, coracno cpoan-
nomy npopnooxonnm, cymoc1nym1 npopow ),
) n , npnnom nocopona1ornoc1n {]( ) n
{]( ) nnnm1cn nopnocopona1ornoc1nmn nocopona1or-
noc1n {](r
n
), no nocopona1ornoc1n { n { nnnm1cn
nopnocopona1ornoc1nmn nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
.
Ecnomnnm 1onopr, n1o ocn y novo1opo nocopona1or-
noc1n nmoo1cn npopo (vononnw nn ocvononnw), 1o m-
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
r
n

r
n
r
n
r
n

ocn n 2n - l,
, ocn n 2n,
r
n
,
r
n

] r
n
(
n ~
IIm
] r
n
(
n ~
IIm ] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm r
n

r
n

r
n
r
n

179
an oo nopnocopona1ornoc1r nmoo1 1o1 xo npopo (cm.
n. 4.3). Hoc1omy
) , ) ,
o1vypa
) ).
Tavnm opaaom, npopow nocopona1ornoc1o {](r
n
), rpo
r
n
= r
0
, r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , no aanncn1 o1 nwopa nocopona-
1ornoc1o {r
n
. Ooananan omoo ananonno npopoon noco-
pona1ornoc1o {](r
n
) nopoa o ypom nmo1r, coracno onpopo-
onnm l n. 5.4, n1o o.
V1nopxponno copc1nnn nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 na
ommw 4 (nanomnnm, n1o 1opmnn cxopnmancn nocopona-
1ornoc1r yno1pono1cn 1orvo pn nocopona1ornoc1o,
nmommnx vononnw npopo).
5.7. 8topoe onpepeAenMe npepeAo ynkMM
Cymoc1nyo1 ppyroo onpopoonno npopoa qynvnn, no nc-
noraymmoo nonn1no npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n, a qopmy-
npyomoo n 1opmnnax ovpoc1noc1o n naawnaomoo onpopoo-
nnom npopoa qynvnn no Komn. 01o onpopoonno panno-
cnrno onpopoonnm l n n. 5.4.
OnpepeAenMe . Touuo o uo:mooencn npeoe.o+ quuuuu ] :
X = R npu r = r
0
(u.u, uno no e, o nouue r
0
), ec.u o.n
.vou oupecnuocnu U(o) nouuu o cecnoen nouon ou
pecnuocno U(r
0
) nouuu r
0
, uno
](X U(r
0
)) ~ U(o). (5.20)
Hpopo qynvnn no Komn 1avxo ypom ooanana1r nopoa
. 01o oc1oc1nonno, 1av vav nonn1no npopoa qynv-
nn no Komn, vav c1o wo o1monono nwmo n ypo1 ncvopo
povaaano, cvnnnaon1no panoo pannomy n n. 5.4 onpopoonnm
npopoa qynvnn.
] r
n
(
n ~
IIm ] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm ] r
n
(
n ~
IIm ] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
] r
n
(
n ~
IIm ] r
n
(
n ~
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
'
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
1S0
Pncynov 23 nmc1pnpyo1 onpo-
poonno 9 n cynao, vorpa r
0
n o -
poc1nn1ornwo nnca, a mnoxoc1no
X nnno1cn npovoo1o ovpoc1no-
c1rm 1onvn r
0
.
Hcnorayn ornnocvno cnmnow,
onpopoonno 9 moxno aannca1r n co-
pymmom nnpo:
o
\ U(o) U(r
0
): ](X U(r
0
)) ~ U(o).
Pacmnqponwnan nopponoo nvmnonno (5.20), onpopoo-
nno 9 moxno cqopmynpona1r copymmnm opaaom.
Touuo o uo:mooencn npeoe.o+ quuuuu ] : X = R npu
r = r
0
, ec.u o.n .vou oupecnuocnu U(o) nouuu o cecn
oen nouon oupecnuocno U(r
0
) nouuu r
0
, uno o.n .vou
nouuu
r - X U(r
0
) (5.2l)
omno.unencn ou.vueuue
](r) - U(o). (5.22)
Hcnorayn ornnocvno cnmnow, c1o onpopoonno moxno
aannca1r copymmnm opaaom:
o
\ U(o) U(r
0
) \ r - X U(r
0
): ](r) - U(o). (5.23)
Ecnomnnan onpopoonnn ovpoc1noc1o vononnwx n ocvo-
nonno ypaonnwx 1onov, onpopoonno 9 moxno n vaxpom
vonvpo1nom cynao nopoqpaanpona1r n 1opmnnax nopanonc1n.
Cqopmynpyom cnanaa n 1avom nnpo onpopoonno vononnoro
npopoa n vononno 1onvo.
9uc.o o uo:mooencn npeoe.o+ quuuuu ] o nouue r
0
- R,
ec.u o.n .voeo 0 cecnoen nouoe 0
l
, uno o.n
ocer r, ooo.enoopnvur c.ooun+ r - r
0
, r - X, om
no.unencn uepooeucnoo ](r) - o .
l
Hnorpa nnmy1 () 0, n1ow nopnopvny1r, n1o nwop aanncn1 o1 .

r 0
o
o -
o -
r
0
- r
0
- r
0
Pnc. 23
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm =
do
=
do '
'
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm =
do
=
do
'
1S1
E ornnocvnx cnmnoax c1o onpopoonno nwrnpn1 co-
pymmnm opaaom:
o - R
\ 0 0 \ r - X, r - r
0
: ](r) - o .
E nac1noc1n, ocn qynvnn ] nonpopwnna n 1onvo r
0
- X ~ R
n o ](r
0
) (n c1om cynao r
0
n o nnnm1cn nncamn), 1o onpo-
poonno nonpopwnnoc1n n cnmnonnocvo aanncn nmoo1 nnp
](r
0
) =
= \ 0 0 \ r - X, r - r
0
: ](r) - ](r
0
) .
Hpnnopom npnmop onpopoonnn ocvononnwx npopoon n
1opmnnax nopanonc1n. Hanpnmop, aanncr -~ pn
qynvnn ] : X = R oananao1, n1o pn moro 0 cymoc1nyo1
1avoo 0, n1o pn ncox r, ypono1nopnmmnx yconnm r ,
r - X, nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no ](r) -.
C nomomrm ornnocvnx cnmnoon c1o onpopoonno aann-
cwnao1cn copymmnm opaaom:
-~ \ 0 0 \ r - X, r : ](r) -.
Ha cvaaannoro copyo1, n1o mory1 nc1pona1rcn paannnwo
cono1annn nopoxopa v npopornwm ananonnnm (vav vononnwm,
1av n ocvononnwm) aanncnmwx n noaanncnmwx nopomonnwx.
4opmynponva onpopoonnn npopoa qynvnn pn vaxporo o1-
pornoro cynan n 1opmnnax nopanonc1n, nn, vav omo nnorpa
ronopn1, na nawvo n , xo1n nac1o n yponoo n vonvpo1nwx
cn1yannx, xyxo npncnocoona v pomonnm omnx nonpocon,
nom onpopoonno npopoa qynvnn n 1opmnnax ovpoc1noc1o,
1av vav 1poyo1 nponoponnn cnonarnwx povaaa1orc1n o1-
porno pn vaxporo cynan n coo1no1c1nnn c panno qopmy-
nponvo onpopoonnn. Hoc1omy yponoo ncnoraona1r onpo-
poonno 9, oxna1wnammoo nco vonvpo1nwo cynan.
Hopopom 1onopr v cpannonnm onpopoonn npopoa
qynvnn no Iono (onpopoonno l) n no Komn (onpopoonno 9).
I E O F E M A 4. Onpeoe.euun l u 9 npeoe.o quuuuu o nouue
npuuocuooeuun +uoecnoo onpeoe.euun quuuuu ououoo
.eunum.
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm =
do
=
do
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
] r ( )
r -~
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm =
do
1Sz
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. ovaxom cnanaa, n1o ocn qynvnn
nmoo1 n novo1opo 1onvo npopo n cmwco onpopoonnn l, 1o
ona nmoo1 1o1 xo camw npopo n c1o 1onvo n n cmwco
onpopoonnn 9. Hyc1r ] : X = R, r
0
- 1onva npnvocnononnn
mnoxoc1na X n o n cmwco onpopoonnn l. Hova-
xom, n1o 1orpa nwnonno1cn n yconno n npano nac1n qop-
myw (5.23).
onyc1nm, n1o c1o no 1av, 1. o. n1o
U(o) \ U(r
0
) r - X U(r
0
): ](r) - U(o), (5.24)
nn, nnano ronopn, napo1cn 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U(o) 1onvn o,
n1o n mo ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
cymoc1nyo1 1onva
r - X, ananonno qynvnn ](r) n vo1opo no npnnapoxn1 v
ovpoc1noc1n U(o). E nac1noc1n, yvaaannwo 1onvn r napy1cn
n vaxpo ovpoc1noc1n U r
0
, . Ooanannm nx nopoa r
n
, 1. o.
r
n
- X U r
0
, , (5.25)
](r
n
) - U(o), n l, 2, ... . (5.26)
Ha yconnn (5.25) copyo1, n1o
r
0
(5.2?)
(cm. aamonanno l n n. 4.2). Hocvorvy o n cmwco
onpopoonnn l, 1o pn mo nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
= r
0
,
n l, 2, ... , nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no o. Coracno
onpopoonnm npopoa nocopona1ornoc1n, c1o oananao1, n1o
pn mo ovpoc1noc1n U(o), n nac1noc1n n pn nwpanno
nwmo, cymoc1nyo1 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomopon n n
0
nmoo1 moc1o
](r
n
) - U(o). (5.28)
01o npo1nnoponn1 yconnm (5.26). Hoynonnoo npo1nnoponno
povaawnao1 cpoannoo y1nopxponno.
Tonopr povaxom, n1o ocn qynvnn nmoo1 n novo1opo
1onvo npopo n cmwco onpopoonnn 9, 1o ona nmoo1 n c1o
1onvo 1o1 xo camw npopo n n cmwco onpopoonnn l. Hyc1r
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
'

l
n
---
,
_
'

l
n
---
,
_
r
n
n ~
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
1S3
o n cmwco onpopoonnn 9 npopoa qynvnn,
] : X = R, r
0
- 1onva npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na X, n nyc1r
r
n
= r
0
, r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... . (5.29)
Hovaxom, n1o 1orpa
o, (5.30)
1. o. 1onva o nnno1cn n npopoom qynvnn ] n cmwco
onpopoonnn l.
3apapnm nponanornym ovpoc1noc1r U(o) 1onvn o n nwo-
pom pn noo ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, ypono1nopnmmym
yconnnm (5.2l)-(5.22). n c1o ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
), n cny
yconnn (5.29), napo1cn 1avo nomop n
0
, n1o pn ncox nomo-
pon n n
0
ypo1 nwnonn1rcn nvmnonno r
n
- X U(r
0
). Ho
1orpa, n cny (5.22), nmoom ](r
n
) - U(o). 01o n oananao1 nw-
nononno yconnn (5.30).
Hpopo qynvnn, vav c1o wo o1monono n n. 5.4, nnno1-
cn ovarnwm cnoc1nom qynvnn n 1om cmwco, n1o oro cy-
moc1nonanno pn qynvnn n panno 1onvo (a ocn on cymoc1-
nyo1, 1o n oro ananonno) no aanncn1 o1 cyxonnn qynvnn na
nopocononno mo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
c mnoxoc1nom onpo-
poonnn aapanno qynvnn. 01o xopomo 1avxo nnpno n na
onpopoonnn 9: ocn aapa1r nponanornym ovpoc1noc1r
U
0
(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
n poann1r n onpopoonno 9 pononn1ornoo
yconno, coc1onmoo n 1om, n1o nco ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
), cymoc1-
nonanno vo1opwx 1am y1nopxpao1cn, poxnw vpomo ncoro
nponoro copopxa1rcn n ovpoc1noc1n U
0
(r
0
):
U(r
0
) ~ U
0
(r
0
),
1o noynn1cn onpopoonno, pannocnrnoo ncxopnomy. o-
c1nn1orno, ocn yconno (5.23) nwnonno1cn pn novo1opo
ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, 1o ono nwnonno1cn n pn mo
copopxamocn n no ovpoc1noc1n c1o 1onvn.
E aavmnonno o1mo1nm, n1o nop npopoom qynvnn n pan-
no 1onvo ownno nonnmao1cn vononnw npopo, ocn no oro-
nopono n1o-no ppyroo, a nopoa , vorpa nnnoro no
cvaaano o mnoxoc1no, no vo1opomy opo1cn npopo, ooanana-
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
] r
n
( )
n ~
IIm
'
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
1S4
o1cn vononnw nn ocvononnw npopo n 1onvo r
0
no ncomy
mnoxoc1ny onpopoonnn qynvnn ].
VHPAHEHHE 7. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn P(r) - mnoronon c1ononn n . l,
1o ~, ~.
Onpopoonno npopoa qynvnn n 1onvo oa 1pypa moxno
oomn1r n na qynvnn, y vo1opwx vav mnoxoc1na nx anano-
nn, 1av n mnoxoc1na nx onpopoonn npnnapoxa1 pacmnpon-
nomy mnoxoc1ny poc1nn1ornwx nnco R F ' {-~ ' {-~,
1. o. na qynvnn nnpa ] : X = R, X ~ R. Hn1a1or n cynao
nooxopnmoc1n camoc1on1orno cqopmynpyo1 coo1no1c1nym-
mno onpopoonnn.
5.8. RpepeA ynkMM no o6epMnenMm unoxects
ovaxom omo opno npoc1oo, no nooanoo pn parnomoro
cnoc1no npopoon qynvn no mnoxoc1nam.
A E M M A 5. Hcno ] : X = R, X
l
~ X, X
2
~ X, X
l
= C, X
2
= C,
u nouuo r
0
no.nencn nouuou npuuocuooeuun +uoecno
X
l
u X
2
.
Toeoo ec.u o nouue r
0
quuuun ] u+een pooume npeoe
.m (uoueuume u.u ecuoueuume) no +uoecnoo+ X
l
u X
2
,
no ouo u+een o onou nouue non e npeoe. u no ur oe
ouueuuv.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn
o, (5.3l)
1o pn mo ovpoc1noc1n U(o) 1onvn o cymoc1nyo1 1avan ov-
poc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o opaaw oo nopocononn X
l

U(r
0
) n X
2
U(r
0
) c mnoxoc1namn X
l
n X
2
copopxa1cn n ov-
poc1noc1n U(o), a 1orpa n opaa nx o+opnnonnn (X
l
' X
2
)
U(r
0
) 1avxo copopxn1cn n ovpoc1noc1n U(o). 01o n oanana-
o1, n1o
o.
Rp M ue p. Ecn {r
n
- 1avan nocopona1ornoc1r, n1o
o n o - no poc1nn1ornoo nnc-
P r ( )
r -~
IIm P r ( )
r -~
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0

r X
l

IIm ] r ( )
r r
0

r X
2

IIm
'
' '
'
'
] r ( )
r r
0

r X
l
X
2

IIm
'
r
2h
h ~
IIm r
2h - l
h ~
IIm
1S
o, no opna na ocvononnoc1o ~, -~ nn -~, 1o n
o. 01o cpaay copyo1 na ommw 5, ocn paccmo1po1r
qynvnm ](n) r
n
, n - N, n nooxn1r X
l
{2h, X
2
{2h - l,
h l, 2, ... .
5.. OpnoctoponnMe npepeAm
M opnoctoponnss nenpepmsnocto
Hpn naynonnn qynvn nnorpa ovaawnao1cn nooanwm pac-
cmo1po1r npopow nx cyxonn na mnoxoc1nax, coo1no1c1nym-
mnx nac1nomy cynam, vorpa c1n mnoxoc1na nnnm1cn nac1n-
mn mnoxoc1n onpopoonnn pannwx qynvn, oxamnmn no
opny c1opony o1 1onvn, n vo1opo paccma1pnnao1cn npopo.
Tavno npopow naawnam1cn oouocnopouuu+u npeoe.o+u.
01o nonn1no copopxa1orno nmr 1orpa, vorpa poc1nn1or-
no cymoc1nym1 yvaaannwo mnoxoc1na, vav c opno, 1av n c
ppyro c1oponw o1 1onvn r
0
, n vo1opo paccma1pnnao1cn npo-
po. E 1om cynao, ocn 1onva r
0
nnno1cn opno na ocvonon-
noc1o ~, -~ nn -~, c1o aanopomo nonoamoxno. Hoc1omy n
nac1onmom nynv1o n parnomom ypom ncorpa npopnoara1r,
n1o r
0
- poc1nn1ornoo nnco: r
0
- R. Enopom pn ynpomo-
nnn aanncn novo1opwo ooananonnn.
n ncnvoro mnoxoc1na X ~ R n pn 1onvn r
0
- R nooxnm
X

(r
0
) {r : r - X, r r
0
,
X
.
(r
0
) {r : r - X, r . r
0
.
Hnano ronopn, mnoxoc1no X
.
(r
0
), coo1no1c1nonno X

(r
0
),
nnno1cn nopocononnom mnoxoc1na X c aamvny1wm ynom
nncono ocn, nopmnno vo1oporo nnno1cn 1onva r
0
n vo1o-
pw nanpanon n (o1pna1ornom) nooxn1ornom nanpano-
nnn.
OnpepeAenMe 40. Hcno ] : X = R n r
0
- R. Touuo o uo:moo
encn npeoe.o+ quuuuu ] c.eoo, coonoencnoeuuo cnpooo,
npu r = r
0
, ec.u ouo no.nencn npeoe.o+ npu r = r
0
quu
uuu ] no +uoecno X

(r
0
), n. e.
o,
r
n
n ~
IIm

do

do
] r ( )
r r
0

r X

r
0
( )
IIm
1S6
coonoencnoeuuo no +uoecno X
.
(r
0
), n. e.
o.
n npopoon cona n cnpana qynvnn ] no mnoxoc1ny
X{r
0
nmom1cn cnonarnwo ooananonnn: npopo cona oo-
ananao1cn ](r
0
- 0) nn , a npopo cnpana - ](r
0
- 0)
nn . Tavnm opaaom,
](r
0
- 0) ](r), (5.32)
](r
0
- 0) ](r). (5.33)
Ecn r
0
0, 1o nmoc1o 0 - 0 (nmoc1o 0 - 0) n cynao npopo-
on qynvn, vav n n cynao npopoon nocopona1ornoc1o
(cm. n. 4.l), nnmy1 npoc1o -0 (coo1no1c1nonno -0).
Hpopow cona n cnpana naawnam1cn oouocnopouuu+u
npeoe.o+u. Ecn xo 1onva r
0
nnno1cn nopxno rpanrm pn
mnoxoc1na X

(r
0
){r
0
n nnxno rpanrm pn X
.
(r
0
){r
0

(X - mnoxoc1no onpopoonnn qynvnn ]):


r
0
sup (X

(r
0
){r
0
) In (X
.
(r
0
){r
0
),
1o ownnw npopo qynvnn ] npn r = r
0
naawnao1cn 1avxo
n oo oocnopouuu+ npeoe.o+.
Hpn onpopoonnn opnoc1oponnnx npopoon ypono ncnor-
aona1r nonn1no opnoc1oponnnx ovpoc1noc1o 1onvn: no-
pocononnn U(r
0
) {r : r . 0 n U(r
0
)

{r : r 0, rpo U(r
0
) -
novo1opan ovpoc1noc1r 1onvn r
0
, naawnam1cn oo opnoc1o-
ponnnmn ovpoc1noc1nmn (coo1no1c1nonno npanoc1oponno n
onoc1oponno). Hcno, n1o onpopoonno opnoc1oponnoro npo-
poa qynvnn noynn1cn na onpopoonnn npopoa qynvnn,
ocn n nom ovpoc1noc1r 1onvn r
0
aamonn1r na oo coo1no1c1ny-
mmym opnoc1oponnmm ovpoc1noc1r. O1mo1nm, n1o nopocono-
nnn (r
0
) {r : r . r
0
n (r
0
)

{r
0
: r r
0
, rpo (r
0
) -
novo1opan npovoo1an ovpoc1noc1r 1onvn r
0
, naawnam1cn oo
] r ( )
r r
0

r X
.
r
0
( )
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0
- 0
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0
- 0
IIm
] r ( )
r r
0
- 0
IIm
do
IIm
r r
0
r X

(r
0
){r
0

] r ( )
r r
0
- 0
IIm IIm
r r
0
r X
.
(r
0
){r
0

' '
U
'
U
'
U
1S7
npovoo1wmn opnoc1oponnnmn ovpoc1noc1nmn (coo1no1c1non-
no npanoc1oponno n onoc1oponno).
E vanoc1no npnmopa opnoc1oponnnx npopoon paccmo1pnm
qynvnm sIgn r (cm. npnmop n n. 5.2 n pnc. l9). Hyc1r
r
n
0, 0, n l, 2, ... , n r
n
0. Torpa
sIgn r
n
l l,
sIgn (-l) -l.
01o oananao1, n1o sIgn r l n sIgn r -l.
Honn1no npopoa cona (cnpana) npn r = r
0
, vav n noomo
nonn1no npopoa n 1onvo, copopxa1orno 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa
1onva r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na, no vo-
1opomy opo1cn npopo, n pannom cynao mnoxoc1na X

(r
0
)
(mnoxoc1na X
.
(r
0
)). Kaxpoo na c1nx mnoxoc1n oxn1 no op-
ny c1opony o1 1onvn r
0
, noc1omy ona nnno1cn nx 1onvo npn-
vocnononnn 1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa r
0
sup X

(r
0
) n, co-
o1no1c1nonno, r
0
In X
.
(r
0
).
I E O F E M A 2. duuuun ] : X = R u+een npeoe. o nouue r
0

sup X

(r
0
) In X
.
(r
0
), X

(r
0
) = C, X
.
(r
0
) = C, o no+ u
no.ouo no+ c.uoe, uoeoo o onou nouue quuuuu ] c
ecnovn npeoe.m uou c.eoo, nou u cnpooo u ouu pooum.
E ono+ c.uoe ur oee :uoueuue u no.nencn npeoe.o+
quuuuu o nouue r
0
.
C A E p C I 8 H E. ].n noeo unom quuuuu ] : X = R c
ecnoooo. o nouue r
0
oocnopouuuu npeoe. no +uoecno
X{r
0
, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo, unom cecnoooo.u u
m.u pooum +eo coou oouocnopouuue npeoe.m ](r
0
- 0) u
](r
0
- 0).
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c p e | |. E camom poo, nyc1r
] : X = R, r
0
sup X

(r
0
) In X
.
(r
0
) n ](r) o, 1. o.
y qynvnn ] cymoc1nyo1 npopo (no mnoxoc1ny X) n 1onvo r
0
.
Ho 1orpa n c1o 1onvo 1o1 xo npopo cymoc1nyo1 n y oo cyxo-
r
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
r
n

IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
r
n
IIm
n
IIm
r - 0
IIm
r - 0
IIm
r r
0
1SS
nnn no momy mnoxoc1ny (cm. ommy l
n n. 5.4), n nac1noc1n n no mnoxoc1nam
X

(r
0
) n X
.
(r
0
), 1. o. cymoc1nym1 oa
opnoc1oponnnx npopoa npn r = r
0
n
onn pannw o:
](r) ](r) o. (5.34)
Hyc1r, naoopo1, n 1onvo r
0
sup X

(r
0
) In X
.
(r
0
) nw-
nonno1cn yconno (5.34). Torpa 1av vav X X

(r
0
) ' X
.
(r
0
),
1o coracno ommo 5, cymoc1nyo1 npopo ](r) o.
n 1oro n1ow yopn1rcn n cnpanopnnoc1n copc1nnn,
poc1a1onno npnmonn1r 1oopomy 2 v cyxonnm qynvnn
] : X = R na mnoxoc1no X{r
0
.
Ecn opnn na opnoc1oponnnx npopoon qynvnn n novo1o-
po 1onvo connapao1 co ananonnom qynvnn n c1o 1onvo, 1o
1avan qynvnn naawnao1cn oouocnopouue uenpepmouou o
pocc+onpuooe+ou nouue. Cqopmynpyom c1o onpopoonno
ooo noppono.
OnpepeAenMe 44. duuuun ] : X = R uo:mooencn uenpepmouou
c.eoo, coonoencnoeuuo cnpooo, o nouue r
0
- X, ec.u
](r) ](r
0
), coonoencnoeuuo ec.u ](r) ](r
0
).
Rp M ue p. Paccmo1pnm qynvnm, onpopoonnym na nco
nncono ocn n pannym pn vaxporo poc1nn1ornoro nnca
r nanormomy oomy nncy, monrmomy nn pannomy r. 01a
qynvnn nmoo1 cnonarnoo ooananonno [r, nn1ao1cn:
nnno1cn oo nac1rm nnca r nn panno onIIor r
l
.
Tavnm opaaom,
[r n - Z, n r, a n - l r.
Ipaqnv qynvnn [r naopaxon na pncynvo 24. 4ynvnn
[r n oonnconnwx 1onvax r n, n 0, l, 2, ... , nnco-
no npnmo nonpopwnna cnpana n paapwnna cona. Eo ncox xo
ppyrnx 1onvax ona nonpopwnna vav cnpana, 1av n cona. Ta-
vnm opaaom, n nac1noc1n, qynvnn [r nonpopwnna cnpana
no ncox 1onvax nncono ocn.
l
onIIor (qpan.) - ow.
r
l
l
-l
0

2
3
2 3 4 -l
Pnc. 24
IIm
r r
0
r X

(r
0
)
IIm
r r
0
r X
.
(r
0
)
IIm
r r
0
r X
IIm
r r
0
r X

(r
0
)
IIm
r r
0
r X
.
(r
0
)
1S9
3 a m o n a n n o. Ecn pn qynvnn ] : X = R cymoc1nyo1
vononnw npopo ](r) o, npnnom pn ncox r - X nw-
nonno1cn nopanonc1no ](r) o (nopanonc1no ](r) o), 1o nn-
my1 ](r) o - 0 (coo1no1c1nonno ](r) o - 0). Hpn
c1om ocn o 0, 1o 1avxo nmoc1o 0 - 0 n 0 - 0 nnmy1 npoc1o
-0 n -0.
5.40. CsoMctso npepeAos ynkMM
Eco qynvnn, paccma1pnnaomwo n c1om nynv1o, onpopoonw
na novo1opom mnoxoc1no X ~ R, n nco nx npopow opy1cn no
mnoxoc1ny X n novo1opo 1onvo r
0
, vo1opan nnno1cn 1onvo
npnvocnononnn (vononno nn ocvononno ypaonno) mno-
xoc1na X. Hanomnnm, n1o ocn r
0
- poc1nn1ornoo nnco:
r
0
- R, 1o r
0
- ownnan 1onva npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na X.
Ecn r
0
~, 1o mnoxoc1no X no orpannnono, a ocn r
0
-~,
nn r
0
-~, 1o mnoxoc1no X no orpannnono cnopxy, coo1no1-
c1nonno cnnay.
l
0
. Ec.u quuuun ] : X = R u+een o nouue r
0
uoueuumu
npeoe., no cecnoen nouon oupecnuocno U(r
0
) nouuu
r
0
, uno quuuun ] oepouuueuo uo nepeceueuuu U(r
0
) X
onou oupecnuocnu c +uoecnoo+ onpeoe.euun X quu
uuu ].
CA E p C I 8 H E. duuuun ] : X = R, uenpepmouon o nouue r
0
- X,
oepouuueuo uo nepeceueuuu ueuonopou oupecnuocnu onou
nouuu c +uoecnoo+ X.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r ](r) o - vononnw npo-
po, 1orpa, coracno onpopoonnm 9 na n. 5.?, pn moro 0,
n nac1noc1n pn l, cymoc1nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
)
1onvn r
0
, n1o ](X U(r
0
)) ~ U(o, l), 1. o. pn ncox r - X U(r
0
)
nwnonno1cn nvmnonno ](r) - U(o, l). Hnano ronopn, pn
ncox r - X U(r
0
) cnpanopnno nopanonc1no o - l ](r) o - l,
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
'
IIm
r r
0
' '
'
190
a c1o oananao1 orpannnonnoc1r qynvnn ] na nopocononnn
X U(r
0
).
Copc1nno nonocpopc1nonno nw1ovao1 na povaaannoro y1-
nopxponnn, 1av vav nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn n 1onvo nnno1-
cn nac1nwm cynaom cymoc1nonannn y noo n 1onvo vononnoro
npopoa.
2
0
. Ec.u quuuun ] : X = R u+een o nouue r
0
ue pooumu u
.v uoueuumu npeoe. ](r) o = 0, no o.n .voeo uuc.o c,
0 c o, cecnoen nouon oupecnuocno U(r
0
) nouuu r
0
,
uno o.n ocer noueu r u: o.ocnu onpeoe.euun X quu
uuu ], npuuoo.eour oupecnuocnu U(r
0
), n. e. o.n ocer
r - U(r
0
) X, omno.unvncn uepooeucnoo ](r) c, ec.u o 0 u
](r) -c, ec.u o 0. (5.36)
C A E p C I 8 H E (Aomma o coxpanonnn anaua). Ec.u quuuun
] : X = R uenpepmouo o nouue r
0
- X u ](r
0
) 0 (coonoen
cnoeuuo ](r
0
) 0), no cecnoen nouon oupecnuocno
U(r
0
) nouuu r
0
, uno o.n ocer noueu r - X U(r
0
) omno.un
encn uepooeucnoo ](r) 0 (coonoencnoeuuo ](r) 0).
/ c k c s c e / | c a c c a c M c a c 2
0
. Hyc1r cnanaa o 0 n
0 c o. Ewopom 0 1av, n1ow c o - , 1orpa
c - U(o; ) (o - , o - ). n ovpoc1noc1n U(o; ) cymoc1ny-
o1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o pn mo 1onvn
r - U(r
0
) X nmoo1 moc1o nvmnonno ](r) - (o - , o - ) n,
copona1orno, ](r) o - c.
Anaornnno, ocn o 0 n 0 c -o, 1. o. o -c, 1o nwo-
pom 0 1av, n1ow o - -c, 1orpa c - U(o; ) (o - , o - ).
n ovpoc1noc1n U(o; ) cymoc1nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
)
1onvn r
0
, n1o pn mo 1onvn r - U(r
0
) X nmoo1 moc1o
nvmnonno ](r) - (o - , o - ), noc1omy n nopanonc1no ](r)
o - -c.
Copc1nno nonocpopc1nonno nw1ovao1 na nopanonc1n
(5.36).
3 a m o n a n n o. Ecn n 1onvo r
0
y qynvnn ] : X = R cy-
moc1nyo1 ocvononnw npopo, pannw ~, -~ nn -~, 1o
p n m o r o c 0 nmoo1 moc1o y1nopxponno, anaornnnoo
'
IIm
r r
0
'
'
'
'
191
cnoc1ny 2
0
. 01o nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 na onpopoonnn
ocvononnoro npopoa qynvnn, cqopmynponannoro n 1op-
mnnax nopanonc1n. A nmonno: ](r) ~ (coo1no1c1nonno
-~ nn -~) oananao1, n1o pn moro c 0 cymoc1nyo1 1a-
van ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o pn ncox r - X U(r
0
)
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no ](r) c (coo1no1c1nonno nopanon-
c1no ](r) c nn ](r) - c).
3
0
. Ec.u ](r) c nocnonuuon, r - X, no ](r) c.
4
0
. Ec.u ](r) . o, r - X, u cecnoen uoueuumu u.u on
peoe.euuoeo :uouo ecuoueuumu npeoe. ](r), no
](r) . o. (5.3?)
5
0
. Ec.u (r) ](r) (r), r - X, u cecnovn uoueu
ume u.u onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo ecuoueuume npeoe.m
(r) (r) o, no
](r) o. (5.38)
6
0
. Ec.u cecnovn uoueuume npeoe.m ](r) u
g(r), no cecnovn u uoueuume npeoe.m [](r) -
- g(r), ](r)g(r), o ec.u g(r) = 0, no u npeoe.
, npuue+
[](r) - g(r) ](r) - g(r), (5.39)
](r)g(r) ](r) g(r), (5.40)
. (5.4l)
IIm
r r
0
'
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
g r ( )
r r
0

IIm
--------------------------
19z
C A E p C I 8 H E 4. Ec.u cecnoen uoueuumu npeoe. ](r),
no o.n .voeo uuc.o r - R cecnoen u npeoe. c](r),
npuue+
c](r) c ](r). (5.42)
E c.uoe c = 0 pooeucnoo (5.42) cnpooeo.uoo u o.n ecuoueu
umr npeoe.oo onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo.
C A E p C I 8 H E 2. Ec.u quuuuu ] u g uenpepmoum o nouue
r
0
- X, no quuuuu c] (c - nocnonuuon), ] - g, ]g, o ec.u,
upo+e noeo, g(r
0
) = 0, no u quuuun noue uenpepmouo
o nouue r
0
.
3amo1nm, n1o npn npopnooxonnnx, n vo1opwx cqopmyn-
ponanw y1nopxponno 6 n copc1nno 2 na noro, nac1noo ,
vononno, moxo1 w1r no onpopoono na ncom ncxopnom mno-
xoc1no X, 1av vav na nom mory1 cymoc1nona1r 1onvn r, n vo-
1opwx g(r) 0. Opnavo, coracno cnoc1ny 2
0
, na yconnn
g(r) = 0 copyo1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r
U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, na nopocononnn vo1opo c mnoxoc1nom X nw-
nonno1cn nopanonc1no g(r) = 0 n, copona1orno, na c1om no-
pocononnn yxo onpopoono nac1noo . E qopmyo (5.4l)
nop npopoom noppaaymonao1cn npopo cyxonnn qynvnn
na mnoxoc1no U(r
0
) X. E cny 1oro n1o npopo qynv-
nn n 1onvo nnno1cn ovarnwm cnoc1nom (cm. n. 5.4 n
n. 5.?), c1o1 npopo no aanncn1 o1 nwopa yvaaanno ovpoc1-
noc1n U(r
0
).
Cnoc1na 3
0
-6
0
mory1 w1r povaaanw opnnavonwm mo1o-
pom, ocnonannwm na coo1no1c1nymmnx cnoc1nax npopoon
nocopona1ornoc1o (cm. n. 4.9).
ovaxom, nanpnmop, qopmyy (5.40). Hyc1r o ](r),
b g(r). Torpa, coracno onpopoonnm l npopoa qynv-
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
]
g
---
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
'
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
193
nn (cm. n. 5.4), pn mo nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
- X, n
l, 2, ... , r
n
r
0
, cnpanopnnw panonc1na
o ](r
n
), b g(r
n
).
Hoc1omy, ncnomnnn, n1o npopo nponanoponnn cxopnmnx-
cn nocopona1ornoc1o cymoc1nyo1 n panon nponanoponnm
nx npopoon (cm. n. 4.9), noynnm, n1o cymoc1nyo1 npopo
](r
n
)g(r
n
) ob. (5.43)
01o1 npopo no aanncn1 o1 nwopa yvaaanno nocopona1or-
noc1n {r
n
: on ncorpa panon ob, noc1omy, coracno 1omy xo
onpopoonnm l, povaaannoo panonc1no (5.43) n oananao1, n1o
](r)g(r) ob ](r) g(r).
Copc1nno l (n cny cnoc1na 3
0
) npopc1anno1 coo nac1-
nw cyna qopmyw (5.40). Copc1nno 2 nonocpopc1nonno
nw1ovao1 na cnoc1na 6
0
, nocvorvy nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn
n 1onvo oananao1 cymoc1nonanno y noo n c1o 1onvo vononnoro
npopoa, pannoro ananonnm qynvnn n c1o 1onvo. Hanpn-
mop,
](r)g(r) ](r) g(r) ](r
0
)g(r
0
), (5.44)
1av vav npopow ](r) n g(r), n cny nonpopwnnoc-
1n qynvn ] n g n 1onvo r
0
, pannw coo1no1c1nonno ](r
0
) n
g(r
0
). Ewnononno panonc1na (5.44) n oananao1 nonpopwn-
noc1r nponanoponnn ]g n 1onvo r
0
.
O1mo1nm, n1o npnnoponnoo povaaa1orc1no copc1nnn 2
moxno wo w n no nponopn1r, 1av vav nonpopwnnoc1r
qynvnn n 1onvo oananao1 (cm. n. 5.5), n1o c1a 1onva npnna-
poxn1 mnoxoc1ny aapannn qynvnn n n1o y qynvnn n c1o
1onvo cymoc1nyo1 npopo no yvaaannomy mnoxoc1ny. Ho-
cvorvy qynvnn ] n g aapanw n 1onvo r
0
, ononnpno, n qynv-
nn ](r) - g(r), ](r)g(r), a npn g(r
0
) = 0 n qynvnn aapa-
nw n c1o 1onvo. E cny cnoc1na 6
0
y noponnconnwx qynv-
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
194
n cymoc1nym1 npopow n 1onvo r
0
, npnnapoxamo n
pannom cynao nx mnoxoc1ny aapannn, n1o n oananao1 nx
nonpopwnnoc1r n c1o 1onvo. Hnano ronopn, y1nopxponno
copc1nnn 2 y1nopxponnn 6
0
nnno1cn npoc1o nac1nwm cy-
naom c1oro y1nopxponnn, vorpa 1onva, n vo1opo paccma1pn-
nao1cn npopo, npnnapoxn1 oac1n aapannn qynvn.
5.44. Eeckoneno uoAme
M eckoneno oAomMe ynkMM
Eco paccma1pnnaomwo n c1om nynv1o qynvnn ypom npopno-
ara1r onpopoonnwmn na mnoxoc1no X ~ R n paccma1pnna1r
nx vononnwo n ocvononnwo npopow npn c1pomonnn apry-
mon1a v vononno nn v ocvononno ypaonno 1onvo r
0
.
OnpepeAenMe 42. duuuun : X = R uo:mooencn ecuoueuuo
+o.ou npu r = r
0
, ec.u
(r) 0. (5.45)
Bocvononno mawo qynvnn nrpam1 ocoym por cpopn
ncox qynvn, nmommnx npopo, cnnaannym, n nac1noc1n, c
1om, n1o omoo nonn1no vononnoro npopoa moxo1 w1r cno-
pono v nonn1nm ocvononno mao. Cqopmynpyom c1o y1-
nopxponno n nnpo ommw.
A E M M A . Koueuumu npeoe. ](r) cecnoen u pooeu
o noeoo u no.ouo noeoo, uoeoo ](r) o - (r), r - X, eoe
(r) - ecuoueuuo +o.on npu r = r
0
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn ](r) o, 1o, nooxnn (r)
](r) - o, r - X, noynnm, n1o
(r) ](r) - o o - o 0.
Haoopo1, ocn ](r) o - (r), r - X n (r) 0, 1o
](r) o - (r) o.
I E O F E M A 3. C++o u npou:oeoeuue uoueuuoeo uuc.o ecuo
ueuuo +o.mr npu r = r
0
, o noue u npou:oeoeuue ecuoueu
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
19
uo +o.ou npu r = r
0
uo oepouuueuuv uo X quuuuv no.n
vncn ecuoueuuo +o.m+u npu r = r
0
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. To, n1o cymma n nponanoponno vonon-
noro nnca ocvononno mawx nnnm1cn ocvononno mawmn,
nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 na cnoc1na cymmw n nponanoponnn
npopoon qynvn (cm. cnoc1no 6 n n. 5.l0) n 1om nac1nom
cynao, vorpa c1n npopow pannw nym.
ovaxom nocopnoo y1nopxponno 1oopomw. Hyc1r
(r) 0 n ](r) - orpannnonnan qynvnn, 1. o. cymoc1-
nyo1 1avan noc1onnnan b 0, n1o pn ncox r - X nwnonno1cn
nopanonc1no ](r) b. Ecn r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... , - 1avan no-
copona1ornoc1r, n1o r
n
r
0
, 1o, coracno onpopoo-
nnm l npopoa qynvnn (cm. n. 5.4), nmoom (r
n
) 0.
n ncox n l, 2, ... nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no ](r
n
) b, 1. o.
nocopona1ornoc1r {](r
n
) orpannnona. Ho nponanoponno oc-
vononno mao nocopona1ornoc1n, n pannom cynao no-
copona1ornoc1n {(r
n
), na orpannnonnym nocopona1or-
noc1r, n pannom cynao na {](r
n
), nnno1cn ocvononno mao
nocopona1ornoc1rm (cm. cnoc1no 2
0
n n. 4.8), noc1omy
](r
n
) (r
n
) 0. Tav vav c1o nopno pn mo yvaaanno
nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, 1o coracno 1omy xo onpopoonnm
npopoa qynvnn noynnm ](r) (r) 0, a c1o n oana-
nao1, n1o qynvnn ](r) (r) nnno1cn ocvononno mao
npn r = r
0
.
Hapnpy c ocvononno mawmn n ananao nac1o nc1ponam1-
cn ocvononno ormno qynvnn. Onpoponm nx.
OnpepeAenMe 43. duuuun ] : X = R uo:mooencn ecuoueuuo
o.ouou npu r = r
0
, ec.u
](r) ~. (5.46)
Moxpy ocvononno ormnmn n ocvononno mawmn cy-
moc1nyo1 1ocnan cnnar. Hmonno nonnnna, opa1nan ocvo-
IIm
r r
0
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
196
nonno ormo, nnno1cn ocvononno mao, n naoopo1. Bo-
oo 1onno, cnpanopnno, nanpnmop, copymmoo y1nopxponno.
AE MMA 7. Ec.u quuuun ] : X = R ecuoueuuo o.ouon npu
r = r
0
, no quuuun no.nencn ecuoueuuo +o.ou npu r = r
0
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r nponanorno qnvcnponano 0.
Torpa, coracno yconnm ](r) ~, cymoc1nyo1 1avan
ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o pn ncox 1onov r - U(r
0
) X
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no ](r) , copona1orno, n nopa-
nonc1no . A c1o n oananao1, n1o 0, 1. o. n1o
qynvnn nnno1cn ocvononno mao.
3 a m o n a n n o l. Kav ncorpa, vorpa ponr npo1 o nac1nom
qynvn co anamona1oom, npopo vo1oporo o1nnon o1 ny-
n, apocr nop nonnmao1cn, noomo ronopn, nac1noo o1
poonnn l na cyxonno qynvnn ] na nopocononno U(r
0
) X
1avo ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
c mnoxoc1nom onpopoo-
nnn X qynvnn ], n1o pn ncox 1onov r - U(r
0
) X qynvnn ]
no panna nym. Cymoc1nonanno yvaaanno ovpoc1noc1n
U(r
0
) copyo1 na cnoc1na 2
0
npopoon qynvn (cm. n. 5.l0).
Enponom, ono omo paa pn cynan ocvononno ormo
qynvnn wo noynono n npoocco povaaa1orc1na ommw ?:
ononnpno, n1o na yconnn ](r) , 0, copyo1, n1o
](r) = 0.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ecn, naoopo1, (r) - ocvononno ma-
an npn r = r
0
qynvnn, 1o moxo1 cynn1rcn, n1o opa1nan
nonnnna no ypo1 onpopoona na mnoxoc1no, pn vo1o-
poro 1onva r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo npnvocnononnn (nanpnmop,
c1o aanopomo nmoo1 moc1o npn (r) 0 na X), n noc1omy nonn-
1no npopoa npn r - X ypo1 occopopxa1orno. Op-
navo ocn X
0
- 1avoo nopmnoxoc1no mnoxoc1na X, na vo1o-
pom (r) = 0: X
0
{r: r - X, (r) = 0, n ocn r
0
nnno1cn 1on-
l
]
---
IIm
r r
0
'
l

---
l
] r ( )
-----------
IIm
r r
0
l
] r ( )
-----------
l
] r ( )
-----------
'
'
l

---
l
r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
l
r ( )
------------
197
vo npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na X
0
, 1o qynvnn
onpopoona na X
0
n na c1om mnoxoc1no ~. Hmon-
no n c1om cmwco ronopn1, n1o qynvnn, opa1nan ocvonon-
no mao, nnno1cn ocvononno ormo.
To oc1on1orc1no, n1o qynvnn, opa1nan ocvononno
mao, nnno1cn ocvononno ormo, n naoopo1, poao1 oc-
1oc1nonnwmn copymmno cnmnonnocvno ooananonnn, nac1o
yno1ponmmnocn pn covpamonnn aanncn: pn moro nnc-
a o 0 nnmy1:
-~, -~, ~,
-0, -0, 0. (5.4?)
3 a m o n a n n o 3. Ha ocvononno ormno qynvnn cno-
c1na vononnwx npopoon, cnnaannwo c apnqmo1nnocvnmn po-
c1nnnmn nap npopoamn (cm. cnoc1no 6
0
n n. 5.l0), nonocpop-
c1nonno no noponocn1cn. Opnavo novo1opwo anaornn nmom1
moc1o.
Hanpnmop, ocn ](r) -~, g(r) -~, 1o n
[](r) - g(r) -~. Opnavo o cymoc1nonannn vavoro-no
npopoa [](r) - g(r) apocr, noomo ronopn, yxo nnnoro
y1nopxpa1r noran. Moxno novaaa1r, n1o noan1nnnwo y1-
nopxponnn o ocvononnwx npopoax nmom1 moc1o n cynanx,
pn vo1opwx qopmyamn (5.4?) n n n. 3.l wn onpopoonw
novo1opwo apnqmo1nnocvno onopann c ocvononnoc1nmn.
5.42. FosAMnme opum sonMcM
nenpepmsnoctM ynkMM s toke
Vconno nonpopwnnoc1n n 1onvo r
0
(cm. (5.l8))
](r) ](r
0
)
qynvnn ], aapanno na mnoxoc1no X, moxno nonnma1r vav
n cmwco onpopoonnn npopoa qynvnn no Iono (cm. onpo-
l
r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
r X
0
l
r ( )
------------
o
- 0
-----------
o
- 0
----------
o t
0
------
o
-
-----------
o
-
-----------
o t

------
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
19S
poonno l n n. 5.4), 1av n n cmwc-
o onpopoonnn no Komn (cm.
onpopoonno 9 n n. 5.?). E nop-
nom cynao c1o oananao1, n1o pn
mo nocopona1ornoc1n
r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... ,
r
n
r
0
, (5.48)
nwnonno1cn yconno
](r
n
) ](r
0
). (5.49)
Eo n1opom cynao c1o oananao1, n1o pn moro 0 cymoc1-
nyo1 1avoo 0, n1o pn ncox 1onov r, ypono1nopnmmnx yc-
onnm
r - r
0
, r - X, (5.50)
nwnonno1cn (pnc. 25) nopanonc1no
](r) - ](r
0
) . (5.5l)
Honn1no nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn, cqopmynponannoo n
1opmnnax nocopona1ornoc1o (onpopoonno (5.48)-(5.49)),
o1paxao1 coo cn1yanm, nac1o nc1ponammymcn na npav1n-
vo npn vocnonnom nwnnconnn vavo-no nonnnnw , 1. o.
nwnnconnn oo c nomomrm namoponnn novo1oporo napamo1pa
r, o1 vo1oporo c1a nonnnna nonpopwnno aanncn1, ](r).
Hmonno ananno nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn ](r) n 1onvo r
0
pao1 o+ov1nnnym ynoponnoc1r n 1om, n1o nom 1onnoo ypy1
nocopona1orno noyna1rcn (n poayr1a1o cvcnopnmon1on,
namoponn nn pacno1on) ananonnn r
n
, n l, 2, ... , npnn-
xammno ananonno r
0
, 1om 1onnoo ypy1 n coo1no1c1nymmno
npnnxonnwo ananonnn
n
](r
n
) nonnnnw
0
](r
0
).
Onpopoonno (5.50)-(5.5l) nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn ] n
1onvo r
0
moxno omo nopoqpaanpona1r 1av: qynvnn ] nonpo-
pwnna n 1onvo r
0
, ocn, vavona w nn wa aapannan c1ononr
1onnoc1n 0 pn ananonn qynvnn ], cymoc1nyo1 1avan
c1ononr 1onnoc1n () 0 pn aprymon1a, n1o vor cvopo
mw nwopom ananonno aprymon1a r, pannoo r
0
c 1onnoc1rm po
, 1. o. ypono1nopnmmoo yconnm (5.50), n noarmom ananonno
qynvnn ](r), 1o noynnm ananonno ](r
0
) c aapanno c1o-

r 0
](r
0
)
](r
0
) -
](r
0
) -
r
0
- r
0
r
0
-
](r)
Pnc. 25
IIm
n
IIm
n
199
nonrm 1onnoc1n, 1. o. ypo1 nwnonono nopanonc1no (5.5l).
01o nwcvaawnanno nnno1cn, vononno, nopoqpaanponvo on-
popoonnn (5.50)-(5.5l), paa+ncnnmmo nn1yn1nnnoo npop-
c1anonno o nonpopwnno qynvnn.
Tav vav nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn n 1onvo nnno1cn nac1-
nwm cynaom cymoc1nonannn npopoa qynvnn, 1o onpopoo-
nno nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn n 1onvo moxno pa1r n 1opmnnax
ovpoc1noc1o, napo nmr v yconnm (5.20) poann1r 1poona-
nno r
0
- X. Tavnm opaaom, qynvnn ], onpopoonnan na mno-
xoc1no X, nonpopwnna n 1onvo r
0
, ocn pn mo ovpoc1noc-
1n U(
0
) 1onvn
0
](r
0
) cymoc1nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
)
1onvn r
0
, n1o nwnonno1cn nvmnonno
](U(r
0
) X) ~ U(
0
), r
0
- X. (5.52)
Havono, noponocn noc1onnnym ](r
0
) n panonc1no (5.l8) n
onym nac1r, nnocn oo nop anav npopoa n aamonan, n1o oo-
ananonno r = r
0
npn npopoo qynvnn pannocnrno ooana-
nonnm r - r
0
= 0 (cm. n. 5.4), noynnm
[](r) - ](r
0
) 0. (5.53)
Paanoc1r r - r
0
naawnao1cn npupoeuue+ ope+euno n
ooananao1cn nopoa r, a paanoc1r ](r) - ](r
0
) - npupoe
uue+ quuuuu ](r), coo1no1c1nymmnm pannomy npn-
pamonnm aprymon1a r, n ooananao1cn nopoa . Tavnm
opaaom,
r r - r
0
, ](r
0
- r) - ](r
0
), r
0
- X, r - X. (5.54)
E c1nx ooananonnnx panonc1no (5.53) npnnnmao1 nnp
0, (5.55)
1. o. nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn n 1onvo oananao1, n1o ocvonon-
no maomy npnpamonnm aprymon1a coo1no1c1nyo1 ocvononno
maoo npnpamonno qynvnn.
Hnorpa wnao1 nooanwm yconno nonpopwnnoc1n qynv-
nn n 1onvo, ocnonannoo na paccmo1ponnn npopoa qynvnn
no npovoo1o ovpoc1noc1n.
'
IIm
r - r
0
0
IIm
r 0
z00
A E M M A 3. Ec.u cecnoen npeoe.
](r) o (5.56)
u quuuun ] onpeoe.euo o nouue r
0
, no ] uenpepmouo o nou
ue r
0
noeoo u no.ouo noeoo, uoeoo ](r
0
) o.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn qynvnn ] nonpopwnna n 1onvo
r
0
, 1. o. nwnonno1cn yconno (5.l3), 1o n cny ononnpnoro
nvmnonnn (r
0
) X ~ X n 1oro, n1o na cymoc1nonannn npo-
poa no mnoxoc1ny copyo1 cymoc1nonanno npopoa n no m-
omy nopmnoxoc1ny, nmoom
](r
0
). (5.5?)
Ha (5.56) n (5.5?) copyo1, n1o ](r
0
) o.
Hyc1r 1onopr, naoopo1, nwnonno1cn yconno ](r
0
) o n,
copona1orno,
](r
0
).
O1cmpa nmoom, n1o pn mo ovpoc1noc1n U(](r
0
)) 1onvn
](r
0
) cymoc1nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o
]( (r
0
) X) ~ U(](r
0
)). (5.58)
Ho, ononnpno, ](r
0
) - U(](r
0
)), noc1omy n ono nac1n nvmno-
nnn (5.58) moxno npovoo1ym ovpoc1noc1r (r
0
) aamonn1r
ownno ovpoc1noc1rm U(r
0
):
](U(r
0
) X) ~ U(](r
0
)).
01o n oananao1, n1o qynvnn ] nonpopwnna n 1onvo r
0
.
Rp M ue p m. 4. 4ynvnn ](r) c, rpo c - noc1onnnan, no-
npopwnna na nco nncono npnmo.
E camom poo, pn moro r
0
- R nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no
](r) c c ](r
0
).
2. 4ynvnn ](r) nonpopwnna n vaxpo 1onvo r
0
= 0.
E camom poo,
](r
0
- r) - ](r
0
) - - ,
r r
0

IIm
r - U(r
0
) X
'
U

'
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
r - U(r
0
) X
'
] r ( )
r r
0

IIm
r - U(r
0
) X
'

(5.56)
U
'
U
'
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
l
r
---
l
r - r
------------------
l
r
0
------
r
0

r
0
- r ( )r
0
---------------------------------
z01
o1vypa npn r
0
= 0 nmoom
- - - 0.
01o, coracno (5.52), n oananao1 nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn
](r) n 1onvo r
0
= 0.
3. 4ynvnn ](r) sIgn r (cm. pnc. 22) no nnno1cn nonpo-
pwnno n 1onvo r
0
0, 1av vav npopo c1o qynvnn (no nco
nncono ocn) n 1onvo r
0
0 no cymoc1nyo1 (cm. npnmop 5 n
n. 5.4).
VHPAHEHHH. S. Ewncnn1r, c vavo c1ononrm 1onnoc1n poc1a1onno aa-
pa1r ananonnn aprymon1a qynvnn r
3
n panno 1onvo r
0
, n1ow noynn1r
ananonno qynvnn c aapanno c1ononrm 1onnoc1n 0.
9. Ewncnn1r, nnno1cn n qynvnn
](r)
nonpopwnno n 1onvo r 0.
o cnx nop n vanoc1no npnmopon qynvn, onpopoonnwx
na o1poavax n nmommnx paapwnw, mw paccma1pnnan qynv-
nn, y vo1opwx nmoocr no vononnoo mnoxoc1no 1onov paa-
pwna (nanpnmop, qynvnn sIgn r nmoo1 na o1poavo [-l, l
opny 1onvy paapwna r 0), no mnoxoc1no 1onov paapwna
connapao co ncom o1poavom (qynvnn npnxo). Hpnnopom
1onopr npnmop qynvnn, nmommo ocvononnoo mnoxoc1no
1onov paapwna, no connapammoo co ncom o1poavom, na vo1o-
pom aapana qynvnn.
Rp M ue p 4. Hyc1r qynvnn ] panna , n - N, n vaxpo
no panno nym panonarno 1onvo r (n = 0) o1poava
[0, l, rpo - nocovpa1nman panonarnan ppor, n panna
nym no ncox oc1arnwx 1onvax o1poava, 1. o. n nyo n n nppa-
nonarnwx 1onvax. 01a qynvnn naawnao1cn quuuueu Pu
+ouo
l
. 4ynvnn ] paapwnna n vaxpo panonarno 1onvo
r = 0, 1av vav pn mo 1avo 1onvn cymoc1nyo1 nocopona-
1ornoc1r nppanonarnwx nnco
n
, n l, 2, ... , c1pomn-
mnxcn v r, pn vo1opwx, coracno onpopoonnm qynvnn
l
B. Pnman (l826-l866) - nomovn ma1oma1nv.
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
r
r
0
- r ( )r
0
---------------------------------
r
r 0
IIm
r
0
- r ( )r
0
r 0
IIm
-------------------------------------------------
0
r
0
2
------
l
r
---
r cos npn r = 0,
0 npn r 0,
l
r
---
l
n
---
n
n
-----
n
n
-----
z0z
Pnmana, ](
n
) 0 n, copona1orno, ](
n
) 0 = ](r),

n
r, 1. o. qynvnn Pnmana paapwnna no ncox pan-
onarnwx 1onvax r = 0.
Hovaxom, n1o n vaxpo nppanonarno 1onvo n n nyo
qynvnn Pnmana nonpopwnna. Hyc1r nnco no nyr, no
nppanonarno. 3apapnm nponanorno 0 n nwopom na1y-
parnoo n 1av, n1ow . Ooanannm nopoa pacc1onnno o1
1onvn po nxamoro na nnco , , ... , , l (n
l, 2, ... , n). Ononnpno, 0, 1av vav no panno nn opnomy
na yvaaannwx nnco n nx vononnoo mnoxoc1no. Hyc1r r -
n r - panonarnoo nnco, 1. o. nwpaxao1cn nocovpa1nmo
panonarno pporm r ; 1orpa, coracno nwopy , nmoo1
moc1o nopanonc1no q n, noc1omy ](r) - ]() , no
]() 0. Ecn xo r - n r - nppanonarnoo nnco, 1o
](r) 0 n ](r) - ]() 0 . 01o n oananao1 nonpopwnnoc1r
qynvnn Pnmana n 1onvo .
5.43. kAoccMMkoMs toek pospmso ynkMM
OnpepeAenMe 44. Hcno quuuun ] onpeoe.euo o ueuonopou
oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
, upo+e, mno +oen, co+ou onou
nouuu.
Touuo r
0
uo:mooencn nouuou po:pmoo quuuuu ], ec.u
quuuun ] ue onpeoe.euo o nouue r
0
u.u ec.u ouo onpeoe.e
uo o onou nouue, uo ue no.nencn o ueu uenpepmouou.
VHPAHEHHE 10. Cqopmynpona1r n noan1nnnom cmwco onpopoo-
nno 1onvn paapwna qynvnn.
Opaano ronopn, 1onva r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo paapwna qynv-
nn, ocn r
0
nnno1cn ananonnom aprymon1a, npn vo1opom
nponcxopn1 paapwn rpaqnva qynvnn.
OnpepeAenMe 45. Ec.u r
0
nouuo po:pmoo quuuuu ] u c
ecnovn uoueuume oouocnopouuue npeoe.m
l
](r
0
- 0)
l
Hanomnnm, n1o opnoc1oponnno npopow ](r
0
- 0) n ](r
0
- 0) opy1cn
no mnoxoc1ny, no copopxamomy camy 1onvy r
0
.
IIm
n
IIm
n
l
n
---
l
n
-----
2
n
-----
n - l
n
----------------
p
q
---
l
q
---
l
n
---
z03
](r) u ](r
0
- 0) ](r),

no nouuo r
0
uo:m
ooencn nouuou po:pmoo nepooeo pooo.
Eonnnna ](r
0
- 0) - ](r
0
- 0) naawnao1cn cuouuo+ quu
uuu ] n 1onvo r
0
. Ecn cvanov qynvnn ] n 1onvo paapwna r
0
panon nym, 1. o. ](r
0
- 0) ](r
0
- 0), 1o r
0
naawnao1cn nou
uou cnpouu+oeo po:pmoo.
Hocopnn 1opmnn onpanpan 1om, n1o ocn n c1om cynao
nopoonpopon1r nn poonpopon1r (ocn qynvnn ] wa no
onpopoona n 1onvo r
0
) qynvnm ], nooxnn
](r
0
) ](r
0
- 0) ](r
0
- 0), (5.59)
1o noynnm nonpopwnnym n 1onvo r
0
qynvnm.
oc1nn1orno, novaxom, n1o ocn pn qynvnn ] : X = R
nwnonono yconno (5.59), 1o ona nonpopwnna n 1onvo r
0
. Ho-
oxnm X
l
X{r
0
n X
2
{r
0
. E cny 1oopomw 2 n. 5.9, na
panonc1na ](r
0
- 0) ](r
0
- 0) copyo1, n1o n 1onvo r
0
cymoc1-
nyo1 npopo qynvnn ] no mnoxoc1ny X
l
, npnnom, coracno
yconnm (5.59), on panon ](r
0
):
](r) ](r
0
).
C ppyro c1oponw, npopo qynvnn ] npn r = r
0
no opno-
1ononnomy mnoxoc1ny X
2
{r
0
, ononnpno, panon ](r
0
) (npo-
po noc1onnno panon camo c1o noc1onnno):
](r) ](r
0
).
Hoc1omy, n cny ommw 5 n. 5.8, npn r = r
0
y qynvnn ] cy-
moc1nyo1 n npopo, pannw ](r
0
), no mnoxoc1ny X X
l
' X
2
:
](r) ](r
0
).
01o n oananao1 nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn ] n 1onvo r
0
.
IIm
r r
0
- 0
IIm
r r
0
- 0
IIm
r r
0
r X
l
IIm
r r
0
r X
2
IIm
r r
0
z04
Tonva paapwna qynvnn, no nn-
nmmocn oo 1onvo paapwna nopno-
ro popa, naawnao1cn nouuou po:pm
oo onopoeo pooo.
Ononnpno, n1o n 1onvax paapwna
n1oporo popa no vpano mopo opnn na
npopoon ](r) nn ](r)
no cymoc1nyo1. 3pocr nop npopoom,
vav ownno, nonnmao1cn nmr vonon-
nw npopo.
VHPAHEHHE 11. Cqopmynpona1r n noan1nnnom cmwco onpopoo-
nno 1onvn paapwna n1oporo popa.
4ynvnn sIgn r (cm. pnc. l9) n sIgn r (cm. pnc. 22) nmom1
n 1onvo r
0
0 paapwn nopnoro popa, npnnom y sIgn r c1o yc1-
pannmw paapwn, a qynvnn (pnc. 26) n sIn ( cm. pnc. 2l)
n 1onvo r
0
0 nmom1 paapwn n1oporo popa.
5.44. RpepeAm uonotonnmx ynkMM
OnpepeAenMe 4. duuuun ] : X = R, X ~ R, uo:mooencn oo:
pocnoveu (mooveu) uo +uoecnoe X, ec.u o.n .vmr
nouur noueu r
l
- X u r
2
- X, uno r
l
r
2
, omno.unencn ue
pooeucnoo ](r
l
) ](r
2
) (coonoencnoeuuo uepooeucnoo
](r
l
) . ](r
2
)).
Eoapac1ammno (ywnammno) qynvnn naawnam1cn nnor-
pa uemoovu+u (ueoo:pocnovu+u).
Ecn qynvnn nnno1cn noapac1ammo (ywnammo) na
mnoxoc1no X, 1o ronopn1 1avxo, n1o ona noapac1ao1 (ywnao1)
na c1om mnoxoc1no.
Ecn qynvnn ] noapac1ao1 (ywnao1) na mnoxoc1no X, 1o
qynvnn -], noynammancn na ] namononnom anava y ncox oo
ananonn, 1. o. (-])(r) -](r), r - X, nnno1cn ywnammo
(noapac1ammo) na X qynvno.
Eoapac1ammno n ywnammno na mnoxoc1no X qynvnn
naawnam1cn +ouonouum+u na c1om mnoxoc1no.

r 0

l
r
---
Pnc. 26
IIm
r r
0
- 0
IIm
r r
0
- 0
l
r
---
l
r
---

do
z0
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno quuuun ] : X = R oo:pocnoen uo +uo
ecnoe X, In X, sup X, npuue+ - X, - X; noeoo
quuuuu ] o nouue cecnoen npeoe. cnpooo u
](r) ](X), o o nouue npeoe. c.eoo u
](r) ](X).
Tavnm opaaom, ocn n yconnnx 1oopomw qynvnn ] orpa-
nnnona cnopxy, 1o n 1onvo y noo cymoc1nyo1 vononnw npopo
cona, a ocn ] no orpannnona cnopxy, 1o ](r) -~.
Anaornnno, ocn qynvnn ] orpannnona cnnay, 1o n 1on-
vo y noo cymoc1nyo1 vononnw npopo cnpana, a ocn ] no
orpannnona cnnay, 1o ](r) -~.
Hoponwo y1nopxponnn cnpanopnnw n pn ywnammnx
qynvn; nx moxno noynn1r, nopopn o1 qynvnn ] v
qynvnn -].
C A E p C I 8 H E. Ec.u quuuun ] +ouonouuo uo +uoecnoe X,
r
0
- R, +uoecnoo X

(r
0
) {r : r - X, r r
0
u X

(r
0
)
{r : r - X, r r
0
ue ncnm, o r
0
no.nencn nouuou npu
uocuooeuun uoooeo u: uur, no o nouue r
0
cecnovn uo
ueuume oouocnopouuue npeoe.m
](r
0
- 0) ](r) u ](r
0
- 0) ](r), (5.60)
npuue+ o c.uoe oo:pocnoveu quuuuu
](r
0
- 0) ](r
0
- 0), (5.6l)
o o c.uoe mooveu quuuuu
](r
0
- 0) . ](r
0
- 0). (5.62)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c p e | |. Hyc1r b ](r) -~ n
sup X, - X. 3apapnm nponanorno ovpoc1noc1r U(b) 1on-
vn b, n nyc1r - oo onw vono. Ononnpno, b n noc1omy,
n cny onpopoonnn nopxno rpann qynvnn, cymoc1nyo1 1a-
van 1onva - X, n1o
]() , (5.63)
npnnom, n cny yconn - X, sup X n - X, nmoom .
IIm
r
In
r X
IIm
r
sup
r X
IIm
r
IIm
r

do

do

do
sup
X

(r
0
)
In
X

(r
0
)
sup
X
z06
Ooanannm nopoa U() ovpoc1noc1r
1onvn , pn vo1opo nnno1cn o-
nwm vonom (1. o. ocn - poc1nn-
1ornoo nnco, 1o onwm vonom nn-
1opnaa U(, ) ( - , - ),
- , a ocn -~, 1o onwm
vonom ocvononnoro noynn1opna-
a (, -~). Torpa pn mo 1onvn
r - X U() (5.64)
nmoo1 moc1o (pnc. 2?) nopanonc1no
r, a copona1orno, n cny noa-
pac1annn qynvnn ], n nopanonc1no ]() ](r). Hoc1omy pn
ncox r, ypono1nopnmmnx yconnm (5.64), nmoom
](r) ](r) b. (5.65)
Ecnomnnan, n1o 1onva nnno1cn onwm vonom ovpoc1-
noc1n U(b) 1onvn b, na (5.65) noynnm nvmnonno ](r) - U(b).
Tavnm opaaom, pn mo ovpoc1noc1n U(b) 1onvn b cymoc1-
nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U() 1onvn , n1o vav 1orvo r - X
U(), 1o nwnonno1cn nvmnonno ](r) - U(b). 01o n oananao1,
n1o ](r) b ](r).
Anaornnno povaawnao1cn, n1o ](r) ](r).
/c k c s c e / | c a c c / e / c a M . Hyc1r pn onpopoonnoc-
1n qynvnn noapac1ao1 na mnoxoc1no X n r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo
npnvocnononnn nonyc1wx mnoxoc1n X

(r
0
) n X

(r
0
). Torpa
vavonw w nn wn 1onvn r - X

(r
0
) n r - X

(r
0
), cnpanop-
nno nopanonc1no ](r) ](r). Hoc1omy qynvnn ] orpannnona
cnopxy na mnoxoc1no X

(r
0
) nncom ](r) n orpannnona cnnay
na mnoxoc1no X

(r
0
) nncom ](r). Copona1orno,
](r) ](r), ](r) . ](r). (5.66)
E nac1noc1n, yvaaannwo nopxnno n nnxnno rpann vononnw,
npnnom nopnoo na nopanonc1n (5.66) cnpanopnno pn mo
1onvn r - X

(r
0
), noc1omy, nopopn n oro npano nac1n v nnx-
no rpann ananonn qynvnn na mnoxoc1no X

(r
0
), noynnm
](r) ](r). (5.6?)
Pnc. 2?

r
0
]()
](r)

r
0

b
'

(5.63)
sup
X
'
'
IIm
n
sup
X
IIm
n
In
X
sup
X

(r
0
)
In
X

(r
0
)
sup
X

(r
0
)
In
X

(r
0
)
z07
01nm aanopmao1cn povaaa1orc1no copc1nnn, 1av vav, co-
racno 1oopomo 4, npopow cona ](r
0
- 0) n cnpana ](r
0
- 0)
cymoc1nym1, npnnom
](r
0
- 0) ](r), ](r
0
- 0) ](r),
noc1omy nopanonc1na (5.6l) connapam1 c nopanonc1nom (5.6?).
3 a m o n a n n o l. E 1oopomo 4 pn noapac1ammo qynv-
nn ] : X = R paccmo1ponw cynan, vorpa In X - X n
sup X - X. Ecn xo, nanpnmop, - X, 1o, vav n pn npo-
nanorno (nomono1onno) qynvnn, apocr noamoxnw pna
cynan: npopo ](r) cymoc1nyo1, 1orpa qynvnn ] nnn-
o1cn nonpopwnno n 1onvo (pnc. 28) nn no cymoc1nyo1
(pnc. 29). Anaornnnan cn1yann nmoo1 moc1o n pn 1onvn .
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ha comon1apno ma1oma1nvn nanoc1-
no, n1o qynvnn
](r) o
r
, o 0, (5.68)
rpo r - panonarnoo nnco, r - Q, mono1onna na mnoxoc1no
ncox panonarnwx nnco Q (cm. 1avxo n. 2.6

). n vaxporo
poc1nn1ornoro nnca r mnoxoc1na panonarnwx nnco r r,
r r no nyc1w n r nnno1cn nx 1onvo npnvocnononnn.
Hoc1omy, coracno copc1nnm 1oopomw 4, pn moro poc1nn-
1ornoro nnca r cymoc1nym1 npopow o
r
n o
r
,
r - Q (no mnoxoc1ny panonarnwx nnco Q, 1av vav nova y nac
novaaa1ornan qynvnn onpopoona 1orvo pn panonarnwx
novaaa1oo).
E nac1noc1n, yvaaannwo npopow cymoc1nym1 pn r 0.
Coracno onpopoonnm npopoa, nx ananonnn pannw coo1no1-
c1nonno ananonnnm npopoon nocopona1ornoc1o npn
r 0

Pnc. 28
r

Pnc. 29
sup
X

(r
0
)
In
X

(r
0
)
IIm
r
r X
IIm
r r - 0
IIm
r r - 0
o
r
n
z0S
mwx nocopona1ornoc1nx aprymon1a r
n
0 n r
n
0, c1po-
mnmnxcn v nym, r
n
- Q, n l, 2, ... . E nac1noc1n, moxno
nan1r r
n
- n r
n
, pn vo1opwx c1n npopow wn yxo
nwnnconw (cm. npnmop 3 n n. 4.9). Torpa noynnm o
r

o l, o l, 1. o. opnoc1oponnno npo-
pow n 1onvo r 0 qynvnn o
r
, r - Q, pannw, n, copona-
1orno, coracno copc1nnm na 1oopomw 2 n. 5.9, cymoc1ny-
o1 pnyc1oponnn npopo o
r
l. On connapao1 co ana-
nonnom o
0
l qynvnn o
r
npn r 0, a noc1omy (cm. ommy 3
n n. 5.l2) ona nonpopwnna n nyo
o
r
o
0
l, r - Q, o - R, o 0. (5.69)
01o panonc1no ypo1 cymoc1nonno ncnoraonano n n. ?.2 npn
onpopoonnn novaaa1orno qynvnn o
r
pn moro poc1nn-
1ornoro nnca r, o 0.
annw npnmop novaawnao1, n1o nonn1no npopoa no mno-
xoc1nam nc1ponao1cn yxo n camwx npoc1omnx cn1yannx.
3 a m o n a n n o 3. Ha 1oopomw 4 copyo1, n1o ncnvan mo-
no1onnan na vononnom (ocvononnom) nn1opnao qynvnn
moxo1 nmo1r 1orvo 1onvn paapwna nopnoro popa, npnnom nx
mnoxoc1no no ooo nom cno1no (1. o. vononno nn cno1no).
E camom poo, nyc1r pn onpopoonnoc1n qynvnn
] : (o, b) = R noapac1ao1 na nn1opnao (o, b), -~ o b -~.
Hpoxpo ncoro, coracno copc1nnm na 1oopomw 4, qynvnn ]
n vaxpo 1onvo r
0
- (o, b) nmoo1 vononnwo npopow cona
](r
0
- 0) n cnpana ](r
0
- 0), a copona1orno, moxo1 nmo1r
1orvo paapwnw nopnoro popa (onpopoonno 1onvn paapwna
nopnoro popa cm. n n. 5.l3), npn c1om y noo no moxo1 w1r 1o-
nov yc1pannmoro paapwna. oc1nn1orno, ocn r
0
- (o, b), 1o
pn ncox r - (o, r
0
) n r - (r
0
, b), n cny noapac1annn qynv-
nn ], cnpanopnno nopanonc1no
](r) ](r
0
) ](r),
o1vypa
](r) ](r
0
) ](r).
l
n
---
l
n
---
IIm
r -0
IIm
n ~
-
l
n
---
IIm o
r
r -0
IIm
n ~
l
n
---
IIm
r 0, r = 0
IIm
r 0

sup
(o, r
0
)
In
(o, r
0
)
z09
3pocr (o, r
0
) {r - (o, b): r r
0
, a (r
0
, b) {r - (o, b): r r
0
,
noc1omy, coracno (5.60), noynonnoo nopanonc1no moxno aa-
nnca1r n nnpo
](r
0
- 0) ](r
0
) ](r
0
- 0). (5.?0)
Ecn r
0
- 1onva yc1pannmoro paapwna, 1. o. nmoo1 moc1o
nopanonc1no ](r
0
- 0) ](r
0
- 0), 1o, n cny (5.?0), nwnonn-
o1cn yconno ](r
0
- 0) ](r
0
) ](r
0
- 0), n1o oananao1 (cm.
n. 5.9) nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn ] n 1onvo r
0
. H1av, ocn r
0
-
1onva paapwna qynvnn ], 1o ](r
0
- 0) ](r
0
- 0).
Conoc1annm vaxpo 1onvo paapwna r
0
qynvnn ] nn1op-
na (](r
0
- 0), ](r
0
- 0)) n novaxom, n1o c1n nn1opnaw no no-
pocovam1cn. E camom poo, ocn r
l
n r
2
- pno 1onvn paapwna
qynvnn ] n, nanpnmop, r
l
r
2
, 1o ](r
l
- 0) ](r
2
- 0). o-
vaxom c1o. E cny noapac1annn qynvnn ], pn mwx 1onov
r n r 1avnx, n1o r
l
r r r
2
, cnpanopnno nopanonc1no
](r) ](r). Hopopn n c1om nopanonc1no v npopoy npn r =
= r
l
- 0, noynnm ](r
l
- 0) ](r). Vc1pomnn apocr r v r
2
cona: r = r
2
- 0, ypom nmo1r ](r
l
- 0) ](r
2
- 0), 1. o. npa-
nw vono nn1opnaa (](r
l
- 0), ](r
l
- 0)) no ormo onoro
vona nn1opnaa (](r
2
- 0), ](r
2
- 0)). O1cmpa, ononnpno, n
copyo1, n1o yvaaannwo nn1opnaw no nopocovam1cn.
H1av, 1onvam paapwna mono1onno qynvnn ] : (o, b) = R
moxno noc1ann1r no naanmno opnoanannoo coo1no1c1nno no-
vo1opym cnc1omy nonapno no nopocovammnxcn nn1opnaon.
E vaxpom 1avom nn1opnao nwopom no opnomy panonarno-
my nncy (1avno nnca ncorpa cymoc1nym1, nocvorvy mnoxo-
c1no panonarnwx nnco ncmpy no1no na nncono ocn (cm.
aamonanno n n. 4.ll

)). E poayr1a1o noynnm naanmno opno-


anannoo coo1no1c1nno moxpy nn1opnaamn yvaaanno cnc1o-
mw n mnoxoc1nom nwpannwx panonarnwx nnco, a copo-
na1orno, n moxpy 1onvamn paapwna qynvnn n novo1opwm
nopmnoxoc1nom mnoxoc1na panonarnwx nnco. Ho ncnvoo
nopmnoxoc1no cno1noro mnoxoc1na (vavnm nnno1cn mnoxo-
c1no panonarnwx nnco (cm. n. 4.ll

)) no vononno, no
cno1no, copona1orno, vononno no cno1no mnoxoc1no 1o-
nov paapwna mono1onno qynvnn.
z10
5.45. kpMtepMM komM
cyectsosonMs npepeAo ynkMM
E nac1onmom nynv1o no anaornn co cynaom nocopona1or-
noc1o ypo1 noynono nooxopnmoo n poc1a1onnoo yconno
1oro, n1o qynvnn nmoo1 vononnw npopo n panno 1onvo
r
0
, npnnom c1o yconno ypo1 cqopmynponano 1orvo n 1op-
mnnax ananonn camo qynvnn, copona1orno, ananonno
yvaaannoro npopoa n c1om yconnn no ynac1nyo1.
Kav n panrmo, nop 1onvo r
0
nonnmao1cn no poc1nn-
1ornoo nnco, no opna na ocvononnoc1o ~, -~ nn -~,
a r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na onpopoo-
nnn paccma1pnnaomo qynvnn.
I E OF E M A 5 (kpMtepMM komM). ].n noeo unom quuuun ] :
X = R u+e.o o nouue r
0
uoueuumu npeoe., ueoroou+o u oo
cnonouuo, unom o.n .voeo 0 cecnoooo.o nouon
oupecnuocno U(r
0
) nouuu r
0
, uno o.n .vmr r - U(r
0
) X
u r - U(r
0
) X omno.un.oco m uepooeucnoo
](r) - ](r) .
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c G x c / M | c c M. Hyc1r ] : X = R n
](r) o - R. 01o oananao1, n1o pn moro 0 cymoc1-
nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o pn vaxporo
r - U(r
0
) X cnpanopnno nopanonc1no
](r) - o . (5.?l)
Hyc1r r - U(r
0
) X n r - U(r
0
) X; 1orpa, n cny (5.?l), y-
pom nmo1r
](r) - ](r) [](r) - o - [o - ](r)
](r) - o - o - ](r) - .
/ c k c s c e / | c a c / c c c c c c M. Hyc1r qynvnn
] : X = R 1avona, n1o pn moro 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avan ov-
poc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o pn ncox
r - U(r
0
) X, r - U(r
0
) X, (5.?2)
'
'
IIm
r r
0
'

2
---
' '

2
---

2
---
' '
z11
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
](r) - ](r) . (5.?3)
Hovaxom, n1o o1cmpa copyo1 cymoc1nonanno y qynvnn ]
vononnoro npopoa n 1onvo r
0
. Eoarmom vavym-no nocopo-
na1ornoc1r r
n
- X, n l, 2, ... ,
r
n
r
0
(5.?4)
n nponanorno aapapnm 0. n c1oro , coracno cpoan-
nomy npopnooxonnm, cymoc1nyo1 ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn
r
0
, ypono1nopnmman yconnnm (5.?2)-(5.?3). E cny xo yc-
onnn (5.?4), pn c1o ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
) cymoc1nyo1 1avoo
n
0
- N, n1o npn ncox n n
0
, n - N, nmoo1 moc1o r
n
- U(r
0
), a
1av vav r
n
- X, 1o r
n
- U(r
0
) X, n n
0
- l, n
0
- 2, ... . O1cm-
pa, npnnnman no nnnmanno (5.?2)-(5.?3), noynaom, n1o pn
ncox n n
0
n ncox n n
0
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
](r
n
) - ](r
n
) ,
1. o. nnconan nocopona1ornoc1r {](r
n
) ypono1nopno1 yc-
onnnm vpn1opnn Komn pn nnconwx nocopona1ornoc1o
(cm. n. 4.?) n, copona1orno, cxopn1cn.
Tavnm opaaom, pn vaxpo nocopona1ornoc1n r
n
- X,
n l, 2, ... , r
n
r
0
, nocopona1ornoc1r {](r
n
) cxopn1-
cn. O1cmpa, vav nanoc1no (cm. ommy 4 n n. 5.6), copyo1 cy-
moc1nonanno vononnoro npopoa ](r).
E 1om cynao, vorpa r
0
nnno1cn nncom, yconno Komn
moxno cqopmynpona1r copymmnm opaaom:
o.n .voeo 0 cecnoen nouoe 0, uno o.n .v
mr r - X u r - X, ooo.enoopnvur c.ooun+ r - r
0
,
r - r
0
, omno.unencn uepooeucnoo
](r) - ](r) .
Hpn r
0
~ yconnm Komn moxno npnpa1r copymmn nnp:
o.n .voeo 0 cecnoen nouoe 0, uno o.n .v
mr r - X u r - X, ooo.enoopnvur c.ooun+ r ,
r , omno.unencn uepooeucnoo ](r) - ](r) .
IIm
n
'
IIm
n
IIm
r r
0
z1z
n cynan opnoc1oponnnx npopoon yconno Komn mox-
no nopoqpaanpona1r oa 1opmnna ovpoc1noc1r copymmnm
opaaom:
o.n .voeo 0 cecnoen nouoe ( r
0
, uoeoo poc
c+onpuooencn npeoe. c.eoo, u r
0
, uoeoo npeoe. cnpooo),
uno o.n .vmr r - X u r - X, ooo.enoopnvur c.oouv
r r
0
, r r
0
u.u coonoencnoeuuo r
0
r ,
r
0
r , omno.unencn uepooeucnoo ](r) - ](r) .
O1mo1nm, n1o nco c1n vpn1opnn cymoc1nonannn npopoa
qynvnn, o1nocnmnocn v paanwm cynanm n nmommno paanym
qopmynponvy, aropapn ypanno nwpanno 1opmnnoornn
(nonn1nm ovpoc1noc1n) noynnn opnnoo povaaa1orc1no.
5.4. RpepeA M nenpepmsnocto kounosMMM ynkMM
Paccmo1pnm nonpoc o cymoc1nonannn vononnwx n ocvonon-
nwx npopoon vomnoann qynvn, vaxpan na vo1opwx
nmoo1 coo1no1c1nymmn npopo.
Ecn ] : X = R, g : Y = R n nwnonono yconno ](X) ~ Y,
1o na mnoxoc1no X onpopoona vomnoannn g] qynvn ] n g
nn, vav ronopn1, coxnan qynvnn g[](r). Paccma1pnnao-
mwo nnxo npopow ](r) n g() mory1 w1r vonon-
nwmn nn ocvononnwmn, a r
0
n
0
- vononnwmn nn ocvo-
nonno ypaonnwmn 1onvamn npnvocnononnn (cm. n. 5.4) coo1-
no1c1nonno mnoxoc1n X n ](X).
I E O F E M A . Hcno ] : X = R, g : Y = R, ](X) ~ Y u cecn
ovn uoueuume u.u ecuoueuume npeoe.m
](r)
0
, (5.?5)
g(); (5.?6)
noeoo npu r = r
0
cecnoen u npeoe. (uoueuumu u.u ec
uoueuumu) c.ouou quuuuu g[](r), npuue+
g[](r) g().
C A E p C I 8 H E. Ec.u ] : X = R, g : Y = R, ](X) ~ Y u quuuun ]
uenpepmouo o nouue r
0
- X, o quuuun g uenpepmouo o nouue

0
](r
0
), no c.ouon quuuun g[](r) uenpepmouo o nouue r
0
.
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
z13
Kopono (no monoo 1onno), nonpo-
pwnnan qynvnn o1 nonpopwnno
qynvnn nonpopwnna.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c p e | | .
Ooanannm ananonno npopoa (5.?6)
nopoa :
0
: g() :
0
(:
0
- nnco
no opna na ocvononnoc1o) - n
aaqnvcnpyom nponanornwm opa-
aom ovpoc1noc1r U U(:
0
) 1onvn :
0
.
Torpa, coracno onpopoonnm npopo-
a, cymoc1nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r
\ \(
0
) 1onvn , n1o ocn
- Y \(
0
), (5.??)
1o
g() - U(:
0
). (5.?8)
aoo, pn noynonno ovpoc1noc1n \(
0
), n cny cymo-
c1nonannn npopoa (5.?5), napo1cn 1avan ovpoc1noc1r W
W(r
0
), n1o ocn
r - X W(r
0
), (5.?9)
1o
](r) - \(
0
),
a 1av vav ](r) - Y, 1o
](r) - Y \(
0
). (5.80)
Ha nwnononnn yconn (5.?9)-(5.80), n cny (5.??)-(5.?8),
npn ](r) nmoom: ocn nwnonono nvmnonno (5.?9), 1o
(pnc. 30)
g [](r) - U(:
0
).
Tav vav ovpoc1noc1r U(:
0
) 1onvn :
0
wa nponanorna, 1o
c1o oananao1, n1o npn r = r
0
y qynvnn g[](r) cymoc1nyo1 npo-
po, pannw :
0
:
g [](r) :
0
g().
V1nopxponno copc1nnn nnno1cn nac1nwm cynaom 1oopo-
mw, vorpa
0
](r) ](r
0
) n g() g(
0
) (npn c1nx
npopnooxonnnx 1onvn r
0
n
0
npnnapoxa1 coo1no1c1nonno
Pnc.30
X Y Z
W(r
0
) \(
0
)
U(r
0
)
r
0

0
:
0
IIm

0
'
'
'
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
z14
mnoxoc1nam X n Y, noc1omy nnnm1cn nx 1onvamn npnvocno-
nonnn):
g [](r) g() g(
0
) g [](r
0
).
3 a m o n a n n o l. Ecn ] : X = R, g : X = R, cymoc1nyo1
npopo (5.?5) n mnoxoc1no Y copopxn1 novo1opym ovpoc1-
noc1r \(
0
) 1onvn
0
:
\(
0
) ~ Y, (5.8l)
1o, n cny cymoc1nonannn npopoa (5.?5), napo1cn 1avan ov-
poc1noc1r W W(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o ](X W) ~ \(
0
), n, copo-
na1orno, pn cyxonnn ]
0
qynvnn ] na mnoxoc1no X W nw-
nonono nvmnonno
]
0
(X W) ~ Y. (5.82)
Tavnm opaaom, ocn nopo1n v cyxonnm ]
0
qynvnn ], 1o
npn yvaaannom pononn1ornom npopnooxonnn (5.8l) n yco-
nnnx 1oopomw 6 moxno no 1poona1r cymoc1nonannn vomno-
annn qynvn g n ]
0
, 1. o. nwnononnn yconnn ](X) ~ Y -
n yvaaannom nwmo cmwco ono nwnonno1cn an1oma1nnocvn,
a nmonno nmoo1 moc1o nvmnonno (5.82) n noc1omy cymoc1ny-
o1 vomnoannn g]
0
.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. V1nopxponno copc1nnn 1oopomw ? mox-
no aannca1r n nnpo qopmyw
g [](r) g [ ](r), (5.83)
na vo1opo nnpno, n1o, opaano ronopn, onepouun npeoe.ouoeo
neperooo nepecnouooouuo c onepouueu o:nnun uenpepmouou
quuuuu.
E camom poo, onan nac1r panonc1na (5.83), n cny nonpo-
pwnnoc1n qynvnn g [](r) n 1onvo r
0
(cm. copc1nno 1oopomw 6),
panna g [(](r
0
). 01omy xo ananonnm g [](r
0
) panna n npanan
nac1r panonc1na, no yxo n cny nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn ] n
1o xo 1onvo r
0
.
3 a m o n a n n o 3. ovaaannym n 1oopomo 6 qopmyy
g [](r) g(), (5.84)
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
'
'
'
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
z1
rpo
0
](r), moxno paccma1pnna1r vav npoou.o
:o+eum nepe+euuoeo o.n omuuc.euun npeoe.oo c.oumr
quuuuu.
Vno1ponn ooananonno vomnoannn qynvn g], pa-
nonc1no (5.84) moxno aannca1r n nnpo
(g])(r) g().
3 a m o n a n n o 4. Hyc1r ] : X = R, g : Y = R, ](X) ~ Y n
](r)
0
. E c1om cynao, coracno 1oopomo 6, na cymoc1-
nonannn npopoa (vononnoro nn ocvononnoro) n npano nac-
1n panonc1na (5.84) copyo1 cymoc1nonanno coo1no1c1nymmo-
ro npopoa n ono nac1n n panonc1no c1nx npopoon. Ecn,
vpomo 1oro, o1opaxonno ] : X = Y nnno1cn naanmno opno-
anannwm o1opaxonnom mnoxoc1na X n a m n o x o c 1 n o Y
(1. o. na Y cymoc1nyo1 opnoanannan opa1nan qynvnn ]
-l
) n
ocn ]
-l
() r
0
, 1o n naoopo1, na cymoc1nonannn vo-
nonnoro nn ocvononnoro npopoa n ono nac1n panonc1na
(5.84) copyo1 cymoc1nonanno coo1no1c1nymmoro npopoa n
npano nac1n c1oro panonc1na.
Tavnm opaaom, npu coe.ouumr npeo.oeuunr npeoe.
(uoueuumu u.u ecuoueuumu) g[](r) cecnoen noe
oo u no.ouo noeoo, uoeoo cecnoen (uoueuumu u.u ec
uoueuumu) npeoe. g(), npuue+ o c.uoe ur cecnoo
oouun ouu pooum.
01o y1nopxponno copyo1 na 1oopomw 6, ocn oo npnmo-
nn1r v vomnoannn (g])]
-l
qynvn ]
-l
n g]. Coracno
1oopomo 6, na cymoc1nonannn npopoon ]
-l
() r
0
n
(g])(r) copyo1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 npopo
((g])]
-l
)() (g])(r),
no (g])]
-l
g(]]
-l
) g. Tom camwm cymoc1nyo1 npopo
g(), npnnom g() (g])(r).
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
IIm

0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
IIm
r r
0
IIm

0
IIm

0
IIm
r r
0
z16
.
CacMcac enpep|a|x qykuMM
c npc|exykcx
.4. OrponMennocto nenpepmsnmx ynkMM.
poctMxMuocto akctpeuoAonmx snoenMM
E nac1onmom naparpaqo ypo1 naynon pnp naxnwx, naxopn-
mnx mnoronnconnwo npnmononnn cnoc1n nonpopwnnwx
qynvn.
OnpepeAenMe 4. duuuun ] : X = R, X ~ R, uo:mooencn ue
npepmouou uo +uoecnoe X, ec.u ouo uenpepmouo no +uo
ecno X o uooou eeo nouue (cm. onpopoonnn 5 n 8 n
n. 5.5).
Eaxnwm vaccom nonpopwnnwx qynvn nnno1cn vacc
qynvn, nonpopwnnwx na npomoxy1vax nncono ocn. Han-
nom oro naynonno c qynvn, nonpopwnnwx na o1poavax. Ec-
n qynvnn ] nonpopwnna na o1poavo [o, b, 1o oo nonpopwn-
noc1r n 1onvo r o oananao1 nonpopwnnoc1r cnpana, a oo no-
npopwnnoc1r n 1onvo r b - nonpopwnnoc1r cona n c1nx
1onvax.
Houo.ouu+ ] (uou+euouu+ ]) ananonnom qynv-
nn ] : X = R naawnao1cn nanormoo (nanmonrmoo) anano-
nno mnoxoc1na ncox oo ananonn (cm. n. 3.3). Ononnpno, n1o
ocn y qynvnn ] cymoc1nyo1 nanormoo (nanmonrmoo) ana-
nonno, 1o ono nnno1cn oo nopxno (nnxno) rpanrm (cm.
n. 5.l) ] (coo1no1c1nonno ]).
I E OF E M A 4 (teopeuo 8eMepmtpocco). Henpepmouon uo onpe:
ue quuuun oepouuueuo u npuuu+oen uo ue+ uouo.ouee u
uou+euouee :uoueuue.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r qynvnn ] nonpopwnna na o1poa-
vo [o, b n nyc1r M ](r); vav n ncnvan nopxnnn
rpanr nonyc1oro mnoxoc1na nnco, M moxo1 w1r no vo-
nonno, no ocvononno, panno -~. Hovaxom, n1o M -~
n n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva r
0
- [o, b, n1o ](r
0
) M.
max
X
mIn
X
sup
X
In
X
sup
o r b
z17
Ewopom vavym-no nocopona1ornoc1r 1avnx nnco o
n
,
n l, 2, ... , n1o
o
n
M, o
n
M, n l, 2, ... . (6.l)
Coracno onpopoonnm nopxno rpann qynvnn, pn vaxporo
o
n
, n l, 2, ... , cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva r
n
- [o, b, n1o
](r
n
) o
n
, n l, 2, ... . (6.2)
C ppyro c1oponw, nocvorvy M - nopxnnn rpanr qynvnn
], pn ncox 1onov r - [o, b cnpanopnno nopanonc1no
](r) M. (6.3)
Hocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
orpannnona: o r
n
b, n
l, 2, ... , noc1omy no 1oopomo Borano-Eoopm1pacca (cm.
n. 4.6) na noo moxno nwpon1r cxopnmymcn nopnocopona-
1ornoc1r {
r
0
. (6.4)
Tav vav o b, h l, 2, ... , 1o (nonomy?) n o r
0
b,
1. o. r
0
- 1onva o1poava [o, b.
Ha nopanonc1n (6.2) n (6.3) copyo1, n1o pn ncox h
l, 2, ... cnpanopnnw nopanonc1na
]( ) M. (6.5)
Hpopo ncnvo nopnocopona1ornoc1n nocopona1ornoc1n,
nmommo vononnw nn ocvononnw npopo, panon npopoy
nco nocopona1ornoc1n; noc1omy na (6.l) nmoom
M. Hopoxopn n (6.5) v npopoy npn h = ~, noynaom
]( ) M. (6.6)
C ppyro c1oponw, n cny nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn ] na o1-
poavo [o, b ona nonpopwnna n 1onvo r
0
c1oro o1poava n, copo-
na1orno, na (6.4) copyo1, n1o
]( ) ](r
0
). (6.?)
Ha qopmy (6.6) n (6.?) nmoom M ](r
0
).
IIm
n
r
n
h
IIm
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
o
n
h
r
n
h
IIm
h
o
n
h
IIm
h
r
n
h
IIm
h
r
n
h
z1S
Tavnm opaaom, povaaano, n1o nopxnnn rpanr M qynvnn
] connapao1 co ananonnom qynvnn n 1onvo r
0
n, copona1or-
no, vononna. Tom camwm qynvnn ] orpannnona cnopxy n oo
nopxnnn rpanr poc1nrao1cn n 1onvo r
0
- [o, b.
Anaornnno povaawnao1cn, n1o nonpopwnnan na o1poavo
qynvnn orpannnona cnnay n poc1nrao1 na nom cnoo nnxno
rpann.
Toopoma, anaornnnan 1oopomo l, nocnpanopnna pn npo-
moxy1von, no nnnmmnxcn o1poavamn; n c1om orvo yopn1r-
cn, noc1ponn coo1no1c1nymmno npnmopw. Hanpnmop, qynv-
nn l,r nonpopwnna n vaxpo 1onvo nn1opnaa (0, l) n
nmoc1o c 1om no orpannnona na nom; qynvnn r nonpopwn-
na na nco nncono ocn n no orpannnona na no.
O1mo1nm omo, n1o ocn qynvnn ] nonpopwnna no na o1-
poavo, a na npomoxy1vo ppyroro 1nna n paxo, vpomo 1oro, or-
pannnona na nom, ona, noomo ronopn, no nmoo1 nanormoro
n nanmonrmoro ananonnn. Hanpnmop, qynvnn r na nn-
1opnao (0, l) n arcIg r na nco nncono npnmo, xo1n
onn nonpopwnnw (nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn arcIg r ypo1
povaaana n n. ?.3) n orpannnonw na yvaaannwx npomoxy1vax,
no poc1nram1 cnonx nopxnnx n nnxnnx rpano.
VHPAHEHHH. 1. Hyc1r qynvnn ] onpopoona n nonpopwnna na o1poa-
vo [o, b n ](r) 0 pn ncox r - [o, b. Torpa cymoc1nyo1 1avoo c 0, n1o
](r) c pn ncox r - [o, b.
z. ovaaa1r, n1o qynvnn ], nonpopwnnan na vononnom nn ocvononnom
noynn1opnao [o, b), o b -~, n nmomman vononnw npopo
](r), orpannnona na [o, b).
.2. Rpouexytonme snoenMs nenpepmsnmx ynkMM
I E OF E M A 2 (teopeuo EoAoonokomM). Ec.u quuuun ] uenpe
pmouo uo onpe:ue [o, b u ](o) A, ](b) E, no o.n .voeo
C, :ou.vueuuoeo +eo A u E, cecnoen nouon nouuo,
- [o, b, uno ]() C.
Hnano ronopn, uenpepmouon uo onpe:ue quuuun, npuuu
+on uouue.uo ooo :uoueuun, npuuu+oen u .voe .eoee
+eo uu+u :uoueuue.
IIm
r b - 0
z19
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r pn on-
popoonnoc1n ](o) A E ](b) n A
C E. Paaponm o1poaov [o, b 1onvo
r
0
na pna pannwx no pnno o1poava; 1or-
pa no ](r
0
) C n, anann1, ncvoman
1onva r
0
napona, no ](r
0
) = C n
1orpa na vonax opnoro na noynonnwx
o1poavon qynvnn ] npnnnmao1 ananonnn, oxamno no paa-
nwo c1oponw o1 nnca C, 1onnoo - na onom vono ananonno,
monrmoo C, na npanom - ormoo.
Ooanannm c1o1 o1poaov [o
l
, b
l
n paaponm oro cnona na
pna pannwx no pnno o1poava n 1. p. E poayr1a1o no nopoa
vononnoo nnco maron npnpom v ncvomo 1onvo , n vo1opo
]() C, no noynnm nocopona1ornoc1r noxonnwx o1-
poavon [o
n
, b
n
, no pnno c1pomnmnxcn v nym n 1avnx, n1o
](o
n
) C ](b
n
). (6.8)
Hyc1r - oman 1onva ncox o1poavon [o
n
, b
n
, n l, 2, ...
(cm. n. 3.?). Kav nanoc1no (cm. (4.26)), o
n
b
n
.
Hoc1omy, n cny nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn ],
]() ](o
n
) ](b
n
). (6.9)
Ha (6.8) xo noynnm (cm. n. 3.3)
](o
n
) C ](b
n
). (6.l0)
Ha (6.9) n (6.l0) copyo1, n1o ]() C.
C A E p C I 8 H E 4. Ec.u quuuun uenpepmouo uo onpe:ue u uo
eeo uouuor npuuu+oen :uoueuun po:uoeo :uouo, no uo
ono+ onpe:ue cecnoen ronn m oouo nouuo, o uonopou
quuuun opooencn o u.o.
01o copc1nno - nac1nw cyna 1oopomw (pnc. 3l).
C A E p C I 8 H E 2. Hcno quuuun ] uenpepmouo uo onpe:ue
[o, b u M sup ], n In ]. Toeoo quuuun ] npuuu+oen oce
:uoueuun u: onpe:uo [n, M u no.ouo onu :uoueuun.
n povaaa1orc1na copc1nnn aamo1nm, n1o ocn M ],
n ], 1o n ](r) M n, coracno 1oopomo l, cymoc1ny-
b
](r)
o
Pnc. 3l
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
sup
[o, b
In
[o, b
zz0
m1 1avno 1onvn - [o, b n - [o, b, n1o ]() n, ]() M.
Tonopr paccma1pnnaomoo copc1nno nonocpopc1nonno nw1ova-
o1 na 1oopomw 2, npnmononno v o1poavy [, , ocn ,
nn coo1no1c1nonno v o1poavy [, , ocn .
Tavnm opaaom, +uoecnoo ocer :uoueuuu quuuuu, :o
oouuou u uenpepmouou uo ueuonopo+ onpe:ue, npeocnoo.n
en coou noue onpe:ou.
O1mo1nm, n1o cnoc1no nonpopwnnwx qynvn npnnn-
ma1r nco npomoxy1onnwo ananonnn cnpanopnno pn moro
npomoxy1va (vononnoro nn ocvononnoro). Hmonno: ocn
nonpopwnnan na novo1opom npomoxy1vo qynvnn npnnn-
mao1 n pnyx oro 1onvax o n b, npnnom o b, pna vavnx-1o
ananonnn, 1o ona npnnnmao1 n moo npomoxy1onnoo. E ca-
mom poo, coracno 1oopomo 2, paccma1pnnaoman qynvnn
aanopomo npnnnmao1 yvaaannoo ananonno n novo1opo 1onvo
o1poava [o, b, vo1opw nnno1cn nac1rm ncxopnoro npomo-
xy1va.
3 a m o n a n n o. Kav n 1oopomo l, 1av n n 1oopomo 2 wo
povaaano cymoc1nonanno 1onvn na pannom o1poavo, n vo1o-
po ananonno paccma1pnnaomo nonpopwnno qynvnn o-
apao1 onpopoonnwm cnoc1nom (n nopno 1oopomo n c1o
1onvo poc1nrao1cn cvc1pomarnoo ananonno, no n1opo -
npnnnmao1cn aapannoo npomoxy1onnoo ananonno). Opnavo
moxpy mo1opamn, npnmononnwmn pn povaaa1orc1na c1nx
y1nopxponn, nmoo1cn npnnnnnarnoo paannno. Mo1op
povaaa1orc1na 1oopomw 2 pao1 noamoxnoc1r no 1orvo pova-
aa1r n omom cynao cymoc1nonanno yvaaanno 1onvn, no n
qav1nnocvn na1n oo c mo aapanno c1ononrm 1onnoc1n
pn vaxpo vonvpo1no qynvnn: nyxno paapon1r o1po-
aov, na vo1opom nmo1cn 1onva, poc1a1onnoo nnco paa no-
noam, nwnpan vaxpw paa noonnny coracno npanny,
yvaaannomy npn povaaa1orc1no; vonw noynnnmorocn
o1poava n ypy1 npnnxonnwmn ananonnnmn yvaaanno
1onvn.
Mo1op xo povaaa1orc1na 1oopomw l no noanono1 yva-
aa1r cnoco, c nomomrm vo1oporo pn vaxpo nonpopwn-
no na o1poavo qynvnn moxno wo w na1n 1onvn, n vo-
1opwx ona npnnnmao1 cvc1pomarnwo ananonnn. 01o oyc-
onono 1om, n1o povaaa1orc1no c1o 1oopomw ocnonano
na 1oopomo Borano-Eoopm1pacca, y1nopxpammo nmr
zz1
n o a m o x n o c 1 r nwpoonnn na vaxpo orpannnonno no-
copona1ornoc1n cxopnmocn nopnocopona1ornoc1n. Kon-
vpo1noro mo1opa, nn, vav c1o npnnn1o ronopn1r, o.eo
pun+o, pn nwpoonnn na mo orpannnonno nocopo-
na1ornoc1n cxopnmocn nopnocopona1ornoc1n, no cymo-
c1nyo1.
3amo1nm omo, n1o npn ncnoraonannn vavoro-no aro-
pn1ma na npav1nvo naxno, vav wc1po on npnnopn1 v on.
C c1o 1onvn aponnn npn npnnxonnom pomonnn ypanno-
nnn ](r) 0 ownno npnmonno1cn no mo1op nocopona1orno-
ro poonnn o1poava nonoam, a ppyrno aropn1mw, wc1poo
npnnopnmno v on (cm. 62 no n1opom 1omo).
3aaua 7. ovaaa1r, n1o nopnopnnocvan nonpopwnnan na nco nnco-
no ocn qynvnn, o1nnnan o1 noc1onnno, nmoo1 nanmonrmn nopnop.
Hpnnoc1n npnmop nopnopnnocvo qynvnn, onpopoonno na nco nncono
ocn n o1nnno o1 noc1onnno, vo1opan no nmoo1 nanmonrmoro nopnopa.
.3. Opotnme ynkMM
O n p e p e A e n M e 2. duuuun ], onpeoe.euuon uo uuc.ooo+
+uoecnoe X, uo:mooencn cnpoeo oo:pocnoveu (cnpoeo
mooveu), ec.u o.n .vmr oor uuce. r
l
- X u r
2
- X no
uur, uno r
l
r
2
, omno.unencn uepooeucnoo ](r
l
) ](r
2
)
(coonoencnoeuuo ](r
l
) ](r
2
)).
duuuun, cnpoeo oo:pocnovon u.u cnpoeo moov
on, uo:mooencn cnpoeo +ouonouuou.
Ecn qynvnn nnno1cn c1poro noapac1ammo (c1poro
ywnammo) na mnoxoc1no X, 1o ypom 1avxo ronopn1r, n1o
ona c1poro noapac1ao1 (c1poro ywnao1) na c1om mnoxoc1no.
Ononnpno, n1o c1poro mono1onnan (noapac1amman, yw-
namman) qynvnn nnno1cn n npoc1o mono1onno (coo1no1-
c1nonno noapac1ammo, ywnammo) qynvno n cmwco
onpopoonnn l6 na n. 5.l4.
A E M M A 4. Hcno quuuun ] cnpoeo oo:pocnoen (mooen)
uo ueuonopo+ +uoecnoe X ~ R u ncno Y +uoecnoo
ee :uoueuuu. Toeoo oponuon quuuun ]
-l
(cm. n. l.2

) no.n
encn oouo:uouuou cnpoeo oo:pocnoveu (cnpoeo moov
eu) quuuueu uo +uoecnoe Y.
zzz
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r pn onpopoonnoc1n qynvnn ]
c1poro noapac1ao1 na mnoxoc1no X. ovaxom, n1o opa1nan
qynvnn opnoananna.
onyc1nm npo1nnnoo. Hyc1r cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva - Y,
n1o mnoxoc1no ]
-l
() copopxn1 no vpano mopo pno paann-
nwx 1onvn r
l
n r
2
:
r
l
- ]
-l
() n r
2
- ]
-l
(), r
l
= r
2
,
n, copona1orno,
](r
l
) ](r
2
). (6.ll)
n pnyx nnco r
l
n r
2
, r
l
= r
2
cnpanopnno opno na pnyx no-
panonc1n: r
l
r
2
nn r
l
r
2
; n nopnom cynao, n cny c1poro-
ro noapac1annn qynvnn ], nmoom ](r
l
) ](r
2
), a no n1opom
](r
l
) ](r
2
), 1. o. n oonx cynanx panonc1no (6.ll) no nwno-
nno1cn. Tavnm opaaom, pn vaxporo - Y mnoxoc1no ]
-l
()
coc1on1 n 1onnoc1n na opno 1onvn, 1. o. qynvnn ]
-l
opno-
ananna.
ovaxom 1onopr, n1o qynvnn ]
-l
c1poro noapac1ao1 na
mnoxoc1no Y. Hyc1r

l

2
,
l
- Y,
2
- Y (6.l2)
n nyc1r r
l
]
-l
(
l
), r
2
]
-l
(
2
). Copona1orno,
l
](r
l
),

2
](r
2
). n mwx pnyx nnco r
l
n r
2
cnpanopnno opno na
1pox coo1nomonn: no r
l
r
2
, no r
l
r
2
, no r
l
r
2
.
Ecn r
l
r
2
nn r
l
r
2
, 1o coo1no1c1nonno wo w
l

2
(n cny c1pororo noapac1annn qynvnn ]) nn
l

2
(n cny
opnoanannoc1n), n1o npo1nnoponno w nopanonc1ny (6.l2).
Tavnm opaaom, na nopanonc1na (6.l2) copyo1, n1o r
l
r
2
, a
c1o n oananao1 c1poroo noapac1anno qynvnn ]
-l
na mnoxoc1-
no Y.
E cynao c1poro ywnammo na mnoxoc1no qynvnn ]
povaaa1orc1no moxno no nponoc1n anaornnnwm opa-
aom, no cnoc1n v yxo paccmo1ponnomy cynam paccmo1po-
nnom qynvnn -], no vorpa qynvnn ] c1poro ywnao1 na
mnoxoc1no X, qynvnn -] c1poro noapac1ao1 na c1om mno-
xoc1no.
zz3
I E O F E M A 3. Hcno quuuun ] onpeoe.euo, cnpoeo oo:poc
noen (cnpoeo mooen) u uenpepmouo uo onpe:ue [o, b;
noeoo oponuon quuuun ]
-l
onpeoe.euo, oouo:uouuo,
cnpoeo oo:pocnoen (cnpoeo mooen) u uenpepmouo uo on
pe:ue c uouuo+u o nouuor ](o) u ](b) (pnc. 32).
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hponopom povaaa1orc1no 1oopomw pn
c1poro noapac1ammnx qynvn. Hyc1r c ](o), J ](b).
Hovaxom, n1o oac1rm onpopoonnn opa1no qynvnn
]
-l
nnno1cn cormon1 [c, J, nn, n1o 1o xo, [c, J - mnoxoc1-
no ananonn qynvnn ]. E camom poo, na noapac1annn qynv-
nn ] copyo1, n1o ](o) ](r) ](b), 1. o. n1o ](r) - [c, J pn m-
oro r - [o, b. C ppyro c1oponw, vavono w nn wo - [c, J,
1. o. ](o) ](b), coracno 1oopomo 2, cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1on-
va r - [o, b, n1o ](r) . Tavnm opaaom, nco ananonnn aapan-
no qynvnn ] oxa1 na o1poavo [c, J, n vaxpan 1onva c1oro
o1poava nnno1cn ananonnom qynvnn ] n novo1opo 1onvo.
01o n oananao1, n1o o1poaov [c, J nnno1cn mnoxoc1nom ana-
nonn qynvnn ]. O1mo1nm, n1o c1o y1nopxponno copyo1
1avxo n na copc1nnn 2 1oopomw 2, ocn aamo1n1r, n1o n pan-
nom cynao
c ](r), J ](r).
E cny ommw, qynvnn ]
-l
opnoanannan n c1poro noapac-
1ao1 na o1poavo [c, J.
Hovaxom, navono, n1o qynvnn ]
-l
nonpopwnna na
[c, J. Hyc1r
0
- [c, J n r
0
]
-l
(
0
). Hyc1r c
0
J, 1. o.

0
- nny1ponnnn 1onva o1poava [c, J, 1orpa, n cny c1pororo
noapac1annn qynvnn ]
-l
, n o r
0
b. 3aqnvcnpyom novo1o-
r o 0

b
](o)
](b)
](r)
r o 0

b
](b)
](o)
](r)
Pnc. 32
mIn
[o, b
max
[o, b
zz4
poo 0. Ho orpannnnnan o-
mnoc1n parnomnx paccyxpo-
nn, moxno cnn1a1r (nonomy?),
n1o 1avono, n1o
o r
0
- r
0

r
0
- b. (6.l3)
Hyc1r
l
](r
0
- ),
2
](r
0
-
-). Torpa na yconnn (6.l3), n
cny c1pororo noapac1annn ],
copyo1, n1o c
l

0

2
J.
Eoarmom 0 1av, n1ow
l

0
-
0
-
2
(pnc. 33).
Ecn 1onopr nwpa1r 1avnm, n1o
0
-
0
- , 1o, 1om
ooo,
l

2
, n, copona1orno, n cny c1pororo noapac1a-
nnn qynvnn ]
-l
, cnpanopnno nopanonc1no
r
0
- ]
-l
(
l
) ]
-l
() ]
-l
(
2
) r
0
- .
Tavnm opaaom, pn 0 yvaaano 1avoo 0, n1o pn
ncox - (
0
- ,
0
- ) nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
]
-l
() - ]
-l
(
0
) ,
1. o. qynvnn ]
-l
nonpopwnna n 1onvo
0
. Ecn 1onopr
0
c
nn
0
J, 1o anaornnnwmn paccyxponnnmn povaawnao1cn,
n1o qynvnn ]
-l
nonpopwnna cnpana n 1onvo c n nonpopwnna
cona n 1onvo J. Toopoma pn c1poro noapac1ammnx qynvn
povaaana.
Hanomnnm, n1o qynvnn ] c1poro ywnao1 1orpa n 1orvo
1orpa, vorpa qynvnn -] c1poro noapac1ao1, noc1omy cnpanop-
nnoc1r 1oopomw pn c1poro ywnammnx qynvn copyo1 na
paccmo1ponnoro cynan.
Paccmo1pnm 1onopr qynvnn, onpopoonnwo na nn1op-
nao.
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno quuuun ] onpeoe.euo, cnpoeo oo:poc
noen (cnpoeo mooen) u uenpepmouo uo uunepoo.e (o, b)
(uoueuuo+ u.u ecuoueuuo+) u ncno
c ](r), J ](r).
r o
0

2
r
0
- r
0
b

0
-

l
c
t
0
-
J
r
0
-
Pnc. 33
IIm
r o - 0
IIm
r b - 0
zz
Toeoo oponuon quuuun ]
-l
onpeoe.euo, oouo:uouuo,
cnpoeo oo:pocnoen (cnpoeo mooen) u uenpepmouo uo uu
nepoo.e (uoueuuo+ u.u ecuoueuuo+) c uouuo+u c u J.
Hpn c1om n cynao o -~ nop npopoom ](r) no-
nnmao1cn npopo ](r), a n cynao b -~ nop npopoom
](r) - npopo ](r).
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r pn onpopoonnoc1n qynvnn ]
c1poro noapac1ao1 na nn1opnao (o, b). Hovaxom, n1o n c1om
cynao mnoxoc1nom oo ananonn nnno1cn nn1opna (c, J).
oc1nn1orno, coracno 1oopomo o npopoax mono1onnwx
qynvn (cm. n. 5.l4), nmoom c ], J ] n, copo-
na1orno, pn moro r - (o, b) cnpanopnno nopanonc1no
c ](r) J. Booo 1oro, pn ncox r - (o, b) nwnonnm1cn omo
nopanonc1na ](r) = c, ](r) = J. E camom poo, ocn w, nanpn-
mop, cymoc1nonao 1avoo r
0
, n1o o r
0
b n ](r
0
) c (c1o,
ononnpno, noamoxno 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa nnxnnn rpanr c vo-
nonna), 1o npn o r r
0
nwnonnocr w nopanonc1no ](r)
](r
0
) c, n1o npo1nnoponno w 1omy, n1o c ]. H1av,
pn ncox r - (o, b) nwnonnm1cn nopanonc1na c ](r) J.
C ppyro c1oponw, c ], J ], noc1omy pn moro
, c J, cymoc1nym1 1avno r
l
- (o, b) n r
2
- (o, b), n1o
l

](r
l
) n
2
](r
2
) ypono1nopnm1 nopanonc1nam
c
l

2
J.
O1cmpa copyo1, n1o r
l
r
2
l
, n nocvorvy ](r
l
)
l
n ](r
2
)

2
, 1o, n cny 1oopomw Borano-Komn o npomoxy1onnwx
ananonnnx nonpopwnnwx qynvn, cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva
r - [r
l
, r
2
, n1o ](r) . Tavnm opaaom, pn mo 1onvn
- (c, J) cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva r - (o, b), n1o ](r) .
l
Cyna r
l
. r
2
nonoamoxon, 1av vav 1orpa w n cny noapac1annn
qynvnn ] nwnonnocr nopanonc1no
l
.
2
.
IIm
r - - 0
IIm
r -
IIm
r - - 0
IIm
r -
In
(o, b)
sup
(o, b)
In
(o, b)
In
(o, b)
sup
(o, b)
zz6
Tom camwm povaaano, n1o poc1nn1orno mnoxoc1nom ana-
nonn qynvnn ], nn, n1o 1o xo, mnoxoc1nom onpopoonnn
opa1no qynvnn ]
-l
, nnno1cn nn1opna (c, J). To, n1o
qynvnn ]
-l
opnoananna n c1poro noapac1ao1 n nn1opnao (c, J),
copyo1 na ommw. Eo nonpopwnnoc1r n 1onvo r, r
l
r r
2
,
copyo1 na 1oro, n1o ona n cny 1oopomw 3 nonpopwnna na o1-
poavo [r
l
, r
2
~ (o, b).
Kav n nwmo, 1oopoma pn c1poro ywnammo qynvnn
copyo1 na yxo povaaanno 1oopomw o c1poro noapac1ammo
qynvnn c nomomrm paccmo1ponnn qynvnn -].
3 a m o n a n n o. Anaornnno povaawnao1cn, n1o ocn
qynvnn c1poro noapac1ao1 n nonpopwnna na noynn1opnao
[o, b), -~ o b -~, nn na (o, b, -~ o b -~, 1o o-
pa1nan qynvnn onpopoona, c1poro noapac1ao1 n nonpopwn-
na na noynn1opnao [c, J), rpo c ](o), J ](r), coo1-
no1c1nonno na (c, J, rpo c ](r), J ](b) (pnc. 34).
Cyna c1poro ywnammo na noynn1opnao qynvnn
](r) moxno cnoc1n v cynam c1poro noapac1ammo qynvnn,
paccmo1pon qynvnm -](r).
Rp M ue p. Hpn mom oom nooxn1ornom n c1ononnan
qynvnn r
n
c1poro noapac1ao1 n nonpopwnna na nooxn-
1orno noyocn r . 0.
oc1nn1orno, ocn 0 r
l
r
2
, 1o, nopomnoxan n paa c1n
nopanonc1na, noynnm , 1. o. n1o qynvnn r
n
,
IIm
r b - 0
IIm
r o - 0
r o 0

b
c ](o)
J
Pnc. 34
r o 0

b
c
J ](b)
r
l
n
r
2
n
zz7
n l, 2, ... , c1poro mono1onno noapac1ao1. n povaaa1orc1-
na nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn r
n
aamo1nm, n1o qynvnn
](r) r nonpopwnna n mo 1onvo r
0
- R. oc1nn1orno, n
c1om cynao
0
](r
0
) r
0
, noc1omy -
0
r - r
0
r.
Copona1orno, ocn aapano 0, 1o, nann , noynnm,
n1o na yconnn r copyo1 r . 01o n oana-
nao1 nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn r n 1onvo r r
0
. 4ynvnn
xo r
n
nnno1cn nponanoponnom n opnnavonwx qynvn
](r) r n no1omy (cm. n. 5.l0) 1avxo nonpopwnna no ncox 1on-
vax r - R.
Ha 1oro, n1o r -~, ononnpno, copyo1, n1o
r
n
-~, n l, 2, ... . Kpomo 1oro, n nyo qynvnn
r
n
opamao1cn n nyr. Hoc1omy, coracno aamonannm v
1oopomo 4, mnoxoc1nom ananonn c1ononno qynvnn r
n
npn r . 0 nnno1cn noo1pna1ornan noyocr . 0.
Opa1no qynvno pn qynvnn
n
r nnno1cn voponr
n c1ononn , n l, 2, ... . Coracno 1oopomo 4 n povaaan-
nwm cnoc1nam c1ononno qynvnn r
n
, voponr n c1ono-
nn , n l, 2, ... , onpopoon pn moro noo1pna1ornoro
nnca .
Tavnm opaaom, na povaaannwx 1oopom copyo1, n nac1noc-
1n, cecnoooouue u eouucnoeuuocno no.oune.ouoeo uop
un nu cneneuu u: .voeo no.oune.ouoeo uuc.o.
3 a m o n a n n o. Ha paccmo1ponnoro npnmopa omo paa co-
pyo1, n1o mo npomoxy1ov copopxn1 nppanonarnwo nnc-
a (cm. copc1nno 2 na 1oopomw 8 n n. 4.ll

). Hovaxom cnana-
a, n1o nnco (cymoc1nonanno vo1oporo nw1ovao1 na pac-
cmo1ponnoro nwmo npnmopa) nnno1cn nppanonarnwm.
onyc1nm npo1nnnoo: nyc1r cymoc1nyo1 nppanonarnoo
nnco, pannoo vnappa1nomy vopnm na pnyx. 3annmom c1o nnc-
o n nnpo nocovpa1nmo ppon p,q (p n q - naanmno npoc1wo
na1yparnwo nnca): p,q. Torpa p
2
2q
2
n, copona1or-
no, nnco p pon1cn na 2. oc1nn1orno, ocn w p wo
nono1nwm, 1. o. p 2h - l, h - N, 1o nnco p
2
(2h - l)
2

IIm
r -
IIm
r -

n
2
2
zzS
4h
2
- 2h - l 1avxo wo w nono1nwm n panonc1no p
2
2h
2
no nmoo w moc1a. H1av, p 2h, no 1orpa 4h
2
2q
2
, nn
q
2
2h
2
. O1cmpa, vav n nwmo, copyo1, n1o q - no1noo nnco.
Ho1noc1r nnco p n q npo1nnoponn1 npopnooxonnm o nocov-
pa1nmoc1n ppon p,q.
Ha povaaannoro, ononnpno, copyo1, n1o ncnvoo nnco nn-
pa (n n n - na1yparnwo) 1avxo nppanonarno. E ca-
mom poo, ocn w ono wo panonarnwm , 1o n
ovaaaocr w panonarnwm nncom: . O1cmpa, n
cnom onopopr, copyo1, n1o ncnvn nn1opna copopxn1 nppa-
nonarnoo nnco (cpannn1o c n. 4.ll

), n npn1om nnpa ,
n n n - owo.
oc1nn1orno, nyc1r 0 o b. Ewopom na1yparnoo n
1av, n1ow b - o, a aa1om na1yparnoo n 1av, n1ow
o .
Torpa o b. Ecn xo o b 0, 1o, n cny povaaannoro,
cymoc1nym1 1avno owo n n n, n1o
0 -b -o;
noc1omy o - b.
E cynao o 0 b, coracno povaaannomy, cymoc1nym1 1a-
vno owo n n n, n1o o 0 b.
.4. Fosnouepnos nenpepmsnocto.
MopyAo nenpepmsnoctM
Ecn qynvnn ] nonpopwnna na o1poavo, 1o c1o oananao1, n1o
pn mo 1onvn r c1oro o1poava n pn moro nnca 0
napo1cn 1avoo nnco 0 (aanncnmoo o1 1onvn r n nnca ),
n1o pn ncox 1onov r o1poava, pn vo1opwx
r - r , (6.l3)
n 2
n
-------------
n 2
n
-------------
p
q
---
2
2
np
nq
--------
n 2
n
-------------
2
n
-------
n - l ( ) 2
n
-----------------------------
n 2
n
-------------
n 2
n
-------------
n 2
n
-------------
n 2
n
-------------
n 2
n
-------------
zz9
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
](r) - ](r) . (6.l4)
Ecn nnco moxno nwpa1r no aanncnmnm o1 1onvn r,
1av, n1ow npn nwnononnn yconnn (6.l3) nwnonnocr yc-
onno (6.l4), 1o qynvnn ] naawnao1cn pannomopno nonpo-
pwnno. Cqopmynpyom onpopoonno c1oro naxnoro nonn1nn
ooo noppono.
O n p e p e A e n M e 3. duuuun ], :ooouuon uo onpe:ue [o, b,
uo:mooencn poouo+epuo uenpepmouou uo ue+, ec.u o.n .v
oeo 0 cecnoen nouoe 0, uno o.n .vmr oor no
ueu r - [o, b n r - [o, b nouur, uno r - r , omno.unencn
uepooeucnoo ](r) - ](r) .
E cnmnonnocvo aanncn onpopoonno nonpopwnnoc1n
qynvnn na o1poavo nwrnpn1 copymmnm opaaom:
\ r \ 0 0 \ r, r - r : ](r) - ](r) ,
a onpopoonno pannomopno nonpopwnnoc1n 1av:
\ 0 0 \ r, r, r - r : ](r) - ](r) . (6.l5)
3pocr 1onvn r n r npnnapoxa1 o1poavy, na vo1opom pac-
cma1pnnao1cn qynvnn ].
Hcno, n1o ncnvan pannomopno nonpopwnnan na o1poavo
qynvnn nonpopwnna na nom: ocn n onpopoonnn pannomop-
no nonpopwnnoc1n aaqnvcnpona1r 1onvy r, 1o noynn1cn on-
popoonno nonpopwnnoc1n n c1o 1onvo.
Rp M ue p m. 4. 4ynvnn ](r) r pannomopno nonpopwnna
na nco nncono ocn, 1av vav, ocn aapano 0, poc1a1onno
nan1r ; 1orpa ocn r - r , 1o, n cny panonc1n ](r) r,
](r) r, noynnm ](r) - ](r) .
2. 4ynvnn ](r) sIn , r = 0, ypynn nonpopwnno na cno-
o oac1n onpopoonnn, 1. o. na nncono ocn, na vo1opo ypa-
ona 1onva r 0, no ypo1 na no pannomopno nonpopwnna.
E camom poo, ocn nan1r, nanpnmop, l, 1o npn mom
cvor yropno maom 0 napy1cn 1onvn r n r, nanpnmop
1onvn nnpa r n r (n - poc1a1onno
ormoo na1yparnoo nnco) 1avno, n1o r - r , a nmoc1o c
1om ](r) - ](r) l.
l
r
---
l
,2 - 2n
-----------------------------
l
3,2 - 2n
---------------------------------
z30
3. 4ynvnn ](r) r
2
no pannomopno nonpopwnna na nco
nncono ocn R. 01o copyo1 na 1oro, n1o pn moro qnvcn-
ponannoro h = 0 nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no
[](r - h) - ](r) [(r - h)
2
- r
2

(2rh - h
2
) ~.
Hoc1omy ocn aapano 0, 1o, vavono w nn wo 0, aa-
qnvcnponan h = 0, h , moxno 1av nwpa1r r, n1o ypo1 nw-
nonn1rcn nopanonc1no ](r - h) - ](r) .
I E OF E M A 5 (kontopo). duuuun, uenpepmouon uo onpe:ue,
poouo+epuo uenpepmouo uo ue+.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. ovaxom 1oopomy o1 npo1nnnoro. o-
nyc1nm, n1o na novo1opom o1poavo [o, b cymoc1nyo1 nonpo-
pwnnan, opnavo no pannomopno nonpopwnnan na nom qynvnn
]. 01o oananao1 (cm. (6.l5)), n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo
0
0, n1o
pn moro 0 napy1cn 1avno 1onvn r - [o, b n r - [o, b,
n1o r - r , no ](r) - ](r) .
0
. E nac1noc1n, pn l,n
napy1cn 1avno 1onvn, ooanannm nx r
n
n , n1o
- r
n
, (6.l6)
no
]( ) - ](r
n
) .
0
. (6.l?)
Ha nocopona1ornoc1n 1onov {r
n
n cny cnoc1na vom-
nav1noc1n (cm. 1oopomy 4 n n. 4.6) moxno nwpon1r cxo-
pnmymcn nopnocopona1ornoc1r { . Ooanannm oo npo-
po r
0
:
r
0
. (6.l8)
Hocvorvy o b, h l, 2, ... , 1o o r
0
b (cm. n. 4.3).
4ynvnn ] nonpopwnna n 1onvo r
0
, noc1omy
]( ) ](r
0
). (6.l9)
Hopnocopona1ornoc1r { nocopona1ornoc1n { 1avxo
cxopn1cn v 1onvo r
0
, no npn h = ~.
- r
0
- - - r
0
- - r
0
0.
IIm
r
IIm
r
IIm
r
r
n

r
n

l
n
---
r
n

r
n
h
IIm
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
IIm
h
r
n
h

(6.l8)
r
n
h
r
n

r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h

(6.l6)
l
n
h
------
r
n
h
=
(6.l8)
z31
Hoc1omy
]( ) ](r
0
). (6.20)
Ha (6.l9) n (6.20) copyo1, n1o
[]( ) - ]( ) ](r
0
) - ](r
0
) 0,
a c1o npo1nnoponn1 yconnm, n1o npn ncox h l, 2, ... nwno-
nno1cn nopanonc1no
]( ) - ]( )
0
0.
Hoynonnoo npo1nnoponno povaawnao1 1oopomy.
Vconno pannomopno nonpopwnnoc1n moxno cqopmyn-
pona1r n 1opmnnax 1av naawnaomwx vooann qynvnn na
o1poavax.
O n p e p e A e n M e 4. Hcno quuuun ] :ooouo uo onpe:ue
[o, b. Toeoo oe.uuuuo
(]; [o, b) ](r) - ](r) (6.2l)
uo:mooencn uo.eouue+ quuuuu ] uo onpe:ue [o, b.
Ha pnyx ananonn ](r) - ](r) n ](r) - ](r) opno aanopomo
noo1pna1orno n, copona1orno, no monrmo n1oporo, noc1o-
my nonnnna nopxno rpann n npano nac1n panonc1na (6.2l)
no namonn1cn, ocn nmoc1o acom1no nonnnnw ](r) - ](r)
paanoc1n ](r) - ](r) noc1ann1r camy c1y paanoc1r:
(]; [o, b) [](r) - ](r).
Cnpanopnno copymmoo y1nopxponno.
n 1oro n1ow qynvnn ] wa pannomopno nonpopwnna
na o1poavo [o, b, nooxopnmo n poc1a1onno, n1ow pn mo-
ro 0 cymoc1nonao 1avoo 0, n1o vavon w nn w o1po-
aov [r, r ~ [o, b pnnw monrmo : 0 r - r , nwnonn-
ocr nopanonc1no
(]; [r, r) . (6.22)
oc1nn1orno, nocvorvy r, r - [r, r, na nopanonc1na
(6.22) copyo1, n1o ](r) - ](r) , noc1omy nwnonno1cn y1-
nopxponno (6.l5).
Opa1no, ocn cnpanopnno y1nopxponno (6.l5), 1o pn
moro 0 napo1cn 1avoo 0, n1o pn mwx pnyx 1onov
r n r o1poava [o, b, ypono1nopnmmnx yconnm r - r ,
nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no ](r) - ](r) ,2.
IIm
h
r
n
h

IIm
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
r
n
h
.
(6.l?)
sup
r r , o b , [ ]
sup
r r , o b , [ ]
z3z
Hyc1r pn onpopoonnoc1n r r. n mwx pnyx 1onov
n o1poava [r, r, ononnpno, nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
0 - r - r , copona1orno, n nopanonc1no ]() -
- ]() ,2. Hoc1omy pn moro o1poava [r, r 1avoro, n1o
0 r - r , nmoom
(]; [r, r) ]() - ]() .
Hac1o ovaawnao1cn yponwm omo opnn nopxop v nonn1nm
pannomopno nonpopwnnoc1n, a nmonno nopxop, cnnaannw c
nonn1nom mopyn nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn.
On p e p e A e n M e 5. Moo.e+ uenpepmouocnu (; ]) quuuuu
], onpeoe.euuou uo onpe:ue [o, b, uo:mooencn quuuun
(; ]) ](r) - ](r), r, r - [o, b. (6.23)
Hnorpa pn vpa1voc1n nmoc1o (; ]) ypom nnca1r npoc1o
(). Kav n n cynao onpopoonnn vooannn qynvnn (6.2l),
nop anavom nopxno rpann n npano nac1n panonc1na (6.23)
moxno no nnca1r anav acom1no nonnnnw paanoc1n
](r) - ](r), a pa1r camy paanoc1r - ananonno nopxno rpa-
nn npn c1om no namonn1cn:
(; ]) [](r) - ](r), r, r - [o, b.
Ononnpno, n1o () . 0. aoo, ocn 0
l

2
, 1o
{ : ](r) - ](r), r - r
l
~
~ { : ](r) - ](r), r - r
2
,
o1vypa
[](r) - ](r) [](r) - ](r), r, r - [o, b,
1. o. (
1
) (
2
). 01o oananao1, n1o mopyr nonpopwnnoc1n
nnno1cn noapac1ammo qynvno.
Rp M ue p m. 4. Hapom () pn qynvnn r
2
, -~
r -~.
n moro 0 n nponanornoro qnvcnponannoro r
0
nmoom
(; r
2
) ( - ) .
. - (r
0
- )
2
2r
0
-
2
. (6.24)
sup
, [r, r

2
---
sup
r - r
sup
r - r
sup
r - r
l
sup
r - r
2
sup
r - r
r
2
r
2
r
0
2
z33
01o nopanonc1no nopno pn ncox r
0
, n
1av vav npn mom qnvcnponannom
nmoom (2r
0
-
2
) -~, 1o na
(6.24) noynaom
(; r
2
) -~, -~ r -~.
Hapom 1onopr mopyr nonpopwn-
noc1n qynvnn r
2
na o1poavo
[0, l. Hn1yn1nnno ncno, n1o 1av vav
mopyr nonpopwnnoc1n () onncwna-
o1, coracno onpopoonnm, nanormn poc1 qynvnn na o1-
poavo pnnw , 1o, n1ow noynn1r mopyr nonpopwnnoc1n
qynvnn, n pannom cynao copyo1 nan1r o1poaov [l - , l,
na vo1opom qynvnn ](r) r
2
, 0 r l, pac1o1 nanooo w-
c1po: mopyr nonpopwnnoc1n connapao1 (pnc. 35) c npnpamo-
nnom qynvnn na c1om o1poavo () ](l) - ](l - ) l - (l -
- )
2
2 -
2
.
Anan1nnocvn c1o nponopno1cn copymmnm opaaom.
Hyc1r 0 r - r r l n, copona1orno, 0 r - r ,
1orpa, n cny nopanonc1na
- - (r - )
2
2r -
2
2 -
2
,
noynnm
(; r
2
) ( - ) 2 -
2
, (6.25)
no ocn nan1r r l - , r l, 1o
(; r
2
) ( - ) . l - (l - )
2
2 -
2
. (6.26)
Ha oonov (6.25) n (6.26) copyo1, n1o na o1poavo [0, l
nmoom (; r
2
) 2 -
2
.
2. Paccmo1pnm qynvnm sIn , r = 0. C opno c1oponw,
; sIn sIn - sIn
sIn - sIn 2 2.
Pnc. 35
r o 0

l -
u()
l
IIm
r
0
-
r
2
r
2
r
2
sup
r - r
r
2
r
2
sup
r - r
r
2
r
2
l
r
---

l
r
---
,
_
sup
r - r
l
r
------
l
r
-----
sup
r - r

l
r
------
l
r
-----
r
-
,
_
sup
r - r
z34
C ppyro c1oponw, nwpan l, - 2n , l, -
- 2n n aaqnvcnponan n 1av, n1o , , n noc1omy
- - , ypom nmo1r
; sIn . sIn - sIn l - l 2.
Ha noynonnwx oonov copyo1, n1o ; sIn 2.
3. Paccmo1pnm qynvnm na nn1opnao (0, l).
Hpn mom qnvcnponannom , 0 l, nmoom
; - - .
. -

= -~ npn r
0
= -0.
Tavnm opaaom, ; -~.
E 1opmnnax mopyn nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn oo panno-
mopnan nonpopwnnoc1r moxo1 w1r onncana copymmnm o-
paaom.
I E O F E M A . ].n noeo unom onpeoe.euuon uo onpe:ue
quuuun m.o poouo+epuo uenpepmouo uo ue+, ueoroou+o
u oocnonouuo, unom
(; ]) 0. (6.2?)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r qynvnn ] pannomopno nonpo-
pwnna na o1poavo [o, b, 1. o. nwnonno1cn yconno (6.l5),
1orpa pn moro 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avoo

0, n1o ocn
r - [o, b, r - [o, b, r - r

, 1o ](r) - ](r) . O1cmpa


copyo1, n1o pn moro , 0

, nwnonno1cn nopanon-
c1no
(; ]) ](r) - ](r) , r, r - [o, b,
1. o. ocn 0

, 1o (; ]) . 01o n oananao1, n1o


(; ]) 0. Ho o x o p n m o c 1 r yconnn (6.2?) povaaana.
ovaxom oro p o c 1 a 1 o n n o c 1 r pn pannomopno no-
npopwnnoc1n. Ewnononno yconnn (6.2?) oananao1, n1o pn
moro 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avoo

0, n1o ocn 0

, 1o
r
n


2
---
l
r
-
,
_
r
n

3
2
---
r
-
,
_
r
n


2
---
r
n

2
---
r
n
r
n
r
n
r
n

l
r
---
,
_
l
r
n
---------
l
r
n
--------

l
r
---
,
_
l
r
---

l
r
---
,
_ sup
r - r
l
r
-----

l
r
-------
,
_
sup
r r r -
l
r
-----

l
r
------
,
_
l
r
0
------
l
r
0
-
-----------------

r
0
r
0
- ( )
-----------------------------

---
,
_
IIm
0

2
---
sup
r - r

2
---
IIm
0
z3
(; ]) . Ewopom vavoo-no na yvaaannwx . Torpa npn
r - r , r - [o, b, r - [o, b nmoom (cm. (6.23)):
](r) - ](r) (; ]) ,
1. o. qynvnn ] pannomopno nonpopwnna na o1poavo [o, b.
VHPAHEHHE. Honpopwnnan na o1poavo [o, b qynvnn ](r) naawnao1-
cn ucouuo.uueuuou, ocn cymoc1nyo1 1avoo paanonno o1poava [o, b na
vononnoo nnco o1poavon [r
i - l
, r
i
,
o r
0
r
l
... r
i
... r
n - l
r
n
b,
n1o qynvnn ](r) nnona na vaxpom o1poavo [r
i - l
, r
i
, i l, 2, ... , n.
ovaaa1r, n1o ncnvan nonpopwnnan na o1poavo [o, b qynvnn E(r) mo-
xo1 w1r c mo c1ononrm 1onnoc1n annpovcnmnponana vyconno-nno-
no qynvno, 1. o. pn moro 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avan vyconno-nno-
nan qynvnn ](r), n1o pn ncox r - [o, b nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
E(r) - ](r) .
7.
Henpep|acc| e/e|ecp|x qykuMM
7.4. MnoroAenm M poMonoAonme ynkMM
I E O F E M A 4. Jvou +uoeou.eu uenpepmoeu o uooou nouue
uuc.ooou ocu.
E camom poo, qynvnn c, rpo c - noc1onnnan, nonpo-
pwnna na nco nncono ocn R. 01o novaaano n npnmopo l
n. 5.l2.
4ynvnn nnpa r
n
1avxo nonpopwnna npn vaxpom
qnvcnponannom n - N n mo 1onvo r - R. 01o novaaano n
n. 6.3 (cm. npnnoponnw 1am npnmop).
Ecnvn xo mnoronon noynao1cn na qynvn nnpa c
n r
n
c nomomrm nx coxonnn n ymnoxonnn, a noc1omy nn-
no1cn nonpopwnno qynvno n vaxpo 1onvo nncono
ocn R (cm. n. 5.l0).
I E O F E M A 2. Ecnuon pouuouo.ouon quuuun (P(r) u
Q(r) +uoeou.eum) uenpepmouo oo ocer nouuor uuc.ooou
P r ( )
Q r ( )
-------------
z36
ocu R, o uonopmr ee :uo+euone.o Q(r) ue opooencn o
u.o.
01o nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 na 1oro, n1o mnorononw P(r)
n Q(r) nonpopwnnw n vaxpo 1onvo r - R n nac1noo nonpopwn-
nwx qynvn 1avxo nonpopwnno no ncox 1onvax nncono ocn,
n vo1opwx pon1or no opamao1cn n nyr (cm. n. 5.l0).
01y 1oopomy ypono ncnoraona1r npn naxoxponnn npopo-
on panonarnwx qynvn. Hyc1r 1poyo1cn na1n
. n c1oro nyxno cnanaa, ocn, vononno, c1o noa-
moxno, covpa1n1r ppor na mnoxn1or (r - r
0
)
n
c na-
normnm noamoxnwm novaaa1oom n . l. Ecn noynnn-
mymcn panonarnym ppor ooanann1r , 1o (cm. n. 5.4)
.
Ecn Q
l
(r
0
) = 0, 1o, n cny 1oopomw 2, c1o1 npopo panon
, ocn xo Q
l
(r
0
) 0 (n, anann1, P
l
(r
0
) = 0, no n npo1nn-
nom cynao ppor moxno wo w covpa1n1r na r - r
0
),
1o c1o1 npopo panon ~.
Rp M ue p m. 4. - .
2. ~.
7.2. RokosoteAonos, AoropMuMeckos
M ctenennos ynkMM
Ewncnnm 1onopr, n1o nonnmao1cn nop c1ononrm o
r
, vorpa o n
r - poc1nn1ornwo nnca, o 0. Hanpnmop, n1o oananao1
nwpaxonno ?
Hpoxpo ncoro nanomnnm cnoc1na c1ononn o
r
, rpo o 0,
r - panonarnoo nnco: r p,q, p n q - owo, q = 0 (cm.
n. 2.6

).
IIm
r r
0
P r ( )
Q r ( )
-------------
P r ( )
Q r ( )
-------------
P
l
r ( )
Q
l
r ( )
----------------
IIm
r r
0
P r ( )
Q r ( )
-------------
IIm
r r
0
P
l
r ( )
Q
l
r ( )
----------------
P
l
r
0
( )
Q
l
r
0
( )
-------------------
P
l
r ( )
Q
l
r ( )
----------------
IIm
r l
r
2
- 3r - 2
r
2
- l
--------------------------------
IIm
r l
r - 2
r - l
--------------
l
2
---
IIm
r l
r
2
- 3r - 2
r - l ( )
2
--------------------------------
IIm
r l
r - 2
r - l
--------------

2
z37
l
0
. Hcno r
l
r
2
. Ec.u o l, no , o ec.u o l,
no .
2
0
. .
3
0
. .
3pocr noapo r, r
l
n r
2
- panonarnwo nnca. Ecnomnnm,
n1o o
0
l. Ha cnoc1na 2
0
copyo1, n1o o
r
o
-r
o
0
l, o1vypa
o
-r
. (?.l)
aoo, na cnoc1na l
0
n na (?.l) nw1ovao1, n1o
o
r
0 (?.2)
pn moro panonarnoro r. oc1nn1orno, ocn r 0 n o . l,
1o, n cny l
0
, o
r
. o
0
l 0. O1cmpa, coracno (?.l), nmoom
o
-r
0. (?.3)
Anaornnno povaawnao1cn nopanonc1no o
r
0 npn o l.
O1mo1nm omo, n1o pn mwx o 0, b 0 n r - Q nmoo1 moc1o
panonc1no
(ob)
r
o
r
b
r
. (?.4)
Onpoponm 1onopr c1ononr o
r
pn moro poc1nn1ornoro
r n o 0.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hcno o 0, r npou:oo.ouoe oeucnoune.o
uoe uuc.o, Q +uoecnoo ocer pouuouo.oumr uuce.. Ho
.ou+
o
r
o
r
. (?.5)
01o onpopoonno nmoo1 cmwc, 1av vav vaxpan 1onva nnc-
ono ocn nnno1cn 1onvo npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na ncox
panonarnwx nnco (cm. copc1nno na ommw l n n. 4.l0).
Ono voppov1no n 1om cmwco, n1o yvaaannw npopo cymoc1-
nyo1, vav c1o povaaano nnxo, pn moro poc1nn1ornoro
nnca r - R. Hpn povaaa1orc1no ypom ncnoraona1r onpo-
poonno npopoa qynvnn no Iono (cm. onpopoonno l n
n. 5.4).
o
r
l
o
r
2
o
r
l
o
r
2
o
r
l
o
r
2
o
r
l
- r
2
o
r
l
( )
r
2
o
r
l
r
2
l
o
r
-----
l
o
r
-----
IIm
r r
0
, r Q
z3S
Hyc1r o 0, r - R, r
n
- Q, n l, 2, ... , n r
n
r. Hova-
xom, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r { ypono1nopno1 yconnnm
vpn1opnn Komn (cm. n. 4.?) n, anann1, nnno1cn cxopnmocn.
n c1oro nooxopnmo oonn1r paanoc1r
- - l, n - N, n - N. (?.6)
Hocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
cxopn1cn n, copona1orno, orpann-
nona (cm. n. 3.4), noc1omy cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnco A, vo1opoo
oa orpannnonnn omnoc1n moxno cnn1a1r panonarnwm
(nonomy?), n1o -A r
n
A. O1cmpa n cynao o . l nmoom o
-A

o
A
, a n cynao o l - coo1no1c1nonno o
-A
o
A
,
n l, 2, ... , noc1omy npn mom o 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avoo nnc-
o E, n1o
E, n l, 2, ... (?.?)
(E o
A
npn o . l n E o
-A
npn o l), 1. o. nocopona1or-
noc1r { orpannnona cnopxy nncom E.
aoo, coracno aamonannm 2 n. 5.l4 (cm. qopmyy (5.69))
l. Hoc1omy pn moro qnvcnponannoro 0 cymoc1-
nyo1 1avoo () 0, n1o pn ncox panonarnwx r, ypon-
o1nopnmmnx yconnm r , nwnonono nopanonc1no
o
r
- l . (?.8)
Ha cxopnmoc1n xo nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, n cny vpn1o-
pnn Komn (cm. n. 3.?), copyo1, n1o pn naponnoro 0 cy-
moc1nyo1 1avo nomop n

, n1o pn ncox n n

n n n

nwno-
nno1cn nopanonc1no r
n
- r
n
n, anann1, n cny (?.8), nopa-
nonc1no
- l . (?.9)
Ha (?.6), (?.?) n (?.9) nw1ovao1, n1o pn ncox n n

n n n

cnpanopnno nopanonc1no - , o1vypa, n cny vpn1o-


pnn Komn, copyo1, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r { cxopn1cn.
IIm
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
- r
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
IIm
r 0
n - 0

E
----
o
r
n
- r
n
E
----
o
r
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
z39
H1av, pn mo nocopona1ornoc1n panonarnwx nn-
co r
n
, n l, 2, ... , r
n
r, nocopona1ornoc1r cxo-
pn1cn. O1cmpa, coracno ommo 4 na n. 5.6, nonocpopc1nonno
copyo1 cymoc1nonanno npopoa (?.5) qynvnn o
r
, r - Q, n
1onvo r - R. Koppov1noc1r onpopoonnn o
r
povaaana.
Onpopoonno l oc1oc1nonno n 1om cmwco, n1o n 1om cy-
nao, vorpa r nnno1cn panonarnwm nncom r, c1ononr o
r
connapao1 co ananonnom o
r
n panoo nanoc1nom cmwco. E ca-
mom poo, ocn r r - panonarnoo nnco, 1o n vanoc1no no-
copona1ornoc1n panonarnwx nnco r
n
, n l, 2, ... , cxo-
pnmocn v nncy r r, moxno nan1r r
n
r, n l, 2, ... . Tor-
pa, coracno onpopoonnm l,
o
r
o
r
o
r
. (?.l0)
OnpepeAenMe 2. Hcno :ooouo ueuonopoe uuc.o o 0. duu
uun o
r
, onpeoe.euuon o.n ocer r - R, uo:mooencn nouo:o
ne.ouou quuuueu c ocuooouue+ o.
E cynao o e qynvnn e
r
ooananao1cn 1avxo oxp r n na-
awnao1cn oucnoueunou.
Coracno onpopoonnm l, l
r
l pn ncox poc1nn1ornwx
r. Hoc1omy cyna o l no npopc1anno1 nn1opoca n n par-
nomom mw no ypom oro paccma1pnna1r.
I E O F E M A 3. Houo:one.ouon quuuun o
r
(o 0) o.oooen
c.eovu+u cooucnoo+u.
l
0
. Hpu o l ouo cnpoeo oo:pocnoen, o npu o l - cnpoeo
mooen uo oceu uuc.ooou ocu.
].n .vmr oeucnoune.oumr r u cnpooeo.uom c.eovue
pooeucnoo:
2
0
. o
r
o

o
r -
.
3
0
. (o
r
)

o
r
.
4
0
. duuuun o
r
uenpepmouo uo oceu uuc.ooou ocu.
5
0
. Muoecnoo+ :uoueuuu quuuuu o
r
, o 0, o = l, no.n
encn +uoecnoo ocer no.oune.oumr uuce..
IIm
n
o
r
n
IIm
n
o
r
n
IIm
n
z40
/ c k c s c e / | c a c c a c M c a c 1
0
. Hyc1r pn onpopoon-
noc1n o l n r . Cymoc1nym1 (nonomy?) 1avno panonar-
nwo nnca r n r, n1o r r r . Ewopom vavno-no no-
copona1ornoc1n panonarnwx nnco { n { 1av, n1ow
r, n n1ow r r pn ncox n
l, 2, ... . Torpa
o
r
o
r
; (?.ll)
nopopn v npopoy npn n = ~, noynnm
o
r
o
r
o
r
o

.
Tavnm opaaom, ocn r , 1o o
r
o

, n1o n oananao1 c1po-


roo noapac1anno qynvnn o
r
npn o l.
Cyna o l paccma1pnnao1cn anaornnnwm opaaom.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c c a c M c a c 2
0
. Hyc1r { n { - 1a-
vno nocopona1ornoc1n panonarnwx nnco, n1o
r, n, anann1, ( - ) r - ( cm. n. 3.9). Tor-
pa, n cny onpopoonnn novaaa1orno qynvnn,
o
r -

o
r
o

.
Hpoxpo nom nopoxopn1r v povaaa1orc1ny copymmnx
cnoc1n, aamo1nm, n1o na cnoc1na 2
0
copyo1, n1o pn moro
poc1nn1ornoro r cnpanopnno panonc1no o
r
o
-r
o
0
l, no-
c1omy o
-r
l,o
r
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c c a c M c a c 4
0
. (Cnoc1no 3
0
ypo1
povaaano noco povaaa1orc1na cnoc1na 4
0
.) Hpoxpo ncoro
o1mo1nm, n1o
o
r
l. (?.l2)
r
n
r
n
IIm
n
r
n
IIm
n
r
n
r
n
r
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
r
n
r
n
IIm
n
r
n

r
n
IIm
n
r
n
r
n
IIm
n
o
r
n
- r
n
IIm
n
o
r
n
o
r
n
IIm
n
o
r
n
IIm
n
o
r
n
IIm
r 0
r R
z41
oc1nn1orno, n cny povaaanno mono1onnoc1n qyvnnn o
r
,
o 0 (cnoc1no l
0
), cymoc1nym1 opnoc1oponnno npopow
o
r
n o
r
. Paccyxpan anaornnno povaaa1orc1ny
qopmyw (5.69) (1orvo no npopnoaran, n1o r -
panonarnoo nnco, a paccma1pnnan mwo poc1nn1ornwo
nnca), noynaom
o
r
o
r
l o
r
o
r
,
o1cmpa n copyo1 panonc1no (?.l2).
Hyc1r 1onopr r - R, r qnvcnponano, o
r
n
o
r - r
- o
r
o
r
o
r
- o
r
o
r
(o
r
- l).
Torpa, n cny (?.l2), o
r
l n noc1omy
o
r
(o
r
- l) 0,
a c1o n oananao1 nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn o
r
n 1onvo r.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c c a c M c a c 3
0
. Hyc1r cnanaa p -
ooo nooxn1ornoo nnco; 1orpa npnmonnn p paa
cnoc1no 2
0
, noynnm
o
rp
. (?.l3)
Hyc1r, paoo, l,q, rpo q - ooo nooxn1ornoo nnc-
o. Hovaxom, n1o (o
r
)
l,q
o
r,q
, 1. o. n1o o
r,q
nnno1cn vopnom
q c1ononn na nnca o
r
. n c1oro, coracno onpopoonnm
vopnn, napo povaaa1r, n1o o
r
; c1o copyo1 na panon-
c1na (?.l3).
Hyc1r 1onopr p,q, p n q - na1yparnwo, 1orpa, corac-
no yxo povaaannomy,
(o
r
)
p,q
[(o
r
)
p

l,q
(o
rp
)
l,q
o
rp,q
.
Ecn xo -p,q, 1o
(o
r
)
-p,q
o
-rp,q
.
IIm
r -0
IIm
r -0
IIm
r -0
IIm
r -0, r Q
IIm
r -0, r Q
IIm
r -0
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
o
r
( )
p
o
r
o
r
... o
r
p paa
o
r - r - ... - r
p paa
o
r q /
( )
q
l
o
r
( )
p q
-------------------
l
o
r p q
--------------
z4z
Havono, ononnpno, n1o (o
r
)
0
l o
0
. Tavnm opaaom po-
vaaano, n1o pn moro poc1nn1ornoro r n moro pan-
onarnoro r
(o
r
)
r
o
rr
. (?.l4)
Hyc1r 1onopr aapano omo opno poc1nn1ornoo nnco .
Paccmo1pnm nponanornym nocopona1ornoc1r {r
n
pan-
onarnwx nnco, cxopnmymcn v . Torpa, n cny (?.l4), pn
ncox n l, 2, ... ypom nmo1r
. (?.l5)
Hocvorvy rr
n
r, 1o, coracno povaaanno nwmo
nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn o
r
, nmoom
o
r
. (?.l6)
C ppyro c1oponw, n cny onpopoonnn novaaa1orno qynvnn,
(o
r
)

. (?.l?)
Hopoxopn v npopoy n panonc1no (?.l5) npn n = ~, na
(?.l6) n (?.l?) noynnm paccma1pnnaomoo cnoc1no pn m-
wx r, - R.
3amo1nm, n1o na cnoc1n 2
0
n 3
0
copyo1, n1o
, o 0, r - R.
oc1nn1orno,
(o
-l
)
r
o
-r
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c c a c M c a c
0
. Hyc1r cnona pn on-
popoonnoc1n o l. n 1oro n1ow povaaa1r, n1o mnoxoc1-
nom ananonn qynvnn o
r
nnno1cn mnoxoc1no ncox noo-
xn1ornwx nnco, 1. o. ocvononnw nn1opna (0, -~), n cn-
y oo nonpopwnnoc1n n c1pororo noapac1annn na nco
nncono ocn, coracno 1oopomo 4 n. 6.3, poc1a1onno nova-
aa1r, n1o
o
r
-~, o
r
0. (?.l8)
o
r
( )
r
n
o
r r
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
o
r r
n
IIm
n
o
r
( )
r
n
l
o
---
,
_
r
l
o
r
------
l
o
---
,
_
r
l
o
r
------
IIm
r -
IIm
r -
z43
E cny mono1onnoc1n qynvnn o
r
, npopow (vononnwo
nn ocvononnwo) o
r
n o
r
cymoc1nym1, copona1o-
rno, poc1a1onno povaaa1r, n1o
-~, 0
pn vavnx-no nponanornwx qnvcnponannwx nocopona-
1ornoc1o r
n
= -~ n -~, nanpnmop pn nocopona-
1ornoc1o r
n
n, -n, n l, 2, ... .
Ho npopnooxonnm, o l, 1. o. o l - , rpo 0. Ho-
c1omy, coracno nopanonc1ny Bopnyn (cm. ommy n n. 4.9),
o
n
(l - )
n
n, n 1av vav n -~, 1o n
o
n
-~. O1cmpa
o
-n
0.
Tom camwm panonc1no (?.l8) npn o l povaaano.
Ecn 1onopr 0 o l, 1o b l,o l n
o
r
0,
o
r
-~.
3 a m o n a n n o l. Mnoxoc1no ncox ananonn qynvnn o
r
,
o 0, o = 0, coc1anno1 mnoxoc1no ncox nooxn1ornwx po-
c1nn1ornwx nnco, noc1omy, n nac1noc1n, npn mom r - R
nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no o
r
0.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ecn o 0, b 0, 1o pn moro r - R
cnpanopnno panonc1no
(ob)
r
o
r
b
r
.
oc1nn1orno, ocn r
n
= r, r
n
- Q, n l, 2, ... , 1o
(ob)
r

o
r
b
r
.
IIm
r -
IIm
r -
IIm
n
o
r
n
IIm
n
o
r
n
r
n
r
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
IIm
n
l
o
n
n
IIm
-------------------
IIm
r -
IIm
r -
l
b
---
,
_
r
l
b
r
r -
IIm
----------------------
IIm
r -
l
b
r
r
IIm
---------------------
IIm
n
ob ( )
r
n
IIm
n
o
r
n
b
r
n
IIm
n
o
r
n
IIm
n
b
r
n
z44
VHPAHEHHE. Hyc1r o 0, b 0. ovaaa1r, n1o pn moro r - R nmo-
o1 moc1o panonc1no .
3 a m o n a n n o 3. Ecn r - panonarnoo nnco n r 0,
1o 0
r
0, n, copona1orno, pn moro poc1nn1ornoro nnca
r 0 cymoc1nyo1 npopo 0
r
0. Hoc1omy npn r 0
onpopoonno (?.5) moxno pacnpoc1pann1r n na cyna o 0,
npnnom ypo1 nmo1r moc1o panonc1no 0
r
0, r 0.
O1mo1nm, n1o n oac1n poc1nn1ornwx nnco noanopo-
nnm nyn n nonooxn1ornym c1ononr: 0
r
, r 0 - noran
npnnnca1r cmwca.
Hyc1r o - nooxn1ornoo nnco, no pannoo opnnno. Ha
comon1apno ma1oma1nvn nanoc1no, n1o onopann, opa1nan
noanoponnm n c1ononr n c1annman n coo1no1c1nno pannomy nnc-
y r 0 1avoo nnco , n1o o

r (ocn, vononno, yvaaannoo


cymoc1nyo1), naawnao1cn orapnqmnponannom no ocnonannm o.
Hnco naawnao1cn .oeopuq+o+ nnca r no ocnonannm o n
ooananao1cn nopoa Iog
o
r. Tavnm opaaom, no onpopoonnm,
r (o 0, o = l). (?.l9)
OnpepeAenMe 3. duuuun, cnoonon o coonoencnoue uo
oo+ uuc. r eeo .oeopuq+ Iog
o
r no ocuooouuv o (o 0,
o = l), ec.u onon .oeopuq+ cecnoen, uo:mooencn .oeo
puq+uuecuou quuuueu Iog
o
r.
7orapnqmnnocvan qynvnn no ocnonannm l0 ooananao1-
cn cnmnoom Ig, a no ocnonannm e - cnmnoom In; In r naaw-
nao1cn uonpo.oum+ orapnqmom nnca r.
I E O F E M A 4. duuuun Iog
o
r, o 0, o = l, onpeoe.euo uo
+uoecnoe ocer r 0 u no.nencn uo ono+ +uoecnoe
cnpoeo +ouonouuou (oo:pocnoveu npu o l u mooveu
npu o l) uenpepmouou quuuueu. Ouo u+een c.eovue
cooucnoo:
l
0
. Iog
o
r
l
r
2
Iog
o
r
l
- Iog
o
r
2
, r
l
0, r
2
0.
2
0
. Iog
o
r

Iog
o
r, r 0, - R.
o
b
---
,
_
r
o
r
b
r
------
IIm
r r, r Q
o
Iog
o
r
z4
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Mnoxoc1nom ananonn qynvnn o
r
,
o 0, o = l, nnno1cn mnoxoc1no ncox nooxn1ornwx nnco
(0, -~), noc1omy c1o xo mnoxoc1no nnno1cn n mnoxoc1nom
onpopoonnn opa1no qynvnn, vo1opo n pannom cynao
nnno1cn qynvnn Iog
o
r (cm. (?.l9)). 01nm, n nac1noc1n, po-
vaaano cymoc1nonanno orapnqma moro nooxn1ornoro
nnca. Oc1arnwo y1nopxponnn 1oopomw 4 nonocpopc1nonno
copym1 na 1oopomw 4 n. 6.3 n 1oopomw 3 nac1onmoro napar-
paqa.
Hanpnmop, novaxom, vav cnoc1no l
0
nw1ovao1 na cnoc1n
novaaa1orno qynvnn, yvaaannwx n 1oopomo 3. Hooxnm

l
Iog
o
r
l
,
2
Iog
o
r
2
. Coracno onpopoonnm orapnqma,
c1o oananao1, n1o r
l
, r
2
. O1cmpa (cm. cnoc1no 2
0
novaaa1orno qynvnn n 1oopomo 3) nmoom
r
l
r
2
,
n, copona1orno, cnona, coracno onpopoonnm orapnqma,
Iog
o
r
l
r
2

l
-
2
Iog
o
r
l
- Iog
o
r
2
.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hcno :ooouo oeucnoune.ouo uuc.o .
duuuun r

, onpeoe.euuon o.n ocer r 0, uo:mooencn cne


neuu ou quuuueu c nouo:one.e+ .
I E O F E M A 5. Cneneuuon quuuun r

, r 0, uenpepmouo,
cnpoeo oo:pocnoen npu 0 u cnpoeo mooen npu 0.
oc1nn1orno, na onpopoonnn orapnqma nmoom r
e
In r
, a noc1omy r

e
In r
, 1. o. r

oc1r vomnoannn nova-


aa1orno qynvnn e
u
n orapnqmnnocvo qynvnn, ymno-
xonno na noc1onnnym: u In r. Hovaaa1ornan n ora-
pnqmnnocvan qynvnn nonpopwnnw (cm. 1oopomw 3 n 4),
noc1omy, n cny 1oopomw o nonpopwnnoc1n vomnoannn no-
npopwnnwx qynvn (cm. n. 5.2), qynvnn r

1avxo nonpo-
pwnna.
4ynvnn In r c1poro noapac1ao1, noc1omy qynvnn
r

e
In r
c1poro noapac1ao1 npn 0 n c1poro ywnao1 npn
0.
o

l
o

2
o

l
o

2
o

l
-
2
z46
Hpn paccmo1ponnn qynvnn r

npopnoaraocr, n1o r
0. E 1onvo r 0 qynvnn r

onpopoona no pn ncox anano-


nn novaaa1on . Ecn 0, 1o cymoc1nyo1 npopo
r

e
In r
0, 1av vav In r -~. Ho on-
popoonnm noaram1 (cm. aamonanno 3) 0

0, 0. Hpn
c1om onpopoonnn (?.20) qynvnn r

ovaawnao1cn nonpopwn-
no cnpana n 1onvo r 0 npn mom 0:
r

0 0

. (?.20)
4ynvnn r

moxo1 ovaaa1rcn onpopoonno npn novo1o-


pwx = 0 n pn r 0, nanpnmop, r
n
, , n - N.
C1ononnan qynvnn r

nonpopwnna no ncox 1onvax, n vo-


1opwx ona onpopoona. 01o copyo1 na 1oro, n1o ocn ona
onpopoona npn r 0, 1o nnno1cn no1no nn nono1no
qynvno. Ecn xo no1nan nn nono1nan qynvnn no-
npopwnna npn r 0, 1o ona nonpopwnna n npn r 0
(nonomy?). Ecn xo n 1onvo r 0 no1nan nn nono1nan qynv-
nn nonpopwnna cnpana n panna nym, 1o ona npoc1o nonpo-
pwnna n c1o 1onvo (nonomy?). 01o1 cyna nmoo1 moc1o npn
0 (cm. (?.20)).
7.3. IpMronouetpMeckMe
M opotnme tpMronouetpMeckMe ynkMM
Hopopom v nonpocy o nonpopwnnoc1n 1pnronomo1pnnocvnx
qynvn. Hpn c1om no ypom npnnopn1r c1pornx anan1n-
nocvnx onpopoonn c1nx qynvn (vav c1o wo cpoano
nwmo n cynao novaaa1orno qynvnn), a ncnorayom nx
roomo1pnnocvoo onpopoonno, nanoc1noo na comon1apno ma-
1oma1nvn. Ecmpy n parnomom r - poc1nn1ornoo nnco,
a nop sIn r, cos r, Ig r, cIg r ypom noppaaymona1r ananonno
coo1no1c1nymmo 1pnronomo1pnnocvo qynvnn yra, papn-
annan mopa vo1oporo panna r.
A E MM A. Hpu .vo+ oeucnoune.ouo+ r cnpooeo.uoo uepo
oeucnoo
sIn r r.
IIm
r - 0
IIm
r - 0
IIm
r - 0
IIm
r - 0
r
l, 2n - l ( ) t
z47
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Paccmo1pnm ov-
pyxnoc1r papnyca F c on1pom n 1onvo
O. Hyc1r papnyc OE opaayo1 yro r,
0 r , c papnycom OA, a papnyc OE
l
cnmmo1pnnon papnycy OE o1nocn1or-
no OA (pnc. 36).
Onyc1nm na 1onvn E nopnonpn-
vynp EC na papnyc OA. Torpa EC
F sIn r n, 1av vav EC CE
l
, nmoom
EE
l
2F sIn r. Kav nanoc1no, pnna pyrn EAE
l
panna 2Fr.
nna o1poava, coopnnnmmoro pno 1onvn, no nponwmao1 pn-
nw pyrn ovpyxnoc1n, coopnnnmmo 1o xo 1onvn, anann1,
2F sIn r 2Fr, 1. o. sIn r r.
Ecn 1onopr - r 0, 1o 0 -r , n noc1omy, n cny
povaaannoro, sIn (-r) -r, no n pannom cynao sIn (-r)
sIn r n -r r, copona1orno, sIn r r. Tavnm opaaom,
ocn r , 1o sIn r r. Ecn xo r , 1o
sIn r l r.
I E O F E M A . duuuuu sIn r, cos r uenpepmoum uo
oceu uuc.ooou ocu.
C A E p C I 8 H E. duuuuu Ig r u cIg r uenpepmoum npu
ocer r, npu uonopmr cos r (coonoencnoeuuo sIn r) ue opo
ovncn o u.o.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Tav vav sIn l, cos l npn m-
om n, n cny ommw, sIn r, 1o
sIn (r - r) - sIn r 2 sIn cos r - r,
cos (r - r) - cos r 2 sIn sIn r - r.
O1cmpa copyo1, n1o npn r = 0 onwo nac1n nopanonc1na
1avxo c1pomn1cn v nym. 01o n oananao1 nonpopwnnoc1r
qynvn sIn r n cos r.
Honpopwnnoc1r Ig r n cIg r n 1onvax, n vo-
1opwx anamona1on no opamam1cn n nyr, copyo1 na nonpo-
O
E
A r
Pnc. 36
C
E
l

2
---

2
---

2
---

2
---

2
---

2
---
r
2
-------
l
2
---
r
2
-------

r
2
-------
,
_
r
2
-------

r
2
-------
,
_
sIn r
cos r
--------------
cos r
sIn r
--------------
z4S
pwnnoc1n sIn r n cos r n 1oopomw o nac1nom nonpopwnnwx
qynvn (cm. n. 5.l0).
I E O F E M A 7. Kooon u: oponumr npueouo+enpuuecuur
quuuuu arcsIn r, arccos r, arcIg r u arccIg r uenpepmouo o
o.ocnu cooeeo onpeoe.euun.
01o cpaay copyo1 na 1oopom 3 n 4 n 6 n na nonpo-
pwnnoc1n n c1poro mono1onnoc1n qynvn sIn r na
o1poavo [-,2, ,2, cos r na o1poavo [0, , Ig r na nn1opna-
o (-,2, ,2) n cIg r na nn1opnao (0, ).
7.4. Henpepmsnocto aAeuentopnmx ynkMM
Honpopwnnoc1r ocnonnwx comon1apnwx qynvn, povaaan-
nan n c1om naparpaqo, noanono1 povaaa1r 1oopomy n o nonpo-
pwnnoc1n nponanornwx comon1apnwx qynvn.
I E O F E M A 8. Ecnuon o.e+eunopuon quuuun uenpepmouo oo
ocer nouuor cooeeo +uoecnoo onpeoe.euun.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Coracno onpopoonnm, ncnvan co-
mon1apnan qynvnn noynao1cn na ocnonnwx comon1apnwx
qynvn c nomomrm vononnoro nnca apnqmo1nnocvnx ono-
pan n vomnoann (cm. n. 5.3), noc1omy oo nonpopwnnoc1r
na mnoxoc1no onpopoonnn cpaay copyo1 na nonpopwnnoc1n
ocnonnwx comon1apnwx qynvn na mnoxoc1nax nx onpopo-
onnn (1oopomw l-?), na cnoc1n npopoon qynvn, cnnaan-
nwx c apnqmo1nnocvnmn poc1nnnmn nap qynvnnmn (cm.
n. 5.l0), n nonpopwnnoc1n vomnoannn nonpopwnnwx qynv-
n (cm. n. 5.l6).
8.
CpcaeMe qykuMM. B|Mc/eMe npe/e/ca
8.4. Hekotopme soueoteAonme npepeAm
E c1om nynv1o nwnncnm1cn npopow, vo1opwo noopnovpa1no
ypy1 nc1pona1rcn n parnomom.
A E M M A 4.
l. (8.l) IIm
r 0
sIn r
r
-------------
z49
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Paccmo1pnm vpyr
papnyca F c on1pom n 1onvo O. Hyc1r
papnyc OE opaayo1 yro r, 0 r
, c papnycom OA. Coopnnnm 1on-
vn A n E o1poavom n nocc1annm na 1on-
vn A nopnonpnvynp v papnycy OA po
nopocononnn n 1onvo C c npopoxonnom
papnyca OE (pnc. 3?). Torpa nomapr
1poyrornnva AOE panna F
2
sIn r,
nomapr cov1opa AOE panna F
2
r, a
nomapr 1poyrornnva AOC panna F
2
Ig r. Tpoyrornnv
AOE nnno1cn nac1rm cov1opa AOE, vo1opw, n cnom ono-
popr, nnno1cn nac1rm 1poyrornnva AOC; noc1omy
F
2
sIn r F
2
r F
2
Ig r,
o1vypa sIn r r Ig r, copona1orno,
l
nn, aamonnn nonnnnw nm opa1nwmn,
cos r l. (8.2)
3amo1nm, n1o n cny no1noc1n qynvn cos r n nopa-
nonc1no (8.2) cnpanopnno n npn -,2 r 0.
Tav vav qynvnn cos r nonpopwnna n cos 0 l, 1o na (8.2)
npn r = 0 copyo1 (cm. n. 5.l0) panonc1no (8.l).
C A E p C I 8 H E 4.
l. (8.3)
E camom poo,
l.
C A E p C I 8 H E 2.
l. (8.4)
4ynvnn sIn r c1poro mono1onna n nonpopwnna na o1-
poavo [-,2, ,2, noc1omy opa1nan qynvnn r arcsIn
1avxo c1poro mono1onna n nonpopwnna na o1poavo [-l; l.
Tav vav sIn 0 0, 1o
sIn r 0 n r arcsIn r 0.
O
E
C
A
r
Pnc. 3?
,2
l
2
---
l
2
---
l
2
---
l
2
---
l
2
---
l
2
---
r
sIn r
-------------
l
cos r
--------------
sIn r
r
-------------
sIn r
r
-------------
IIm
r 0
Ig r
r
-----------
IIm
r 0
Ig r
r
-----------
IIm
r 0
sIn r
r
-------------
IIm
r 0
l
cos r
--------------
IIm
r 0
arcsIn r
r
----------------------
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
IIm
0
IIm
r 0
z0
H1ow nwnncn1r npopo (8.4), npnmonnm npanno aamo-
nw nopomonnoro pn npopoon nonpopwnnwx qynvn (cm.
1oopomy 6 n n. 5.l6). Hooxnn r sIn , nmoom
l.
C A E p C I 8 H E 3.
l. (8.5)
01o panonc1no noynao1cn anaornnno npopwpymomy na (8.3).
A E M M A 2.
(l - e. (8.6)
Panoo (cm. n. 4.5) wo povaaano, n1o
l - e, (8.?)
rpo n l, 2, ... . O1cmpa, n cny ommw n. 4.3, copyo1, n1o
pn mo nocopona1ornoc1n {n
h
na1yparnwx nnco 1a-
vo, n1o
n
h
-~, (8.8)
nmoom
l - e. (8.9)
Hyc1r 1onopr nocopona1ornoc1r {r
h
1avan, n1o r
h

-0, 1. o.
r
h
0 n r
h
0. (8.l0)
Hovaxom, n1o (l - e. Hpn c1om oa orpann-
nonnn omnoc1n moxno cnn1a1r, n1o r
h
l, h l, 2, ... (nono-
my?). n ncnvoro r
h
napo1cn 1avoo na1yparnoo n
h
, n1o
n
h
- l . n
h
n, copona1orno, r
h
, npnnom n
cny (8.l0), n
h
-~. Hoc1omy nmoom
l - (l - l - . (8.ll)
IIm
r 0
arcsIn r
r
----------------------
IIm
0
arcsIn (sIn )
sIn
------------------------------------
IIm
0

sIn
-------------
IIm
r 0
arcIg r
r
--------------------
IIm
r 0
r)
l
r
---
IIm
n

l
n
---
,
_
n
IIm
h
IIm
h

l
n
h
------
,
_
n
h
IIm
h
IIm
h
IIm
h
r
h
)
l r
h

l
r
h
------
l
n
h
- l
-----------------
l
n
h
------
IIm
h

l
n
h
- l
-----------------
,
_
n
h
r
h
)
l r
h

l
n
h
------
,
_
n
h
- l
z1
3amonan, n1o, coracno (8.9),
l -
e
n
l - l - l - e,
n nopoxopn v npopoy n (8.ll) npn h = ~, noynnm
(l - e. (8.l2)
Tav vav {r
h
- nponanornan nocopona1ornoc1r, ypono1-
nopnmman yconnnm (8.l0), 1o 1om camwm povaaano, n1o
(l - r)
l,r
e. (8.l3)
Hyc1r 1onopr nocopona1ornoc1r {r
h
1avan, n1o
r
h
-0, 1. o.
r
h
0, r
h
0. (8.l4)
Hooxnm
h
-r
h
, 1orpa
h
0 n
h
0, npnnom oa or-
pannnonnn omnoc1n moxno cnn1a1r, n1o
h
l, h l, 2, ... .
Torpa
(l - (l -
l - (l - ,
rpo
:
h
0 n :
h
0,
n, n cny yxo povaaannoro panonc1na (8.l3),
(l - (l - (l - :
h
) e.
IIm
h

l
n
h
- l
-----------------
,
_
n
h
IIm
h
l -
l
n
h
- l
-----------------
,
_
n
h
- l
l -
l
n
h
- l
-----------------
------------------------------------------------
l -
l
n
h
- l
-----------------
,
_
n
h
- l
h
IIm
l -
l
n
h
- l
-----------------
,
_
h
IIm
-------------------------------------------------------------
IIm
h

l
n
h
------
,
_
n
h
- l
IIm
h

l
n
h
------
,
_
n
h
IIm
h

l
n
h
------
,
_
IIm
h
r
h
)
l r
h

IIm
r 0
IIm
h
IIm
h
IIm
h
IIm
h
r
h
)
l r
h

IIm
h

h
)
- l
h

IIm
h
l
l -
h
-----------------
,
_
l
h

IIm
h


h
l -
h
-----------------
,
_
l
h

IIm
h
:
h
)
l :
h
- l

h
l -
h
-----------------
IIm
h
IIm
h
r
h
)
l r
h

IIm
h
:
h
)
l :
h

IIm
h
zz
Ho {r
h
- nponanornan nocopona1ornoc1r, ypono1nopnm-
man yconnnm (8.l4), noc1omy
(l - r)
l,r
e. (8.l5)
Tavnm opaaom, qynvnn (l - r)
l,r
, r = 0, nmoo1 n 1onvo 0
npopow cona n cnpana, pannwo opnomy n 1omy xo nncy e.
Hoc1omy cymoc1nyo1 n oo pnyc1oponnn npopo npn r = 0,
1avxo pannw e (cm. n. 5.9).
C A E p C I 8 H E 4.
, o 0, o = l, (8.l6)
u, o uocnuocnu, npu o e
l.
E camom poo, npnnnn no nnnmanno nonpopwnnoc1r ora-
pnqmnnocvo qynvnn (cm. 1oopomy 4 na ?), 1oopomy o npo-
poo vomnoannn qynvn (cm. n. 5.l6) n panonc1no (8.6), no-
ynnm
Iog
o
(l - r)
l,r

Iog
o
(l - r)
l,r
Iog
o
e .
C A E p C I 8 H E 2.
In o. (8.l?)
E nac1noc1n, npn o e nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no
l. (8.l8)
4ynvnn o
r
- l c1poro mono1onna n nonpopwnna na
nco nncono ocn, noc1omy opa1nan qynvnn r
1avxo c1poro mono1onna n nonpopwnna npn -l. Hpn r 0
nmoom 1avxo n 0, noc1omy ooananonnn r = 0 n = 0 cv-
nnnaon1nw (cm. aamonanno 4 n n. 5.l6). Eocnorayomcn pn
nwnnconnn npopoa (8.l?) npannom aamonw nopomonnoro.
Hooxnn r , noynnm
In o In o.
IIm
r - 0
IIm
r 0
Iog
o
l - r ( )
r
-------------------------------
l
o In
----------
IIm
r 0
l - r ( ) In
r
--------------------------
IIm
r 0
Iog
o
l - r ( )
r
-------------------------------
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
l
o In
----------
IIm
r 0
o
r
- l
r
-----------------
IIm
r 0
e
r
- l
r
----------------
l - ( ) In
o In
--------------------------
l - ( ) In
o In
--------------------------
IIm
r 0
o
r
- l
r
-----------------
IIm
0
o In
l - ( ) In
--------------------------
l
IIm
0
l - ( ) In

--------------------------
--------------------------------------
z3
8.2. CposnenMe ynkMM
Kav mw yxo anaom, cymma, paanoc1r n nponanoponno ocvonon-
no mawx qynvn nnnm1cn 1avxo ocvononno mawmn qynv-
nnmn; c1oro noran, noomo ronopn, cvaaa1r o nx nac1nom: po-
onno opno ocvononno mao na ppyrym moxo1 npnnoc1n v
paanoopaanwm cynanm, vav c1o novaawnam1 npnnoponnwo nn-
xo npnmopw ocvononno mawx npn r = 0 qynvn (r) n (r).
Hyc1r, nanpnmop, (r) r n (r) r
2
; 1orpa
r 0, ~.
Ecn xo (r) r, (r) 2r, 1o 2, a ocn (r)
r, (r) r sIn , 1o npopo no cymoc1nyo1.
Eco paccma1pnnaomwo n c1om naparpaqo qynvnn npopno-
aram1cn onpopoonnwmn na novo1opom mnoxoc1no X ~ R, nop
r
0
nonnmao1cn no nnco r
0
- R, no opna na ocvononnoc1o
~, -~ nn -~. E 1om cynao, vorpa r
0
- nnco, r
0
nnno1cn
1onvo npnvocnononnn mnoxoc1na X, npnnom copopxa1or-
nwm nnno1cn nmr 1o1 cyna, vorpa r
0
- npopornan 1onva
mnoxoc1na X. Hpn c1om noamoxno, n1o r
0
- X n n1o r
0
- X.
Hocopnoo aanopomo nmoo1 moc1o, ocn paccma1pnnaoman
qynvnn nmoo1 n 1onvo r
0
vavo-no ocvononnw npopo.
Ecn xo 1onva r
0
nnno1cn opno na ocvononnoc1o ~, -~,
-~, 1o mnoxoc1no X npopnoarao1cn noorpannnonnwm, coo1-
no1c1nonno noorpannnonnwm cnopxy nn cnnay.
Paccmo1pnm nonpoc cpannonnn qynvn n ovpoc1noc1n
1onvn, n nac1noc1n cpannonno ocvononno mawx n ocvonon-
no ormnx qynvn; c1n cynan nnnm1cn ocnonnwmn.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Ec.u o.n quuuuu ] : X = R u g : X = R
cecnoen nouon nocnonuuon c 0, uno o ueuonopou
oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
o.n ocer noueu r - X omno.unencn
uepooeucnoo
](r) cg(r), (8.l9)
no quuuuv ] uo:moovn oepouuueuuou no cpooueuuv c quu
uueu g o oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
u o ono+ c.uoe nuun
](r) O(g(r)), r = r
0
(](r) oc1r O ormoo o1 g(r), npn r, c1pomnmomcn v r
0
).
IIm
r 0
r ( )
r ( )
------------
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
r ( )
r ( )
------------
IIm
r 0
l
r
---
IIm
r 0
r ( )
r ( )
------------
l
r
---
IIm
r 0
r ( )
r ( )
------------
z4
Hopnopvnom, n1o aanncr r = r
0
nmoo1 apocr ppyro, nom
ownno, cmwc: ona 1orvo yvaawnao1 na 1o, n1o paccma1pn-
naomoo cnoc1no nmoo1 moc1o nmr n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n
1onvn r
0
; nn o vavom npopoo apocr ponn no1.
A E M M A 3. Ec.u ](r) (r)g(r), r - X, u cecnoen uoueu
umu npeoe.
(r) h,
no
](r) O(g(r)), r = r
0
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ha cymoc1nonannn vononnoro npopoa
(r) h (cm. cnoc1no l
0
npopoon qynvn n n. 5.l0)
copyo1 cymoc1nonanno 1avo ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
,
n1o qynvnn orpannnona na X U(r
0
), 1. o. nmoo1cn 1avan
noc1onnnan c 0, n1o pn ncox r - X U(r
0
) nwnonno1cn no-
panonc1no (r) c, copona1orno, n nopanonc1no ](r)
(r)g(r) cg(r). 01o, coracno onpopoonnm l, n oanana-
o1, n1o ](r) O(g(r)), r = r
0
.
Rp M ue p m. 4. O npn r = 0, nocvorvy
npn r l.
2. O npu r = ~, nou uou npu r . l.
3anncr
](r) O(l), r = r
0
,
oananao1, n1o qynvnn ] orpannnona n novo1opo ovpoc1-
noc1n 1onvn r
0
, nanpnmop O(l) npn r = 0, no
2 n, anann1, qynvnn orpannnona n ovpoc1-
noc1n 1onvn r 0.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Ec.u quuuuu ](r) u g(r) nouue, uno ] O(g)
u g O(]) npu r = r
0
, no ouu uo:moovncn quuuun+u oouo
eo nopnouo npu r = r
0
; ono :onucmooencn o ouoe ](r) g(r),
r = r
0
.
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
'
'
l
r
---

l
r
2
------
,
_
l
r
---
l
r
2
------
l
r
2
------
l
r
---
,
_
l
r
2
------
l
r
---
Ig 2r
r
---------------
IIm
r 0
Ig 2r
r
---------------
Ig 2r
r
-------------- -

z
01o nonn1no nanooo copopxa1orno n 1om cynao, vorpa
qynvnn ] n g nnnm1cn no ocvononno mawmn, no oc-
vononno ormnmn npn r = r
0
. Hanpnmop, qynvnn r n
r 2 - sIn nnnm1cn npn r = 0 ocvononno mawmn op-
noro nopnpva, nocvorvy
l, 2 - sIn 2 - 3.
A E M M A 4. Ec.u cecnoen uoueuumu npeoe.
h = 0, no ](r) g(r), r = r
0
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hpn r = r
0
onpopoon npopo ppon
, noc1omy cymoc1nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
,
n1o pn ncox 1onov r - X U(r
0
) nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
g(r) = 0. n c1nx r nooxnm (r) . Torpa ](r)
(r)g(r) n (r) h. Copona1orno, no ommo 3, ](r)
O(g(r)), r = r
0
.
Ha yconnn = 0 copyo1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 n 1avan
ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o pn ncox r - X U(r
0
) nwno-
nno1cn nopanonc1no = 0 (cm. cnoc1no 2
0
npopoon qynv-
n n n. 5.l0), a copona1orno, n nopanonc1no ](r) = 0. n
r - X U(r
0
) nooxnm (r) ; 1orpa g(r) (r)](r)
n (r) . Hoc1omy cnona, coracno ommo 3, g(r)
O(](r)), r = r
0
.
E vanoc1no npnmopa noarmom qynvnn ](r) 3r
2
n g(r)
sIn r
2
. Hmoom (cm. (8.l)), noc1o-
my, coracno ommo 4, qynvnn 3r
2
n sIn r
2
opnoro nopnpva
npn r = 0.
3 a m o n a n n o. O1mo1nm, n1o yconno (8.l9) pannocnrno
copymmomy: cymoc1nyo1 1avan orpannnonnan qynvnn :
X = R, n1o n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
pn ncox r - X
nwnonno1cn panonc1no ](r) (r)g(r).

l
r
---
,
_

---
l
2 - sIn
l
r
---
----------------------------
l
2 - sIn
l
r
---
----------------------------

---
l
r
--- sIn
l
r
---
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------

] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
'
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
'
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
'
g r ( )
] r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
l
h
---
IIm
r 0
g r ( )
] r ( )
------------
l
3
---
IIm
sIn r
2
r
2
----------------
l
3
---
z6
oc1nn1orno, npn nwnononnn c1oro yconnn na orpa-
nnnonnoc1n qynvnn nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 nopanonc1no
(8.l9). Haoopo1, ocn n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
nw-
nonono yconno (8.l9), 1o, noaran
(r)
noynaom, n1o ](r) (r)g(r) n qynvnn , ononnpno, orpa-
nnnona (pn 1onov r - X paccma1pnnaomo ovpoc1noc1n 1on-
vn r
0
).
OnpepeAenMe 3. duuuuu ] : X = R u g : X = R uo:moovncn
ououoo.eunum+u npu r = r
0
, ec.u cecnoen nouon
quuuun : X = R, uno o ueuonopou oupecnuocnu nouuu
r
0
o.n ocer noueu r - X omno.unencn pooeucnoo
] (r)g(r) (8.20)
u
(r) l. (8.2l)
Cpaay aamo1nm, n1o cymoc1nonanno npopoa y qynvnn n
panno 1onvo nnno1cn ovarnwm cnoc1nom qynvnn, no-
c1omy ananonnn qynvnn nno yvaaanno n onpopoonnn ov-
poc1noc1n no nrpam1 pon.
Ecn nwnonono cnoc1no (8.2l), 1o napo1cn 1avan ov-
poc1noc1r U U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o npn r - X U nwnonno1cn
nopanonc1no (r) = 0 (cm. cnoc1no 2
0
npopoon qynvn n
n. 5.l0). Hoaran (r) , r - X U, nnpnm, n1o yconnn
(8.20) n (8.2l) pannocnrnw yconnnm
g(r) (r)](r), r - X U, (8.20)
(r) l. (8.2l)
Tavnm opaaom, ocn qynvnn ] n g cvnnnaon1nw npn
r = r
0
, 1o n qynvnn g n ] 1avxo cvnnnaon1nw npn r = r
0
,
1. o., vav ronopn1, cvnnnaon1noc1r pnyx qynvn oapao1
cnoc1nom cnmmo1pnnnoc1n.
O1mo1nm, n1o cnoc1no qynvn w1r qynvnnmn opnoro
nopnpva 1avxo nnno1cn cnmmo1pnnnwm cnoc1nom, a cno-
0,
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------, ocn g(r) = 0,
ocn g(r) 0,
IIm
r r
0
'
l
r ( )
------------
'
'
IIm
r r
0
z7
c1no opno qynvnn w1r O ormnm o1nocn1orno ppyro
yxo no cnmmo1pnnno.
4ynvnn ](r) n g(r), cvnnnaon1nwo npn r = r
0
, naawna-
m1cn 1avxo ocu+nnonuuecuu pooum+u npn r = r
0
. Acu+n
nonuuecuoe pooeucnoo (cvnnnaon1noc1r) qynvn ooana-
nao1cn cnmnoom :
](r) g(r) npn r = r
0
. (8.22)
Ha cvaaannoro nwmo copyo1, n1o ocn ] g npn r = r
0
, 1o
n g ] npn r = r
0
.
O1mo1nm, n1o ocn n yconnnx onpopoonnn 3 qynvnn ] n
g, a copona1orno, n qynvnn , onpopoonw n 1onvo r
0
, 1. o.
r
0
- X, 1o npopo (8.2l) opo1cn npn r = r
0
no mnoxoc1ny, co-
popxamomy 1onvy r
0
, noc1omy qynvnn nonpopwnna n 1on-
vo r
0
; 1orpa na yconnn (8.2l) copyo1, n1o
(r
0
) l.
Rp M ue p m. 4. r
2
npn r = 0. oc1nn1orno, no-
aran (r) , noynaom
(r)r
2
n (r) l.
2. r
2
npn r = ~. E camom poo, ocn (r) , 1o
(r)r
2
n (r) l.
Hyc1r cymoc1nyo1 1avan npovoo1an ovpoc1noc1r (r
0
)
1onvn r
0
, n1o pn ncox r - X nwnonnm1cn nopanonc1na
](r) = 0 n g(r) = 0 n r
0
- X. Torpa yconnn (8.20) n (8.2l) pan-
nocnrnw coo1nomonnm l n, copona1orno, co-
o1nomonnm l.
r
2
l - r
4
-----------------
l
l - r
4
-----------------
r
2
l - r
4
-----------------
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
l
l - r
4
-----------------
r
6
l - r
4
-----------------
r
4
l - r
4
-----------------
r
6
l - r
4
-----------------
IIm
r
IIm
r
r
4
l - r
4
-----------------
U U
'
U
IIm
r r
0
r X U
'
U

] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
r X U
'
U

g r ( )
] r ( )
------------
zS
oc1nn1orno, ncno, n1o c1n coo1nomonnn npn cpoan-
nwx npopnooxonnnx o noopamonnn n nyr qynvn ] n g
na mnoxoc1no X n r
0
- X cpaay nw1ovam1 na yconn
(8.20) n (8.2l). Haoopo1, ocn onn nwnononw, 1o poc1a1on-
no nooxn1r (r) , r - X (r
0
) n (r
0
) l, 1orpa, ono-
nnpno, pn qynvnn nwnonnm1cn yconnn (8.20) n (8.2l).
Ecn
] g n g h npn r = r
0
, (8.23)
1o
] h npn r = r
0
. (8.24)
E camom poo, na yconn (8.23) copyo1, n1o cymoc1nym1
1avno ovpoc1noc1r U U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
n qynvnn : X U =
= R n : X U = R, n1o pn ncox r - X U nmom1 moc1o pa-
nonc1na
](r) (r)g(r), g(r) (r)h(r)
n
(r) (r) l,
noc1omy
](r) (r)(r)h(r),
rpo (r)(r) l, 1. o. nwnonno1cn acnmn1o1nnocvoo pa-
nonc1no (8.24).
Ha poayr1a1on n. 8.l copyo1, n1o npn r = 0 cnpanopnna
copymman cvnnnaon1noc1r ocvononno mawx:
r sIn r Ig r arcsIn r arcIg r In (l - r) e
r
- l.
Ha c1o cvnnnaon1noc1n copym1 n ooo omno coo1no-
monnn, vo1opwo cqopmynpyom n nnpo o1porno ommw.
A E M M A 5. Ec.u quuuun u(r) nouooo, uno
u(r) 0, (8.25)
no npu r = r
0
u(r) sIn u(r) Ig u(r) arcsIn u(r)
arcIg u(r) In [l - u(r) e
u(r)
- l. (8.26)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hovaxom, nanpnmop, n1o
sIn u(r) u(r) npn r = r
0
, (8.2?)
'
U
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
'
U
'
' '
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
z9
rpo u: X = R n u(r) 0. Onpoponm pn ncox r - X
qynvnm : X = R copymmnm opaaom:
(r) (8.28)
n novaxom, n1o
(r) l. (8.29)
n c1oro paaorom mnoxoc1no X na pna nopmnoxoc1na:
X
l
{r - X : u(r) = 0 n X
2
{r - X : u(r) 0. (8.30)
Hyc1r cnanaa mnoxoc1na X
l
n X
2
no nyc1w, a r
0
nnno1cn
vononno nn ocvononno ypaonno 1onvo npnvocnononnn
vaxporo na nnx. 4ynvnn onpopoona na mnoxoc1no
X
l
n no 1oopomo o npopoo coxno qynvnn (cm. 1oopomy 6 n
n. 5.l6) nmoom
(r) l.
3pocr wo ncnoraonano omo opno cnoc1no npopoon
qynvn: ocn qynvnn n pannom cynao nmoo1 npo-
po npn u = u
0
no novo1opomy mnoxoc1ny, 1o ona, coracno
ommo l n. 5.4, nmoo1 1o1 xo npopo npn u = u
0
no momy
nopmnoxoc1ny c1oro mnoxoc1na (n paccma1pnnaomom cynao
no nopmnoxoc1ny nncono ocn, coc1onmomy na mnoxoc1na
ananonn qynvnn u(r), o1nnnwx o1 nyn).
Ha mnoxoc1no xo X
2
qynvnn 1oxpoc1nonno panna l,
noc1omy
(r) l l.
Tavnm opaaom, na vaxpom na mnoxoc1n X
l
n X
2
qynv-
nn npn r = r
0
nmoo1 opnn n 1o1 xo npopo, pannw l,
a 1av vav X X
l
' X
2
, 1o 1o1 xo npopo npn r = r
0
ona nmo-
o1 n no ncomy mnoxoc1ny (cm. ommy 5 n n. 5.8), 1. o. n pac-
cmo1ponnom cynao panonc1no (8.29) povaaano.
IIm
r r
0
, ocn u(r) = 0,
l, ocn u(r) 0,
sIn u r ( )
u r ( )
----------------------
IIm
r r
0
sIn u r ( )
u r ( )
----------------------
IIm
r r
0
r X
l
IIm
r r
0
r X
l
sIn u r ( )
u r ( )
----------------------
IIm
u 0
sIn u
u
-------------

sIn u
u
-------------
,
_
IIm
r r
0
r X
2
IIm
r r
0
r X
2
z60
Ecn xo opno na mnoxoc1n X
l
nn X
2
ovaxo1cn nyc1wm
nn 1onva r
0
no nnno1cn 1onvo npnvocnononnn (vononno
nn ocvononno ypaonno) opnoro na nnx, 1o panonc1no
(8.29) 1avxo ypo1 nmo1r moc1o, 1av vav n c1nx cynanx
npopo qynvnn npn r = r
0
no mnoxoc1ny X cnopo1cn v
npopoy no opnomy na mnoxoc1n X
l
nn X
2
, pn vo1opwx,
vav yxo yc1anonono, paccma1pnnaomw npopo panon opn-
nno.
H1av, panonc1no (8.29) povaaano, a 1av vav na (8.28) co-
pyo1, n1o pn ncox r - X U(r
0
) nmoo1 moc1o coo1nomonno
sIn u(r) (r)u(r), 1o povaaana n cnpanopnnoc1r acnmn1o1n-
nocvoro panonc1na (8.2?).
Anaornnno povaawnam1cn n oc1arnwo acnmn1o1nnocvno
qopmyw (8.26).
OnpepeAenMe 4. duuuun : X = R uo:mooencn ecuoueuuo
+o.ou npu r = r
0
no cpooueuuv c quuuueu ]: X = R,
ec.u cecnoen nouon quuuun : X = R, uno o ueuo
nopou oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
o.n ocer r - X omno.unencn
pooeucnoo
(r) (r)](r) (8.3l)
u
(r) 0. (8.32)
Kav n pn cvnnnaon1nwx qynvn, n cny ovarnoc1n
cnoc1na cymoc1nonannn npopoa qynvnn n 1onvo, ananonnn
qynvnn (r) nno yvaaanno n onpopoonnn ovpoc1noc1n no-
cymoc1nonnw n n cynao nooxopnmoc1n mory1 w1r nwpanw
nponanorno.
Ecn qynvnn nnno1cn ocvononno mao npn r = r
0
no cpannonnm c qynvno ], 1o nnmy1
(r) o(](r)), r = r
0
(nn1ao1cn: (r) oc1r o maoo o1 ](r) npn r = r
0
).
E cny c1oro onpopoonnn, nanpnmop, aanncr (r) o(l),
r = r
0
oananao1 npoc1o, n1o qynvnn nnno1cn ocvonon-
no mao npn r = r
0
.
O1mo1nm, n1o ocn n yconnn onpopoonnn 4 ocvononno
mao qynvnn no cpannonnm c ppyro qynvnn n ], a co-
'
IIm
r r
0
z61
pona1orno, n qynvnn (r) onpopoonw n 1onvo r
0
, 1. o. r
0
-
- X, 1o npopo (8.32) opo1cn npn r = r
0
no mnoxoc1ny, co-
popxamomy 1onvy r
0
. Hoc1omy n c1om cynao qynvnn (r)
nnno1cn nonpopwnno n 1onvo r
0
n, copona1orno, coracno
(8.33), nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no (r
0
) 0. 01o1 qav1 mw noop-
novpa1no ypom ncnoraona1r n parnomom.
Ecn cymoc1nyo1 1avan npovoo1an ovpoc1noc1r (r
0
)
1onvn r
0
, n1o pn ncox 1onov r - X nwnonno1cn nopanon-
c1no ](r) = 0, a n cynao r
0
- X, vpomo 1oro, (r
0
) 0, 1o yco-
nnn (8.3l)-(8.32) pannocnrnw yconnm
0. (8.33)
E camom poo, npn cpoannom npopnooxonnn o nopanon-
c1no nym qynvnn ] yconno (8.33) cpaay copyo1 na (8.3l)-
(8.32). Haoopo1, ocn nwnonono (8.33), 1o poc1a1onno noo-
xn1r
(r) , r - X ,
a ocn r
0
- X, 1o omo (r
0
) 0, n1ow wn nwnononw yco-
nnn (8.3l)-(8.32).
E 1om cynao, vorpa ](r) cama nnno1cn ocvononno mao
npn r = r
0
, ronopn1, n1o qynvnn o(]) npn r = r
0
oc1r
ocvononno maan ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom ]. Hpn c1om
ocn (](r))
n
), r = r
0
, 1o ocvononno maan naawnao1cn
ocvononno mao nopnpva n o1nocn1orno ocvononno mao
], n l, 2, ... .
Hanpnmop, r
3
o(sIn r
2
) npn r = 0, 1av vav
r IIm 0 l 0.
Bocvononno maan (r) r
3
nnno1cn ocvononno mao
ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom ocvononno maan ](r)
sIn r
2
, r = 0.
Bocvononno maan (r) nnno1cn ocvononno ma-
o no1nop1oro nopnpva o1nocn1orno ocvononno mao
](r) l,r npn r = ~.
U U
'
U
IIm
r r
0
r X U
'
r ( )
] r ( )
------------
r ( )
] r ( )
------------
'
U

IIm
r 0
r
3
sIn r
2
----------------
IIm
r 0
r
2
sIn r
2
----------------
l,r
4
z6z
Kononno, cnmno o maoo moxno npnmonn1r no 1orvo v
ocvononno mawm: nanpnmop, r o(r
2
) npn r = ~.
O1mo1nm, n1o ocn ] o(g) npn r = r
0
, 1o n nopanno ]
O(g) npn r = r
0
. E camom poo, nyc1r ] g, rpo 0.
Torpa qynvnn (r) orpannnona na nopocononnn mnoxoc1-
na X c novo1opo ovpoc1noc1rm U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
(cm. n. 5.l0):
(r) c n, copona1orno, ](r) cg(r) pn ncox r - X U(r
0
).
A c1o n oananao1, n1o ] O(g), r = r
0
.
Coopom nmoc1o nnoponnwo n c1om nynv1o ocnonnwo nonn-
1nn. Hyc1r aapanw qynvnn ]: X = R n g: X = R n cymoc1ny-
o1 1avan qynvnn : X = R, n1o pn ncox 1onov mnoxoc1na X,
oxamnx n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n U U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, nw-
nonno1cn panonc1no ](r) (r)g(r), 1orpa:
ocn qynvnn (r) orpannnona na U, 1o ](r) O(g(r)),
r = r
0
;
ocn (r) l, 1o ](r) g(r), r = r
0
;
ocn (r) 0, 1o ](r) o(g(r)), r = r
0
.
VHPAHEHHE. Hyc1r O(
2
) npn r = r
0
, 0. ovaaa1r, n1o
n c1om cynao o() npn r = r
0
.
O1mo1nm, n1o n nac1nom cynao mnoxoc1no X moxo1 w1r
mnoxoc1nom na1yparnwx nnco N, n 1orpa npn r
0
-~ mw
noynnm nonn1nn nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, orpannnonno no
cpannonnm c nocopona1ornoc1rm {
n
:
r
n
O(
n
), n = ~,
nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
opnoro nopnpva c nocopona1orno-
c1rm {
n

r
n

n
, n = ~,
nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, acnmn1o1nnocvn panno (cvnnna-
on1no) nocopona1ornoc1n {
n
,
r
n

n
, n = ~,
n nocopona1ornoc1n {r
n
, ocvononno mao no cpannonnm c
nocopona1ornoc1rm {
n
,
r
n
o(
n
), n = ~.
IIm
r r
0
'
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0

z63
Hpn ncnoraonannn panonc1n c cnmnoamn O n o copyo1
nmo1r n nnpy, n1o onn no nnnm1cn panonc1namn n ownnom
cmwco c1oro cona. Tav, ocn
l
o() npn r = r
0
,
2
o()
npn r = r
0
, 1o wo w omnvo cpoa1r o1cmpa aavmnonno,
n1o
l

2
, vav c1o wo w n cynao ownnwx panonc1n. Ha-
npnmop, r
3
o(r) n r
2
o(r) npn r = 0, no r
2
= r
3
.
Anaornnno, ocn ] - O(]) g - O(]) npn r = r
0
, 1o wo
w omnvo cpoa1r aavmnonno, n1o ] g.
oo n 1om, n1o opnn n 1o1 xo cnmno O(]) nn o(]) moxo1
ooanana1r paanwo vonvpo1nwo qynvnn. 01o oc1on1orc1no
cnnaano c 1om, n1o npn onpopoonnn cnmnoon O(]) n o(]) mw
no cymoc1ny nnon owo vaccw qynvn, oapammnx on-
popoonnwmn cnoc1namn (vacc qynvn, orpannnonnwx n
novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
no cpannonnm c qynvno ],
n vacc qynvn, ocvononno mawx no cpannonnm c ](r) npn
r = r
0
), n wo w npannrnoo nnca1r no O(]) n o(]), a
coo1no1c1nonno - O(]) n - o(]). Opnavo c1o npnnoo w v cy-
moc1nonnomy ycoxnonnm nwnnconn no qopmyam, n vo1o-
pwx nc1ponam1cn cnmnow O n o. Hoc1omy mw coxpannm
npoxnmm aanncr O(]) n o(]), no ypom ncorpa nn1a1r
c1n panonc1na, n coo1no1c1nnn c npnnoponnwmn nwmo onpopo-
onnnmn, 1orvo n opny c1opony: cona nanpano (ocn, vonon-
no, no oronopono n1o-no ppyroo). Hanpnmop, aanncr:
o(]), r = r
0
,
oananao1, n1o qynvnn nnno1cn ocvononno mao no cpan-
nonnm c qynvno ] npn r = r
0
, no o1nmpr no 1o, n1o ncnvan
ocvononno maan no cpannonnm c ] qynvnn panna .
E vanoc1no npnmopa ncnoraonannn c1nx cnmnoon pova-
xom panonc1no
o(c]) o(]), (8.34)
rpo c - noc1onnnan.
Coracno cvaaannomy, napo novaaa1r, n1o ocn g o(c]),
1o g o(]). oc1nn1orno, ocn g o(c]), 1o g c], rpo
(r) 0. Hooxnm
l
c; 1orpa g
l
], rpo, ononnpno,

l
(r) 0 n, anann1, g o(]).
E aavmnonno o1mo1nm, n1o cvaaannoo o ncnoraonannn
cnmnoon o n O no ncvmnao1, vononno, 1oro, n1o o1pornwo
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
z64
qopmyw c c1nmn cnmnoamn mory1 ovaaa1rcn cnpanopnnw-
mn no 1orvo npn n1onnn cona nanpano, no n cnpana naono;
1av, qopmya (8.34) npn c = 0 nopna n npn n1onnn cnpana na-
ono.
8.3. OksMsoAentnme ynkMM
Ecn qynvnn ](r) aamonno1cn qynvno g(r), 1o paanoc1r
](r) - g(r) naawnao1cn oco.vnuou noepeuuocnov, a o1nomo-
nno - onuocune.ouou noepeuuocnov cpoanno
aamonw. Ecn naynao1cn nonoponno qynvnn ](r) npn r = r
0
,
1o nac1o oocoopaano aamonn1r oo qynvno g(r) 1avo,
n1o: l) qynvnn g(r) n onpopoonnom cmwco ooo npoc1an,
nom qynvnn ](r); 2) acom1nan norpomnoc1r c1pomn1cn v
nym npn r = r
0
:
[](r) - g(r) 0.
E c1om cynao ronopn1, n1o g(r) npnnxao1 nn annpov-
cnmnpyo1 qynvnm ](r) nnan 1onvn r
0
. Tavnm cnoc1nom
oapam1, nanpnmop, nco ocvononno mawo npn r = r
0
qynv-
nn ] n g.
Hnxo ypo1 novaaano, n1o cpopn nnx nmr 1o, vo1opwo
cvnnnaon1nw moxpy coo: g(r) ](r), r = r
0
, oapam1 1om
cnoc1nom, n1o no 1orvo acom1nan norpomnoc1r ](r) - g(r),
no n o1nocn1ornan c1pomn1cn v nym npn r = r
0
:
0.
E c1om cmwco qynvnn, cvnnnaon1nwo aapanno, npn-
nxam1 oo ynmo, nom ppyrno qynvnn.
Hanpnmop, qynvnn r, r, 2r, l0r nnnm1cn ocvononno
mawmn npn r = 0, 1av xo vav n sIn r, a noc1omy acom1nwo
norpomnoc1n npn aamono sIn r vaxpo na nnx c1pomn1cn v
nym npn r = 0:
(sIn r - r) (sIn r - r)
(sIn r - 2r) (sIn r - l0r) 0.
Ho nmr opna na ncox noponnconnwx qynvn, a nmonno
g(r) r, oapao1 1om cnoc1nom, n1o o1nocn1ornan norpom-
] r ( ) - g r ( )
] r ( )
------------------------------
IIm
r r
0
] r ( ) - g r ( )
] r ( )
------------------------------
IIm
r r
0
] r ( ) - g r ( )
] r ( )
------------------------------
l
2
---
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
l
2
---
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
z6
noc1r npn aamono sIn r c1o qynvno ypo1 c1pomn1rcn v ny-
m npn r = 0:
l - 0.
C1pomonno o1nocn1orno norpomnoc1n v ny-
m npn r = r
0
moxno aannca1r, ncnorayn cnmno o maoo:
](r) - g(r) o(](r)), r = r
0
.
Cqopmynpyom nwcvaaannoo xapav1opnc1nnocvoo cnoc1-
no cvnnnaon1nwx qynvn n nnpo 1oopomw.
I E O F E M A 4. ].n noeo unom quuuuu ]: X = R u g: X = R
m.u ououoo.eunum npu r = r
0
, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo,
unom npu r = r
0
omno.un.oco c.ooue
](r) g(r) o(g(r)), r = r
0
. (8.35)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. 4opmya (8.35) nnno1cn npoc1o ppy-
ro aanncrm onpopoonnn 3. oc1nn1orno, yconno (8.2l):
(r) l pannocnrno yconnm (r) l - (r), rpo
(r) 0. Hoc1omy yconno
](r) (r)g(r), (r) l,
pannocnrno yconnm
](r) (l - (r))g(r) g(r) - (r)g(r), (r) 0,
1. o. yconnm ](r) g(r) - o(g(r)), r = r
0
.
Rp M ue p 4. cIg r - o , r = 0.
oc1nn1orno, n cny 1oopomw l, poc1a1onno novaaa1r,
n1o cIg r , r = 0. 01o xo cpaay copyo1 na panonc1na (8.3):
l.
E 1om cynao, vorpa cymoc1nyo1 1avan npovoo1an ovpoc1-
noc1r (r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o qynvnn ]: X = R, g: X = R no o-
pamam1cn n nyr na nopocononnn X (r
0
) n r
0
- X,
1oopoma l, ononnpno, pannocnrna y1nopxponnm, n1o qynv-
nn ] n g cvnnnaon1nw npn r = r
0
1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vor-
IIm
r 0
sIn r - r
sIn r
------------------------
IIm
r 0

r
sIn r
-------------
,
_
] r ( ) - g r ( )
] r ( )
------------------------------
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
l
r
---
l
r
---
,
_
l
r
---
IIm
r 0
cIg r
l,r
--------------
IIm
r 0
r
Ig r
-----------
U
'
U
z66
pa o1nocn1ornan norpomnoc1r nn, n cny cnm-
mo1pnnnoc1n nonn1nn cvnnnaon1noc1n qynvn, o1nomo-
nno c1pomn1cn v nym npn r = r
0
.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Hcno c = 0. Toeoo g c] u g(r)
c](r) - o(](r)) npu r = r
0
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn c = 0, 1o
l, n noc1omy g c] npn r = r
0
. O1cmpa no 1oopomo l nmoom
g(r) c](r) - o(c](r)), o1vypa (cm. vono n. 8.2) g(r) c](r) -
- o(](r)), r = r
0
.
I E OF E M A 2. Hcno quuuuu ], ]
l
, g, g
l
:oooum uo +uoe
cnoe X u ](r) ]
l
(r), g(r) g
l
(r) npu r = r
0
. Toeoo ec.u c
ecnoen
, (8.36)
no cecnoen u , npuue+
. (8.3?)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Vconnn ] ]
l
n g g
l
, r = r
0
, r - X,
oananam1, n1o cymoc1nym1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r U U(r
0
) 1on-
vn r
0
n 1avno qynvnn n , onpopoonnwo na nopocononnn
X U, n1o
](r) (r)]
l
(r), g(r) (r)g
l
(r), r - X U,
(r) (r) l.
Hoc1omy

,
] r ( ) - g r ( )
] r ( )
------------------------------

] r ( ) - g r ( )
g r ( )
------------------------------
,
_
IIm
r r
0
g r ( )
] r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
g r ( )
] r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
g r ( )
c] r ( )
--------------
IIm
r r
0
]
l
r ( )
g
l
r ( )
---------------
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
]
l
r ( )
g
l
r ( )
-------------- -
'
'
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
r ( )]
l
r ( )
r ( )g
l
r ( )
----------------------------
r ( )
r r
0

IIm
r ( )
r r
0

IIm
---------------------------
IIm
r r
0
]
l
r ( )
g
l
r ( )
---------------
IIm
r r
0
]
l
r ( )
g
l
r ( )
---------------
z67
1. o. nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no (8.3?). K c1omy moxno nmr poa-
nn1r, n1o na cymoc1nonannn npopoa (r) l copyo1,
n1o ovpoc1noc1r U U(r
0
) moxno nwpa1r 1avnm opaaom,
n1o pn ncox 1onov r - X U ypo1 nwnonn1rcn nopanonc1no
(r) = 0, a na cymoc1nonannn no mnoxoc1ny X npopoa
copyo1, n1o ovpoc1noc1r U moxo1 w1r nwpana
omo n 1av, n1o pn ncox r - X U ypo1 nwnonn1rcn nopanon-
c1no g(r) = 0, 1av vav nac1noo poxno w1r onpopoo-
no na nopocononnn X U mnoxoc1na X c novo1opo ovpoc1-
noc1rm U 1onvn r
0
. Hoc1omy nco nanncannwo nwmo nwpaxo-
nnn nmom1 cmwc.
Oo nac1n panonc1na (8.3?) pannonpannw, noc1omy na po-
vaaanno 1oopomw copyo1, n1o npopo, c1onmn n ono nac-
1n, cymoc1nyo1 1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa cymoc1nyo1 npo-
po n npano nac1n, npnnom n cynao nx cymoc1nonannn onn
connapam1. 01o poao1 ononr yponwm npnmononno 1oopomw 2
na npav1nvo: oo moxno ncnoraona1r pn nwnnconnn npopo-
on, no anan aapanoo, cymoc1nyo1 nn no1 paccma1pnnaomw
npopo.
8.4. Metop smpeAenMs rAosnoM octM ynkMM
M ero npMuenenMe k smMcAenMm npepeAos
Hyc1r aapanw qynvnn : X = R n : X = R. Ecn qynvnn
pn ncox r - X npopc1annma n nnpo
(r) (r) - o((r)), r = r
0
,
1o qynvnn naawnao1cn e.oouou uocnov qynvnn npn
r = r
0
.
Rp M ue p m. 4. Iannan nac1r qynvnn sIn r npn r = 0
panna r, no sIn r r - o(r) npn r = 0.
2. Ecn P
n
(r) o
n
r
n
- ... - o
l
r - o
0
, o
n
= 0, 1o qynvnn
o
n
r
n
nnno1cn ranno nac1rm mnoronona P
n
(r) npn r = ~,
1av vav P
n
(r) o
n
r
n
- o(r
n
) npn r = ~.
IIm
r r
0
'
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
'
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
'
z6S
Ecn aapana qynvnn : X = R, 1o oo rannan nac1r npn
r = r
0
no onpopono1cn opnoananno: coracno 1oopomo l, m-
an qynvnn , cvnnnaon1nan npn r = r
0
, nnno1cn oo
ranno nac1rm npn r = r
0
.
Hanpnmop, nyc1r r - r
2
- r
3
. Tav vav, c opno c1opo-
nw, r
2
- r
3
o(r) npn r = 0, 1o r - o(r) npn r = 0, a c
ppyro c1oponw, r
3
o(r - r
2
) npn r = 0, noc1omy
r - r
2
- o(r - r
2
) npn r = 0.
E nopnom cynao ranno nac1rm moxno cnn1a1r r, no
n1opom r - r
2
. Opnavo ocn aapana1rcn onpopoonnwm
nnpom ranno nac1n, 1o npn oro paaymnom nwopo moxno po-
n1rcn 1oro, n1o rannan nac1r yvaaannoro nnpa ypo1 onpo-
poona opnoananno.
E nac1noc1n, cnpanopnna copymman omma.
A E M M A 5. Hcno X ~ R, r
0
- R u r
0
npeoe.ouon nouuo
+uoecnoo X. Ec.u quuuun : X = R o.oooen npu r =
=r
0
e.oouou uocnov ouoo A(r - r
0
)
h
, A = 0, eoe A u h no
cnonuume, no cpeou ocer e.ooumr uocneu nouoeo ouoo ouo
onpeoe.nencn eouucnoeuum+ opo:o+.
oc1nn1orno, nyc1r npn r = r
0
(r) A(r - r
0
)
h
- o((r - r
0
)
h
), A = 0,
n
(r) A
l
(r - r
0
) - o((r - r
0
) ), A
l
= 0.
Torpa (r) A(r - r
0
)
h
n (r) A
l
(r - r
0
) npn r = r
0
, r - X.
Hoc1omy A(r - r
0
)
h
A
l
(r - r
0
) , r = r
0
, r - X, 1. o.
l (r - r
0
) ,
n1o cnpanopnno nmr n cynao A A
l
n h h
l
.
Honn1no ranno nac1n qynvnn nooano npn naynonnn
ocvononno mawx n ocvononno ormnx n c ycnoxom nc-
norayo1cn npn pomonnn paanoopaanwx aapan ma1oma1nno-
cvoro ananaa. onorno nac1o ypao1cn ocvononno maym
h
l
h
l
h
l
h
l
IIm
r r
0
A r - r
0
( )
h
A
l
r - r
0
( )
h
l
----------------------------------
A
A
l
-------
IIm
r r
0
h - h
l
z69
coxnoro anan1nnocvoro nnpa aamonn1r n ovpoc1noc1n pan-
no 1onvn c 1onnoc1rm po ocvononno mawx ooo nwcovoro
nopnpva ooo npoc1o (n vavom-1o cmwco) qynvno.
Hanpnmop, ocn (r) ypao1cn npopc1ann1r n nnpo (r)
A(r - r
0
)
h
- o((r - r
0
)
h
), 1o c1o oananao1, n1o c 1onnoc1rm po
ocvononno mawx ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom (r - r
0
)
h
npn r = r
0
, ocvononno maan (r) nopo1 con n ovpoc1noc1n
1onvn r vav c1ononn an qynvnn A(r - r
0
)
h
.
Hovaxom na npnmopax, vav mo1op nwpoonnn ranno
nac1n ocvononno mawx npnmonno1cn v nwnnconnm npopo-
on qynvn. Hpn c1om ypom mnpovo ncnoraona1r noy-
nonnwo coo1nomonnn cvnnnaon1noc1n (8.26).
Hyc1r 1poyo1cn na1n npopo (a anann1, n povaaa1r, n1o
on cymoc1nyo1)
.
Hcnorayn povaaannym nwmo (cm. coo1nomonnn (8.26)) cv-
nnnaon1noc1r In (l - u) u npn u = 0, nmoom In (l - r - r
2
)
r - r
2
npn r = 0, noc1omy (cm. 1oopomy l) In (l - r - r
2
)
r - r
2
- o(r - r
2
). Opnavo o(r - r
2
) o(r) (nonomy?) n r
2

o(r) npn r = 0, copona1orno,


In (l - r - r
2
) r - o(r) npn r = 0.
aoo, arcsIn 3r 3r, noc1omy
arcsIn 3r 3r - o(3r) 3r - o(r).
Ononnpno 1avxo, n1o 5r
3
o(r). Ha acnmn1o1nnocvoro pa-
nonc1na sIn 2r 2r noynaom
sIn 2r 2r - o(2r) 2r - o(r),
na Ig
2
r r
2
ypom nmo1r
Ig
2
r r
2
- o(r
2
) o(r),
a na (e
r
- l)
5
r
5
, anaornnno,
(e
r
- l)
5
r
5
- o(r
5
) o(r).
IIm
r 0
l - r - r
2
( ) In - arcsIn 3r - 5r
3
sIn 2r - Ig
2
r - e
r
- l ( )
5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
z70
Eco c1n coo1nomonnn nwnonnm1cn npn r = 0. Tonopr
nmoom
In (l - r - r
2
) - arcsIn 3r - 5r
3

r - o(r) - 3r - o(r) - o(r) 4r - o(r),


sIn 2r - Ig
2
r - (e
r
- l)
5
2r - o(r) - o(r) 2r - o(r),
noc1omy
.
Ho 4r - o(r) 4r, a 2r - o(r) 2r npn r = 0 n, anann1, no
1oopomo 2,
2.
Tavnm opaaom, ncvomw npopo cymoc1nyo1 n panon 2.
Hpn nwnnconnn npopoon qynvn c nomomrm mo1opa
nwpoonnn ranno nac1n copyo1 nmo1r n nnpy, n1o n cyna-
nx, no paccmo1ponnwx n n. 8.3, noomo ronopn, noran ocvo-
nonno mawo aamonn1r nm cvnnnaon1nwmn. Tav, nanpnmop,
npn o1wcvannn npopoa nwpaxonnn wo w
omnvo aamonn1r qynvnm sIn r cvnnnaon1no o npn
r =0 qynvno r. Ec1oc1nonnw mo1op pomonnn noponwx
aapan ypo1 pan n n. l3.4.
n o1wcvannn npopoon nwpaxonn nnpa u(r)
t(r)
oo-
coopaano naxopn1r npopo nx orapnqmon. Paccmo1pnm no-
ponw npnmop. Hapom npopo 2r. Ha panon-
c1na
2r 2r (8.38)
nnpno, n1o poc1a1onno nwnncn1r npopo
In 2r .
A 1av vav
In (l - sIn
2
2r) -sIn
2
2r -(2r)
2
-4r
2
,
IIm
r 0
l - r - r
2
( ) In - arcsIn 3r - 5r
3
sIn 2r - Ig
2
r - e
r
- l ( )
5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
4r - o r ( )
2r - o r ( )
---------------------------
IIm
r 0
4r - o r ( )
2r - o r ( )
---------------------------
IIm
r 0
4r
2r
-------
IIm
r 0
sIn r - r
r
3
------------------------
IIm
r 0
cos
l r
2

cos
l r
2

e
cos
l r
2

In
IIm
r 0
cos
l r
2

IIm
r 0
cos 2r In
r
2
------------------------
l
2
---
IIm
r 0
l - sIn
2
2r ( ) In
r
2
-------------------------------------------
z71
1o o1cmpa, coracno 1oopomo 2 c1oro naparpaqa, nmoom
- -2;
1avnm opaaom,
In 2r -2.
E cny nonpopwnnoc1n novaaa1orno qynvnn, na (8.38)
nmoom
2r .
Cnoco nwnnconnn npopoon c nomomrm nwpoonnn
ranno nac1n qynvnn nnno1cn ononr yponwm, npoc1wm
n nmoc1o c 1om nocrma omnm mo1opom. Hovo1opoo aa1pyp-
nonno n oro npnmononnn cnnaano nova c 1om, n1o omo no1
poc1a1onno omoro cnocoa nwpoonnn ranno nac1n
qynvnn. 01o aa1pypnonno ypo1 yc1panono n parnomom
(cm. l3).
.
lpcMsac/c M /MqqepeuMc/
.4. OnpepeAenMe npoMssopnoM
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hcno quuuun ](r) onpeoe.euo o ueuo
nopou oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
- R u ncno r npou:oo.o
uon nouuo onou oupecnuocnu. Ec.u onuoueuue
u+een npeoe. npu r = r
0
, no onon npeoe. uo:mooencn npo
u:ooouou quuuuu ] o nouue r
0
u.u, uno no e, npu r r
0
,
u oo:uouoencn ](r
0
):
](r
0
) . (9.l)
Ecn nnoc1n ooananonno r - r
0
^r, 1o onpopoonno (9.l)
aannmo1cn n nnpo
](r
0
) .
l
2
---
IIm
r 0
l - sIn
2
2r ( ) In
r
2
-------------------------------------------
l
2
---
IIm
r 0
4r
2
r
2
----------
IIm
r 0
cos
l r
2

IIm
r 0
cos
l r
2

e
In
cos
l r
2

2r
r 0
IIm
l,e
2
] r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r - r
0
---------------------------------
IIm
r r
0
] r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r - r
0
---------------------------------
IIm
r 0
] r
0
- r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r
---------------------------------------------------
z7z
Hoaran ](r
0
- ^r) - ](r
0
) ^, onycvan ooananonnn ap-
rymon1a n ooananan nponanopnym npoc1o nopoa , noynaom
omo opny aanncr onpopoonnn nponanopno:
.
Ecn pn novo1oporo ananonnn r
0
cymoc1nym1 npopow
~, nn -~, nn -~, 1o ro-
nopn1, n1o npn r r
0
cymoc1nyo1 ecuoueuuon npou:ooouon
nn coo1no1c1nonno ecuoueuuon npou:ooouon onpeoe.euuo
eo :uouo, pannan -~ nn -~.
E parnomom nop nwpaxonnom qynvnn nmoo1 npona-
nopnym ypom nonnma1r ncorpa nannno vononno npona-
nopno, ocn no oronopono npo1nnnoo.
Enopom pn ypoc1na copymmoo onpopoonno. Hopocono-
nno ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
- R c ynom r . r
0
(r r
0
) naaonom
npooocnopouueu (.eoocnopouueu) oupecnuocnov 1onvn r
0
.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Ec.u quuuun ] onpeoe.euo o ueuonopou
npooocnopouueu (.eoocnopouueu) oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
u
cecnoen uoueuumu u.u ecuoueuumu (onpeoe.euuoeo
:uouo) npeoe.
,
no ou uo:mooencn coonoencnoeuuo uoueuuou u.u ecuoueu
uou npooou (.eoou) npou:ooouou quuuuu ] o nouue r
0
u oo
:uouoencn (r
0
) (u.u (r
0
)).
Hpooon u .eoon npou:oooume uo:moovncn noue
npooocnopouueu, coonoencnoeuuo .eoocnopouueu, o u no u
opeon oouocnopouuu+u npou:oooum+u.
Ha 1oopomw o opnoc1oponnnx npopoax (cm. n. 5.9) copy-
o1, n1o qynvnn ](r), onpopoonnan n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n
1onvn r
0
, nmoo1 nponanopnym ](r
0
) 1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vor-
pa (r
0
) n (r
0
) cymoc1nym1 n (r
0
) (r
0
). E c1om cynao
](r
0
) (r
0
) (r
0
).
Ecn qynvnn ](r) onpopoona na novo1opom npomoxy1vo
n n vaxpo oro 1onvo cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan (npnnom nop
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r + 0
] r
0
- r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r
---------------------------------------------------

IIm
r - 0
] r
0
- r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r
---------------------------------------------------
,
_
]
-
]
-

]
-
]
-
]
-
]
-

]
-
]
-

z73
nponanopno n vono c1oro npomoxy1va, vo1opw npnnapo-
xn1 npomoxy1vy, oc1oc1nonno, nonnmao1cn coo1no1c1nym-
man opnoc1oponnnn nponanopnan), 1o ona, ononnpno, 1avxo
nnno1cn qynvno, onpopoonno na pannom npomoxy1vo;
oo ooananam1 nopoa ](r). Ecn ](r), 1o nmoc1o ](r
0
) nn-
my1 1avxo .
Ewnnconno nponanopno o1 qynvnn naawnao1cn ouqqe
peuuupooouue+.
Rp M ue p m. 4. c (c - noc1onnnan).
Tav vav ^ c - c 0, 1o 0 n, 1avnm opaaom,
c 0.
2. sIn r. Hmoom
^ sIn (r - ^r) - sIn r 2 cos r - sIn ,
noc1omy
cos r - cos r.
Tavnm opaaom, (sIn r) cos r.
3. cos r. Tav vav
^ cos (r - ^r) - cos (r) -2 sIn r - sIn ,
1o ypom nmo1r
- sIn r - -sIn r.
Tavnm opaaom, (cos r) -sIn r.
4. o
r
. Hmoom ^ o
r - ^r
- o
r
o
r
(o
^r
- l), noc1omy
o
r
,
o1vypa, n cny qopmyw (8.l?), noynaom
o
r
o
r
In o.
r r
0
IIm
r 0

r
-------

r
2
-------
,
_
r
2
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
2
-------
,
_
IIm
r 0
sIn r,2 ( )
r,2 ( )
-----------------------------

r
2
-------
,
_
r
2
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
2
-------
,
_
IIm
r 0
sIn r,2 ( )
r,2 ( )
-----------------------------

r
-------
o
r
- l
r
--------------------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0
o
r
- l
r
--------------------
z74
Tavnm opaaom,
(o
r
) o
r
In o,
n nac1noc1n,
(e
r
) e
r
.
Hocopnoo panonc1no novaawnao1, n1o nnco e oapao1 aa-
mona1ornwm cnoc1nom: nouo:one.ouon quuuun c ocuooo
uue+ e u+een npou:ooouv, coonooovv c co+ou quuuu
eu. 01nm n o+ncnno1cn 1o oc1on1orc1no, n1o n ma1oma1nno-
cvom ananao n vanoc1no ocnonannn c1ononn n ocnonannn
orapnqmon ncnorayo1cn nponmymoc1nonno nnco e. 01o
ononr ypono, 1av vav ynpomao1 nwnnconnn.
5. r
n
, n - na1yparnoo nnco. Hcnorayn npanno noa-
noponnn nnoma n c1ononr, naxopnm
^ (r - ^r)
n
- r
n
nr
n - l
^r - r
n - 2
^r
2
- ... - ^r
n
,
o1vypa npn ^r = 0 nmoom
nr
n - l
- r
n - l
^r - ... - ^r
n - l
.
Tav vav npn ^r = 0 nco caraomwo npano nac1n, copopxa-
mno mnoxn1or ^r n c1ononn c na1yparnwm novaaa1oom,
c1pomn1cn v nym, 1o nr
n - l
, 1avnm opaaom,
(r
n
) nr
n - l
.
E parnomom ypo1 novaaano, n1o c1a qopmya cnpanopn-
na n 1orpa, vorpa n - nponanornoo poc1nn1ornoo nnco.
.2. pMepenMoA ynkMM
OnpepeAenMe 3. duuuun ](r), onpeoe.euuon o ueuonopou
oupecnuocnu U(r
0
) nouuu r
0
- R, uo:mooencn ouqqepeuuu
pe+ou npu r r
0
, ec.u ee npupoeuue o onou nouue, n. e.
^ ](r
0
- ^r) - ](r
0
), r
0
- ^r - U(r
0
),
npeocnoou+o o ouoe
^ A ^r - o(^r), ^r = 0, (9.2)
eoe A nocnonuuon
l
.
l
Hpn qnvcnponanno 1onvo r
0
noc1onnnan A oc1r novo1opoo nnco, no
aanncnmoo o1 ^r; vononno, npn namononnn 1onvn r
0
nnco A, noomo ro-
nopn, monno1cn.
n n - l ( )
2
-----------------------

r
-------
n n - l ( )
2
-----------------------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
z7
7nnonan qynvnn A ^r (o1 nopomonno ^r) naawnao1cn
ouqqepeuuuo.o+ quuuuu ] n 1onvo r
0
n ooananao1cn J](r
0
)
nn, vopono, J.
Tavnm opaaom,
J A ^r
n
^ J - o(^r), ^r = 0.
4ynvnn ^r onpopoona pn ncox ananonn ^r, n nac1-
noc1n n pn ^r 0, a qynvnn o(^r) ^ - A ^r onpopoo-
na n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn ^r 0, n 1om nnco n n ca-
mo c1o 1onvo, rpo ona panna nym:
o(0) (^ - A ^r)
^r 0
0.
Hoc1omy, coracno onpopoonnm cnmnoa o maoo, cy-
moc1nyo1 1avan qynvnn (^r), 1avxo onpopoonnan na nco
yvaaanno ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn ^r 0 (a copona1orno, n ca-
mo c1o 1onvo), n1o pn ncox ^r 0 na c1o ovpoc1noc1n nw-
nonno1cn panonc1no
o(^r) (^r)^r (9.3)
n
(^r) 0. (9.4)
Hpopo opo1cn no nco ovpoc1noc1n, noc1omy o1cmpa co-
pyo1, n1o
(0) 0 (9.5)
(ocn 1onva, n vo1opo opo1cn npopo qynvnn, npnnapoxn1
mnoxoc1ny, no vo1opomy opo1cn npopo n c1o1 npopo
cymoc1nyo1, 1o qynvnn nonpopwnna n c1o 1onvo, cm. n. 5.5).
3amo1nm, n1o pnqqoponna J A ^r, vav n ncnvan
nnonan qynvnn, onpopoon pn moro ananonnn ^r:
-~ ^r -~, n 1o npomn vav npnpamonno ^ ](r
0
- ^r) -
- ](r
0
), oc1oc1nonno, moxno paccma1pnna1r 1orvo pn 1avnx
^r, pn vo1opwx r
0
- ^r npnnapoxn1 oac1n onpopoonnn
qynvnn ].

(9.2)

(9.2)
IIm
r 0
z76
Ecn A = 0, 1. o. ocn J = 0, 1o pnqqoponnpyomoc1r
qynvnn n 1onvo r
0
oananao1, n1o c 1onnoc1rm po ocvononno
mawx ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom npnpamonno aprymon1a
^r, npnpamonno qynvnn ^ nnno1cn nnono qynvno
o1 ^r. Hcnorayn 1opmnnoornm n. 8.4, moxno cvaaa1r, n1o
rannan nac1r npnpamonnn qynvnn ^ n 1onvo r
0
nnno1cn
nnono qynvno o1nocn1orno ^r; npn c1om npnpamonno
^ n pnqqoponna J - cvnnnaon1nwo ocvononno mawo
npn ^r = 0 (cm. n. 8.3).
Ecn xo A 0, 1. o. J 0, 1o ^ o(^r) npn ^r = 0. Ta-
vnm opaaom, npn A 0 npnpamonno ^ nnno1cn ocvononno
mao ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom ^r, vorpa ^r = 0.
n ormo cnmmo1pnn aanncn pnqqoponnaa npnpa-
monno ^r ooananam1 Jr n naawnam1 oro ouqqepeuuuo.o+
ue:ooucu+oeo nepe+euuoeo. Tavnm opaaom, pnqqoponna
moxno aannca1r n nnpo J AJr.
Rp M ue p. Hapom pnqqoponna qynvnn r
3
.
E c1om cynao
^ (r - ^r)
3
- r
3
3r
2
^r - 3r(^r)
2
- (^r)
3
.
Hpn ^r = 0 rannan nnonan nac1r nwpaxonnn, c1onmoro
cnpana, panna 3r
2
^r; noc1omy J 3r
2
Jr.
Hyc1r ](r
0
)
0
. Hopc1annn n (9.2) ananonnn ^ ](r) -
0
,
^r r - r
0
, J A(r - r
0
), noynnm
](r)
0
- A(r - r
0
) - o(r - r
0
), r = r
0
.
H1av, ocn qynvnn ](r) pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo r
0
, 1o
c 1onnoc1rm po ocvononno mawx ooo nwcovoro nopnpva,
nom r - r
0
, nnan r
0
ona panna nnono qynvnn; nnano ro-
nopn, n c1om cynao qynvnn ] n ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
nopo1
con non1n vav nnonan qynvnn
0
- A(r - r
0
), npnnom
norpomnoc1r npn aamono qynvnn ] c1o nnono qynvn-
o 1om monrmo, nom monrmo paanoc1r r - r
0
, n, ooo 1oro, o1-
nomonno c1o norpomnoc1n v paanoc1n r - r
0
, 1. o. o1nocn-
1ornan norpomnoc1r, c1pomn1cn v nym npn r = r
0
.
z77
Ecn qynvnn ] pnqqoponnpyoma n vaxpo 1onvo novo-
1oporo nn1opnaa, 1o oo pnqqoponna nnno1cn qynvno
pnyx nopomonnwx - 1onvn r n nopomonno Jr:
J A(r)Jr.
Ewncnnm 1onopr cnnar moxpy pnqqoponnpyomoc1rm n
1onvo n cymoc1nonannom nponanopno n 1o xo 1onvo.
I E O F E M A 4. ].n noeo unom quuuun ] m.o ouqqepeuuu
pe+ou o ueuonopou nouue r
0
, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo,
unom ouo u+e.o o onou nouue npou:ooouv; npu ono+
J ](r
0
)Jr.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c G x c / M | c c M. Hyc1r qynvnn ]
pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo r
0
, 1. o. ^ A ^r - o(^r), ^r =
= 0. Torpa
A - A.
Hoc1omy nponanopnan ](r
0
) cymoc1nyo1 n panna A. O1cmpa
J ](r
0
)Jr.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c / c c c c c c M. Hyc1r cymoc1nyo1
nponanopnan ](r
0
), 1. o. cymoc1nyo1 npopo ](r
0
).
Torpa
](r
0
) - (^r), ^r = 0,
rpo (^r) 0 n, copona1orno, pn ^r = 0 cnpanopnno
panonc1no
^ ](r
0
) ^r - (^r) ^r.
Hoaran apocr (0) 0, noynaom, n1o n novo1opo ovpoc1-
noc1n 1onvn r
0
nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no
^ ](r
0
) ^r - o(^r), ^r = 0,
1. o. panonc1no (9.2) npn A ](r
0
). Tavnm opaaom, qynvnn ]
pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo r
0
.
Hopnopvnom, n1o n 1oopomo l ponr npo1 o vononno npona-
nopno.
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0
o r ( )
r
---------------
IIm
r 0

r
-------

r
-------
IIm
r 0
r 0
z7S
Tavnm opaaom, p n q q o p o n n p y o m o c 1 r qynvnn
](r) n 1onvo r
0
p a n n o c n r n a c y m o c 1 n o n a n n m n
c1o 1onvo v o n o n n o n p o n a n o p n o ](r
0
).
Ha povaaannoro copyo1, n1o vocqqnnon1 A n onpopoo-
nnn pnqqoponnaa (cm. (9.2)) onpopoon opnoananno, a
nmonno A ](r
0
); 1om camwm n pnqqoponna qynvnn n
panno 1onvo onpopoon opnoananno. 01o, nnponom, nw1ovao1
1avxo na ommw n. 8.4 o opnnc1nonnoc1n ranno nac1n nnpa
A(r - r
0
)
h
ocvononno mao qynvnn npn r = r
0
.
E cny 1oopomw l, . Hpanan nac1r npopc1anno1 co-
o ppor, nncn1or vo1opo - pnqqoponna qynvnn, a
anamona1or - pnqqoponna aprymon1a.
4opmyy (9.2) pn npnpamonnn qynvnn, coracno
1oopomo l n qopmyo (9.3), moxno aannca1r n nnpo
^ ](r
0
) ^r - (^r) ^r, (9.6)
rpo nwnonno1cn yconno (9.4), copona1orno, n yconno (9.5):
(^r) 0, (0) 0, (9.?)
1. o. (^r) - nonpopwnnan n nyo qynvnn.
4opmya J ](r
0
)Jr noanono1 naxopn1r pnqqopon-
naw qynvn, ocn nanoc1nw nx nponanopnwo. Tav, na-
npnmop, ncnorayn nponanopnwo, naponnwo n n. 9.l, noy-
naom:
Jc 0 (c - noc1onnnan), J cos r -sIn r Jr,
J sIn r cos r Jr, Jo
r
o
r
In o Jr,
n nac1noc1n Je
r
e
r
Jr,
Jr
n
nr
n - l
Jr (n - na1yparnoo nnco).
E aavmnonno nwncnnm cnnar moxpy pnqqoponnpyomo-
c1rm n nonpopwnnoc1rm n panno 1onvo.
I E O F E M A 2. Ec.u quuuun ] ouqqepeuuupe+o o ueuono
pou nouue, no ouo u uenpepmouo o onou nouue.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Ec.u quuuun o ueuonopou nouue u+een npo
u:ooouv, no ouo uenpepmouo o onou nouue.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r qynvnn ] pnqqoponnpyoma n
1onvo r
0
, 1. o. n c1o 1onvo ^ A ^r - o(^r) npn ^r = 0.
J
Jr
-------
IIm
r 0
z79
Torpa
^ A ^r - o(^r) 0,
n1o n oananao1 nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn ] npn r r
0
.
Copc1nno nonocpopc1nonno nw1ovao1 na 1oopom l n 2. O-
pa1nm nnnmanno na 1o, n1o ocn qynvnn nmoo1 n 1onvo oc-
vononnym nponanopnym, 1o ona moxo1 w1r paapwnno n c1o
1onvo.
VHPAHEHHE 1. Hoc1pon1r npnmop qynvnn, nmommo n novo1opo
1onvo ocvononnym nponanopnym n paapwnnym n c1o 1onvo.
3amo1nm, n1o y1nopxponno, opa1noo 1oopomo 2, nonopno,
1. o. na nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn ] n panno 1onvo no copyo1
oo pnqqoponnpyomoc1r nn, n1o pannocnrno (cm. 1oopomy l),
cymoc1nonanno nponanopno n c1o 1onvo.
Hpnnopom npnmopw, nop1nopxpammno c1o.
Rp M ue p m. 4. 4ynvnn ](r) r, ononnpno, nonpopwnna
n 1onvo r 0 (vav n no ncox ppyrnx), no no nmoo1 n c1o 1onvo
nponanopno.
E camom poo, npn r . 0 nmoom r r, noc1omy pn
1onvn r
0
0 noynnm ^ ^r. Copona1orno,
(0) l.
Anaornnno, npn r 0 nmoom r -r, noc1omy pn
1onvn r
0
0 n c1om cynao noynnm ^ -^r. Copona-
1orno,
(0) -l.
Tom camwm povaaano, n1o qynvnn ](r) r no nmoo1 npn
r 0 nponanopno, opnavo n c1o 1onvo cymoc1nym1 vav o-
nan, 1av n npanan nponanopnwo.
O1mo1nm omo, n1o npn r 0 nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no (r)
r l, a npn r 0 coo1no1c1nonno (r) (-r) -l, noc1o-
my pn moro r = 0 cnpanopnna qopmya
r sIgn r.
Copymmn npnmop novaawnao1, n1o y qynvnn n 1onvo
nonpopwnnoc1n moxo1 no w1r nnvavo opnoc1oponno npo-
nanopno.
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
]
-
IIm
r 0

r
-------
]
-
IIm
r 0

r
-------
zS0
2. Hyc1r (pnc. 38)
](r)
Torpa n 1onvo r 0 nmoom ^
^r sIn , o1vypa ^ ^r, n
noc1omy ^ 0, 1. o. paccma1-
pnnaoman qynvnn nonpopwnna npn
r 0. Emoc1o c 1om sIn , n
1av vav qynvnn sIn no nmoo1 n 1onvo r 0 npopoa nn co-
na, nn cnpana (cm. npnmop 2 n n. 5.4), 1o y qynvnn ](r) no cy-
moc1nyo1 opnoc1oponnnx nponanopnwx npn r 0.
VHPAHEHHH. z. Enoc1n nonn1no pnqqoponnpyomoc1n qynvnn
cnpana (cona) n panno 1onvo n povaaa1r, n1o pnqqoponnpyomoc1r cnpa-
na (cona) n panno 1onvo cvnnnaon1na cymoc1nonannm n c1o 1onvo
vononno nponanopno cnpana (cona).
3. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn nmoo1 n novo1opo 1onvo onoc1oponnmm
(npanoc1oponnmm) nponanopnym, 1o n c1o 1onvo qynvnn nonpopwnna
cona (cnpana).
Ecn qynvnn ] nmoo1 nponanopnym n vaxpo 1onvo novo-
1oporo npomoxy1va (pnqqoponnpyoma n vaxpo 1onvo c1oro
npomoxy1va), 1o ronopn1, n1o qynvnn ] u+een npou:ooouv
nn n1o ona ouqqepeuuupe+o uo yvaaannom npo+enue.
.3. IeouetpMeckMM cumcA
npoMssopnoM M pMepenMoAo
Honn1nn nponanopno n pnqqoponnaa qynvnn n panno
1onvo cnnaanw c nonn1nom vaca1orno v rpaqnvy qynvnn n
c1o 1onvo. H1ow nwncnn1r c1y cnnar, onpoponm npoxpo
ncoro vaca1ornym.
Hyc1r qynvnn ](r) onpopoona na nn1opnao (o, b) n
nonpopwnna n 1onvo r
0
- (o, b). Hyc1r
0
](r
0
), M
0
(r
0
,
0
),
r
0
- ^r - (o, b), ^ ](r
0
- ^r) - ](r
0
),
M (r
0
- ^r,
0
- ^).

r
0
Pnc. 38
r sIn
0
l
r
--- npn r = 0,
npn r 0.
l
r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
l
r
-------
l
r
---
zS1
Hponopom covymym M
0
M (pnc. 39). Ona nmoo1 ypannonno
h(^r)(r - r
0
) -
0
, (9.8)
rpo
h(^r) . (9.9)
Hovaxom, n1o npn ^r = 0 pacc1onnno M
0
M o1 1onvn M
0
po 1onvn M c1pomn1cn v nym (n c1om cynao ronopn1, n1o
1onva M c1pomn1cn v 1onvo M
0
, n nnmy1 M = M
0
). oc1nn-
1orno, n cny nonpopwnnoc1n qynvnn ], npn r r
0
nmoom
^ 0. Copona1orno, npn ^r = 0
M
0
M = 0.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Ec.u cecnoen uoueuumu npeoe.
h(^r) h
0
, no npn+on, pooueuue uonopou
h
0
(r - r
0
) -
0
(9.l0)
no.uoencn u: pooueuun h(^r)(r - r
0
) -
0
npu ^r = 0
(pnc. 39), uo:mooencn (uou.ouuou) uocone.ouou u epoquu
quuuuu ] o nouue (r
0
,
0
).
Ec.u h(^r) ~, no npn+on (pnc. 40), pooueuue
uonopou
r r
0
(9.ll)
no.uoencn npu ^r = 0 u: pooueuun ceueu, :onucouuoeo
o ouoe r - r
0
- , uo:mooencn (oepnuuo.ouou)
uocone.ouou u epoquu quuuuu ] o nouue (r
0
,
0
).

r
-------
r

r
0
- r

0 r

r
0
M
0

0
- r
M
Pnc. 40
r
0

r
0
- r

0
r

r
0
M
0

0
-
M
Pnc. 39
IIm
r 0
r
2
-
2

IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0

h r ( )
---------------

h r ( )
---------------
zSz
Hpnmwo (9.l0) n cynao vononnoro npopoa h(^r) n
(9.ll) n cynao, vorpa c1o1 npopo ocvononon, naawnam1cn
npeoe.oum+u no.oeuun+u npn+ou (9.8). E cny c1oro, pan-
noo nwmo onpopoonno vaca1orno v rpaqnvy qynvnn
moxno nopoqpaanpona1r copymmnm opaaom.
Hpeoe.ouoe no.oeuue ceueu M
0
M npu ^r = 0, u.u,
uno no e, npu M = M
0
, uo:mooencn uocone.ouou u epo
quu quuuuu ] o nouue M
0
.
3amo1nm 1onopr, n1o, n cny panonc1na (9.9), cymoc1nona-
nno vononnoro npopoa h(^r) oananao1 cy-
moc1nonanno vononno nponanopno ](r
0
) h. Copona1or-
no, ocn y qynvnn ] n 1onvo r
0
cymoc1nyo1 vononnan npona-
nopnan, 1o ypannonno vaca1orno v rpaqnvy qynvnn n
1onvo (r
0
, ](r
0
)) nmoo1 nnp
](r
0
)(r - r
0
) -
0
, (9.l2)
rpo
0
](r
0
). Ecn xo ~, 1. o. ](r
0
) ~, 1o, n cn-
y (9.9), h(^r) ~ n, copona1orno (cm. (9.ll)), ypan-
nonno vaca1orno nmoo1 nnp r r
0
.
Kav nanoc1no na anan1nnocvo roomo1pnn, vocqqnnon1
](r
0
) n ypannonnn (9.l2) panon 1anroncy yra (cm. pnc. 39), vo-
1opw paccma1pnnaoman npnman opaayo1 c nooxn1ornwm
nanpanonnom ocn Or: ](r
0
) Ig , 1. o. nponanopnan qynvnn
n novo1opo 1onvo panna 1anroncy yra moxpy vaca1orno n
coo1no1c1nymmo 1onvo rpaqnva qynvnn n ocrm acncc.
Hopnoo caraomoo n npano nac1n ypannonnn (9.l2), 1. o.
nwpaxonno ](r
0
)(r - r
0
) ](r
0
) ^r, ^r r - r
0
, nnno1cn
pnqqoponnaom J qynvnn ] n 1onvo r
0
. Copona1orno, n
cny panonc1na (9.l2),
-
0
J,
rpo - 1ovyman oppnna1a vaca1orno. Tavnm opaaom,
pnqqoponna qynvnn n panno 1onvo panon npnpamonnm
oppnna1w vaca1orno n coo1no1c1nymmo 1onvo rpaqnva
qynvnn.
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0
zS3
3 a m o n a n n o. Ecn n 1onvo r
0
cymoc1nyo1 ocvononnw
npopo ~, 1o moxo1 ovaaa1rcn, n1o on ypo1 pan-
nwm -~ nn -~. E c1om cynao npn r r
0
cymoc1nyo1 ocvo-
nonnan nponanopnan -~ nn -~ n rpaqnv qynvnn
](r) n ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
nmoo1 nnp, cxoma1nnocvn nao-
paxonnw na pncynvax 4l n 42.
Eoamoxon 1avxo n cyna, vorpa npopo ~ no
nnno1cn ocvononnoc1rm onpopoonnoro anava n, copona-
1orno, n c1o 1onvo no cymoc1nyo1 nn vononno, nn ocvo-
nonno onpopoonnoro anava nponanopno, a nmr ](r
0
) ~.
01o moxo1, nanpnmop, cynn1rcn, ocn n 1onvo r
0
cymoc1ny-
m1 opnoc1oponnno ocvononnwo nponanopnwo paanoro anava.
Torpa n ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
rpaqnv qynvnn nmoo1 nnp,
cxoma1nnocvn novaaannw na pncynvax 43 n 44.
Rp M ue p. Hapom vaca1ornym v napaoo r
2
n 1onvo
c vooppnna1amn (l, l).
Coracno n. 9.l (cm. npnmop 5), 2r, noc1omy
r l
2.
E cny qopmyw (9.l2), ncvoman vaca1ornan nmoo1 ypanno-
nno 2(r - l) - l, 1. o. 2r - l.
Ecn qynvnn ] pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo r
0
, 1o, nop-
c1annn n qopmyy (9.5) A ](r
0
) (cm. 1oopomy l nac1onmoro
naparpaqa), nmoom
](r)
0
- ](r
0
)(r - r
0
) - o(r - r
0
), r = r
0
n, anann1, coracno (9.l2) (
vac
](r
0
)(r - r
0
) -
0
), noynnm
](r) -
vac
o(r - r
0
), r = r
0
.
r
0

r
0
Pnc. 4l
r
0

r
0
Pnc. 42
r
0

r
0
Pnc. 43
r
0

r
0
Pnc. 44
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
zS4
Tavnm opaaom, navonnan vaca1ornan v rpaqnvy qynv-
nn oapao1 1om cnoc1nom, n1o paanoc1r oppnna1 rpaqnva n
c1o vaca1orno oc1r nonnnna ocvononno maan ooo nw-
covoro nopnpva npn r = r
0
no cpannonnm c npnpamonnom ap-
rymon1a.
Opa1no: ocn cymoc1nyo1 nonop1nvarnan npnman

np
A(r - r
0
) -
0
, (9.l3)
npoxopnman nopoa 1onvy (r
0
,
0
) n 1avan, n1o
](r) -
np
o(r - r
0
), r = r
0
, (9.l4)
1o c1a npnman nnno1cn vaca1orno v rpaqnvy qynvnn n
1onvo (r
0
,
0
). oc1nn1orno, n c1om cynao
](r) - [A(r - r
0
) -
0
o(r - r
0
),
1. o.
^ ](r) -
0
A(r - r
0
) - o(r - r
0
), r = r
0
;
copona1orno, qynvnn ] pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo r
0
(cm.
(9.2)) n A ](r
0
) (cm. 1oopomy l), 1. o. yvaaannan npnman con-
napao1 c vaca1orno (9.l2).
Tavnm opaaom, c.ooue (9.l4) ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo
o.n noeo, unom npn+on (9.l3) no.n.oco uou.ouuou uoco
ne.ouou u epoquu quuuuu ](r) o nouue (r
0
,
0
). O1cmpa, n
nac1noc1n, copyo1, n1o ona opnnc1nonna (nocopnoo nw1ova-
o1, nanpnmop, na 1oro, n1o pnqqoponna qynvnn opnnc1-
non, nn na 1oro, n1o vaca1ornan v rpaqnvy qynvnn n pan-
no 1onvo opnnc1nonna).
.4. OMsMeckMM cumcA npoMssopnoM
M pMepenMoAo
Hyc1r qynvnn ](r) onpopoona n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n
1onvn r
0
. Eocnorayomcn, vav n nwmo, ooananonnnmn ^r
r - r
0
, ^ ](r
0
- ^r
0
) - ](r
0
). Hyc1r pn onpopoonnoc1n
^r 0. O1nomonno , pannoo namononnm nopomonno na
o1poavo [r
0
, r
0
- ^r, o1noconnomy v opnnno namoponnn no-
pomonno r, oc1oc1nonno naana1r :uoueuue+ cpeoueu cuopoc
nu u:+eueuun na o1poavo [r
0
, r
0
- ^r o1nocn1orno r.
Hpn c1pomonnn ^r v nym, 1. o. npn c1nrnnannn o1poava

r
-------
zS
[r
0
, r
0
- ^r v 1onvo r
0
, o1nomonno onpopono1 ananonno
cpopno cvopoc1n namononnn nopomonno o1nocn1orno
nopomonno r no nco monrmom n monrmom o1poavo, copopxa-
mom 1onvy r
0
. Eco cvaaannoo, vononno, cnpanopnno n npn
^r 0 pn o1poava [r
0
- ^r, r
0
.
Hpopo , ocn on cymoc1nyo1, 1. o. nponanopnym
](r
0
), oc1oc1nonno noc1omy naana1r cuopocnov namononnn no-
pomonno o1nocn1orno nopomonno r n 1onvo r
0
.
3amo1nm, n1o ocn n 1onvo r
0
cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan
](r
0
), 1o, paccma1pnnan npopo cpopnnx cvopoc1o namono-
nnn o1nocn1orno r na o1poavax [r
0
- ^r, r
0
- ^r (^r 0),
copopxamnx 1onvy r
0
nny1pn con n vanoc1no on1pa, npn
c1nrnnannn nx v 1onvo r
0
(npn ^r = 0) mw noynnm n npopo-
o 1o xo ananonno cvopoc1n namononnn o1nocn1orno r n
1onvo r
0
, n 1. o. ](r
0
). oc1nn1orno, ananonno cpopno cvo-
poc1n namononnn nopomonno o1nocn1orno r na o1poavo
[r
0
- ^r, r
0
- ^r panno (nac1nomy o1 po-
onnn namononnn qynvnn na pnny o1poava, na vo1opom
nponaomo c1o namononno); o1cmpa

- ](r
0
).
Hn1opocno aamo1n1r, n1o paanoc1noo o1nomonno
n nanoc1nom cmwco ynmo npnnxao1 ana-
nonno nponanopno ] n 1onvo r, nom (cm. n. 62.6).
Ha nn1opnpo1ann nponanopno vav cvopoc1n namononnn
opno nonnnnw o1nocn1orno ppyro n ocnonano npnmono-
nno nponanopno v naynonnm qnannocvnx nnonn.
Hpnmononno xo pnqqoponnaa ocnonano na 1om, n1o aa-
mona npnpamonnn qynvnn oo pnqqoponnaom noanono1
aamonn1r mym pnqqoponnpyomym n 1onvo r
0
qynvnm
nnono qynvno n poc1a1onno mao ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn
r
0
, 1. o. cnn1a1r, n1o npoocc namononnn aanncnmoc1n nopo-

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
] r
0
- r ( ) - ] r
0
- r ( )
2 r
-----------------------------------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
] r
0
- r ( ) - ] r
0
- r ( )
2 r
-----------------------------------------------------------------
l
2
--- -
IIm
r 0
] r
0
- r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r
---------------------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
] r
0
- r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
- r
--------------------------------------------------
] r - r ( ) - ] r - r ( )
2 r
------------------------------------------------------------
] r - r ( ) - ] r ( )
r
---------------------------------------------
zS6
monno n maom nponcxopn1 n-
nono o1nocn1orno aprymon1a. Hna-
no ronopn, moxno cnn1a1r, n1o namo-
nonno qynvnn npnmo nponopn-
onarno namononnm aprymon1a nn,
vav ronopn1, ynomnny1w npoocc n
maom nponcxopn1 pannomopno. Ho-
ynammancn npn 1avo aamono no-
rpomnoc1r ovaawnao1cn ocvononno
mao ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom npnpamonno aprymon1a.
Rp M ue p m. 4. Hyc1r c c(|) - aavon pnnxonnn ma1opn-
arno 1onvn
l
(pnc. 45); c - pnna ny1n, o1cnn1wnaoman
npor 1paov1opnn o1 novo1opo nanarno 1onvn M
0
; | - npo-
mn. Hyc1r M- nooxonno 1onvn n momon1 npomonn |, a M -
n momon1 | - ^| n ^c - pnna ny1n o1 M po M, 1. o. ^c c(| -
- ^|) - c(|).
O1nomonno naawnao1cn n moxannvo nnconwm anano-
nnom cpopno cvopoc1n pnnxonnn na ynac1vo o1 M po M,
a t - nnconwm ananonnom cvopoc1n n 1onvo M
nn nnconwm ananonnom +euooeuuou cuopocnu n momon1
npomonn |; 1avnm opaaom, t .
Ho onpopoonnm pnqqoponnaa, Jc tJ|; copona1or-
no, pnqqoponna ny1n panon pacc1onnnm, vo1opoo npoma
w 1onva aa npomoxy1ov npomonn o1 momon1a | po | - ^|, ocn
w ona pnnraacr pannomopno co cvopoc1rm, panno mrnonon-
no cvopoc1n (n cmwco oo nnconoro ananonnn) 1onvn n mo-
mon1 |. Eonnnna xo ^c poc1nn1ornoro nopomomonnn 1on-
vn panna ^c Jc - o(^|).
Mw nnpnm 1avnm opaaom, n1o c 1onvn aponnn moxannvn
aamona ^c na Jc oananao1, n1o mw cnn1aom pnnxonno na pac-
cma1pnnaomom ynac1vo pannomopnwm (n cmwco nnconoro
ananonnn cvopoc1n
2
).
l
Ho copyo1 ny1a1r aavon pnnxonnn 1onvn c ypannonnom oo 1paov1opnn,
vo1opoo nmoo1 nnp r r(|), rpo r - papnyc-nov1op pnnxymocn 1onvn.
2
Copyo1 nmo1r n nnpy, n1o cvopoc1r - nov1op n noc1omy xapav1opn-
ayo1cn no 1orvo ananonnom, no n nanpanonnom.
M
0
M
Jc
M
c
c
Pnc. 45
c
|
------
IIm
r 0
c
|
------
Jc
J|
------
zS7
2. Hyc1r q q(|) - vonnoc1no
cov1pnnoc1na, npo1ovammoo nopoa
nonoponnoo cononno nponopnnva; | -
npomn; ^| - novo1opw npomoxy1ov
npomonn; ^q q(| - ^|) - q(|) - von-
noc1no cov1pnnoc1na, npo1ovammoo nopoa yvaaannoo cononno
aa npomoxy1ov npomonn o1 momon1a | po momon1a | - ^|. Torpa
naawnao1cn cpeoueu cu.ou nouo aa npomoxy1ov npomonn
^| n ooananao1cn I
cp
, a npopo I
cp
- cu.ou
nouo o oouumu +o+eun ope+euu | nn +euooeuuou cu.ou
nouo n ooananao1cn I. Tavnm opaaom, I . nqqoponna
Jq I^| panon vonnoc1ny cov1pnnoc1na, npo1ovmoro nopoa
nonoponnoo cononno nponopnnva aa npomoxy1ov npomonn ^|,
ocn cna 1ova wa w noc1onnno n panno cno 1ova n mo-
mon1 |. Kav ncorpa, ^q - Jq o(^|), ^| = 0.
3. Hyc1r pan noopnopopnw c1opxonr
l
pnnw l n nyc1r
n n(r) - macca c1opxnn pnnw r, 0 r l, o1mopnomo
o1 opnoro qnvcnponannoro vona (pnc. 46). Torpa ^n
n(r - ^r) - n(r) - macca nac1n c1opxnn, orpannnonno
1onvamn, pacnooxonnwmn coo1no1c1nonno na pacc1onnnn r
n r - ^r o1 yvaaannoro vona. Eonnnna naawnao1cn
cpeoueu .uueuuou n.onuocnov c1opxnn na yvaaannom ynac1-
vo n ooananao1cn
cp
. Hpopo
cp
naawnao1-
cn .uueuuou n.onuocnov c1opxnn n panno 1onvo n ooana-
nao1cn . Tavnm opaaom, .
Ecn no1noc1r noc1onnna, 1o c1opxonr nnno1cn opno-
popnwm.
n nponanornoro, noomo ronopn, noopnopopnoro
c1opxnn pnqqoponna Jn ^r panon macco opnopopnoro
c1opxnn pnnw ^r c noc1onnno no1noc1rm , panno no1-
noc1n paccma1pnnaomoro c1opxnn n panno 1onvo.
l
C1opxonr naawnao1cn opnopopnwm, ocn pna mwx oro ynac1va opn-
navono pnnw nmom1 opnnavonym maccy, n noopnopopnwm - n npo1nn-
nom cynao.
Pnc. 46
r
3 r r - r l
n(r) n
q
|
------
IIm
| 0
IIm
| 0
q
|
------
Jq
J|
-------
n
r
--------
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
n
r
--------
Jn
Jr
---------
zSS
Kav novaawnao1 c1o1 npnmop, nn1opnpo1npyn nponanop-
nym vav cvopoc1r, mw poxnw nonnma1r c1o n mnpovom cmwc-
o cona. Hanpnmop, no1noc1r c1opxnn 1oxo cvopoc1r, a
nmonno cvopoc1r namononnn maccw c namononnom pnnw.
.5. RposMAo smMcAenMs npoMssopnmx, csssonnme
c opMuetMeckMuM peMctsMsuM nop ynkMsuM
Hoynnm 1onopr qopmyw pn nponanopnwx cymmw, nponano-
ponnn n nac1noro qynvn.
I E O F E M A 3. Hcno quuuun
l
]
l
(r) u
2
]
2
(r) onpeoe.e
um o oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
- R u u+evn o co+ou nouue r
0
npou:oooume, noeoo u ur c++o ]
l
(r) - ]
2
(r), npou:oeoeuue
]
l
(r)]
2
(r), o ec.u ]
2
(r) = 0, no u uocnuoe u+evn o nou
ue r
0
npou:oooume, npuue+
(
l
-
2
) - , (9.l5)
(
l

2
)
2
-
l
, (9.l6)
(9.l?)
(n qopmyax (9.l5), (9.l6) n (9.l?) r r
0
).
C A E p C I 8 H E 4. Ec.u quuuun ](r) u+een npou:ooouv o
nouue r
0
u c - R, no quuuun c](r) noue u+een o onou
nouue npou:ooouv, npuue+
(c) c (r r
0
). (9.l8)
C A E p C I 8 H E 2. Ec.u quuuuu
h
]
h
(r), h l, 2, ... , n, u+e
vn o nouue r
0
npou:oooume, no ocnuon ur .uueuuon uo+u
uouun noue u+een o onou nouue npou:ooouv, npuue+
(c
l

l
- ... - c
n

n
) c
l
- ... - c
n
, c
h
- R, h l, 2, ... , n.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c p e | |. Hyc1r qynvnn
l
]
l
(r)
n
2
]
2
(r) onpopoonw n ovpoc1noc1n U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
,
r
0
- ^r - U(r
0
) n ^
l
]
l
(r
0
- ^r) - ]
l
(r
0
), ^
2
]
2
(r
0
-
- ^r) - ]
2
(r
0
). n npoc1o1w aanncn ypom nnorpa onycva1r
ooananonno aprymon1a, paccma1pnnan npn c1om npnpamonnn
qynvn 1orvo n 1onvo r
0
.
]
l
r ( )
]
2
r ( )
--------------

l

2

l

2

2
------
,
_


l

2
-
l

2
2
------------------------------------

l

n

zS9
Ecn
l
-
2
, 1o
^ (
l
- ^
l
-
2
- ^
2
) - (
l
-
2
) ^
l
- ^
2
,
o1vypa npn ^r = 0 noynnm
- .
Hopoxopn apocr v npopoy npn ^r = 0 n aamonan, n1o n cn-
y cymoc1nonannn nponanopnwx qynvn
l
n
2
n 1onvo r
0
npopo npano nac1n c1oro panonc1na cymoc1nyo1 n panon
- , noynnm, n1o cymoc1nyo1 n npopo oro ono nac1n,
1. o. cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan , npnnom - , 1. o.
qopmya (9.l5) povaaana.
Ecn
l

2
, 1o anaornnnwm opaaom ypom nocopona-
1orno nmo1r
^ (
l
- ^
l
)(
2
- ^
2
) -
l

2

^
l

2
-
l
^
2
- ^
l
^
2
,

2
-
l
- ^
2
.
Ha cymoc1nonannn nponanopno (r
0
) copyo1 nonpopwn-
noc1r qynvnn ]
2
n 1onvo r
0
: ^
2
0; vpomo 1oro,
, . Hoc1omy, nopopn v npopoy
npn ^r = 0, na noynonnoro panonc1na nmoom

2
-
l
,
1. o. qopmya (9.l6) povaaana.
Havono, ocn n ]
2
(r
0
) = 0, 1o
^ - , .
O1cmpa npn ^r = 0, ncnomnnn cnona, n1o na cymoc1nonannn
nponanopno copyo1 nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn, n, copona-

r
-------

l

r
---------

2

r
---------

l

2

l

2


r
-------

l

r
---------

2

r
---------

l

r
---------
]
2

IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0

r
---------

l
IIm
r 0

r
---------

2

l

2

2
------

l
-
l

2
-
2

------------------------

l

2
------

l

2
-
l

2

2
-
2
( )
2
------------------------------------------------

r
-------

r
---------

2
-
l

r
---------

2
-
2
( )
2
----------------------------------------
z90
1orno, ^
2
0, noynnm , 1. o. qopmy-
a (9.l?) 1avxo povaaana.
Copc1nno l cpaay nw1ovao1 na (9.l6), ocn ncnomnn1r,
n1o c 0 (cm. npnmop l n n. 9.l), a copc1nno 2 cpaay noyna-
o1cn na qopmy (9.l5) n (9.l8) mo1opom ma1oma1nnocvo nn-
pyvnn.
3 a m o n a n n o. Hcnorayn cnoc1na ocvononnwx npo-
poon, o1nocnmnocn v apnqmo1nnocvnm poc1nnnm nap
qynvnnmn (cm. n. 5.l0), moxno yc1anonn1r n coo1no1c1nym-
mno cnoc1na ocvononnwx nponanopnwx. Hanpnmop, ocn
cymoc1nyo1 vononnan nponanopnan (r
0
) n ocvononnan
(onpopoonnoro anava) nponanopnan (r
0
), 1o y qynvnn
(r)
l
(r) -
2
(r) n 1onvo r
0
cymoc1nyo1 ocvononnan
nponanopnan 1oro xo anava. Hanpnmop, ocn (r
0
) -~,
1o (r
0
) -~. oc1nn1orno, ^ ^
l
- ^
2
. Hoc1omy,
ocn cymoc1nyo1 vononnw npopo , a
-~, 1o
- - -~,
1. o. (r
0
) -~.
Rp M ue p m. 4. Hyc1r e
r
sIn r - 2r
2
cos r; n cny qop-
my (9.l5), (9.l6) n (9.l8), nmoom
(e
r
sIn r) - 2(r
2
cos r)
e
r
sIn r - e
r
cos r - 2(2r cos r - r
2
sIn r).
2. Hyc1r Ig r; 1av vav Ig r , 1o no qopmyo
(9.l?) noynaom
.
Tavnm opaaom,
(Ig r) .
IIm
r 0

l

2
-
l

2
2
------------------------------------

do

IIm
r 0

r
---------
IIm
r 0

r
---------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
---------

r
---------
,
_
IIm
r 0

r
---------
IIm
r 0

r
---------
sIn r
cos r
--------------
sIn r
cos r
--------------
,
_

cos r cos r - sIn r - sIn r ( )


cos
2
r
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
l
cos
2
r
---------------
l
cos
2
r
---------------
z91
3. Anaornnno, pn cIg r

- ,
1. o.
(cIg r) - .
Cnoc1na (9.l5)-(9.l8) noponocn1cn n na pnqqoponnaw
qynvn. Hpn 1ox xo npopnooxonnnx o1nocn1orno pnqqo-
ponnpyomoc1n n 1onvo r
0
nmoom:
J(
l
-
2
) J
l
- J
2
; J(
l

2
)
2
J
l
-
l
J
2
;
J(c) cJ; J .
Ewnncnm, nanpnmop, pnqqoponna nponanoponnn
l

2
:
J Jr (
l

2
)Jr
2
Jr -
l
Jr
2
J
l
-
l
J
2
,
1av vav Jr J
l
, Jr J
2
.
Anaornnno povaawnam1cn n oc1arnwo qopmyw.
.. RpoMssopnos opotnoM ynkMM
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno quuuun ](r) uenpepmouo u cnpoeo
+ouonouuo o ueuonopou oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
u ncno
npu r r
0
cecnoen npou:ooouon = 0; noeoo opon
uon quuuun r ]
-l
() u+een npou:ooouv o nouue
0
](r
0
),
npuue+
, (9.20)
n. e. npou:ooouon oponuou quuuuu poouo oponuou oe.u
uuue npou:ooouou oouuou quuuuu.
/c k c s c e / | c a c. 3aqnvcnpyom vavym-1o ovpoc1noc1r 1on-
vn r
0
, na vo1opo qynvnn ] onpopoona, nonpopwnna n c1poro
mono1onna, n ypom paccma1pnna1r ] 1orvo n c1o ovpoc1noc1n.
Torpa, vav povaaano panoo (cm. n. 6.3), opa1nan qynvnn onpo-
poona n nonpopwnna na novo1opom nn1opnao, copopxamom
cos r
sIn r
--------------
,
_
- sIn r ( )sIn r - cos r cos r
sIn
2
r
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
l
sIn
2
r
---------------
l
sIn
2
r
---------------

2
------
,
_

2
J
l
-
l
J
2

2
2
----------------------------------------

l

2

l

2

J] r
0
( )
Jr
------------------
J]
- l

0
( )
J
--------------------------
l
J] r
0
( )
Jr
------------------
------------------
z9z
1onvy
0
n nnnmmomcn opaaom
yvaaanno nwmo ovpoc1noc1n 1on-
vn r
0
. Hoc1omy ocn ^r r - r
0
,
^ -
0
, ](r), 1o ^r = 0 pan-
nocnrno ^ = 0 n 1om cmwco, n1o
^ 0 (pn qynvnn ]) n
^r 0 (pn qynvnn ]
-l
).
n mwx ^r = 0, ^ = 0 nmo-
om . Hpn ^r = 0 (nn, n1o 1o xo, n cny cvaaanno-
ro nwmo, npn ^ = 0) npopo npano nac1n cymoc1nyo1, ana-
nn1, cymoc1nyo1 n npopo ono nac1n, npnnom
.
Ho , noc1omy .
01o 1oopomo moxno pa1r narnpnym roomo1pnnocvym nn-
1opnpo1anm (pnc. 4?). Kav nanoc1no, Ig , rpo -
ananonno yra, opaayomoro vaca1orno rpaqnva qynvnn ]
n 1onvo (r
0
,
0
) c nooxn1ornwm nanpanonnom ocn Or, a
Ig , rpo - ananonno yra, opaaonannoro 1o xo
vaca1orno c ocrm O.
Ononnpno, ,2 - , noc1omy
Ig .
VHPAHEHHH. 4. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn ](r) nonpopwnna n
c1poro mono1onna n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
n ocn n c1o 1onvo
cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan n 0, 1o opa1nan qynvnn ]
-l
() nmoo1
n 1onvo
0
](r
0
) ocvononnym nponanopnym; copona1orno, ocn cnn-
1a1r yconno, n1o ~, 1o qopmya (9.20) cnpanopnna n n c1om cynao.
r 0

r
0
](r)

Pnc. 4?
IIm
r 0
IIm
0
r

-------
l
, r
-----------------
IIm
0
r

-------
IIm
r 0
r

-------
l


r
-------
r 0
IIm
------------------------
l
J] r
0
( )
Jr
------------------
------------------
IIm
0
r

-------
J]
- l

0
( )
J
--------------------------
J]
- l

0
( )
J
--------------------------
l
J] r
0
( )
Jr
------------------
------------------
J] r
0
( )
Jr
------------------
J]
- l

0
( )
J
--------------------------
J]
- l

0
( )
J
--------------------------
l
cIg
--------------
l
cIg

2
---
-
,
_
------------------------------
l
Ig
-----------
l
J] r
0
( )
Jr
------------------
------------------
J] r
0
( )
Jr
------------------
l
0
---
z93
. Cqopmynpy1o n povaxn1o anaor 1oopomw 3 pn opnoc1oponnnx npo-
nanopnwx (vononnwx n ocvononnwx).
Rp M ue p m. 4. arcsIn r, r sIn , - , -l
r l. Hpnmonnn qopmyy (9.20), noynaom
(arcsIn r) .
Tav vav - , 1o cos 0, noc1omy cos
. Tavnm opaaom, (arcsIn r) .
2. arccos r, r cos , 0 , -l r l. Anaornn-
no npopwpymomy npnmopy nmoom:
(arccos r) - - - ,
1. o. (arccos r) .
3. arcIg r, r Ig , - , -~ r -~. Hmoom:
(arcIg r) cos
2
;
n1av, (arcIg r) .
4. arcIg r, r cIg , 0 , -~ r ~. E c1om cynao
(arccIg r) -sIn
2
- - ,
1. o. (arccIg r) - .
5. Ecn Iog
o
r, r o

, o 0, o = l, r 0, -~ -~,
1o
(Iog
o
r) ,
1. o.
(Iog
o
r) ;
n nac1noc1n, npn o e nmoom (In r) .

2
---

2
---
J
Jr
-------
l
Jr
J
-------
-------
l
cos
-------------

2
---

2
---
l - sIn
2

l - r
2 l
l - r
2
---------------------
J
Jr
-------
l
Jr
J
-------
-------
l
sIn
-------------
l
l - cos
2

------------------------------
l
l - r
2
---------------------
l
l - r
2
---------------------

2
---

2
---
J
Jr
-------
l
J
Jr
-------
-------
l
l - Ig
2

-----------------------
l
l - r
2
-----------------
l
l - r
2
-----------------
J
Jr
-------
l
Jr
J
-------
-------
l
l - cIg
2

--------------------------
l
l - r
2
-----------------
l
l - r
2
-----------------
J
Jr
-------
l
Jr
J
-------
-------
l
o

o In
----------------
l
r o In
-------------
l
r o In
-------------
l
r
---
z94
.7. RpoMssopnos M pMepenMoA
cAoxnoM ynkMM
I E O F E M A 5. Hcno quuuun ](r) u+een npou:ooouv o
nouue r
0
, o quuuun : E() u+een npou:ooouv o nouue

0
](r
0
). Toeoo c.ouon quuuun (r) E[](r) noue
u+een npou:ooouv npu r r
0
, npuue+
(r
0
) E(
0
)](r
0
). (9.2l)
Ecn coxnym qynvnm ooanann1r cnmnoom E]
(cm. n. 5.2), 1o qopmyy (9.2l) moxno aannca1r n nnpo
(E])(r
0
) E(](r
0
))](r
0
).
Copyo1 opa1n1r nnnmanno na 1o, n1o y1nopxponno o cy-
moc1nonannn n 1onvo r
0
nponanopno coxno qynvnn
E[](r) copopxn1 npopnooxonno o 1om, n1o paccma1pnnaoman
coxnan qynvnn nmoo1 cmwc, 1. o. onpopoona n novo1opo
ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
.
Onycvan ananonno aprymon1a n ncnorayn aanncr npona-
nopno c nomomrm pnqqoponnaon, panonc1no (9.2l) moxno
noponnca1r n nnpo
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hpoxpo ncoro, n cny camoro onpopoo-
nnn nponanopno, qynvnn E onpopoona n novo1opo ov-
poc1noc1n \(
0
) 1onvn
0
, a 1av vav na cymoc1nonannn npona-
nopno ](r
0
) copyo1 nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn ], 1o pn yva-
aanno ovpoc1noc1n \(
0
) cymoc1nyo1 1avan ovpoc1noc1r
U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
, n1o ](U(r
0
)) ~ \(
0
), n, copona1orno, pn
ncox r - U(r
0
) nmoo1 cmwc coxnan qynvnn E(](r)).
Hooxnm, vav ncorpa, ^r r - r
0
, ^ -
0
, ^: E() -
- E(
0
). 4ynvnn E nmoo1 n 1onvo
0
nponanopnym n noc1omy
pnqqoponnpyoma n c1o 1onvo (cm. n. 9.2). 01o oananao1, n1o
oo npnpamonno ^: npn ncox ^, npnnapoxamnx novo1opo
ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn ^ 0 (n 1om nnco n npn ^ 0), npop-
c1annmo (cm. qopmyw (9.6) n (9.?)) n nnpo
^: E(
0
) ^ - (^) ^, (9.22)
J:
Jr
-------
J:
J
-------
J
Jr
-------
z9
rpo (^) - nonpopwnnan n nyo qynvnn n
(^) 0.
Paaponn oo nac1n panonc1na (9.22) na ^r = 0, noynnm
E(
0
) - (^) . (9.23)
4ynvnn ](r) nmoo1 nponanopnym n 1onvo r
0
, 1. o. cy-
moc1nyo1 npopo
](r
0
). (9.24)
Ha cymoc1nonannn nponanopno ](r
0
) copyo1 nonpopwnnoc1r
qynvnn ](r) n 1onvo r
0
:
^ 0.
Hpn ^r 0 nmoom ^ 0. Copona1orno, npnpamonno ^,
paccma1pnnaomoo vav qynvnn ^r, nonpopwnno n 1onvo
^r 0. Hoc1omy, coracno npanny aamonw nopomonnwx n
npopornwx coo1nomonnnx, copopxamnx nonpopwnnwo
qynvnn (cm. n. 5.l6),
(^) 0. (9.25)
Tonopr na (9.23), nopoxopn v npopoy npn ^r = 0 n cny
(9.24) n (9.25), noynnm qopmyy (9.2l).
3 a m o n a n n o l. 4opmya (9.2l) pn nponanopno cox-
no qynvnn cnpanopnna n n 1om cynao, vorpa nop npona-
nopnwmn nonnmam1cn coo1no1c1nymmno opnoc1oponnno npo-
nanopnwo, ocn 1orvo npopnapn1orno no1poona1r, n1ow
coxnan qynvnn, vo1opan nooxopnma pn onpopoonnn
paccma1pnnaomo opnoc1oponno (nn pnyc1oponno) npona-
nopno, c1onmo n ono nac1n qopmyw (9.2l), nmoa
cmwc.
C A E p C I 8 H E (nnnapnan1noc1r qopmw nopnoro pnqqoponn-
aa o1nocn1orno npoopaaonannn noaanncnmo nopomonno):
J: E(
0
)J (r
0
)Jr. (9.26)
E c1o qopmyo J ](r)Jr nnno1cn pnqqoponnaom
qynvnn, a Jr - pnqqoponnaom noaanncnmo nopomon-
no.
IIm
0
:
r
-------

r
-------

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0
IIm
r 0
z96
Tavnm opaaom, pnqqoponna qynvnn nmoo1 opnn n 1o1
xo nnp: nponanoponno nponanopno no novo1opo nopomonno
na pnqqoponna c1o nopomonno - noaanncnmo o1 1oro,
nnno1cn c1a nopomonnan, n cnom onopopr, qynvno nn no-
aanncnmo nopomonno.
ovaxom c1o. Coracno qopmyo (9.6), J: (r
0
)Jr, o1-
cmpa, npnmonnn qopmyy (9.2l) pn nponanopno coxno
qynvnn, noynnm J: E(
0
)](r
0
)Jr, no ](r
0
)Jr J, no-
c1omy J: E(
0
)J.
4opmyy (9.26) moxno nn1opnpo1npona1r n nocvorvo
nnano, ocn ncnomnn1r, n1o pnqqoponnaom qynvnn n 1on-
vo nnno1cn qynvnn, nnonan o1nocn1orno pnqqopon-
naa noaanncnmo nopomonno. Coracno (9.2l), pnqqopon-
na qynvnn (r) E(](r)) nmoo1 nnp J E()](r
0
)Jr,
1. o. nnno1cn poayr1a1om nopc1anonvn nnono qynvnn
J ](r
0
)Jr, c nomomrm vo1opo aapan pnqqoponna J]
(rpo ](r)), n nnonym qynvnm J: E(
0
)J, aapammym
pnqqoponna JE (rpo : E()). Hnano ronopn, pnqqoponn-
a vomnoannn E] nnno1cn vomnoanno pnqqopon-
naon JE n J]:
J(E]) JEJ].
O1mo1nm, n1o 1oopoma 5 no nnpyvnn pacnpoc1panno1cn
na cynopnoannm moro vononnoro nnca qynvn. Hanpn-
mop, pn coxno qynvnn nnpa :((r())) n cynao pnqqo-
ponnpyomoc1n qynvn :(), (r) n r(|) n coo1no1c1nymmnx
1onvax nmoo1 moc1o qopmya
.
n ooananonnn nponanopno : coxno qynvnn :
:(), (r) yno1ponm1 1avxo nnxnn nnpovc r nn ,
yvaawnammn, no vavo na nopomonnwx opo1cn nponanop-
nan, 1. o. nnmy1 nn . Hac1o pn npoc1o1w m1pnx onyc-
vam1, 1. o. nmoc1o nnmy1 npoc1o :
r
. E c1nx ooananonnnx
qopmya (9.2l) nmoo1 nnp :
r
:

r
.
Rp M ue p m. 4. Hyc1r r

, r 0, napom . Hmoom
r

e
u
, rpo u o In r. 3amonan, n1o , noynaom
e
u
e
In r
r
- l
.
J:
J|
------
J:
J
-------

J
Jr
-------

Jr
J|
-------
:
r
:

:
r

J
Jr
-------
Ju
Jr
-------

r
---
Jr

Jr
----------
Je
u
Jr
---------
Je
u
Ju
---------

Ju
Jr
-------

r
---

r
---
z97
Copona1orno,
(r

) r
- l
.
Hanpnmop,
ocn r
2
, 1o 2r;
ocn r
-l
, 1o (-l)r
-2
- ;
ocn r
l,2
, 1o r
-l,2
.
Ecn qynvnn r

onpopoona npn r 0, 1o npn c1nx


ananonnnx r ona 1avxo nmoo1 nponanopnym r
- l
.
2. Hyc1r In r, r = 0; 1orpa npn r 0 nmoom
(In r) ,
a npn r 0
[In (-r) (-r) .
Tavnm opaaom, pn ncox r = 0 cnpanopnna qopmya
(In r) . (9.2?)
O1cmpa, no npanny pnqqoponnponannn coxno qynvnn,
pn mo qynvnn u(r) n 1onvax r, n vo1opwx cymoc1nyo1
nponanopnan u(r), a u(r) = 0, nmoo1 moc1o coo1nomonno
(In u(r)) . (9.28)
3 a m o n a n n o 2. 4opmya (9.2?) moxo1 w1r noynona n
cpaay pn ncox r = 0 na qopmyw pnqqoponnponannn cox-
nwx qynvn, ocn ncnomnn1r, n1o npn r = 0 cnpanopnno
panonc1no r sIgn r (cm. npnmop l n vono n. 9.2). oc1nn-
1orno, nooxnn u r, pn ncox r = 0 noynnm
sIgn r .
3. Hapom nponanopnym qynvnn
In , r = o, r = -o.
l
r
---
l
r
2
------
r
l
2
---
l
2 r
-----------
l
r
---
l
- r
----------
l
r
---
l
r
---
u r ( )
u r ( )
--------------
J r In
Jr
-----------------
J u In
Ju
--------------
Ju
Jr
-------
l
u
---
sIgn r
r
-----------------
l
r
---
l
2o
-------
r - o
r - o
--------------
z9S
E cny qopmyw (9.28) nmoom
.
4. Hapom nponanopnym qynvnn In r - .
Anaornnno npopwpymomy npnmopy noynnm
(r - )
l - .
5. Hyc1r In
2
arcsIn , r l. Hapom nponanopnym n
pnqqoponna c1o qynvnn:
(In
2
arcsIn l,r) 2 In arcsIn (In arcsIn l,r)
2 In arcsIn (arcsIn l,r)
2 - .
O1cmpa pnqqoponna naxopn1cn nonocpopc1nonno no qop-
myo J Jr; opnavo ocn w mw omo no nmon ro1onoro
nwpaxonnn pn nponanopno, 1o pnqqoponna moxno wo
w na1n n nonocpopc1nonno, ncnorayn oro nnnapnan1noc1r
o1nocn1orno nwopa nopomonnwx:
J(In
2
arcsIn l,r) 2 In arcsIn l,rJ(In arcsIn l,r)
2 In arcsIn J(arcsIn l,r)
J Jr.
. Ewnopom c nomomrm 1oopomw 5 omo opny nac1o npnmo-
nnomym qopmyy. Hyc1r u
t
, rpo u u(r) 0, t t(r). Hpop-
c1annm pannym qynvnm n nnpo e
tInu
n nwnncnm :
e
t In u
(t In u) u
t
In u -
u
t
Inu - tu
t - l
. (9.29)
l
2o
-------
r - o
r - o
--------------
r - o
r - o
--------------
,
_

l
2o
-------
r - o
r - o
--------------
r - o - r - o ( )
r - o ( )
2
-----------------------------------------
l
r
2
- o
2
--------------------
r
2
- A
l
r - r
2
- A
----------------------------------
r
2
- A
l
r - r
2
- A
----------------------------------

r
r
2
- A
----------------------
,
_
l
r
2
- A
----------------------
l
r
---
l
r
---
l
r
---
l
arcsIn l,r
-----------------------------
arcsIn l,r In
arcsIn l,r
--------------------------------------
l
l - l,r
2
----------------------------
l
r
---
,
_

2 arcsIn l,r In
r r
2
- l arcsIn l,r
-----------------------------------------------------------
l
r
---
l
arcsIn l,r
-----------------------------
2 arcsIn l,r In
arcsIn l,r
----------------------------------------
l
l - l,r
2
----------------------------
l
r
---
,
_
- 2 arcsIn l,r In
r r
2
- l arcsIn l,r
-----------------------------------------------------------
J
Jr
-------
J
Jr
-------
Je
t u In
Jr
-----------------
J
Jr
-------

Jt
Jr
-------
t
u
---
Ju
Jr
-------
,
_
Jt
Jr
-------
Ju
Jr
-------
z99
Tavnm opaaom, nponanopnan qynvnn u
t
panna cymmo
pnyx caraomwx, na vo1opwx nopnoo connapao1 c nponanopno
u
t
n npopnooxonnn, n1o u - noc1onnnan, a n1opoo - c npo-
nanopno u
t
n npopnooxonnn, n1o t - noc1onnnan.
C nomomrm npanna pnqqoponnponannn coxno qynv-
nn moxno naxopn1r n npou:oooume quuuuu, :ooouumr ue
nouo.
7. Hyc1r pnqqoponnpyoman qynvnn (r) aapana no-
nnno ypannonnom E(r, ) 0 (cm. n. 5.2). (Eonpoc o 1om, vav
yc1anonn1r, n1o pannoo ypannonno na camom poo onpopono1
novo1opym qynvnm, n nnno1cn n ona pnqqoponnpyomo,
ypo1 paccmo1pon n parnomom.) nqqoponnpyn 1oxpoc1no
E(r, (r)) = 0 vav coxnym qynvnm, moxno nwnncn1r npo-
nanopnym .
E vanoc1no npnmopa nwnncnm nponanopnym nonnno
qynvnn (r), aapanaomo ypannonnom r
2
-
2
o
2
. E pan-
nom vonvpo1nom cynao cymoc1nonanno 1avo qynvnn no
nwawnao1 comnonnn, nanpnmop c1o , a 1avxo
- . Hpopnqqoponnpyom ypannonno r
2
-
2
o
2
,
cnn1an qynvno o1 r. E poayr1a1o noynnm 2r - 2 0;
o1cmpa - .
C noponwmn aapanamn npnxopn1cn c1avnna1rcn n roo-
mo1pnn. Hyc1r, nanpnmop, 1poyo1cn na1n vaca1ornym v
ovpyxnoc1n r
2
-
2
25 n 1onvo (3, 4). Vrono vocqqnn-
on1 h vaca1orno panon nponanopno; h , n, anann1, n
pannom cynao h - . n paccma1pnnaomo 1onvn h - ;
noc1omy ypannonno ncvomo vaca1orno moxno aannca1r n
nnpo - 4 - , 1. o. 3r - 4 - 25 0.
Hpnmonnm mo1op pnqqoponnponannn nonnnwx qynvn
v nwnopy qopmy, noynonnwx panoo ppyrnm ny1om.
8. Paccmo1pnm cnona qynvnm u
t
. 7orapnqmnpyn, no-
ynaom oo nonnnoo aapanno In t In u. nqqoponnpyn oo
nac1n c1oro ypannonnn, nmoom t In u - u (nwpaxonno
J
Jr
-------
o
2
- r
2
o
2
- r
2
r

---
r

---
3
4
---
3 r - 3 ( )
4
-----------------------

-----
t
u
---
300
(In ) naawnao1cn .oeopuq+uuecuou npou:ooouou qynv-
nn (r)) nn (t In u - u); nopc1annn u
t
, npnxo-
pnm cnona v qopmyo (9.29).
Paccmo1pnm omo qynvnm arcsIn r. Ona nonnno aapa-
o1cn ypannonnom r sIn . nqqoponnpyn oo nac1n no r,
noynaom l cos , o1vypa
,
1. o. 1o xo, n1o n n n. 9.6.
. E cynao, vorpa qynvnn aapana no opno qopmyo, a
nocvorvnmn, nponanopnym npnxopn1cn nnorpa nwnncn1r
nonocpopc1nonno, ncxopn na onpopoonnn nponanopno. Ha-
pom, nanpnmop, nponanopnym qynvnn
](r)
Hpn r = 0 nponanopnan cymoc1nyo1 n nwnncno1cn no qop-
myam pnqqoponnponannn: ](r) 2r sIn - cos . E 1onvo
xo r 0 nponanopnan naxopn1cn nonocpopc1nonno, ncxopn na
onpopoonnn:
](0) r sIn 0.
Tavnm opaaom, qynvnn ](r) pnqqoponnpyoma na nco
nncono ocn.
3 a m o n a n n o. Hcnorayn 1oopomy 5, moxno nco noy-
nonnwo qopmyw pn nponanopnwx ocnonnwx comon1apnwx
qynvn aannca1r n ooo omom nnpo: ocn u u(r) - pnq-
qoponnpyoman qynvnn, 1o:
(sIn u) u cos u; (e
u
) e
u
u;
(cos u) -u sIn u; (In u) (u 0);
(Ig u) ; (arcsIn u) ;
(cIg u) - ; (arccos u) - ;
(u

) u
- l
u (u 0); (arcIg u) ;
(o
u
) o
u
u In o; (arccIg u) - .

-----
t
u
---
l
cos
-------------
l
l - sIn
2

------------------------------
l
l - r
2
---------------------
r
2
sIn
0 npn r 0.
npn r = 0,
l
r
---
l
r
---
l
r
---
IIm
r 0
] r ( ) - ] 0 ( )
r
-----------------------------
IIm
r 0
l
r
---
u
u
-----
u
cos
2
u
---------------
u
l - u
2
---------------------
u
sIn
2
u
---------------
u
l - u
2
---------------------
u
l - u
2
-----------------
u
l - u
2
-----------------
301
Ha npnnoponnwx qopmy nnpno (npn u r), n1o nponanop-
nwo ocnonnwx comon1apnwx qynvn nnnm1cn comon1ap-
nwmn qynvnnmn.
Hoynonnwo xo n conovynnoc1n qopmyw pam1 noamox-
noc1r nwnncn1r nponanopnym n pnqqoponna mo co-
mon1apno qynvnn n cynao, ocn c1a nponanopnan cymoc1-
nyo1.
Copyo1 nmo1r n nnpy, opnavo, n1o no ncnvan comon1ap-
nan qynvnn nmoo1 nponanopnwo no ncox 1onvax cnoo oac-
1n onpopoonnn. Hpnmopom comon1apno, pnqqoponnpyo-
mo no no ncox 1onvax qynvnn nnno1cn qynvnn r ,
ona, vav mw anaom, no nmoo1 nponanopno n 1onvo r 0
(cm. n. 9.2).
VHPAHEHHH. 6. Moxno n povaaa1r qopmyy npn J =
= 0, npoc1o ymnoxnn n paaponn na J? Moxno nn no1 povaaa1r qop-
myy npn Jr = 0, paaponn nncn1or n anamona1or ppon
na Jr?
7. Ewncnn1r, nnno1cn n qynvnn
](r)
nonpopwnno n 1onvo 0. Hmoo1 n ona nponanopnym n c1o 1onvo? By-
po1 n ona nmo1r n no opnoc1oponnno nponanopnwo?
.8. IMnepoAMeckMe ynkMM M Mx npoMssopnme
OnpepeAenMe 5. duuuuu n uo:moovncn co
onoencnoeuuo eunepo.uuecuu+ uocuuco+ u eunepo.uue
cuu+ cuuco+ u oo:uouovncn cI r u sI r:
cI r, sI r.
Cnpanopnna qopmya
cI
2
r - sI
2
r l. (9.29)
r
2
J:
Jr
-------
J:
J
-------
J
Jr
-------
J:
Jr
-------
Jr
J
-------
l
J
Jr
-------
-------
Jr
J
-------
r sIn
0 npn r 0
npn r = 0,
l
r
---
e
r
- e
- r
2
-------------------------
e
r
- e
- r
2
------------------------
e
r
- e
- r
2
-------------------------
e
r
- e
- r
2
------------------------
30z
oc1nn1orno,
cI
2
r - sI
2
r -
(e
2r
- 2 - e
-2r
- e
2r
- 2 - e
-2r
) l.
Cnpanopnna 1avxo qopmya
sI2r 2 sI r cI r;
n camom poo,
2 sI r cI r 2 sI 2r.
01n qopmyw nanomnnam1 coo1nomonnn moxpy ownnwmn
(vav nx nnorpa naawnam1, vpyronwmn) cnnycom n vocnnycom.
n sI r n cI r nmoo1cn n pnp ppyrnx coo1nomonn, anaornn-
nwx coo1no1c1nymmnm qopmyam pn sIn r n cos r. 01nm n
o+ncnno1cn naananno qynvn sI r n cI r. Cono xo rnnop-
onnocvn cnnaano c 1om oc1on1orc1nom, n1o qopmyw
r o cI |, o sI | (9.30)
napamo1pnnocvn aapam1 no1nr rnnopow, nopono 1omy vav
qopmyw
r o cos |, o sIn | (9.3l)
napamo1pnnocvn aapam1 ovpyxnoc1r. E camom poo, ocn noa-
noc1n n vnappa1 panonc1na (9.30), nwnoc1r opno na ppyroro n
nocnoraona1rcn qopmyo (9.29), 1o noynnm r
2
-
2
o
2
,
1. o. ypannonno pannoonno rnnopow.
Anaornnno, na coo1nomonn (9.3l) nw1ovao1, n1o r n
ypono1nopnm1 ypannonnm r
2
-
2
o
2
, 1. o. ypannonnm ov-
pyxnoc1n.
Hapom nponanopnwo rnnoponnocvnx cnnyca n vocnny-
ca. 3amonan, n1o (-e
-r
) -e
-r
, nmoom
(cI r)

sI r,
(sI r)

cI r.
Tavnm opaaom,
(cI r) sI r, (sI r) cI r.
e
r
- e
- r
2
-------------------------
,
_
2
e
r
- e
- r
2
------------------------
,
_
2
l
4
---
e
r
- e
- r
2
-------------------------

e
r
- e
- r
2
------------------------
e
2r
- e
- 2r
2
------------------------------
e
r
- e
- r
2
-------------------------
,

_
e
r
- e
- r
2
------------------------
e
r
- e
- r
2
------------------------
,

_
e
r
- e
- r
2
-------------------------
303
Hac1nwo n , no anaornn c ownnwmn cnnycamn n
vocnnycamn, naawnam1 coo1no1c1nonno eunepo.uuecuu+
noueeuco+ n eunepo.uuecuu+ uonoueeuco+ n ooananam1
II r, cII r.
4ynvnn, opa1nwo rnnoponnocvomy cnnycy sI r n rn-
noponnocvomy vocnnycy cI r, ooananam1cn coo1no1c1non-
no AroasI r, AroacI r (nn1ao1cn: apoacnnyc, apoavocnnyc;
aroa (a1.) - nomapr, mopa). Honnonno apocr nomapn
cnnaano c 1om, n1o opa1nwo rnnoponnocvno qynvnn cnn-
aanw c nwpaxonnom pn nomapo cov1opon rnnopow
(cm. n. 32.l).
Opa1nwo rnnoponnocvno qynvnn AroasI r n AroacI r
nwpaxam1cn nopoa orapnqmw nppanonarnwx qynvn.
Hovaxom c1o.
n naxoxponnn qynvnn, opa1no sI r, noponnmom pa-
nonc1no n nnpo
e
2r
- 2e
r
- l 0
n pomnm noynnnmoocn vnappa1noo o1nocn1orno e
r
ypanno-
nno. O1pocnn o1pna1ornw voponr (e
r
no wnao1 o1pna-
1ornwm), noynnm
e
r
- .
O1cmpa
r AroasI In ( - ).
4ynvnn AroasI opnoananno onpopoona na nco nncono
ocn.
Anaornnno pn cI r noynao1cn vnappa1noo o1nocn-
1orno e
r
ypannonno
e
2r
- 2e
r
- l 0,
o1vypa
e
r

n, copona1orno,
r AroacI In ( ).
4ynvnn AroacI onpopoona pn ncox . l n pnyxanan-
na (vpomo ananonnn l).
sI r
cI r
------------
cI r
sI r
------------
sI r
cI r
------------
cI r
sIn r
-------------
e
r
- e
- r
2
-------------------------

2
- l

2
- l

2
- l

2
- l
304
VHPAHEHHE S. Ewnncn1r nponanopnwo qynvn II r n cII r. Ho-
c1pon1r rpaqnvn qynvn cI r, sI r, II r, cII r. Ha1n
nponanopnwo nx opa1nwx qynvn.
40.
lpcMsac/|e M /MqqepeuMc/|
a|cmMx ncp/kca
40.4. RpoMssopnme smcmMx nopspkos
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hcno quuuun ](r), onpeoe.euuon uo uu
nepoo.e (o, b), u+een o uooou nouue r - (o, b) npou:ooo
uv ](r) u ncno r
0
- (o, b). Ec.u npu r r
0
npou:ooouou
](r) quuuuu ](r) cecnoen npou:ooouon, no ouo uo:m
ooencn onopou npou:ooouou (u.u npou:ooouou onopoeo no
pnouo) quuuuu ] u oo:uouoencn ](r
0
) u.u ]
(2)
(r
0
).
Tavnm opaaom, ](r
0
) [](r) nn, ocn onyc1n1r
ooananonno aprymon1a, (). Anaornnno onpopono1cn
n p o n a n o p n a n
(n)
m o r o n o p n p v a n l, 2, ...: ec
.u cecnoen npou:ooouon
(n - l)
nopnouo n - l (npu ono+
noo npou:ooouou u.eooeo nopnouo noopo:+eooencn co+o
quuuun
(0)
, o noo npou:ooouou nepooeo nopnouo ),
no, no onpeoe.euuv,
(n)
[
(n - l)
.
Ecnomnnan onpopoonno nponanopno (cm. n. 9.l), onpopoo-
nno n nponanopno n 1onvo r
0
moxno aannca1r n nnpo npopoa:
]
(n)
(r
0
) , n l, 2, ... .
O1mo1nm, n1o na npopnooxonnn, n1o qynvnn ] nmoo1 n 1on-
vo r
0
nponanopnym nopnpva n, copyo1, n cny onpopoonnn
nocopno, n1o n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
y qynvnn
] cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan nopnpva n - l, a copona1orno,
npn n l n nco nponanopnwo ooo nnavoro nopnpva h n - l,
n nac1noc1n cama qynvnn onpopoona n novo1opo ovpoc1-
noc1n 1onvn r
0
. Hpn c1om nco nponanopnwo, nopnpov vo1opwx
monrmo n - l, nonpopwnnw n yvaaanno ovpoc1noc1n, no-
r r
0
IIm
r 0
]
n - l ( )
r
0
- r ( ) - ]
n - l ( )
r
0
( )
r
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
30
cvorvy no ncox oo 1onvax onn nmom1 nponanopnym (cm.
1oopomw l n 2 n n. 9.2).
Eco cvaaannoo apocr oc1oc1nonnwm opaaom noponocn1cn n
na 1av naawnaomwo opnoc1oponnno nponanopnwo nwcmoro no-
pnpva, vo1opwo nn1a1or oa 1pypa onpopon1 camoc1on1orno.
OnpepeAenMe 2. duuuun uo:mooencn n po: uenpepmouo ouq
qepeuuupe+ou uo ueuonopo+ npo+enue, ec.u oo ocer
nouuor onoeo npo+enuo ouo u+een uenpepmoume npou:
oooume oo nopnouo n ou.vuune.ouo (n 0, l, 2, ...).
Hpn c1om na vavom-no vono paccma1pnnaomoro npomo-
xy1va n 1om cynao, vorpa c1o1 vono npnnapoxn1 npomo-
xy1vy, nop nponanopnwmn, vav ownno, nonnmam1cn coo1-
no1c1nymmno opnoc1oponnno nponanopnwo.
n 1oro n1ow qynvnn wa n paa nonpopwnno pnqqo-
ponnpyomo na novo1opom npomoxy1vo, poc1a1onno, n1ow
ona nmoa na nom nonpopwnnym nponanopnym nopnpva n.
oc1nn1orno, coracno onpopoonnm, cymoc1nonanno npo-
nanopno nopnpva n na paccma1pnnaomom npomoxy1vo npop-
noarao1 cymoc1nonanno na nom nponanopno nopnpva n - l
n, nocvorvy na cymoc1nonannn nponanopno vavo-no
qynvnn n novo1opo 1onvo copyo1, vav c1o yxo o1monaocr
nwmo, nonpopwnnoc1r qynvnn n c1o 1onvo, nponanopnan
nopnpva n - l nonpopwnna na pannom npomoxy1vo. Anao-
rnnno, n cynao n l povaawnao1cn nonpopwnnoc1r na pac-
cma1pnnaomom npomoxy1vo nponanopno nopnpva n - 2 n 1. p.
Rp M ue p m. 4. r
3
, 3r
2
, 6r,
(3)
6,
(4)

(5)

... 0.
2. o
r
, o
r
In o, o
r
In
2
o,
(3)
o
r
In
3
o. Eoomo,
no nnpyvnn orvo yc1anonn1r, n1o
(n)
o
r
In
n
o. E nac1noc-
1n, (e
r
)
(n)
e
r
, n 0, l, ... .
3. sIn r. Ewnncnn nocopona1orno nponanopnwo, no-
ynnm cos r, -sIn r,
(3)
-cos r,
(4)
sIn r, paoo
nponanopnwo non1opnm1cn n 1om xo nopnpvo. H1ow aann-
ca1r noynonnw poayr1a1 n nnpo opno qopmyw, aamo1nm,
n1o cos sIn ( - ,2), noc1omy cos r sIn (r - ,2),
cos r - sIn r - 2 n 1. p.


2
---
,
_


2
---
,
_
306
Ho nnpyvnn (sIn r)
(n)
sIn (r - n,2) pn moro n l, 2, ... .
4. cos r. 3amonan, n1o -sIn cos ( - ,2), anaornn-
no npopwpymomy npnmopy noynnm
(cos r)
(n)
cos r - n , n l, 2, ... .
40.2. RpoMssopnme smcmMx nopspkos cyuum
M npoMssepenMs ynkMM
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno quuuuu
l
]
l
(r) u
2
]
2
(r) u+evn
npou:oooume neo nopnouo o nouue r
0
; noeoo quuuuu

l
-
2
]
l
(r) - ]
2
(r) u
l

2
]
l
(r)]
2
(r) noue u+evn npou:
oooume neo nopnouo o nouue r
0
, npuue+
(
l
-
2
)
(n)
- , (l0.l)
(
l

2
)
(n)

2
- -
- - ... -
l
, (l0.2)
eoe, uou omuuo, - uuc.o couenouuu u: n o.e+eunoo no
h (h 0, l, 2, ... , n).
4opmyy (l0.2) ownno naawnam1 qopmyo 7onna
l
,
oo cnmnonnocvn moxno aannca1r n copymmom yponom pn
aanomnnannn nnpo:
(
l

2
)
(n)
(
l
-
2
)
{n
.
Hnpovc {n oananao1, n1o nwpaxonno (
l
-
2
)
{n
aanncwnao1cn
nopono nnomy Hrm1ona, 1. o. n nnpo cymmw c 1omn xo vocq-
qnnon1amn, n1o n n nnomnarno qopmyo, 1orvo c1ono-
nn qynvn
l
n
2
aamonnm1cn nx nponanopnwmn coo1no1c1-
nymmoro nopnpva (cm. (l0.2)).
4opmyw (l0.l) n (l0.2) povaawnam1cn no nnpyvnn. Hpn
n l, 1. o. pn nponanopnwx nopnoro nopnpva, onn wn po-
vaaanw n n. 9.5. Hyc1r 1onopr c1n qopmyw nopnw pn npona-
nopnwx nro nopnpva. ovaxom nx cnpanopnnoc1r pn npo-
nanopnwx nopnpva n - l.
l
I. 7onn (l664-l?l6) - nomovn qnocoq n ma1oma1nv.


2
---
,
_

l
n ( )

2
n ( )

l
n ( )
C
n
l

l
n - l ( )

2
l ( )
C
n
2

l
n - 2 ( )

2
2 ( )

2
n ( )

h 0
n
C
n
h

l
n - h ( )

2
h ( )
C
n
h
307
E cynao cymmw qynvn nmoom
(
l
-
2
)
(n - l)
[(
l
-
2
)
(n)

( - ) ( ) - ( ) .
4opmya (l0.2) povaaana.
E cynao nponanoponnn qynvn nwvapvn nocvorvo
coxnoo:
(
l

2
)
(n - l)
[(
l

2
)
(n)

[ -
- -
- - - .
3pocr mw nocnoraonancr 1om, n1o l. Tonopr
namonnm nnpovc cymmnponannn no n1opo cymmo, nooxnn
h p - l; 1orpa nonw nnpovc cymmnponannn p ypo1 monn1r-
cn o1 l po n. Hoco c1oro n noynonnwx cymmax o+opnnnm
nonapno caraomwo, copopxamno nponanopnwo opnnavonwx
nopnpvon. Ooananan omn nnpovc cymmnponannn nopoa p,
ypom nmo1r
(
l

2
)
(n - l)
-
- ( - ) - .
O1cmpa, aamo1nn, n1o - n n1o l,
noynnm
(
l

2
)
(n - l)

- -
.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Ec.u c nocnonuuon, o ](r) quuuun,
u+evon npou:ooouv neo nopnouo o nouue r
0
, no quu
uun c](r) noue u+een npou:ooouv nopnouo n npu r r
0
,
npuue+
(c)
(n)
c
(n)
. (l0.3)

l
n ( )

2
n ( )

l
n ( )

2
n ( )

l
n - l ( )
-
2
n - l ( )

h 0
n
C
n
h

l
n - h ( )

2
h ( )

h 0
n
C
n
h

l
n - l - h ( )

2
h ( )

l
n - h ( )

2
h - l ( )

h 0
n
C
n
h

l
n - l - h ( )

2
h ( )

h 0
n
C
n
h

l
n - h ( )

2
h - l ( )

l
n - l ( )

2
0 ( )

h 0
n
C
n
h

l
n - l - h ( )

2
h

h 0
n - l
C
n
h

l
n - h ( )

2
h - l ( )

l
0 ( )

2
n - l ( )
C
n
0
C
n
n

l
n - l ( )

2
0 ( )

p l
n
C
n
p
C
n
p - l

l
n - l - p ( )

2
p ( )

l
0 ( )

2
n - l ( )
C
n
p
C
n
p - l
C
n - l
p
C
n - l
0
C
n - l
n - l

l
n - l ( )

2
0 ( )

p l
n
C
n - l
p

l
n - l - p ( )

2
p ( )

l
0 ( )

2
n - l ( )

p 0
n - l
C
n - l
p

l
n - l - p ( )

2
p ( )
30S
oc1nn1orno, ocn n qopmyo (l0.2) nooxn1r
l
c,

2
, 1o noynn1cn qopmya (l0.3). Enponom, ona copyo1
ononnpnwm opaaom n na nvpa1noro npnmononnn qopmyw
(9.l8) v qynvnn c.
Paccmo1pnm npnmop. Hyc1r r
3
sIn r. Hapom c no-
momrm qopmyw 7onna nponanopnym
(l0)
.
(r
3
sIn r)
(l0)
r
3
sIn r - l0 - l0 3r
2
sIn r - 9 -
- l0 9 3r sIn r - 8 - l0 9 8 sIn r - ?
-r
3
sIn r - 30 r
2
cos r - 2?0 r sIn r - ?20 cos r.
40.3. RpoMssopnme smcmMx nopspkos ot cAoxnmx ynkMM,
ot opotnmx ynkMM M ot ynkMM,
soponnmx nopouetpMeckM
Hcno quuuun (r) u+een onopv npou:ooouv o nou
ue r
0
, o : :() onopv npou:ooouv o nouue
0
(r
0
).
Toeoo c.ouon quuuun :[(r) u+een npu r r
0
onopv
npou:ooouv, npuue+
- . (l0.4)
oc1nn1orno, nocvorvy cymoc1nym1 nponanopnwo
(r
0
) n :(
0
), cymoc1nym1 1avxo (r
0
) n :(
0
). Copona-
1orno, qynvnn (r) n :() nonpopwnnw coo1no1c1nonno n
1onvax r
0
n
0
. Hoc1omy n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
onpopoona coxnan qynvnn : :[(r). nqqoponnpyn oo
n onycvan pn npoc1o1w ooananonno aprymon1a, nmoom
; pnqqoponnpyn omo paa no r, noynnm
- - .
Anaornnnwm opaaom nwnncnm1cn, npn coo1no1c1nym-
mnx npopnooxonnnx, n npou:oooume omcuur nopnouoo
c.ouou quuuuu. 01o1 mo1op noanono1 1avxo povaawna1r
cymoc1nonanno n naxopn1r nponanopnwo nwcmnx nopnpvon
o1 opa1no qynvnn.
Hcno quuuun (r) uenpepmouo u cnpoeo +ouonou
uo o ueuonopou oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
(cm. n. 9.6) u ncno


2
---
,
_


2
---
,
_


2
---
,
_


2
---
,
_
:
rr
:


r
2
:


rr
:
r

:
rr
:

( )
r

r
:


rr
:


r
2
:


rr
309
npu r r
0
cecnovn npou:oooume u , npuue+
(r
0
) = 0; noeoo u oponuon quuuun r r() u+een ono
pv npou:ooouv o nouue
0
(r
0
), npuue+ ouo +oen
mno ompoeuo uepe: :uoueuun npou:oooumr u quu
uuu (r) npu r r
0
.
E camom poo, onycvan, vav n nwmo, ooananonnn apry-
mon1a, coracno 1oopomo 4 9 (cm. n. 9.6), nmoom l, .
Ewnncnn nponanopnym no o1 oonx nac1o n npnmonnn v
npano nac1n npanno pnqqoponnponannn coxno qynv-
nn, noynaom
- .
Anaornnno npn coo1no1c1nymmnx npopnooxonnnx nw-
nncnm1 n npou:oooume omcuur nopnouoo o.n oponuou
quuuuu.
Hoponwm xo opaaom moxno noc1yna1r n n cynao 1av
naawnaomoro napamo1pnnocvoro aapannn qynvnn.
OnpepeAenMe 3. Hcno quuuuu r r(|) u (|) onpeoe.e
um o ueuonopou oupecnuocnu nouuu |
0
u oouo u: uur, uo
npu+ep r r(|), uenpepmouo u cnpoeo +ouonouuo o uo:ou
uou oupecnuocnu; noeoo cecnoen oponuon r(|) quu
uun | |(r), u o ueuonopou oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
r(|
0
)
u+een c+mc. uo+no:uuun (|(r)). 3no quuuun on r u uo
:mooencn nopo+enpuuecuu :ooouuou qop+.o+u r r(|),
(|) quuuueu.
Ewnopom qopmyw pn pnqqoponnponannn napamo1pn-
nocvn aapannwx qynvn.
Ec.u quuuuu r(|) u (|) u+evn o nouue |
0
npou:ooo
ume u ec.u r(|
0
) = 0, no nopo+enpuuecuu :ooouuon quu
uun (|(r)) noue u+een o nouue r
0
r(|
0
) npou:ooouv,
npuue+
. (l0.5)
E camom poo, no npanny pnqqoponnponannn coxno
qynvnn nmoom (onycvan ooananonno aprymon1a)
; (l0.6)
r


r
r

( )

r
-------
,
_

r
r

rr

r
2
------------
l

r
---------
''
rr

3
-----------

|
|
0
( )
r
|
|
0
( )
------------------

r

|
|
r
310
no npanny xo pnqqoponnpona-
nnn opa1no qynvnn
. (l0.?)
Ha qopmy (l0.6) n (l0.?) n copyo1
qopmya (l0.5).
Ec.u, upo+e noeo, cecno
vn (|
0
) u (|
0
), no cecno
en u (r
0
), npuue+
.
Anaornnno nwnncnm1cn npou:oooume o.ee omcouoeo no
pnouo nopo+enpuuecuu :ooouumr quuuuu.
Paccmo1pnm n vanoc1no npnmopa napamo1pnnocvn aapan-
nym qynvnm
r o(| - sIn |), o(l - cos |), (o = 0, -~ | -~). (l0.8)
Eo rpaqnv naopaxon na pncynvo 48. Hyc1r pn onpopo-
onnoc1n o 0; 1orpa qynvnn r(|) o(| - sIn |) c1poro noa-
pac1ao1. oc1nn1orno, nyc1r ^| 0; 1orpa, aamonan, n1o
0 sIn , nmoom
r(| - ^|) - r(|) o{^| - [sIn (| - ^|) - sIn |
o ^| - 2 cos | - sIn o ^| - 2 l 0,
n1o n oananao1 c1poro mono1onnoo noapac1anno qynvnn r(|).
E cny c1oro, cymoc1nyo1 opnoanannan opa1nan qynvnn |
|(r). aoo, o(l - cos |) 2o sIn
2
. 0, o sIn | n
opamao1cn n nyr 1orvo n 1onvax nnpa | 2h, h 0, l,
2, ... . Hoc1omy ocn | = 2h, 1o, coracno npanny pnqqo-
ponnponannn qynvnn, aapanno napamo1pnnocvn, nmoom
cIg ;
cIg cIg - - .
r
0

Pnc. 48
|
r
l
r
|
-------
r
||

||

rr

rr

r
( )
r

r
|

-------
,
_
r

|

r
|

-------
,
_
|

|
r

||
r
|
-
|
r
||
r
|
3
--------------------------------------------
|
2
------
|
2
------

|
2
------
,
_
|
2
------

|
2
------
,
_
r
|
|
2
---

|
r
|

r
r
|
--------
sIn |
2sIn
2 |
2
---
-------------------
|
2
---

rr

|
2
---
,
_
r

,
_
|
l
r
|
-------
l
2sIn
2
|
2
---
-------------------

l
2o sIn
2
|
2
---
------------------------
l
4o sIn
4 |
2
---
------------------------
311
40.4. pMepenMoAm smcmMx nopspkos
E nac1onmom nynv1o pn ypoc1na ypom nnorpa nmoc1o cnm-
noa pnqqoponnponannn J nnca1r yvny , 1. o. nmoc1o J,
Jr nnca1r , r.
Hyc1r qynvnn ](r) pnqqoponnpyoma na novo1opom
nn1opnao (o, b). Kav nanoc1no, oo pnqqoponna
J ](r)Jr,
vo1opw naawnao1cn 1avxo oo nopnwm pnqqoponnaom, aann-
cn1 o1 pnyx nopomonnwx: r n Jr. Hyc1r qynvnn ](r), n cnom
onopopr, pnqqoponnpyoma n novo1opo 1onvo r
0
- (o, b). Torpa
pnqqoponna n c1o 1onvo qynvnn J, paccma1pnnaomo vav
qynvnn 1orvo o1 r (1. o. npn novo1opom qnvcnponannom Jr),
ocn pn oro ooananonnn ncnoraona1r cnmno , nmoo1 nnp
(J) [](r)Jr [](r)Jr r ](r
0
)Jrr.
OnpepeAenMe 4. 3uoueuue ouqqepeuuuo.o (J), n. e. ouqqe
peuuuo.o on nepooeo ouqqepeuuuo.o, o ueuonopou nouue
r
0
npu Jr r uo:mooencn onopm+ ouqqepeuuuo.o+ quu
uuu ] o onou nouue u oo:uouoencn uepe: J
2
, n. e.
J
2
](r
0
)Jr
2
. (l0.9)
(9epe: Jr
2
u oooe uepe: Jr
n
, n - N, oo:uouoencn (Jr)
2
,
coonoencnoeuuo (Jr)
n
, o ue J(r
n
).)
3amo1nm, n1o, n cny c1oro onpopoonnn, J
2
r 0, 1av vav
npn nwnnconnn pnqqoponnaon mw cnn1aom npnpamonnom
Jr ^r noc1onnnwm.
Hoponwm xo opaaom n 1om cynao, vorpa nponanopnan
(n - l)-ro nopnpva
(n - l)
, pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo r
0
nn,
n1o cvnnnaon1no, vorpa npn r r
0
cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan
nro nopnpva
(n)
, onpopono1cn ouqqepeuuuo. neo nopnouo
J
n
qynvnn ](r) n 1onvo r
0
vav pnqqoponna (J
n - l
) o1
pnqqoponnaa (n - l)-ro nopnpva J
n - l
, n vo1opom r Jr:
J
n
(J
n - l
)
r Jr
.
Hovaxom, n1o cnpanopnna qopmya
J
n

n
Jr
n
, n l, 2, ... . (l0.l0)
r r
0
r r
0
31z
Eo povaaa1orc1no nponopom no nnpyvnn. n n l n n 2
ona povaaana. Hyc1r c1a qopmya nopna pn pnqqoponnaon
nopnpva n - l:
J
n - l

(n - l)
Jr
n - l
.
Torpa, coracno pannomy nwmo onpopoonnm, pn nwnnconnn
pnqqoponnaa nro nopnpva J
(n)
nooxopnmo nwnncn1r cna-
naa pnqqoponna (mw oro ooanannm cnmnoom ) o1 J
n - l
:
(J
n - l
) (
(n - l)
Jr
(n - l)
) (
(n - l)
Jr
n - l
)r
(n)
rJr
n - l
,
a aa1om nooxn1r r Jr:
J
n
(J
n - l
)
r Jr

(n)
Jr
n
.
Ha qopmyw (l0.l0) copyo1, n1o

(n)
. (l0.ll)
Hpnnopom novo1opwo cnocvna nqqoponnaAon nmcmnx
nopsuon:
l
0
. J
n
(
l
-
2
) J
n

l
- J
n

2
.
2
0
. J
n
(c) cJ
n
, c - noc1onnnan.
3
0
. J
n
(
l

2
) , u.u, ec.u ucno.o:ooono
cu+oo.uuecuv :onuco,
J
n
(
l

2
) (J
l
- J
2
)
{n
,
eoe ompoeuue (J
l
- J
2
)
{n
:onucmooencn no ouo.oeuu c u
uo+uo.ouou qop+.ou Hovnouo, n. e. no.nencn c++ou ouoo
;
npu ono+ o.n .vou quuuuu u cuunoencn, uno J
0
u
u
(0)
Jr
0
u.
01n cnoc1na nonocpopc1nonno copym1 na coo1no1c1nym-
mnx qopmy pn nponanopnwx nro nopnpva (cm. qopmyw
(l0.l), (l0.2), (l0.3) n (l0.l0)).
3 a m o n a n n o. 4opmyw (l0.l0) n (l0.ll) cnpanopnnw,
noomo ronopn, npn n l (n o1nnno o1 cynan n l) 1orvo
1orpa, vorpa r nnno1cn noaanncnmwm nopomonnwm. E cynao
pnqqoponnaon nwcmnx nopnpvon no aanncnmwm nopomon-
nwm poo oc1on1 coxnoo.
J
n

Jr
n
----------

h 0
n
C
n
h
J
l
n - h
J
2
h
C
n
h
J
n - h

l
J
h

2
313
Hyc1r : :(), (r), nmoo1 cmwc cynopnoannn :[(r)
n qynvnn :() n (r) pnaxpw pnqqoponnpyomw. Torpa
J: J. nqqoponnpyn omo paa n no npnoran pn npo-
c1o1w v cnmnoy , 1. o. cnn1an aanncr J(J:) pannocnrno aa-
nncn (J:)
r Jr
(1av ncorpa n noc1ynam1 na npav1nvo), npn-
nom apocr nop (J:) nonnmao1cn pnqqoponna no r o1 qynv-
nn J: ()J [(r) (r)Jr, noynaom
J
2
: J(J:) J( J) J( )J - J(J)
J
2
- J
2
(l0.l2)
(mw nanncan J J na ocnonannn qopmyw (9.26),
1. o. ncnoraonan nnnapnan1noc1r nopnoro pnqqoponnaa).
Cpannnnan qopmyw (l0.9) n (l0.l2), nnpnm, n1o onn o1-
nnam1cn n1opwm nonom, n 1av vav, noomo ronopn, J
2
= 0,
1o cymoc1nonno paannnw. Paaponn oo nac1n panonc1na
(l0.l2) na Jr
2
, noynnm qopmyy n1opo nponanopno pn
coxno qynvnn
- ,
vo1opan wa noynona panoo (cm. (l0.4)) ppyrnm ny1om.
Hoponwm xo opaaom mory1 w1r nwnnconw pnqqopon-
naw n nponanopnwo nwcmnx nopnpvon coxno qynvnn.
44.
fecpe|| c cpe/e|
// /MqqepeuMpye||x qykuMM
44.4. Ieopeuo Oepuo
E 1opmnnax nponanopnwx ovaawnao1cn yponwm onncwna1r
paannnwo cnoc1na qynvn. Hpoxpo ncoro yvaxom xapav-
1opnc1nnocvoo cnoc1no 1onov, n vo1opwx qynvnn npnnn-
mao1 nanormoo nn nanmonrmoo ananonno. Hanomnnm, n1o
ocn qynvnn ] onpopoona na novo1opom mnoxoc1no X, 1o
ronopn1, n1o ona npnnnmao1 n 1onvo r
0
nanormoo (nanmonr-
moo) ananonno na mnoxoc1no X, ocn pn ncox 1onov r - X nw-
nonno1cn nopanonc1no ](r) ](r
0
) (nopanonc1no ](r) . ](r
0
)).
Ecn pn ncox r - X n r = r
0
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
](r) ](r
0
) (nopanonc1no ](r) ](r
0
)), 1o ronopn1, n1o n 1onvo r
0
:


r
:

:
rr
:


r
2
:


rr
314
qynvnn ] npnnnmao1 c1poro nanormoo (nanmonrmoo) ana-
nonno na mnoxoc1no X.
Tonvn, n vo1opwx qynvnn npnnnmao1 ananonnn (c1poro-
ro) mavcnmyma nn mnnnmyma, naawnam1cn nouuo+u (c1po-
roro) oucnpe++o.
I E O F E M A 4 (Oepuo
l
). Ec.u quuuun onpeoe.euo o ueuonopou
oupecnuocnu nouuu, npuuu+oen o onou nouue uouo.ouee
(uou+euouee) :uoueuue u u+een o ueu uoueuuv u.u onpeoe
.euuoeo :uouo ecuoueuuv npou:ooouv, no ono npou:ooo
uon poouo u.v.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r qynvnn ] onpopoona n ov-
poc1noc1n U(r
0
) 1onvn r
0
n npnnnmao1 pn onpopoonnoc1n
npn r r
0
nanormoo ananonno, 1. o. pn ncox r - U(r
0
) nw-
nonno1cn nopanonc1no ](r) ](r
0
). Torpa ocn r r
0
,
. 0, (ll.l)
a ocn r r
0
, 1o
0. (ll.2)
Ho yconnm 1oopomw cymoc1nyo1 vononnw nn onpopo-
onnoro anava ocvononnw npopo
](r
0
),
noc1omy n nopanonc1nax (ll.l) n (ll.2) moxno nopo1n
v npopoy npn r = r
0
(cm. cnoc1no 4
0
npopoon qynvn
n n. 5.l0). E poayr1a1o noynnm coo1no1c1nonno ](r
0
) . 0
n ](r
0
) 0. Copona1orno, ](r
0
) 0.
3 a m o n a n n o l. 4opmynponva 1oopomw 4opma c nop-
noro narnpa moxo1 novaaa1rcn nooc1oc1nonno: n npopno-
oxonnnx ronopn1cn o cymoc1nonannn ocvononnwx npona-
nopnwx, a n y1nopxponnn - o panonc1no nym nponanopno.
Opnavo na camom poo qopmynponva 1oopomw nnono vop-
pov1na: a prIorI npopnoarao1cn, n1o n 1onvo cymoc1nyo1 npo-
nanopnan (vononnan nn onpopoonnoro anava ocvononnan)
n povaawnao1cn, n1o npn nwnononnn pononn1ornoro yc-
onnn o poc1nxonnn n paccma1pnnaomo 1onvo nanormo-
ro (nanmonrmoro) ananonnn yvaaannan nponanopnan panna
nym. Hnano ronopn, povaawnao1cn, n1o n 1onvo, n vo1opo
l
H. 4opma (l60l-l665) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv.
] r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r - r
0
---------------------------------
] r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r - r
0
---------------------------------
IIm
r r
0
] r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
r - r
0
---------------------------------
31
npnnnmao1cn nanormoo nn nanmonrmoo n novo1opo oo
ovpoc1noc1n ananonno qynvnn, no moxo1 cymoc1nona1r nn
vononnan, nn pannan nym nponanopnan qynvnn, nn onpopo-
onnoro anava ocvononnan nponanopnan. Hoc1omy n 1onvo, n
vo1opo poc1nrao1cn nanormoo nn nanmonrmoo n oo ov-
poc1noc1n ananonno qynvnn, noamoxnw copymmno cynan:
n c1o 1onvo cymoc1nyo1 vononnan, pannan nym nponanop-
nan, cymoc1nyo1 anavonoonpopoonnan ocvononnan nponanop-
nan, no cymoc1nyo1 nnvavo nponanopno nn vononno, nn
ocvononno. Hpnmopom qynvnn, pn vo1opo ocymoc1nn-
o1cn npn r 0 nopnw cyna, nnno1cn qynvnn ]
l
(r) r
2
,
n1opo cyna: ]
2
(r) , 1po1n: ]
3
(r) r. Eco c1n qynv-
nn npnnnmam1 npn r 0 nanmonrmoo ananonno, 1avxo pan-
noo nym, nponanopnan nopno na nnx panna nym: (0) 0,
n1opo ocvononnoc1n noonpopoonnoro anava: (0) ~, a y
1po1ro nponanopnan n 1onvo r 0 no cymoc1nyo1.
Ioomo1pnnocvan nn1opnpo1ann 1oopomw 4opma coc1on1 n
1om, n1o ocn npn r r
0
pnqqoponnpyoman qynvnn ] npn-
nnmao1 nanormoo (nanmonrmoo) ananonno na novo1opo ov-
poc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
, 1o vaca1ornan v rpaqnvy qynvnn n
1onvo (r
0
, ](r
0
)) napaorna ocn Or (pnc. 49).
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ecn qynvnn ] npnnnmao1 nanor-
moo (nanmonrmoo) ananonno npn r r
0
no cpannonnm c oo ana-
nonnnmn n 1onvax, oxamnx no opny c1opony o1 1onvn r
0
, n
nmoo1 n r
0
coo1no1c1nymmym opnoc1oponnmm nponanopnym,
1o c1a nponanopnan moxo1 w1r no panna nym. Tav, nanpn-
mop, qynvnn ](r) r, paccma1pnnaoman na o1poavo [0, l,
npnnnmao1 npn r 0 mnnnmarnoo, a npn r l - mavcn-
marnoo ananonno, opnavo vav n 1o, 1av n n ppyro 1onvo
nponanopnan panna opnnno (pnc. 50).
Pnc. 49
r
0

Pnc. 50
l
l
r
2 3
]
l

]
2

316
44.2. Ieopeum FoAAs, Aorponxo M komM
o cpepnMx snoenMsx
I E OF E M A 2 (teopeuo FoAAs
l

). Hcno quuuun ]:
l) uenpepmouo uo onpe:ue [o, b;
2) u+een o uooou nouue uunepoo.o (o, b) uoueuuv u.u
onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo ecuoueuuv npou:ooouv;
3) npuuu+oen pooume :uoueuun uo uouuor onpe:uo, n. e.
](o) ](b).
Toeoo cecnoen ronn m oouo nouon nouuo , o b,
uno ]() 0.
Ioomo1pnnocvn cmwc 1oopomw Pon coc1on1 n 1om, n1o
na rpaqnvo qynvnn, ypono1nopnmmo yconnnm 1oopomw
Pon, nmoo1cn no vpano mopo opna 1onva, n vo1opo vaca-
1ornan ropnaon1arna (pnc. 5l).
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn pn mo 1onvn r nn1opnaa
(o, b) nwnonno1cn panonc1no ](r) ](o) ](b), 1o qynvnn ]
nnno1cn noc1onnno na c1om nn1opnao n noc1omy pn m-
o 1onvn - (o, b) nwnonno1cn yconno ]() 0.
Hyc1r cymoc1nyo1 1onva r
0
- (o, b), pn vo1opo ](r
0
) =
= ](o), nanpnmop, ](r
0
) ](o). Coracno 1oopomo Eoopm1pac-
ca o poc1nxnmoc1n nonpopwnno na o1poavo qynvno cnonx
nanormoro n nanmonrmoro ananonn (cm. 1oopomy l n
n. 6.l), cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva - [o, b, n vo1opo qynvnn
] npnnnmao1 nanormoo ananonno. Torpa
]() . ](r
0
) ](o) ](b).
Hoc1omy = o n = b, 1. o. 1onva npnnapoxn1 nn1opnay
(o, b) n qynvnn ] npnnnmao1 n no nanormoo ananonno.
Copona1orno, coracno 1oopomo 4opma (cm. 1oopomy l n
n. ll.l) nwnonno1cn panonc1no ]() 0.
3amo1nm, n1o nco npopnocwvn
1oopomw Pon cymoc1nonnw. H1ow
n c1om yopn1rcn, poc1a1onno npnnoc-
1n npnmopw qynvn, pn vo1opwx
nwnonnncr w pna na 1pox yconn
1oopomw, 1po1ro xo no nwnonnocr
w n y vo1opwx no cymoc1nyo1 1onvn
l
M. Por (l652-l?l9) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv.
r
0

Pnc. 5l
o b
317
1avo, n1o ]() 0. (Hpn c1om, n cny yconnn 3, n vo1opom
ronopn1cn o ananonnnx qynvnn n vononwx 1onvax npomo-
xy1va, copyo1 paccma1pnna1r nmr qynvnn, onpopoon-
nwo na o1poavax.)
4ynvnn ](r), onpopoonnan na o1poavo [0, l n pannan r,
ocn 0 r l, n 0, ocn r l, ypono1nopno1 yconnnm 2 n 3,
no no ypono1nopno1 yconnm l (pnc. 52).
4ynvnn ](r) r, r - [-l; l ypono1nopno1 yconnnm l
n 3, no no ypono1nopno1 yconnm 2 (pnc. 53).
Havono, qynvnn ](r) r, r - [0; l ypono1nopno1
yconnnm l n 2, no no ypono1nopno1 yconnm 3 (cm. pnc. 50).
n ncox c1nx qynvn no cymoc1nyo1 1onvn, n vo1opo
nx nponanopnan opamaacr w n nyr.
Opa1nm nnnmanno na 1o, n1o no yconnnm 1oopomw Pon
o1poaov [o, b moxo1 copopxa1r 1onvn, n vo1opwx qynvnn
nmoo1 onpopoonnoro anava ocvononnym nponanopnym, 1. o.
n vo1opwx -~ nn -~. 01o 1poonanno
noran ocan1r, aamonnn oro yconnom ~. Ha-
npnmop, pn qynvnn ](r) , -l r l, no cymoc1nyo1
1onvn - [-l, -l, n vo1opo nponanopnan c1o qynvnn o-
pamaacr w n nyr. Emoc1o c 1om qynvnn ](r) ypon-
o1nopno1 ncom yconnnm 1oopomw Pon na o1poavo [-l, l,
aa ncvmnonnom 1oro, n1o n 1onvo r 0 c1a qynvnn no nmoo1
nn vononno, nn onpopoonnoro anava ocvononno npona-
nopno (pnc. 54).
E camom poo, pn c1o 1onvn ~, npnnom c1o1
npopo no nnno1cn ocvononnoc1rm onpopoonnoro anava.
r
0

-l
l
Pnc. 53
l
r
0

l
Pnc. 52
r
0

-l l
Pnc. 54
l
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
IIm
r 0

r
-------
r
r
IIm
r 0

r
-------
31S
Hpnmopom qynvnn, ypono1no-
pnmmo 1oopomo Pon n nmommo
n novo1opo 1onvo onpopoonnoro
anava ocvononnym nponanopnym,
nnno1cn qynvnn
](r)
01a qynvnn nonpopwnna na o1poavo [-2, 2, pnqqoponnpy-
oma no ncox 1onvax nn1opnaa (-2, 2), vpomo 1onvn r 0, n
vo1opo ](0) -~ n ](-2) ](2) (pnc. 55). E coracnn c 1oo-
pomo Pon y noo nmoo1cn 1onva (paxo pno), n vo1opo npo-
nanopnan panna nym (r l). Ipaqnvom c1o qynvnn nn-
nm1cn pno noyovpyxnoc1n, conpnxonnwo n 1onvo (0; 0).
01o1 npnmop novaawnao1 oocoopaanoc1r paccmo1ponnn
n pannom cynao no 1orvo qynvn, nmommnx vononnwo
nponanopnwo, no n qynvn c onpopoonnoro anava ocvonon-
nwmn nponanopnwmn.
3amo1nm, n1o noc1poonnom coo1no1c1nymmnx npnmopon
(ocn, vononno, c1o ypao1cn cpoa1r) n nponopnm1 ownno n
ma1oma1nvo cymoc1nonnoc1r 1ox nn nnwx yconn povaaw-
naomwx 1oopom.
E parnomom mw no ypom nponopn1r nooxopnmoc1r yc-
onn 1oopom, npopoc1annn c1o poa1r nn1a1om no mopo
nny1ponno no1ponoc1n.
Ha 1oopomw Pon copyo1, n1o ocn qynvnn nonpopwnna
na novo1opom o1poavo, opamao1cn n nyr na oro vonax n pnq-
qoponnpyoma no ncox oro nny1ponnnx 1onvax, 1o cymoc1nyo1
oro nny1ponnnn 1onva, n vo1opo nponanopnan opamao1cn n
nyr. Kopono ronopn, +eo oo+n u.n+u ouqqepeuuupe+ou
quuuuu oceeoo .eun ronn m oouu u.o ee npou:ooouou.
VHPAHEHHH. 1. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn ] ypono1nopno1 yco-
nnnm 1oopomw Pon na o1poavo [o, b n no nnno1cn noc1onnno, 1o na
c1om o1poavo cymoc1nym1 1avno 1onvn
l
n
2
, n1o ](
l
) 0 n ](
2
) 0.
z. Hpnnoc1n npnmop qynvnn, nonpopwnno na o1poavo [o, b, nmommo
nponanopnym n vaxpo 1onvo nn1opnaa (o, b), no no nmommo nponanop-
no (opnoc1oponno) n 1onvo o.
I E OF E M A 3 (teopeuo Aorponxo
l
). Ec.u quuuun ] uenpepmo
uo uo onpe:ue [o, b u o uooou nouue uunepoo.o (o, b)
l
H.-7. 7arpanx (l?36-l8l3) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv n moxannv.
r 0

Pnc. 55
l 2 -2 -l
, 0 r 2,
, -2 r 0.
l - r - l ( )
2
- l - r - l ( )
2
319
u+een uoueuuv u.u onpeoe
.euuoeo :uouo ecuoueuuv
npou:ooouv, no o ono+ uu
nepoo.e cecnoen no upou
ueu +epe oouo nouon nouuo ,
uno
](b) - ](o) ]()(b - o). (ll.3)
01a 1oopoma nnno1cn, ononnp-
no, oomonnom 1oopomw Pon.
/c k c s c e / | c a c. Pac-
cmo1pnm ncnomora1ornym qynvnm
E(r) ](r) - r (ll.4)
n onpoponm nnco 1av, n1ow E(o) E(b), 1. o. n1ow ](o) -
- o ](b) - b. 01o pannocnrno 1omy, n1o
. (ll.5)
n qynvnn E nwnonnm1cn nco yconnn 1oopomw Pon.
oc1nn1orno, qynvnn ](r) nonpopwnna na o1poavo [o, b,
a qynvnn r, ypynn nnono, nonpopwnna na nco nnco-
no ocn; noc1omy n qynvnn E(r) ](r) - r 1avxo nonpopwn-
na na o1poavo [o, b. 4ynvnn ] nmoo1 n vaxpo 1onvo nn1op-
naa (o, b) vononnym nn onpopoonnoro anava ocvononnym
nponanopnym, a qynvnn r - vononnym nponanopnym no
ncox 1onvax nncono ocn, noc1omy nx paanoc1r E(r) 1avxo
nmoo1 ncmpy n nn1opnao (o, b) vononnym nn onpopoonnoro
anava ocvononnym nponanopnym (cm. aamonanno n n. 9.5).
Havono, na vonax o1poava [o, b, n cny nwopa (cm.
(ll.5)), qynvnn E npnnnmao1 opnnavonwo ananonnn. Hoc1o-
my cymoc1nyo1 xo1n w opna 1avan 1onva (o b), n1o
E() 0. Ha (ll.4) noynaom E(r) ](r) - , noc1omy ]() -
- 0. Hopc1annn cmpa na (ll.5), noynnm
]() . (ll.6)
Ioomo1pnnocvn cmwc 1oopomw 7arpanxa coc1on1 n co-
pymmom. Hyc1r A (o, ](o)), E (b, ](b)) - vonw rpaqnva
qynvnn ], AE - xoppa, coopnnnmman 1onvn A n E (pnc. 56).
Torpa o1nomonno panno 1anroncy yra moxpy xop-
po AE n ocrm Or, 1. o.
Ig ,
r
0

Pnc. 56
](b) -](o)
b - o
E
E
E
o b

] b ( ) - ] o ( )
b - o
-----------------------------
] b ( ) - ] o ( )
b - o
-----------------------------
] b ( ) - ] o ( )
b - o
-----------------------------
] b ( ) - ] o ( )
b - o
-----------------------------
3z0
a nponanopnan ](), vav nanoc1no (cm. n. 9.3), panna 1anroncy
yra moxpy vaca1orno v rpaqnvy qynvnn ] n 1onvo (, ]())
n nooxn1ornwm nanpanonnom ocn Or, 1. o. ]() Ig . Ho-
c1omy panonc1no (ll.6) moxo1 w1r noponncano n nnpo Ig
Ig . Tavnm opaaom, 1oopoma 7arpanxa novaawnao1, n1o n nn-
1opnao (o, b) poxna na1ncr 1onva (moxo1 w1r, n no opna:
na pncynvo 56 yconnm 1oopomw ypono1nopnm1 1onvn n ),
n vo1opo vaca1ornan v rpaqnvy napaorna xoppo AE.
Toopoma 7arpanxa napo1 pnp naxnwx npnoxonn n
parnomom.
Hpnnopom ppyrno qopmw aanncn qopmyw (ll.3). Hyc1r
o b n . Torpa
o - (b - o), 0 l. (ll.?)
Haoopo1, ocn nwpaxao1cn qopmyo (ll.?), 1o, vav
orvo nnpo1r, o b. Tavnm opaaom, n nnpo (ll.?) mory1
w1r npopc1anonw nco 1onvn nn1opnaa (o, b) n 1orvo onn.
Hoc1omy qopmya (ll.3) moxo1 w1r aanncana n nnpo
](b) - ](o) ](o - (b - o))(b - o), 0 l. (ll.8)
Hooxnm 1onopr o r, b - o ^r n, anann1, b r - ^r;
1orpa (ll.8) moxno noponnca1r n nnpo
](r - ^r) - ](r) ](r - ^r) ^r, 0 l. (ll.9)
4opmyy (ll.9), a 1avxo vaxpym na pannoanannwx o qop-
my (ll.3) n (ll.8) naawnam1 qop+.ou uoueuumr npupoe
uuu Joepouo nn npoc1o qop+.ou uoueuumr npupoeuuu
n o1nnno o1 npnnxonnoro panonc1na
](r - ^r) - ](r) - ](r) ^r, (ll.l0)
vo1opoo nnorpa naawnam1 qop+.ou ecuoueuuo +o.mr npu
poeuuu. Ona nwpaxao1 1o1 qav1, n1o onan n npanan nac1n
npnnxonnoro panonc1na (ll.l0) pannw moxpy coo pn
pnqqoponnpyomo n 1onvo r qynvnn ] c 1onnoc1rm po oc-
vononno mawx ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom npnpamonno ^r
npn ^r = 0.
3 a m o n a n n o. 4opmya 7arpanxa (ll.3) moxo1 w1r
npopc1anona n nnpo
](o) - ](b) ]()(o - b),
- o
b - o
-------------
3z1
rpo o b. O1cmpa copyo1, n1o qopmya (ll.3) cnpanopnna no
1orvo npn o b, no n pn o b, npnnom n n c1om cynao
o - (b - o), 0 l (apocr b - o 0, - o 0).
O1mo1nm 1pn copc1nnn na 1oopomw 7arpanxa, nooanwo
pn parnomoro.
C A E p C I 8 H E 4. Ec.u quuuun ] uenpepmouo uo ueuonopo+
npo+enue (uoueuuo+ u.u ecuoueuuo+) u oo ocer eeo
ounpeuuur nouuor u+een npou:ooouv, poouv u.v, no
quuuun nocnonuuo uo ono+ npo+enue.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r qynvnn ] nonpopwnna na npo-
moxy1vo c vonamn o n b, - ~ o b - ~, n pnqqoponnpy-
oma n oro nny1ponnnx 1onvax. Ewopom na c1om npomoxy1vo
nponanorno 1onvn r
l
n r
2
1av, n1o r
l
r
2
; 1orpa, ononnpno,
qynvnn ] nnno1cn nonpopwnno na o1poavo [r
l
, r
2
n pnqqo-
ponnpyomo na nn1opnao (r
l
, r
2
). Hoc1omy, no 1oopomo 7ar-
panxa,
](r
2
) - ](r
l
) ]()(r
2
- r
l
), r
l
r
2
. (ll.ll)
Ho yconnm ](r) 0 na (r
l
, r
2
), n nac1noc1n ]() 0, 1av vav
- (r
l
, r
2
). Tavnm opaaom, na qopmyw (ll.ll) copyo1, n1o
](r
l
) ](r
2
), a nocvorvy r
l
n r
2
- nponanornwo 1onvn
paccma1pnnaomoro npomoxy1va, 1o c1o n oananao1, n1o qynv-
nn ] noc1onnna na c1om npomoxy1vo.
Copc1nno l nmoo1 narnpnym moxannnocvym nn1opnpo1a-
nm: ocn qynvnn ](r) nnno1cn aavonom pnnxonnn ma-
1opnarno 1onvn no npnmo, r - npomn, - pacc1onnno (co
anavom) o1 nanaa o1cno1a na npnmo, 1o yconno ](r) 0 pn
ncox r - (o, b) oananao1, n1o cvopoc1r paccma1pnnaomo 1onvn
n 1ononno npomonnoro nn1opnaa (o, b) nco npomn panna nym,
1. o. 1onva nonopnnxna, no 1orpa aa c1o npomn nooxonno
1onvn, a no1omy n npoponnw om ny1r no namonn1cn. 01o n
oananao1, n1o qynvnn ](r) noc1onnna na nn1opnao (o, b).
C A E p C I 8 H E 2. Ec.u quuuun ] u g uenpepmoum uo ueuono
po+ npo+enue u oo ocer eeo ounpeuuur nouuor u+evn
pooume npou:oooume
](r) g(r),
no onu quuuuu on.uuovncn uo pocc+onpuooe+o+ npo+e
nue .uuo uo nocnonuuv:
](r) g(r) - C, (ll.l2)
eoe C uoucnouno.
3zz
oc1nn1orno, qynvnn E ] - g ypono1nopno1 yconn-
nm copc1nnn l, 1. o. E nonpopwnna na aapannom npomoxy1vo
n E 0 no ncox nny1ponnnx oro 1onvax. Hoc1omy E C, 1. o.
nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no (ll.l2).
C A E p C I 8 H E 3. Hcno quuuun (r):
l) uenpepmouo uo no.uunepoo.e [o, b);
2) ouqqepeuuupe+o oo ocer nouuor uunepoo.o (o, b);
3) npou:ooouou (r) cecnoen uoueuumu npeoe. cnpooo
o nouue r o.
Toeoo o onou nouue quuuuu (r) cecnoen npooo
cnopouunn npou:ooouon (o) u
(o) (r).
Hyc1r n 1onvo r o y nponanopno (r) cymoc1nyo1 vo-
nonnw npopo cnpana n (r) A. Hpnmonnn v qynv-
nn (r) 1oopomy 7arpanxa na o1poavo [o, r, rpo o r b,
ypom nmo1r
(r) - (o) ()(r - o), o r,
o1vypa
().
Tonva nnno1cn qynvno 1onvn r n npn1om, noomo ro-
nopn, mnoroananno: (r). Ewopom nponanorno pn
vaxporo r - (o, b) opno vavoo-no ananonno ; 1orpa noynnm
opnoanannym qynvnm (r) (vav ronopn1, opnoanannym no1nr
mnoroananno qynvnn). Tav vav o (r) r, 1o
(r) o.
Hpnmonnn npanno aamonw nopomonnoro pn npopoon
qynvn (cm. n. 5.l6), noynnm, n1o cymoc1nyo1 npopo
() A,
copona1orno, cymoc1nyo1 n npopo
A.
01o n oananao1, n1o npanoc1oponnnn nponanopnan (o)
cymoc1nyo1 n panna A.

-
IIm
r o - 0
IIm
r o - 0
r ( ) - o ( )
r - o
--------------------------------
IIm
r o - 0
IIm
r o - 0
IIm
r o - 0
r ( ) - o ( )
r - o
--------------------------------

3z3
V1nopxponno, anaornnnoo copc1nnm 4, nmoo1 moc1o n
pn onoc1oponnnx nponanopnwx, o1vypa copyo1, n1o qynv-
nn, nnnmmancn nponanopno novo1opo qynvnn, no mo-
xo1 nmo1r yc1pannmwx 1onov paapwna.
VHPAHEHHE 3. Hyc1r qynvnn ] nonpopwnna na nn1opnao (o, b) n
pnqqoponnpyoma no ncox 1onvax c1oro nn1opnaa, vpomo, w1r moxo1,
novo1opo 1onvn r
0
- (o, b). Hyc1r cymoc1nym1 ](r) n
](r), npnnom onn no pannw moxpy coo. ovaaa1r, n1o npn c1nx
npopnooxonnnx nponanopnan ](r
0
) no cymoc1nyo1.
E vanoc1no nonocpopc1nonnoro npnmononnn 1oopomw 7ar-
panxa noynnm c oo nomomrm poc1a1onnoo yconno panno-
mopno nonpopwnnoc1n pnqqoponnpyomwx qynvn.
A E M M A 4. Ec.u quuuun ](r) onpeoe.euo u u+een oepouu
ueuuv npou:ooouv uo ueuonopo+ uunepoo.e (o, b), no
ouo poouo+epuo uenpepmouo uo ono+ uunepoo.e.
oc1nn1orno, ocn ](r) c (c - noc1onnnan) na (o, b),
1o c nomomrm qopmyw vononnwx npnpamonn 7arpanxa
(cm. n. ll.2) noynnm
](r) - ](r) ]()(r - r) cr - r,
o r b, o r b, o b. (l9.23)
Hoc1omy pn 0 poc1a1onno nan1r ,c; 1orpa ocn r - r ,
o r b, o r b, 1o, n cny (l9.23), cnpanopnno nopa-
nonc1no ](r) - ](r) , n1o n oananao1 pannomopnym nonpo-
pwnnoc1r qynvnn ] na (o, b).
Anaornnnw poayr1a1 nmoo1 moc1o pn moro npomo-
xy1va, vononnoro nn ocvononnoro.
E 1oopomax Pon n 7arpanxa (a 1avxo n n copymmo nn-
xo 1oopomo Komn) ponr npo1 o cymoc1nonannn novo1opo 1on-
vn , o b; oo moxno naana1r cpopno 1onvo, pn vo1o-
po nwnonno1cn 1o nn nnoo panonc1no. 01nm n o+ncnno1cn
naananno 1oopomw o cpopnom pn c1o rpynnw 1oopom. o-
vaxom nocopnoo nyxnoo nam y1nopxponno c1oro 1nna.
I E OF E M A 4 (teopeuo komM). Hcno quuuuu ] u g:
l) uenpepmoum uo onpe:ue [o, b;
2) u+evn npou:oooume o uooou nouue uunepoo.o (o, b);
3) g = 0 oo ocer nouuor uunepoo.o (o, b).
IIm
r r
0
- 0
IIm
r r
0
- 0
3z4
Toeoo cecnoen nouon nouuo , o b, uno
. (ll.l3)
3amo1nm, n1o na yconn 1oopomw copyo1, n1o qopmya
(ll.l3) nmoo1 cmwc, 1. o. g(o) = g(b). E camom poo, ocn
g(o) g(b), 1o qynvnn g ypono1nopna w yconnnm 1oopo-
mw Pon n, anann1, namacr w 1avan 1onva , n1o g() 0,
o b, n1o npo1nnoponno w yconnm 3.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Paccmo1pnm ncnomora1ornym qynvnm
E(r) ](r) - g(r), (ll.l4)
rpo nnco nwopom 1avnm opaaom, n1ow E(o) E(b), 1. o.
n1ow ](o) - g(o) ](b) - g(b). n c1oro nyxno nan1r
. (ll.l5)
4ynvnn E ypono1nopno1 ncom yconnnm 1oopomw Pon,
copona1orno, cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva , o b, n1o
E() 0. Ho na (ll.l4) E(r) ](r) - g(r), noc1omy
]() - g() 0,
o1vypa copyo1, n1o
. (ll.l6)
Cpannnn (ll.l5) n (ll.l6), noynnm qopmyy (ll.l3), ownno
naawnaomym qop+.ou uoueuumr npupoeuuu Kouu.
O1mo1nm, n1o qopmya vononnwx npnpamonn 7arpanxa
nnno1cn nac1nwm cynaom qopmyw vononnwx npnpamonn
Komn, n vo1opo g(r) r. Mw npnnon noaanncnmwo povaaa-
1orc1na c1nx qopmy, no-nopnwx, na-aa 1o naxno pon, vo-
1opym nrpao1 qopmya 7arpanxa, a no-n1opwx, n1ow nmo1r
noamoxnoc1r, ncnorayn opny n 1y xo npom (noc1poonnn ncno-
mora1orno qynvnn, ypono1nopnmmo yconnnm 1oopomw
Pon), npnmonn1r oo pnaxpw n povaaa1orc1nax, npnnom cna-
naa, pn ormo narnpnoc1n, n ooo npoc1om cynao.
4opmya Komn (ll.l3), 1av xo vav n qopmya 7arpanxa
(ll.3), cnpanopnna no 1orvo ocn o b, no n ocn o b.
Ewmo wo novaaano (cm. n. 6.2), n1o ncnvan nonpopwn-
nan na o1poavo qynvnn, npnnnman vavno-no pna anano-
nnn, npnnnmao1 n moo npomoxy1onnoo ananonno. Ovaawna-
] b ( ) - ] o ( )
g b ( ) - g o ( )
------------------------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
] b ( ) - ] o ( )
g b ( ) - g o ( )
------------------------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
3z
o1cn, n1o 1om xo cnoc1nom oapam1 nponanopnwo qynvn,
xo1n onn mory1 w1r n paapwnnwmn qynvnnmn.
4ynvnn, y vo1opo nponanopnan paapwnna, npnnopona n
npnmopo 9 n. 9.?:
](r)
Ona nmoo1 nponanopnym no ncox 1onvax nncono ocn:
](r)
paapwnnym n 1onvo r 0.
I E O F E M A 5 ( popy
l
). Ec.u quuuun ouqqepeuuupe+o o
uooou nouue onpe:uo, no npou:ooouon onou quuuuu,
npuuu+on uouue.uo ooo :uoueuun, npuuu+oen u .voe
npo+enouuoe.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Paccmo1pnm cnanaa cyna, vorpa
qynvnn ] nmoo1 n vaxpo 1onvo o1poava [o, b nponanopnym,
npnnnmammym na vonax o1poava ananonnn paanoro anava.
3pocr, vav ncorpa, paa no oronopono n1o-no ppyroo, nop npo-
nanopno nonnmao1cn vononnan nponanopnan, a na vonax o1-
poava paccma1pnnam1cn opnoc1oponnno nponanopnwo.
Hyc1r, nanpnmop,
](o) 0, ](b) 0.
Ha yconnn
](o) 0
copyo1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo 0, n1o pn ncox h, 0 h ,
nwnonno1cn yconno 0, a 1av vav h 0, 1o
](o) ](o - h).
Anaornnno na yconnn
](b) 0
copyo1, n1o n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r b nwnonn-
o1cn nopanonc1no 0, rpo h 0, n, copona1or-
no, ](b) ](b - h).
l
I. apy (l842-l9l?) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv.
r
2
sIn
0
npn r = 0,
npn r 0.
l
r
---
2r sIn
0
npn r = 0,
npn r 0,
l
r
---
l
r
--- - cos
IIm
h + 0
] o - h ( ) - ] o ( )
h
-----------------------------------------
] o - h ( ) - ] o ( )
h
-----------------------------------------
IIm
h - 0
] b - h ( ) - ] b ( )
h
----------------------------------------
] b - h ( ) - ] b ( )
h
----------------------------------------
3z6
Tavnm opaaom, qynvnn ] aanopomo no npnnnmao1 cnooro
nanormoro ananonnn n 1onvax r o n r b. Opnavo qynv-
nn ], ypynn pnqqoponnpyomo na o1poavo [o, b, nnno1cn
n nonpopwnno na nom, noc1omy coracno 1oopomo Eoopm1-
pacca (cm. 1oopomy l n n. 6.l) npnnnmao1 n novo1opo 1onvo
- [o, b cnoo nanormoo ananonno. Coracno povaaannomy
= o n = b, copona1orno, - (o, b). Torpa, coracno 1oopo-
mo 4opma (cm. 1oopomy l n n. ll.l), nmoom ]() 0.
Anaornnno paccma1pnnao1cn cyna, vorpa ](o) 0,
](b) 0.
Ecn 1onopr qynvnn ] pnqqoponnpyoma na o1poavo
[o, b, ](o) c ](b), 1o qynvnn E(r) ](r) - cr 1avxo pnq-
qoponnpyoma na c1om o1poavo, E(r) ](r) - c n, copona-
1orno, E(o) ](o) - c 0, E(b) ](b) - c 0. Hoc1omy no
povaaannomy nwmo cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva - (o, b), n1o
E() 0, n1o pannocnrno 1omy, n1o ]() c.
Anaornnno paccma1pnnao1cn cyna ](o) c ](b).
VHPAHEHHH. 4. Hyc1r ](r) r
2
sIn npn r = 0, ](0) 0. Hpnmonnm v
c1o qynvnn na o1poavo [0, r qopmyy 7arpanxa:
r
2
sIn 2 sIn - cos r,
rpo 0 r. Covpa1nm oo nac1n panonc1na na r npn r = 0:
r sIn 2 sIn - cos .
Hopoxopn v npopoy npn r = 0 (npn c1om, ononnpno, = 0), noynaom
cos 0,
1av vav pna ppyrnx caraomwx, ononnpno, c1pomn1cn v nym. Emoc1o c 1om
npopo qynvnn cos npn c1pomonnn aprymon1a v nym no cymoc1nyo1!
Ipo omnva?
. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn pnqqoponnpyoma na nn1opnao n oo npo-
nanopnan npnnnmao1 ananonnn paanwx anavon, 1o cymoc1nyo1 1onva, n vo-
1opo nponanopnan opamao1cn n nyr.
6. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn pnqqoponnpyoma na nn1opnao n oo npo-
nanopnan no opamao1cn na nom n nyr, 1o qynvnn c1poro mono1onna.
3aaua 8. ovaaa1r, n1o mnoronon
P
n
(r)
l
r
---
l
r
---

---
l

---
,
_
l
r
---
l

---
l

---
IIm
0
l

---
l

---
l
2
n
n!
-------------
J
n
r
2
- l ( )
n
Jr
n
---------------------------------
3z7
(naawnaomw mnorononom 7oxanppa
l
) nmoo1 na nn1opnao (-l, l) n paa-
nnnwx poc1nn1ornwx vopno.
3aaua 9. ovaaa1r, n1o mnoronon
H
n
(r) (-l)
n

(naawnaomw mnorononom Howmona-0pmn1a
2
) nmoo1 n paannnwx
poc1nn1ornwx vopno, oxamnx na nn1opnao (- , ),
n l, 2, ... .
42.
Pcckp|Me ecnpe/e/ecceM
nc npcaM/y AcnMc/
Eo mnornx cynanx o1wcvanno npopoa qynvnn, aapanno
anan1nnocvn, npn c1pomonnn aprymon1a v novo1opo 1on-
vo (nncy nn v opno na ocvononnoc1o ~, -~ nn -~),
nwnonnomoo qopmarno nopc1anonvo coo1no1c1nymmoro
ananonnn nmoc1o aprymon1a n qopmyy, aapammym paccma1-
pnnaomym qynvnm, npnnopn1 v nwpaxonnnm nnpa , ,
0~, ~- ~, 0
0
, ~
0
nn l
~
. Onn naawnam1cn ueonpeoe
.euuocnn+u, 1av vav no nnm noran cypn1r o 1om, cymoc1ny-
o1 nn no1 yvaaannw npopo, no ronopn yxo o naxoxponnn
oro ananonnn (ocn on cymoc1nyo1). E c1om cynao nwnnco-
nno npopoa naawnao1cn 1avxo pocupmnue+ ueonpeoe.eu
uocnu.
Hapnpy c ocnonnwm npnomom naxoxponnn npopoon
qynvnn - mo1opom nwpoonnn ranno nac1n - cymoc1ny-
m1 n ppyrno cnocow o1wcvannn npopoon. Hovo1opwo na
nnx, nocnmno omoo naananno npoou. Jonuno.n
3
, mw nao-
xnm n c1om naparpaqo.
l
A. M. 7oxanpp (l?52-l833) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv.
2
H. 7. Howmon (l82l-l894) - pyccvn ma1oma1nv n moxannv;
H. 0pmn1 (l822-l894) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv.
3
I. 7onn1ar (l66l-l?04) - qpanyacvn ma1oma1nv.
e
r
2
J
n
e
- r
2
Jr
n
----------------------
2n - l 2n - l
0
0
---

----
3zS
42.4. HeonpepeAennoctM sMpo
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno quuuuu ](r) u g(r), onpeoe.euume uo
onpe:ue [o, b, nouoom, uno:
l) ](o) g(o) 0;
2) cecnovn npou:oooume (npooocnopouuue) ](o) u g(o),
npuue+ g(o) = 0.
Toeoo cecnoen npeoe.
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hpnmonnm mo1op nwpoonnn ranno
nac1n. E cny yconnn 2, nmoom (cm. n. 9.2)
](r) ](o) - ](o)(r - o) - o(r - o),
g(r) g(o) - g(o)(r - o) - o(r - o).
O1cmpa, coracno yconnm l, noynnm, n1o
](r) ](o)(r - o) - o(r - o),
g(r) g(o)(r - o) - o(r - o),
noc1omy
.
E 1oopomo l npopnoaraocr cymoc1nonanno nponanopnwx
n 1onvo o. ovaxom 1onopr 1oopomy, navym no copopxannm
v npopwpymo, n vo1opo, opnavo, no ypo1 npopnoara1rcn
cymoc1nonanno nponanopnwx ](o) n g(o).
I E O F E M A 2. Hcno quuuuu ](r) u g(r):
l) ouqqepeuuupe+m uo uunepoo.e (o, b);
2) ](r) g(r) 0;
3) g(r) = 0 o.n ocer r - (o, b);
4) cecnoen uoueuumu u.u ecuoueuumu, pooumu -~ u.u
-~, npeoe. .
Toeoo cecnoen npeoe. .
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. E cny yconn 1oopomw, qynvnn ] n
g no onpopoonw n 1onvo o; poonpoponm nx, nooxnn ](o)
g(o) 0. Tonopr ] n g nonpopwnnw n 1onvo o n ypono1nopn-
0
0
---
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] o ( )
g o ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r o + 0
] o ( ) -
o r - o ( )
r - o
----------------------
g o ( ) -
o r - o ( )
r - o
----------------------
--------------------------------------------
] o ( )
g o ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
IIm
r o + 0
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
3z9
m1 yconnnm 1oopomw Komn o cpopnom ananonnn (cm. n. ll.2)
na mom o1poavo [o, r, rpo o r b. Hoc1omy pn vaxporo
r, o r b, cymoc1nyo1 1avoo (r) - (o, r), n1o
, (l2.l)
npnnom (r) o.
Hoc1omy, ocn cymoc1nyo1 h, 1o na npanna
aamonw nopomonnoro pn npopoon qynvn copyo1, n1o cy-
moc1nyo1 n h. Tonopr na (l2.l) noynaom
h.
Toopomw l n 2 oc1am1cn nopnwmn c oc1oc1nonnwmn nnpo-
namononnnmn vav n cynao onoc1oponnoro, 1av n pnyc1opon-
noro npopoa.
I E O F E M A 3. Hcno quuuuu ] u g:
l) ouqqepeuuupe+m npu r c;
2) ](r) 0, g(r) 0;
3) g(r) = 0 o.n ocer r c;
4) cecnoen uoueuumu u.u ecuoueuumu, pooumu -~ u.u
-~, npeoe. .
Toeoo cecnoen u npeoe. .
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Boa orpannnonnn omnoc1n moxno
cnn1a1r, n1o c 0 (ocn c 0, 1o n vanoc1no nonoro ananonnn c
noarmom, nanpnmop, c l).
Ewnonnm aamony nopomonnoro r l,|. 4ynvnn (|)
] (l,|) n (|) g (l,|) onpopoonw na nn1opnao (0, l,c); oc-
n r = -~, 1o | = -0 n naoopo1. Ha nn1opnao (0, l,c) cy-
moc1nym1 nponanopnwo
(|) -] n (|) -g ,
rpo m1pnxom ooananonw nponanopnwo qynvn ] n g no nop-
nonanarnomy aprymon1y.
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] r ( ) - ] o ( )
g r ( ) - g o ( )
-------------------------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
] ( )
g' ( )
------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r o + 0
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
IIm
r -
IIm
r -
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
l
|
---
,
_
l
|
2
-----
l
|
---
,
_
l
|
2
-----
330
Ha cvaaannoro n yconn 1oopomw copyo1, n1o qynvnn
(|) n (|) ypono1nopnm1 na nn1opnao (0, l,c) yconnnm l), 2)
n 3) 1oopomw 2. Hovaxom omo, n1o na cymoc1nonannn npopoa
, vo1opw ooanannm nopoa h, copyo1 cymoc1nona-
nno npopoa n panonc1no oro h, 1. o. n1o nwnonn-
o1cn n yconno 4) 1oopomw 2. oc1nn1orno, ncnorayn noy-
nonnwo nwpaxonnn pn nponanopnwx (|) n (|), naxopnm
h.
Tonopr na 1oopomw 2, npnmononno v qynvnnm (|) n (|),
copyo1, n1o h. Ho
,
rpo r l,|, noc1omy
h.
01a 1oopoma oc1ao1cn nopno c coo1no1c1nymmnm nnpona-
mononnom n npn r = -~.
Hpannom 7onn1an naawnao1cn naxoxponno npopoa o1-
nomonn qynvn no qopmyo
,
rpo o - vononnan nn ocvononno ypaonnan 1onva nncono
ocn, a qynvnn ] n g aapanw no ncox 1onvax novo1opo oo pny-
c1oponno nn opnoc1oponno ovpoc1noc1n, vpomo camo
c1o 1onvn.
E cynao vononno 1onvn o npannom 7onn1an naawnao1cn
1avxo n naxoxponno npopoa o1nomonn qynvn no qopmyo
.
42.2. HeonpepeAennoctM sMpo
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno quuuuu ](r) u g(r):
l) ouqqepeuuupe+m uo uunepoo.e (o, b);
2) ](r) ~, g(r) ~;
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r + 0
| ( )
| ( )
-------------
IIm
| + 0
| ( )
| ( )
-------------
IIm
| + 0
] l | ( )
g l | ( )
--------------------
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
| + 0
| ( )
| ( )
-----------
| ( )
| ( )
-----------
] l | ( )
g l | ( )
------------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
| -
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
| + 0
| ( )
| ( )
-------------
IIm
r o
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r o
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] o ( )
g o ( )
-------------

IIm
r o + 0
IIm
r o + 0
331
3) g(r) = 0 uo (o, b);
4) cecnoen uoueuumu u.u ecuoueuumu, pooumu -~ u.u
-~, npeoe. .
Toeoo cecnoen u npeoe.
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r cymoc1nyo1 vononnw nn oc-
vononnw npopo
h. (l2.3)
Hovaxom, n1o npn nwnononnn oc1arnwx yconn 1oopomw
nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no
h. (l2.4)
Ecn o r r
0
b, 1o na o1poavo [r, r
0
qynvnn ] n g
ypono1nopnm1 yconnnm 1oopomw Komn (cm. 1oopomy 4 n
n. ll.2), noc1omy cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva (r
0
, r), n1o
, r r
0
. (l2.5)
aoo, n cny (l2.2), cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva r
l
r
l
(r
0
),
o r
l
r
0
, n1o npn ncox r - (o, r
l
) nwnonnm1cn nopanonc1na
](r) = 0, g(r) = 0, ](r) = ](r
0
) (l2.6)
n, copona1orno, moxno nwnonn1r poonno na ](r), g(r) n
l - (a 1avxo n na l - , nocvorvy, n cny yconn
1oopomw, g(r) = g(r
0
), cm. 1oopomy 4 n n. ll.2). n c1nx ana-
nonn r na (l2.5) nw1ovao1 panonc1no
,
o1vypa
. (l2.?)
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] r ( ) - ] r
0
( )
g r ( ) - g r
0
( )
----------------------------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
] r
0
( )
] r ( )
--------------
g r
0
( )
g r ( )
---------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
l -
] r
0
( )
] r ( )
--------------
l -
g r
0
( )
g r ( )
---------------
--------------------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
l -
g r
0
( )
g r ( )
---------------
l -
] r
0
( )
] r ( )
--------------
--------------------------
33z
E npano nac1n panonc1na nopnw comnoxn1or c1pomn1-
cn v h npn r
0
= o - 0, 1av vav o r
0
, a n1opo, n cny yco-
nnn (l2.2), c1pomn1cn v l npn r = o - 0 n qnvcnponannom r
0
:
l. (l2.8)
Honocpopc1nonno nopo1n v npopoy n panonc1no (l2.?)
noran, nocvorvy yvaaannwo nwmo npopornwo nopoxopw n
comnoxn1onx n npano nac1n panonc1na nponcxopn1 npn
paanwx yconnnx: npn r
0
= o - 0 n npn qnvcnponannom r
0
,
no r = o - 0. Opnavo ocn aapa1r nponanorno ovpoc1noc1r
U(h) npopoa h, 1o, n cny yconnn (l2.3), moxno cnanaa aa-
qnvcnpona1r 1onvy r
0
c1or navo v 1onvo o, n1o o1nomonno
nonapo1 n c1y ovpoc1noc1r, no o r
0
. Coracno xo
yconnm (l2.8), pn ncox 1onov r, poc1a1onno navnx v o, o1-
nomonno (cm. (l2.?)) 1avxo ypo1 npnnapoxa1r yvaaan-
no ovpoc1noc1n U(h), a c1o oananao1 cnpanopnnoc1r y1nopx-
ponnn (l2.4). Coc1nonno ronopn, 1oopoma povaaana n moxno
noc1ann1r anav .
Opnavo pn nono1w naoxonnn cpoaom novo1opwo po-
nonn1ornwo paa+ncnonnn, vo1opwo vaxpw, v1o poc1a1on-
no xopomo onapo npopmoc1nymmnm ma1opnaom, orvo mo-
xo1 nponoc1n camoc1on1orno.
Hyc1r cnanaa h - vononnw npopo. 3apapnm npona-
norno 0 n 1av aaqnvcnpyom r
0
, n1ow vpomo yconn
(l2.6) pn ncox r, o r r
0
, nwnonnocr nopanonc1no
- h . (l2.9)
(01o noamoxno n cny yconnn (l2.3).) Tavnm opaaom, ocn
nooxn1r
(r) - h, (l2.l0)
1o npn o r r
0
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
(r) . (l2.ll)
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
l -
g r
0
( )
g r ( )
-------------- -
l -
] r
0
( )
] r ( )
--------------
--------------------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------

3
---

do ] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------

3
---
333
Ecn
(r) - l, (l2.l2)
1o, coracno (l2.8),
(r) 0, (l2.l3)
noc1omy cymoc1nyo1 1avoo r
l
, o r
l
r
0
, n1o pn ncox 1onov
r - (o, r
l
) nmom1 moc1o nopanonc1na
(r) l, (r) . (l2.l4)
E cny qopmy (l2.?), (l2.l0), (l2.l2) nmoom
(h - ())(l - (r)),
noc1omy
- h () - h(r) - ()(r), o r
0
,
rpo npn o r r
l
nmoom
() - h(r) - ()(r)
() - h(r) - ()(r) - - ,
a c1o n oananao1 cnpanopnnoc1r panonc1na (l2.4).
Tav pacvpwnam1cn na nawvo nopanonc1n cpoannwo nw-
mo nwcvaawnannn o nwopo poc1a1onno navnx ananonn r
0
n r v 1onvo o, oocnonnnammnx nyxnym naoc1r o1nomonnn
v nncy h.
Paccmo1pnm 1onopr cyna ocvononnoro npopoa. Hyc1r
-~. Torpa n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onva o
nmoom ](r) = 0 (nonomy?) n, copona1orno, 0.
Hoc1omy, coracno povaaannomy nwmo, 0, o1-
vypa copyo1, n1o
~.

do
l -
g r
0
( )
g r ( )
---------------
l -
] r
0
( )
] r ( )
--------------
--------------------------
IIm
r o + 0
l
3 h - l ( )
--------------------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------

(l2.ll)
(l2.l4)

3
---
h
3 h - l ( )
--------------------------

3
---
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
g r ( )
] r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
g r ( )
] r ( )
------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
334
Ho nyxno povaaa1r ooo cnrnoo y1nopxponno, a nmonno n1o
c1o1 npopo panon -~. Hovaxom c1o.
3apapnm nponanorno nnco c 0. Ha yconnn (l2.3) npn
h -~ copyo1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo r
0
- (o, b), pn vo1opo-
ro npn ncox r - (o, r
0
), vpomo yconn (l2.6), ypo1 nwno-
nn1rcn omo nopanonc1no
2c. (l2.l5)
E cny xo yconnn (l2.8) nn pannocnrnoro omy yconnn
(l2.l3), cymoc1nyo1 1avoo r
l
, o r
l
r
0
, n1o pn ncox r,
o r r
l
, nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
l - (r) . (l2.l6)
Tonopr pn ncox r - (o, r
l
) nmoom (ncnomnnm, n1o o r
0
)
(l - (r)) 2c c.
01o oananao1, n1o -~. Cyna h -~ cnopn1cn
v cynam h -~ aamono qynvnn ](r) na qynvnm -](r).
Toopoma 4 nmoc1o c oo povaaa1orc1nom oc1ao1cn n cno c
oc1oc1nonnwmn nnponamononnnmn n npn r = o - 0, r = -~ n
r = -~, a 1avxo n cynao pnyc1oponnnx npopoon.
Moxno novaaa1r, n1o npn nwnononnn yconn l), 2) n 3),
nxopnmnx n mym na 1oopom 2, 3 nn 4, no moxo1 cy-
moc1nona1r npopo ~ oa cymoc1nonannn op-
noro na pnyx anavoonpopoonnwx ocvononnwx npopoon
-~ nn -~ (cm. paoo ynpax-
nonno 2 n n. l2.3). Tavnm opaaom, paccmo1ponw nco cynan
noonpopoonnoc1o nnpa .
Rp M ue p m. 4. Hapom , 0. 3amonan, n1o
(In r) , (r

) r
- l
n 0,
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
l
2
---
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------

(l2.?)
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
l -
g r
0
( )
g r ( )
---------------
l -
] r
0
( )
] r ( )
--------------
--------------------------

(l2.l2)
] ( )
g ( )
-------------

(l2.l5)
(l2.l6)
l
2
---
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r o + 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------

----
IIm
r -
r In
r

----------
l
r
---
IIm
r -
l r
r
- l
-------------------
IIm
r -
l
r

------
33
noynaom
0.
01o oananao1, n1o npn r = -~ qynvnn In r pac1o1 mop-
onnoo, nom man nooxn1ornan c1ononr nopomonno r.
Hnorpa npanno 7onn1an npnxopn1cn npnmonn1r no-
cvorvo paa.
2. Hapom , rpo n - na1yparnoo nnco n o l.
Hmoom
...
0. (l2.l?)
Tavnm opaaom, npn r = -~ man c1ononr r
n
pac1o1 mop-
onnoo, nom novaaa1ornan qynvnn o
r
, o l.
3. Copyo1 nmo1r n nnpy, n1o nwnnconnn no npanny 7o-
nn1an onpanpanw 1orvo n 1om cynao, vorpa n poayr1a1o
noynao1cn vononnw nn ocvononnw npopo. Tav, nanpn-
mop, wo w omnvo nannca1r
,
1av vav npopo

no cymoc1nyo1.
E camom poo, opn nocopona1ornoc1n 2n = -~ n
- 2n = -~ npn n = ~, noynaom
0, l.
Emoc1o c 1om aapannan n c1om cynao noonpopoonnoc1r mo-
xo1 w1r pacvpw1a comon1apno:
l.
IIm
r -
r In
r

----------
IIm
r -
r
n
o
r
------
IIm
r -
r
n
o
r
------
IIm
r -
r
n
( )
o
r
( )
-------------
IIm
r -
nr
n - l
o
r
o In
-------------------
IIm
r -
n!
o
r
In
n
o
-------------------
IIm
r
r - sIn r
r - sIn r
-------------------------
IIm
r
r - sIn r ( )
r - sIn r ( )
--------------------------------
IIm
r
r - sIn r ( )
r - sIn r ( )
--------------------------------
IIm
r
l - cos r
l - cos r
-------------------------
r
n
r
n

2
---
IIm
n
l - cos r
n
l - cos r
n
------------------------------
IIm
n
l - cos r
n
l - cos r
n
-------------------------------

----
IIm
r
r - sIn r
r - sIn r
-------------------------
IIm
r
l -
sIn r
r
-------------
l -
sIn r
r
-------------
-------------------------
336
VHPAHEHHE 1. Hyc1r ](r) r
2
sIn , g(r) sIn r. Ha1n n
povaaa1r, n1o n c1om cynao npanno 7onn1an nonpnmonnmo.
4. Moxo1 cynn1rcn, n1o npnmononno npanna 7onn1an
no ynpomao1 aapany o1wcvannn npopoa qynvnn. Hanpn-
mop, npnmonnn npanno 7onn1an pn nwnnconnn npopoa
, noynnm
,
1. o. noynncn npopo ppon, opa1no panno, 1. o. aapana
oc1aacr 1o xo. Emoc1o c 1om aapannw npopo orvo naxo-
pn1cn comon1apno:
l.
5. Hoonpopoonnoc1n 0
0
, ~
0
nn l
~
moxno pacvpw1r, npop-
napn1orno npoorapnqmnponan coo1no1c1nymmno qynvnn.
Hanpnmop, n1ow na1n r
r
, copyo1 na1n npopo:
r In r - - r 0.
Hoc1omy, n cny nonpopwnnoc1n novaaa1orno qynvnn,
r
r
e
r In r
l.
Hoonpopoonnoc1n nnpa 0 ~ n ~- ~ copyo1 npnnoc1n
v nnpy nn . Hpn c1om, vav n ncorpa npn npnmononnn
npanna 7onn1an, no xopy nwnnconn povomonpyo1cn
ynpoma1r noynammnocn nwpaxonnn. Honcnnm c1o na npn-
mopo.
. - cIg
2
r .
3amo1nm, n1o
.
Hpopo nopnoro comnoxn1on npano nac1n naxopn1cn nono-
cpopc1nonno:
l - cos r 2,
l
r
--- IIm
r 0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r -~
r
l - r
2
----------------------
IIm
r -~
r
l - r
2
---------------------- IIm
r -~
r
l - r
2
( )

----------------------------- IIm
r -~
l - r
2
r
----------------------
IIm
r -~
r
l - r
2
---------------------- IIm
r -~
l
l - l,r
2
-----------------------------
IIm
r + 0
IIm
r + 0
IIm
r + 0
r In
l r
-----------
IIm
l r
l r
2

--------------
IIm
r + 0
IIm
r + 0
IIm
r + 0
0
0
---

----
IIm
r 0
l
r
2
------

l
l
-
,
_
IIm
r 0
sIn
2
r - r
2
cos
2
r
r
2
sIn
2
r
---------------------------------------------
sIn
2
r - r
2
cos
2
r
r
2
sIn
2
r
---------------------------------------------
sIn r - rcos r
sIn r
----------------------------------------
sIn r - rcos r
r
2
sIn r
---------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
sIn r - rcos r
sIn r
----------------------------------------
IIm
r 0

r
sIn r
-------------
l
l
-
,
_
337
a npopo n1oporo - c nomomrm npann 7onn1an:

.
Tavnm opaaom, - cIg
2
r .
42.3. OoenMe nposMAo AonMtoAs
Vconopmonc1nonan povaaa1orc1no 1oopomw 4, moxno nova-
aa1r cnpanopnnoc1r npanna 7onn1an npn ooo cawx or-
pannnonnnx. Paccmo1pnm pn paanoopaann cyna, vorpa
aprymon1 c1pomn1cn v -~. Hpnnoponnoo nnxo naoxonno po-
vaaa1orc1na 1oopomw 5 npnnapoxn1 E. A. Xopavony.
I E O F E M A 5. Hcno quuuuu ](r) u g(r):
l) ouqqepeuuupe+m npu r o;
2) g(r) = 0 npu r o; (l2.l8)
3) g(r) ~; (l2.l9)
4) cecnoen uoueuumu u.u onpeoe.euuoeo :uouo ecuo
ueuumu npeoe. h.
Toeoo
h. (l2.20)
Kav n nwmo, moxno novaaa1r, n1o na yconn (l2.l8)-
(l2.20) copyo1, n1o ocn ~, 1o no
-~, no -~. Hoc1omy cyna
h ~ paccma1pnna1r no napo.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. l) Hyc1r cnanaa h = ~. 3aqnvcnpy-
om nponanorno 0. Ewopom 1avoo r
0
o, n1ow pn ncox
r r
0
nwnonnncr nopanonc1na g(r) 0 n
- h . (l2.2l)
IIm
r 0
sIn r - rcos r
r
2
sIn r
---------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
rsIn r
2r sIn r - r
2
cos r
----------------------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
l
2 -
r
sIn r
-------------
cos r
----------------------------------------
l
3
---
IIm
r 0
l
r
2
------

l
l
-
,
_
2
3
---
IIm
r -~
IIm
r -~
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r -~
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r -~
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r -~
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
IIm
r -~
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
=
(l2.l9)
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------

2
---
33S
Coracno 1oopomo Komn, pn vaxporo r r
0
cymoc1nyo1
1avoo (r, r
0
) r
0
, n1o
](r) [g(r) - g(r
0
) - ](r
0
).
O1cmpa
- h - h - ](r
0
) - g(r
0
) .
Hooxnn
(r) ](r
0
) - g(r
0
) ,
ypom nmo1r
- h - h - (r). (l2.22)
E cny yconnn (l2.2l), o1nomonno orpannnono npn
r r
0
. Copona1orno, (r) 0. Hoc1omy napo1cn
1avoo r
l
r
0
, n1o pn ncox r r
l
ypo1 nwnonn1rcn nopa-
nonc1no
(r) (l2.23)
n, 1avnm opaaom, npn r r
l
nopno nopanonc1no
- h - h - (r) - ,
a c1o n oananao1, n1o h.
2) Ecn, nanpnmop,
-~, (l2.24)
1o pn moro c 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avoo r
0
o, n1o pn ncox
r r
0
nwnonnm1cn nopanonc1na g(r) = 0 n
3c. (l2.25)
Coracno 1oopomo Komn, npn mom r r
0
nmoo1 moc1o
panonc1no
l - - ,
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
l
g r ( )
------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------

do l
g r ( )
---------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
2
-
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
2
-
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
2
-
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
IIm
r -

(l2.l9)

2
---
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
)
--
(l2.22)
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
)
-
(l2.2l)
(l2.23)

2
---

2
---
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
-------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
] ( )
g ( )
-------------
g r
0
( )
g r ( )
---------------
] r
0
( )
g r ( )
--------------
339
rpo (r
0
, r) r
0
. E cny yconnn (l2.l9), cymoc1nyo1 1a-
voo r
l
r
0
, n1o pn ncox r r
l
nwnonnm1cn nopanonc1na
l - , c, (l2.26)
copona1orno, n nopanonc1no
3c - c c.
01o n oananao1, n1o -~.
V1nopxponno 1oopomw pn h -~ copyo1 na cynan h
-~, napo nmr ](r) aamonn1r na -](r).
VHPAHEHHE z. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn ](r) n g(r) pnqqoponn-
pyomw na nn1opnao (o, b), g(r) = 0 na (o, b), n ~, 1o no
-~, no -~.
V v a a a n n o. Hooano nocnoraona1rcn ynpaxnonnnmn 5 n 6 n
n. ll.2.
43.
cp|y/c feM/cpc
43.4. 8msop opuyAm IeMAopo
Ecn qynvnn ](r) nmoo1 n 1onvo r
0
nponanopnym, 1o npn-
pamonno c1o qynvnn moxno npopc1ann1r n nnpo
^ A ^r - o (^r), ^r = 0,
rpo ^r r - r
0
, ^ ](r) -
0
,
0
](r
0
) n A ](r
0
), 1. o.
](r)
0
- A(r - r
0
) - o(r - r
0
), r = r
0
.
Hnano ronopn, cymoc1nyo1 nnonan qynvnn
P
l
(r)
0
- A(r - r
0
) (l3.l)
1avan, n1o
](r) P
l
(r) - o(r - r
0
), r = r
0
,
g r
0
( )
g r ( )
---------------
2
3
---
] r
0
( )
g r ( )
--------------
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------

(l2.25)
(l2.26)
2
3
---
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
--------------
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
--------------
IIm
r -
] r ( )
g r ( )
--------------
340
npnnom
P
l
(r
0
)
0
](r
0
), (r
0
) A ](r
0
).
Hoc1annm ooo omym aapany. Hyc1r qynvnn ] nmoo1 n
nponanopnwx n 1onvo r
0
. Tpoyo1cn nwncnn1r, cymoc1nyo1 n
mnoronon P
n
(r) c1ononn no nwmo n 1avo, n1o
](r) P
n
(r) - o((r - r
0
)
n
), r = r
0
, (l3.2)
n
](r
0
) P
n
(r
0
), ](r
0
) (r
0
), ... , ]
(n)
(r
0
) (r
0
). (l3.3)
Bypom ncva1r c1o1 mnoronon, no anaornn c qopmyo
(l3.l), n nnpo
P
n
(r) A
0
- A
l
(r - r
0
) - A
2
(r - r
0
)
2
- ... - A
n
(r - r
0
)
n
.
3amonan, n1o P
n
(r
0
) A
0
na nopnoro yconnn (l3.3), 1. o.
yconnn ](r
0
) P
n
(r
0
), nmoom A
0
](r
0
). aoo,
(r) A
l
- 2A
2
(r - r
0
) - ... - nA
n
(r - r
0
)
n - l
,
o1cmpa (r
0
) A
l
, n 1av vav (r
0
) ](r
0
), 1o
A
l
](r
0
). 3a1om napom n1opym nponanopnym mnoronona
P
n
(r):
(r) 2 l A
2
- ... - n(n - l)A
n
(r - r
0
)
n - 2
.
O1cmpa n na yconnn ](r
0
) (r
0
) noynnm A
2

n noomo
A
h
, h 0, l, 2, ... , n.
E cny camoro noc1poonnn, pn mnoronona
P
n
(r) ](r
0
) - ](r
0
)(r - r
0
) - ...
... - (r - r
0
)
h
- ... - (r - r
0
)
n
nwnononw nco coo1nomonnn (l3.3). Hponopnm, ypono1nopn-
o1 n on yconnm (l3.2).
Hyc1r
r
n
(r) ](r) - P
n
(r).
P
l
P
n
P
n
n ( )
P
n
P
n
P
n

(l3.3)
P
n

(l3.3)
P
n
] r
0
( )
2!
-----------------
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------
]
n ( )
r
0
( )
n!
---------------------

do
341
Kav yxo o1monaocr nwmo (cm. n. l0.l), na cymoc1nona-
nnn y qynvnn ] nponanopno nopnpva n n 1onvo r
0
copyo1,
coracno onpopoonnm c1o nponanopno, n1o y qynvnn ] n
novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan
nopnpva n - l, copona1orno, n nco nponanopnwo ooo nn-
avoro nopnpva. Hpn c1om, nocvorvy qynvnn, nmomman n
novo1opo 1onvo nponanopnym, nonpopwnna n c1o 1onvo, nco
nponanopnwo qynvnn ] po nopnpva n - l nvmnn1orno no-
npopwnnw n 1onvo r
0
. Hoc1omy y qynvnn r
n
(r) 1avxo n 1on-
vo r
0
cymoc1nym1 nponanopnwo po nopnpva n, a n novo1opo
ovpoc1noc1n c1o 1onvn nco nponanopnwo po nopnpva n - l
nvmnn1orno n onn nonpopwnnw n 1onvo r
0
.
Ha yconnn (l3.3) copyo1, n1o
r
n
(r
0
) (r
0
) ... (r
0
) 0. (l3.4)
E cny cnoc1n nponanopnwx qynvnn r
n
(r), pn pacvpw-
1nn noonpopoonnoc1n npn r = r
0
moxno npnmonn1r
npanno 7onn1an, a nmonno, cnanaa n - l paa 1oopomy 2 na
l2, a aa1om 1oopomy l na 1oro xo naparpaqa. E poayr1a1o
noynnm
...
... 0,
1. o. poc1nn1orno
r
n
(r) o((r - r
0
)
n
), r = r
0
.
H1av, povaaana copymman ononr naxnan 1oopoma.
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno quuuun ](r), onpeoe.euuon uo uunep
oo.e (o, b), u+een o nouue r
0
- (o, b) npou:oooume oo nopno
uo n ou.vuune.ouo. Toeoo npu r = r
0
](r) ](r
0
) - (r - r
0
) - ...
... - (r - r
0
)
n
- o((r - r
0
)
n
), (l3.5)
u.u
](r) (r - r
0
)
h
- o((r - r
0
)
n
).
r
n
r
n
n ( )
r
n
r ( )
r - r
0
( )
n
-------------------------
IIm
r r
0
r
n
r
0
( )
r - r
0
( )
n
-------------------------
IIm
r r
0
r
n
r ( )
n r - r
0
( )
n - l
--------------------------------------
IIm
r r
0
r
n
n - l ( )
r ( )
n! r - r
0
( )
----------------------------
r
n
n ( )
r
0
( )
n!
---------------------
] r
0
( )
l!
----------------
]
n ( )
r
0
( )
n!
---------------------

h 0
n
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------
34z
01a 1oopoma oc1ao1cn cnpanopnno nmoc1o c oo pova-
aa1orc1nom n pn qynvnn ], onpopoonno na o1poavo
[o, b npn r
0
- [o, b, ocn pn r
0
o n r
0
b nop nponanop-
nwmn nonnma1r coo1no1c1nymmno opnoc1oponnno nponanop-
nwo.
4opmya (l3.5) naawnao1cn qop+.ou Teu.opo
l
neo no
pnouo c ocnonouum+ u.euo+ o qop+e Heouo.
Mnoronon
P
n
(r) ](r
0
) - (r - r
0
) - ... - (r - r
0
)
n
(l3.6)
naawnao1cn +uoeou.euo+ Teu.opo cneneuu n, a qynvnn
r
n
(r) ](r) - P
n
(r) (l3.?)
- ocnonouum+ u.euo+ neo nopnouo qop+.m Teu.opo.
Kav novaaano, oc1a1onnw non r
n
(r) nnno1cn ocvononno
mawm npn r = r
0
ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom nco nonw
mnoronona Toopa (l3.6).
Hpnnopom ppyro nnp aanncn qopmyw (l3.5). Hooxnn
r - r
0
^r, ^ ](r
0
- ^r) - ](r
0
),
noynnm
^ ^r
h
- o(^r), ^r = 0. (l3.5)
Ecn n qopmyo (l3.5) r
0
0, 1o noynao1cn nac1nw
nnp qopmyw Toopa, naawnaomw ownno qop+.ou Mou
.opeuo
2
:
](r) r
h
- o(r
n
), r = 0. (l3.8)
ovaaannan 1oopoma noanono1 mym qynvnm, ypon-
o1nopnmmym yconnnm c1o 1oopomw, aamonn1r n ovpoc1-
noc1n novo1opo 1onvn mnorononom c 1onnoc1rm po ocvo-
nonno mawx ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom nonw mnorono-
na. Tavnm mnorononom nnno1cn mnoronon Toopa.
Eonnnna norpomnoc1n onpopono1cn npn c1om oc1a1onnwm
nonom.
l
B. Toop (l685-l?3l) - anrncvn ma1oma1nv.
2
K. Mavopon (l698-l?46) - mo1anpcvn ma1oma1nv.
] r
0
( )
n!
----------------
]
n ( )
r ( )
n!
------------------

h l
n
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------

h l
n
]
h ( )
0 ( )
h!
-----------------
343
4opmya Toopa c oc1a1onnwm nonom n qopmo Hoano pa-
o1 omn mo1op nwpoonnn ranno nac1n qynvnn n ovpoc1-
noc1n panno 1onvn. Ha c1om oc1on1orc1no n ocnonanw mno-
ronnconnwo n paanoopaanwo npnoxonnn qopmyw (l3.5) n
paannnwx nonpocax ananaa.
O1mo1nm nooanoo copc1nno na 1oopomw l.
C A E p C I 8 H E. Hcno quuuun ](r) onpeoe.euo uo uunepoo.e
(o, b), u ncno o nouue r ouo u+een npou:oooume oo nopno
uo n - l ou.vuune.ouo. Toeoo
](r) (r - r
0
)
h
- O(r - r
0
)
n - l
, r = r
0
. (l3.9)
oc1nn1orno, n cny 1oopomw l, npn r = r
0
](r) (r - r
0
)
h
- o((r - r
0
)
n - l
) (l3.l0)
n, nocvorvy npn r = r
0
(r - r
0
)
n - l
- o((r - r
0
)
n - l
) O((r - r
0
)
n - l
),
na qopmyw (l3.l0) nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 qopmya
(l3.9).
VHPAHEHHE 1. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn ](r) n novo1opo ovpoc1-
noc1n 1onvn r
0
nmoo1 nponanopnym nopnpva n, 1o, vavonw w nn wn 1on-
va r c1o ovpoc1noc1n n qynvnn (|), nonpopwnnan na o1poavo c vonamn
n 1onvax r
0
n r, nmomman no pannym nym nponanopnym nny1pn c1oro o1-
poava, napo1cn 1avan 1onva , oxaman moxpy r
0
n r, n1o pn oc1a1onno-
ro nona r
n - l
(r) qopmyw Toopa qynvnn ](r) nmoo1 moc1o qopmya
r
n - l
(r) (r - )
n - l
, n l, 2, ... .
Hoynn1r o1cmpa copymmno nnpw aanncn oc1a1onnoro nona:
r
n - l
(r) (r - r
0
)
p
(r - )
n - p
, p 0 (qopma Homnrxa-Poma
l
);
r
n - l
(r) (r - r
0
)
n
(qopma 7arpanxa);
r
n - l
(r) (l - )
n - l
(r - r
0
)
n
, 0 l (qopma Komn).
l
O. Homnrx (l823-l90l) - nomovn ma1oma1nv; 0. Pom (l820-
l883) - qpanyacvn ac1ponom n ma1oma1nv.

h 0
n
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------

h l
n - l
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------
]
n - l ( )
r
0
( )
n - l ( )!
------------------------------
r ( ) - r
0
( )
' ( )
------------------------------------
]
n ( )
( )
n - l ( )!
---------------------
]
n ( )
( )
n - l ( )!p
-------------------------
]
n ( )
( )
n!
------------------
]
n ( )
r
0
- r - r
0
( ) [ ]
n - l ( )!
--------------------------------------------------------
344
V v a a a n n o. Paccmo1po1r ncnomora1ornym qynvnm
(|) ](r) - (r - |)
h
n npnmonn1r v qynvnnm n 1oopomy Komn o cpopnom ananonnn. n
nwnopa oc1a1onnoro nona n nnpo Homnrxa-Poma nooxn1r (|)
(r - |)
p
.
43.2. MnoroAen IeMAopo kok unoroAen noMAymero
npMAMxenMs ynkMM s okpectnoctM ponnoM tokM
3amo1nm npopnapn1orno, n1o, ononnpno, ncnvn mnoronon
P
n
(r) o
h
r
h
(l3.ll)
moxo1 w1r npopc1anon pn moro r
0
n nnpo
P
n
(r) A
h
(r - r
0
)
h
. (l3.l2)
E camom poo, poc1a1onno n (l3.ll) nooxn1r r r
0
- h
n paaoxn1r npanym nac1r no c1ononnm h; 1orpa P
n
(r)
A
0
- A
l
h - ... - A
n
h
n
, rpo h r - r
0
, 1. o. noynnacr qop-
mya (l3.l2).
ovaxom 1onopr opnnc1nonnoc1r mnoronona, oapam-
moro cnoc1nom (l3.2).
I E O F E M A 2. Hcno quuuun ] ouqqepeuuupe+o oo nopno
uo n ou.vuune.ouo o nouue r
0
, u ncno
](r) P
n
(r) - o((r - r
0
)
n
), r = r
0
, (l3.l3)
eoe P
n
(r) o
h
(r - r
0
)
h
- ueuonopmu +uoeou.eu cneneuu,
+euoueu u.u poouou n. Toeoo
o
h
, h 0, l, ... , n, (l3.l4)
n. e. P
n
(r) no.nencn +uoeou.euo+ Teu.opo.
Hnano ronopn, nnvavo mnoronon c1ononn, monrmo
nn panno n, o1nnnw o1 mnoronona Toopa nopnpva n,
no moxo1 npnnxa1r pannym qynvnm c 1onnoc1rm po
o((r - r
0
)
n
) npn r = r
0
(a noc1omy n c ooo nwcovo 1onno-
c1rm o((r - r
0
)
n
)n n, nocvorvy npn n n nmoo1 moc1o co-

h 0
n - l
]
h ( )
| ( )
h!
----------------

h 0
n

h 0
n

h 0
n
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------
34
o1nomonno o((r - r
0
)
n
) o((r - r
0
)
n
, r = r
0
, - nanomnnm, n1o
noponwo qopmyw nn1am1cn 1orvo cona nanpano). Tavnm
opaaom, mnoronon Toopa nnno1cn opnnc1nonnwm mnoro-
nonom, oapammnm cnoc1nom (l3.l3), nco oc1arnwo mno-
rononw 1o xo c1ononn nn monrmo xyxo npnnxam1
qynvnm ] npn r = r
0
. Hmonno n c1om cmwco n ronopn1, n1o
mnoronon Toopa nnno1cn mnorononom nanynmoro npn-
nxonnn paccma1pnnaomo qynvnn n ovpoc1noc1n panno
1onvn r
0
npn r = r
0
.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ha qopmy (l3.5) n (l3.l3) copyo1, n1o
(r - r
0
)
h
- o((r - r
0
)
n
)
o
h
(r - r
0
)
h
- o((r - r
0
)
n
), r = r
0
,
o1vypa, nopopn v npopoy npn r = r
0
, noynnm o
0
](r
0
).
O1pacwnan cona n cnpana c1o1 non, covpaman oc1anmnocn
n oonx nac1nx nwpaxonnn na mnoxn1or r - r
0
(r = r
0
) n aa-
monan, n1o
o((r - r
0
)
n
) (r)(r - r
0
)
n
,
rpo (r) 0, copona1orno, npn r = r
0
nmoo1 moc1o pa-
nonc1no
(r)(r - r
0
)
n - l
o((r - r
0
)
n - l
),
r = r
0
, n l, 2, ... ,
noynnm
(r - r
0
)
h - l
- o((r - r
0
)
n - l
)
o
h
(r - r
0
)
h - l
- o((r - r
0
)
n - l
), r = r
0
.
Hopoxopn cnona v npopoy npn r = r
0
, naxopnm o
l
](r
0
).
Hpopoxan c1o1 npoocc, noynaom
o
h
, h 0, l, 2, ... , n.
Epnnc1nonnoc1r npopc1anonnn qynvnn n nnpo (l3.l3)
moxo1 w1r nnorpa ncnoraonana pn oo paaoxonnn no qop-
myo Toopa. Hmonno: ocn ypao1cn vavnm-no vocnonnwm

h 0
n
]
h
r
0
( )
h!
-----------------

h 0
n
IIm
r r
0
o r - r
0
( )
n
( )
r - r
0
---------------------------------

h l
n
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------

h l
n
]
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
--------------------
346
ny1om noynn1r npopc1anonno (l3.l3), 1o, n cny 1oopomw 2,
moxno y1nopxpa1r, n1o c1o n oc1r paaoxonno no qopmyo
Toopa (l3.5), 1. o. n1o vocqqnnon1w naponnoro mnoro-
nona nwpaxam1cn no qopmyam (l3.l4).
Tav, nanpnmop, coo1nomonno (l3.l2) npopc1anno1 coo
paaoxonno mnoronona (l3.ll) no qopmyo Toopa, npnnom
n c1om cynao r
n
(r) 0, noc1omy, n cny opnnc1nonnoc1n mno-
ronona, ypono1nopnmmoro yconnm (l3.l3), vocqqnnon1w
mnoronona (l3.l2) nmom1 nnp
A
h
.
Tavnm opaaom,
P
n
(r) (r - r
0
)
h
. (l3.l5)
O1mo1nm, n1o na 1oro, n1o mnoronon (l3.l2) connapao1 co
cnonm mnorononom Toopa (l3.l5), n cny opnnc1nonnoc1n
npopc1anonnn qynvnn n nnpo (l3.l3), copyo1, n1o ocn pna
mnoronona npnnnmam1 opnnavonwo ananonnn na vavom-nn-
ypr nn1opnao nncono ocn, 1o nco nx vocqqnnon1w opn-
navonw.
Hyc1r 1poyo1cn paaoxn1r no qopmyo Toopa qynv-
nm ](r) n ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
0. 3amonan, n1o
oc1r no n1o nnoo, vav cymma ocvononno roomo1pnno-
cvo nporpoccnn l - r - r
2
- ... - r
n
- ... , r l, n
nooxnn r
n
(r) r
n - l
- r
n - 2
- ... , r l, noynnm
l - r - ... - r
n
- r
n
(r),
rpo r
n
(r) O(r
n - l
) n, anann1, r
n
(r) o(r
n
) npn r = 0. Tavnm
opaaom, npopc1anonno
l - r - ... - r
n
- o(r
n
) r
h
- o(r
n
), r = 0,
n oc1r paaoxonno qynvnn no qopmyo Toopa n ov-
poc1noc1n nyn.
P
n
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
----------------------

h 0
n
P
n
h ( )
r
0
( )
h!
----------------------
l
l - r
--------------
l
l - r
--------------
l
l - r
--------------
r
n - l
l - r
---------------
l
l - r
--------------
l
l - r
--------------
h 0
n
l
l - r
--------------
347
43.3. OopuyAm IeMAopo
pAs ocnosnmx aAeuentopnmx ynkMM
l. ](r) sIn r. 4ynvnn sIn r oapao1 nponanopnwmn ncox
nopnpvon. Hapom pn noo qopmyy Toopa npn r
0
0, 1. o.
qopmyy Mavopona (l3.8). Bwo povaaano (cm. n. l0.l), n1o
(sIn r)
(n)
sIn r - n , noc1omy
]
(n)
(0) sIn h 0, l, 2, ... , (l3.l6)
n, coracno qopmyo (l3.5),
sIn r r - - - - ... - (-l)
n
- o(r
2n - 2
),
npn r = 0, n 0, l, 2, ... , nn, vopono,
sIn r (-l)
h
- o(r
2n - 2
) npn r = 0.
Mw aanncan apocr oc1a1onnw non n nnpo o(r
2n - 2
), a no n
nnpo o(r
2n - l
), 1av vav copymmn aa nocopnnm nwnncan-
nwm caraomwm non mnoronona Toopa, n cny (l3.l6),
panon nym.
2. ](r) cos r. Kav nanoc1no (cm. n. l0.l),
]
(n)
(r) cos r - ,
noc1omy
]
(n)
(0) cos h 0, l, 2, ... ,
n
cos r l - - - - ... - (-l)
n
- o(r
2n - l
),
npn r = 0, nn, vopono,
cos r (-l)
h
- o(r
2n - l
)
npn r = 0, n 0, l, 2, ... .
3. ](r) e
r
. Tav vav (e
r
)
(n)
e
r
, 1o ]
(n)
(0) l, n 0, l, ... ,
copona1orno,
e
r
l - r - - - ... - - o(r
n
), (l3.l?)


2
---
,
_
n
2
--------
0 pn n 2h,
(-l)
h
pn n 2h - l,
r
3
3!
------
r
5
5!
------
r
?
?!
------
r
2n - l
2n - l ( )!
-------------------------

h 0
n
r
2h - l
2h - l ( )!
-------------------------

n
2
--------
,
_
n
2
--------
0
(-l)
h
pn n 2h - l,
pn n 2h,
r
2
2!
------
r
4
4!
------
r
6
6!
------
r
2n
2n ( )!
--------------

h 0
n
r
2h
2h ( )!
--------------
r
2
2!
------
r
3
3!
------
r
n
n!
------
34S
npn r = 0, n 0, l, 2, ... , nn, vopono,
e
r
- o(r
n
) npn r = 0.
O1cmpa, aamonnn r nopoa -r, noynnm
e
-r
(-l)
h
- o(r
n
) (l3.l8)
npn r = 0, n 0, l, 2, ... .
4. sI r n cI r . Coxnn n nwn1n
(l3.l?) n (l3.l8), npn r = 0, n 0, l, 2, ... ypom nmo1r
sI r - o(r
2n - 2
), cI r - o(r
2n - l
).
E cny opnnc1nonnoc1n npopc1anonnn qynvnn n yvaaan-
nom nnpo (cm. n. l3.2), noynonnwo coo1nomonnn nnnm1cn
qopmyamn Toopa pn qynvn sI r n cI r.
5. ](r) (l - r)

, rpo - novo1opoo qnvcnponannoo nnc-


o, a r ` -l. Tav vav
]
(n)
(r) ( - l) ... ( - n - l)(l - r)
- n
,
1o
]
(n)
(0) ( - l) ... ( - n - l),
copona1orno,
(l - r)

l - r - r
2
-
- r
3
- ... - r
n
- o(r
n
)
npn r = 0, nn, vopono,
(l - r)

l - r
h
- o(r
n
)
npn r = 0, n l, 2, ... . (l3.l9)
Ecn n - noo1pna1ornoo ooo (n 0, l, 2, ...), 1o
qynvnn ](r) (l - r)
n
nnno1cn mnorononom c1ononn n, n
nmoo1 moc1o 1oxoc1no
](r) Q
n
(r) - o((r - r
0
)
n
), r = r
0
,

h 0
n
r
h
h!
------

h 0
n
r
h
h!
------
e
r
- e
- r
2
------------------------
e
r
- e
- r
2
-------------------------

h 0
n
r
2h - l
2h - l ( )!
-------------------------
h 0
n
r
2h
2h ( )!
--------------
- l ( )
2
-----------------------
- l ( ) - 2 ( )
3!
-------------------------------------------
- l ( ) - n - l ( )
n!
-------------------------------------------------------------

h l
n
- l ( ) - h - l ( )
h!
-------------------------------------------------------------
349
rpo Q
n
(r) (l - r)
n
- mnoronon c1ononn n n o((r - r
0
)
n
) 0.
Hoc1omy, n cny 1oopomw 2, mnoronon Q
n
(r) nnno1cn mnoro-
nonom Toopa qynvnn (l - r)
n
n, coracno (l3.l9),
(l - r)
n
r
h
r
h
.
Tom camwm omo paa povaaana qopmya nnoma Hrm1ona
(cm. n. 2.?).
6. ](r) In (l - r). 7orvo nnpo1r, n1o
](r) (l - r)
-l
, ](r) -(l - r)
-2
n, noomo, ]
(h)
(r) (-l)
h - l
(h - l)!(l - r)
-h
, h l, 2, ... .
Hoc1omy ]
(h)
(0) (-l)
h - l
(h - l)!, h l, 2, ... , n, 1av vav
](0) 0, 1o
In (l - r) r - - ... - (-l)
n - l
- o(r
n
)
npn r = 0, n l, 2, ... , nn, vopono,
In (l - r) (-l)
h - l
- o(r
n
) npn r = 0, n l, 2, ... .
3 a m o n a n n o l. E cny copc1nnn 1oopomw l, noynon-
nwo qopmyw moxno aannca1r, ncnorayn cnmno O (O or-
moo), copymmnm opaaom:
sIn r (-l)
h
- O(r
2n - 3
),
cos r (-l)
h
- O(r
2n - 2
),
e
r
- O(r
n - l
),
sI r - O(r
2n - 3
),
cI r - O(r
2n - 2
), n 0, l, 2, ... ,
(l - r)

l - r
h
- O(r
n - l
),
In (l - r) (-l)
h - l
- O(r
n - l
), n l, 2, ... ,
npn r = r
0
.

h 0
n
n n - l ( ) n - h - l ( )
h!
-------------------------------------------------------------
h 0
n
C
n
h
l
l - r
--------------
r
2
2
------
r
n
n
------

h l
n
r
h
h
------

h 0
n
r
2h - l
2h - l ( )!
-------------------------

h 0
n
r
2h
2h ( )!
--------------

h 0
n
r
h
h!
------

h 0
n
r
2h - l
2h - l ( )!
-------------------------

h 0
n
r
2h
2h ( )!
--------------

h l
n
- l ( ) - h - l ( )
h!
-------------------------------------------------------------

h l
n
r
h
h
------
30
Tavan aanncr qopmy Toopa n novo1opwx nonpocax ova-
awnao1cn ooo ypono, nom nx aanncr c cnmnoom o (o ma-
onrvoo).
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ha noynonnwx paaoxonn comon-
1apnwx qynvn no qopmyo Toopa n ovpoc1noc1n nyn
moxno c nomomrm nnono aamonw nopomonnoro noyna1r n
nx paaoxonnn n ovpoc1noc1n mo 1onvn, npnnapoxamo
nx oac1n onpopoonnn.
Hanpnmop, paaoxnm c nomomrm c1oro mo1opa no qopmy-
o Toopa c oc1a1onnwm nonom n qopmo Hoano qynvnm
](r) n ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
l. Hooxnn r l - | n
npnmonnn qopmyy (l3.l9), noynnm
(l - |)
l,5
l - | - - l |
2
- - l - 2 |
3
-
- ... - - l - 2 ... - n - l |
n
- o(|
n
)
l - (r - l) - (r - l)
2
- (r - l)
3
- ...
... - (r - l)
n
- o((r - l)
n
)
npn r = l (nn, n1o 1o xo camoo, npn | = 0). 01o n oc1r ncvo-
moo paaoxonno.
3 a m o n a n n o 3. Komnnnpyn yvaaannwo nwmo paao-
xonnn qynvn, moxno nwpon1r rannym nac1r (cm. n. 8.4)
paannnwx comon1apnwx qynvn n ovpoc1noc1nx 1ox 1o-
nov, npn c1pomonnn aprymon1a v vo1opwm qynvnn c1po-
mn1cn v nym nn v ocvononnoc1n, - c1n cynan nc1ponam1-
cn nanooo nac1o.
E vanoc1no npnmopa nwponm rannym nac1r qynvnn
cIg r npn r = 0 po nopnpva O(r
3
):
cIg r
l - - O(r
4
) l - - O(r
4
)
l - - O(r
4
) l - - O(r
4
) - O - - O(r
4
)
l - - - O(r
4
) - r - O(r
3
), r = 0.
r
5
r
5
l
5
---
l
2!
-----
l
5
---
l
5
---

,
_
l
3!
-----
l
5
---
l
5
---

,
_
l
5
---

,
_
l
n!
-----
l
5
---
l
5
---

,
_
l
5
---

,
_
l
5
---

,
_
l
5
---
l 4
2 5
2

--------------
l 4 9
3!5
3
-------------------
- l ( )
n
l 4 9 5n - 6 ( )
n!5
n
--------------------------------------------------------------------
cos r
sIn r
--------------
l -
r
2
2
------
- O r
4
( )
r -
r
3
6
------
- O r
5
( )
------------------------------------------
l
r
---
r
2
2
------ -
r
2
6
------
- l
l
r
---
r
2
2
------ --
r
2
6
------

r
2
6
------ --
,
_
2
,
_
--
l
r
---
r
2
6
------
r
2
2
------ --
l
r
---
l
3
---
31
3pocr wn ncnoraonanw paaoxonnn no qopmyo Toopa:
vocnnyca
cos r l - - O(r
4
), r = 0,
cnnyca
sIn r r - - O(r
5
), r = 0,
nnoma
(l - u)

l - u - O(u
2
)
npn -l n u - - O(r
4
), r = 0.
43.4. 8mMcAenMe npepeAos
c nouoom opuyAm IeMAopo
(uetop smpeAenMs rAosnoM octM)
4opmya Toopa pao1 npoc1oo n nocrma omoo npanno pn nw-
poonnn ranno nac1n qynvnn. E poayr1a1o c1oro mo1op nw-
nnconnn npopoon qynvn c nomomrm nwpoonnn ranno
nac1n npnopo1ao1 aavonnonnw aropn1mnnocvn xapav1op.
Paccmo1pnm cnanaa cyna noonpopoonnoc1n nnpa .
Hyc1r 1poyo1cn na1n npopo , rpo ](r)
g(r) 0. E c1om cynao povomonpyo1cn paaoxn1r no
qopmyo Toopa qynvnn ] n g n ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
(oc-
n, vononno, c1o noamoxno), orpannnnnmncr n c1om paaoxo-
nnn nmr nopnwmn no pannwmn nym nonamn, 1. o. nan1r
paaoxonnn n nnpo
](r) o(r - r
0
)
n
- o((r - r
0
)
n
), o = 0,
g(r) b(r - r
0
)
n
- o((r - r
0
)
n
), b = 0,
1orpa

(r - r
0
)
n - n

r
2
2
------
r
3
6
------
r
2
6
------
0
0
---
IIm
r r
0

] r ( )
g r ( )
------------ IIm
r r
0

IIm
r r
0

IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
o r - r
0
( )
n
- o r - r
0
( )
n
( )
b r - r
0
( )
n
- o r - r
0
( )
n
( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------
o
b
---
IIm
r r
0
0, ocn n n,
, ocn n n,
~, ocn n n.
o
b
---
3z
Hac1o wnao1 ypono pn paaoxonnn qynvn ] n g no
qopmyo Toopa ncnoraona1r ro1onw naop paaoxonn
comon1apnwx qynvn, noynonnw n n. l3.3. n c1oro
copyo1 n cynao r
0
= 0 npopnapn1orno nwnonn1r aamony
nopomonnoro | r - r
0
; 1orpa r = r
0
ypo1 coo1no1c1nona1r
| = 0. Cyna r = ~ aamono nopomonnoro r cnopn1cn
v cynam | = 0.
Ecn nmoo1cn noonpopoonnoc1r nnpa , 1. o. 1poyo1cn
na1n , rpo ](r) g(r) ~, 1o oo orvo
npnnoc1n v paccmo1ponnomy cynam npoopaaonannom
.
Hopono nwnnconnm npopoon c nomomrm npanna 7o-
nn1an, npn npnmononnn mo1opa nwpoonnn ranno nac1n v
pacvpw1nm noonpopoonnoc1o nnpa 0 ~ n ~ - ~ nx copy-
o1 npoopaaona1r v noonpopoonnoc1n nnpa . Havono, pn
pacvpw1nn noonpopoonnoc1o nnpa 0
0
, ~
0
n l
~
yvaaannwm
mo1opom nooxopnmo npopnapn1orno npoorapnqmnpona1r
paccma1pnnaomwo qynvnn. Hocmo1pnm na npnmopax, vav
npnmonno1cn qopmya Toopa v nwnnconnm npopoon
qynvn. Hyc1r 1poyo1cn na1n
.
3amo1nn, n1o (cm. n. l3.3)
e
r
l - r - r
2
,2 - r
3
,3 - o(r
3
),
e
-r
l - r - r
2
,2 - r
3
,3 - o(r
3
),
sIn r r - r
3
,3! - o(r
3
),
noynnm

2.
l,|

----
IIm
r r
0
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
IIm
r r
0
IIm
r r
0
0
0
---
] r ( )
g r ( )
------------
l g r ( )
l ] r ( )
-------------------
0
0
---
IIm
r r
0
e
r
- e
- r
- 2r
r - sIn r
---------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
e
r
- e
- r
- 2r
r - sIn r
---------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
r
3
3 - o r
3
( )
r
3
6 - o r
3
( )
------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
r
3
3
r
3
6
--------------
33
Paccmo1pnm noonpopoonnoc1r nnpa ~ - ~:
-

- .
E vanoc1no nocopnoro npnmopa nwnncnm npopo
, 1. o. pacvpoom noonpopoonnoc1r nnpa l
~
. Co-
racno omomy npanny, napom npopo orapnqma nwpaxo-
nnn, c1onmoro nop anavom npopoa:
In
0.
Copona1orno,
l.
44.
lcc/e/cacMe ncae/eM qykuMM
44.4. RpMsnok uonotonnoctM ynkMM
Onnmom cnoc1no mono1onnoc1n qynvnn c nomomrm oo npo-
nanopno.
I E O F E M A 4. ].n noeo unom uenpepmouon uo ueuonopo+
npo+enue quuuun, ouqqepeuuupe+on oo ocer eeo oun
peuuur nouuor, oo:pocno.o (moo.o) uo ono+ npo+en
ue, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo, unom npou:ooouon quu
uuu m.o oo ocer ounpeuuur nouuor npo+enuo ueon
puuone.ouo (ueno.oune.ouo).
IIm
r 0
l
r
2
------

l
sIn
2
r
---------------
,
_
IIm
r 0
sIn
2
r - r
2
r
2
sIn
2
r
-----------------------------
IIm
r 0
r - r
3
,6 - o r
3
( ) [ ]
2
- r
2
r
2
r - o r ( ) [ ]
2
--------------------------------------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
- r
4
,3 - o r
4
( )
r
2
r
2
- o r
2
( ) [ ]
-------------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
- r
4
,3 - o r
4
( )
r
4
- o r
4
( )
-------------------------------------------
IIm
r 0
- r
4
,3
r
4
--------------------
l
3
---
IIm
r 0
sIn r
r
-------------
,
_
l,r
IIm
r 0
l
r
---
sIn r
r
-------------
IIm
r 0
r - o r
2
( )
r
-------------------------- In
r
---------------------------------
IIm
r 0
l - o r ( ) ( ) In
r
----------------------------------
IIm
r 0
o r ( )
r
-----------
IIm
r 0
sIn r
r
-------------
,
_
l
r
---
e

l
r
---
sIn r
r
-------------- In
r 0
IIm
34
Ec.u oo ocer ounpeuuur nouuor npo+enuo npou:ooouon
quuuuu no.oune.ouo (onpuuone.ouo), no quuuun cnpo
eo oo:pocnoen (cnpoeo mooen) uo ono+ npo+enue.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c e c G x c / M | c c M. Ecn qynvnn ]
noapac1ao1 (ywnao1) na npomoxy1vo ^ (o1poavo, nn1opnao
nn noynn1opnao) c vonamn n 1onvax o n b, ocn r
0
- ^,
^r 0, r
0
- ^r - ^, 1o ](r
0
- ^r) . ](r
0
) (coo1no1c1nonno
](r
0
- ^r) ](r
0
)), noc1omy ^ ](r
0
- ^r) - ](r
0
) . 0 (coo1-
no1c1nonno ^ 0).
Copona1orno, . 0 coo1no1c1nonno 0 . Hopopn
v npopoy npn ^r = 0, noynnm ](r
0
) . 0 (coo1no1c1nonno
](r
0
) 0).
/ c k c s c e / | c a c / c c c c c c M. Hyc1r r
l
r
2
,
r
l
- ^, r
2
- ^, 1orpa no qopmyo 7arpanxa (cm. n. ll.2),
](r
2
) - ](r
l
) ]()(r
2
- r
l
), rpo r
l
r
2
. Tav vav r
2
- r
l
0, 1o
npn ](r) . 0 na (o, b) (o1vypa copyo1, n1o, n nac1noc1n,
]() . 0) ypom nmo1r ](r
2
) . ](r
l
), 1. o. qynvnn ] noapac1ao1.
Anaornnno, npn ](r) 0 na (o, b) nmoom ]() 0 n, copona-
1orno, ](r
2
) ](r
l
), 1. o. qynvnn ] ywnao1.
Ecn ](r) 0 na (o, b), 1o ]() 0 n noc1omy ](r
2
)
](r
l
), 1. o. qynvnn ] c1poro noapac1ao1. Ecn xo ](r) 0
na (o, b), 1o ]() 0, copona1orno, ](r
2
) ](r
l
), 1. o. qynv-
nn ] c1poro ywnao1.
O1mo1nm, n1o yconnn ](r) 0 n ](r) 0 no nnnm1cn no-
oxopnmwmn pn c1pororo noapac1annn (c1pororo ywnannn)
pnqqoponnpyomo na nn1opnao qynvnn, n1o novaawnam1
npnmopw qynvn ]
l
(r) r
3
n ]
2
(r) -r
3
. Hopnan na nnx
c1poro noapac1ao1, a n1opan c1poro ywnao1 na nco nncono
ocn, no npn r 0 nx nponanopnwo opamam1cn n nyr.
Anaornnnan 1oopoma nopna pn nonpopwnnwx qynvn,
no nmommnx n vononnom nnco 1onov nponanopno. V1nopx-
ponno n1opo nac1n 1oopomw oc1ao1cn n cno, ocn, vpomo
1oro, n vononnom nnco 1onov nponanopnan opamao1cn n
nyr. Hanpnmop,
ec.u quuuun uenpepmouo uo ueuonopo+ uunepoo.e u
u+een ocvo o ue+ no.oune.ouv (onpuuone.ouv) npo

r
-------


r
-------
,
_
3
u:ooouv, upo+e, mno +oen, uoueuuoeo uuc.o noueu, o
uonopmr npou:ooouon opooencn o u.o u.u ue cecno
en, no quuuun cnpoeo oo:pocnoen (cnpoeo mooen) uo
pocc+onpuooe+o+ uunepoo.e.
01o nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 na 1oopomw l: poc1a1onno oo
nocopona1orno npnmonn1r vo ncom npomoxy1vam, na vo1o-
pwo paannao1cn aapannw nn1opna yvaaannwm vononnwm
mnoxoc1nom 1onov.
Rp M ue p. Hccopyom qynvnm
](r)
4ynvnn ] pnqqoponnpyoma (copona1orno, n nonpo-
pwnna) na o1poavo [0, ,2. E cnonarno nponopvo nyxpa-
o1cn nmr cymoc1nonanno nponanopno n 1onvo r 0. Hpnmo-
nnn, nanpnmop, pnaxpw npanno 7onn1an, noynaom

- sIn | 0.
01o n oananao1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 ](0) 0.
n ncox r = 0 nmoom
](r)

(r - Ig r) 0,
1av vav r Ig r, ocn 0 r (cm. povaaa1orc1no
ommw l n n. 8.l). Copona1orno, qynvnn ] c1poro ywnao1
na o1poavo [0, , noc1omy ](0) ](r) ](l), 1. o.
l npn 0 r . (l4.l)
VHPAHEHHE 1. ovaaa1r, n1o, pn 1oro n1ow pnqqoponnpyoman na
nn1opnao (o, b) qynvnn c1poro noapac1aa na nom, nooxopnmo n poc1a-
1onno, n1ow no ncox 1onvax r - (o, b) nwnonnocr nopanonc1no ](r) . 0 n
n1ow pn mwx 1onov r - (o, b) n r - (o, b), r r, cymoc1nonaa w
1onva - (r, r), pn vo1opo ]() 0.

do
npn 0 r ,
l npn r 0.
sIn r
r
-------------

2
---
IIm
r 0
] r ( ) - ] 0 ( )
r
---------------------------------
IIm
r 0
sIn r
r
-----------------
- l
r
----------------------------
IIm
| 0
sIn | - |
|
2
----------------------
IIm
| 0
cos | - l
2|
-----------------------
l
2
---
IIm
| 0
sIn r
r
-------------
,
_
rcos r - sIn r
r
2
---------------------------------------
cos r
r
2
--------------
,2
,2]
2

---
sIn r
r
-------------

2
---
36
44.2. OtmckonMe noMoAomMx
M noMuenomMx snoenMM ynkMM
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hcno quuuun ] onpeoe.euo o ueuonopou
oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
. Toeoo r
0
uo:mooencn nouuou +ou
cu++o (nouuou +uuu++o) quuuuu ], ec.u cecnoen
nouoe 0, uno o.n ocer ^r, ooo.enoopnvur c.oouv
^r , omno.unencn uepooeucnoo ](r
0
- ^r) ](r
0
) (uepo
oeucnoo ](r
0
- ^r) . ](r
0
)).
Ec.u cecnoen nouoe 0, uno o.n ocer ^r = 0 no
uur, uno ^r , omno.unencn uepooeucnoo ](r
0
- ^r) ](r
0
)
(uepooeucnoo ](r
0
- ^r) ](r
0
)), no r
0
uo:mooencn nouuou
cnpoeoeo +oucu++o (cnpoeoeo +uuu++o).
Tonvn mavcnmyma (c1pororo mavcnmyma) n mnnnmyma
(c1pororo mnnnmyma) naawnam1cn nouuo+u oucnpe++o
(cnpoeoeo oucnpe++o).
n 1onov r
0
c1pororo cvc1pomyma qynvnn ], n 1orvo
pn nnx, npnpamonno ^] ](r
0
- ^r) - ](r
0
) no monno1 anava
npn nopoxopo aprymon1a nopoa r
0
, 1. o. npn namononnn anava
^r. Hmonno: ^] 0 pn 1onov c1pororo mavcnmyma n ^] 0 n
cynao c1pororo mnnnmyma noaanncnmo o1 anava poc1a1onno
maoro ^r = 0.
I E OF E M A 2 (neoxopMume ycAosMs akctpeuyuo). Hcno r
0
no
.nencn nouuou oucnpe++o quuuuu ], onpeoe.euuou o ue
uonopou oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
. Toeoo .uo npou:ooouon
](r) ue cecnoen, .uo ](r
0
) 0.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. oc1nn1orno, ocn r
0
nnno1cn 1on-
vo cvc1pomyma pn qynvnn ], 1o napo1cn 1avan ovpoc1-
noc1r U(r
0
, ), n1o ananonno qynvnn ] n 1onvo r
0
ypo1 na-
normnm nn nanmonrmnm na c1o ovpoc1noc1n. Hoc1omy
ocn n 1onvo r
0
cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan, 1o ona, coracno
1oopomo 4opma (cm. n. ll.l), panna nym.
O1mo1nm, n1o yconno ](r
0
) 0 no nnno1cn (pn pnqqo-
ponnpyomo npn r r
0
qynvnn) poc1a1onnwm yconnom
nannnn cvc1pomyma, vav c1o novaawnao1 npnmop qynvnn
](r) r
3
, vo1opan npn r 0 nmoo1 nponanopnym, pannym ny-
m, no pn vo1opo r 0 no nnno1cn 1onvo cvc1pomyma.
37
VHPAHEHHE z (poc1a1onnwo yconnn cvc1pomyma). Hyc1r qynvnn ]
onpopoona na nn1opnao (o, b) n nonpopwnna n 1onvo r
0
- (o, b). ova-
aa1r, ocn ] (c1poro) noapac1ao1 na nn1opnao (o, r
0
) n (c1poro) ywnao1 na
(r
0
, b), 1o r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo (c1pororo) mavcnmyma; ocn xo qynvnn ]
(c1poro) ywnao1 na (o, r
0
) n (c1poro) noapac1ao1 na (r
0
, b), 1o r
0
nnno1cn
1onvo (c1pororo) mnnnmyma.
I E OF E M A 3 (poctotonme ycAosMs ctpororo akctpeuyuo). Hcno
quuuun ] ouqqepeuuupe+o o ueuonopou oupecnuocnu
nouuu r
0
, upo+e, mno +oen, co+ou nouuu r
0
- (o, b), o
uonopou ouo no.nencn, oououo, uenpepmouou. Ec.u npou:
ooouon ](r) +eunen :uou npu neperooe uepe: r
0
(ono o:uo
uoen, uno cecnoen nouoe uuc.o 0, uno :uoueuun npo
u:ooouou ] u+evn oouu u non e :uou ocvo o (r
0
- , r
0
)
u nponuoono.oumu :uou o.n ocer r - (r
0
, r
0
- )), no r
0
no.nencn nouuou cnpoeoeo oucnpe++o.
Hpu ono+ ec.u npu r
0
- r r
0
omno.unencn uepooeu
cnoo ](r) 0, o npu r
0
r r
0
- - uepooeucnoo ](r) 0,
no r
0
no.nencn nouuou cnpoeoeo +oucu++o, o ec.u npu
r
0
- r r
0
omno.unencn uepooeucnoo ](r) 0, o npu
r
0
r r
0
- - uepooeucnoo ](r) 0, no r
0
no.nencn
nouuou cnpoeoeo +uuu++o (pnc. 5?).
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Paccmo1pnm cyna ](r) 0 pn r r
0
n
](r) 0 pn r r
0
, rpo r npnnapoxn1 ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn
r
0
, yvaaanno n yconnnx 1oopomw. Ho 1oopomo 7arpanxa
(cm. n. ll.2),
^] ](r) - ](r
0
) ]()(r - r
0
),
rpo oxn1 na nn1opnao c vonamn r
0
n r.
r
0

] 0
r
0
- -
] 0
r
0

] 0
r
0
- -
] 0
Pnc. 5?
3S
Ecn r r
0
, 1o r - r
0
0 n ]() 0, 1av vav r r
0
.
Ecn r r
0
, 1o r - r
0
0 n ]() 0, 1av vav n c1om cynao
r
0
r. Tavnm opaaom, ncorpa ^] 0, 1. o. 1onva r
0
nnn-
o1cn 1onvo c1pororo mavcnmyma. Anaornnno paccma1pnna-
o1cn n1opo cyna.
Ha n. l4.l copyo1, n1o ocn qynvnn nmoo1 ncmpy n novo-
1opo npovoo1o ovpoc1noc1n panno 1onvn r
0
nponanopnym
opnoro n 1oro xo anava, a n camo 1onvo r
0
nponanopnan no
panna nym, no no cymoc1nyo1, opnavo cama qynvnn no-
npopwnna, 1. o. ocn nponanopnan nonpopwnno qynvnn no
monno1 anava npn nopoxopo nopoa 1onvy r
0
, 1o c1a 1onva
aanopomo ue no.nencn nouuou oucnpe++o paccma1pnnao-
mo qynvnn (ooo 1oro, qynvnn n yvaaanno ovpoc1noc-
1n c1poro noapac1ao1 nn c1poro ywnao1 n aanncnmoc1n o1
1oro, nooxn1orna nn o1pna1orna nponanopnan n 1onvax
r = r
0
).
O+opnnnn c1o y1nopxponno c povaaanno nwmo 1oopomo 3,
noynnm copymmn poayr1a1.
Ec.u quuuun ](r) onpeoe.euo o ueuonopou oupecnuocnu
nouuu r
0
, uenpepmouo npu r r
0
, u+een ocvo o pocc+on
puooe+ou oupecnuocnu, upo+e, +oen mno, nouuu r
0
,
npou:ooouv u ono npou:ooouon c uooou cnopoum on r
0
corpounen nocnonuumu :uou (c.eoooone.ouo, +ouo eooo
puno o corpoueuuu u.u nepe+eue :uouo npou:ooouou npu
neperooe uepe: r
0
), no, o.n noeo unom npu r r
0
quuuun
oocnue.o oucnpe++o, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo, unom
npou:ooouon +eun.o :uou npu neperooe uepe: nouu r
0
.
Copyo1, opnavo, opa1n1r nnnmanno na 1o, n1o paccmo1-
ponnw apocr cyna, 1. o. cyna, vorpa moxno n yvaaannom
cmwco ronopn1r o nopomono anava nponanopno npn nopoxo-
po nopoa 1onvy r
0
, no ncnopnwnao1 noamoxnwo cn1yann (pa-
xo pn ncmpy pnqqoponnpyomwx qynvn): moxo1 cy-
nn1rcn, n1o n cvor yropno mawx opnoc1oponnnx ovpoc1noc-
1nx 1onvn r
0
nponanopnan qynvnn monno1 anav. E c1om
cynao npnxopn1cn npnmonn1r ppyrno mo1opw pn nccopona-
nnn qynvnn na cvc1pomym npn r r
0
.
Tavnm opaaom, n ooo mnpovom vacco qynvn, pnq-
qoponnpyomwx n ovpoc1noc1n paccma1pnnaomo 1onvn, vpo-
mo, w1r moxo1, camo c1o 1onvn, yconno namononnn anava
39
nponanopno n 1onvo nnno1cn nmr poc1a1onnwm yconnom
cvc1pomyma.
3aaua 10. Hoc1pon1r npnmop qynvnn, vo1opan pnqqoponnpy-
oma na nn1opnao, poc1nrao1 n novo1opo oro 1onvo r
0
c1pororo cvc1pomy-
ma, a oo nponanopnan n mo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn (vav cona, 1av n cnpana
o1 noo) npnnnmao1 n nooxn1ornwo, n o1pna1ornwo ananonnn (1avnm
opaaom, novaaa1r, n1o yconno namononnn anava nponanopno n panno
1onvo, nnnncr poc1a1onnwm pn nannnn c1pororo cvc1pomyma, no nnn-
o1cn nmoc1o c 1om nooxopnmwm).
Enopom omo opno nonn1no, vo1opwm ypom noraona1rcn n
parnomom.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Hcno quuuun ] onpeoe.euo o ueuonopou
oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
. Eoe+ uo:moono r
0
nouuou oo:poc
nouun (moouun) quuuuu ], ec.u cecnoen nouoe 0,
uno npu r
0
- r r
0
omno.unencn uepooeucnoo ](r) ](r
0
)
(uepooeucnoo ](r) ](r
0
)), o npu r
0
r r
0
- - uepooeu
cnoo ](r) ](r
0
) (uepooeucnoo ](r) ](r
0
)).
Tavnm opaaom, 1onvn noapac1annn n ywnannn qynvnn
] xapav1opnaym1cn 1om, n1o npn nopoxopo nopoa nnx npnpa-
monno qynvnn monno1 anav c - na - n 1onvo noapac1a-
nnn n c - na - n 1onvo ywnannn (pnc. 58).
Ho copyo1 pyma1r, n1o ocn qynvnn onpopoona na nn-
1opnao, 1o ncnvan 1onva c1oro nn1opnaa nnno1cn no 1on-
vo cvc1pomyma qynvnn, no 1onvo noapac1annn, no
1onvo ywnannn: mory1 cymoc1nona1r 1onvn, no npnnapo-
xamno nn v opnomy na yvaaannwx 1nnon. Hanpnmop, 1onva
r 0 pn qynvnn
(l4.2)
no nnno1cn nn 1onvo cvc1pomyma, nn 1onvo noapac1annn,
nn 1onvo ywnannn.
Pnc. 58
r 0

r
0
- -
] 0
] 0
r 0
r
0
- -
] 0
] 0

r
2
sIn npn r = 0,
0 npn r 0
l
r
---
360
Hponanopnan qynvnn (l4.2) panna
(cm. npnmop 8 n n. 9.?)
' (l4.3)
Tavnm opaaom, qynvnn (l4.2) pnq-
qoponnpyoma na nco nncono ocn.
Hpn r 0 oo nponanopnan nmoo1 paapwn
n1oporo popa, nocvorvy
2r sIn 0, (l4.4)
a n1opoo caraomoo n nwpaxonnn (l4.3) pn nponanopno '
npn r = 0, 1. o. -cos no nmoo1 npopoa npn r = 0. Kpomo 1o-
ro, c1o caraomoo, namonnncr n mo opnoc1oponno ovpoc1-
noc1n 1onvn r 0 o1 -l po -l, ocvononno mnoro paa monno1
n no anav. O1cmpa, n cny qopmy (l4.3) n (l4.4), copyo1,
n1o n nponanopnan qynvnn (l4.2) n mo cvorvo yropno
mao opnoc1oponno ovpoc1noc1n nyn 1avxo monno1 anav.
Omn xapav1op nonoponnn qynvnn (l4.2) naopaxon na
pncynvo 59.
Cqopmynpyom 1onopr ocnonannwo na ncnoraonannn npo-
nanopnwx nwcmnx nopnpvon poc1a1onnwo yconnn nannnn
c1pororo cvc1pomyma, a 1avxo 1onov noapac1annn n ywnannn.
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno o nouue r
0
quuuuu ] cecnovn
npou:oooume oo nopnouo n . l ou.vuune.ouo, npuue+
]
(i)
(r
0
) 0 o.n i l, 2, ... , n - l, ]
(n)
(r
0
) = 0. (l4.5)
Toeoo ec.u n 2h, h l, 2, ... , n. e. n - uenuoe uuc.o, no
quuuun ] u+een o nouue r
0
cnpoeuu oucnpe++, o u+euuo
+oucu++ npu ]
(2h)
(r
0
) 0 u +uuu++ npu ]
(2h)
(r
0
) 0. Ec.u
e n 2h - l, h 0, l, ... , n. e. n - ueuenuoe uuc.o, no
quuuun ] ue u+een o nouue r
0
oucnpe++o; o ono+ c.
uoe r
0
no.nencn nouuou oo:pocnouun npu ]
(2h - l)
(r
0
) 0 u
moouun npu ]
(2h - l)
(r
0
) 0.
Hpopnomom povaaa1orc1ny 1oopomw opno npoc1oo aamo-
nanno: ocn n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
nmoo1 moc1o
coo1nomonno (r) o ((r)), r = r
0
, 1o cymoc1nyo1 1avoo 0,
n1o npn r - r
0
cnpanopnno nopanonc1no
(r) (r).
r
0

Pnc. 59
2r sIn - cos npn r = 0,
0 npn r 0.
l
r
---
l
r
---
r 0
IIm
l
r
---
l
r
---
l
2
---
361
E camom poo,
(r) (r)(r),
rpo (r) 0, noc1omy cymoc1nyo1 1avoo > 0, n1o npn
r - r
0
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no (r) . O1cmpa n co-
pyo1 yvaaannoo nwmo nopanonc1no.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hpoxpo ncoro aamo1nm, n1o qynvnn
] nmoo1 n 1onvo r
0
nponanopnym nopnpva n . l, noc1omy
(coracno onpopoonnm nponanopno) nponanopnan nopnpva
n - l paccma1pnnaomo qynvnn onpopoona n novo1opo
ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
. Copona1orno, n cama qynvnn ]
1avxo onpopoona, no ncnvom cynao n 1o xo ovpoc1noc1n
1onvn r
0
.
3annmom qopmyy Toopa nro nopnpva pn qynvnn ] n
ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
. E cny qopmyw (l3.5) n yconn
(l4.5), nmoom
] ](r
0
- r) - ](r
0
) r
n
- (r), (l4.6)
rpo (r) o(r
n
)
l
, r = 0, o1vypa, n cny yconnn ]
(n)
(r
0
) = 0,
nw1ovao1 (cm. n. 8.2), n1o
(r) o r
n
, r = 0.
Hoc1omy, coracno cpoannomy aamonannm, cymoc1nyo1 1avoo
0, n1o npn r
(r) .
Ha c1oro nopanonc1na copyo1, n1o npn r , r = 0, anav
npano nac1n panonc1na (l4.6), copona1orno, n anav ] con-
napam1 co anavom nopnoro caraomoro npano nac1n.
Ecn n 2h, h l, 2, ... , 1o n (l4.6) npnpamonno aprymon1a
r noanopn1cn n no1nym c1ononr, noc1omy anav npnpamonnn
qynvnn ] no aanncn1 o1 anava r = 0 n, anann1, r
0
nnno1cn
1onvo c1pororo cvc1pomyma, npnnom 1onvo c1pororo mavcn-
l
3pocr r
n
(r)
n
(a no (r
n
)).
r r
0
IIm
l
2
---
]
n ( )
r
0
( )
n!
---------------------

do
]
n ( )
r
0
( )
n!
---------------------

_
l
2
---
]
n ( )
r
0
( )
n!
---------------------
r
n

36z
myma npn ]
(2h)
(r
0
) 0 (n c1om cynao ] 0) n c1pororo mnnn-
myma npn ]
(2h)
(r
0
) 0 (n c1om cynao ] 0).
Ecn xo n 2h - l, h 0, l, 2, ... , 1o r noanopn1cn n no-
no1nym c1ononr, noc1omy anav ] monno1cn nmoc1o c namono-
nnom anava r n, anann1, r
0
no nnno1cn 1onvo cvc1pomyma.
Ecn r monno1 anav c - na -, 1o npn ]
(2h - l)
(r
0
) 0 npn-
pamonno ] 1avxo monno1 anav c - na - n, anann1, r
0
nn-
no1cn 1onvo noapac1annn qynvnn ], a npn ]
(2h - l)
(r
0
) 0
npnpamonno ] monno1 anav c - na - n, anann1, r
0
nnn-
o1cn 1onvo ywnannn qynvnn ].
Ha povaaanno 1oopomw nw1ovam1, n nac1noc1n, npn n l
n n 2 pna copc1nnn.
l. Ec.u ] '(r
0
) 0, no r
0
no.nencn nouuou oo:pocnouun
quuuuu; ec.u ] '(r
0
) 0, 1o r
0
- nouuo moouun quuuuu.
2. Ec.u ] '(r
0
) 0, o ] '(r
0
) = 0, no npu ] '(r
0
) 0 r
0
no.n
encn nouuou cnpoeoeo +uuu++o, o npu ] '(r
0
) 0 - nou
uou cnpoeoeo +oucu++o quuuuu ] (pnc. 60).
Copc1nno l oc1ao1cn n cno n pn ocvononnwx nponanop-
nwx co anavom: ocn ] '(r
0
) -~ (coo1no1c1nonno ] '(r
0
) -~),
1o r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo noapac1annn (ywnannn) qynvnn. E ca-
mom poo, ocn, nanpnmop, ] '(r
0
) -~, 1o pn moro 0 n, n
nac1noc1n, pn l cymoc1nyo1 1avoo 0, n1o npn ncox r,
ypono1nopnmmnx yconnm r , nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no
l. Hoc1omy npn 0 r nmoom r 0, a npn
- r 0 anaornnno nmoom r 0, 1. o. r
0
- 1onva
noapac1annn. Anaornnno paccma1pnnao1cn cyna, vorpa
] '(r
0
) -~.
](r
0
) 0 ](r
0
) 0
Pnc. 60
r
0
mInImum
-
r
0
maxImum
-

r
-------
363
3amo1nm, n1o na nopnoro copc1nnn omo paa nw1ovao1 1oo-
poma 4opma (cm. 1oopomy l n. ll.l). oc1nn1orno, ocn
qynvnn ](r) onpopoona n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
n nmoo1 n c1o 1onvo cvc1pomym, 1o nponanopnan n r
0
no mo-
xo1 w1r nn nooxn1orno, nn o1pna1orno, 1av vav n
npo1nnnom cynao qynvnn no noapac1aa, no ywnaa
w n c1o 1onvo. Copona1orno, nponanopnan n r
0
nn no cy-
moc1nyo1, nn, ocn cymoc1nyo1, nooxopnmo panna nym.
O1mo1nm omo, n1o na 1oopomw 4 nonocpopc1nonno nw1ova-
o1 copymmn vpn1opn nannnn 1onov cvc1pomyma.
Hcno quuuuu ] o nouue r
0
cecnovn npou:ooo
ume oo nopnouo n . l ou.vuune.ouo, npuue+
]
(h)
(r
0
) 0, h l, 2, ... , n - l, ]
(n)
(r
0
) = 0.
Toeoo, o.n noeo unom npu r r
0
quuuun oocnueo.o ouc
npe++o, ueoroou+o u oocnonouuo, unom n m.o uen
um+ uuc.o+.
Eco noynonnwo npanna cnpanopnnw nmr n 1om cynao,
vorpa qynvnn ] onpopoona n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn
r
0
. Opnavo o cvc1pomymo qynvnn moxno ronopn1r no 1orvo
n c1om cynao: nyc1r qynvnn ] onpopoona na novo1opom nnc-
onom mnoxoc1no X; ypom naawna1r r
0
X nouuou +oucu
++o (+uuu++o)
l
, ec.u cecnoen nouoe 0, n1o ocn
r X n r - r
0
, 1o ] (r) ] (r
0
) (coo1no1c1nonno ] (r) . ] (r
0
)).
Hoponwm xo opaaom onpoponm1cn n c1om cynao n nonn1nn
c1pororo mavcnmyma n c1pororo mnnnmyma, copyo1 nmr npn
r = r
0
anavn noc1pornx nopanonc1n aamonn1r anavamn c1pornx
nopanonc1n.
Hanpnmop, ocn qynvnn ] onpopoona na noynn1opnao
[o, b), 1o 1onva o n yvaaannom cmwco moxo1 nnn1rcn cvc1po-
marno. 3amo1nm, opnavo, n1o nponanopnan (npanoc1opon-
nnn) n c1o 1onvo, noomo ronopn, no onaana opama1rcn n
nyr (cm. n. ll.l). Tav, qynvnn r na o1poavo [0, l nmoo1
c1porn mnnnmym npn r 0 n c1porn mavcnmym npn r l,
opnavo n c1nx 1onvax, vav n ncmpy na o1poavo [0, l, ' l.
l
Hpannrnoo wo w poann1r - ovarnoro, no no ypom ycox-
nn1r 1opmnnoornm.
364
Ewncnonno oc1on1orc1na, nmoo1 nn no1 qynvnn cvc-
1pomym na vonax npomoxy1va, npnnapoxamoro oo oac1n
onpopoonnn (1avo cvc1pomym ypom naawna1r vononwm),
1poyo1 cnonarnoro nccoponannn.
VHPAHEHHE 3. Hyc1r qynvnn ] onpopoona na o1poavo [o, b n nmo-
o1 nponanopnwo npn r o n r b. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn (o) 0 (coo1no1-
c1nonno (b) 0), 1o 1onva r o (coo1no1c1nonno r b) nnno1cn 1onvo
c1pororo mnnnmyma, a ocn (o) 0 (coo1no1c1nonno (b) 0), 1o r o
(coo1no1c1nonno r b) nnno1cn 1onvo c1pororo mavcnmyma.
Vc1anononnwo 1oopomw oxa1 n ocnono mo1opa, noanonm-
moro opnnoopaano poma1r mnoronnconnwo ma1oma1nnocvno,
qnannocvno, cvonomnnocvno n 1oxnnnocvno aapann, n vo1opwx
naynam1cn cvc1pomarnwo ananonnn vavo-no nonnnnw.
Hyc1r, nanpnmop, 1poyo1cn onpopon1r nanormoo ana-
nonno qynvnn ] na o1poavo [o, b. Moxo1 cynn1rcn, n1o c1o
noamoxno cpoa1r poc1a1onno npoc1o vavnm-no cnocoom
ncxopn na vonvpo1noro nnpa qynvnn. Ecn xo no ncno, vav
c1o cpoa1r, 1o copyo1 na1n nco oo vpn1nnocvno 1onvn, o-
xamno na [o, b (1onva, n vo1opo qynvnn onpopoona, a oo
nponanopnan no panna nym, no no cymoc1nyo1, ownno
naawnao1cn upunuuecuou nouuou c1o qynvnn). 3a1om na
c1nx ananonn r nooxopnmo ncxopn na cvaaannoro o1opa1r
1o, n vo1opwx noamoxon mavcnmym (moxno aanopomo o1po-
cn1r 1onvn, ypono1nopnmmno poc1a1onnwm yconnnm nan-
nnn mnnnmyma). Hoco c1oro poc1a1onno cpannn1r moxpy co-
o no nonnnno ananonnn qynvnn n noynonnwx 1onvax n
nnca ] (o) n ] (b); nanormoo na c1nx nnco n nnno1cn na-
normnm ananonnom qynvnn na o1poavo [o, b. 01a aapana
npnnnnnarno aanopomo moxo1 w1r pomona, ocn mnoxo-
c1no vpn1nnocvnx 1onov vononno.
Ecn qynvnn onpopoona na noynn1opnao (vononnom
nn ocvononnom), nanpnmop na noynn1opnao nnpa [o, b),
aapana o onpopoonnn oo nanormoro ananonnn na c1om no-
ynn1opnao 1poyo1 pononn1ornwx nccoponann; napn
mnoxoc1no yvaaannwx nwmo 1onov, napo naynn1r omo nonopo-
]
-
]
-
]
-
]
-
36
nno qynvnn npn r = b - 0. Anaornnno pomam1cn n aapann
na onpopoonno nanmonrmnx ananonn qynvn.
Ho copyo1, opnavo, pyma1r, n1o naoxonnw mo1op no-
anono1 naxopn1r 1onvn cvc1pomyma panno qynvnn c m-
o nyxno c1ononrm 1onnoc1n. 01o no 1av, nocvorvy ocn
oro ncnoraona1r, napo npoxpo ncoro ymo1r poma1r ypanno-
nno ] '(r) 0 c aapanno c1ononrm 1onnoc1n, n1o nnno1cn
ppyro ma1oma1nnocvo aapano. Kav ona pomao1cn c no-
momrm pnqqoponnarnoro ncnnconnn n 1ox cynanx, vorpa
1onnoo pomonno ypannonnn no aanncwnao1cn n nnnom nnpo,
ypo1 novaaano n parnomom (cm. 62).
Rp M ue p. no 1onvn pnnxy1cn c noc1onnnwmn cvopoc1nmn
t
l
n t
2
no pnym npnmwm, opaaymmnm npnmo yro, n nanpano-
nnn nopmnnw c1oro yra, o1 vo1opo n nanao pnnxonnn nopnan
1onva naxopnacr na pacc1onnnn o, a n1opan - na pacc1on-
nnn b. Hopoa vavoo npomn noco nanaa pnnxonnn pacc1onnno
moxpy 1onvamn ypo1 nanmonrmnm?
Hyc1r (|) - pacc1onnno moxpy 1onvamn nopoa npomn |
noco nanaa pnnxonnn, vo1opoo ypom cnn1a1r nananmnmcn
npn | 0. Torpa

2
(|) (o - t
l
|)
2
- (b - t
2
|)
2
.
4ynvnn (|), ononnpno, poc1nrao1 mnnnmyma npn 1om xo ana-
nonnn |, npn vo1opom poc1nrao1 mnnnmyma qynvnn
2
(|).
Ha qnannocvnx coopaxonn ncno, n1o pacc1onnno (|)
poxno poc1nra1r mnnnmyma (1oa nannnam1 cnxa1rcn), a
mavcnmyma aanopomo no1, no (|) = -~ npn | = -~. E cny
nooxopnmoro yconnn cvc1pomyma, c1o moxo1 w1r 1orvo n
1onvo, n vo1opo ' 0, n 1av vav ' -2t
l
(o - t
l
|) - 2t
2
(b - t
2
|),
1o na yconnn ' 0 noynaom opnnc1nonnoo ananonno |
0

, vo1opoo n pao1 o1no1 na noc1anonnw nonpoc.
44.3. 8mnykAocto M tokM neperMo
Hyc1r qynvnn ] onpopoona na nn1opnao (o, b) n nyc1r
o r
l
r
2
b. Hponopom npnmym nopoa 1onvn A (r
l
, ] (r
l
))
ot
l
- bt
2
t
l
2
- t
2
2
---------------------------
366
n E (r
2
, ](r
2
)), oxamno na rpaqnvo qynvnn ]. Eo ypanno-
nnom nnno1cn
.
Ooanannm npanym nac1r c1oro ypannonnn nopoa l(r); 1orpa
ono vpa1vo aannmo1cn n nnpo
l(r).
Ononnpno, l(r
l
) ](r
l
), l(r
2
) ](r
2
).
OnpepeAenMe 3. duuuun ] uo:mooencn omnu.ou ooepr (om
nu.ou ouu:) uo uunepoo.e (o, b), ec.u, uouoom m uu m.u
nouuu r
l
u r
2
, o r
l
r
2
b, o.n .vou nouuu r
0
uunepoo
.o (r
l
, r
2
) omno.unencn uepooeucnoo
l(r
0
) ](r
0
) (l4.?)
(coonoencnoeuuo uepooeucnoo
l(r
0
) . ](r
0
)). (l4.8)
Ioomo1pnnocvn c1o oananao1, n1o man 1onva xoppw AE
(1. o. o1poava npnmo l(r) c vonamn n 1onvax A n E) o-
xn1 no nwmo (no nnxo) 1onvn rpaqnva qynvnn ], coo1no1-
c1nymmo 1omy xo ananonnm aprymon1a (pnc. 6l).
OnpepeAenMe 4. Ec.u o+ecno (l4.?) u (l4.8) omno.unvncn
cnpoeue uepooeucnoo l(r
0
) ](r
0
) u coonoencnoeuuo l(r
0
)
](r
0
) npu .vmr r
0
, r
l
u r
2
nouur, uno o r
l
r
0
r
2
b,
no quuuun ] uo:mooencn cnpoeo omnu.ou ooepr (cnpoeo
omnu.ou ouu:) uo uunepoo.e (o, b).
E c1om cynao man 1onva xoppw AE, ncvmnan oo vonw,
oxn1 nnxo (nwmo) coo1no1c1nymmo 1onvn rpaqnva qynvnn.
] r
2
( ) r - r
l
( ) - ] r
l
( ) r
2
- r ( )
r
2
- r
l
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
] (r
0
)
Pnc. 6l
r
0

Ewnyvoc1r nnopx
r
2
r r
l
A
E
l (r
0
)
] (r
0
)
r
0

Ewnyvoc1r nnna
r
2
r
l
r
2
E
A
l (r
0
)
367
OnpepeAenMe 5. Ecnuuu uunepoo., uo uonopo+ quuuun
(cnpoeo) omnu.o ooepr, coonoencnoeuuo ouu:, uo:mooen
cn uunepoo.o+ (cnpoeou) omnu.ocnu ooepr, coonoencnoeu
uo ouu:, onou quuuuu.
I E OF E M A 5 (poctotonoe ycAosMe ctporoM smnykAoctM). Hcno
quuuun ] oooom ouqqepeuuupe+o uo uunepoo.e (o, b).
Toeoo, ec.u ] ' 0 uo (o, b), no quuuun ] cnpoeo omnu.o
ooepr, o ec.u ] ' 0 uo (o, b), no quuuun ] cnpoeo omnu.o
ouu: uo ono+ uunepoo.e.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r o r
l
r
2
b. Torpa
l(r) - ](r) - ](r)
.
Hpnmonnn 1oopomy 7arpanxa (cm. n. ll.2), noynaom
l(r) - ](r)
,
rpo r
l
r r
2
.
Eocnorayomcn cnona 1oopomo 7arpanxa:
l(r) - ](r) , .
O1cmpa nnpno, n1o ocn ] ' 0 na (o, b), copona1orno, n na-
c1noc1n, ] '() 0, 1o l(r) ](r), 1. o. qynvnn ] c1poro nw-
nyva nnopx; ocn xo ] ' 0 na (o, b), 1o l(r) ](r), 1. o. qynv-
nn ] c1poro nwnyva nnna.
3 a m o n a n n o l. Ha povaaa1orc1na 1oopomw 5 nnpno,
n1o ocn yconno nooxn1ornoc1n n1opo nponanopno na
nn1opnao aamonn1r yconnom oo noo1pna1ornoc1n, 1o
qynvnn ypo1 nwnyva nnna (noomo ronopn, noc1poro) na
c1om nn1opnao. Coo1no1c1nonno, ocn n1opan nponanopnan
nonooxn1orna na nn1opnao, 1o qynvnn nwnyva nnopx
na c1om nn1opnao.
Vconno anavonoc1onnc1na n1opo nponanopno, nnnncr
poc1a1onnwm pn c1poro nwnyvoc1n (nnopx nn nnna), no
] r
2
( ) r - r
l
( ) - ] r
l
( ) r
2
- r ( )
r
2
- r
l
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
r - r
l
( ) - r
2
- r ( )
r
2
- r
l
----------------------------------------------------
] r
2
( ) - ] r ( ) [ ] r - r
l
( ) - ] r ( ) - ] r
l
( ) [ ] r
2
- r ( )
r
2
- r
l
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
] ( ) r
2
- r ( ) r - r
l
( ) - ] ( ) r - r
l
( ) r
2
- r ( )
r
2
- r
l
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
] ( ) - ] ( ) [ ] r
2
- r ( ) r - r
l
( )
r
2
- r
l
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
] ( ) r
2
- r ( ) r - r
l
( ) - ( )
r
2
- r
l
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
36S
nnno1cn nmoc1o c 1om nooxopnmwm.
Tav, qynvnn r
4
c1poro nwnyva
nnna na nco nncono npnmo, opna-
vo oo n1opan nponanopnan ' l2r
2
opamao1cn n nyr npn r 0.
O1mo1nm, n1o ocn qynvnn ] (c1po-
ro) nwnyva nnopx na nn1opnao (o, b),
1o qynvnn -] (c1poro) nwnyva nnna
na c1om nn1opnao n opa1no, a nocvorvy [-](r) - ,
nanpnmop, npnnopnmoo n 1oopomo 5 poc1a1onnoo yconno c1poro
nwnyvoc1n nnopx copyo1 na copopxamorocn n c1o xo 1oopomo
poc1a1onnoro yconnn c1poro nwnyvoc1n qynvnn nnna.
VHPAHEHHH. 4. ovaaa1r, n1o pn qynvnn
](r)
1onva r 0 no npnnapoxn1 nnvavnm nn1opnaam nwnyvoc1n nnopx nn
nnna n no nnno1cn vonom vavoro-no na c1nx nn1opnaon.
. ovaaa1r, n1o qynvnn r
4
c1poro nwnyva nnna na nco nncono
npnmo.
Tavnm opaaom, nwnyvoc1r nnopx nn nnna qynvnn ] aa-
nncn1 o1 anava oo n1opo nponanopno. Ovaawnao1cn, n1o pac-
nooxonno rpaqnva pnaxpw pnqqoponnpyomo qynvnn o1-
nocn1orno vaca1orno 1avxo n onpopoonnom cmwco cnnaa-
no co anavom n1opo nponanopno.
I E O F E M A . Hcno quuuun ] u+een uo oce+ uunepoo.e
(o, b) no.oune.ouv (onpuuone.ouv) onopv npou:ooouv:
]'(r) 0 (coonoencnoeuuo ]'(r) 0), r (o, b)
l
. Toeoo, uouooo
m uu m.o nouuo r
0
(o, b), oce nouuu (r, ](r)), r (o, b),
epoquuo quuuuu ] .eon omue (uue) uocone.ouou, npo
oeoeuuou u ue+ o nouue (r
0
, ](r
0
)), upo+e, uoueuuo, co+ou
onou nouuu, uonopon .eun uo uo:ouuou uocone.ouou
2
(pnc. 62).
l
O1cmpa copyo1, n1o qynvnn ] c1poro nwnyva nnna (nnopx) na
(o, b).
2
Ecn qynvnn ], vpomo 1oro, onpopoona n nmoo1 opnoc1oponnmm
nponanopnym n vono o nn b nn1opnaa (o, b), 1o yvaaannoo cnoc1no,
vav c1o nnpno na npnnopnmoro nnxo povaaa1orc1na, nwnonno1cn n
pn vaca1orno n 1onvo (o, ](o)), coo1no1c1nonno n 1onvo (b, ](b).
r

r
0 r
0
b o
](r)
l(r)
Pnc. 62
J
2
Jr
2
----------
J
2
] r ( )
Jr
2
------------------
r sIn npn r = 0,
0 npn r 0
l
r
---
369
oc1nn1orno, ypannonnom vaca1orno v rpaqnvy
qynvnn n 1onvo (r
0
, ](r
0
)) nnno1cn
] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
) - ](r
0
).
Ooanannm npanym nac1r c1oro ypannonnn nopoa L(r). Torpa,
npnmonnn 1oopomy 7arpanxa v paanoc1n ](r) - ](r
0
), noynnm
](r) - L(r) [](r) - ](r
0
) - ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
)
] '()(r - r
0
) - ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
) [] '() - ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
),
rpo o r
0
b, o r b, a 1onva oxn1 moxpy r n r
0
.
Hpnmonnn omo paa 1oopomy 7arpanxa, no yxo v npnpa-
monnm nponanopno, noynnm
](r) - L(r) ] '()( - r
0
)(r - r
0
),
rpo 1onva oxn1 moxpy n r
0
.
Hpn r = r
0
nmoom ( - r
0
)(r - r
0
) 0, nocvorvy, vav c1o
wo o1monono nwmo, 1onva ncorpa oxn1 moxpy r n r
0
n,
copona1orno, ncorpa no 1y xo c1opony o1 1onvn r
0
, n1o n
1onva r. Tavnm opaaom, anav paanoc1n ](r) - L(r) connapao1,
npn r = r
0
, co anavom ]'(). Hoc1omy, ocn na nn1opnao (o, b)
n1opan nponanopnan nooxn1orna (copona1orno, ona noo-
xn1orna n n 1onvo ), 1o pn ncox r (o, b), vpomo 1onvn r r
0
,
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no ](r) - L(r) 0; ocn xo na nn1opna-
o (o, b) n1opan nponanopnan o1pna1orna, 1o pn yvaaan-
nwx 1onov cnpanopnno nopanonc1no ](r) - L(r) 0.
Honcnnm c1y 1oopomy ncxopn na nocvorvo nnwx coopa-
xonn. Ecn qynvnn ] nmoo1 ncmpy na novo1opom nn1opna-
o n1opym nponanopnym, 1o n ovpoc1noc1n mo 1onvn r
0
c1oro nn1opnaa moxno nwpon1r rannym nac1r qynvnn ] n
nnpo mnoronona Toopa n1oporo nopnpva
](r) ](r
0
) - ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
) - (r - r
0
)
2
- o((r - r
0
)
2
),
r = r
0
,
n, copona1orno, rpaqnv qynvnn ] nopo1 con n ovpoc1-
noc1n 1onvn r
0
non1n vav napaoa
](r
0
) - ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
) - (r - r
0
)
2
,
] r
0
( )
2
-----------------
] r
0
( )
2
-----------------
370
vo1opan, vorpa oo vocqqnnon1 npn r
2
, 1. o. , nooxn-
1oon, nwnyva nnna n oxn1 nwmo mo cnoo vaca1or-
no, n nac1noc1n n nwmo vaca1orno n 1onvo (r
0
, ](r
0
)) (c1a
vaca1ornan v napaoo nnno1cn n vaca1orno v rpaqnvy
qynvnn ]), a vorpa yvaaannw vocqqnnon1 o1pna1oon,
nwnyva nnopx n oxn1 nnxo mo cnoo vaca1orno.
Mw cnona nnpnm, vav oocoopaano npn naynonnn qynv-
nn n ovpoc1noc1n panno 1onvn nwpon1r c nomomrm qop-
myw Toopa rannym nac1r qynvnn n c1o 1onvo. E par-
nomom npn pomonnn paanoopaanwx aapan ananaa mw omo
noopnovpa1no ypom nmo1r noamoxnoc1r yopn1rcn n or-
mnx noamoxnoc1nx n nopo1nopnoc1n mo1opa nwpoonnn
ranno nac1n.
OnpepeAenMe . Hcno quuuun ] ouqqepeuuupe+o npu r r
0
u ncno L(r) - pooueuue uocone.ouou u epoquu
quuuuu ] o nouue (r
0
, ](r
0
)). Ec.u po:uocno ](r) - L(r) +e
unen :uou npu neperooe uepe: nouu r
0
, no r
0
uo:mooencn
nouuou nepeeuo quuuuu ].
Booo noppono n 1onno c1o oananao1, n1o cymoc1nyo1 1avan
-ovpoc1noc1r U(r
0
, ) 1onvn r
0
, n1o na vaxpom na nn1opnaon
(r
0
- , r
0
) n (r
0
, r
0
- ) paanoc1r ](r) - L(r) coxpanno1 noc1onn-
nw anav, npo1nnonooxnw oo anavy na ppyrom nn1opnao.
Ioomo1pnnocvn cmwc 1onvn noporna r
0
coc1on1 n 1om,
n1o rpaqnv qynvnn ] nopoxopn1 n 1onvo (r
0
, ](r
0
)) c opno c1o-
ponw navonno vaca1orno n c1o 1onvo na ppyrym (pnc. 63).
Ecn r
0
- 1onva noporna qynvnn, 1o 1onva (r
0
, ](r
0
)) na-
awnao1cn nouuou nepeeuo epoquuo quuuuu ].
Rp M ue p m. 4. ](r) r
3
, ] '(r) 6r. Ononnpno, n1o n c1om
cynao ] '(r) 0 pn r 0 n ] '(r) 0 pn r 0. Hoc1omy na
] r
0
( )
2
-----------------
0 -r r
l (r)
r 0

r
2
] (r)
Pnc. 63 Pnc. 64

r
371
ocvononnom nn1opnao (-~, 0) qynvnn ](r) r
3
c1poro nw-
nyva nnopx, na nn1opnao (0, -~) ona c1poro nwnyva nnna,
a 1onva r 0 nnno1cn opnonpomonno vonom nn1opnaon nw-
nyvoc1n nnopx n nnna. Ona nnno1cn n 1onvo noporna, no-
cvorvy ypannonnom vaca1orno n no nnno1cn 0, n npn
r 0 nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no ](r) 0, a npn r 0 - nopa-
nonc1no ](r) 0.
2 . ](r) rpaqnv c1o qynvnn (pnc. 64) naawnao1cn
no.uuuecuou nopoo.ou. 3pocr ] '(r) - , noc1omy pn
ncox r = 0 cnpanopnno nopanonc1no ] '(r) 0. Copona1orno,
nn1opnaw (-~, 0) n (0, -~) nnnm1cn npomoxy1vamn c1po-
ro nwnyvoc1n nnopx. Emoc1o c 1om npn mom r = 0 nmoom
](r) 0 ](0) n ](r) ](-r).
01o oananao1, n1o 1onva (0, 0) rpaqnva qynvnn ] oxn1
nop mo oro xoppo c vonamn n 1onvax (-r, ](-r)) n (r, ](r)).
Hoc1omy 1onva r 0 no npnnapoxn1 nnvavomy nn1opnay
nwnyvoc1n nnopx (nn1opnaon nwnyvoc1n nnna y c1o
qynvnn no1).
Ipaqnv qynvnn ](r) n 1onvo (0, 0) nmoo1 nop1n-
varnym vaca1ornym, n oro no1nn, pn vo1opwx r 0 n r 0,
oxa1 no paanwo c1oponw o1 noo. Opnavo r 0 no nnno1cn
1onvo noporna, nocvorvy, n cny nop1nvarnoc1n vaca-
1orno n c1o 1onvo, qynvnn ] no pnqqoponnpyoma n no,
copona1orno, r 0 no ypono1nopno1 yconnnm onpopoo-
nnn 6.
Opaano ronopn, rpaqnv noyvynnocvo napaow no
nopornao1cn npn nopoxopo nopoa vaca1ornym n 1onvo (0, 0),
a noanpamao1cn naaap; noc1omy 1onvn 1avoro 1nna naawna-
m1cn nouuo+u oo:opono.
I E OF E M A 7 (neoxopMuoe ycAosMe, smnoAnsmeecs s toke
neperMo). Ec.u o nouue nepeeuo quuuuu cecnoen ono
pon npou:ooouon, no ouo poouo u.v.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. oc1nn1orno, nyc1r qynvnn ]
nmoo1 n 1onvo r
0
n1opym nponanopnym n, vav n nwmo,
L(r) - ypannonno vaca1orno v rpaqnvy qynvnn ] n 1on-
vo (r
0
, ](r
0
)), 1. o.
L(r) ](r
0
) - ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
).
r
2
3
2
9 r
4
3
---------------
r
2
3
37z
Torpa, n cny qopmyw Toopa,
] '' (r) - L(r) (r - r
0
)
2
- o((r - r
0
)
2
), r = r
0
.
Ecn ] ''(r
0
) = 0, 1o anav paanoc1n ](r) - L(r) n novo1opo
ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn r
0
connapao1 co anavom nnca ] ''(r
0
).
E c1om cynao paanoc1r ](r) - L(r) no monno1 anava n 1onvo r
0
n, copona1orno, c1a 1onva no nnno1cn 1onvo noporna.
H1av, ocn r
0
- 1onva noporna qynvnn ], 1o ] '(r
0
) 0.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Hopono 1omy, vav nco 1onvn cvc1po-
myma qynvnn npnnapoxa1 mnoxoc1ny 1onov, n vo1opwx
nponanopnan no panna nym, no no cymoc1nyo1, 1av n nco
1onvn noporna qynvnn (pnaxpw pnqqoponnpyomo pn
ncox ananonn aprymon1a, vpomo, w1r moxo1, vononnoro
nnca oro ananonn) nxopn1 no mnoxoc1no 1onov, n vo1opwx
n1opan nponanopnan no panna nym, no no cymoc1nyo1.
I E OF E M A 8 (nepsoe poctotonoe ycAosMe pAs tokM neperMo).
Ec.u quuuun ], ouqqepeuuupe+on o nouue r
0
, oooom
ouqqepeuuupe+o o ueuonopou npouo.onou oupecnuocnu
(r, ) onou nouuu u onopon npou:ooouon ] ' quuuuu ] +e
unen :uou npu neperooe ope+euno uepe: :uoueuue r
0
(n. e.
.uo ] '(r) 0 npu r
0
- r r
0
u ] '(r) 0 npu r
0
r r
0
- ,
.uo ]'(r) 0 npu r
0
- r r
0
u ]'(r) 0 npu r
0
r r
0
- ),
no r
0
no.nencn nouuou nepeeuo quuuuu ].
E camom poo, aannmom, vav n nwmo, ypannonno vaca1or-
no ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
) - ](r
0
) n nnpo L(r). Hpn povaaa1or-
c1no 1oopomw 6 wo novaaano, n1o
](r) - L(r) ] '()( - r
0
)(r - r
0
),
rpo 1onvn r n oxa1 no opny c1opony o1 1onvn r
0
, noc1omy
npn r = r
0
nmoom ( - r
0
)(r - r
0
) 0 n, copona1orno,
sIgn [](r) - L(r) sIgn ] '().
Tonva oxn1 moxpy n r
0
, 1. o. no 1y xo c1opony o1 r
0
,
n1o n 1onva r. O1cmpa nmoom, n1o ocn ] ' monno1 anav npn no-
poxopo aprymon1a nopoa 1onvy r
0
, 1o paanoc1r ](r) - L(r) mo-
nno1 anav n, copona1orno, r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo noporna.
] r
0
( )
2
-----------------
U
373
I E OF E M A (stopoe poctotonoe yc-
AosMe pAs tokM neperMo). Hcno
] '(r
0
) 0, o ] "(r
0
) = 0; noeoo
nouuo r
0
no.nencn nouuou nepe
euo quuuuu ].
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ho qopmyo
Toopa, n cny yconnn ] '(r
0
) 0,
nmoom
](r) ](r
0
) - ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
) - (r - r
0
)
3
- o((r - r
0
)
3
),
r = r
0
, n, nocvorvy L(r) ](r
0
) - ] '(r
0
)(r - r
0
), 1o
](r) - L(r) (r - r
0
)
3
- o((r - r
0
)
3
), r = r
0
.
O1cmpa copyo1 (cm. aamonanno o ocvononno mawx nopop
povaaa1orc1nom 1oopomw 4 c1oro naparpaqa), n1o anav paa-
noc1n ](r) - L(r) monno1cn npn namononnn anava r - r
0
. 01o
n oananao1, n1o r
0
nnno1cn 1onvo noporna.
Rp M ue p 3. Paccmo1pnm qynvnm ](r) n napom
oo 1onvn noporna. Hmoom
] '(r) -2r ,
] '(r) -2 - 4r
2
4 r
2
-
4 r - r - .
O1cmpa nnpno, n1o n1opan nponanopnan qynvnn ] opa-
mao1cn n nyr n 1onvax r l, n npn nopoxopo nopoa nnx
monno1 anav. Copona1orno, coracno 1oopomo 8, c1n 1onvn
nnnm1cn 1onvamn noporna qynvnn ](pnc. 65).
3aaua 11. ovaaa1r, n1o ocn qynvnn ] nonpopwnna na nn1opna-
o (o, b) n ocn pn mwx 1onov r
l
n r
2
, o r
l
r
2
b, nwnonno1cn no-
panonc1no
] ,
1o (o, b) nnno1cn nn1opnaom nwnyvoc1n nnopx pn qynvnn ].

r
0
Pnc. 65
] r
0
( )
3!
-------------------
] r
0
( )
3!
-------------------
e
r
2

e
r
2

e
r
2

e
r
2

l
2
---
,
_
e
r
2

l
2
-------
,
_

l
2
-------
,
_
e
r
2

2
] r
l
( ) - ] r
2
( )
2
-------------------------------------
r
l
- r
2
2
---------------------
,
_
374
3aaua 12. ovaaa1r copymmno
nnxo y1nopxponnn. n 1oro n1ow pnq-
qoponnpyoman qynvnn wa nwnyvo
nnopx (nnna) na novo1opom nn1opnao, no-
oxopnmo n poc1a1onno, n1ow oo npona-
nopnan ywnaa (noapac1aa) na nom. n
1oro n1ow pnqqoponnpyoman qynvnn
wa c1poro nwnyvo nnopx (nnna) na
novo1opom nn1opnao, poc1a1onno, n1ow
oo nponanopnan c1poro ywnaa (c1poro noapac1aa) na nom.
44.4. AcMuntotm
OnpepeAenMe 7. Hcno quuuun ](r) onpeoe.euo o.n ocer r o
(coonoencnoeuuo o.n ocer r o). Ec.u cecnovn nouue
uuc.o h u l, uno [](r) - (hr - l) 0 (npu r = -~), no
npn+on
hr - l (l4.9)
uo:mooencn ocu+nnonou epoquuo quuuuu ](r) npu r = -~
(npu r = -~).
Hnorpa nmoc1o acnmn1o1a rpaqnva qynvnn ronopn1
vopono: acnmn1o1a qynvnn.
Cymoc1nonanno acnmn1o1w rpaqnva qynvnn oananao1,
n1o npn r = -~ (nn r = -~) qynvnn nopo1 con non1n
vav nnonan qynvnn, 1. o. o1nnao1cn o1 nnono qynv-
nn na ocvononno maym.
Hapom, nanpnmop, acnmn1o1y rpaqnva qynvnn
. Paaponn nncn1or na anamona1or no npanny po-
onnn mnorononon, noynnm r - 4 - . Tav vav
o(l) npn r = ~, 1o npnman r - 4 nnno1cn acnmn1o1o
rpaqnva panno qynvnn vav npn r = -~, 1av n npn r = ~.
Paccmo1pnm roomo1pnnocvn cmwc acnmn1o1w. Hyc1r M
(r, ](r)) - 1onva rpaqnva qynvnn ], M
0
- npoovnn c1o
1onvn na ocr Or, AE- acnmn1o1a (l4.9), - yro moxpy
acnmn1o1o n nooxn1ornwm nanpanonnom ocn Or, = ,2,
MP - nopnonpnvynp, onymonnw na 1onvn M na acnmn1o1y
AE, Q - 1onva nopocononnn npnmo MM
0
c acnmn1o1o AE
(pnc. 66). Torpa MM
0
](r), QM
0
hr - l, MQ MM
0
- QM
0

Pnc. 66

r 0
M
0
A
P
Q
M
E

r -~
IIm
r
2
- 3r - 2
r - l
--------------------------------
2
r - l
--------------
2
r - l
--------------
37
](r) - (hr - l), MP MQ cos . Tavnm opaaom, MP o1nnao1cn
o1 MQ nmr na no pannw nym mnoxn1or cos , noc1omy
yconnn MQ = 0 n MP = 0 npn r = -~ (coo1no1c1nonno npn
r = -~) cvnnnaon1nw, 1. o. ocn MQ 0, 1o n MP
0, n naoopo1. O1cmpa copyo1, n1o acnmn1o1a moxo1 w1r onpo-
poona vav npnman, pacc1onnno po vo1opo o1 rpaqnva qynvnn,
1. o. o1poaov MP, c1pomn1cn v nym, vorpa 1onva M (r, ](r))
c1pomn1cn, oc1anancr na rpaqnvo, n ocvononnoc1r (npn
r = -~ nn, coo1no1c1nonno, npn r = -~).
Vvaxom 1onopr omn mo1op o1wcvannn acnmn1o1w
(l4.9), 1. o. cnoco onpopoonnn vocqqnnon1on h n l n ypan-
nonnn (l4.9). Bypom paccma1pnna1r pn onpopoonnoc1n
nmr cyna r = -~ (npn r = -~ paccyxponnn nponopn1cn
anaornnno). Hyc1r rpaqnv qynvnn ] nmoo1 acnmn1o1y
(l4.9) npn r = -~. Torpa, no onpopoonnm,
](r) hr - l - o(l). (l4.l0)
Paaponm oo nac1n panonc1na (l4.l0) na r n nopopom v npo-
poy npn r = -~. Torpa
h. (l4.ll)
Hcnorayn naponnoo ananonno h, noynnm na (l4.l0) pn on-
popoonnn l qopmyy
l (](r) - hr). (l4.l2)
Cnpanopnno n opa1noo y1nopxponno: ocn cymoc1nym1 1a-
vno nnca h n l, n1o nwnonno1cn yconno (l4.l2), 1o npnman
hr - l nnno1cn acnmn1o1o rpaqnva qynvnn ](r).
E camom poo, na (l4.l2) nmoom
[](r) - (hr - l) 0,
1. o. npnman hr - l poc1nn1orno ypono1nopno1 onpopoo-
nnm acnmn1o1w, nnano ronopn, nwnonno1cn yconno (l4.l0).
Tavnm opaaom, qopmyw (l4.ll) n (l4.l2) cnopn1 aapany
o1wcvannn acnmn1o1 (l4.9) v nwnnconnm npopoon onpopo-
onnoro nnpa. Booo 1oro, mw novaaan, n1o ocn cymoc1nyo1
npopc1anonno qynvnn ] n nnpo (l4.l0), 1o h n l nwpaxam1-
cn no qopmyam (l4.ll) n (l4.l2). Copona1orno, ocn cy-
moc1nyo1 npopc1anonno (l4.l0), 1o ono opnnc1nonno.
r -~
IIm
r -~
IIm
] r ( )
r
-----------
r -~
IIm
r -~
IIm
r -~
IIm
376
Hapom no c1omy npanny acnmn1o1y
rpaqnva qynvnn ](r) , napon-
nym nwmo ppyrnm cnocoom:
h l,
l - r -4,
1. o. mw, vav n coponao oxnpa1r, noynnn 1o xo ypanno-
nno acnmn1o1w r - 4, vav npn r = -~, 1av n npn r = -~.
E nnpo (l4.9) moxo1 w1r aanncano ypannonno mo npn-
mo, nonapaorno ocn O. Ec1oc1nonno pacnpoc1pann1r
onpopoonno acnmn1o1w n na npnmwo, napaornwo ocn O.
OnpepeAenMe 8. Hcno quuuun ] onpeoe.euo o ueuonopou
oupecnuocnu u.u npouo.onou oupecnuocnu nouuu r
0
(mno +oen, oouocnopouueu) u ncno omno.ueuo ronn m
oouo u: c.oouu
](r) ~, u.u ](r) ~. (l4.l3)
Toeoo npn+on r r
0
(pnc. 6?) uo:mooencn oepnuuo.ouou ocu+n
nonou epoquuo quuuuu ] (o on.uuue on ocu+nnonm ouoo
(l4.9), uonopon uo:mooencn noue uou.ouuou ocu+nnonou).
E cynao nop1nvarno acnmn1o1w, vav n n cynao na-
vonno, pacc1onnno MP r - r
0
moxpy 1onvo M n npnmo
r r
0
c1pomn1cn v nym, ocn 1onva M(r, ](r)) c1pomn1cn
npor rpaqnva n ocvononnoc1r, 1. o. vorpa r = r
0
- 0 nn
r = r
0
- 0.
H1ow na1n nop1nvarnwo acnmn1o1w rpaqnva qynvnn
], napo na1n 1avno ananonnn r
0
, pn vo1opwx nwnonno1cn
opno nn oa yconnn (l4.l3). Hanpnmop, qynvnn
nmoo1 nop1nvarnym acnmn1o1y r -l. Eoomo oc-
n ](r) P(r),Q(r) - panonarnan qynvnn ((P(r) n Q(r) -
mnorononw), Q(r
0
) 0, P(r
0
) = 0, 1o npnman r r
0
nnno1cn
acnmn1o1o rpaqnva qynvnn ](r).
r 0 r
0
P
Pnc. 6?
r
2
- 3r - 2
r - l
--------------------------------
r ~
IIm
] r ( )
r
-----------
r ~
IIm
r
2
- 3r - 2
r r - l ( )
--------------------------------
r ~
IIm
r
2
- 3r - 2
r - l
--------------------------------

,
_
r ~
IIm
4r - 2
r - l
---------------------
r r
0
- 0
IIm
r r
0
- 0
IIm
r
2
- 3r - 2
r - l
--------------------------------
377
44.5. RoctpoenMe rpoMkos ynkMM
Haynonno aapanno qynvnn n noc1poonno oo rpaqnva c no-
momrm paann1oro namn anan1nnocvoro annapa1a oocoo-
paano nponopn1r n copymmom nopnpvo.
l. Onpopon1r oac1r cymoc1nonannn qynvnn, oac1r
nonpopwnnoc1n n 1onvn paapwna.
2. Ha1n acnmn1o1w.
3. Hpnnan1orno, nnopno, napncona1r rpaqnv qynvnn.
4. Ewnncn1r nopnym, a ocn nyxno, n n1opym nponanop-
nym (oa nponanopnwx ooo nwcovoro nopnpva nac1o ypao1cn
oo1ncr).
5. Ha1n 1onvn, n vo1opwx nopnan n n1opan nponanopnwo
no no cymoc1nym1, no pannw nym.
6. Coc1ann1r 1any namononnn anava nopno n n1opo
nponanopnwx. Onpopon1r npomoxy1vn noapac1annn, ywna-
nnn, nwnyvoc1n nnopx nn nnna qynvnn, na1n 1onvn cvc-
1pomyma (n 1om nnco vononwo) n 1onvn noporna.
?. Ovonna1orno nwnop1n1r rpaqnv.
Hpn c1om nom ormym 1onnoc1r rpaqnva mw xo1nm po-
c1nrny1r, 1om ormo, noomo ronopn, nooxopnmo na1n 1o-
nov, oxamnx na nom. Ownno oocoopaano na1n (w1r mo-
xo1, c onpopoonno 1onnoc1rm) 1onvn nopocononnn rpaqnva c
ocnmn vooppnna1 n 1onvn, coo1no1c1nymmno cvc1pomymam
qynvnn; ppyrno 1onvn naxopn1cn no mopo no1ponoc1n.
E cynao ononr rpomoapvnx nwpaxonn pn n1opo npona-
nopno nnorpa npnxopn1cn orpannnnna1rcn paccmo1ponnom
1ox cnoc1n rpaqnva, vo1opwo moxno nayna1r nmr c no-
momrm nopno nponanopno.
Rp M ue p 4. Hoc1ponm rpaqnv qynvnn ](r) .
01a qynvnn onpopoona n nonpopwnna pn ncox r = -l.
Ona, vav nanoc1no (cm. n. l4.4), nmoo1 acnmn1o1w r - 4 n
r -l, npnnom ](r) -~, ](r) -~. Bwo o1-
monono, n1o ](r) r - 4 - , noc1omy ](r) r - 4 npn r -l
(rpaqnv qynvnn naxopn1cn nwmo acnmn1o1w) n ](r) r - 4
npn r -l (rpaqnv oxn1 nnxo acnmn1o1w).
r
2
- 3r - 2
r - l
--------------------------------
r l - 0
IIm
r l - 0
IIm
2
r - l
--------------
37S
Ipaqnv qynvnn ](r) nopocovao1
ocr Or n 1onvax, n vo1opwx r
2
- 3r -
- 2 0, 1. o. npn r
l
, r
2
(3 ),2
nn npnnan1orno n 1onvax r
l
-
- 3,5, r
2
- -0,5. Ocr O rpaqnv no-
pocovao1 n 1onvo -2. 01o noano-
no1 napncona1r rpaqnv qynvnn
](r) n nnpo, yvaaannom na pncyn-
vo 68.
arnomoo nccoponanno nmoo1
cnoo orm naxoxponno cvc1pomy-
mon 1onov noporna n nn1opnaon,
nwnyvoc1n nnopx nn nnna rpaqn-
va qynvnn. n c1oro napom
nponanopnwo ' n ':
' , ' .
O1cmpa nnpno, n1o ' 0 npn r -l - -2,4 n r -l -
0,4. E 1onvo r -l nponanopnwo ' n ' no cymoc1nym1 (paxo
qynvnn ] n c1o 1onvo no onpopoona).
Coc1annm 1any namononnn anava nopno n n1opo npo-
nanopnwx n aanncnmoc1n o1 namononnn aprymon1a, nvmnnn n
noo vpn1nnocvno 1onvn:
Ha c1o 1anw nnpno, n1o qynvnn ](r) nmoo1 n 1onvo
r -l - c1porn mnnnmym, a n 1onvo r -l - - c1po-
rn mavcnmym; npn r -l qynvnn c1poro nwnyva nnopx,
a npn r -l - c1poro nwnyva nnna. Tonov noporna no1, 1av
vav npn r -l qynvnn paapwnna.
E parnomom pn vpa1voc1n noponwo 1anw ypom
naawna1r no.uuo+u nooeoeuun quuuuu n nnorpa cpaay
r
-l -
-l
-l -
' - 0 - Ho cymoc1nyo1 - 0 -
' - - - Ho cymoc1nyo1 - - -
r
0

5 l -3 -5 -l
Pnc. 68
3
l?
r
2
- 2r - l
r - l ( )
2
--------------------------------
4
r - l ( )
3
----------------------
2 2
2 2
2 2
379
o1mona1r n nnx 1onvn cvc1pomyma,
1onvn noporna n nn1opnaw nwnyv-
oc1n.
Mw namn omn xapav1op nono-
ponnn qynvnn. H1ow noc1pon1r rpa-
qnv ooo 1onno, napo na1n pnp 1onov
rpaqnva, vav c1o o1monaocr nwmo.
Rp M ue p 2. Hoc1ponm rpaqnv
qynvnn
](r) (r - l)
3
.
Oac1r onpopoonnn c1o qynvnn - mnoxoc1no ncox po-
c1nn1ornwx nnco, npnnom ona nonpopwnna n vaxpo 1onvo
n noc1omy no nmoo1 nop1nvarnwx acnmn1o1. Ha 1oro, n1o
~,
copyo1, n1o no1 n navonnwx acnmn1o1.
n noc1poonnn rpaqnva nnopno aamo1nm, n1o:
l) ](r) opamao1cn n nyr n 1onvax r -l n r 0;
2) ] 0 npn r -l, r = 0;
3) ] 0 npn r -l;
4) ](r) -~ n ](r) -~.
Hpnnan1ornw nnp rpaqnva qynvnn, vo1opw mox-
no napncona1r na ocnonannn c1nx aamonann, naopaxon na
pncynvo 69.
Hponopom 1onopr ooo nopponoo nccoponanno qynvnn c
nomomrm nponanopnwx. Hapom ' n ':
' ,
' .
O1cmpa nnpno, n1o ' 0 npn r -l n r -2,ll; ' 0 npn
r -l, a 1avxo vorpa 44r
2
- l6r - l 0, 1. o. npnnan1or-
no npn r
l
-9,22 n r
2
l,22. Hpn r 0 nponanopnwo ' n '
no cymoc1nym1.
Pnc. 69
r
0

-l l
l
-l
r
2
3
] r ( )
r
-----------
r t
IIm
r -~
IIm
r -~
IIm
r - l ( )
2
llr - 2 ( )
3 r
3
--------------------------------------------------
2 r - l ( ) 44r
2
- l6r - l ( )
9r r
3
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3S0
Coc1annom 1any nonoponnn qynvnn:
Tonopr rpaqnv qynvnn (r - l)
3
moxno napncona1r
ooo 1onno. Ero nnp naopaxon na pncynvo ?0. Kav nnpno,
nccoponanno c nomomrm nponanopnwx noanono cymoc1-
nonno y1onnn1r nnp rpaqnva (cp. pnc. 69 n ?0).
Paann1w annapa1 noanono1 c1pon1r n rpaqnvn qynv-
n, ovarno aapannwx napamo1pnnocvn: r r(|), (|).
3pocr no npopnoarao1cn, n1o napa qynvn r r(|), (|)
onpopono1 opnoananno opny qynvnm nnpa (r) nn r
r(|). Hop rpaqnvom napamo1pnnocvn aapanno qynvnn
noppaaymonao1cn o+opnnonno rpaqnvon ncox qynvn nnpa
](r) n r g(r), aapanaomwx qopmyamn r r(|), (|).
Cpoaom nocvorvo npopnapn1ornwx aamonann. n na-
xoxponnn acnmn1o1, napaornwx ocn O, nooxopnmo na-
1n 1avno ananonnn |
0
l
, pn vo1opwx cymoc1nyo1 vononnw
l
3pocr n paoo |
0
- nnco nn opna na ocvononnoc1o -~, -~.
r ' '
Hn1opnaw
mono1onnoc1n
n 1onvn cvc1pomyma
Hn1opnaw
nwnyvoc1n
n 1onvn noporna
(-~, - l) - -
Eoapac1anno
Ewnyvoc1r nnopx
-l 0 0 Tonva noporna
(-l, r
l
) - - Ewnyvoc1r nnna
r
l
- 0 Tonva noporna
r
l
, - - -
Ewnyvoc1r nnopx
-
0 - Mavcnmym
- , 0
- - Vwnanno
0
Ho cymo-
c1nyo1
Ho cymo-
c1nyo1
Mnnnmym
(0, r
2
) - -
Eoapac1anno r
2
- 0 Tonva noporna
(r
2
, -~) - - Ewnyvoc1r nnna

2
ll
------
,
_
2
ll
------

2
ll
------
,
_
r
3S1
npopo r(|) o nn r(|) o,
a (|), coo1no1c1nonno (|),
panon -~ nn -~. Ecn 1avno ananonnn
|
0
cymoc1nym1, 1o
r o (l4.l4)
nnno1cn ypannonnom ncvomo acnmn-
1o1w.
Anaornnno, naxoxponno acnmn-
1o1, napaornwx ocn Or, cnopn1cn v onpopoonnm 1avnx
ananonn |
0
, pn vo1opwx cymoc1nyo1 vononnw npopo
(|) b nn (|) b, a r(|), coo1no1-
c1nonno r(|), panon -~ nn -~. Ecn ovaxo1cn, n1o
1avno ananonnn |
0
cymoc1nym1, 1o
b (l4.l5)
nnno1cn ypannonnom ncvomo acnmn1o1w.
Havono, pn naxoxponnn acnmn1o1, no napaornwx
nn ocn Or, nn ocn O, napo na1n 1avno ananonnn |
0
, pn
vo1opwx npopow r(|) n (|) (nn r(|)
n pannw -~ nn -~ n cymoc1nyo1 vononnw
npopo h - 0 coo1no1c1nonno h .
Ecn pn c1oro ananonnn |
0
, vpomo 1oro, cymoc1nyo1 vo-
nonnw npopo [(|) - hr(|) l (coo1no1c1nonno
[(|) - hr(|) l), 1o npnman
hr - l (l4.l6)
nnno1cn acnmn1o1o rpaqnva paccma1pnnaomo qynvnn.
VHPAHEHHE 6. Ewnoc1n ypannonno acnmn1o1 (l4.l4), (l4.l5) n
(l4.l6), ncxopn na 1oro, n1o acnmn1o1o naawnao1cn npnman, pacc1onnno
po vo1opo o1 1onvn (r(|), (|)) rpaqnva qynvnn, aapanno napamo1pnno-
Pnc. ?0
r
0

-l l
l
r
2
r
l
-
2
ll
------
| |
0
-0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| ( ) ( )
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| ( )
r | ( )
-----------

| |
0
- 0
IIm
| ( )
r | ( )
-----------
,
_
| |
0
- 0
IIm
| |
0
- 0
IIm
3Sz
cvn: r r(|), (|), c1pomn1cn v nym, vorpa 1onva c1pomn1cn, oc1ana-
ncr na rpaqnvo qynvnn, n ocvononnoc1r, 1. o. vorpa = ~
npn | = |
0
- 0 nn | = |
0
- 0.
Hpn npopnapn1ornom noc1poonnn rpaqnva qynvnn, aa-
panno napamo1pnnocvn, nac1o wnao1 nooano noc1pon1r
cnanaa o1porno rpaqnvn qynvn r r(|) n (|).
n onpopoonnn npomoxy1von noapac1annn n ywnannn
qynvnn, aapanno napamo1pnnocvn, naxoxponnn oo cvc1po-
mymon, 1onov noporna, a 1avxo nn1opnaon nwnyvoc1n
nnopx n nnna napo ncnoraona1r nwpaxonnn pn nponanop-
nwx n nopoa nponanopnwo , , n . Hpn c1om
copyo1 nmo1r n nnpy, n1o ypannonnn r r(|), (|), noomo
ronopn, no onpoponm1 opnoananno qynvnm nnpa (r),
1av n1o npn nccoponannn rpaqnva qynvnn napo nco npomn
nnnma1orno copn1r aa 1om, vavan no1nr rpaqnva pac-
cma1pnnao1cn. Hnorpa, naoopo1, nooanoo paccma1pnna1r r
vav qynvnm o1 .
Rp M ue p 3. Hoc1ponm rpaqnv qynvnn
r , . (l4.l?)
Hapamo1pnnocvoo npopc1anonno nmoo1 cmwc pn ncox |,
vpomo | l. Acnmn1o1w, napaornwo ocn Or, noynam1cn
npn | l n | ~; nx ypannonnn coo1no1c1nonno l,2 n
l. Acnmn1o1a, napaornan ocn O, noynao1cn npn |
-l; oo ypannonno r l,4. Havonnwx acnmn1o1 n pannom
cynao no1.
n noc1poonnn rpaqnva nnopno nooano coc1ann1r 1an-
y namononnn anavon nopomonnwx r n n aanncnmoc1n o1
namononnn |; n noo mory1 w1r nvmnonw n novo1opwo xapav-
1opnwo ananonnn r n . Tav, n pannom cynao nooana co-
pymman 1ana:
| -~ -l 0 l -~
r -~ - l,4 - l,4 - ~ - -~
l - ~ - 0 - l,2 - l
r
2
| ( ) -
2
| ( )

r

rr
r
|

|

||
r
||

|
2
- l
4 l - | ( )
---------------------
|
l - |
-------------
3S3
Tonopr c1ponm rpaqnv (pnc. ?l). n narnpnoc1n na rpa-
qnvo yvaaano, vav no1nn rpaqnva coo1no1c1nym1 namononnm
napamo1pa.
aoo nmoom
, ,
noc1omy
. (l4.l8)
E pannom cynao ynmo paccma1pnna1r r vav qynvnm o1
, a no naoopo1, 1av vav na noc1poonnoro rpaqnva nnpno, n1o
oc1oc1nonno oxnpa1r, n1o r onpopono1cn opnoananno vav
qynvnn , = l,2 n = l. 01o orvo yc1anonn1r n anan1n-
nocvn, ocn aamo1n1r, n1o ypannonno opnoananno
paapomnmo o1nocn1orno napamo1pa |.
Ha (l4.l8) nnpno, n1o 0 npn | -l n vorpa l - 2| - |
2

0, 1. o. npn | l - n | l - . 3nanonnm | -l no coo1-
no1c1nyo1 nnvavan 1onva rpaqnva, a npn | l - n | l -
nmoom coo1no1c1nonno
n - .
r 0

l
| -~
| l - 0
| -~
| l - 0
| -l - 0
2
2
-------
l
2
---
2
2
-------
l
4
---
l
| -l - 0
Pnc. ?l
r
|

l - 2| - |
2
4 l - | ( )
3
------------------------------

|

l
l - | ( )
2
---------------------
r

l - | ( )
2
l - 2| - |
2
( )
4 l - |
2
( )
---------------------------------------------------------
|
l - |
-------------
r

2 2
2 2
l - 2
2 - 2
-------------------
2
2
-------
l - 2
2 - 2
------------------
2
2
-------
3S4
Coc1annm 1onopr 1any namononnn anava nponanopno
; c1a 1ana noanono1 na1n n 1onvn cvc1pomyma:
Ha 1anw nnpno, n1o n 1onvo ,2 qynvnn r r()
nmoo1 mavcnmym, n 1onvo - ,2 - mnnnmym n c1poro mono-
1onna na copymmnx nn1opnaax: (-~, - ,2), (- ,2, l,2),
(l,2, ,2), ( ,2, l), (l, -~).
Hooxopnmo opa1n1r nnnmanno na 1o, n1o, nann aa noaa-
nncnmym nopomonnym, r - aa aanncnmym, 1. o. nann ocr O aa
nopnym vooppnna1nym ocr, a Or - aa n1opym, mw noynnm
cnc1omy vooppnna1, opnon1nponannym npo1nnonooxno pac-
cma1pnnaomo nco npomn cnc1omo vooppnna1, y vo1opo nop-
no ocrm nnno1cn Or, a n1opo - O. Hn1a1om nooano
yopn1rcn, n1o povaaannwo nwmo vpn1opnn, nanpnmop, pn
nannnn cvc1pomymon n 1onov noporna roomo1pnnocvn no
cnnaanw c 1o nn nno opnon1ano oco vooppnna1.
n nccoponannn nwnyvoc1n n 1onov noporna qynvnn
r() napom :
.
Hponanopnan panna nym npn | -l n pn 1ox |, pn vo-
1opwx P(|) 3 - 3| - 3|
2
- |
3
0.
E cny 1oro, n1o P'(|) 3(| - l)
2
. 0, npnnom P' 0 1orvo n
opno 1onvo | l, qynvnn P(|) c1poro mono1onno noapac1ao1
na nco nomoc1nonno ocn (nonomy?). Copona1orno, cymoc1ny-
o1 opnnc1nonnoo |
0
1avoo, n1o P(|
0
) 0. Hpn c1om P(0) 3 0,
a P(-l) -4 0, o1vypa -l |
0
0. Ecn
0
, 1o, ono-
nnpno, -~
0
0 (moxno, vononno, noynn1r n ooo 1onnym
oonvy pn
0
, nwnpan ooo navno |
l
n |
2
1avno, n1o P(|
l
) 0,
| -~ -l
l -
l
l -
-~
l ~
-
l
- 0 - 0 - - 0 -
0vc1pomymw Mnnnmym Mavcnmym
r

2 2
2
2
-------
l
2
---
2
2
-------
r

2
2
2 2
2 2
r

r (

)
|
|

l - | ( )
3
3 - 3| - 3|
2
- |
3
( )
2 l - | ( )
3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
r

|
0
l - |
0
----------------
3S
P(|
2
) 0). Coc1annm 1onopr 1any namononnn n1opo npona-
nopno n onpoponm c oo nomomrm nn1opnaw nwnyvoc1n
nnopx n nnna, a 1avxo 1onvn noporna (cm. 1a. na c. 384).
Ipaqnv qynvnn (l4.l?) nccoponan. On naopaxon na
pncynvo ?l.
Rp M ue p 4. Hoc1ponm rpaqnv qynvnn
r , . (l4.l9)
Acnmn1o1, napaornwx ocnm vooppnna1, n pannom
cynao no1; 1av vav r = ~ n = ~ npn | = -l, 1o, noamoxno,
cymoc1nyo1 navonnan acnmn1o1a. n oo naxoxponnn nw-
nncnm coo1no1c1nymmno npopow:
| -l, 1. o. h -l,
( - hr) - - .
O1cmpa copyo1, n1o navonnan acnmn1o1a cymoc1nyo1 n
n1o oo ypannonnom nnno1cn -r - .
Hoc1ponm npnnan1orno rpaqnvn qynvn r(|) n (|);
pn c1oro npopnapn1orno napom nponanopnwo:
, . (l4.20)
Hponanopnan opamao1cn n nyr npn | l, , npn
c1om anav nponanopno namonno1cn c - na -, noc1omy
c1o 1onva mavcnmyma; nponanopnan opamao1cn n nyr
npn | 0, monnn anav c - na - (anann1, c1o 1onva mnnn-
myma), n npn | l, , monnn anav c - na - (copona-
1orno, c1o 1avxo 1onva mavcnmyma). Ha c1nx aamonann
copyo1, n1o rpaqnvn qynvn r(|) n (|) nmom1 nnp, naopa-
xonnw na pncynvo ?2.
r

| 0
r
l
l
-l | 0

l
l
-l
Pnc. ?2
|
l - |
3
----------------
|
2
l - |
3
----------------
| l
IIm

r
---
| l
IIm
| l
IIm
| l
IIm
|
2
l - |
2
----------------

|
l - |
3
----------------
,
_
| l
IIm
|
|
2
- | - l
--------------------------
l
3
---
l
3
---
r
|

l - 2|
3
l - |
3
( )
3
------------------------

|

| 2 - |
3
( )
l - |
3
( )
2
------------------------
r
|
2
3

2
3
3S6
Ho c1nm rpaqnvam, anan ypannonno acnmn1o1w, moxno
na1n npnnan1orno rpaqnv ncvomo qynvnn (l4.l9).
On nmoo1 nnp, naopaxonnw na pncynvo ?3.
Hccoponanno nponanopno noanon1 y1onnn1r paa-
mopw no1n, opaayomo rpaqnvom. Ha (l4.20) nmoom
. O1cmpa copyo1:
l) 0 npn | 0 n | , 1. o. vaca1ornan v rpaqnvy
napaorna ocn Or n 1onvax (0, 0) n ( ,3, ,3);
2) ~ npn | l, n | ~, 1. o. vaca1ornan napa-
orna ocn O n 1onvax ( ,3, ,3) n (0, 0). Tavnm opa-
aom, 1onvo (0, 0) (nnnmmocn, vav ronopn1, 1onvo camono-
pocononnn rpaqnva) coo1no1c1nym1 pna ananonnn napamo1pa
| r'

Hn1opnaw
nwnyvoc1n
Tonvn noporna
n 1onvn paapwna
-~ l Tonva paapwna
(-~, -l) (l, -~) - Ewnyvoc1r nnna
-l ~
(-l, |
0
) (-~,
0
) - Ewnyvoc1r nnopx
|
0

0
0 Tonva noporna
(|
0
, l)
0
, - Ewnyvoc1r nnna
l Ho cymoc1nyo1 Tonva paapwna
(l, -~) , l - Ewnyvoc1r nnopx
-~ l Tonva paapwna

l
2
---
,
_
l
2
---
l
2
---

,
_

| 2 - |
3
( )
l - 2|
3
-----------------------

r
2
3
2
3
4
3

r
2
3
4
3
2
3
3S7
| 0 n | ~, ocn 1orvo poonpopon1r
qynvnn (l4.l9), nooxnn r(~) 0,
(~) 0. E c1o 1onvo pno nac1n rpaqnva
nmom1 coo1no1c1nonno cnonmn vaca1or-
nwmn vooppnna1nwo ocn.
Ipaqnv qynvnn (l4.l9) naawnao1-
cn oeuopnoom+
l
.ucno+. Ha qopmy
(l4.l9) no1pypno noynn1r oro nonnnoo
aapanno: r
3
-
3
- r 0.
45.
Bekcpc qykuM
45.4. RonstMe npepeAo
M nenpepmsnoctM pAs sektopnoM ynkMM
E c1om naparpaqo paccma1pnnam1cn qynvnn, ananonnnmn
vo1opwx nnnm1cn nov1opw, a aprymon1amn - nnca. Tavno
qynvnn naawnam1cn oeunopum+u quuuun+u (nnconoro
aprymon1a). Onn ooananam1cn n 1ovc1o noyxnpnwm mpnq-
1om: r(|), | X, rpo X - novo1opoo nnconoo mnoxoc1no.
E c1om onpopoonnn n aanncnmoc1n o1 paccma1pnnaomwx
aapan nop ananonnnmn r nov1opnwx qynvn mory1 nonn-
ma1rcn vav cnoopnwo nov1opw, 1av n nov1opw c aavponon-
nwmn nanaamn. Ecn nanaa ncox nov1opon aavpononw n
opno n 1o xo 1onvo, 1o 1avno nov1opw naawnam1cn poou
co+uoeunopo+u.
Ecn n npoc1panc1no aapana npnmoyrornan cnc1oma voop-
pnna1, 1o, vav xopomo nanoc1no, vaxpomy nov1opy coo1no1c1-
nyo1 ynopnpononnan 1pova poc1nn1ornwx nnco - oro vo-
oppnna1 n, naoopo1, vaxpo ynopnpononno 1povo nnco
coo1no1c1nyo1 nov1op, pn vo1oporo nnca, nxopnmno n c1y
1povy, nnnm1cn oro vooppnna1amn. Hoc1omy aapanno nov-
1opno qynvnn cvnnnaon1no aapannm 1pox cvanpnwx
(nnconwx) qynvn r(|), (|), :(|), nnnmmnxcn oro vooppn-
na1amn: r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)), | X.
l
P. ovap1 (l596-l650) - qpanyacvn qnocoq, ma1oma1nv,
qnanv, qnanoor.
r 0

Pnc. ?3
3SS
Ecn npn ncox | X nmoom :(|) 0, 1o nov1opnan qynvnn
aapao1cn pnymn vooppnna1amn r(|) n (|); n c1om cynao nn-
my1 r(|) (r(|), (|)).
nna ncnvoro nov1opa p ooananao1cn nopoa p. Bypom
npopnoara1r nanoc1nwmn ocnonnwo aropannocvno cnoc1-
na nov1opon, nonn1no cvanpnoro n nov1opnoro nponanopo-
nn, a 1avxo cnoc1na c1nx nponanoponn. Cvanpnoo npona-
noponno nov1opon o n b ooananao1cn nopoa ob nn (o, b),
a nov1opnoo - nopoa o ` b nn [o, b.
Enopom nonn1no npopoa, nonpopwnnoc1n, nponanopno n
pnqqoponnaa pn nov1opnwx qynvn.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Eeunop o uo:mooencn npeoe.o+ oeunopuou
quuuuu r(|), | X, npu | = |
0
(u.u o nouue | |
0
), ec.u
r(|) - o 0. (l5.l)
E ono+ c.uoe nuun
r(|) o. (l5.2)
E c1om onpopoonnn r(|) - o - nnconan qynvnn. Tavnm
opaaom, nonn1no npopoa nov1opno qynvnn cnopn1cn v no-
nn1nm npopoa cvanpno qynvnn (l5.l). Ecnomnnn onpopo-
onno c1oro nonn1nn, noynnm, n1o (l5.2) oananao1, n1o pn
moro 0 cymoc1nyo1 1avoo 0, n1o pn ncox
| X U(|
0
; ) (l5.3)
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no
r(|) - o . (l5.4)
Kav n n cynao cvanpnwx qynvn, ypom npopnoara1r,
n1o |
0
- 1onva npnvocnononnn (vononnan nn ocvononno
ypaonnan) mnoxoc1na X. Ecn |
0
- vononnan 1onva, 1o yco-
nno (l5.3) moxno aannca1r n nnpo
| - |
0
, | X,
a ocn |
0
- opna na ocvononno ypaonnwx 1onov ~, -~ nn
-~, 1o coo1no1c1nonno n opnom na copymmnx 1pox nnpon:
| , | nn | - ,
rpo ncmpy | X.
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
'
l

---
l

---
l

---
3S9
Ecn nanao ncox nov1opon r(|) no-
moc1n1r n opny 1onvy (nanpnmop, nana-
o vooppnna1), 1o yconno (l5.4) ypo1
oanana1r, n1o vonw ncox nov1opon r(|)
npn | X U(|
0
; ) (cm. l5.3)) oxa1 n
mapo papnyca c on1pom n vono nov-
1opa o (pnc. ?4).
Ecn r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)) n o
(o
l
, o
2
, o
3
), 1o
r(|) - o (l5.5)
n, copona1orno,
r(|) - o
l
r(|) - o, (|) - o
2

r(|) - o, :(|) - o
3
r(|) - o. (l5.6)
Hoc1omy
r(|) o (l5.?)
n 1om n 1orvo 1om cynao, vorpa
r(|) o
l
, (|) o
2
, :(|) o
3
. (l5.8)
oc1nn1orno, n cny coo1nomonn (l5.5) n (l5.6), pn
1oro n1ow nwnonnocr yconno (l5.l), nooxopnmo n poc1a-
1onno, n1ow
r(|) - o
l
0, (|) - o
2
0, :(|) - o
3
0.
OnpepeAenMe 2. Ec.u |
0
- uoueuuon nouuo (n. e. uuc.o) u o.n
quuuuu r(|), | X, u+een +ecno pooeucnoo
r(|) r(|
0
), (l5.9)
no ono quuuun uo:mooencn uenpepmouou o nouue |
0
.
Kav n n cynao cvanpnwx qynvn, yconno (l5.9) nw-
nonno1cn 1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa cymoc1nyo1 npopo
n 1onva |
0
npnnapoxn1 mnoxoc1ny X. Ha cvnnna-
on1noc1n yconn (l5.?) n (l5.8) copyo1, n1o nov1opnan
qynvnn nonpopwnna n novo1opo 1onvo 1orpa n 1orvo 1or-
pa, vorpa n c1o 1onvo nonpopwnnw nco oo vooppnna1nwo
qynvnn.
Pnc. ?4
0
r
(
|
)

-

o
r(|)
o

'
r | ( ) - o
l
[ ]
2
- | ( ) - o
2
[ ]
2
- : | ( ) - o
3
[ ]
2
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
r | ( )
| |
0

IIm
390
O1mo1nm novo1opwo cnocvna npooAon nouvopnmx qynun.
l
0
. Ec.u r(|) o, no r(|) o.
01o nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 na nopanonc1na r - o r - o.
Ioomo1pnnocvn cmwc c1oro nopanonc1na coc1on1 n 1om,
n1o paanoc1r pnn pnyx c1opon 1poyrornnva no nponwmao1
pnnw oro 1po1ro c1oponw.
2
0
. [r
l
(|) - r
2
(|) r
l
(|) - r
2
(|).
3
0
. ](|) r(|) ](|) r(|) (](|) - cuo.npuon
quuuun).
4
0
. r
l
(|) r
2
(|) r
l
(|) r
2
(|).
5
0
. r
l
(|) ` r
2
(|) r
l
(|) r
2
(|).
E cnoc1nax l
0
-5
0
nco paccma1pnnaomwo qynvnn onpo-
poonw na novo1opom mnoxoc1no X ~ R. E cnoc1nax 2
0
-5
0
npopnoarao1cn, n1o nco npopow, nxopnmno n npanwo nac1n
panonc1n, cymoc1nym1 n y1nopxpao1cn, n1o cymoc1nym1 npo-
pow, c1onmno n onwx nac1nx panonc1n, npnnom nmom1 moc-
1o nanncannwo qopmyw.
Eco c1n cnoc1na povaawnam1cn anaornnno 1omy, vav w-
n povaaanw noponwo y1nopxponnn, nc1ponanmnocn panrmo
(cm. n. 4.9, 5.l0). ovaxom, nanpnmop, cnoc1no 5
0
. Hpopna-
pn1orno aamo1nm, n1o pn mwx nov1opon p n q
p ` q p q sIn p q. (l5.l0)
Hoc1omy ocn p p(|), q q(|), npnnom p(|) 0, a q(|) -
orpannnonnan qynvnn, 1o na (l5.l0) nmoom (cm. n. 5.ll)
p ` q 0. (l5.ll)
Hyc1r 1onopr r
l
(|) o, r
2
(|) b. Hooxnm o(|)
r
l
(|) - o, (|) r
2
(|) - b; 1orpa, coracno (l5.l),
o(|) (|) 0 (l5.l2)
n
r
l
(|) ` r
2
(|) [o - (|) ` [b - (|)
o ` b - o ` (|) - o(|) ` b - o(|) ` (|),
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
p

q
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
391
rpo, n cny (l5.ll),
o ` (|) o(|) ` b o(|) ` (|) 0,
a 1av vav
o ` (|) - o(|) ` b - o(|) ` (|)
o ` (|) - o(|) ` b - o(|) ` (|),
1o n o ` (|) - (|) ` b - (|) ` (|) 0. Hoc1omy
r
l
(|) ` r
2
(|) - o ` b 0,
a c1o oananao1 (cm. onpopoonno l), n1o
r
l
(|) ` r
2
(|) o ` b,
1. o. cnoc1no 5
0
povaaano.
O1mo1nm, n1o cnoc1na l
0
-5
0
npopoon nov1opnwx qynv-
n moxno, vononno, noynn1r c nomomrm qopmy (l5.5) na
coo1no1c1nymmnx cnoc1n cvanpnwx qynvn, ocn nopo-
1n v vooppnna1no aanncn nov1opon n nx cvanpnwx n nov-
1opnwx nponanoponn.
Ha cnoc1n npopoon nov1opnwx qynvn copyo1, n1o
cymma, cvanpnoo n nov1opnoo nponanoponnn nov1opnwx
qynvn, a 1avxo nponanoponno cvanpnwx qynvn na nov-
1opnwo nnnm1cn nonpopwnnwmn n novo1opo 1onvo, ocn n
c1o 1onvo nonpopwnnw nco caraomwo, coo1no1c1nonno com-
noxn1on.
45.2. RpoMssopnos M pMepenMoA
sektopnoM ynkMM
Ecmpy n parnomom n nac1onmom naparpaqo ypo1 npopno-
ara1rcn, n1o |
0
- nnco, 1. o. n1o |
0
no nnno1cn ocvononno
ypaonno 1onvo npnmo.
Hyc1r nov1opnan qynvnn r(|) onpopoona n novo1opo
ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn |
0
; 1orpa o1nomonno onpopoono
n coo1no1c1nymmo npovoo1o ovpoc1noc1n c1o 1onvn.
OnpepeAenMe 3. Hpeoe. (ec.u ou, uoueuuo, c
ecnoen) uo:mooencn npou:ooouou oouuou oeunopuou
quuuuu o nouue |
0
u oo:uouoencn r'(|
0
) u.u (|
0
).
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
r | ( ) - r |
0
( )
| - |
0
-------------------------------
| |
0

IIm
r | ( ) - r |
0
( )
| - |
0
-------------------------------
r

39z
Tavnm opaaom, nponanopnan nov1opno qynvnn n 1onvo
oc1r nov1op.
Ecn nooxn1r | | - |
0
, r r(|
0
- |) - r(|
0
), 1o
r(|
0
) . (l5.l3)
n 1oro n1ow qynvnn r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)), onpopoon-
nan n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn |
0
, nmoa nponanopnym n
|
0
, nooxopnmo n poc1a1onno, n1ow qynvnn r(|), (|) n :(|)
nmon nponanopnwo npn | |
0
, npnnom n c1om cynao
r(|
0
) (r(|
0
), (|
0
),:(|
0
)),
r(|
0
) .
01o nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 na cvnnnaon1noc1n pnyx
nopxopon (l5.?) n (l5.8) v onpopoonnm npopoa pn nov1op-
no qynvnn:
,
, .
Hponanopnym r(|) nov1opno qynvnn r(|) naawnam1 1av-
xo cuopocnov u:+eueuun oeunopo r(|) onuocune.ouo nopo
+enpo |. E 1om cynao, vorpa pnnw nov1opon r(|) no monnm1-
cn, nponanopnan r(|) naawnao1cn 1avxo n cuopocnov opoe
uun nov1opa r(|), a oo acom1nan nonnnna - uuc.oom+
:uoueuue+ cuopocnu oro opoeuun.
Ho anaornn co cynaom cvanpnwx qynvn, nov1opnym
qynvnm o(|), | X, naawnam1 ecuoueuuo +o.ou onuocu
ne.ouo cuo.npuou quuuuu (|), | X, npn | = 0, n nnmy1
o(|) o((|)), | = 0, ocn cymoc1nyo1 1avan nov1opnan qynv-
nn s(|), onpopoonnan na 1om xo mnoxoc1no X, n1o n qynv-
nn o(|), (|), pn vo1opwx n nov1opno ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn | |
0
nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no o(|) s(|) (|), | X, n s(|) 0.
Kav n pn cvanpnwx qynvn, ocn |
0
X, 1o qynvnn
s(|) nonpopwnna n 1onvo |
0
n noc1omy (|
0
) 0.
Eov1opnan qynvnn aprymon1a | naawnao1cn .uueuuou,
ocn ona nmoo1 nnp o| - b, rpo o n b - vavno-no pna qnvcn-
ponannwx nov1opa.
| |
0

IIm
r
|
------
r ( )
2
|
0
( ) -
2
|
0
( ) - :
2
|
0
( )
| 0
IIm
r |
0
- | ( ) - r |
0
( )
|
-----------------------------------------------

| 0
IIm
r |
0
- | ( ) - r |
0
( )
|
-------------------------------------------------
| 0
IIm
|
0
- | ( ) - |
0
( )
|
-------------------------------------------------
| 0
IIm
: |
0
- | ( ) - : |
0
( )
|
------------------------------------------------
,
_
| |
0

IIm
393
Hoco nnopnwx aamonann moxno onpopon1r nonn1no pnq-
qoponnpyomoc1n n pnqqoponnaa nov1opno qynvnn.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Eeunopuon quuuun r(|), onpeoe.euuon o ue
uonopou oupecnuocnu nouuu |
0
, uo:mooencn ouqqepeuuu
pe+ou npu | |
0
, ec.u ee npupoeuue
r r(|
0
- |) - r(|
0
)
o nouue |
0
npeocnoou+o o ouoe
r o| - o(|), | = 0. (l5.l4)
Hpn c1om nnonan nov1opnan qynvnn o| npnpamonnn
aprymon1a | naawnao1cn ouqqepeuuuo.o+ oeunopuou quu
uuu r(|) n 1onvo |
0
n ooananao1cn nopoa Jr, 1. o. Jr o|.
Tavnm opaaom,
r Jr - o(|), | = 0. (l5.l5)
3pocr qynvnn o(|) onpopoona npn | 0; ona 1avxo panna
nym:
o(|)
| 0
(r - o|)
| 0
0.
Copona1orno, ocn npopc1ann1r c1y qynvnm o(|) n nnpo
o(|) s(|)|,
1o qynvnn s(|) ypo1 1avxo onpopoona npn | 0, noc1omy
apocr npopo
(|) 0 (l5.l6)
paccma1pnnao1cn no no npovoo1o, a no oo ovpoc1noc1n
1onvn | 0; vav wo o1monono nwmo, n c1om cynao (0) 0.
Ha (l5.l4) ononnpnwm opaaom copyo1, n1o ocn nov1op-
nan qynvnn r(|) pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo |
0
, 1o ona n no-
npopwnna n c1o 1onvo.
aoo, na (l5.l4) nmoom
o - o,
1. o. ocn nov1opnan qynvnn r(|) pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo
|
0
, 1o ona nmoo1 n c1o 1onvo nponanopnym n
r(|
0
) o.

l5,l4 ( )
| 0
IIm
| 0
IIm
r
|
------
| 0
IIm
o | ( )
|
--------------
394
Haoopo1, ocn cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan r(|
0
) n,
copona1orno,
r(|
0
) - s(|), | = 0,
rpo
s(|) 0, (l5.l?)
1o
r r'(|
0
)| - s(|)|. (l5.l8)
Ecn nooxn1r (0) 0, 1o, n cny nwnononnn yconnn
(l5.l?), panonc1no (l5.l8) pannocnrno panonc1ny (l5.l4) npn
o r(|
0
). Tavnm opaaom, qynvnn r(|) pnqqoponnpyoma n
1onvo |
0
n Jr(|
0
) r(|
0
)|.
Hoaran no onpopoonnm n n c1om cynao J| |,
nmoom (onycvan pn npoc1o1w ooananonno aprymon1a) Jr
rJ| nn r .
Hyc1r 1onopr | |() - pnqqoponnpyoman n 1onvo
0
qynvnn, |
0
|(
0
) n -
0
. Ha coo1nomonnn (l5.l8) co-
pyo1, n1o
- (|) , (l5.l9)
rpo r(|
0
).
4ynvnn | |() pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo
0
, copona-
1orno, ona nonpopwnna n no, 1. o. nmoo1 moc1o panonc1no
| 0. Hoc1omy na (l5.l6) noynaom, n1o (|) 0.
Kpomo 1oro, n 1onvo
0
cymoc1nyo1 vononnan nponanopnan
|(
0
) . E cny ncoro c1oro, n 1onvo
0
cymoc1nyo1
nponanopnan nov1opno qynvnn r(|()):
- (|) ,
nn, n ppyro aanncn,
.
Ha c1o qopmyw, anaornnno cynam cvanpnwx qynv-
n, nw1ovao1 nnnapnan1noc1r aanncn pnqqoponnaa nov-
1opno qynvnn: vav pn aanncnmo nopomonno |, 1av n pn
| 0
IIm
r
|
------
r
|
------
| 0
| =0
IIm
Jr
J|
------
r

------
r
|

|

------
|

------
r
|

0
IIm
0
IIm
0
IIm
|

------
r

0
IIm
r

------
l5.l9 ( )
0
IIm

r
|

r

------
r

------
,
_
r
|
|

Jr
J
------
Jr
J|
------
J|
J
------
39
noaanncnmo nmoom Jr J|, Jr J; n1ow na n1opo
qopmyw noynn1r nopnym, napo nopc1ann1r no n1opym qop-
myy n aamo1n1r, n1o J J|.
Hpnnopom qopmyAm nqqoponnponanns nouvopno
qynunn (aprymon1 pn npoc1o1w ooananonn onymon):
l. (r
l
- r
2
) - .
2. (]r) ] r - ]r.
3. (r
l
r
2
) r
2
- r
l
.
4. (r
l
` r
2
) ` r
2
- r
l
` .
3pocr nco paccma1pnnaomwo qynvnn onpopoonw n novo1o-
po ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn |
0
n npopnoarao1cn, n1o nco nponanop-
nwo n npano nac1n vaxporo panonc1na cymoc1nym1 npn | |
0
;
1orpa n 1onvo |
0
cymoc1nym1 n nponanopnwo, c1onmno n ono
nac1n panonc1na, npnnom cnpanopnnw nanncannwo qopmyw.
Eco c1n qopmyw povaawnam1cn anaornnno cynam pnq-
qoponnponannn cvanpnwx qynvn (cm. n. 9.5). ovaxom,
nanpnmop, qopmyy 4.
Hcnoraonan cnoc1na 2
0
n 5
0
npopoon nov1opnwx qynv-
n, noynnm
(r
l
(|)
r
2
(|
0
- |) -
- r
l
(|
0
) (|
0
) r
2
(|
0
) - r
l
(|
0
) (|
0
).
Hponanopnwo nwcmnx nopnpvon pn nov1opno qynvnn
onpoponm1cn no nnpyvnn: ocn y nov1opno qynvnn r(|) n
novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn |
0
aapana nponanopnan r
(n)
(|)
nopnpva n, n 0, l, 2, ... (no onpopoonnm noarao1cn, n1o
(r
(0)
)(|) r(|)), 1o nponanopnan nopnpva n - l n c1o 1onvo
(ocn c1a nponanopnan, vononno, cymoc1nyo1) onpopono1cn
no qopmyo
r
(n - l)
(|
0
) .
r
|
r

r
|
|

r
l
r
2

r
l
r
2

r
l
r
2

r
2
| ( ) )
| |
0
| 0
IIm
r
1
|
0
- | ( ) r
2
|
0
- | ( ) - r
l
|
0
( ) r
2
|
0
( )
|
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 0
IIm
r
l
|
0
- | ( ) - r
l
|
0
( )
|
------------------------------------------------------
r
2
|
0
- | ( ) - r
2
|
0
( )
|
-----------------------------------------------------
r
l
r
2

do
r
n ( )
| ( ) ( )

| |
0
396
Ecn nov1opnan qynvnn r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)) onpopoo-
na n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn |
0
n nmoo1 n nponanopnwx
n c1o 1onvo, 1o pn noo cnpanopnna qopmya Toopa
r r(|
0
- |) - r(|
0
) |
h
- o(|
n
).
Ona nonocpopc1nonno copyo1 na paaoxonnn no qopmyo
Toopa vooppnna1nwx qynvn r(|), (|) n :(|).
Mw nnpnm, n1o mnorno qav1w, yc1anononnwo n 1oopnn
cvanpnwx qynvn, poconno noponocn1cn na nov1opnwo
qynvnn. Opnavo wo w omnvo pyma1r, n1o c1o ncorpa
1av: nanpnmop, n onpopoonnom cmwco anaor qopmyw vo-
nonnwx npnpamonn no nmoo1 moc1a pn nov1opnwx qynvn.
oc1nn1orno, paccmo1pnm nov1opnym qynvnm r(|)
(cos |, sIn |), 0 | 2. Tav vav r'(|) (-sIn |, cos |), 1o r'(|)
l npn mom | [0, 2. Copona1orno, n
c1om cynao no cymoc1nyo1 1avo 1onvn [0, 2, pn vo1o-
po wo w cnpanopnno panonc1no, anaornnnoo qopmyo
vononnwx npnpamonn 7arpanxa pn cvanpnwx qynvn,
r(2) - r(0) 2r'(),
1av vav n ono nac1n panonc1na c1on1 nyono nov1op (no-
cvorvy r(2) r(0)), a cnpana - nonyono: r'() l.
Hovo1opo aamono qopmyw vononnwx npnpamonn pn
nov1opnwx qynvn nnno1cn copymmoo y1nopxponno.
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno oeunopuon quuuun r(|) uenpepmouo uo
onpe:ue [o, b u ouqqepeuuupe+o ounpu ueeo. Toeoo c
ecnoen nouon nouuo (o, b), uno
r(b) - r(o) (b - o) r'(). (l5.20)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ecn r(o) r(b), 1o nopanonc1no
(l5.20) cnpanopnno npn mom nwopo 1onvn (o, b), 1av
vav oro onan nac1r opamao1cn n nyr.
Hyc1r r(o) = r(b). Oonnm pnny r(b) - r(o) nov1opa r(b) -
- r(o) = 0. Ecn aapan vavo-no nov1op r, 1o, ooananan no-
poa e opnnnnnw nov1op n nanpanonnn nov1opa r, noynnm
r (r, e), no, coracno onpopoonnm cvanpnoro nponanoponnn,
(r, e) r e cos ,
rpo e l, 0, n, copona1orno, cos l. Hoc1omy,
ocn e - opnnnnnw nov1op n nanpanonnn nov1opa r(b) -
- r(o) = 0, 1o
r(b) - r(o) (r(b) - r(o), e) (r(b), e) - (r(o), e),

h l
n
l
h!
-----
J
h
r |
0
( )
J|
--------------------
|
2
sIn - |
2
cos
r

e
r

e r

e
397
1. o. noynnacr paanoc1r ananonn nncono qynvnn
](|) (r(|), e) (l5.2l)
na vonax o1poava [o, b:
r(b) - r(o) ](b) - ](o). (l5.22)
Ha (l5.2l) copyo1, n1o qynvnn ](|) nonpopwnna na
o1poavo [o, b n pnqqoponnpyoma no ncox oro nny1ponnnx
1onvax, 1av vav, coracno yconnnm 1oopomw, c1nmn cno-
c1namn oapao1 qynvnn r(|). Hoc1omy, n cny qopmyw
vononnwx npnpamonn 7arpanxa, cymoc1nyo1 1avan 1onva
(o, b), n1o
](b) - ](o) ] '()(b - o).
Ho, coracno npanny pnqqoponnponannn cvanpnoro npo-
nanoponnn, nmoom
] '(|) (r'(|), e),
o1vypa
](b) - ](o) (r'(), e)(b - o), o b. (l5.23)
n mwx pnyx nov1opon r n q na onpopoonnn cvanpno-
ro nponanoponnn copyo1 nopanonc1no
(r, q) (r, q) r q cos r q;
n nac1noc1n,
(r'(), e) r'() e r'().
Copona1orno, na (l5.23) noynaom
](b) - ](o) r'() (b - o), o b.
Ha c1oro nopanonc1na n qopmyw (l5.22) cpaay copyo1 nopa-
nonc1no (l5.20).
4.
//Mc kpMacM
4.4. RonstMe nytM
Paccmo1pnm o1opaxonnn o1poavon n 1poxmopnoo npoc1panc1-
no R
3
. Hyc1r [o, b - novo1opw o1poaov, a r(|) - oro o1opa-
xonno n R
3
, 1. o. o1opaxonno, c1annmoo n coo1no1c1nno vax-
po 1onvo | [o, b 1onvy r(|) npoc1panc1na R
3
, vopono -
r: [o, b = R
3
.
r

q
39S
Bypom cnn1a1r, n1o n npoc1panc1no R
3
qnvcnponana cnc1o-
ma vooppnna1. E c1om cynao aapanno 1onvn npoc1panc1na
pannocnrno aapannm 1pox oo vooppnna1. Ooanannm vooppn-
na1w 1onvn r(|) nopoa r(|), (|), :(|):
r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)). (l6.l)
Torpa aapanno o1opaxonnn r(|) ovaawnao1cn pannocnrnwm
aapannm 1pox nnconwx qynvn r(|), (|), :(|), naawnaomwx
uoopouuonum+u quuuun+u onopoeuun r(|).
Honn1no npopoa o1opaxonnn r(|) onpoponm c nomomrm
oro vooppnna1nwx qynvn. Bypom ronopn1r, n1o o1opaxo-
nno r(|) u+een npeoe. o nouue |
0
, ec.u o onou nouue u+evn
npeoe. oce uoopouuonume quuuuu, npuue+
r(|) ( r(|), (|), :(|)). (l6.2)
O1opaxonno r(|) naawnao1cn uenpepmoum+ uo onpe:ue
[o, b, ec.u uo ono+ onpe:ue uenpepmoum oce eeo uoopou
uonume quuuuu. E c1om cynao
( , ,
(r(|
0
), (|
0
), :(|
0
)) r(|
0
). (l6.3)
n o1opaxonnn r(|) ypom ooanana1r noyxnpnwm
mpnq1om r(|) nov1opnym qynvnm, y vo1opo vooppnna1w
nov1opa r(|) connapam1 c vooppnna1amn 1onvn r(|), 1. o. r(|)
(r(|), (|), :(|)), n ypom naawna1r o1opaxonno r(|) n nov-
1opnym qynvnm r(|) coo1no1c1nymmnmn ppyr ppyry.
Ononnpno, n1o o1opaxonno r(|), o | b, nonpopwnno na
o1poavo [o, b 1orpa n 1orvo 1orpa, vorpa na c1om o1poavo no-
npopwnna coo1no1c1nymman omy nov1opnan qynvnn r(|).
oc1nn1orno, nov1opnan qynvnn nonpopwnna na o1poavo n
1om n 1orvo 1om cynao, vorpa na nom nonpopwnnw nco oo vo-
oppnna1w (cm. n. l5.l), n1o, no onpopoonnm, nnno1cn yco-
nnom nonpopwnnoc1n o1opaxonnn r(|) na o1poavo.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Henpepmouoe onopoeuue onpe:uo o npo
cnpoucnoo uo:mooencn nne+, o opo: onpe:uo npu poc
c+onpuooe+o+ onopoeuuu uocune.e+ onoeo nnu.
Opno n 1o xo mnoxoc1no npoc1panc1na moxo1 w1r nonpo-
pwnnwm opaaom o1poavon npn paannnwx o1opaxonnnx,
1. o. ono moxo1 w1r nocn1oom paanwx ny1o.
| |
0

IIm
do]
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
| |
0

IIm
r | ( )
| |
0

IIm
l6.2 ( )
r | ( )
| |
0

IIm | ( )
| |
0

IIm : | ( ) )
| |
0

IIm

l6.2 ( )
399
Paccma1pnnaomwo nonpopwnnwo o1opaxonnn o1poavon n
npoc1panc1no no npopnoaram1cn naanmno opnoanannwmn,
noc1omy pn pannoro ny1n
r(|) R
3
, o | b, (l6.4)
n opny n 1y xo 1onvy npoc1panc1na moxo1 o1opaan1rcn no-
cvorvo 1onov o1poava [o, b. Tonvn nocn1on ny1n (l6.4), n
vo1opwo o1opaxao1cn ooo opno 1onvn o1poava [o, b, na-
awnam1cn uponum+u nouuo+u c1oro ny1n nn nouuo+u oro
co+onepeceueuun.
n ny1n (l6.4) nopomonnan | naawnao1cn oro nopo+enpo+.
Ecn 1onva M nocn1on ny1n (l6.4) nnno1cn oro vpa1no
1onvo, 1o cymoc1nyo1 no vpano mopo pna 1avnx paanwx
ananonnn napamo1pa |
l
n |
2
, o |
l
b, o |
2
b, n1o r(|
l
)
r(|
2
) M.
Touuou nnu (l6.4) naawnao1cn ncnvan napa (|, r(|)), a
npoc1panc1nonnan 1onva r(|) R
3
- nocn1oom c1o 1onvn
ny1n. Ononnpno, n1o 1onva ny1n (l6.4) opnoananno onpopon-
o1cn ananonnom napamo1pa |.
Tonvn (o, r(o)) n (b, r(b)) naawnam1cn uouuo+u ny1n. Ton-
va (|, r(|)), pn vo1opo ananonno napamo1pa | oxn1 n nn1op-
nao (o, b), naawnao1cn ounpeuueu nouuou ny1n (l6.4).
Ecn r(o) r(b), 1o ny1r naawnao1cn :o+uunm+, a oro
nocn1or - :o+uunm+ uounpo+. Hocn1or aamvny1oro
ny1n, no nmommoro 1onov camonopocononnn, vpomo nocn1oo
nanaa n vona ny1n, naawnao1cn npocnm+ :o+uunm+ uou
npo+.
Hocn1or ny1n, aapannoro naanmno opnoanannwm nonpo-
pwnnwm o1opaxonnom o1poava n npoc1panc1no, naawnao1cn
npocnou oeou.
Bypom ronopn1r, n1o noc.eoooone.ouocno (|
n
, r(|
n
)) noueu
ny1n (l6.4) cnpe+uncn no c1omy nnu v oro 1onvo (|
0
, r(|
0
)),
ocn
|
n
|
0
, |
0
[o, b, |
n
[o, b, n l, 2, ... .
E c1om cynao
r(|
n
) r(|
0
).
Kav yxo o1monaocr, o1opaxonno (l6.4), 1. o. ny1r, mox-
no aapana1r n vooppnna1nom nnpo, nnano ronopn, aapa1r voop-
pnna1w 1onvn r(|) vav qynvnn napamo1pa |:
r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)), o | b.
n ~
IIm
n ~
IIm

l6.3 ( )
400
E c1om cynao 1pova qynvn r(|), (|), :(|), o | b, na-
awnao1cn uoopouuonum+ npeocnoo.euue+ nnu.
O1opaxonno (l6.4) moxno aapa1r n coo1no1c1nymmo omy
nov1opno qynvno
r(|), o | b, (l6.5)
rpo, vav ownno, nov1op r(|) nmoo1 1o xo vooppnna1w, n1o
n 1onva r(|). Ecn no oronopono n1o-no ppyroo, 1o ncorpa
npopnoarao1cn, n1o r(|) nnno1cn papnycom-nov1opom c na-
naom n nanao vooppnna1. E c1om cynao nocn1or ny1n
(l6.4) naawnao1cn roporpaqom nov1opno qynvnn r(|), a ca-
ma nov1opnan qynvnn r(|) - oeunopum+ npeocnoo.euue+
nnu (l6.4).
Ecn ny1r oxn1 n novo1opo nocvoc1n, 1o on naawnao1-
cn n.ocuu+. Ecn c1a nocvoc1r nnno1cn vooppnna1no
nocvoc1rm, nanpnmop nocvoc1rm nopomonnwx r n , 1o vo-
oppnna1noo npopc1anonno ny1n (l6.4) nmoo1 nnp
r r(|), (|), : 0, o | b,
npnnom ypannonno : 0, ocn c1o no moxo1 npnnoc1n v nopo-
paaymonnm, ownno no nnmy1.
Ecnvan nonpopwnnan na novo1opom o1poavo [o, b qynv-
nn ](r) nnno1cn nocvnm ny1om, a oo rpaqnv - nocn1o-
om c1oro ny1n. Paccmo1pnm vonvpo1nwo npnmopw.
Hpnmopom aamvny1oro von1ypa nnno1cn ovpyxnoc1r.
Eoarmom pn onpopoonnoc1n ovpyxnoc1r papnyca F c on1-
pom n nanao vooppnna1. Eo moxno, nanpnmop, npopc1ann1r
vav nonpopwnnw opaa o1poava [0, 2 c nomomrm vooppn-
na1nwx qynvn
r F cos |, F sIn |, 0 | 2. (l6.6).
Ononnpno, ovpyxnoc1r nnno1cn npoc1wm aamvny1wm
von1ypom. Hpnmop noaamvny1oro ny1n moxno noynn1r,
nann cyxonno o1opaxonnn (l6.6) na o1poavo [0, , rpo
0 2.
O1mo1nm, n1o nocn1or ny1n
r F cos |, F sIn |, 0 | 4, (l6.?)
connapao1 c nocn1oom ny1n (l6.6): n n 1om n ppyrom cynao
nm nnno1cn ovpyxnoc1r r
2
-
2
F
2
na nocvoc1n nopo-
401
monnwx r n . Opnavo noynona ona vav poayr1a1 paanwx
o1opaxonn: npn o1opaxonnn (l6.6), 1. o. npn namononnn
napamo1pa | o1 0 po 2, c1a ovpyxnoc1r npoxopn1cn opnn paa,
a npn o1opaxonnn (l6.?), 1. o. npn namononnn napamo1pa | o1
0 po 4, ona npoxopn1cn pnaxpw - o1opaxonnn (l6.6) n
(l6.?) npopc1annm1 coo paanwo ny1n.
Hapnpy c omnm nonn1nom ny1n nam nonapon1cn n par-
nomom cnonarnwo nnpw ny1o: (nonpopwnno) pnqqopon-
npyomwo, pnaxpw (nonpopwnno) pnqqoponnpyomwo n 1. n.
Onpoponm nonn1no n paa (nonpopwnno) pnqqoponnpyomoro
ny1n. Hy1r
r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)) R
3
, o | b,
naawnao1cn n po: (uenpepmouo) ouqqepeuuupe+m+ nne+,
ocn nco oro vooppnna1nwo qynvnn r(|), (|), :(|) n paa no-
npopwnno pnqqoponnpyomw na o1poavo [o, b.
4.2. RonstMe kpMsoM
Hpn onpopoonnn nonn1nn vpnno ypom ncxopn1r na qnan-
nocvoro npopc1anonnn o 1paov1opnn ny1n pnnxymocn n
npoc1panc1no ma1opnarno 1onvn. Ha 1avo 1paov1opnn
moxno nwnpa1r paannnwo napamo1pw, 1onno onncwnam-
mno nooxonno na no pnnxymocn 1onvn, nanpnmop npomn
pnnxonnn |, pnny npoponnoro ny1n c nn n1o-no ppyroo.
Paannnwm napamo1pam coo1no1c1nym1 paanwo o1opaxonnn
o1poavon na 1paov1opnm, vaxpoo na vo1opwx pao1 oo nonoo
onncanno.
C roomo1pnnocvo 1onvn aponnn nnorpa pna paanwx ny1n,
nanpnmop, r cos |, -sIn |, - | 0 n , -l
r l, nn oc1oc1nonno wo w cnn1a1r npopc1anonnom
opno n 1o xo vpnno, n pannom cynao noyovpyxnoc1n
r
2
-
2
l, . 0.
E cny ncox c1nx coopaxonn, oc1oc1nonno onpopon1r
vpnnym vav vacc n vavom-1o cmwco pannonpannwx nonpo-
pwnnwx o1opaxonn o1poavon n npoc1panc1no, 1. o. vav co-
o1no1c1nymmn vacc ny1o.
l - r
2
40z
OnpepeAenMe 2. Hno
r(|), o | b, (l6.8)
uo:mooencn ououoo.eunum+ nnu
(), , (l6.9)
ec.u cecnoen nouon uenpepmouon
cnpoeo +ouonouuon quuuun (oo:poc
novon u.u moovon), onopoov
on onpe:ou [, uo onpe:ou [o, b, uno o.n uoooeo [,
cnpooeo.uoo pooeucnoo (pnc. ?5)
r(()) (). (l6.l0)
4ynvnn naawnao1cn n c1om cynao ooncnu+m+ npeo
po:ooouue+ nopo+enpo n napamo1p | nn o1opaxonn-
om, ocymoc1nnmmnm cvnnnaon1noc1r ny1n (l6.8) c ny1om
(l6.9). Ecn ny1r (l6.8) cvnnnaon1on ny1n (l6.9), 1o nnmy1
r(|) ().
7orvo yopn1rcn, n1o vaxpw ny1r cvnnnaon1on camomy
coo: r(|) r(|) (apocr ponyc1nmwm npoopaaonannom napa-
mo1pa nnno1cn 1oxpoc1nonnoo o1opaxonno | , o
b). 01o cnoc1no cvnnnaon1noc1n naawnao1cn oo peq
.eucuouocnov. Moxno nponopn1r 1avxo, n1o ocn ny1r
(l6.8) cvnnnaon1on ny1n (l6.9): r(|) (|), 1o n ny1r (|)
cvnnnaon1on ny1n r(|): (|) r(|) (n camom poo, ocn -
ponyc1nmoo npoopaaonanno napamo1pa n |, 1o opa1nan
qynvnn
-l
1avxo nonpopwnna n c1poro mono1onna, copo-
na1orno, nnno1cn ponyc1nmwm npoopaaonannom napamo1-
pa, na c1o1 paa | n ). 01o cnoc1no cvnnnaon1noc1n naawna-
o1cn oo cu++enpuuuocnov.
Havono, ocn pn 1pox ny1o r
l
(|), r
2
(|
2
) n r
3
(|
3
) nmoom
r
l
(|
l
) r
2
(|
2
) n r
2
(|
2
) r
3
(|
3
), 1o r
l
(|
l
) r
3
(|
3
). 01o cnoc1no cv-
nnnaon1noc1n naawnao1cn oo npou:unuouocnov (ono cpaay
nw1ovao1 na 1oro, n1o vomnoannn nonpopwnnwx c1poro mo-
no1onnwx o1opaxonn o1poavon 1avxo nonpopwnna n c1poro
mono1onna, 1. o. vomnoannn ponyc1nmwx npoopaaonann
napamo1pon nnno1cn ponyc1nmwm npoopaaonannom).
Ecn n novo1opom mnoxoc1no comon1on nnopono coo1nomo-
nno cvnnnaon1noc1n, oapammoo cnoc1namn poqovcnnnoc-
1n, cnmmo1pnnnoc1n n 1panan1nnnoc1n, 1o 1avoo mnoxoc1no
pacnapao1cn na nonopocovammnocn vaccw cvnnnaon1nwx
comon1on (cm. paoo 63). E pannom cynao noynam1cn nono-
pocovammnocn vaccw cvnnnaon1nwx moxpy coo ny1o.

()
p()
o | b
o(|)
Pnc. ?5
403
O1mo1nm omo, n1o ocn pna ny1n (l6.8) n (l6.9) cvnn-
naon1nw, 1o nx nocn1on connapam1. 01o cpaay copyo1 na
yconnn (l6.l0).
Hopopom 1onopr v onpopoonnm vpnno.
OnpepeAenMe 3. Ecnuuu u.occ ououoo.eunumr nneu uo
:mooencn upuoou u.u, o.ee noopouo, uenpepmouou nopo
+enpuuecuu :ooouuou upuoou.
Kaxpw ny1r na c1oro vacca, 1. o. o1opaxonno nnpa
(l6.4), naawnao1cn npeocnoo.euue+ upuoou , 1pova coo1no1-
c1nymmnx vooppnna1nwx qynvn (l6.l) - oo uoopouuon
um+ npeocnoo.euue+, a coo1no1c1nymman nov1opnan qynv-
nn - oo oeunopum+ npeocnoo.euue+.
Ononnpno, n1o napamo1pnnocvn aapannan vpnnan opno-
ananno onpopono1cn vaxpwm na cnonx npopc1anonn, 1av
vav ocn nmoo1cn opnn ny1r, 1o nco cvnnnaon1nwo omy ny1n
noynam1cn c nomomrm nconoamoxnwx ponyc1nmwx npoopa-
aonann napamo1pon. Tavnm opaaom, pn 1oro n1ow aapa1r
vpnnym, napo aapa1r novo1opoo oo npopc1anonno.
Kpnnan , aapannan vavnm-no cnonm npopc1anonnom
nnpa (l6.4), (l6.l) nn (l6.5), ooananao1cn coo1no1c1nonno
copymmnm opaaom:
{r(|); o | b,
{r(|), (|), :(|); o | b, (l6.ll)
{r(|); o | b.
Rp M ue p m. 4. E cny onpopoonnn cvnnnaon1nwx ny1o,
pna ny1n, paccmo1ponnwo nwmo, r F cos |, F sIn |, 0 | 2,
n r F cos |, F sIn |, 0 | 4, no nnnm1cn cvnnnaon1-
nwmn (povaxn1o c1o), no nocn1on nx connapam1: onn npop-
c1annm1 coo opny n 1y xo ovpyxnoc1r r
2
-
2
F
2
.
na ny1n r cos |, sIn |, -,2 | ,2, n r
, - l, 0 2, cvnnnaon1nw moxpy coo
n noc1omy aapam1 opny n 1y xo vpnnym. oc1nn1orno,
qynvnn l - sIn | nonpopwnna, c1poro noapac1ao1 na o1-
poavo [-,2, ,2 n noponopn1 opno npopc1anonno n ppyroo.
Hocn1onmn c1nx ny1o nnno1cn noyovpyxnoc1r r
2
-
2
l,
r . 0.
2 - ( )
404
2. E vanoc1no n1oporo npnmopa paccmo1pnm vpnnym, nn-
nmmymcn 1paov1opno 1onvn ovpyxnoc1n, va1nmocn oa
cvorxonnn no npnmo. 01a vpnnan naawnao1cn uuu.ouoou.
Hyc1r ovpyxnoc1r papnyca r va1n1cn oa cvorxonnn no
ocn acncc n nooxn1ornom nanpanonnn. Hyc1r n nanar-
nw momon1 npomonn on1p ovpyxnoc1n naxopn1cn n 1onvo
(0; r) ocn oppnna1 (pnc. ?6). Hannmom ypannonno 1paov1opnn
1onvn M (r; ) ovpyxnoc1n, naxopnmocn n nanao vano-
nnn n nanao vooppnna1.
E vanoc1no napamo1pa na nvonpo noarmom yro |, na vo-
1opw nonopannnao1cn npn vanonnn ovpyxnoc1r. Hyc1r, vor-
pa ovpyxnoc1r nonopno1cn na yro |, oo on1p ovaxo1cn n
1onvo P n ona ypo1 vaca1rcn ocn acncc n 1onvo A (pnc. ??).
Torpa | MPA. E cny vanonnn oa cvorxonnn pnna |r
pyrn panna pnno o1poava OA. Hoc1omy r |r - r sIn |.
Ononnpno, r - r cos |.
Tavnm opaaom, ypannonno opno apvn nvonpw (1. o. oo
nac1n o1 opnoro vacannn ovpyxnoc1n c ocrm acncc n qnvcn-
ponanno 1onvo ovpyxnoc1n po nxamoro copymmoro)
nmoo1 nnp
r r (| - sIn |), r (l - cos |), 0 | 2.
Mw yxo nc1ponancr c c1nmn ypannonnnmn, vorpa paccma1-
pnnan pnqqoponnpyomoc1r qynvn, aapannwx napamo1pn-
nocvn (cm. n. l0.3).
Kav yxo o1monaocr nwmo, pna cvnnnaon1nwx ny1n nmo-
m1 opnn n 1o1 xo nocn1or, noc1omy nocn1on ncox ny1o, co-
c1annmmnx vpnnym, 1. o. ncox ny1o, cvnnnaon1nwx mox-
py coo, connapam1.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Ouu uocune.o ocer npeocnoo.euuu oouuou
upuoou uo:mooencn uocune.e+ onou upuoou.
MA
)
r 0

Pnc. ?6
r 0

r A

M
P
Pnc. ??
|
40
E cynao, vorpa nco ny1n, coc1annmmno vpnnym, nnnm1-
cn naanmno opnoanannwmn o1opaxonnnmn coo1no1c1nymmnx
o1poavon n npoc1panc1no (pn c1oro poc1a1onno, n1ow c1nm
cnoc1nom oapa xo1n w opnn ny1r, 1. o. xo1n w opno
npopc1anonno vpnno) n, copona1orno, nx nocn1on nnn-
m1cn npoc1wmn pyramn (cm. n. l5.l), 1o n cama vpnnan naaw-
nao1cn npocnou oeou.
Onpoponm 1onopr, n1o naawnao1cn 1onvo napamo1pnno-
cvn aapanno vpnno, 1. o. vpnno, onpopoonno vav vacc
cvnnnaon1nwx ny1o.
OnpepeAenMe 5. Hcno (l6.8) u (l6.9) - ooo npeocnoo.euun
upuoou , o - onopoeuue, ocecno.nvee ur ououoo
.eunuocno (cm. onpopoonno 2): | (), , o | b.
Touuu (|, r(|)) u (
2
, ()) coonoencnoeuuo nneu (l6.8) u
(l6.9) uo:moovncn ououoo.eunum+u, ec.u
| (). (l6.l2)
Ononnpno, n1o pno cvnnnaon1nwo moxpy coo 1onvn cv-
nnnaon1nwx ny1o nmom1 opnn n 1o1 xo nocn1or - c1o cpa-
ay copyo1 na nwnononnn yconn (l6.l0) n (l6.l2).
0vnnnaon1noc1r 1onov ny1o ypom cnona ooanana1r
cnmnoom :
(|, r(|)) (, ()) = | ().
7orvo nponopn1r, n1o c1o coo1nomonno cvnnnaon1noc1n
1avxo oapao1 cnoc1nom poqovcnnnoc1n: (|, r(|)) (|, r(|)),
cnmmo1pnnnoc1n: ocn (|, r(|) (, ()), 1o n (, ()) (|, r(|)),
1panan1nnnoc1n: ocn (|
l
, r
l
(|
l
)) (|
2
, r
2
(|
2
)) n (|
2
, r
2
(|
2
))
(|
3
, r
3
(|
3
)), 1o (|
l
, r
l
(|
l
)) (|
3
, r
3
(|
3
)). Hoc1omy mnoxoc1no
ncox 1onov ny1o, coc1annmmnx aapannym vpnnym, pacnapa-
o1cn na nonopocovammnocn vaccw cvnnnaon1nwx moxpy co-
o 1onov c1nx ny1o.
OnpepeAenMe . Koomu u.occ {(|, r(|)) ououoo.eunumr +e
o coou noueu nneu, cocnoo.nvur ueuonopv upuov,
uo:mooencn nouuou onou upuoou, o ur ouu uocune.o
uocune.e+ onou nouuu upuoou.
Tonva vpnno {(|, r(|)) naawnao1cn oo uoueuuou nn oun
peuueu nouuou, ocn c1a 1onva vpnno copopxn1 coo1no1-
c1nonno vononnym nn nny1ponnmm 1onvy novo1oporo (co-
406
pona1orno, n moro) ny1n, nnnmmorocn npopc1anonnom
panno vpnno.
Bypom ronopn1r, n1o nocopona1ornoc1r 1onov {(|, r(|))
n
,
n l, 2, ... , vpnno c1pomn1cn no no v oo 1onvo {(|, r(|))
0
npn n = ~, ocn npn novo1opom (a copona1orno, n npn m-
om) npopc1anonnn r
0
(|), o | b vpnno cymoc1nym1 1a-
vno |
n
[o, b, n1o (|
n
, r
0
(|
n
)) {(|, r(|))
n
, n l, 2, ... ,
(|
0
, r
0
(|
0
)) {(|, r(|))
0
n |
0
.
Kaxpan 1onva {(|, r(|) vpnno opnoananno onpopono1cn
vaxpo o1porno nxopnmo n noo 1onvo (|, r(|)), 1. o. coo1-
no1c1nymmo 1onvo ny1n, nnnmmorocn opnnm na npopc1an-
onn vpnno , a vaxpan 1onva (|, r(|)) ny1n (l6.8) opno-
ananno onpopono1cn ananonnom napamo1pa |. Tavnm opaaom,
vaxpan 1onva vpnno npn nwopo vavoro-no oo npopc1an-
onnn r(|), o | b, opnoananno onpopono1cn ananonnom na-
pamo1pa |. Hoc1omy 1onva vpnno nmoc1o {(|, r(|)) ownno
npoc1o ooananao1cn nopoa r(|). E cny cvaaannoro, c1o oo-
ananonno nmoo1 opnoanannw cmwc.
Tonva nocn1on vpnno naawnao1cn uponuou nn 1onvo
camonopocononnn vpnno, ocn ona vpa1nan pn novo1oporo,
copona1orno, n pn ncnvoro oo npopc1anonnn.
Ononnpno, n1o conovynnoc1r ncox nocn1oo 1onov vpnno
coc1anno1 oo nocn1or (cm. onpopoonno 4).
Ecn vpnnan nnno1cn npoc1o pyro, 1o, 1av vav vpa1-
nwo 1onvn o1cy1c1nym1, vaxpan 1onva nocn1on npoc1o py-
rn opnoananno onpopono1 1onvy vpnno, nocn1oom vo1opo
ona nnno1cn, n noc1omy n pannom cynao nonn1no nocn1on
vpnno n yvaaannom cmwco pannocnrno nonn1nm vpnno.
Kav yxo wo novaaano na npnmopax n n. l6.l (cm. (l6.6)
n (l6.?)), nocvnnnaon1nwo ny1n mory1 nmo1r opnn n 1o1 xo
nocn1or, copona1orno, paanwo vpnnwo 1avxo mory1 nmo1r
opnn n 1o1 xo nocn1or. 3amo1nm omo, n1o ocn r(o) r(b) npn
opnom npopc1anonnn vpnno, 1o c1o yconno nwnonno1cn n
npn mom ppyrom oo npopc1anonnn, 1. o. ocn nocn1or op-
noro npopc1anonnn vpnno nnno1cn aamvny1wm von1ypom,
1o n nocn1or ncnvoro ppyroro oo npopc1anonnn 1avxo nnn-
o1cn aamvny1wm von1ypom. E c1om cynao nocn1or coo1no1-
c1nymmo vpnno 1avxo naawnao1cn :o+uunm+ uounpo+.
Anaornnno, 1orvo opnonpomonno nco nocn1on npop-
c1anonn vpnno mory1 ovaaa1rcn npoc1wmn aamvny1wmn
|
n
n ~
IIm
407
von1ypamn, n n c1om cynao nocn1or c1o vpnno 1avxo na-
awnao1cn npocnm+ :o+uunm+ uounpo+.
Hopopom 1onopr v onpopoonnm vpnnwx ppyrnx vaccon:
nonn1no cvnnnaon1noc1n moxno nnopn1r n ooo yavnx
vaccax ny1o n ooo cnrnwm cnocoom. 01o pao1 noamox-
noc1r onpopon1r cnonarnwo vaccw napamo1pnnocvn aa-
pannwx vpnnwx: n paa pnqqoponnpyomwx n n paa nonpopwn-
no pnqqoponnpyomwx vpnnwx, n l, 2, ... .
Onpoponm pn c1oro cnanaa coo1no1c1nymmoo o1nomo-
nno cvnnnaon1noc1n ny1o.
OnpepeAenMe 7. ]oo n po: (uenpepmouo) ouqqepeuuupe+mr
nnu (cm. n. l5.l) uo:moovncn n po: (uenpepmouo) ouqqe
peuuupe+o ououoo.eunum+u, ec.u cecnoen quuuun ,
ocecno.nvon ur ououoo.eunuocno o c+mc.e onpeoe.e
uun 2, uonopon uou co+o, nou u eu oponuon n po: (uenpe
pmouo) ouqqepeuuupe+m.
01o o1nomonno cvnnnaon1noc1n 1avxo oapao1 cnoc1-
namn poqovcnnnoc1n, cnmmo1pnnnoc1n n 1panan1nnnoc1n.
OnpepeAenMe 8. Ecnuoe +uoecnoo n po: (uenpepmouo) ouqqe
peuuupe+mr u n po: (uenpepmouo) ouqqepeuuupe+o ououoo
.eunumr +eo coou nneu uo:mooencn n po: (uenpepmouo)
ouqqepeuuupe+ou nopo+enpuuecuu :ooouuou upuoou.
Kaxpw na ny1o, nxopnmnx n pannym vpnnym, naawna-
o1cn oo npeocnoo.euue+ n nonoc1rm onpopono1 vpnnym,
1. o. mnoxoc1no ncox cvnnnaon1nwx omy ny1o n yvaaannom
cmwco. 4ynvnn, ocymoc1nnmman n paa (nonpopwnno) pnq-
qoponnpyomym cvnnnaon1noc1r pnyx npopc1anonn opno
n 1o xo n paa (nonpopwnno) pnqqoponnpyomo vpnno, na-
awnao1cn ooncnu+m+ npeopo:ooouue+ nopo+enpo.
Kaxpan n paa (nonpopwnno) pnqqoponnpyoman vpnnan
copopxn1cn vav mnoxoc1no ny1o n novo1opo nonpopwnno
vpnno, a nmonno n conovynnoc1n ncox ny1o, cvnnnaon1nwx
n cmwco onpopoonnn 2 (1om camwm oa npopnooxonnn
coo1no1c1nymmo pnqqoponnpyomoc1n ponyc1nmwx npoo-
paaonann napamo1pon) nponanorno nwpannomy npopc1an-
onnm panno vpnno. Hocn1or c1o nonpopwnno vpnno
naawnao1cn n nocn1oom ncxopno n paa (nonpopwnno) pnq-
qoponnpyomo vpnno.
40S
Ononnpno, n1o pn n paa (nonpopwnno) pnqqoponn-
pyomwx vpnnwx, vav n pn nonpopwnnwx vpnnwx, nx ooana-
nonno mwm na cnocoon (l6.ll) nmoo1 opnoanannw cmwc.
4.3. OpMentoMs kpMsoM. pyro kpMsoM.
Cyuuo kpMsmx. Hessnoe soponMe kpMsmx
Hopnpov nnco (no nonnnno) na o1poavo [o, b c nomomrm pan-
noro qnvcnponannoro npopc1anonnn r(|) vpnno {r(|); o
| b, oc1oc1nonno, nopoxpao1 coo1no1c1nymmn nopn-
pov 1onov na vpnno. Tonva r(|') cnn1ao1cn npopmoc1-
nymmo 1onvo r(|') , nn, n1o 1o xo, 1onva r(|') cnn1ao1cn
copymmo aa 1onvo r(|'), ocn o |' |' b. Tonva r(o)
naawnao1cn n c1om cynao uouo.o+ nnu, a 1onva r(b) - oro
uouuo+. Ecn yvaaannw nopnpov 1onov xoa1orno coxpa-
nn1r n npn ppyrnx npopc1anonnnx vpnno, 1o nooxopnmo
cyan1r vacc ponyc1nmwx npoopaaonann napamo1pa, a
nmonno, ponycva1r nmr c1poro noapac1ammno npoopaaona-
nnn napamo1pa.
na ny1n (l6.8) n (l6.9) naawnam1cn oouuouooo opueunu
pooouum+u, ocn opnn na nnx noynao1cn na ppyroro c1poro
noapac1ammnm npoopaaonannom napamo1pa, n npo1nnono-
oxno opnon1nponannwmn, ocn - c1poro ywnammnm npo-
opaaonannom napamo1pa.
Ecn pan ny1r
r(|), o | b, (l6.l3)
1o ny1r, aapanaomw npopc1anonnom
(|) r(o - b - |), o | b, (l6.l4)
nnno1cn ny1om, opnon1nponannwm npo1nnonooxno pannomy.
Eco ny1n, coc1annmmno novo1opym vpnnym, pacnapam1-
cn na pna vacca 1avnx, n1o ny1n vaxporo na nnx opnon1npo-
nanw opnnavono, a paanwx - npo1nnonooxno.
OnpepeAenMe . ].n oouuou upuoou uoomu u: uo:ouumr
u.occoo uo:mooencn opueunupooouuou upuoou. Koomu u:
onur u.occoo uo:mooencn upuoou, opueunupooouuou npo
nuoono.ouo upuoou, onpeoe.ne+ou opeu+ u.occo+.
409
Ecn - vpnnan, 1o noynonnwo na noo opnon1nponan-
nwo vpnnwo ooananam1cn
-
n
-
. Tavnm opaaom, ocn, na-
npnmop, r(|)
-
, 1o
r(o - b - |)
-
, o | b. (l6.l5)
Emoc1o nwpaxonnn aapana opnon1nponannan vpnnan ro-
nopn1 nnorpa, n1o na vpnno aapana opnon1ann (nn nopn-
pov 1onov).
Ecn vpnnan nmoo1 vonw A n E, 1o opnon1nponannan
vpnnan, npn vo1opo 1onva A nnno1cn nanaom coc1annm-
mnx oo ny1o, ooananao1cn , a npn vo1opo E - nanao
ny1o, ooananao1cn .
Honn1no opnon1nponanno vpnno nmoo1 cmwc, n nac1noc-
1n, n pn n paa (nonpopwnno) pnqqoponnpyomwx vpnnwx.
Ecn ny1r r r(|), o | b, nnno1cn npopc1anonnom opn-
on1nponanno vpnno , a qynvnn (), , nonpopwn-
na, c1poro ywnao1 n () b, () o, 1o ny1r r(()), ,
nnno1cn npopc1anonnom vpnno
-
, 1. o. npo1nnonooxno
opnon1nponanno vpnno.
Ecn
0
[, n |
0
(
0
), 1o 1onvn r(|
0
) n r((
0
)) coo1no1-
c1nonno vpnno n npo1nnonooxno opnon1nponanno vpnno

-
naawnam1cn coo1no1c1nymmnmn ppyr ppyry. Opna 1onva vpn-
no npopmoc1nyo1 ppyro 1onvo c1o vpnno 1orpa n 1orvo
1orpa, vorpa 1onva vpnno
-
, coo1no1c1nymman nopno 1onvo,
copyo1 aa 1onvo, coo1no1c1nymmo n1opo 1onvo. 01nm onpan-
pwnao1cn 1opmnn npo1nnonooxno opnon1nponannan vpnnan.
E aavmnonno cqopmynpyom omo nocvorvo nooanwx
pn parnomoro onpopoonn.
Hyc1r aapana vpnnan {r(|); o | b.
OnpepeAenMe 40. Ec.u [o, b ~ [o, b, no upuoon {r(|);
o | b uo:mooencn uocnov upuoou (u.u ee oeou) u nu
uencn ' ~ .
Ecn vpnnan opnon1nponana, 1o oo opnon1ann nopox-
pao1 opnon1anm n na ncnvo oo nac1n : opna 1onva vpnno
cnn1ao1cn copymmo aa ppyro oo 1onvo, ocn 1o xo ca-
moo nmoo1 moc1o pn c1nx 1onov n na vpnno .
OnpepeAenMe 44. Ec.u |
0
(o, b),
l
{r(|); o | |
0
,
2
{r(|);
|
0
| b, no upuov {r(|); o | b uo:moovn c++ou
upuomr
l
u
2
u nuun
l
'
2
.
Anaornnno onpopono1cn cymma vononnoro nnca vpnnwx.
AE
)
EA
)
410
OnpepeAenMe 42. C++o uoueuuoeo uuc.o uenpepmouo ouqqe
peuuupe+mr upuomr uo:mooencn ucouuouenpepmouo ouq
qepeuuupe+ou upuoou.
Hcno, n1o vyconno-nonpopwnno pnqqoponnpyoman vpn-
nan moxo1 npoc1o ovaaa1rcn nonpopwnno pnqqoponnpyomo
vpnno.
OnpepeAenMe 43. Hcno {r (|); o | b - n.ocuon upu
oon, pocno.oeuuon uo n.ocuocnu r, . Ec.u cecnoen
nouon quuuun ](r, ), uno uoopouuonm r, noueu r (|) upu
oou ooo.enoopnvn c.oouv
](r, ) 0, (l6.l6)
no eooopnn, uno pooueuue (l6.l6) no.nencn uenoum+ npeo
cnoo.euue+ upuoou .
Copyo1, opnavo, nmo1r n nnpy, n1o, noomo ronopn, mnoxo-
c1no ncox 1onov, ypono1nopnmmnx ypannonnm nnpa (l6.l6),
no nnno1cn vpnno n onpopoonnom nwmo cmwco paxo pn
poc1a1onno xopomnx qynvn ](r, ). Hanpnmop, mno-
xoc1no 1onov, vooppnna1w vo1opwx ypono1nopnm1 ypanno-
nnm (r
2
-
2
)(r
2
-
2
- l) 0, npopc1anno1 coo ovpyxnoc1r
r
2
-
2
l n 1onvy (0, 0). Moxno novaaa1r, n1o c1o mnoxoc1-
no no nnno1cn nonpopwnnwm opaaom o1poava.
Moxno n n npoc1panc1nonnom cynao aapana1r vpnnwo no-
nnnwm opaaom, no yxo c nomomrm cnc1omw pnyx ypannonn:
]
l
(r, , :) 0, ]
2
(r, , :) 0.
Booo noppono c1o1 nonpoc ypo1 paccmo1pon n n. 4l.3.
Havono, o1mo1nm, n1o vpnnan ncorpa orpannnona, 1. o.
oxn1 n novo1opom mapo; c1o copyo1 na 1oro, n1o qynvnn vo-
oppnna1noro npopc1anonnn vpnno, coracno 1oopomo Bora-
no-Eoopm1pacca, orpannnonw n cny cnoo nonpopwnnoc1n.
Emoc1o c 1om yxo n comon1apno ma1oma1nvo nc1ponam1cn no-
orpannnonnwo vpnnwo: npnman, napaoa, rnnopoa, cnnyco-
npa, rpaqnv Ig r n 1. n. H1ow oxna1n1r n 1avno vpnnwo,
moxno onpopon1r vacc 1av naawnaomwx onupmnmr upuomr
no cxomo, nopono npnnoponno nwmo, n vo1opo aa ocnony
nan1o nonpopwnnoo o1opaxonno nn1opnaa, a no o1poava, vav
c1o wo cpoano nwmo. O1vpw1wo vpnnwo, n nac1noc1n, mory1
411
w1r n noorpannnonnwmn. Hoppono n
1onno cqopmynpona1r nco c1n nonn1nn
npopc1annom nn1a1om no mopo no1po-
noc1n.
Hnorpa vpnnwmn naawnam1 n o+-
opnnonno vononnoro mnoxoc1na vpnnwx
n yvaaannom nwmo cmwco. Tav, rono-
pn1, n1o rnnopoa, aapannan, nanpn-
mop, ypannonnom r
2
-
2
l, nnno1cn
vpnno, xo1n ona coc1on1 na pnyx nono-
pocovammnxcn no1no, vaxpan na vo1opwx npopc1anno1
coo o1vpw1ym vpnnym.
4.4. kocoteAonos k kpMsoM. IeouetpMeckMM cumcA
npoMssopnoM sektopnoM ynkMM
Hyc1r aapana vpnnan {r(|); o | b, nov1opnan qynvnn
r(|) pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo |
0
[o, b n r(|
0
) = 0. E cny on-
popoonnn pnqqoponnpyomoc1n,
r r(|
0
- |) - r(|
0
) r(|
0
)| - o(|), | = 0,
noc1omy na yconnn r'(|
0
) = 0 pn ncox poc1a1onno mawx | = 0
nmoo1 moc1o nopanonc1no
r(|
0
- |) = r(|
0
).
oc1nn1orno, npn cpoannwx npopnooxonnnx r'(|
0
)| = 0,
noc1omy pn ncox poc1a1onno mawx | = 0 nmoom n
r(|
0
)| - o(|) = 0.
Hpnman, nponoponnan nopoa 1onvn r(|
0
) n r(|
0
- |), naawna-
o1cn ceueu pn vpnno . Ooanannm oo nopoa l
|
(pnc. ?8).
n ncox poc1a1onno mawx | = 0, n cny yconnn r(|
0
) = r(|
0
-
- |), covyman l
|
onpopoona opnoananno. Eov1op r r(|
0
-|) -
- r(|
0
) napaoon c1o covymo, noc1omy nov1op , | = 0, o1-
nnammncn o1 nov1opa r nmr cvanpnwm mnoxn1oom ,
1avxo o napaoon.
Ho yconnm, n 1onvo |
0
cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan, 1. o. npopo
r(|
0
). (l6.l?)
Pnc. ?8
r(|
0
)
r(|
0
- |)
r(|
0
)
l
|
r
r
|
------
0
r
|
------
l
|
------
| 0
IIm
r
|
------
41z
Tav vav nco covymno npoxopn1 nopoa opny n 1y xo 1onvy
r(|
0
), 1o roomo1pnnocvn qopmya (l6.l?) oananao1, n1o covy-
mno l
|
npn | = 0 c1pomn1cn v novo1opomy npopornomy no-
oxonnm, 1. o. v npnmo, npoxopnmo nopoa 1y xo 1onvy r(|
0
)
n nanpanonnn nov1opa r'(|
0
). 01a npnman, n cny yconnn
r'(|
0
) = 0, onpopoona opnoananno. Ona n naawnao1cn uoco
ne.ouou u upuoou n 1onvo r(|
0
).
Tavnm opaaom, n cny camoro onpopoonnn vaca1orno v
vpnno n 1onvo r(|
0
), nponanopnan r'(|
0
) nov1opno qynvnn
r(|) n 1om cynao, ocn r'(|
0
) = 0, nnno1cn nov1opom, napa-
ornwm vaca1orno n 1onvo r(|
0
). Ecn nanao nov1opa r'(|
0
)
nomoc1n1r n c1y 1onvy, vav c1o ownno n poao1cn, 1o on y-
po1 nanpanon no vaca1orno.
E paccma1pnnaomom cynao pnqqoponna Jr(|
0
) r'(|
0
) J|
1avxo nanpanon no vaca1orno v vpnno, 1av vav on o1n-
nao1cn o1 nponanopno nmr cvanpnwm mnoxn1oom J|.
Eov1op I , r' = 0, nnno1cn opnnnnnwm nov1opom, nanpan-
onnwm no vaca1orno. Eov1op r npn | 0 nanpanon o1
1onvn vpnno c monrmnm ananonnom napamo1pa v 1onvo c
ormnm ananonnom napamo1pa, noc1omy moxno cvaaa1r, n1o
nov1op r npn | 0 novaawnao1 nanpanonno, n vo1opom na-
pamo1p na vpnno noapac1ao1, 1. o., vav ronopn1, nooxn1or-
noo nanpanonno na vpnno. Eov1op npn | 0 nmoo1 1o xo
nanpanonno, n1o n nov1op r. Hocvorvy r'(|), oc-
1oc1nonno ronopn1r, n1o nov1op r'(|), copona1orno, n nov1op
I, vo1opw o1nnao1cn, w1r moxo1, o1 nov1opa r'(|) nooxn-
1ornwm nnconwm mnoxn1oom , 1avxo nanpanonw n
c1opony noapac1annn napamo1pa n n1o nx opnon1ann (na-
npanonno) coo1no1c1nyo1 opnon1ann vpnno. Hanpanonno
nov1opa I (nn, n1o 1o xo, nov1opa r') naawnao1cn no.ou
ne.oum+ uonpoo.euue+ uocone.ouou, aapanaomwm pannwm
oo npopc1anonnom r(|), o | b.
Vpannonno vaca1orno v vpnno n 1onvo r(|
0
), pn vo-
1opo r'(|) = 0, n nov1opno aanncn nmoo1 nnp
r r(|
0
) - r'(|
0
), -~ -~,
r
r
-------
r
|
------
| 0
IIm
r
|
------
l
r | ( )
---------------
413
rpo r - 1ovymn papnyc-nov1op vaca1orno. E vooppnna1-
no aanncn ypannonno vaca1orno n c1om cynao nmoo1 nnp
r r(|
0
) - r'(|
0
), (|
0
) - '(|
0
), : :(|
0
) - :'(|
0
),
-~ -~.
Hcvmnnn nopomonnym , noynnm
.
Hpn onpopoonnn vaca1orno n panno 1onvo pnqqopon-
npyomo vpnno wo w npannrnoo ronopn1r o vaca1or-
no pannoro npopc1anonnn (ny1n) vpnno. Opnavo ocn r(|),
o | b nnno1cn npopc1anonnom vpnno, 1o ncnvoo ppyroo
oo npopc1anonno nmoo1 nnp r(|()), , rpo | |() - po-
nyc1nmoo npoopaaonanno napamo1pa, n, copona1orno, vav
cama qynvnn |(), 1av n o opa1nan, nnnm1cn c1poro mono-
1onnwmn pnqqoponnpyomwmn qynvnnmn. Hoc1omy, n cny
1oopomw 3 n. 9.6 o nponanopno opa1no qynvnn, nmoom
l, a noc1omy pn ncox [, nwnonno1cn nopanon-
c1no |'() = 0.
Ha panonc1na r ' n yconnn = 0 copyo1, n1o ocn
opnn na nov1opon n no panon nym, 1o no panon nym n
ppyro n onn vonnoapnw. 01o oananao1, n1o nov1op, vaca-
1ornw npn opnom npopc1anonnn vpnno, ypo1 vaca1or-
nwm n npn ppyrom oo npopc1anonnn, a noc1omy oro oc1oc1non-
no naawna1r, vav c1o n wo cpoano, vaca1ornwm v vpnno.
O1mo1nm omo, n1o ocn paccma1pnnao1cn opnon1nponan-
nan vpnnan, 1o 1av vav n c1om cynao ponyc1nmwo npoopaao-
nannn napamo1pa |(), , c1poro noapac1am1, 1o |'() 0
no ncox 1onvax o1poava [, . Hoc1omy na qopmyw r'
nnc1nyo1, n1o nooxn1ornoo nanpanonno vaca1orno opn-
navono pn ncox npopc1anonn opnon1nponanno vpnno,
1. o. nooxn1ornoo nanpanonno vaca1orno nnno1cn
cnoc1nom opnon1nponanno vpnno n oom, a no 1orvo oo
o1pornwx npopc1anonn.
r - r
0
r |
0
( )
-----------------
-
0
|
0
( )
----------------
: - :
0
: |
0
( )
----------------
|

r
|
r

r
|
|

414
Hpn npoopaaonannn napamo1-
pa, monnmmoro opnon1anm vpn-
no, vaca1ornw nov1op monno1
nanpanonno na npo1nnonoox-
noo, 1av vav n c1om cynao 0.
Rp M ue p . Hapom vaca1or-
nwo v nvonpo (cm. npnmop 2 n
n. l6.2)
r r(| - sIn |), r(l - cos |),
0 | 2.
Ewnncnm nponanopnwo: r' r(l - cos |), ' r sIn |. Oo-
anannn nopoa , - , yro, opaaonannw vaca1orno
n 1onvo M nvonpw c ocrm acncc, noynnm
Ig cIg Ig -
n, copona1orno, ,2 - |,2. O1cmpa copyo1 npoc1o cno-
co noc1poonnn vaca1ornwx v nvonpo.
Ooanannm nopoa E nopxnmm 1onvy va1nmocn ovpyx-
noc1n, nonopnynmocn na yro | (pnc. ?9), 1orpa MEA
. Hoc1omy, ocn C - 1onva nopocononnn npnmo
EM c ocrm acncc, 1o ACE ,2 - |,2 . 01o oananao1,
n1o npnman CE nnno1cn vaca1orno v nvonpo.
H1av, vaca1orno v nvonpo n 1onvo M nnno1cn npn-
man, coopnnnmman 1onvy M c nopxno 1onvo E va1nmocn
ovpyxnoc1n.
OnpepeAenMe 44. Hcno - ouqqepeuuupe+on upuoon u
r(|), o | b - ee oeunopuoe npeocnoo.euue. Touuo r(|) upu
oou , o uonopou r'(|) = 0, uo:mooencn ueocoou, o nouuo, o uo
nopou r'(|) 0, - ocoou.
Ewmo wo novaaano, n1o n panno 1onvo vpnno npn ncox
npopc1anonnnx r(|) c1o vpnno no opnonpomonno r' = 0, no
r' 0, noc1omy noocoan 1onva npn opnom npopc1anonnn
pnqqoponnpyomo vpnno ypo1 noocoo n npn ppyrom oo
npopc1anonnn. Tavnm opaaom, nonn1no noocoo n ocoo
1onvn no aanncn1 o1 nwopa npopc1anonnn vpnno.
Ecn r(r(|), (|), :(|)), 1o na panonc1na r'
(cm. n. l5.2) nmoom: nouuo (r(|), (|), :(|)) upuoou ueocoon
Pnc. ?9
r
0

A
|
M
P
C
E
|

2
---

2
---

r
|

-------
| sIn
l - | cos
----------------------
|
2
---

2
---

|
2
---
,
_
l
2
---
MA
)
|
2
---
r
2
-
2
- :
2
41
noeoo u no.ouo noeoo, uoeoo o ueu - - 0, n. e.
ronn m oouo u: npou:oooumr r', ' u :' ue opooencn o u.o.
Coracno povaaannomy nwmo, oo ocnuou ueocoou nouue
upuoou cecnoen uocone.ouon.
OnpepeAenMe 45. Henpepmouo ouqqepeuuupe+on upuoon e:
ocomr noueu uo:mooencn e.oouou.
Kpuoon, npeocnoou+on uou c++o uoueuuoeo uuc.o e.oo
uur upuomr, uo:mooencn ucouuoe.oouou.
O1mo1nm, n1o ocn nocvan vpnnan nmoo1 nnnoo npopc1an-
onno (r) nn r r(|), 1o pn noo nov1op r'(|) (r'(|),
'(|)) ncorpa no nyono: n nopnom cynao c1o (l, '), a no n1o-
pom - (r', l).
Anaornnno onpopono1cn vaca1ornan vav npopornoo
nooxonno covymo n vpnno {r(|); o | b n 1onvo r(|
0
),
|
0
[o, b, n n cynao, vorpa r'(|
0
) 0, no cymoc1nyo1 novo1o-
poo na1yparnoo n l, pn vo1oporo r
(n)
(|
0
) = 0.
Ecn nco r
(h)
(|
0
) 0, h l, 2, ... , n - l, a r
(n)
(|
0
) = 0, 1o,
pacvapwnan r no qopmyo Toopa, noynaom
r r(|
0
- |) - r(|
0
) r
(n)
(|
0
)|
n
- o(|
n
), | = 0.
Eov1op nanpanon napaorno covymo l
|
, npoxopn-
mo nopoa 1onvn r(|
0
) n r(|
0
- |). Ha nanncannoro panonc1na
copyo1, ononnpno, n1o cymoc1nyo1 npopo
r
(n)
(|
0
) = 0.
Hoc1omy n c1om cynao npopornoo nooxonno covymo l
|
,
1. o. vaca1ornan n 1onvo r(|
0
), nnno1cn npnmo, npoxopn-
mo nopoa 1onvy r(|
0
) napaorno nov1opy r
(n)
(|
0
), n, copo-
na1orno, ypannonno vaca1orno nmoo1 nnp
r r
(n)
(|
0
) - r(|
0
), -~ -~.
4.5. pAMno kpMsoM
Hpoxpo nom onpopon1r nonn1no pnnw vpnno, nnopom no-
nn1no paanonnn o1poava, vo1opoo ypo1 noopnovpa1no nc1po-
na1rcn n parnomom.
r
2

2
:
2
l
n!
-----
r
|
n

---------
| 0
IIm
r
|
n

---------
l
n!
-----
416
OnpepeAenMe 4. ].n onpe:uo
[o, b ocnuv cucne+ eeo noueu
|
i
, i 0, l, ... , i

nouur, uno o
|
0
|
l
... |
i - l
|
i
...
b, oe+ uo:moono eeo po:u
euue+ u oo:uouono .
Hyc1r aapana vpnnan {r(|), o | b n nyc1r
- novo1opoo paanonno o1poava [o, b. Hooxnm

r(|
i
) - r(|
i - l
).
Ononnpno (pnc. 80),

- pnna omano c nopmnnamn


r(o), r(|
l
), ... , r(|
i

- l
), r(b), 1. o., vav ownno ronopn1, .o+o
uou, onucouuou o upuov .
Ecnvym omanym, n nac1noc1n n nnncannym n vpnnym
{r(|); o | b, moxno paccma1pnna1r vav vpnnym n cmwco
pannoro nwmo onpopoonnn, ocn 1orvo aapa1r oo npopc1an-
onno. Hyc1r - omanan, 1. o. mnoxoc1no, coc1onmoo na
vononnoro nnca o1poavon c nopmnnamn n 1onvax M
0
, M
l
, ...
... , M
n
(c1n o1poavn naawnam1cn anonrnmn omano). Eoarmom
novo1opw o1poaov [o, b n vavoo-no oro paanonno na n o1-
poavon: . Bypom pn npoc1o1w ncorpa cnn1a1r, n1o
npopc1anonnom omano nnno1cn nonpopwnnoo o1opaxo-
nno (|), nnono o1opaxammoo vaxpw o1poaov [|
i - l
, |
i
na
o1poaov M
i - l
M
i
, i l, 2, ... , n; 1avnm opaaom, ocn ooana-
nn1r nopoa p
i
papnyc-nov1op 1onvn M
i
, i 0, l, ... , n, 1o nov-
1opnoo npopc1anonno omano nmoo1 nnp
p(|) (| - |
i - l
) - p
i - l
,
|
i - l
| |
i
, i l, 2, ... , n.
Ecn M
i - l
= M
i
npn i l, 2, ... , n, 1o omanan naawnao1cn
ueompooeuuou.
OnpepeAenMe 47. ].n :ooouuou upuoou {r(|); o | b oe
.uuuuo 8

, eoe oeprunn epouo o:nno no oceoo:+o


r(o)
r(b)
r(|
i
)
r(|
i - l
)
r(|
i
)
0
Pnc. 80
|
i

|
i
{ }
i 0
i i

|
i
{ }
i 0
i i

do

i l
i

|
i
{ }
i 0
i n

i
-
i - l
|
i
- l
i - l
--------------------------
sup

417
um+ po:ueuun+ onpe:uo [o, b, uo:mooencn o.uuou upu
oou .
Ec.u 8

-~, no upuoon uo:mooencn cnpn+.ne+ou.


E cny c1oro onpopoonnn, cnpnmnomoc1r vpnno n oo
pnna no aanncn1 o1 nwopa npopc1anonnn vpnno n ncorpa
0 8

-~.
VHPAHEHHE 1. ovaaa1r, n1o vpnnan, nnnmmancn nac1rm cnpnm-
nomo vpnno, 1avxo cnpnmnoma.
A E M M A 4. Hcno
o
'
b
, noeoo
8

- . (l6.l8)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r o c b n {r(|); o | b,

o
{r(|); o | c,
b
{r(|); c | b.
Hyc1r - paanonno o1poava [o, b, a

- paanonno c1o-
ro xo o1poava, connapammoo c , ocn 1onva c nxopn1 n paa-
nonno , n noynammoocn na poanonnom v nomy 1onvn c,
ocn c1a 1onva no nxopn1 n paanonno . Paanonno

nnno1-
cn o+opnnonnom pnyx paanonn o1poavon [o, c n [c, b, vo1o-
pwo mw ooanannm coo1no1c1nonno
o
n
b
, 1. o.


o
'
b
.
Ononnpno, pn pnn omanwx, coo1no1c1nymmnx paanonnnm

,
o
n
b
, cnpanopnno panonc1no

- . Ho
8
o
, 8
b
, copona1orno,

- .
Hpn nopoxopo o1 paanonnn v paanonnm , w1r
moxo1, nmr opno anono r(|
i - l
)r(|
i
) aamonno1cn pnymn:
r (|
i - l
)r (c) n r (c)r (|
i
), a 1av vav r (|
i - l
)r (|
i
) r(|
i - l
)r (c) -
- r(c)r(|
i
), 1o

, copona1orno,

- .
Ho 8

, noc1omy 8

- .
ovaxom 1onopr opa1noo nopanonc1no. n nponanor-
nwx paanonn
o
n
b
coo1no1c1nonno o1poavon [o, c n [c, b n
paanonnn


o
'
b
o1poava [o, b nmoom -

.
O1cmpa 8

- ; qnvcnpyn paanonno
b
n nopoxopn v
nopxno rpann npn nconoamoxnwx
o
, noynaom nopanon-
c1no 8

o
8

- n, copona1orno, nopanonc1no
8

o
- 8

.
8

o
8

b
sup

o
sup

b
8

o
8

b
8

o
8

b
sup

o
8

b
41S
Bopn nopxnmm rpanr mnoxoc1na nnco , vo1opoo noynao1cn
npn nconoamoxnwx paanonnnx
b
, nmoom - 8

.
O1mo1nm, n1o n ommo l no npopnoarao1cn, n1o paccma1-
pnnaomwo vpnnwo cnpnmnomw.
3aaua 13. Hoc1pon1r npnmop nocnpnmnomo vpnno.
ovaxom opno poc1a1onnoo yconno cnpnmnomoc1n vpn-
no n noynnm oonvy oo pnnw.
I E O F E M A 4. Ec.u upuoon {r(|); o | b uenpepmouo
ouqqepeuuupe+o, no ouo cnpn+.ne+o u ee o.uuo 8

ooo
.enoopnen uepooeucnoo+
r(b) - r(o) 8

M(b - o), (l6.l9)


eoe
M r'(|). (l6.20)
O1mo1nm, n1o, n cny nonpopwnnoc1n nponanopno r'(|), oo
acom1nan nonnnna r'(|) 1avxo nonpopwnna n noc1omy po-
c1nrao1 na o1poavo [o, b cnooro nanormoro ananonnn M.
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Eoarmom vavoo-no paanonno

o1poava [o, b. Torpa, npnmonnn nopanonc1no (l5.20), noynnm
r(b) - r(o) (r(|
i
) - r(|
i - l
)) r(|
i
) - r(|
i - l
)
r'(
i
)(|
i
- |
i - l
), (l6.2l)
rpo
i
(|
i - l
, |
i
), i l, 2, ... , i

.
Tav vav
r(|
i
) - r(|
i - l
)

- pnna nnncanno n vpnnym omano, coo1no1c1nymmo


paanonnm , n pn ncox i l, 2, ... , i

, n cny (l6.20), nmoo1


moc1o nopanonc1no r'(
i
) M, 1o na nopanonc1na (l6.2l) pn
moro paanonnn nmoom
r(b) - r(o)

M (|
i
- |
i - l
) M(b - o). (l6.22)

b
8

o
8

b
max
o,b [ ]
|
i
{ }
i 0
i i

i l
i

i l
i

i l
i

i l
i

i l
i

419
Hopopn n c1om nopanonc1no v nopxno rpann no , noynnm
y1nopxponno 1oopomw.
I E O F E M A 2. Hcno upuoon {r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)); o | b
uenpepmouo ouqqepeuuupe+o. Toeoo nepe+euuon o.uuo oeu
c, oncuunmooe+on on uouo.o r(o) upuoou (on ee uouuo r(b)),
no.nencn oo:pocnoveu (mooveu), uenpepmouo ouqqe
peuuupe+ou quuuueu nopo+enpo |; npu ono+
(l6.23)
coonoencnoeuuo
- - . (l6.24)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r c c(|) - pnna pyrn vpnno
o1 1onvn r(o) po 1onvn r(|). Hyc1r |
0
[o, b, |
0
- | [o, b n
c c(|
0
- |) - c(|). Ononnpno, n1o qynvnn c c(|) noapac1a-
o1 na o1poavo [o, b, 1. o. ocn | 0, 1o c . 0; ocn xo | 0,
1o c 0. Hoc1omy ncorpa . 0.
Hpnmonnn nopanonc1no (l6.l9) v nac1n vpnno , coo1no1-
c1nymmo o1poavy [|
0
, |
0
- | npn | 0 nn o1poavy [|
0
- |, |
0

npn | 0, noynnm
r(|
0
- |) - r(|
0
) c M|,
o1vypa
M, (l6.25)
rpo M - nanormoo ananonno r'(|) na o1poavo [|
0
, |
0
- |
npn | 0 nn na o1poavo [|
0
- |, |
0
npn | 0.
E cny nonpopwnnoc1n nponanopno r'(|), oo acom1nan
nonnnna r'(|) 1avxo nonpopwnna. Hoc1omy cymoc1nyo1 na-
normoo ananonno r'(|) n ono poc1nrao1cn n novo1opo 1onvo
|
0
- |, 0 l, yvaaannoro o1poava. Hoc1omy nopanon-
c1no (l6.25) moxno noponnca1r n nnpo
r'(|
0
- |, 0 l.
Hopopn apocr v npopoy npn | = 0, n ono nac1n nopanon-
c1na n cny onpopoonnn nponanopno, a n npano n cny no-
npopwnnoc1n nponanopno r'(|) n 1onvo | |
0
, noynnm r'(|
0
).
Jc
J|
------
r
2
-
2
- :
2
Jr
J|
------

Jc
J|
------
r
2
-
2
- :
2
Jr
J|
------

,
_
c
|
------
r |
0
- | ( ) - r |
0
( )
|
------------------------------------------------
c
|
------
r |
0
- | ( ) - r |
0
( )
|
------------------------------------------------
c
|
------
4z0
Copona1orno, npopo cymoc1ny-
o1 n 1avxo panon r'(|
0
), 1. o. cymoc1nyo1
nponanopnan c'(|
0
) n nmoo1 moc1o panonc1-
no c'(|
0
) r'(|
0
).
Ecn r(|) (r(|), (|), :(|)), 1o r'(|)
(r'(|), '(|), :'(|)) n noc1omy
c'(|) r'(|) .
Ecn 1onopr (|) - nopomonnan pnna pyrn, o1cnn1w-
naoman o1 vona r(b) vpnno , 1o, ononnpno, 8

- c, o1vy-
pa, pnqqoponnpyn c1o panonc1no no |, nmoom
- - .
C A E p C I 8 H E 4. Ec.u nopo+enpo+ uenpepmouo ouqqepeuuu
pe+ou upuoou no.nencn nepe+euuon o.uuo oeu c, no
l. (l6.26)
01o cpaay copyo1 na qopmyw npn | c.
3 a m o n a n n o l. 4opmya (l6.26) nmoo1 npoc1o roomo1-
pnnocvn cmwc. Honcnnm oro. Hyc1r napamo1pom nonpopwnno
pnqqoponnpyomo vpnno nnno1cn nopomonnan pnna pyrn
c: {r(c); 0 c 8

. Eonnnna r r(c - c) - r(c) panna pnno


o1poava, coopnnnmmoro 1onvn r(c) n r(c - c). 01o1 o1poaov naaw-
nao1cn ownno xoppo, c1nrnnammo pyry vpnno c nana-
om n 1onvo r(c) n vonom n 1onvo r(c - c). nna yvaaanno
pyrn, ononnpno, panna c (pnc. 8l). Tav vav ,
1o na panonc1na (l6.26) copyo1
l.
01o oananao1, n1o npopo o1nomonnn pnnw pyrn v pnno
c1nrnnammo oo xoppw panon opnnno, vorpa pyra c1nrnnao1-
cn n 1onvy. E c1om n coc1on1 roomo1pnnocvn cmwc qopmyw
(l6.26).
C A E p C I 8 H E 2. ].n ocnuou uenpepmouo ouqqepeuuupe+ou
upuoou e: ocomr noueu, n. e. o.n ocnuou e.oouou upuoou,
cecnoen ee npeocnoo.euue r r(c), o uonopo+ :o nopo
+enp c o:nno nepe+euuon o.uuo oeu upuoou .
r(c)
r(c - c)
c
c
0
Pnc. 8l
| 0
IIm
c
|
------
r | ( ) [ ]
2
- | ( ) [ ]
2
- : | ( ) [ ]
2
J
J|
-------
Jc
J|
------
Jr
J|
------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
J|
------
Jc
J|
------
Jr
Jc
------
c 0
IIm
r
c
------
c 0
IIm
r
c
---------
4z1
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hyc1r nonpopwnno pnqqoponnpyo-
man vpnnan {r(|); o | b no nmoo1 ocowx 1onov, 1. o.
r'(|) = 0 pn ncox | [o, b. E c1om cynao nopomonnan pnna
pyrn c c(|) nnno1cn c1poro noapac1ammo nonpopwnno pnq-
qoponnpyomo qynvno, 1av vav r' 0 no ncox 1on-
vax [o, b. Hoc1omy cymoc1nyo1 opa1nan qynvnn | |(c),
0 c 8

, vo1opan 1avxo c1poro noapac1ao1 n nmoo1 nonpo-


pwnnym, no opamammymcn n nyr nponanopnym na o1poavo
[0, 8

, 1. o. qynvnn | |(c) nnno1cn ponyc1nmwm npoopa-


aonannom napamo1pa pn nonpopwnno pnqqoponnpyomwx
vpnnwx oa ocowx 1onov n npopc1anonno r r(|(c)) nnno1cn
ncvomwm npopc1anonnom, n vo1opom por napamo1pa nrpao1
nopomonnan pnna pyrn.
Ewncnnm 1onopr roomo1pnnocvn cmwc vooppnna1 nov1o-
pa . Ooanannm nopoa , n yrw, opaaonannwo nov1opom
nn, n1o 1o xo, vaca1orno v vpnno {r(c); 0 c 8

}
coo1no1c1nonno c ocnmn Or, O n O:. Torpa na panonc1na
l, ononnpno, copyo1, n1o npoovnn nov1opa na ocn vo-
oppnna1 pannw coo1no1c1nonno nanpannmmnm vocnnycam
nov1opa : cos , cos n cos , 1. o.
(cos , cos , cos ). (l6.2?)
Hapnpy c c1nm, pn nov1opno qynvnn r(c) (r(c), (c), :(c)),
vav pn ncnvo nov1opno qynvnn (cm. n. l5.2), nmoom
, , . (l6.28)
Cpannnnan (l6.2?) n (l6.28), noynaom
cos , cos , cos . (l6.29)
E vanoc1no npnmopa paccmo1pnm vpnnym, naawnaomym
ouunooou .uuueu. 01a vpnnan aapao1cn npopc1anonnom
r o cos |, o sIn |, : b|, o
2
- b
2
= 0, 0 | T.
Ononnpno, n1o nnn1onan nnnn nnno1cn ocvononno pnqqo-
ponnpyomo vpnno, n 1av vav
- - o
2
sIn
2
| - o
2
cos
2
| - b
2
o
2
- b
2
= 0,
Jc
J|
------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
-------

J
Jc
-------
J:
Jc
------
,
_
Jr
Jc
-------
J
Jc
-------
J:
Jc
------
r
2

2
:
2
4zz
1o ona no nmoo1 ocowx 1onov (pnc. 82). Co-
pona1orno, nopomonnym pnny oo pyrn
moxno npnnn1r aa napamo1p.
Hapom coo1no1c1nymmoo npopc1ano-
nno. Coracno qopmyo (l6.23), nmoom
.
O1cmpa , n 1av vav |(0) 0, 1o
| . Hoc1omy ncvomoo npopc1anonno
nmoo1 nnp
r(c) o cos , (c) o sIn ,
:() , 0 c T .
VHPAHEHHE z. ovaaa1r, n1o pn cnpnmnomo vpnno oa 1onov ca-
monopocononnn nopomonnan pnna pyrn nnno1cn nonpopwnno c1poro mo-
no1onno qynvno napamo1pa.
3 a m o n a n n o 2. Ecn vpnnan rapvan n n vanoc1no
napamo1pa na no nwpana nopomonnan pnna pyrn c, 0 c 8,
1o opnnnnnw vaca1ornw nov1op nnno1cn nonpo-
pwnno qynvno nopomonno c. Ecn vavan-1o qynvnn nn-
no1cn nonpopwnno qynvno napamo1pa vpnno, 1o ypom
ronopn1r, n1o ona nonpopwnna npor vpnno. Tonopr moxno
cvaaa1r, n1o na opnon1nponanno rapvo vpnno nmoo1cn
nonpopwnnw npor noo opnnnnnw vaca1ornw nov1op.
Hpn namononnn opnon1ann vpnno, 1. o. npn nopoxopo v na-
pamo1py c

8 - c, vaca1ornw nov1op monno1 cnoo nanpan-


onno (cm. n. l6.4). oc1nn1orno, nanomnnm, n1o 1av vav
-l, 1o

- -.
Tavnm opaaom, opnon1ann rapvo vpnno opnoanan-
nwm opaaom coo1no1c1nyo1 nwop opnnnnnoro nonpopwnnoro
vaca1ornoro nov1opa t nn t

npor vpnno.
Hyc1r - nocvan vpnnan n na nocvoc1n qnvcnponan
aanc i, j. E c1om cynao vaxpomy vaca1ornomy nov1opy n
:

M
|
o
r
o
0
Pnc. 82
Jc
J|
------
r
2
-
2
- :
2
o
2
- b
2
J|
Jc
------
l
o
2
- b
2
------------------------
c
o
2
- b
2
------------------------
c
o
2
- b
2
------------------------
c
o
2
- b
2
------------------------
c
o
2
- b
2
------------------------
bc
o
2
- b
2
------------------------
o
2
- b
2
Jr
Jc
------
Jc
Jc

---------
Jr
Jc

---------
Jr
Jc
------
Jc
Jc

---------
Jr
Jc
------
4z3
t

coo1no1c1nyo1 opnnc1nonnw nopnonpnvynpnw v nomy


opnnnnnw nov1op v, coo1no1c1nonno v

(nopmar v vpnno)
1avo, n1o napw nov1opon t, v n t

, v

opnon1nponanw 1av xo
vav napa i, j nov1opon aanca (1. o. 1av, n1o onpopon1on
ma1pn nopoxopa o1 nov1opon t, v, coo1no1c1nonno nov1opon
t

, v

, v aancy nooxn1ornw). Ononnpno, n1o v

-v, n
nopman v n v

1avxo nnnm1cn nonpopwnnwmn qynvnnmn


npor vpnno . Ha cvaaannoro ncno, n1o opnon1ann no-
cvo vpnno moxo1 w1r aapana no 1orvo nonpopwnnwm na
no opnnnnnwm vaca1ornwm nov1opom, no n nonpopwnno
npor c1o vpnno opnnnnno nopmarm.
4.. RAockMe kpMsme
Hyc1r {r(|); o | b - nonpopwnno pnqqoponnpyoman
nocvan vpnnan, oxaman n nocvoc1n rO:
r(|) (r(|), (|)),
n nyc1r c c(|) - nopomonnan pnna pyrn vpnno ; pn oo
nponanopno na qopmy (l6.23) n (l6.24) noynaom
, (l6.30)
apocr anav nmc opo1cn, ocn pnna pyrn c(|) o1cnn1wnao1cn
o1 nanarno 1onvn r(o) vpnno, n anav mnnyc, ocn o1 vo-
nonno 1onvn r(b). Ha qopmyw (l6.30) pn pnqqoponnaa
pyrn noynaom nwpaxonno
Jc
2
Jr
2
- J
2
. (l6.3l)
Hyc1r 1onva (r(|
0
), (|
0
)) - noocoan, 1. o. (|
0
) - (|
0
) 0,
nanpnmop r'(|
0
) = 0. Hyc1r pn onpopoonnoc1n r'(|
0
) 0;
1orpa n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn |
0
1avxo r'(|) 0 n,
anann1, qynvnn r(|) c1poro mono1onno noapac1ao1 n c1o ov-
poc1noc1n; noc1omy cymoc1nyo1 opa1nan nonpopwnno pnqqo-
ponnpyoman qynvnn | |(r). Hopc1annn oo n npopc1ano-
nno vpnno , naxopnm
(|(r)) ](r),
1. o. n novo1opo ovpoc1noc1n noocoo 1onvn nonpopwnno
pnqqoponnpyoman vpnnan nnno1cn rpaqnvom nonpopwnno
pnqqoponnpyomo qynvnn ]; 1onnoo, cymoc1nym1 ovpoc1-
Jc
J|
------
Jr
J|
-------
,
_
2
-
J
J|
-------
,
_
2
r
2

2
4z4
noc1r 1onvn |
0
n nonpopwnno pnqqoponnpyoman qynvnn ],
onpopoonnan na novo1opom nn1opnao, copopxamom 1onvy
r
0
r(|
0
), 1avno, n1o nac1r vpnno, coo1no1c1nymman anano-
nnnm napamo1pa, npnnapoxamnm yvaaanno ovpoc1noc1n
1onvn |
0
, nnno1cn rpaqnvom qynvnn ].
E 1om cynao, ocn vpnnan nnno1cn rpaqnvom no-
npopwnno pnqqoponnpyomo qynvnn ](r), o r b,
1. o. napamo1pom vpnno nnno1cn nopomonnan r, 1o r' l n
noc1omy
,
copona1orno,
Jc Jr.
Paccmo1pnm roomo1pnnocvn cmwc qopmyw (l6.3l) n
1om cynao, vorpa nnno1cn rpaqnvom nonpopwnno pnqqo-
ponnpyomo qynvnn ](r), o r b, n pnna pyrn vpn-
no o1cnn1wnao1cn o1 nanarno 1onvn vpnno (pnc. 83).
Hyc1r
r
0
[o, b, r
0
- Jr [o, b,
0
](r
0
), M
0
(r
0
,
0
),

0
- ](r
0
- Jr), M (r
0
- Jr,
0
- ),
M
0
N - vaca1ornan n 1onvo M
0
; PM - npnpamonno
qynvnn n 1onvo r
0
- Jr; PN J - npnpamonno oppnna1w
vaca1orno n 1onvo r
0
- Jr. Tpoyrornnv M
0
NP npnmo-
yrornw; 1av vav M
0
P Jr, PN J, 1o
M
0
N
2
M
0
P
2
- PN
2
Jr
2
- J
2
Jc
2
,
Jc
Jr
-------
l -
2
l -
2
r

r
0
- Jr

0
c
J
r
0
M
0

0
-

Jc
Jr
M
N
P
r

Pnc. 83 Pnc. 84
4z
1. o. pnna o1poava vaca1orno M
0
N panna Jc. Hnano rono-
pn, npnpamonno pnnw vaca1orno, 1. o. , panno
ranno nac1n Jc npnpamonnn pnnw pyrn c.
Ecn 1onopr na vpnno n vanoc1no napamo1pa nan1r nopo-
monnym pnny pyrn c: {r(c); 0 c 8

, 1o, coracno
(l6.29),
cos, cos sIn, - , (l6.32)
rpo (pnc. 84) - yro, opaaonannw vaca1orno c nooxn-
1ornwm nanpanonnom ocn Or, a - c nooxn1ornwm
nanpanonnom ocn O. O1mo1nm, n1o c1n qopmyw moxno no-
ynn1r npnmonnn v vpnnonnonomy 1poyrornnvy M
0
MP
(cm. pnc. 83) qopmyw, nwpaxammno cnnyc n vocnnyc yron
ownnoro npnmoyrornoro 1poyrornnva nopoa oro va1o1w n
rnno1onyay, cnn1an c1oponw yvaaannoro 1poyrornnva
M
0
MP pannwmn coo1no1c1nonno Jr, J, Jc. Hoponoo oc1o-
n1orc1no nmoo1 moc1o n pn qopmyw (l6.29), 1. o. pn cy-
nan npoc1panc1na. Tavo mo1op noynonnn qopmy (l6.29) n
(l6.32) nnno1cn, vononno, nooocnonannwm - on no nmoo1
povaaa1orno cnw, opnavo oornao1 aanomnnanno c1nx
qopmy.
4.7. OMsMeckMM cumcA
npoMssopnoM sektopnoM ynkMM
Hyc1r 1onopr roporpaq nonpopwnno pnqqoponnpyomo
nov1opno qynvnn r(|) oc1r 1paov1opnn pnnxymocn ma1o-
pnarno 1onvn, a napamo1p | - npomn pnnxonnn. Ooana-
nnm nopomonnym pnny pyrn, o1cnn1wnaomym o1 novo1opo
nanarno 1onvn r(|
0
), nopoa c c(|). Hyc1r | |
0
; nooxnn
c c(| - |) - c(|), coracno (l6.23), noynnm
,
1. o. pnna nov1opa connapao1 c nnconwm ananonnom cvo-
poc1n n paccma1pnnaomo 1onvo (cm. n. 9.4); cam xo nov1op
, vav nanoc1no (cm. n. l6.2), nanpanon no vaca1orno.
Jr
2
- J
2
Jr
Jc
-------
J
Jc
-------

2
---
Jr
J|
------
Jc
J|
------
| 0
IIm
c
|
------
Jr
J|
------
Jr
J|
------
4z6
Eov1op naawnao1cn n c1om cynao cuopocnov ooueuun n
panno 1onvo n ooananao1cn u: u .
47.
KpMaMsc M kpyeMe kpMacM
47.4. pse Aeuum. FopMoAonos M tponcsepcoAonos
coctosAsmMe ckopoctM
ovaxom pno nooanwo pn parnomoro ommw o nponanop-
nwx nov1opnwx qynvn.
A E M M A 4. Hcno oeunopuon quuuun r(|) u+een npou:ooo
uv o nouue |
0
. Ec.u o.uuo oeunopo r(|) o ueuonopou ou
pecnuocnu nouuu |
0
nocnonuuo, no oeunop r'(|
0
) opnoeouo
.eu oeunop r(|
0
), n. e.
r'(|
0
)r(|
0
) 0. (l?.l)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Ho yconnm, cymoc1nyo1 ovpoc1noc1r
1onvn |
0
, n vo1opo pnna nov1opa r(|) noc1onnna: r(|) c,
rpo c - vonc1an1a. Hoc1omy pn ncox 1onov yvaaanno ov-
poc1noc1n nmoom r(|)
2
c
2
r
2
(|) c
2
. Hpopnqqoponnponan
oo oro nac1n n 1onvo |
0
, noynnm (cm. n. l5.2) 2r(|
0
)r'(|
0
) 0,
o1vypa n copyo1 (l?.l) .
V1nopxponno ommw copopxa1orno nmr n cynao, vorpa
r'(|
0
) = 0 (ocn r'(|
0
) 0, 1o yconno (l?.l) nwnonno1cn, ono-
nnpno, n oa yconnn noc1onnc1na pnnw nov1opa r(|)). E c1om
cynao qnannocvn cmwc c1o ommw coc1on1 n 1om, n1o y
ma1opnarno 1onvn, pnnxymocn 1av, n1o ona nco npomn oc-
1ao1cn na nonopxnoc1n cqopw, oo cvopoc1r u r' = 0 nanpano-
na no vaca1orno v c1o cqopo n, copona1orno, nopnonpn-
vynpna papnycy-nov1opy.
Hyc1r qynvnn r(|) onpopoona n novo1opo ovpoc1noc-
1n U(|
0
) 1onvn |
0
n nyc1r n c1o ovpoc1noc1n r(|) = 0 (oc-
n nov1opnan qynvnn r(|) nonpopwnna n 1onvo |
0
, 1o nopa-
nonc1na nym papnycon-nov1opon r(|) n poc1a1onno mao
Jr
J|
------
Jr
J|
------
4z7
ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn |
0
ncorpa moxno pon1rcn noponocom na-
naa vooppnna1). Hyc1r | |
0
- | U(|
0
) n nyc1r (|) -
yro (nwpaxonnw n papnanax) moxpy nov1opamn r(|
0
) n
r(|), , npnnom ypom cnn1a1r, n1o (|) . 0 pn | . 0 n
0 pn | 0; noc1omy ncorpa . 0.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Hpou:ooouon uo:mooencn e.ooou cuo
pocnov opoeuun oeunopuou quuuuu r(|) o nouue |
0
u oo
:uouoencn (|
0
; r(|)):
. (l?.2)
3amo1nm, n1o ocn nwpa1r npo1nnonooxnw o1cno1 yr-
on, 1. o. onpopon1r yro moxpy nov1opamn r(|
0
) n r(|) vav
yro - , 1o ononnpno,
0 n (|
0
; r) - .
Tavnm opaaom, vav npn opnom, 1av n npn ppyrom o1cno1o
yra moxpy nov1opamn r(|
0
) n r(|) ncorpa
(|
0
; r) .
A E M M A 2. Hcno oeunopuon quuuun r(|) onpeoe.euo o ue
uonopou oupecnuocnu nouuu |
0
u r(|
0
) = 0. Toeoo, ec.u o
nouue |
0
cecnoen npou:ooouon r'(|
0
), no o onou nouue
cecnoen u e.ooon cuopocno opoeuun (|
0
; r(|)),
npuue+
r(|
0
) ` r'(|
0
). (l?.3)
C A E p C I 8 H E. Ec.u o oono.ueuue u c.ooun+ .e++m o.uuo r
oeunopo r(|) nocnonuuo: r(|) r - uoucnouno, no
. (l?.4)
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. E cny cymoc1nonannn nponanopno
r'(|
0
), qynvnn r(|) nonpopwnna n 1onvo |
0
. O1cmpa n na yc-

|
-------
J |
0
( )
J|
------------------
J
J|
-------
J
J|
--------
J
J|
-------
J
J|
--------
J
J|
--------
J
J|
-------
l
r
2
|
0
( )
----------------
r | ( )
r
---------------
4zS
onnn r(|
0
) = 0 copyo1, n1o pn ncox poc1a1onno mawx |
nwnonno1cn nopanonc1no r(|
0
- |) = 0 n, copona1orno,
onpopoon yro moxpy nov1opamn r(|
0
) n r(|
0
- |). Ha no-
npopwnnoc1n nov1opno qynvnn r(|) n 1onvo |
0
copyo1 1av-
xo
l
n nonpopwnnoc1r n 1onvo |
0
qynvnn (|), 1. o.
0 (vav ncorpa, | | - |
0
, (|) - (|
0
) (|), 1av vav
(|
0
) 0).
n nwnnconnn nponanopno (l?.2) aamonnm ocvononno
maym cvnnnaon1no o npn | = 0 ocvononno mao
sIn (cm. ommy n n. 8.2), vo1opym moxno na1n na qop-
myw
r(|
0
) ` r(|
0
- |) r(|
0
) r(|
0
- | sIn .
E cny 1oopomw 2 n. 8.3 o aamono ocvononno mawx nm cvnn-
naon1nwmn npn nwnnconnn npopoon, nmoom


. (l?.5)
3pocr cnona wa ncnoraonana nonpopwnnoc1r nov1opno
qynvnn r(|) n 1onvo |
0
: r(|
0
- |) r(|
0
).
aoo, nocvorvy qynvnn r(|) pnqqoponnpyoma n 1onvo |
0
,
r(|
0
- |) r(|
0
) - r'(|
0
)| - (|)|,
rpo s(|) 0. Hopc1annn c1o nwpaxonno pn r(|
0
- |) n
(l?.5) n aamo1nn, n1o r(|
0
) ` r(|
0
) 0, r(|
0
) ` (|) 0,
noynnm
.
l
01o nw1ovao1, nanpnmop, na panonc1na cos .
| 0
IIm
r |
0
( )r | ( )
r |
0
( )r | ( )
----------------------------
J
J|
-------
| 0
IIm

|
-------
| 0
IIm

|
-------
| 0
IIm
sIn
|
----------------
| 0
IIm
r |
0
( ) ` r |
0
- | ( )
r |
0
( ) r |
0
- | ( ) |
--------------------------------------------------------
l
r
2
|
0
( )
----------------
| 0
IIm
r |
0
( ) ` r |
0
- | ( )
|
----------------------------------------------------
| 0
IIm
| 0
IIm
| 0
IIm
J
J|
-------
| 0
IIm

|
-------
r |
0
( ) ` r |
0
( )
r
2
|
0
( )
----------------------------------------
4z9
/ c k c s c e / | c a c c/e/caM. Ecn r(|) r - noc1onnnan,
1o, n cny ommw l, r(|
0
) r'(|
0
) 0, 1. o. r(|
0
) r'(|
0
) cos 0.
Tav vav no yconnm ommw r(|
0
) = 0, 1o no r'(|
0
) 0, no
yro moxpy nov1opamn r(|
0
) n r'(|
0
) panon ,2 n, copona-
1orno, sIn l. E oonx cynanx
r(|
0
) ` r'(|
0
) r(|
0
) r'(|
0
) sIn rr'(|
0
).
Hopc1annn c1o nwpaxonno n qopmyy (l?.3), noynnm
qopmyy (l?.4).
7ommw l n 2 oc1am1cn cnpanopnnwmn n n 1om cynao, ocn
nop ovpoc1noc1nmn nonnma1r opnoc1oponnno ovpoc1noc1n.
n nwncnonnn qnannocvoro cmwca qopmy (l?.3) n
(l?.4) ypom cnona nn1opnpo1npona1r vpnnym, onncwnaomym
vonom papnyca-nov1opa r(|), vav 1paov1opnm pnnxonnn ma-
1opnarno 1onvn, a napamo1p | - vav npomn. Hyc1r pnna
nov1opa r(|) oc1ao1cn noc1onnno: r(|) r, 1. o. 1onva pnn-
xo1cn no cqopo papnyca r. Paccmo1pnm pnnxonno 1onvn n
vaxpw momon1 npomonn vav npamonno ovoo 1av naawnao-
mo mrnononno ocn npamonnn, 1. o. ocn, npoxopnmo nopoa
nanao vooppnna1, nopnonpnvynpno nocvoc1n pnnxonnn
1av naawnao1cn nocvoc1r, npoxopnman nopoa papnyc-nov1op
r(|) napaorno cvopoc1n u . Torpa nov1op m
qnannocvn oananao1 nov1op yrono cvopoc1n, a qopmyw
(l?.3) n (l?.4) nwpaxam1 cnnar moxpy yrono cvopoc1rm n
nnono cvopoc1rm u. E nac1noc1n, qopmya (l?.4) n c1nx
ooananonnnx npnnnmao1 nnp
m .
3 a m o n a n n o. Hcnorayn ommy l, moxno orvo noy-
nn1r nooanoo paaoxonno nponanopno nov1opno qynvnn
na pno op1oronarnwo coc1annmmno: n nanpanonnn nov1opa
r(|) (poouo.ouon cocnoo.nvon) n n nopnonpnvynpnom na-
npanonnn (npoucoepco.ouon cocnoo.nvon).
rr

rr

rr

rr

Jr | ( )
J|
--------------
,
_
r ` r
r
z
----------------
u
r
------
430
Hyc1r nov1opnan qynvnn r(|) onpopoona n novo1opo
ovpoc1noc1n 1onvn |
0
, r(|
0
) = 0, n cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan
r'(|
0
). Hooxnm r
0
(|) , ononnpno, r
0
(|) l. E 1onvo |
0
cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan
r
0
r',
copona1orno, n 1onvo |
0
cymoc1nyo1 n nponanopnan , vo-
1opan, coracno ommo l, op1oronarna nov1opy r
0
(|
0
), a no-
c1omy n nov1opy r(|
0
).
nqqoponnpyn panonc1no r(|) r(|)r
0
(|) n 1onvo |
0
, noy-
nnm
r
0
- r (r
0
r')r
0
- r .
01o n oc1r ncvomoo paaoxonno.
E 1om cynao, ocn roporpaq nov1opno qynvnn r(|) nn-
no1cn 1paov1opno pnnxymocn ma1opnarno 1onvn, noy-
nonnan qopmya pao1 paaoxonno oo cvopoc1n na coc1annm-
mym noc1yna1ornoro pnnxonnn (papnarnan coc1annmman)
n coc1annmmym npama1ornoro pnnxonnn (1pancnopcarnan
coc1annmman).
47.2. OnpepeAenMe kpMsMsnm
kpMsoM M ee smMcAenMe
Paccmo1pnm pnaxpw pnqqoponnpyomym vpnnym oa oco-
wx 1onov. Tavan vpnnan cnpnmnoma n y noo cymoc1nyo1
pnaxpw pnqqoponnpyomoo npopc1anonno r r(c), n vo-
1opom aa napamo1p npnnn1a nopomonnan pnna pyrn c. Hyc1r
0 c
0
8, c c - c
0
, a (c) - yro moxpy vaca1ornwmn
v vpnno n 1onvax r(c
0
) n r(c
0
- c), npnnom ypom cnn1a1r,
n1o (c) . 0 pn c . 0, (c) 0 pn c 0 n ,2. Ononnp-
no, (c) - (c
0
) (c), 1av vav (c
0
) 0.
Hyc1r 1onopr I(c) . Kav wo novaaano, I(c) nnno1cn
opnnnnnwm nov1opom (cm. (l6.26)), napaornwm vaca1or-
no v vpnno n coo1no1c1nymmo 1onvo (cm. n. l6.4), noc1omy
yro nnno1cn n yrom moxpy nov1opamn I(c
0
) n I(c
0
- c).
r | ( )
r | ( )
-------------
J r
J|
---------
J
J|
------
r
2 rr
r
-------
Jr
0
J|
---------
Jr
J|
------
J r
J|
---------
Jr
0
J|
---------
Jr
0
J|
---------
Jr c ( )
Jc
--------------
431
OnpepeAenMe 2. Ve.ooon cuopocno opo
euun uocone.ouoeo eouuuuuoeo oeu
nopo I o oouuou nouue upuoou
uo:mooencn upuou:uou h(c
0
) upuoou o
onou nouue
h(c
0
) (c
0
; |) .
Onycvan pn vpa1voc1n ananonno
aprymon1a, noynaom
h . (l?.6)
Kpnnan pnaxpw pnqqoponnpyoma, noc1omy cymoc1nyo1
nponanopnan n 1av vav nov1op I opnnnnnw, 1o, n
cny copc1nnn ommw 2 na n. l?.l, o1cmpa nmoom
h , no I . (l?.?)
OnpepeAenMe 3. Ee.uuuuo, oponuon upuou:ue, uo:mooencn
poouco+ upuou:um o oouuou nouue u oo:uouoencn F, n. e.
F l,h.
Hyc1r - ovpyxnoc1r papnyca F. E c1om cynao yro
moxpy vaca1ornwmn panon yry, opaaonannomy papnycamn,
nponoponnwmn n 1onvn vacannn (pnc. 85), a pn pnnw pyrn
c moxpy c1nmn 1onvamn nmoo1 moc1o qopmya c F. Ho-
c1omy . Ho onpopoonnm xo vpnnnanw pn ovpyx-
noc1n nmoom
h .
Tavnm opaaom, n cynao ovpyxnoc1n oo vpnnnana h no-
c1onnna (no aanncn1 o1 1onvn) n panna opa1no nonnnno pa-
pnyca; papnyc xo vpnnnanw ovpyxnoc1n panon oo papnycy.
O1cmpa n nponaomo 1opmnn papnyc vpnnnanw.
Ooanannm nopoa n opnnnnnw nov1op n nanpanonnn nov-
1opa . Ha qopmyw (l?.?) copyo1, n1o nov1op n opnoananno
Pnc. 85
0

c
Jr
Jc
------
J

c
0
( )
Jc
-----------------

do J
Jc
-------
JI
Jc
------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
J
Jc
-------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
JI
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------

c
-------
l
F
----
c 0
IIm

c
-------
l
F
----
JI
Jc
------
43z
onpopoon nmr pn 1ox 1onov, n vo1opwx vpnnnana h no pan-
na nym, n n1o n c1nx 1onvax
hn. (l?.8)
Eov1op I - opnnnnnw, noc1omy oro nponanopnan, a copona-
1orno, n nov1op n nopnonpnvynpnw omy (cm. ommy l n
n. l?.l): n l I.
OnpepeAenMe 4. Eeunop n uo:mooencn oeunopo+ e.oouou
uop+o.u (uopoue, e.oouou uop+o.ov) upuoou o oouuou ee
nouue.
oc1a1onnwo yconnn cymoc1nonannn vpnnnanw n panno
1onvo n mo1op oo nwnnconnn pao1 copymman 1oopoma.
I E O F E M A 4. Hcno {r(|); o | b - oooom ouqqepeu
uupe+on upuoon e: ocomr noueu. Toeoo o uooou ee nou
ue cecnoen upuou:uo h u ouo c.eovu+ opo:o+ ompo
oencn uepe: npou:ooouv no nepe+euuou o.uue oeu:
h (l?.9)
u uepe: npou:oooume no npou:oo.ouo+ nopo+enp:
h . (l?.l0)
H1pnx apocr n n parnomom ooananao1 nponanopnwo no
nponanornomy napamo1py |. Hponanopnwo no pnno pyrn c
ypom ooanana1r cnmnoom .
/ c k c s c e / | c a c. Hpn npopnooxonnnx 1oopomw nopo-
monnan pnna pyrn c c(|), o | b, 0 c 8, vpnno
moxo1 w1r npnnn1a na c1o vpnno aa napamo1p (cm. copc1-
nno 2 na 1oopomw 2 n n. l6.5). Hpn c1om opnnnnnw vaca1or-
nw nov1op I nnno1cn pnqqoponnpyomo nov1opno
qynvno, noc1omy y noro cymoc1nyo1 nponanopnan ,
copona1orno, n vpnnnana h (cm. (l?.?)).
4opmya (l?.9) povaaana.
n 1oro n1ow povaaa1r qopmyy (l?.l0), paccmo1pnm
pnny nov1opnoro nponanoponnn nov1opon
hn n I.
JI
Jc
------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
r ` r
r
3
----------------------
J
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
JI
Jc
------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
J|
Jc
------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
JI
Jc
------
l?.8 ( )
Jr
Jc
------
433
3amo1nn, n1o h . 0, n1o nov1op I nopnonpnvynpon nov1opy n,
a pnnw nx pannw opnnno, noynnm
` hn ` I h. (l?.ll)
Ewpaann nponanopnwo n nopoa nponanopnwo no |:
r' ,
, (l?.l2)
ypom nmo1r
` ` , (l?.l3)
nocvorvy r' ` r' 0 n c' r'.
E panonc1nax (l?.ll) n (l?.l3) pannw onwo nac1n, noc1o-
my pannw npanwo nac1n, a c1o oananao1 cnpanopnnoc1r qop-
myw (l?.l0).
O1 qopmyw (l?.l0) orvo nopo1n v nwpaxonnm pn vpn-
nnanw n vooppnna1no aanncn. E camom poo, aamonan, n1o
r' (r', ', :'), r' (r', ', :') n n1o
r' ` r'
(rpo i, j, h - opnnnnnwo nov1opw coo1no1c1nonno n nanpano-
nnn oco Or, O, O:), noynaom
r' ` r'
, (l?.l4)
c ppyro c1oponw,
r' . (l?.l5)
Hopc1annn (l?.l4) n (l?.l5) n (l?.l0), mw n napom ncvomoo
nwpaxonno.
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
Jr
Jc
------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
Jr
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
J|
Jc
------
r
c
----
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
J
Jc
------
r
c
----
,
_
cr - cr
c
2
----------------------------
J|
Jc
------
cr - cr
c
3
----------------------------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
Jr
Jc
------
cr - cr
c
3
----------------------------
r
c
----
r ` r
c
3
-------------------
r ` r
r
3
----------------------

l6.l3 ( )
i j h
r :
r :
: - : ( )
2
- :r - :r ( )
2
- r - r ( )
2
r
2
-
2
- :
2
434
47.3. IAosnos nopuoAo.
ConpMkocomoscs nAockocto
Paccmo1pnm novo1opwo cnoc1na nov1opa ranno nopman n.
Eov1op , noc1omy n nov1op n no aanncn1 o1 nw-
opa opnon1ann vpnno. oc1nn1orno, ocn - nopomon-
nan pnna pyrn vpnno, o1cnn1wnaoman n npo1nnonooxnom
nanpanonnn, n, copona1orno, ocn 8 - c, 1o, aamo1nn,
n1o -l, noynnm
.
OnpepeAenMe 5. Ecnuon npn+on, nporoonon uepe: nouu
upuoou u nepneuouu.npuon uocone.ouou o onou nouue, uo
:mooencn uop+o.ov u upuoou o oouuou nouue. Hop+o.o u
upuoou, nopo..e.ouon oeunop n, uo:mooencn e.oouou uop
+o.ov.
Eov1op ranno nopman n npn c = 0 c 1onnoc1rm po oc-
vononno mawx ooo nwcovoro nopnpva, nom c
2
, yvaawnao1
nanpanonno, n vo1opom vpnnan n ovpoc1noc1n panno 1onvn
o1vonno1cn o1 cnoo vaca1orno (pnc. 86). oc1nn1orno,
nwpan na vpnno n vanoc1no napamo1pa nopomonnym pnny
pyrn c, coracno qopmyo Toopa pn nov1opno qynvnn
(cm. n. l5.2), ypom nmo1r
r r(c
0
- c) - r(c
0
)
c - c
2
- o(c
2
), c = 0, (l?.l6)
nn, aamo1nn, n1o (cm. l?.8))
|, hn, (l?.l?)
noynnm
r - cI hc
2
n - o(c
2
), c = 0;
nocvorvy hc
2
0, c1a qopmya n povaawnao1 cnpanopn-
noc1r namoro y1nopxponnn.
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
lJ
2
r
hJc
2
-------------
J
Jc
-------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
J
2
r
J
2
----------
J
Jc
-------
,
_
2
J
2
r
J
2
----------
Jr c
0
( )
Jc
-----------------
l
2
---
J
2
r c
0
( )
Jc
2
--------------------
Jr
Jc
------
J
2
r
Jc
2
---------
JI
Jc
------
l
2
---
l
2
---
43
OnpepeAenMe . H.ocuocno, nporoonon uepe: uocone.ouv
u e.oouv uop+o.o o oouuou nouue upuoou, uo:mooencn co
npuuocoveucn n.ocuocnov.
E cny c1oro onpopoonnn, conpnvacammancn nocvoc1r
onpopoona pn 1onov, n vo1opwx h = 0.
01a nocvoc1r oapao1 1om cnoc1nom, n1o pnaxpw nonpo-
pwnno pnqqoponnpyoman vpnnan n ovpoc1noc1n vaxpo cno-
o 1onvn, n vo1opo vpnnnana no panna nym, oxn1 non1n
n conpnvacammocn nocvoc1n. 01o oananao1, n1o vono papn-
yca-nov1opa r(c
0
- c) o1c1on1 o1 vona papnyca-nov1opa r(c
0
) -
- cI - hc
2
n, oxamoro, ononnpno, na conpnvacammocn
nocvoc1n, na nonnnny ocvononno maym no cpannonnm c c
2
.
01o cpaay copyo1 na panonc1na (l?.l6):
r(c
0
- c) - r(c
0
) - cI - hc
2
n o(c
2
).
Hapom ypannonno conpnvacammocn nocvoc1n pn vpn-
no, aapanno npopc1anonnom r r(|) c nponanornwm napa-
mo1pom |. Kav n nwmo, nponanopnwo no nopomonnomy | ypom
ooanana1r m1pnxom, a nponanopnwo no pnno pyrn c - cnm-
noom . nqqoponnpyn r r(|) vav coxnym qynvnm
r r(c), c c(|), noynnm (cm. (l?.l?))
r' c' c'I,
r' - c'I hn - c'I. (l?.l8)
Pnc. 86
0
r(c
0
)
r(c)
n
I
r
h c
2
----------n O c
2
( ) -
r

-

r0
0
r
0
r
r
r
Pnc. 8?
l
2
---

l
2
---
,
_
J
Jc
------
Jr
Jc
------
c
2JI
Jc
------
c
2
436
01n qopmyw, ononnpno, nnnm1cn opamo-
nnom qopmy (l?.l2).
O1cmpa copyo1, n1o nov1opw r' n r' 1avxo
napaornw conpnvacammocn nocvoc1n;
n cny xo yconnn h = 0 nwnonno1cn nopa-
nonc1no r' r' = 0 (cm. (l?.l0)) n, copona-
1orno, r' n r' no vonnoapnw. Ooanannm
1onopr nopoa r
0
, n nov1opw r, r' n r' n
novo1opo qnvcnponanno 1onvo panno
vpnno , a nopoa r - 1ovymn nov1op co-
npnvacammocn nocvoc1n; 1orpa cmomannoo nponanoponno
nov1opon r - r
0
, n poxno w1r panno nym, 1av vav nco
onn napaornw conpnvacammocn nocvoc1n (pnc. 8?):
(r - r