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3G Ericsson Radio Parameter

TELKOMSEL

Prepared by Adithya Yudha

Contents
Idle Mode Handover Power Control Capacity Management Channel Switching HSDPA

Idle Mode and Common Channel behavior

Cell Selection 3G part


Criteria for Cell Selection Squal > 0 , Squal = Qqualmeas-qQualMin (only for WCDMA cells) and Srxlev > 0 , Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas-qRxLevMin - Pcompensation (for all cells) Pcompensation = max (maxTxPowerUl - P, 0)

Qqualmeas > qQualMin (-18dB) and Qrxlevmeas > qRxLevMin (-115dBm) - max (maxTxPowerUl (24dB) - P, 0)

qQualMin : indicates the minimum required quality value in the cell. It is sent in system information, in SIB3 for the serving cell, and in SIB11 for adjacent cells qRxLevMin : indicates the minimum required signal strength in the cell. It is sent in SIB3 for the serving cell and in SIB11 for adjacent cells maxTxPowerUl : indicates the maximum allowed transmission power when the UE accesses the system on RACH. It is broadcast in SIB3

Cell Selection 3G part


Squal > 0
Qqualmeas (dB) (CPICH Ec/N0)
Squal >0 AND Srxlev > 0

qQualMin
(18)
Squal = Qqualmeas qQualMin

qRxLevMin
(115) suitabl e cell?
Pcompensation Pcompensation = max(maxTxPowerUl P, 0) (dB)

Qrxlevmeas (dBm) CPICH RSCP

Srxlev > 0

Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas - qRxLevMin Pcompensation

Cell Reselection 3G part


First according to S criteria Squal > 0 (only WCDMA cells) Srxlev > 0 The cells are ranked according to the R criteria: R(serving) = Qmeas(s) + qHyst(s) R(neighbor) = Qmeas(n) - qOffset(s,n) qHyst1 : Based on CPICH RSCP qHyst(s) qHyst2 : Based on CPICH Ec/No qOffset1sn : Based on CPICH RSCP qOffset(s,n)

qOffset2sn : Based on CPICH Ec/No


(1 ) qHyst(s) and qOffset(sn) based on CPICH RSCP only (2 ) With this setting the UE first makes qHyst(s) and qOffset(sn) based on CPICH RSCP . If a GSM cell is highest ranked, no more ranking is done. If a WCDMA neighbor is highest ranked, a second ranking takes place, this time according to CPICH Ec/No, and excluding all GSM neighbors

qualMeasQuantity =x

Cell Reselection 3G part


R CRITERIA : R(serving) = Qmeas(s) + qHyst(s) R(neighbor) = Qmeas(n) - qOffset(s,n) Note that parameter qOffset1sn works identically for WCDMA-GSM and WCDMA-WCDMA neighbor relations. But the values of GSM RSSI and WCDMA CPICH RSCP are not of the same nature and therefore not directly comparable. [CPICH RSCP] = [GSM RSSI] + 7 As an example a measured RSCP on a WCDMA CPICH of -100 dBm would be comparable to a GSM broadcast channel RSSI of -93 dBm. A parameter setting of a GSM neighbor to qOffset1sn = +7 will thus make the received signal strength in the WCDMA and the GSM cell comparable.

Cell Reselection 3G part


MEASUREMENT ON INTRA AND INTER-RAT NEIGHBOR
The decision about when intrafrequency measurements are performed is made using the sIntraSearch parameter in relation to Squal: If the Squal > sIntraSearch, the UE does not need to perform intrafrequency measurements.
If the Squal <= sIntraSearch value, the UE performs intrafrequency measurements. If the sIntraSearch = 0 dB, is not sent to the serving cell, the UE performs intrafrequency measurements.

The decision about when GSM measurements are performed is made using the sRatSearch parameter in relation to Squal and the sHcsRat parameter in relation to Srxlev:
If the Squal > sRatSearch and the Srxlev > sHcsRat, the UE does not need to perform measurements on GSM cells. If the Squal <= sRatSearch value and/or the Srxlev <= sHcsRat value, the UE performs measurements on GSM cells.

Squal <= sRatSearch Qqualmeas-qQualMin <= sRatSearch Qqualmeas <= qQualMin (-18dB) + sRatSearch (4dB) Srxlev <= sHcsRat Qrxlevmeas-qRxLevMin Pcompensation <= sHcsRat Qrxlevmeas <= qRxLevMin (-115dBm) + 0 + sHcsRat (3dB)

Cell Reselection 3G part


Measurements on GSM Neighbors

GSM cell measurements available If : CPICH Ec/No qQualMin < SRatSearch

First ranking of all the cells based on CPICH RSCP (WCDMA) and RSSI (GSM)

qHyst1 = 4 dB qOffset1sn = 0 dB

Rs = Serving WCDMA cell calculation, with


hysteresis parameter Rn = Neighbour WCDMA or GSM cell calculation with offset parameter

qQualMin = -18 dB Rs = CPICH RSCP/GSM RSSI + Qhyst1 sRATsearch = 4 dB Rn= CPICH_RSCP(n) or RXLEV(n) - Qoffset1 qOffset1sn = 7 dB qRxlevMin = -115 dBm

Yes

Rn higher in GSM cell

No
Qhyst2 = 4 dB qOffset2sn = 0 dB

Cell re-selection to GSM If a TDD or GSM cell is ranked as the best cell, then the UE must perform cell re-selection to that TDD or GSM cell. If a FDD cell is ranked as the best cell and cell_selection_and_reselection-quality_measure is set to CPICH RSCP, the UE shall perform cell re-selection to that FDD cell. If a FDD cell is ranked as the best cell and cell_selection_and_reselection-quality_measure is set to CPICH Ec/No, the UE shall perform a second ranking of the FDD cells according to the R criteria using the measurement quantity CPICH Ec/No calculating the R values of the FDD cells. Second ranking only for WCDMA cells based on CPICH Ec/No Rs = CPICH Ec/No + Qhyst2 Rn= CPICH Ec/No -Qoffset2

Cell re-selection to WCDMA cell of highest R value

RSSI

RSCP

Cell Reselection 3G part

Cell Reselection 2G part


Measurements on 3G Neighbors
The parameters QSI and QSC define thresholds and also indicate whether these measurements shall be performed when the signal strength (SS) of the serving cell is below or above the threshold. QSI is used for idle and packet switched modes and broadcast on BCCH and PBCCH (if enabled), while QSC is used for active mode, sent on SACCH
There are 4 different scenarios to choose from. Parameters QSI and QSC are set per GSM cell and define both the scenario and the necessary threshold, at the same time: UTRAN neighboring cells are measured only when the signal strength of the GSM serving cell is above the threshold set by QSI and QSC UTRAN neighbor cells are measured only when the signal strength of the GSM serving cell is below the threshold set by QSI and QSC . UTRAN neighbor cells are always measured. UTRAN neighbor cells are never measured. This can be used to turn off the cell reselection/handover to UMTS, per cell, even if COEXUMTS is ON for the BSC.

Value

10

14

15

dBm

-98

-94

-74

Always

-78

-74

-70

-54

Never

If RLA_C < -94 UE starts 3G measurements

UE always measures 3G cells

If RLA_C > -70 UE starts 3G measurements

UE never measures 3G cells

Cell Reselection 2G part


Example 1: If an UTRAN cell should serve purely to extend the coverage for MultiRAT MSs in GSM, it is logical to set QSI /QSC values from 0-6, since it's only needed to make cell reselection and handovers to UMTS when the GSM coverage falls low.

Cell Reselection 2G part


Example 2: If an UTRAN cell is co-sited with a GSM cell, there is a certain correlation between signal strengths of the two systems. If the GSM is for example using 900MHz band it is very probable that the GSM signal strength will always be higher than the UTRAN signal, for a number of dBs. Therefore, there is no point in measuring UTRAN cells in low GSM signal conditions and values 8-14 can be selected accordingly.

Cell Reselection 2G part


Criteria : CPICH Ec/No > FDDQMIN (-13dB) and CPICH RSCP > RLA(s+n) + FDDQOFF (-infinite) FDDQMIN
Value dBm 0 -20 1 -6 2 -18 3 -8 4 -16 5 -10 6 -14 7 -12

FDDQOFF
Value
dBm

0
-32 (infinity)

1
-28

2
-24

3
-20

8
0

14
24

15
28

Always select irrespective of RSCP value

Reselect in case RSCP > GSM RXLev (RLA_C) +28dB

Cell Reselection 2G part


Cell Reselection List
BCCH: FDDQMIN, FDDQOFF

DEFAULT: fdd cell reselect offset: select always (value is -infinity) minimum fdd threshold = -8 dB

QSI = 7(always)
Check levels every 5s from serving GSM cell and best 6 GSM neighbour cells

UE starts WCDMA measurements if Rxlev running average (RLA_C) is below or above certain threshold: RLA_C QSI or QSC

FDDQOFF = -32 dB
05.08:This may take up to 30s

Compare levels of all GSM cells to WCDMA neighbour

UE can select WCDMA cell if the level of the serving GSM and non-serving GSM cells has been exceeded by certain offset for a period of 5 s: CPICH RSCP > RLA_C + FDDQOFF RSCP > (aveRxLev) + -32

Check quality of neighbour WCDMA cells, no priorities between WCDMA neighbours

FDDQMIN = -8 dB
UE will re-select WCDMA cell in case it's quality is acceptable: CPICH Ec/No FDDQMIN EcNo -8 dB

WCDMA cell reselectio n

Idle Mode Parameter Summary


Cell Selection and Reselection

accessClassNBarred

Indicates whether or not access class N is barred ( N = 0 to 15). 0 : not barred 1 : barred Start from least significatant bit: bit 0 : class 0 bit 1 : class 1 bit 2 : class 2 ....... bit 15 : class 15 Indicates the frequency band of the external GSM cell. The BCCH frequency is unique for all GSM bands except the two GSM bands DCS1800 and PCS1900, so the band indicator is needed to discriminate between the two. When the ExternalGsmCell has a BCCH frequency indicating some other frequency band, then the band indicator is not needed and may be set to "Not applicable".

bandIndicator

bcchFrequency cellReserved fachMeasOccaCycLenCoeff

BCCH frequency code in the GSM cell. Contains the absolute radio frequency channel number of the BCCH channel for the GSM cell. It uniquely identifies the BCCH. Indicates if this cell shall be reserved for operator use. If it is reserved, there will be no service to the UEs. Fach Measurement Occasion Cycle Length coefficient. A factor used when the UE performs inter-frequency and inter-system measurements. The UE uses this parameter to calculate the interval length in order to determine the repeating cycle of the measurement. 0 : not broadcasted in SIB 11. 1 : not used. 2 : not used. 3 : used when inter frequency and GSM neighbours. 4 : used when inter freqency or GSM neighbours. 5 - 12 not used.

interFreqFddMeasIndicator

Inter-frequency FDD measurement indicator. FALSE = No TRUE = Yes

Idle Mode Parameter Summary


maxTxPowerUl
The maximum UE transmission power on the RACH when accessing the system. Used in UE functions for cell selection/reselection in idle mode and connected mode. Also used by UTRAN to control the maximum TX power level an UE may use. If the current UE uplink transmit power is above the indicated power value, the UE shall decrease the power to a level below the power value. Value launched by System information (SIB11) for each intrafrequency measurement object corresponding to adjacent cells of serving cell. Unit: 1 dBm Resolution: 1 -50: -50 dBm ... 33: 33 dBm 100 : Default value. The parameter is not sent in SIB11 and the UE will use the maximum output power for this GSM cell, according to its radio access capability.

maxTxPowerUl (serving cell, WCDMA neighbor within same RNC) maxTxPowerUl (WCDMA neighbor belonging to another RNC) maxTxPowerUl (GSM neighbor) mcc The MCC part of the PLMN identity used in the GSM radio network.
The PLMN identity consists of two parts: 1. MobileCountryCode, MCC, 3 digits 2. MobileNetworkCode, MNC, 2 or 3 digits Example: If MCC=125 and MNC=46 then plmnId=12546.

mnc

The MNC part of the PLMN identity used in the radio network. The PLMN identity consists of two parts: 1. MobileCountryCode, MCC, 3 digits 2. MobileNetworkCode, MNC, 2 or 3 digits Example: If MCC=125 and MNC=46 then plmnId=12546.

nmo primaryScramblingCode

Network operation mode that indicates whether the Gs interface between the SGSN and MSC/VLR is installed. The primary downlink scrambling code to be used in the external cell.

Idle Mode Parameter Summary


qHyst1
Cell reselection hysteresis used in UE functions in idle and connected mode. Value launched by System information (SIB3). Resolution: 2

qHyst2

The hysteresis value of the serving cell. Used to perform cell ranking for the serving cell. Resolution: 2

qOffset1sn

Signal stength offset between source and target cells. Used when the IE "cell_selection_and_reselection_quality_measure" in SIB 11/12 is set to "CPICH RSCP". This is configured through UtranCell::qualMeasQuantity. Unit: 1 dB Resolution: 1 -50 : -50dB -49 : -49dB -48 : -48dB ...... 50 : 50dB

qOffset1sn (WCDMA neighbor relation) qOffset1sn (GSM neighbor relation) qOffset2sn (WCDMA neighbor relation) qQualMin

Used in UE functions for cell selection/reselection in idle mode and connected mode. Minimum required (acceptable) quality level in the cell (dB). Used to set cell border between two cells. Unit: 1 dB Resolution: 1 -24 : -24dB ...... 0 : 0dB 100 : Indicates that the minimum quality level has not been specified by the operator. The parameter is then not present in SIB11 for this neighbour. The UE will use the serving cell value (UtranCell MO value) instead.

qQualMin (serving cell, WCDMA neighbor within same RNC) qQualMin (WCDMA neighbor belonging to another RNC)

Idle Mode Parameter Summary


qRxLevMin
Used in UE functions for cell selection/reselection in idle mode and connected mode. Minimum required (acceptable) RX level in the cell. (dBm). Value launched by System information (SIB11) for each intrafrequency measurement object corresponding to adjacent cells of serving cell. Unit: 1 dBm Resolution: 2 -115 : -115dBm -113 : -113dBm -111 : -111dBm -109 : -109dBm ..... -25 : -25 dBm 100 : Indicates that the minimum Rx level has not been specified by the operator. The parameter is then not present in SIB11 for this neighbour. The UE will use the serving cell value (UtranCell MO value) instead.

qRxLevMin (serving cell, WCDMA neighbor belonging to same RNC) qRxLevMin (WCDMA neighbor belonging to another RNC) qRxLevMin (GSM neighbor) Used in UE functions for cell selection/reselection in idle and qualMeasQuantity
connected mode. Cell selection and reselection quality measure. Value launched by System information (SIB3, SIB11 and SIB12).

sHcsRat

RAT specific threshold in the serving cell used in the inter-RAT measurement rules. This parameter is used by the UE to decide when to start GSM measurements for cell reselection, if the serving cell is indicated to belong to a Hiearachical Cell Structure (HCS) GSM measurements in idle mode and state CELL_FACH are started by the UE when RSCP <= qRxLevMin + sHscRat. If sHcsRat is set to a negative value, this will be interpreted as 0 by the UE (according to 3GPP TS 25.331). Unit: 1 dB Resolution: 2

Idle Mode Parameter Summary


sInterSearch
The decision on when measurements on inter frequencies shall be performed. If a negative dB value is configured the UE interprets the negative value as 0 dB. Unit: 2 dB Resolution: 1 0 : not sent 1 : -32 dB 2 : -30 dB ... 27 : 20 dB

sIntraSearch

The decision on when measurements on intra frequencies shall be performed. If a negative dB value is configured, the UE interprets the negative value as 0 dB. Unit: 2 dB Resolution: 1 0 : not sent 1 : -32 dB 2 : -30 dB ... 27 : 20 dB

sRatSearch
The decision on when measurements on GSM frequencies shall be performed is made using this parameter in relation with Squal. If S_qual > this parameter, UE need not perform measurements on GSM cells. If S_qual <= this paramter, UE shall perform measurment on GSM cells. If a negative value is configured the UE interprets the negative value as 0. Unit: 1dB Resolution: 2 -32 : -32dB -30 : -30dB ......

Idle Mode Parameter Summary


treSelection
Control of cell selection/reselection. Time-to-trigger for cell reselection in seconds. Value launched by System information (SIB3).

uarfcnDl

Downlink Utra Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. Specifies the channel number for the central DL frequency. The mapping from channel number to physical frequency is described in 3GPP specification TS 25.104. Unit: Channel number Resolution: N/A

uarfcnUl

Uplink Utra Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. Specifies the channel number for the central UL frequency. The mapping from channel number to physical frequency is described in 3GPP specification TS 25.104. Unit: Channel number Resolution: N/A

Idle Mode Parameter Summary


Location and Routing Area Updating

att

Indicates to the UE whether IMSI attach/detach is allowed. (Some IMSIs are not allowed in some LAs.) This helps to facilitate the avoidance of unnecessary paging attempts. The value is sent on the BCCH. FALSE: IMSI attach not allowed TRUE: IMSI attach allowed

lAC

The Location Area Code of the external GSM cell. Note: the values 0000 and FFFE are reserved for special cases where no valid LAI exists in the MS. Old name: lAC

rAC

Routing Area Code of a routing area. An RA is used by UTRAN to page mobiles on request from the PS CN. When the parameter is changed, UTRAN shall update system information and notity UEs. Old name: rAC

t3212

Periodic update timer for LA update. Unit: 0.1 hours (= 1 decihour = 6 minutes = 360 seconds) Resolution: 1 0 means infinite time, i.e. not

Idle Mode Parameter Summary


Paging

cnDrxCycleLengthCs

Core Network DRX cycle length coefficient (k) for UEs in idle mode, circuit switched. The cycle length is calculated as the k'th potential of 2, where k = 6..9. For example, 6 corresponds to cycle length 640 ms, 7 corresponds to cycle length 1280 ms, etc.

cnDrxCycleLengthPs

Core Network DRX cycle length coefficient (k) for UEs in idle mode, packet switched. The cycle length is calculated as the k'th potential of 2, where k = 6..9. For example, 6 corresponds to cycle length 640 ms, 7 corresponds to cycle length 1280 ms, etc.

noOfMaxDrxCycles

Paging notification duration. To notify UEs in IDLE mode about a system information update, the RNC sends a paging message on the PCH at every page occasion of a number of maximum DRX cycles.

noOfPagingRecordTransm
System Information

Number of preconfigured subsequent transmissions of the same Paging Record. Number of MIB value tag retransmissions on the FACH. The area identity part of PLMN scope value tages for SIB1

noOfMibValueTagRetrans sib1PlmnScopeValueTag sib1RepPeriod sib3RepPeriod sib5RepPeriod sib7RepPeriod sib11RepPeriod sib12RepPeriod sib1StartPos sib3StartPos sib5StartPos sib7StartPos sib11StartPos sib12StartPos sib7ExpirationTimeFactor updateCellReattsNo

SIB7 use expiration time as re-read mechanism. The expiration time is sib7RepPeriod times sib7ExpirationTimeFactor. Number of update reattempts when an update of system information parameters in a cell failed.

Idle Mode Behaviour

UE States

Idle mode No connection to radio network (No RRC connection established) This minimizes resource utilization in UE and the network CELL_FACH mode User Equipment (UE) in Connected Mode (has an RRC Connection to radio network) UE uses the common transport channels RACH or FACH If the parameter interFreqFDDMeasIndicator = 1, the UE will evaluate cell reselection criteria on inter-frequency cells (0) CELL_DCH mode User Equipment (UE) in Connected Mode (has an RRC Connection to radio network) UE uses dedicated channels for transmitting data and signalling

Power

Pilot Channel Power


primary CPICH power should be 8 to 10% (~ 1 Watt) of the nominal RBS power at the reference point (~10W, while MCPA is 20W) The pilot power is designed to be equal in all cells at the Reference Point. primaryCpichPower = 30 dBm TopOfRack = primaryCpichPower + dlAttenuation System will adjust the TopOfRack to meet the required value. Consistency check on MaximumTransmissionPowerDL (Calculated vs. setting value) The feeder loss parameters ulAttenuation & dlAttenuation and electrical delay parameters ulElectricalDelay & dlElectricalDelay must be entered properly in the system (actual VSWR). More CPICH less capacity trade off

P-CPICH

dl/ulAttenuation dl/ElectDelay

TopOfRack MaxTxPowerDL

Common Control Channel Power


With increasing CPICH power capacity directly decreasis, but common channels and power per each dedicated channel is calculated from CPICH At CPICH 30 dBm, the common channel will be configured as follow:

Parameter Name primaryCpichPower pchPower primarySchPower secondarySchPower maxFach1Power maxFach2Power bchPower aichPower pichPower

MO Type UtranCell Pch UtranCell UtranCell Fach Fach UtranCell Rach Pch

Value
-0.4 -1.8 -3.5 1.8 1.5 -3.1 -6 -7

Cumm(dBm)
30 29.6 28.2 26.5 31.8 31.5 26.9 24 23 38.38

Peak Power(W)
1 0.91 0.66 0.45 1.51 1.41 0.49 0.25 0.20 6.89

Typical AF
1 0.20 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.30 0.90 0.10 1.00

Avg Power(W)
1 0.18 0.07 0.04 0.15 0.42 0.44 0.03 0.20 2.53

MaximumTransmissionPowerDL is design to be equal with Nominal RBS Power

Common Channel on Downlink


Cell Setup and Reconfiguration - Downlink is the power used for transmitting the PCPICH. is the power used for transmitting on the BCH, relative to the primaryCpichPower value. is the power used for transmitting on the Primary SCH, relative to the primaryCpichPower value. is the power used for transmitting on the Secondary SCH, relative to the primaryCpichPower value. Common Transport Channel Setup and Reconfiguration - Downlink aichPower is the power used for transmitting on AICH, relative to the primaryCpichPower value. maxFach1Power defines the maximum power used for transmitting the first FACH channel, relative to the primaryCpichPower value. The first FACH is used for logical channels BCCH, CCCH, and DCCH control signaling. maxFach2Power defines the Maximum power used for transmitting the second FACH channel, relative to the primaryCpichPower value. The second FACH is used for logical channel DTCH traffic signaling. pOffset1Fach is the offset between downlink DPDCH and DPCCH TFCI field on FACH. pOffset3Fach is the offset between downlink DPDCH and DPCCH pilot field on FACH. pchPower is the power used for transmitting on the PCH, relative to the primaryCpichPower value. pichPower is the power used for transmitting on the PICH, relative to the primaryCpichPower value.

primaryCpichPower bchPower primarySchPower secondarySchPower

Common Channel on Uplink


Common Transport Channel Setup and Reconfiguration - Uplink is a constant value in dB used by the UE to calculate the initial power on the PRACH according to the Open Loop Power Control procedure. powerOffsetP0 is the Power ramp step for the preamble when no acquisition indicator is received. powerOffsetPpm is the Power offset between the last transmitted preamble and the control part of the random access message. preambleRetransMax is the maximum number of preambles sent in one RACH preamble ramping cycle. maxPreambleCycle is the maximum number of preamble ramping cycle.

constantValueCprach

Common Channel on Uplink


P_RACH
The initial power on the PRACH - the power of the first preamble - is determined according to equation

P_PRACH = L_PCPICH + RTWP + constantValueCprach (-27dB)

L_PCPICH RTWP

: is the path loss estimated by the UE based on knowing the transmitted and received PCPICH power. : is the Received Total Wideband Power (uplink interference) level measured by the RBS.

constantValueCprach

: is used by the UE to calculate the initial power on the PRACH . This parameter is configurable and decides at which level below RTWP preamble ramping will start

Common Channel on Uplink


POWER RAMP ON RACH
To reach an appropriate received power level at the RBS, the UE uses preamble ramping. This procedure consists of the following steps: The UE transmits a preamble. As soon as the RBS properly detects the preamble, it sends an Acknowledgement Indicator (AI) on the AICH. While not receiving any AI, the UE transmits a new preamble, increasing the transmission power with respect to the previous one by the configurable parameter powerOffsetP0.(3dB) As soon as the UE receives an AI, it sends the PRACH message part. The power of the control part of the random access message is determined by the power of the last transmitted preamble and by a configurable offset powerOffsetPpm.(- 4dB) The power of the data part of the PRACH message is determined by the gain factors for PRACH, which is included in System Information.

Common Channel on Uplink


POWER RAMP ON RACH

preambleRetransMax (8) parameter determines how many times PRACH preamble can be sent within one preamble ramping cycle (SIB5&6) maxPreambleCycle (4) defines how many times the PRACH preamble ramping cycle procedure can be repeated before UE MAC reports a failure on RACH transmission to higher layers (SIB5&6)

Common Channel on Uplink


In average coverage conditions the RRC Connection Setup performance can be improved by tuning the open loop power control parameters These parameters are preambleRetransMax and & maxPreambleCycle powerOffsetPpm powerOffsetP0

L1 ACK / AICH Downlink Not detected BS


MaxTXPowerUl powerOffsetP0
Initial preamble power

Preamble

powerOffsetPpm

Uplink Preamble MS Preamble 2 1

preambleRetransMax

Message part

# PRACH preambles transmitted during one PRACH cycle without receiving AICH response

maxPreambleCycle
# preamble power ramping cycles that can be done before RACH transmission failure is reported

Handover

Soft/Softer Handover Inter-Frequency Handover Inter-RAT Handover Inter-RAT Cell Change HSDPA Mobility

Intra-Frequency Handover SOFTER HANDOVER MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (handled by same BTS) No extra transmissions across Iub interface Mobile Evaluated HandOver (MEHO) Both UL and DL: Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) is occurring in rake receiver SOFT HANDOVER MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (from different BTSs) Extra transmission across Iub, more channel cards are needed Mobile Evaluated HandOver (MEHO) DL/UE: MRC UL/RNC: Frame selection combining HARD HANDOVER Arises when inter-RNC SHO is not possible (Iur not supported or Iur congestion) Decision procedure is the same as SHO (MEHO) Causes temporary disconnection Inter-Frequency Handover Can be intra-BS, intra-RNC, inter-RNC Network Evaluated HandOver (NEHO) Inter-RAT (Inter-system) Handover Handovers between GSM and WCDMA (NEHO)

Entities Involved in Reporting, Evaluation, and Execution of Handover-Related Functions.

Entities Involved in Reporting, Evaluation, and Execution of Handover-Related Functions. The concept of event-triggered reporting as specified in 3GPP is used by handover evaluation and allows the UE to do some part of the evaluation. Thus, the UE is configured to evaluate and send measurement reports to the system only when certain events occur, that is, when a monitored cell is measured and the measurement result for a monitored cell fulfills certain criteria. When the conditions for triggering a certain handover are fulfilled, the handover evaluation part triggers the corresponding handover execution part.

3GPP-defined UE Associated Cell sets for Measurement

Active Set The cells involved in soft handover and measured by the UE Virtual Active Set The Active Set associated with a non-used frequency for support of Inter-Frequency evaluation Monitored Set The cells only measured by the UE and not part of the Active Set. The monitored set can consist of intra-frequency, Inter-Frequency and Inter-RAT cells Detected Set The intra frequency cells(P-CPICH scrambling codes) detected by the UE but not part of Active Set or monitored set

Soft/Softer Handover
Event 1a, A primary CPICH enters the Reporting Range
(measured P-CPICH Ec/No) > (P-CPICH Ec/No of the Best Cell in the Active Set) reportingRange1a + hysteresis1a /2
When a P-CPICH, not included in the Active Set, enters reportingRange1a + hysteresis1a/2, and the measured value remains in reportingRange1a + hysteresis1a/2 at least a time equal to timeToTrigger1a (Time to Trigger 1a), event 1a occurs. The UE sends a MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 1a to the SRNC. If the report contains more than one cell fulfilling 1a criteria, only the one with highest Ec/No is considered and retained. If the retained cell is a valid cell and Active Set is not full (present cells in the Active Set is less than maxActiveSet parameter), the cell is proposed to be added to the Active Set. If the Active Set is full, the cell is proposed as a replacement of the worst cell in the Active Set provided that the reported cell has a better quality than the worst cell in the Active Set.

Event 1b, A primary CPICH leaves the Reporting Range


(measured P-CPICH Ec/No) < (P-CPICH Ec/No of the best cell in the Active Set) reportingRange1b - hysteresis1b /2
When a P-CPICH, included in the Active Set, leaves reportingRange1b - hysteresis1b /2, and the measured value is outside reportingRange1b - hysteresis1b /2 during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger1b, event 1b occurs. The UE sends a MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 1b to the SRNC. The handover algorithms will remove the reported cells one by one from the Active Set, however one cell is always kept in the Active Set for maintaining the connection.

Soft/Softer Handover
Event 1a and Event 1b

3dB

5dB

320 ms

640 ms

Cell (P_CPICH2) Would be proposed to be included in Active Set List

Cell (P_CPICH2) Would be proposed to be excluded from Active Set List

Soft/Softer Handover
Event 1c, A non-active primary CPICH becomes better than an Active Primary CPICH
(measured P-CPICH Ec/No) > (P-CPICH Ec/No of the Best Cell in the Active Set) + hysteresis1c /2
When a P-CPICH, not included in the Active Set, becomes stronger than the weakest P-CPICH+hysteresis1c /2 in the Active Set during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger1c,and the Active Set is full (present cells in the Active Set is equal to maxActiveSet parameter) event 1c occurs. The UE sends a MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 1c to the SRNC. If the retained cell is a valid cell, and the Active Set is full, the cell is proposed as a replacement for the weakest cell in the Active Set

Hysteresis1c (1dB)

Cell (P_CPICH4) Would be replaced P_CPICH3 in active set list

320 ms

Soft/Softer Handover Parameter Summary


Setting Value
reportingRange1a reportingRange1b timeToTrigger1a 6 10 11

Remark
3 dB 5 dB 320ms

timeToTrigger1b
timeToTrigger1c timeToTrigger1d hysteresis1a hysteresis1b hysteresis1c hysteresis1d maxActiveSet

12
11 14 0 0 2 15 3

640ms
320ms 2560ms 0 0 1dB 7dB 3

Inter-RAT Handover
Event 2d, The Estimated Quality of the Currently Used frequency is below a Certain Threshold
When the estimated quality of the current WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the absolute threshold usedFreqThresh2dEcno - hysteresis2d/2, during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger2dEcno, OR the estimated quality of the current WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the absolute threshold usedFreqThresh2dRscp - hysteresis2d/2, during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger2dRscp, event 2d occurs.

Event 2f, The estimated quality of the currently used frequency is above a certain threshold
When the estimated quality of the current WCDMA RAN used frequency is above the relative threshold usedFreqRelThresh2fEcno+usedFreqThresh2dEcno + hysteresis2f/2, during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger2fEcno, AND the estimated quality of the current WCDMA RAN used frequency is above the relative threshold usedFreqRelThresh2fRscp+usedFreqThresh2dRscp + hysteresis2f/2, during a time at least equal to timeToTrigger2fRscp event 2f occurs. The UE sends a MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 2f to the SRNC. When SRNC receives the MEASUREMENT REPORT message for event 2f from the UE, measurements for IRATHO_eval event 3a or IFHO_eval event 2b and associated compressed mode usage is stopped.

Inter-RAT Handover
Compressed Mode and de-Compressed Mode
1 + (-12 dB)

UE stop compressed mode

-12 dB

640 ms

2560 ms

UE start compressed mode to measure GSM or Interfreq Neighbors

usedFreqThresh2dRscp : 100 dBm usedFreqRelThresh2fEcno : 3 dB timeToTrigger2dRscp : 640 ms timeToTrigger2fRscp : 2560 ms

Inter-RAT Handover
Event 3a, The Estimated Quality of the Currently Used UTRAN Frequency is below a Certain Threshold and the Estimated Quality of the Other System is above a Certain Threshold
The event 3a occurs according to the following points: When the estimated quality of the WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the threshold usedFreqThresh2dEcno+utranRelThresh3aEcno - hysteresis3a/2 and the measured GSM carrier RSSI of a GSM/GPRS cell is above the absolute threshold gsmThresh3a, during a time at least equal to TimeToTrigger3a when the estimated quality of the WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the threshold usedFreqThresh2dRscp+utranRelThresh3aRscp - hysteresis3a/2 and the measured GSM carrier RSSI of a GSM/GPRS cell is above the absolute threshold gsmThresh3a, during a time at least equal to TimeToTrigger3a in case of the connection quality has been triggered in UL for UE TX power (event 6a, see Event 6a, The UE Tx Power becomes larger than an Absolute Threshold), the event 3a is triggered when the estimated quality of the WCDMA RAN used frequency is below the threshold usedFreqThresh2dRscp+utranRelThresh3aRscp+utranRelThreshRscp - hysteresis3a/2 and the measured GSM carrier RSSI of a GSM/GPRS cell is above the absolute threshold gsmThresh3a , during a time at least equal to TimeToTrigger3a.

Inter-RAT Handover

(-12 dB) + (-1dB)

RSSI -95dB

320 ms usedFreqThresh2dRscp : 100 dBm utranRelThresh3aRscp : - 3 dB

IFHO & IRAT Parameter Summary

Capacity Management

Capacity Management
The Capacity Management solution consists of three main functions: 1. Dedicated Monitored Resource Handling The Dedicated Monitored Resource Handling function is responsible for keeping track of the utilization of critical resources in the system. The utilization of these resources provides information that is used by Admission and Congestion Control functions to control the cell load. 2. Admission Control The Admission Control function is responsible for controlling the utilization of dedicated monitored resources by accepting or refusing requests for usage of these resources. 3. Congestion Control The Congestion Control function is responsible for detecting and resolving overload situations on certain dedicated monitored resources.

Downlink Channelization Code Admission Policy


Total Downlink Channelization code usage are calculated as follow : Sum user (1/SFuser) + Sum CCH (1/SFCCH)+Sum code(1/SFcode HS-DSCH ) Where:

(5%)

(80%)

Downlink Channelization Code Admission Policy


To reserve codes for users in handover, there is code blocking for non-handover requests, while requests for handover are not blocked by the downlink channelization code admission policy. It should be noted that handover requests can fail on the allocation of the downlink code and this is detected when allocating the downlink code.

Downlink code allocation policy for the non-handover requests is shown in 1.(Non-guaranteed, non-handover) admission requests are blocked when the resource usage exceeds dlCodeAdm - beMarginDlCode.
2. (Guaranteed, non-handover) and (guaranteed-hs, non-handover) admission requests are blocked when the resource usage exceeds dlCodeAdm.

Histogram Admission Policy


The Histogram Monitor keeps track of the following resources: Spreading Factor usage in downlink. It adds information about downlink channelization code usage. This is achieved by keeping track of the number of connections that are using certain code lengths. The histogram monitor gives information per spreading factor. It should be noted that the monitor does not count the codes (spreading factor = 16) reserved for HSDPA connections. Spreading Factor usage in uplink. This measurement aims at avoiding overload of uplink RTWP due to the usage of the (optional) PS384/HS radio connection type. The histogram monitor gives information per spreading factor. Number of Compressed Mode radio links. This measurement is used to avoid too much interference from the compressed mode radio users. Number of HSDPA users allocated to the HS-DSCH. This measurement provides the HSDPA usage in a cell. The monitor of this dedicated resource is obtained by tracking the number HS-serving radio links in a cell. This includes both PS64/HS and PS384/HS radio connection types.

Histogram Admission Policy


1. Non-Guaranteed Service Class Limits in Downlink

(32) (16) (8)

Histogram Admission Policy


2. Guaranteed Service Class Limits in Downlink Admission Control blocks (guaranteed, <any>) admission requests demanding spreading factor 16 in downlink (streaming PS16/128 radio connection type) when the usage of this spreading factor exceeds sf16gAdm (16). 3. Guaranteed-hs Service Class Limits in Uplink Admission Control blocks (guaranteed-hs, <any>a) admission requests demanding spreading factor 4 in uplink (PS384/HS radio connection type) when the usage of this spreading factor exceeds sf4AdmUl (0). 4. Compressed Mode Radio Links Limits Admission Control blocks admission requests for a radio link in compressed mode when the current number of radio links exceeds the parameter compModeAdm (15). 5. Number of Simultaneous HS-Serving Links Limits Admission Control blocks new radio link admission requests which involve the allocation to HS-PDSCH/HS-SCCH when the number of users assigned to the HSDSCH in the cell exceeds hsdpaUsersAdm (10).

The Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power Admission Policy

(10%)

(10%)

(75%)

WCDMA to GPRS (PS)


Gi

GGSN
Gn

External Networks

Gn

3G-SGSN Iu

2G-SGSN Gb

SRNC Iub

BSC Abis

RBS RBS

RBS

RBS RBS

RBS

A successful IRATCC from WCDMA to GPRS


SRNC CN/SGSN Target BSS

CELL_DCH
1. DCCH (AM) Measurement Report (Event 2d) 2. Evaluation of MR 3. Compressed Mode Control 4. DCCH (AM) Measurement Control

5. DCCH (AM) Measurement Report (Event 3a)


6. Evaluation of MR 7. DCCH (AM):CELL_DCH Cell Change Order from UTRAN 8. GSM: RA Update 9. SRNS Context Request 10. Stop DL Transmission 11. SRNS Context Response

12. Iu Release Command


13. Dedicated Radio Link Release 14. Iu Release Complete

GSM to WCDMA (voice) : Measurements on WCDMA Cells


Four different scenarios:

WCDMA RAN neighbor cells are measured only when the signal strength of the GSM serving cell is above the threshold set by QSI and QSC. WCDMA RAN neighbor cells are measured only when the signal strength of the GSM serving cell is below the threshold set by QSI and QSC. WCDMA RAN neighbor cells are always measured. WCDMA RAN neighbor cells are never measured. This can be used to turn off the cell reselection/handover to WCDMA, per cell, even if COEXUMTS (parameter used to activate the functionality of making handovers and cell reselections between GSM and WCDMA) is on for the BSC.

Load sharing

Load sharing
Load sharing to 2nd carrier at RRC establishment Least loaded cell (Highest difference between power and pwradm) is chosen by sending RRC connection reject with redirection info to 2nd carrier.

Directed Retry to GSM at RAB establishment


When Dl power reaches loadSharingGsmThreshold percentage of pwradm, calls are targeted to be offloaded to GSM. This is achieved by rejecting RAB establishment requests with directed retry as a cause.

Load sharing capabilities available in the WCDMA RAN

Inter-Frequency Load Sharing

Inter-Frequency Load Sharing


At

* Not operator configurable

call set-up - RRC Connection Establishment for all RABs

by Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power* (load on source > 50% and load on target less than source by a 10 % margin) The feature is activated in an RNC by setting the parameter loadSharingRrcEnabled to TRUE f2 f2 The attribute loadSharingCandidate TRUE/FALSE specifies whether the target cell is a load-sharing neighbor of the source cell
Triggered

f1

f1

f1

f1

Inter-Frequency Load Sharing (RRC redirection) (Extra Slide)


RNC Idle Mode RRC Connection Request CCCH/RACH F1 RRC Connection Reject CCCH/FACH Cell selection on designated UTRA carrier RRC Connection Request CCCH/RACH

Includes Frequency Info IE

F2

RRC Connection Setup CCCH/FACH

2nd will not be redirected but may be successful or rejected due to congestion

Directed retry to GSM


Applicable for voice in P3
GSM

Admission Control

WCDMA

Directed retry to GSM

Directed retry to GSM At call set-up - RAB Establishment for voice Triggered by Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power

The feature is activated in an RNC by setting the parameter loadSharingDirRetryEnabled to TRUE One GSM target can be defined for each WCDMA cell via the cell parameter directedRetryTarget loadSharingGsmThreshold specifies the minimum load at which offloading to GSM begins: ex 80% of pwrAdm loadSharingGsmFraction specifies the percentage of Directed Retry candidates to be diverted to GSM while the cell load is above the specified load threshold

Directed Retry to GSM


UE RBS/RNC
RAB Assignment Request
Directed Retry decision to send

CN

RAB Assignment Response (failed, cause=directed retry) Relocation Required


Contacts GSM cell and orders relocation

HO from UTRAN command


Successful access to GSM

Relocation Command

Iu release Command Iu release Complete

Voice calls can be relocated to GSM due to high load in WCDMA If the call is not accepted in GSM - try in WCDMA again!

Load balancing for voice between WCDMA-GSM


When out of coverage, the WCDMA voice call is handed over to GSM WCDMA coverage

Features & Roadmap Introduction

When GSM load reaches a customizable threshold, voice calls can be handed over to WCDMA

Dual Mode UE

GSM terminal

GSM coverage Load based handover to GSM during call set up, Directed Retry (P3) to GSM

Channel Switching

Channel Switching

Channel Switching Parameter Summary

Channel Switching

1. Common to Dedicated Evaluation


Monitors if the UE shall be switched from a common to a dedicated transport channel due to large amount of user data buffered in the RNC or the UE.

2. Dedicated to Dedicated Up-Switch Evaluation


Monitors if the throughput becomes close to the max user bandwidth and switch to the next higher bitrate radio bearer is required.

2a. Dedicated to Dedicated Coverage triggered Down-Switch Evaluation


Monitors if a switch to a lower rate radio bearer is required due to coverage.

3. Dedicated to Common Evaluation


Monitors if a switch from a Cell_DCH to Cell_FACH is required due to a decrease in transmitted user data.

4. Common to Idle Evaluation


Monitors if a switch from Cell_FACH to Idle mode is required due to a complete lack of user data transmission.

Channel Switching

Multi-RAB Down-switch Evaluation


Monitors if a release (or downswitch) of PS I/B RAB shall be initiated due to lack of PS data throughput (zero), resulting in a single speech 12.2 kbps (or speech + PS 0/0) or CS64 RAB.

Multi-RAB Up-switch Evaluation


Monitors if an upswitch from multi-RAB SP0 to multi-RAB SP64 shall be initiated due to data buffered in either RNC or UE.

Channel Switching

Futureinteractive RAB releases stand-alone


HS
384/HS

speech + interactive RAB


speech + 384/HS

DCH
128/128

64/384 speech + 64/HS 64/HS speech + 64/64

64/128

64/64

speech + 0/0

Low/No throughput Measurement for down Switch timer period


FACH

PS RAB Establishment activity/inactivity-based switching UL and/or DL

UL throughputbased upswitch coverage-triggered downswitch (DL only) choice based on UEand cell-capability

Low/No RLC buffer load for Inactivity timer period

IDLE

DL throughputbased upswitch

Capacity Management

Admission control workflow


* Current default values
Yes, then block

Resource request

Is admission blocked by Congestion Control?

Yes, then block

No, then accept

No
Check if the requested DL Pwr + estimated Pwr > pwrAdm

Check if the requested + estimated # compressed mode RL > compModeAdm

15*

75*

Yes, then block

No Yes, then block


Check if the requested code usage + estimated code usage > dLCodeAdm

No
Check if the requested ASE UL + estimated ASE UL > aseUlAdm

70*

Yes, then SF8adm= 8* block SF16adm= 16* SF32adm= 32*

Only checked if No BE-service requests Check if the requested Check if the requested DL SF + estimated DL SF ASE DL + estimated DL ASE > > No sfXAdm * aseDlAdm

No

160*
Yes, then block

Yes, then block

X = 8 or X = 32 X = 16

240*

Soft Congestion mechanism


New request for ng 64/128, ng 64/64 or g access

Admission Control blocks the new request

An existing ng user of 64/384 will be switched down to 64/128 or an existing ng user of 64/128 will be switched down to 64/64

Spreading Factor (SF) limits used in Admission Control

8*

16* 32*

* Current default values

ASE release order


Core Network Iu Iu SRNC & DRNC

SRNC
Iur

over Iu: 1. Non-guaranteed service class connections 2.

over Iur: Non-guaranteed service class connections

3.

CS/streaming service class connections Speech users

4.

CS /streaming service class connections


Speech users

5.

6.

HSDPA

HSDPA Parameter Summary


Parameter Name Default Value Initial Setting TELKOMSEL

HSPATHLOSSTHRESHOLD CQIERRORSABSENT HSPOWERMARGIN HSSCCHMAXCODEPOWER QUEUESELECTALGORITHM SUPPORTOF16QAM MAXHSRATE HSONLYBESTCELL HSHYSTERESIS1D HSQUALITYESTIMATE
HSTIMETOTRIGGER1D

170 10 2 -20 ROUND_ROBIN FALSE 15 1 10 CPICH_RSCP


640

170 10 2 -20 ROUND_ROBIN TRUE 30 1 10 CPICH_RSCP


640

MAXHSRATE

The HSDPA Iub flow control algorithm adjusts the available bit rate over Iub based mainly on the maximum possible air interface bitrate received from the scheduler, the number of users in a cell and Iub congestion indications. The RBS uses the parameter maxHsRate to determine the maximum bit rate to be used for HS-DSCH data frame traffic in one aggregated bit pipe over Iub. The parameter maxHsRate should be configured for each RBS to represent the maximum MAC-d PDU bitrate of HS-DSCH data frames, which is available for the AAL2 path or paths carrying HSDPA traffic to the RBS in question. The parameter may be set to a MAC-d PDU bit rate of 1.5 Mbps (the default value), when one dedicated physical E1 link is used for HSDPA traffic. This maximum bitrate level is the same as the bitrate expressed by the CAPACITY ALLOCATION control frames. As an example, the default value of this parameter has been obtained by multiplying the HSDPA available ATM bandwidth (excluding IMA overhead), e.g. 1.92 Mbps, with a factor of 0.79. This factor is dependent on the average number of MAC-d PDUs per HS-DSCH data frame. In this case, it is based on having 10 MAC-d PDUs (336 bits) per HS-DSCH data frame in average. It should be noted that assuming a lower number of PDUs per data frame gives a lower factor and vice versa. The parameter value of maxHsRate also depends on how the transport network is configured, e.g. if ATM VC Cross Connect is used or if AAL2 switching is used. It depends on how the ATM VCs etc are configured, e.g. for HS traffic only, sharing with AAL2 class A and B, several AAL2 paths for HS etc. Therefore it is recommended to follow the guidelines given by Ericsson regarding transport network dimensioning before setting a value for this parameter.

16QAM Modulation

The RBS hardware supports both QPSK and 16QAM modulation. However, support of 16QAM is an optional feature which can be configured on cell level using the parameter supportOf16qam. The available modulation type impacts the maximum achievable bit rate in the cell,

Maximum Achievable User Bit Rate at the RLC Level As a Function of the UE HS-DSCH Category and Modulation Type