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AUTOMATIC TOLL GATE BILLING SYSTEM USING RFID TECHNOLOGY For the award of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINERRING By


N.VENKATESH (09A41A0442) B.V. RAMANA NAIK (09A41A0408) CH.VENKAIAH (09A41A0411) SK.RAKHIYA (09A41A0454) N.PREM (09A41A0443)

Under the esteemed guidance of

M.LAXMAN NAIK M.Tech


ASST.PROFESSOR

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

LOYOLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT


LOYOLA NAGAR,DHULIPALLA(VIL), SATTENAPALLI(M.D), GUNTUR(D.T)-522412 (Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUK KAKINADA, Accredited by NBA and ISO 9001-2008 certified)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

LOYOLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT DHULIPALLA-522412

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled AUTOMATIC TOLL-GATE

BILLING SYSTEM USING RFID TECHNOLOGY is a bonafied work


done by N.VENKATESH, B.V.RAMANA NAIK, CH.VENKAIAH, SK.RAKHIYA and

N.PREM

with

Registration

Nos:

(09A41A0442),

(09A41A0408),

(09A41A0411), (09A41A0454) & (09A41A0443)

in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in LOYOLA

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT of Jawaharlal Nehru


Technological University kakinada, Kakinada. This work was carried out under our supervision and guidance.

Project Supervisor

Head of the Department

M.LAXMAN NAIK

T.CHANDRASHEKAR RAO

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING LOYOLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
2

DHULIPALLA-522412

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We take this opportunity to thank all those magnanimous persons rendered full service to our work. First and foremost we wish to express our heartful gratitude and convey a sense of indebtedness to guide Mr. M.LAXMAN NAIK, Department of Electronics and Communication for his guidance & kind cooperation throughout the completion of the project. We are indebted to T.CHANDRASHEKAR RAO, Head of Electronics and Communications Department, who has been a source of inspiration and encouragement during project work. He gave us full support by giving an opportunity to utilize the electronics lab. We express our sincere thanks to our respected principal Dr. B.S.B.REDDY,LOYOLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,for providing us the resources for carrying out the project. We also express our sincere thanks to lab technicians of our electronics lab for providing assistance throughout our project

Project associates
N.VENKATESH (09A41A0442), B.V.RAMANA NAIK (09A41A0408), CH.VENKAIAH (09A41A0411), SK.RAKHIYA (09A41A0454), N.PREM (09A41A0443).

AUTOMATIC TOLL GATE BILLING USING RFID TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACT

In present situations the toll gate billing is made by the user with the help of manual billing or computerized billing by entering vehicle Number, vehicle registration number, type of vehicle etc. disadvantages: 1. Time taking process to enter data and giving token printing & money 2. Manipulation possible at toll gate by the operator. 3. Difficult to stop the fast moving vehicles at the tollgate. 4. .More manpower is needed at toll gate Here we have taken the above problems into the consideration and developed automatic billing system for the vehicle, by taking vehicle registration number, engine number charges etc.., as soon as vehicles pass through the gate, through RF technology. So by taking the data automatically, debits the toll gate fee from the bank account and maintains the data base of all vehicles. So we have connected a RF reader module to the pc for reading data from the vehicle. If there is no bank balance or inactive cards the gate will be automatically closed and gives the siren for intimation. The automatic cash receipt is generated in this case. The above project is designed with the popular microcontroller MCS51series 89C52 &RF transponders We have TK5530, to U2270 chips, Due to these there are following

Max232c&ULN2003

motor

driver.

establish

bidirectional

communication with PC. With the help of this implementation we can solve the above four problems. We can track the theft vehicle while passing through the toll gates and registration numbers cannot be modified by the thieves.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO RFID 1.1 ABOUT RFID..8 1.2 RFID WORKING. 9 1.3 RFID TAGS10 1.4 TYPES OF RFID TAGS.....12 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 PASSIVE TAGS...12 ACTIVE TAGS.....13 SEMI PASSIVE TAGS14

1.5 RFID READER...15 1.6 ADVANTAGES OF RFID 16 CHAPTER 2. INTRODUCTION TO AUTO TOLL BILLING 2.1 PRESENT TOLL GATE BILLING SYSTEM.18 2.2 AUTOMATIC TOLL GATE BILLING SYSTEM..19 2.3 ADVANTAGES OVER EXISTING ONE...22 CHAPTER 3. VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION AND BILLING 3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM..23 3.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION...24 3.2.1 TRANSPONDER BLOCK.24 3.2.2 VEHICLE IDENTIFIER........26 3.2.3 MICROCONTROLLER UNIT..25 3.2.4 CONTROLLING BLOCK.27 3.2.5 PC INTERFACE AND POWER SUPPLY...28 3.3 COMPONENTS USED......29 3.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM.....30 3.5 MAIN COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION ...31 3.5.1 MCS51SERIES 89C52 MICRO CONTROLLER...31 3.5.2 TK 5530 IDENTIFICATION TRANSPONDER....38 3.5.3 U2270 IDENTIDFICATION IC..43

3.5.4 ULN 2003 MOTRO DRIVER..44 3.5.5 RS 232 COMMUNICATION INTERFACE...45 3.5.6 VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND OTHERS.46 CHAPTER 4. FABRICATION DETAILS 4.1 FABRICATING STEPS....51 4.2 PCB MAKING AND ITS LAYOUT51 CHAPTER 5. WORKING OF THE PROJECT 5.1 WORKING.55 5.2 BANKING.....55 5.2.1 VEHICLE WITH REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNT HAVING SUFFICIENT MONEY.56 5.2.2 VEHICLE WITH REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNT HAVING NO SUFFICIENT MONEY..56 5.2.3 VEHICLE WITH OUT REGISTRATION OR WITH OUT ID OR NO ACCOUNT..57 RESULT ANALYSIS: 5.2.1 VEHICLE WITH REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNT HAVING SUFFICIENT MONEY..61 5.2.2 VEHICLE WITH REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNT HAVING NO SUFFICIENT MONEY.62 5.3.3 VEHICLE WITH OUT REGISTRATION OR WITH OUT ID OR NO ACCOUNT.63 CHAPTER 6. ADVANTAGES AND FUTURE IMPLEMENTATIONS 6.1 ADVANTAGES...67 6.2 FUTURE IMPLEMENTATIONS68 CONCLUSION. 70

INTRODUCTION TO RFID

1. INTRODUCTION TO RFID
1.1 ABOUT RFID: In 1946 Len Theremin invented an espionage tool for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which slightly altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency. Even though this device was a passive covert listening device, not an identification tag, it has been attributed as a predecessor to RFID technology. The technology used in RFID has been around since the early 1920s according to one source Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. One is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a radiofrequency (RF) signal, and other specialized functions. The second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. Today, RFID is used in enterprise supply chain management to improve the efficiency of inventory tracking and management. RFID can be used in a variety of applications such as Access management, Tracking of goods and RFID in retail, Tracking of persons and animals, Toll collection and contactless payment, Machine readable travel documents, Smart dust (for massively distributed sensor networks),Location-based services. 1.2 RFID WORKING:

Long checkout lines at the grocery store are one of the biggest complaints about the shopping experience. Soon, these lines could disappear when the ubiquitous Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code is replaced by smart labels, also called radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. RFID tags are intelligent bar codes that can talk to a networked system to track every product that you put in your shopping cart. Imagine

going to the grocery store, filling up your cart and walking right out the door. No longer will you have to wait as someone rings up each item in your cart one at a time. Instead, these RFID tags will communicate with an electronic reader that will detect every item in the cart and ring each up almost instantly. The reader will be connected to a large network that will send information on your products to the retailer and product manufacturers. Your bank will then be notified and the amount of the bill will be deducted from your account. No lines, no waiting. RFID tags, a technology once limited to tracking cattle, are tracking consumer products worldwide. Many manufacturers use the tags to track the location of each product they make from the time it's made until it's pulled off the shelf and tossed in a shopping cart. Outside the realm of retail merchandise, RFID tags are tracking vehicles, airline passengers, Alzheimer's patients and pets. Soon, they may even track your preference for chunky or creamy peanut butter. Some critics say RFID technology is becoming too much a part of our lives -- that is, if we're even aware of all the parts of our lives that it affects.

1.3 RFID TAGS: An RFID tag is a microchip combined with an antenna in a compact package; the packaging is structured to allow the RFID tag to be attached to an object to be tracked. "RFID" stands for Radio Frequency Identification. The tag's antenna picks up signals from an RFID reader or scanner and then returns the signal, usually with some additional data (like a unique serial number or other customized information). RFID technology has been around since 1970, but until recently, it has been too expensive to use on a large scale. Originally, RFID tags were used to track large items, like cows, railroad cars and airline luggage that were shipped over long distances, these original tags, called inductively coupled RFID tags, were complex systems of metal coils, antennae and glass.Inductively coupled RFID tags were powered by a magnetic field generated by the RFID reader. Electrical current has an electrical component and a magnetic component -- it is electromagnetic. Because of this, you can create a magnetic field with electricity, and you can create electrical current with

a magnetic field. The name "inductively coupled" comes from this process -- the magnetic field induces a current in the wire Capacitive coupled RFID tags were created next in an attempt to lower the technology's cost. These were meant to be disposable tags that could be applied to less expensive merchandise and made as universal as bar codes. Capacitive coupled tags used conductive carbon ink instead of metal coils to transmit data. The ink was printed on paper labels and scanned by readers. Motorola's BiStatix RFID tags were the frontrunners in this technology. They used a silicon chip that was only 3mm wide and stored 96 bits of information. This technology didn't catch on with retailers, and BiStatix was shut down in 2001.The tag's components are enclosed within plastic, silicon or sometimes glass. At a basic level, each tag works in the same way. The basic working of every tag is as follows: Data stored within an RFID tag's microchip waits to be read. The tag's antenna receives electromagnetic energy from an RFID reader's antenna. Using power from its internal battery or power harvested from the reader's electromagnetic field, the tag sends radio waves back to the reader. The reader picks up the tag's radio waves and interprets the frequencies as meaningful data. A basic RFID tag will be as shown in fig 1.1:

Fig 1.1 Internal circuit of the RFID tag.

1.4 TYPES OF RFID TAGS: Inductively coupled and capacitive coupled RFID tags aren't used as commonly today because they are expensive and bulky.Newer innovations in the RFID industry include active, semi-active, and passive RFID tags. These tags can store up to 2 kilobytes of data and are composed of a microchip, antenna, and, in the case of active and semipassive tags, a battery. 1.4.1 PASSIVE TAGS:

Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply. The minute electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming radio frequency signal provides just enough power for the CMOS integrated circuit in the tag to power up and transmit a response. Most passive tags signal by backscattering the carrier wave from the reader. This means that the antenna has to be designed both to collect power from the incoming signal and also to transmit the outbound backscatter signal. The response of a passive RFID tag is not necessarily just an ID number; the tag chip can contain non-volatile, possibly writable EEPROM for storing data. Passive tags have practical read distances ranging from about 10 cm (4 in.) to a few meters depending on the chosen radio frequency and antenna design/size. Due to their simplicity in design they are also suitable for manufacture with a printing process for the antennas. The lack of an onboard power supply means that the device can be quite small: commercially available products exist that can be embedded in a sticker, or under the skin in the case of low frequency RFID tags. In 2007, the Danish Company developed a passive RFID with privacy enhancing technologies built-in including built-in firewall access controls, communication encryption and a silent mode ensuring that the consumer at point of sales can get exclusive control of the key to control the RFID. The RFID will not respond unless the consumer authorizes it, the consumer can validate presence of a specific RFID without

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leaking identifiers and therefore the consumer can make use of the RFID without being tractable or otherwise leak information that represents a threat to consumer privacy. 1.4.2 ACTIVE TAGS Unlike passive RFID tags, active RFID tags have their own internal power source, which is used to power the integrated circuits and broadcast the signal to the reader. Active tags are typically much more reliable (i.e. fewer errors) than passive tags due to the ability for active tags to conduct a "session" with a reader. Active tags, due to their onboard power supply, also transmit at higher power levels than passive tags, allowing them to be more effective in "RF challenged" environments like water (including humans/cattle, which are mostly water), metal (shipping containers, vehicles), or at longer distances, generating strong responses from weak requests (as opposed to passive tags, which work the other way around). In turn, they are generally bigger and more expensive to manufacture, and their potential shelf life is much shorter. Many active tags today have practical ranges of hundreds of meters, and a battery life of up to 10 years. Some active RFID tags include sensors such as temperature logging which have been used to monitor the temperature of perishable goods like fresh produce or certain pharmaceutical products. Other sensors that have been married with active RFID include humidity, shock/vibration, light, radiation, temperature, and atmospherics like ethylene. Active tags typically have much longer range (approximately 500 m/1500 feet) and larger memories than passive tags, as well as the ability to store additional information sent by the transceiver. The United States Department of Defense has successfully used active tags to reduce logistics costs and improve supply chain visibility for more than 15 years.

1.4.3 SEMI PASSIVE TAGS:

Semi-passive tags are similar to active tags in that they have their own power source, but the battery only powers the microchip and does not broadcast a signal. The

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RF energy is reflected back to the reader like a passive tag. An alternative use for the battery is to store energy from the reader to emit a response in the future, usually by means of backscattering. The battery-assisted receive circuitry of semi-passive tags lead to greater sensitivity than passive tags, typically 100 times more. The enhanced sensitivity can be leveraged as increased range (by a factor 10) and/or as enhanced read reliability (by one standard deviation). The enhanced sensitivity of semi-passive tags place higher demands on the reader, because an already weak signal is backscattered to the reader. For passive tags, the reader-to-tag link usually fails first. For semi-passive tags, the reverse (tag-to-reader) link usually fails. Semi-passive tags have two main advantages namely, Greater sensitivity than passive tags & Better battery life than active tags. 1.5 RFID READER: An RFID reader is a device that is used to interrogate an RFID tag. The reader has an antenna that emits radio waves; the tag responds by sending back its data. A number of factors can affect the distance at which a tag can be read (the read range). The frequency used for identification, the antenna gain, the orientation and polarization of the reader antenna and the transponder antenna, as well as the placement of the tag on the object to be identified will all have an impact on the RFID systems read range. The reader has three main functions: energizing, demodulating and decoding. In addition, readers can be fitted with an additional interface that converts the radio waves returned from the RFID tag into a form that can then be passed on to another system, like a computer or any programmable logic controller. Reader collision occurs in RFID systems when the coverage area of one RFID reader overlaps with that of another reader. This causes two different problems: Signal interference:

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The RF fields of two or more readers may overlap and interfere. This can be solved by having the readers programmed to read at fractionally different times. This technique (called time division multiple accesses - TDMA) can still result in the same tag being read twice. Multiple reads of the same tag

The problem here is that the same tag is read one time by each of the overlapping readers. The only solution is to program the RFID system to make sure that a given tag (with its unique ID number) is read only once in a session.

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1.6 ADVANTAGES OF RFID:

The most significant of all advantages of RFID systems is the non contact, non-line-ofsight nature of the technology. Tags can be read through a variety of substances such as snow, fog, ice, paint, crusted grime, and other visually and environmentally challenging conditions, where barcodes or other optically read technologies would be useless. RFID tags can also be read in challenging circumstances at remarkable speeds, in most cases responding in less than 100 milliseconds. The read/write capability of an active RFID system is also a significant advantage in interactive applications such as work-in-process or maintenance tracking. Though it is a costlier technology (compared with barcode), RFID has become indispensable for a wide range of automated data collection and identification applications that would not be possible otherwise. High end advantages by RFID to be emphasized are Provides high security& Minimizes errors.

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2.INTRODUCTION TO AUTO TOLL BILLING


2.1 PRESENT TOLL BILLING SYSTEM: In present situations the toll gate billing is made manually by entering vehicle Number, vehicle registration number, and type of vehicle on the token that is issued. Due to these the disadvantages are:1.Time taking process to enter data and give the printed token and to receive the toll 2.Manipulation may be done by the operator at toll gate. 3. Difficult to stop the fast moving vehicles at the toll gate.4.More manpower is needed at toll gate. The Fig 2.1&Fig 2.2 represent the situations at present toll gates.

Fig 2.1 Traffic accumulation due to delay in billing

Fig 2.2 More man power and manual billing at the currently existing toll gates. 15

2.2 AUTOMATIC TOLL GATE BILLING SYSTEM (ETC): The disadvantages that are present in the currently existing toll gates are overcomed by employing the process known as Automatic Billing System for Toll gates. Automatic Billing System for Toll gates, an adaptation of military "Identification friend or foe" technology, aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads by collecting tolls electronically. It is thus a technological implementation of a road pricing concept. It determines whether the cars passing are enrolled in the program, alerts enforcers for those that are not, and electronically debits the accounts of registered car owners without requiring them to stop. The main objective of this implementation is to avoid:1.Time delay in toll collection.2.Manipulations by tollbooth operator.3.Man power needed for operating the toll gates. Norway has been the world's pioneer in the widespread implementation of this technology. ETC was first introduced in Bergen, in 1986, operating together with traditional tollbooths. In 1991, Trondheim introduced the world's first use of completely unaided full-speed electronic tolling. Norway now has 25 toll roads operating with electronic fee collection (EFC), as the Norwegian technology is called (see Auto PASS). In 1995, Portugal became the first country to apply a single, universal system to all tolls in the country. It can also be used in parking lots and gas stations. The united states is another country with widespread use of ETC in several states, though many U.S. toll roads maintain the option of manual collection This Automatic Billing System for Toll gates can be implemented in three steps with three modulesnamely1.IdentificationModule2.Controlling Module and 3.Banking Module. Automatic Billing System for Toll gate is carried out in four steps. 1. Automated vehicle identification: Automated vehicle identification (AVI) is the process of identifying the vehicle from which the toll is to be received in the gate area. The majority of toll facilities record the passage of vehicles through a limited number of toll gates. 16

2. Automated vehicle classification Automated vehicle classification is closely related to automated vehicle identification (AVI). Most toll facilities charge different rates for different types of vehicles, making it necessary to distinguish the vehicles passing through the toll gate.

3. Transaction processing
Transaction processing deals with maintaining customer accounts, posting toll transactions and customer payments to the accounts, and handling customer inquiries. The transaction processing component of some systems is referred to as a "customer service center". In many respects, the transaction processing function resembles banking, and several toll agencies have contracted out transaction processing to a bank.

4. Violation enforcement: A violation enforcement system (VES) is useful in reducing unpaid tolls at the toll gate. The fig 2.3 represents the model of the automated toll gate.

Fig 2.3 Model of the Automated Toll Gate.

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2.3 ADVANTAGES OVER EXISTING ONE: The following are the advantages that can be achieved due to Auto toll billing system. 1. Traffic accumulation can be avoided 2. Man power required to operate toll gates can be reduced 3. Manipulations at toll gates can be avoided 4. Time Consumptions at toll gates can be reduced drastically.

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3.VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION AND BILLING


3.1BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig 3.1 Block Diagram of Vehicle Identification and Billing

3.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:


3.2.1 TRANSPONDER BLOCK: A transponder is a wireless communications, monitoring, or control device that picks up and automatically responds to an incoming signal. The term is a contraction of the words transmitter and responder. Transponders can be either passive or active. A passive transponder allows a computer or robot to identify an object. Magnetic labels, such as those on credit cards and store items, are common examples. A passive transponder must be used with an active sensor that decodes and transcribes the data the transponder contains. The transponder unit can be physically tiny, and its information can be sensed up to several feet away.

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Simple active transponders are employed in location, identification, and navigation systems for commercial and private aircraft. An example is an RFID (radiofrequency identification) device that transmits a coded signal when it receives a request from a monitoring or control point. The transponder output signal is tracked, so the position of the transponder can be constantly monitored. The input (receiver) and output (transmitter) frequencies are reassigned. Transponders of this type can operate over distances of thousands of miles. In the implementation of this automatic toll billing system the transponder will be an RFID tag that is placed in a vehicle. This tag contains the details of the vehicle and the details corresponding to the vehicle owner. Whenever the vehicle containing this transponder (RFID tag) passes through the toll gate then a sensor at the toll gate will receive the data from that transponder. According to that data the billing process will be carried out in next stages.

Fig 3.2 Transponders used in vehicles. 3.2.2VEHICLE IDENTIFIER: This is the block that corresponds to the identification of the vehicle from the data gathered from the transponder. This block reads the data from transponder which is an RFID tag in the vehicle. This block then identifies the vehicle from that data and sends that data to further processing like billing. In this implementation we opt for U2270 RF receiver. 3.2.3 MICROCONTROLLER UNIT:

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A microcontroller (also MCU or C) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit consisting of a relatively simple CPU combined with support functions such as a crystal oscillator, timers, and watchdog, serial and analog I/O etc.program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a, typically small, read/write memory. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, and toys. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. In this implementation all the blocks preceding this micro controller block are controlled by the output signals of microcontroller only. This block receives input from vehicle identification block that senses the vehicle at the gate and delivers the output according to the program written in it i.e. microcontroller is pre programmed to satisfy our requirements. Here we opt for ATMEL 89C52/ATMEL 89S52. The basic differences between these two micro controllers are as follows: 89C52 have 8KB ROM and 256bytes RAM also it supports SPI program downloading but 89C51 have 4Kb ROM, 128bytes RAM and it wont support Serial program downloading. 89c52 have following extra features than 89C52: Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode Watchdog Timer Dual Data Pointer Power-off Flag 33MHz option.

The operational and programming features of these two microcontrollers are similar except above mentioned differences. On the other hand, the AT89C52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timers/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The power-

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down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillators, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. 3.2.4 CONTROLLING BLOCK:

This block follows the Microcontroller in the block diagram. The operation of this block entirely depends on output of the Micro controller. This block corresponds to the operations to be performed at the toll gate. These operations depend on the details scanned from the vehicle that is passing through the toll gate. This block will have motor for the operation of gate, motor driver, buzzer, latches and display section. Here we opt for ULN 2003 as motor driver. Display section shows the success and failure of toll collection. Buzzer will be blown if there is any wrong transaction at toll gate that is if money is not there in the account. Gate will be operated by the motor which internally operated by ULN 2003 motor driver. 3.2.5 PC INTERFACE AND POWER SUPPLY: The main advantage of Auto toll billing over conventional toll billing system is that it consumes less power for toll billing. This reduction in time is possible only by doing fast transactions. This is possible only by billing through PC. The micro controller is connected to PC through an interface. In general this interface is nothing but MAX 232 cable. This cable is connected to the microcontroller through a multiplexer. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply TIA/EIA232-F voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts TIA/EIA-232-F inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3V, a typical hysteresis of 0.5V, and can accept 30-V inputs. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into TIA/EIA-232F levels. Next coming to power supply block, it will supply the required voltage and current to entire system that is all the blocks in block diagram. It consists of a transformer which converts the line AC voltage into a DC voltage of required level. The D.C supply voltages for microcontrollers, RF module and other ICs in the circuit are taken from dual regulated power supply. Along with the transformer voltage regulators are there for

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providing required DC voltage to all the components. The fig 3.3 shown below represents the power supply section.

Fig 3.3 Power supply section.

3.3 COMPONENTS USED:


MCS51series 89C52 Micro controller TK5530 Identification Transponder U2270 Identification Integrated Circuit Max232c Communication interface ULN2003 motor driver. Rectifier circuit Stepper/ Linear motor for gate operation. Different Resistors. Different Capacitors. Diodes and BC 557 transistors. Piezo Buzzer. Linear voltage Regulator. Personal computer that is equipped with Software required for billing. Magnetic sensor. Power supply 12V-0-12V transformer Connecting cables

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3.4 CIRCUIT DIAGARM

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Fig 3.4 Circuit Diagram

3.5MAIN COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION: 3.5.1 MCS51 SERIES 89C52 MICRO CONTROLLER: The AT89S52 is a low power, high performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timers/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning.The fig 3.5 shows the pin configuration of AT89C52.

FEATURES:
Compatible with MCS-51 Products. 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles. Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-Level Program Memory Lock. 256 x 8-Bit Internal RAM. 32 Programmable I/O Lines. Three 16-Bit Timer/Counters. Eight Interrupt Sources. Programmable Serial Channel. Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes.

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PINCONFIGURATION:

Fig 3.5 Pin Configuration of AT89C52. The AT89C52 provides the following standard features: 8Kbytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling PIN DESCRIPTION OF AT89C52:

VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low order 26

address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. There are no additional or alternate functions for Port 0. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Table 3.1 shows the Alternate functions of port 1

Table 3.1 Alternate functions of port 1 Port pin P 1.0 Alternate functions T2(external count input to timer/counter 2) Clock out P 1.1 T2EX(timer/counter 2 capture/reload trigger direction control) P 1.5 P1.6 P1.7 MOSI(used for in system programming) MISO(used for in system programming) SCK(used for in system programming)

Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are 27

pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during access to external data memory that uses 16-bitaddresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During access to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, port 3pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C52, as shown in the

following table. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Table 3.2 shows the alternate functions of port 3. Table 3.2 Alternate functions of port 3.

RST: Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives High for 96 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISTRO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to

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disable this future. In the default state of bit DISTRO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. fig 3.6 shows the reset connection.

Fig 3.6 Reset Connection

ALE/PROG:

Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address access to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. PSEN:

Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89C52 is executing code from external programming memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. PROGRAM COUNTER: Program counter is a 16-bit register and is used to hold the address of a byte in memory. Program instruction bytes are fetched from locations in memory that are addressed by the PC. Program ROM may be on the chip at addresses 0000H to 0FFFH,

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external to the chip for the address that exceed 0FFFH, are totally external for all addresses from 0000H to FFFFH. The PC is automatically increment after every instruction byte is fetched and may also be altered by certain instructions. The PC is the only register that does not have an internal device. SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS (SFR): The 128 bytes of on-chip additional RAM locations from 80H to FFH are reserved for the special functions and therefore these are called as special function registers SFRs. These SFRs are used for control or to show the status of various functions done by the 89C52 microcontroller. All SFRs are directly addressable and can be read or written to as well. Note that SFRs space is only reserved for the special functions and cannot be used for any other purposes. DUAL DATA POINTER:

To facilitate accessing both internal and external data memory, two banks of 16bit Data Pointer Registers are provided: DP0 at SFR address locations 82H-83H and DPI at 84H-85H. Bit DPS=0 in SFR AUXR1 selects DP0 and DPS=1 selects DP1. The DPTR register is made up of 8-bit registers, named DPH and DPL. The user should always initialize the DPS bit to the appropriate value before accessing the respective Data Pointer Register. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR:

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively of an inverting amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven; there are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed. The fig 3.7 shows the on-chip oscillator circuit in microcontroller.

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Fig 3.7 On-chip Oscillator circuit in Micro controller

3.5.2 TK 5530 IDENTIFICATION TRANSPONDER:


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) involves contact less reading and writing of data into an RFID tag's nonvolatile memory through an RF signal. An RFID system consists of an RFID reader and an RFID tag. The reader emits an RF signal and data is exchanged when the tag comes in proximity to the reader signal. The RFID tag derives its power from the RF reader signal and does not require a battery or external power source. The TK5530 is a complete transponder, which implements all important functions for immobilizer and identification systems.fig 3.7 shows the system block diagram for TK5530. FEATURES: Identification Transponder in Plastic Cube Basic Component: e5530 IDIC Includes Coil and Capacitor for Tuned Circuit Antenna Carrier Frequency: 125 kHz

It consists of a plastic cube which accommodates: The read-only Identification Integral Circuit e5530 The antenna is realized by a LC-circuit.

Fig 3.8 System Block Diagram for TK5530

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ANTENNA:
The antenna consists of a coil and a capacitor for tuning the circuit to the nominal carrier frequency of 125 kHz. The coil has a ferrite-core for improving the readout distance.

READ-ONLY IDIC:
The identifying data are stored in a 128 bit PROM on the e5530. The data are sent bit-serially as a code .As an array of laser-programmable fuses used for storing data. The e5530 is part of a closed coupled identification system. It receives power from a RF transmitter (reader) which is coupled inductively to the IDIC. The TK5530 transponder operates at a nominal frequency of 100 kHz to 450 kHz. Receiving RF, the IDIC responds with a data stream by damping the incoming RF via an internal load. This damping in turn can be detected by the reader. The identifying data are stored in a 128-bit PROM on the e5530, which is factory programmed with a unique code .The e5530 has several possible options regarding modulation, bit rate, memory size etc.

TRANSMISSION OPTIONS: Code length Bit rate Modulation : : : 128,98,64,32 bits 8,16,32,40,50,60,84,100,128 bits/sec. FSK, PSK, BIPH, Manchester, BIPH-PSK. 100 to 450 kHz.

Radio frequency :

There are four modulation methods available which can be selected by fuses. Those are as follows

FSK MODULATION: Logical data 1 and 0 are represented as two different frequencies of damping. The frequency for 1 is RF divided by 10; a 0 divides RF by 8. PSK MODULATION: The external coil is damped with a carrier frequency of RF/2. A logical 1 causes (at the end of the bit period) a 180 phase shift on the carrier frequency, while a logical 0 causes no phase shift. BIPHASE MODULATION: 32

Logical 1 produces a signal which is the same as the internal bit clock. A logical 0 produces no signal change in the middle of the bit period. MANCHESTER MODULATION: A logical 1 causes a rising edge in the middle of a bit period (i.e., switch damping off), while a logical 0 causes a falling edge (i.e., switch damping on). A combination of Biphasic- and FSK-modulation is also optionally available.

Fig 3.9 shows the Timing diagram for different modulations:

Fig 3.9 Timing diagram for different modulations

CODING:
The memory of the TK5530 can be selected to be a 64- or 128-bit rolling code. In the Non-standard version, the first 8 bits are a customer-specific pattern. This can be selected by the customer. This pattern is unique within the serial rolling code data stream. The ID code and further bit informations following the 8-bit header can also be defined within the customers specification.fig 3.10 shows the block diagram of transponder.

Fig 3.10 Block diagram of transponder. TK5530 works based on the voltage generated through RF coil. The voltage across coil activates the controller subsequently; the controller reads the data from the

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PROM in the serial form. This data is modulated by Biphase (BIPH). The data is given to the analog circuitry for RF amplification. The same data is transmitted via the antenna.

READ DISTANCE:
The maximum distance between the base station and the TK5530 mainly depends on the base station, the coil geometries and the modulation options chosen. When generating an appropriate field with a suitable reader technique, a distance of 10 cm and more can be obtained. Maximum distance values which are generally valid cannot be given in this data sheet. The exact measuring of the maximum distance should be carried out with the TK5530 being integrated into the specific application. The e5530 is able to operate from very weak fields. Nevertheless, there are some general rules which influence the achievable reading distance. Best results are accomplished when the transponder points towards the reader coil. The transponder should not be embedded in metal, which will reduce the applicable magnetic field and thus the reading distance The strength of the generated magnetic field and the sensitivity of the demodulator are the most important factors for a good reading distance. The identification code is transmitted continuously. After the RF field is applied, the e5530H-232 starts with the first bit (MSB) of the header byte E6hex (1110 0110), followed by a unique 56-bit serial number. No checksum is included in this sample code. Pulsing the RF field may reduce the synchronization task as the first byte transmitted is known already (i.e., E6hex). This is even feasible, if the first bit may be lost due to reader synchronization problems.

IDIC_ (Reference Data Sheet e5530):


Memory size maximum : Memory type Programming Data rate Encoding Modulation Maximum coil voltage : : : : : : 128 Bit (details see Coding) ROM Laser cutting RF/32 - RF/64 Manchester or Bi-phase AM Vpp (I = 5 mA) 16 V 34

3.5.3 U2270 IDENTIFICATION INTEGRATED CIRCUIT:


The reader IC U2270B operates as a bidirectional interface between the transponder and the microcontroller. It amplifies the transponder signal and provides the signal to the microcontroller for decoding. The input characteristics of the U2270B are suitable for Manchester and Bi-phase-modulated transponders with a data rate between 2 k and 5 k Baud at 125/134 kHz operating frequency. The reader system based on the U2270B supplies the energy for transponders via the magnetic field. The IC fully supports Atmels write method, which requires switching the field on and off within certain time intervals. The IC incorporates the energy-transfer circuit to supply the transponder. It consists of an on-chip power supply, an oscillator and a coil driver optimized for automotive-specific distances. It also includes all signal-processing circuits which are necessary to transform the small input signal into a microcontroller-compatible signal. The Fig3.11 shows the interfacing of U2270B with microcontroller

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Fig 3.11: Interfacing of U2270B with microcontroller

3.5.4 ULN 2003 MOTOR DRIVER: DESCRIPTION:

The UTC ULN2003 is high voltage, high-current Darlington drivers comprised of seven NPN Darlington pairs. The ULN driver used here is used to transfer information. In this driver mainly the current is being amplified keeping the voltage level constant thus increasing the output power. Schematic of one Darlington pair is as shown in fig 3.12

Fig 3.12 Schematic of one Darlington pair.

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APPLICATIONS OF UTC ULN2003 ARE:


Relay Hammer Lamp and display (LED) drivers.

3.5.5 RS232C COMMUNICATION INTERFACE(MAX 232): The MAX220MAX249 family of line drivers/receivers is intended for all EIA/TIA-232E and V.28/V.24 communications interfaces, particularly applications where 12V is not available. These parts are especially useful in battery-powered systems, since their low-power shutdown mode reduces power dissipation to less than 5W. The MAX225, MAX233, MAX235, and MAX245/MAX246/MAX247 use no external components and are recommended for applications where printed circuit board space is critical. APPLICATIONS: Portable Computers Low-Power Modem. Interface Translation Battery-Powered RS-232 Systems Multi drop RS-232 Networks fig 3.12 shows the pin configuration of max232:

Fig 3.13 Pin configuration of max232:

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3.5.6 VOLTAGE REGULATORS


The L78L00 series of three terminal positive regulators employ internal current limiting and thermal shutdown, making them essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sink is provided, they can deliver up to 100mA output current. They are intended as fixed voltage regulators in a wide range of applications including local or on-card regulation for elimination of noise and distribution. The L78L00 series used as a Zener diode/ resistor combination replacement, offers an effective output impedance improvement of typically two orders of magnitude along with lower quiescent current and lower noise.

3.5.7TRANSFORMER:
Transformer in electric circuit have to perform, its function under different operating frequencies, amplitude and current through the basic connection, principle is same the section core material to satisfy the operating conditions make the transformer design more difficult especially when miniaturization is involved. Eddy currents are reduced by using high resistively Silicon steel laminations up to a frequency of 100 KHz.

3.5.8 LCD(LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY)


This is the first interfacing example for the parallel port. We will start with something simple. This example does not use the Bi-directional feature found on newer ports, thus it should work with most, if no all Parallel Ports. It however does not show the use of the status port as an input. So what are we interfacing? A 16 Character X 2 Line LCD Module to the Parallel Port. These LCD Modules are very common these days, and are quite simple to work with, as all the logic required running them is on board.fig 3.14 shows a general purpose alphanumeric LCD, with two lines of 16 characters.

FEATURES:
Interface with either 4-bit or 8-bit microprocessor. Display data RAM 8 bits (80 80 characters).

Character generator ROM 7 160 different 5 dot-matrix character patterns.

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Character generator RAM 8 different user 7 dot-matrix patterns. programmed 5

Display data RAM and character generator RAM may be accessed by the microprocessor. Numerous instructions Clear Display, Cursor Home, Display ON/OFF, Cursor ON/OFF, Blink Character, Cursor Shift, Display Shift. Built-in reset circuit is triggered at power ON.

Fig 3.14 a general purpose alphanumeric LCD, with two lines of 16 characters. 3.5.9 BUZZER: A buzzer or beeper is a signaling device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles, household appliances such as a microwave oven, or game shows. It most commonly consists of a number of switches or sensors connected to a control unit that determines if and which button was pushed or a preset time has lapsed, and usually illuminates a light on the appropriate button or control panel, and sounds a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping sound. Initially this device was based on an electromechanical system which was identical to an electric bell without the metal gong (which makes the ringing noise). Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling and used the ceiling or wall as a sounding board. Another implementation with some AC-connected devices was to implement a circuit to make the AC current into a noise loud enough to drive a loudspeaker and hook this circuit up to a cheap 8-ohm speaker. Now-a-days, it is more popular to use a ceramic-based piezo-electric sounder 39

like a Sonalert which makes a high-pitched tone. Usually these were hooked up to driver circuits which varied the pitch of the sound or pulsed the sound on and off.

BUZZER DRIVER:
VC C 12 V

+ Buz Q? BC 547 D? 4007

C PORT

VCC 12 V

Fig 3.15 Buzzer driver. The circuit is designed to control the buzzer. The buzzer ON and OFF is
Q? controlled by the pair of switching transistors (BC 547). The buzzer is connected in the BC547 D? 4007 Q2 transistor collector terminal. When high pulse signal is given to base of the Q1 + Buz -

transistors, the transistor is conducting and close the collector and emitter terminal so T zero signals is given to base of the Q2 transistor. Hence Q2 transistor and buzzer is turned OFF state. When low pulse is given to base of transistor Q1, the transistor is turned OFF. Now 12V is given to base of Q2 transistor so the transistor is conducting and buzzer is energized and produces the sound signal.

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4.FABRICATION DETAILS
4.1FABRICATING STEPS The fabrication of one demonstration unit is carried out in the following way (1). Finalizing the total circuit diagram, listing out the components and their sources of procurement. (2). Procuring the components, testing the components and screening the components. (3). Making layout, preparing the inter connection diagram as per the circuit diagram, preparing the drilling details, cutting the laminate to the required size. (4). Drilling the holes on the board as per the component layout, painting the tracks on the board as per inter connection diagram. (5). Etching the board to remove the un-wanted copper other than track portion .Then cleaning the board with water, and solder coating the copper tracks to protect the tracks from rusting or oxidation due to moisture. (6). Assembling the components as per the component layout and circuit diagram and soldering components. (7). Integrating the total unit interwiring the unit and finally testing the unit. (8). Keeping the unit ready for demonstration

4.2 PCB DESIGNING AND ITS LAYOUT


The basic raw material in the manufacture of PCB is copper gladded laminate. The laminate consists of two or more layers insulating reinforced materials bonded together under heat and pressure by thermo setting resins used are phenol or epoxy. The rein forced materials used are electrical grade paper or woven glass cloth. The laminates are manufactured by impregnating thin sheets of rein forced materials (woven glass cloth or electrical grade paper) with the required resin (phenolic or epoxy). The laminates are divided into various grades by National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). The nominal overall thickness of laminate normally used in PCB industry is 1.6mm with copper cladding on one or two sides. The copper foil thickness is 35 Microns (0.035mm) OR 70 Microns (0.070mm).

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The next stage in PCB fabrication is artwork preparation. The artwork (Master drawing) is essentially a manufacturing tool used in the fabrication of PCBs. It defines the pattern to be generated on the board. Since the artwork is the first of many process steps in the Fabrication of PCBs. It must be very accurately drawn. The accuracy of the finished board depends on the accuracy of artwork. Normally, in industrial applications the artwork is drawn on enlarged scale and photographically reduced to require size. It is not only easy to draw the enlarged dimensions but also the errors in the art work correspondingly get reduced during photo reduction. For ordinary application of simple single sided boards artwork is made on ivory art paper using draft aids. After taping on an art paper and photography (Making the negative) the image of the photo given is transformed on silk screen for screen printing. After drying the paint, the etching process is carried out. This is done after drilling of the holes on the laminate as per the components layout. The etching is the process of chemically removing un-wanted copper from the board. The next stage after PCB fabrication is solder masking the board to prevent the tracks from corrosion and rust formation. Then the components will be assembled on the board as per the component layout. The next stage after assembling is the soldering the components. The soldering may be defined as process where in joining between metal parts is produced by heating to suitable temperatures using non-ferrous filter metals has melting temperatures below the melting temperature of the metals to be joined. This non-ferrous intermediate metal is called solder. The solders are the alloys of lead and tin.

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CHAPTER 5 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

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5.1 WORKING
The working of the Automatic Toll billing system is as follows. This description includes the different cases involved in toll billing. Totally there are three cases in this billing system. This classification is based on the data read from transponder that is fixed in the vehicle. Before going to deal with these cases lets have a look at actual working of the project. Initially the gate will be in closed position. For all the vehicles, at the time of registration, a unique id will be given in the form of transponder. This transponder contains all the details of the vehicle owner like his/her name, address, along with the bank account details. This project mainly works depending on those bank details. An RFID reader will be placed at the toll gate to read the details from transponder. When ever any vehicle containing the transponder came to the surroundings of the reader then the reader scans the RFID tag in the vehicle and gets the details of the vehicle. All these operations are controlled by the Micro controller connected in the circuit. Depending on these details the following cases arise. All these three cases can be grouper into one category called Banking. This banking module can be carried with a PC at the toll gate. For this banking operations/transactions we opt for Visual Basic language because of its simple, easy and lucid way of programming.

5.2 BANKING
This banking includes the toll billing for the vehicle when it passes through the toll gate. This can be in three cases. Those are as follows: Vehicle with registration and account having money in it. Vehicle with registration and account having no money in it. Vehicle with out registration or with out ID in it

5.2.1 VEHICLE WITH REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNT HAVING MONEY


When ever any vehicle having registered enters the toll gate then the reader at the toll gate scans the vehicle for ID (transponder). It gets the details from that transponder and sends those details to PC by following the controls of the micro controller. These details will be given to Visual Basic program as inputs and that program produces output

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depending on the input details. This output will be given again to micro controller to further processing. This data transfer to micro controller and from micro controller is achieved through the serial port of the micro controller. In this case the account of the vehicle owner is having sufficient money for the purpose of toll billing. When controller receives the input from PC interface (nothing but VB program in PC) it operates the motor which is connected to a gate. When the details are valid and sufficient money is there in the account then the PC sends a signal to micro controller by indicating that to lift the gate. Micro controller rotates the motor in reverse direction so that the gate will be opened. So vehicle can go with out interruption. The equivalent amount of toll bill will be deducted from vehicles owner bank account. In this way the automatic toll billing process can be performed for the vehicle having registration and sufficient money in the bank account for toll bill. 5.2.2 VEHICLE WITH REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNT HAVING

NO MONEY:
In this case also when ever any vehicle having registered enters the toll gate then the reader at the toll gate scans the vehicle for ID (transponder). It gets the details from that transponder and sends those details to PC by following the controls of the micro controller. These details will be given to Visual Basic program as inputs and that program produces output depending on the input details. This output will be given again to micro controller to further processing. This data transfer to micro controller and from micro controller is achieved through the serial port of the micro controller. In this case the account of the vehicle owner is having sufficient money for the purpose of toll billing. When controller receives the input from PC interface (nothing but VB program in PC) it operates the motor which is connected to a gate. Till this point the procedure is same as previous case. But in this case the details are valid but sufficient money is not there in the account. Then the PC sends a signal to micro controller by indicating that not to open the gate. Then micro controller doesnt send any signal to motor so that the gate will in be closed position only. So vehicle cant go with out paying the toll bill there itself. For this type of cases we will arrange a manual counter at the toll gate. Then the vehicle owner has to pay the toll bill and has to go from the gate. A switch will be provided at the toll gate so that by pressing that switch the gate will be opened. In this way the billing will be

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carried out for the case of Vehicle with registration and account having no sufficient money.

5.2.3 VEHICLE WITHOUT REGISTRATION OR WITH OUT ID:


This is the case that is applicable for vehicles that are not having registered or vehicles that are not properly registered. In this case also we will be doing toll collection manually at the toll gate itself as previous case. For avoiding this type of cases the government has to pass some strict rules and orders by mentioning that every vehicle has to be registered so that every vehicle will be having a separate ID and a bank account that are useful for toll billing. And also Government has to pass the GOs to manufactures that they have to arrange a transponder in the vehicle and that transponder will be easily scanned by reader at the gate. These are the cases that will be arising during the process of Automatic Toll billing. By this system we can avoid the time delay at the toll gates because all this process of getting details and generating control signals will be done in fraction of seconds only. By this fast billing the traffic accumulation at the toll gates can be also avoided. In all the above cases registration means getting a separate code for each vehicle at the time of purchasing only.

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RESULT ANALYSIS

The hardware kit for automated toll gate looks like this:

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when the power supply is on, the UTC ULN 2003 motor driver will receive logic 1 on its pin and the gate will be opened as shown below.

And the LCD displays the information as shown below:

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Consider the first case i.e,

VEHICLE WITH REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNT HAVING MONEY:


Consider the vehicle having the registration number 91000310CD passes the toll gate, then the LCD displays the registration number & the pc displays the details of the vehicle as shown below:

VEHICLE WITH REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNT HAVING NOT ENOUGH MONEY:


Consider the vehicle having the registration number 910003168C passes the toll gate, then the LCD displays the registration number & the pc displays the details of the vehicle as shown below:

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Since the vehicle is already registered the card is accepted. But here the gate will be automatically closed and gives a beep sound so that the operator receives the toll and sends the vehicle by opening the manual switch.

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VEHICLE WITHOUT REGISTRATION OR WITHOUT ID:


When ever any vehicle that is not registered at that toll gate passes, then the LCD displays the registration number as shown below

Pc shows its details as follows:

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If

the vehicle want to register at that toll gate,the procedure is to first enter the

option 1 in the window displayed below..

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After entering the option 1,then the window shown below is displayed.

The details of the vehicle are entered as shown below

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After the ESC key is pressed, it asks for another vehicle which is to be registered. If there is no vehicle then we want to press 0 at S.NO as shown below:

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If

this vehicle after registration passes the toll gate next time,this vehicle comes

under the above mentioned two cases.

6.1 ADVANTAGES The following are the advantage achieved by Electronic Toll Collection / Automatic Toll Billing. Data stored within an RFID tag's microchip waits to be read.

The tag's antenna receives electromagnetic energy from an RFID reader's antenna. Using power from its internal battery or power harvested from the reader's

electromagnetic field, the tag sends radio waves back to the reader. The reader picks up the tag's radio waves and interprets the frequencies as

meaningful data. Increases patron convenience and safety with nonstop payment Improves traffic flow

Reduces patron commute time

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Reduces traffic congestion Lowers patron fuel use Reduces emissions which are a major cause of pollution Reduces need for new roads Reduces operating costs for toll authorities Provides proven reliability and unparalleled accuracy

6.2 FUTURE IMPLEMENTATION The banking module can be implemented with advanced softwares like Oracle, Visual Basic so that it can be more perfect in future implementations. The banking module can be implemented dynamically so that the toll bill can be varied at each and every toll gate

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CONCLUSION:
Now a days, microcontroller plays a major role in implementing fascinated electronic projects. Our project Automatic toll collection (ATC) which was implemented using the above mentioned hard ware components achieved the desired results like reduction in cost of toll collection, capital investment savings, fraud elimination, faster journey time, reduced fuel usage, less congestion and reduce pollution. Its establishment would not only improve traveling efficiency, but also boast substantial potentials to spur the Countrys economy. It is definitely a win-win alternative for the government and expressway concessionaires.

FUTURE SCOPE: In order to trap the fast moving vehicles ,we can extend this project by using the vehicle sensor/camera which can take the picture of the vehicle and sends fine to the vehicles that pass through with out paying the toll. We can also use this technology. We can also use the similar technology to set up roaming facilities so that one can drive a vehicle on other operators tolled road. In order to avoid the inconvenience to the passengers due to opening/closing of the gate, we can remove it and can make the transaction process online.The technology can be enhanced for position finding of

vehicles,providing security for VIP vehicles,finding unauthorized vehicles etc.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] Klaus Finkenzeller-Fundamentals and Applications in contact less smart cards and Identification, II edition, Wiley, John and sons, 2003 [2]Kenneth J Ayala-The 8051 Microcontroller, III Edition, Pen ram International, India, 2005

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[3] Ramakant A Gayakwad-Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits, IV Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999. [4] S.Salivahavana, N.SureshKumar, A.Vallavaraj-Electronic Devices and Circuits, I Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2008 [5] Jacob Mill man and Christos Halkias, Electronic devices and circuits, III Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 2007

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