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21

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1392 . ,
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23

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, Ikeda Tetsuro
:
On vowel harmony in Northern Eurasia
In Hungarian, a Uralic language spoken in Uzhgorod or Ungvr in Western Ukraine, there are 7
vowels, i.e. one neutral vowel./i/, three front or palatal vowels /e/, /u umlaut/, /o umlaut/, three back
or velar vowels /a/, /u/ and /o/. Similar phenomenon is also found in Mongolian. In Turkish in
Turkey, in Karaim, spoken by the Jews in Ukraine and Poland, and in Crimean Tatar in Ukraine,
there are 8 vowels, among which the 4 vowels are front or palatal vowels as /i/, /e/, /u umlaut/, and /o
umlaut/, and the other 4 vowels are back or velar vowels as /y/, /a/, /u/, and /o/. In other words,
horizontal opposition of vowels can be found.
Interestingly in Evenki, Tungusic language, not only spoken in Siberia near Yenisei river but
also in Inner Mongolia near Amur river, there are 5 or 6 vowels, among which the vowels /i/ and /u/
are neutral vowels, the vowel // are closed vowels, the vowels /a/ and /o/ as open vowels. This
means that not the horizontal but the vertical opposition of vowels can be found. Similar
phenomenon is also found in the Written Manchu 8a Tungusic language), the Even (a Tungusic
language), Chukchi, Nivkh or Gilyak, and Ainu languages. .
In Middle Korean, some suggest that there were 8 vowels having front and back vowels.
Recently it is also pointed out that the harmony in Middle Korean depends on closed versus open
vowels. Therefore we could explain the Middle Korean vowel harmony as vertical vowel harmony.
In Old Japanese, graphically there were 8 vowels like /i first type (Ko rui)/ and /i second type
38

1997
24

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(Otsu rui)/, /e first type/ and /e second type/, /o first type/ and /o second type/, /a/ and /u/. However
their concrete vowel qualities are open to our future examinations. I hypothesize there existed 5 or 7
vowels in Old Japanese.
O:no Yasumaro 13 , Kojiki
mo 12 . Heian ko
/ ( Ko rui)/ / ( Otsu rui)/. O:no
Susumu, 4 , ,

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Tori-no koe-ni haru-wo shiri-te, Kaze-no oto-ni aki-wo satoru.
, soku ombin shiri-te . shitte , .

25

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.
:
, sozai-keigo
taisha-keigo. ,
sonkeigo kenjyogo sozai-keigo, ,
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ohon, Tyuusei on.
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28

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sasu shimu.
keihigo( )
Jyoudai samorahu,tamahu maosu.
Tyuuko kikoyukikoesasu mausu, kikoesasu
.
kikoyukikoesasu, mairasu.
Teineigo
jyo:dai haberi,
teineigo.
kenjyogo teineigo. saburahu ,
saurahu - .
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no. Ujisyuui-monogatari
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koromo Sata-no koromo40


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. ()
Heian.
,
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2.
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. ,
.
,
.
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905 . : Kino Tomonori, Kino Turayuki, Oosikoutino Mitune
Mibuno Tadamine. Daigo
Kino Turayuki
Kanajyo Kino Yosimoti
Manajyo. 20 . 1100 .

5 tyouka, 4

sedouka tanka. Kokin,


Manyousyuu kin- , , .
Genji-monogatari
1010 . Murasaki Sikbu.
Hikaru genji Kaoru ,
. .
,
.

hurusato

30

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usagi oishi 42.

1945 , ,
. , .
souroubun .
1945 , :we-wo kaku ,toriwi

.
souroubun.
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(Kindaichi Haruhiko)
31

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.
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, akemasite omedetou gozaimasu


, syosyun-no oyorokobi-wo mousi age-masu
, kinga sinnen
, happii nyuu iyaa

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.
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1. :

shi,chi,tsu.

2. (kunrei-siki. -
,

si,ti,tu,
shi,chi,tsu.
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si,ti,tu.
James Curtis Hepburn

1859 . ,

18151911.

2. .
Watasi-no heya-ha 2kai-ni aru. Sizukana tiisai heyade aru. ,
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rains.

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32

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?. asu irassaimasuka irassaimasuka


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. teki-ga iru-zo
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enemy enemies,
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?, , .
: sogyan kotoha shenho:ga yoka-tyai. ,
: sayouna kotoha ohikae nasutteha ikaga desyouka.

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? ,
:
itu Edo-he oide nasare masita .

itu Edo-he okoside gozaimasita .


itu Edo-he gozatta .

itu Edo-he gozarassyatta .


itu Edo-he mairareta .
itu Edo-he kiyasyansita .
itu Edo-he gozansita yuu ( , ).

itu Edo-he kinasansita .


itu Edo-he gozarimasita , .
itu Edo-he oide nasaemasita .

itu Edo-he gozarassyarimasita , 47.

3) .
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Kanayou :

Kanayou umukajinu tateiba


Youkanayou yadouniurariranu
47

1960.4
34

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richayo utiteritei yo:kanayo


Andi wanra
.
.:kanayou itosii hitoyo, umukajinu
omokageno ,

tateiba tateba , yadouniurariranu yadoniirarenu , richayo

saaikouyo, utiteriteiutiturete, Andi wanraasonde wasureyou.


, :
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hyoujyungo . ,
hyoujyungo ,
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konnitisyomoujisan;

itasusuru, , mairuiku, ; kuru, , mousu


, zonzuruomou, ; siru, ,zozaru.
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uyou
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: sayou mousaruru-haikaga itasareta,


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hannya sinkyou muryojyu kyou ,
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saiken saikon, asa jintyo,


nitibotunitimotu goya ,
rieki riyaku.
jyosei, nyosyou,
sessyou. , osyou
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saburau .
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36

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Bouzu-no kanzasi
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anata, anatanara dousuru ?


dousurutte nanigadane ? ?
mosimo,

anata-no

bouya-ga

korosaretatositara,

yappari

sekentei-wo

massakinikangaeru ,
?

bakana koto-wo iumonjya naiyo


sonna sinpai sitakoto naina ?
nan-no sinpaida ?
atasiga sittoni kurutte ka-tto narukamo sirenaitte omottakoto naino
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sonnakoto omouwake naijyanaika. Sittoni kuruutositara, nyoubou-no hou darou


boku-ga donnani kimi-wo aisiteiruka, wakarikitteiru kotojyanaika
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hontokasira. Jyaa, minku-no ko-to katte? -


.....

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dearimasudegozaimasu. 5 da dearu , desu


dearimasu . degozaimasu

nari sourou .
,
,
:

, iku

kuru .

37

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masu, , .
masu simasu ,
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(1860-1943). Professor of Copenhagen University.

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: 1-9-8 Hieidaira, Otsu-shi, Shiga-ken, 520-0016,

Japan. . ,
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John Smith .
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, : Japan, 520-0016, Shiga-ken, Otsu-shi 1-9-8.


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