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PREFACE

The globe is shrinking. The world is taken over by the technicians. A day after daya new technology arises. A technician without practical knowledge is zero, dont matter how many books you have studied. Practical know how is must to be successful. Industrial training is the bridge for a student that takes him from the world of theoretical knowledge to that of practical one. # Training in a good industry is highly conducive for: 1.Development of solid foundation of knowledge and personality. 2.Confidence building. 3.Pursuit of excellence and discipline. 4.Enhancement of creativity through motivation and drive which helps to produce professional and well trained for the rigorous of the job/society. The present report has been done as an industrial training of four weeks for the completion of 4th semester of Production & Industrial Engg. Diploma. During the training I got the exposure to various equipment and machines their maintenance and technology concerning the repairing the Diesel Locomotive and hencewas assisted in developing selfconfidence. The training helped me in implementing mytheoretical knowledge to the actual industrial environment.This training at the NORTHERN RAILWAY DIESEL SHED LUDHIANA is definitely going to play an important role in developing an aptitude for acquiringknowledge hard work and self confidence necessary for successful future.

ACKNOLEDGEMENT
In these four weeks of industrial training, I wish to my attribute my profoundsense of gratitude without whose generous co-operation and co-ordination it would have been highly difficult for me to have such a successful training experience in theorganization, in every game of life these are multitude of players whose are the realheroes and this experience there are many loyal and phenomenally selfless friends, co-workers and my bosses in industry, I am overwhelmed. Few tasks are more enjoyable and fulfilling than acknowledging my gratitude toall those, who have helped in this effort in so many ways. I take this opportunity toexpress my sincere thanks to the management of NORTHERN RAILWAY DIESELSHED LUDHIANA of permitting me to observe and study the whole setup of factory. I owe more than a debt of gratitude to Mr. Kuldeep Rai (Principal),Senior Chief Instructor Mr. P.K. Tiwari, and specially Thanks to Mr. Sarbjeet Singh (Mechanic) & all the staff for their corporation & guidance made it possible to complete the work. I am equally thankful to my faculty teacher for providing me this opportunity to work with such a big company.

NORTHERN RAILWAY, DIESEL SHED, LUDHIANA


Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION
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Diesel Shed Ludhiana came into existence on 29.09.1977. Initially, the shed wasdesigned to home 60 WDM2 locos. Later, it was expanded to home 100 WDM2 locos inthe year 1987-88. Further the total holding of shed was increased to 150 locos in the year 1993-94. Present loco holding of Diesel Shed, Ludhiana is 170 having different types of locos i.e. WDM2, WDM3A & WDG3A. Diesel Shed, Ludhiana is presently the biggest shed on the Northern Railway and the 3rd largest on Indian Railways. The total kilometers earning is approximately 22 lakh kilometers per month and the shed is running a mail link of 96 locos consisting of various prestigious Mail/Express trains. Diesel Shed, Ludhiana is also having a Diesel Training School and Hostel attached to it. The Training School consists of 5 classrooms and various working models of mechanical and electrical sub assemblies of WDM2 locos. The staying capacity in thehostel is 72 and is having 38 double-bedded rooms. This training School is being mainlyutilized for training of running staff for Diesel conversion and refresher courses of FZR & UMB division. In addition to this, this is also being utilized for imparting training tothe maintenance staff of the shed. It is also equipped with the recreation facilities &gymnasium with high-tech exercise machines, indoor games etc. Presently, Diesel Shed, LDH is ISO0-14001 Certified Shed, which is headed byunder the dynamic control of Sr.Divl. Mech.Engineer (Diesel), under whom the officers DME-I, DME-II, ADME/H, ADME/R/Mech., ADME/R/Elect, ACMT & SMM/Storesare working.

OVERVIEW
Earlyinternal combustion engine-powered locomotives used gasolineas their fuel. Soon after Dr.Rudolf Diesel patented his firstcompression ignition enginein 1892,its application for railway propulsion was considered. Progress was slow, however, due to the poor power-to-weight ratio of the early engines, as well as the difficulty inherent inmechanically applying power to multiple driving wheels on swivelling trucks (bogies). Steady improvements in the Diesel engine's design (many developed by Sulzer Ltd.of Switzerland, with whom Dr. Diesel was associated for a time) gradually reducedits physical size and improved its power-to-weight ratio to a point where one could bemounted in a locomotive. Once the concept of Diesel-electricdrive was accepted the pace of development quickened. By the mid 20th century the Diesel locomotive had become the dominant type of locomotive in much of the world, offering greater flexibility and performance than thesteam locomotive, as well as substantially lower operating and maintenance costs. Currently, almost all Diesel locomotives are Diesel-electric.

1.1 Various Sections In Diesel Shed:# Turbo Section # Expressor Section # Compressor Section # Power Assembly Section # Cylinder Head Section # Machine Shop # Cross Head Section # Water Pump & Lube Oil Section # Radiator Section # Traction M/C # Governor Section # Gauge & Valve Section # Air Brake Section # Electrical Complaint Room # Auxillary M/C Section # Electrical Test Room # Magnaflux Section # Bogie Section # Valve Grinding Section # Contactor & Relay Room # Zyglo Testing Room # Fip Section # Tsc Balancing Section # Draftsman Room # Battery Section # Metallurgical Lab # Spectro Section # Scrap Yard

Various Sections In Diesel Shed


To maintain various parts of locomotives, Diesel Shed, Ludhiana has different sections for electrical and mechanical repairs & maintenance. Brief details are as under:1. 1.1 Turbo Supercharger Section Turbo Supercharge is a machine, which uses exhaust of the diesel engine tocompress the intake air to improve the engine efficiency to about 1.5 times. At present, 4types of TSCs are being overhauled in this section. (i)ALCO Turbo Supercharger (ii)ABB Turbo Supercharger (iii)Napier Turbo Supercharger (iv)Hispano Suiza Turbo Supercharger All these TSCs are fully dismantled and overhauled in this section. The strengthof staff of this section is 7. 1. 1.2 Fip & Injector Section This section is responsible for maintaining the fuel injection pump and the injector of diesel locomotives. The fuel injection pump is responsible for maintaining desired pressure to inject the fuel, whereas the injector has the duty to spray the fuel inthe cylinder after atomization. Two types of FIPs are being used at present. (i)15mm FIP (ii)17mm FIP All these subassemblies are being dismantled, overhauled and tested in this section.

1.1.3 Expresser & Compressor Section The expresser is used to maintain air pressure and vacuum pressure for breaking system in the locomotive. This section is responsible for maintaining this subassembly.Complete expressor or compressor is dismantled and overhauled in this section as per Work Instructions issued to the section. The staff strength of the section is about 25. 1.1.4 Power Assembly Section The piston and connecting rod assembly is called as power assembly. 16 power assemblies are being used in one locomotive. Two types of pistons are being used in thelocomotive. Steel cap pistons are being used in fuel efficient locomotives, whereas aluminium pistons are being used in conventional locomotives. The shed has switchedover to barrel shape piston rings to provide better fuel efficiency. The pistons and connecting rods are dismantled, cleaned, zyglo tested and again are made ready for service in this section. The staff strength of section is about 10. 1.1.5. Cylinder Head Section This section is responsible for maintenance and overhauling of cylinder headsof diesel locomotives. 16 Nos. cylinder heads are there in one locomotive. Each cylinder head has four valves, two exhaust and two inlet valves. In fuel-efficient locomotives, the valve angle is 30 Degree, whereas in conventional locomotives it is 45 Degree. The head is completelydismantled and after cleaning and mating the valve & valve seat and overhauling thecomplete components, the head is made ready for service in this section after varioustests. The staff strength of this section is about 7. 1.1.6. Cross Head Section Crosshead is a subassembly, which is operated by camshaft to

operate the valvelever mechanism of the cylinder heads. There are 16 cross heads in one locomotive. The cross heads operate the valve levers through two bush rods, one for exhaust and other for air inlet Cross heads are completely dismantled and overhauled and also the valve lever mechanism is completely dismantled and overhauled in this section. The staff strength of this section is about 4. 1.1.7. Pump Section The pump section is responsible for overhauling water pump and lube oil pumpof the locomotive. Both the pumps are gear driven through crankshaft split gear train.Every loco is having one water pump and one no. lubricating oil pump. Both the pumpsare cleaned, overhauled and made ready for service in this section. The staff strength of this section is 4. 1.1.8. Miscelleneous Sub-assembly & Heat Exchanger Section This section is responsible for maintaining rear truck traction motor blower which is belt driven, front truck traction motor blower which is gear driven, universalshaft, which is used to drive radiator fan, eddy current clutch gear box used to providedrive to radiator fan, over speed trip assembly is responsible for preventing the enginefrom over-speeding. In addition to above, various heat exchangers, such as radiator, turboaftercooler, compressor after cooler and engine lube oil cooler are cleaned, tested &overhauled in this section. The selfcentrifuging unit of locomotive is also overhauled inthis section. 1.1.9.Bogie Section This section is responsible for complete overhauling of undergear of thelocomotive. A locomotive is driven on line through 06 No. traction motors, which aresupplied from a generator driven by the diesel engine. These motors are fitted on 6 Nos.axles and connected to axles through a bull gear pinion arrangement. The motors aresuspended through suspension bearing which is plain bearing in some locomotives,whereas these are roller bearings in about 50% of

locomotives. Two bogie frames areused to house six axles and wheels and called as front bogie and rear bogie. The brakingarrangement for the locomotives is given through 8 brake cylinders, 4 on each bogie and

various brake riggings, brake shoes and brake blocks. The load of locomotive is shared by each bogie. Each bogie has two nos. side bearers and one no. central pivot. The loadsharing between the central pivot and the side bearer is in the ratio of 60:40. The chassisof the locomotive is having 2 Nos. central buffer couplers on each side for connection tothe train. The chassis is also having mounted 4 Nos. buffers, 2 on each side to bear various pumps during operation. Staff strength in this section is about 70. 1.1.10. Yearly Section Yearly section is used for complete overhauling of locomotive, engine block and removal of various mechanical subassemblies. The yearly section carries out 24monthly and 48 monthly schedules of the locomotives in which engine and varioussubassemblies are overhauled completely. Staff strength of this section is about 90. 1.1.11. Air Brake Section Air brake section is responsible for overhauling of brake valves of air brakesystem and other safety items such as wipers, sanders, horns etc. In addition to it, variousgauges are also being maintained by this section. Staff strength of this section is about 50. 1.1.12. Valve Section This section is responsible for maintaining fuel regulating valve, fuel relief valve,lube oil regulating valve, lube oil relief valve, lube oil bypass valve of the locomotive.The valves are overhauled and are set at a required pressure as per MaintenanceInstructions. Staff strength of this section is 2. 1.1.13. Speedometer Section The speedometer section is responsible for maintaining speedometers of thelocomotive, which are responsible for recording

and indicating the speed of thelocomotive. Staff strength of this section is about 16. 1.1.14. Governor Section

Governor section is responsible for maintenance of governor of the locomotive.The governor of the locomotive is responsible for maintaining constant speed of theengine as per requirement at every notch. At present, the shed has 3 types of governors. (i)Woodward governor (ii)GE or electro hydraulic governor (iii)Microprocessor based governor.

1.2 Minor Repairs Sections


1.2.1 Mail Section Mail Section is having 2 sections i.e. Mail/Mech. and Mail Elect. section. Mailsection is responsible for maintenance of diesel engine, various mechanicalsubassemblies, undergears etc. for trip schedule, monthly schedule and quarterly schedulefor mail and passenger locomotives. 1.2.2 Goods Section Goods section is also having goods mech. and goods electrical. Goods section isresponsible for maintenance of diesel engine, various mechanical subassemblies,undergears etc. for trip schedule, monthly schedule and quarterly schedule for goodslocomotives. 1.2.3 Quarterly & Half Yearly Section Quarterly and half yearly section is responsible for 8 monthly, 12 monthly and 16monthly schedules of diesel locomotives.

1.2.4 Out-Of-Course Section OOC section is responsible for attending various major repairs of the locomotives,which cannot be covered during minor schedule. 1.2.5 M & P Of The Shed lift bogies, engine blocks and various major subassemblies. Heavy Repair Bay subassembly sections are having two cranes, 0ne10tonne and the other is 3tonne crane. These are used for handling varioussubassemblies. Every minor repair bay i.e. goods, mail, quarterly half yearly sections arealso having 3 tonne self operated cranes which are used to lift various subassemblies of the locomotive. The shed is also having 3 Nos. fork lifters for material handling.

1.2.6 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF DIESEL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE

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1.2.7 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE SHED

A Diesel locomotive is a type of railroad locomotive in which the prime mover is a Diesel engine

1.2.8 SALIENT FEATURES


# Sanctioned staff strength = 1316 # Staff on roll = 1195 # Total covered area = 12,577 sq. meters. # Berthing capacity = 32 locos. # %age of staff housed = 21%. # Fuel storage capacity = 730 kiloliters. # Average off take of diesel oil per day = 0.3 lakh liters (approx). # Lube oil storage capacity = 350 kiloliters. # Average off-take of lube oil per day = 2700 liters (approx). # Average kms earned/month = 21.61 lakh kilometers. # Stock items in the stores depot. = 1969 # Present mail link = 96 # Present loco holding = 170 (a)WDM2 = 62 (b) WDG3A = 44 (c) WDM3A = 64 Total =170 Direct maintenance staff per loco SFC Mail (Lts/1000GTKM) (2008-09) SFC Goods (Lts/1000GTKM) (2008-09) =4.30 =3.72 =2.03

Types Of Machinery
Machinery
Single Stage Air Compressors

Quantity Specification
11 Horse Power (HP)- 3, No. of cylinder- 2, Tank Capacity in litres- 160, Displacement (FAD)- 15.3 m3/hr, Working Pressure- 7 kg/cm 98 PSI.

Reciprocating Air compressors-

Two Stage Air Compressors

28

Horse Power (HP)- 5, No. of cylinder- 2, Tank Capacity in litres- 250, Displacement (FAD)- 23.4 m3/hr, Working Pressure- 12 kg/cm' 175 PSI.

Grinding MachinesHand Grinders 15 Grinding/polishing Disc Dia.- 125mm Spindle Thread- M14 Power Input- 1100 W No-Load Speed- 11000 RPM Weight- 2.5 kg (approx.)

Bench Grinders

No-Load Speed- 2950 RPM Wheel Size- 150X20X12.7 mm Input Power- 250 W

LathesHeavy Duty Geared Precision Lathes 4 Length of Bed- 4250 mm Height of Centre- 254 mm Admit Between centre- 3150 mm Spindle Speed Range- 30-1235 RPM No. of Spindle Speeds- 8 Power required- 5 Horse Power

Drilling MachnesHeavy Duty Radial Drill Machines 3 Diameter of column- 50 mm Working surface of base plate- 2650x1400 Power supply (Main Motor)- 7.5 KW Elevating motor- 3.7 KW

CranesHand Operated Travelling Cranes(H.O.T)2 Capacity- 1 tons Span-10 m Multi-Span Underslung Cranes Capacity- 7 tons Length of Side Moving Span- 10 m Length of Sliding (forward moving) Span- 30 m 1

Electric Over-Head Travel Double Girder Cranes 1 Capacity- 25 tons Length of Side Moving Span- 10 m Length of Sliding (forward moving) Span- 30 m

Scope Of Engg. Diploma In Company Production & Industrial Engineering is an very good branch with lots of scope in the country ,generally the production engineering deals with various techniques of manufacturing and tools used in the manufacturing industries ,it also teaches the various drawings and also how to develop them and understand them,so that means you will be surely employed in an factory atmosphere if you take this course and hence employed by companies dealing with such operations, with the sales and demand of cars going up in our country the need of good manufacturing engineers is really increasing in our country. Companies like the Tata Totors , Maruti and Mahindra & Mahindra. And industries like Hero Group, Tata Steel, HINDALCO, Relience Steels are really employing many freshers ,and also the pay is very high when compared to other companies,also many foreign companies are coming to our country and setting up plants ,companies like Toyota, Honda, Audi, Mercedese, Bmw are really hiring many production engineers in our country because of there plants to set up plants, Medium & small Scale Industry also plays an mportant role in recruiting jobs as Engg. Diploma holders are posted atleast at supervisor for industry and hence the scope of this branch is really very good.

Manpower Chart

Category
Supervisory Artisan (Skilled) Artisan (Un-Skilled) Ministerial & Others Operating Staff Grand Total (Direct & Indirect)

Sanction Actual
124 885 207 90 10 1316 99 841 164 82 9 1195

Vacancy
25 44 43 8 1 121