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1 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy

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ISSN: 2249-8389

Journal of Positive Philosophy










Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS)
Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Ward No.06, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128
http://positivephilosophy.webs.com
Concept of Mind (Manas) and
Intelligence (Buddhi) in Indian
Philosophy
Volume II, No. 01 (March, 2012)
Chief-Editor:
Desh Raj Sirswal


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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389)
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy is a bi-annual interdisciplinary journal of the Center for
Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS). The name Lokyata can be traced to
Kautilya's Arthashastra, which refers to three nvkiks (logical philosophies), Yoga, Samkhya and
Lokyata. Lokyata here still refers to logical debate (disputatio, "criticism") in general and not to a
materialist doctrine in particular. The objectives of the journal are to encourage new thinking on
concepts and theoretical frameworks in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences to
disseminate such new ideas and research papers (with strong emphasis on modern implications of
philosophy) which have broad relevance in society in general and mans life in particular. The
Centre publishes two issues of the journal every year. Each regular issue of the journal contains
full-length papers, discussions and comments, book reviews, information on new books and other
relevant academic information. Each issue will contain about 100 Pages.
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Chief- Editor:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Assistant Professor (Philosophy),
P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh (India)
Associate Editors: Dr. Sandhya Gupta Ms Poonama Verma
Language Editors: Ms Vipinjeet Kaur Mr Raj Kumar

Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong)
Dr. Anamika Girdhar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)
Dr.Ranjan Kumar Behera (Patkai Christian College (Autonomous), Nagaland)
Fr. V. John Peter (St. Josephs Philosophical College, Nilgiris, T.N.)
Dr. Aayam Gupta (Lautoka, Fiji)
Dr. Geetesh Nirban (Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi)
Dr. Vaishali Dev (Mahamakut Buddhist University, Thailand)
Dr. Merina Islam (Cachar College, Silchar, Assam)
Dr. Narinder Singh (GHSC-10, Chandigarh)
Dr. Vijay Pal Bhatnagar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)


Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the individual
authors, and not necessary of those of CPPIS or the Chief-Editor.


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In this issue..

INTERTWINED HUMAN MIND IN NATURE: A Rendering from Ancient Tamil
TraditionVallabadoss John Peter (4-17)
BUDDHISM AND DENNETT S MODEL THEORY: AN ANALYSIS IN THE
ACCOUNT OF CONSCIOUSNESS Sheeja O.K.(18-24)
RABINDRANATH TAGORES THOUGHTS OF MIND: PHILOSOPHY OF
EDUCATION K.Victor Babu (25-34)
ADHITHANA (DETERMINATION) LEADING TO HAPPINESS Ashima Verma (35-
41)
The Principal Upaniads on Vtti Theory of Perception Surjya Kamal Borah & Shruti
Rai (42-49)

THE REVELATION OF THE MIND Prashanata Kumar Dash (50-56)
(57-62)
Article: EDUCATION DISPELS DARKNESSR.K.Behera (63-66)
Empirical Work: EFFECT OF KNOWLEDGE VALUES ON LIFE SATISFACTION
AMONG ADOLESCENTS Himani Anand & Shailendra Pratap (67-72)
BOOK-REVIEWS Merina Islam (73-76)
PHILOSOPHY NEWS IN INDIA (77-80)
CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE (81)






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INTERTWINED HUMAN MIND IN NATURE
A Rendering from Ancient Tamil Tradition
Vallabadoss John Peter
Abstract
The situationality influences human thought, emotions and feelings. Human mind is shaped and
influenced by its environment. The classical Tamil literature (cakam literature: 500BCE-
300CE) stands evident that mind is intertwined in Nature. All the descriptions of Nature and its
surroundings in this ancient literature speak of the intertwining of human life with that of nature.
Nature is framed as the background for human behaviour and emotions in poetry. In the classical
Tamil literature Nature is portrayed as directly involving in the life of the humans, influencing
their living and thought patterns. The external material world participates in the world of
humans. The uppaai poems have a unique way of describing Nature that helps human life in
its everydayness. Nature spontaneously arouses the spiritual aspects in human mind. Besides
evoking aesthetic, poetic and artistic feelings in human mind, Nature plays a role of mediator by
arousing spirituality in humans. Nature serves human beings as a suitable setting for their living
and loving. The article gives a brief note on ancient Tamil thought generally on human-nature
relationship, particularly on intertwining of mind in nature, expressed in poetic forms.
Introduction
Every thinker is a product of his/her times. Human mind is shaped and influenced by its
environment, in a sense that the situationality influences human thought, emotions and feelings.
Human community at large is influenced in all respects while living in and with its environment.
Some philosophical traditions or systems treated mind and matter as separate category, while
others reduced matter into mind. The classical Tamil literature (cakam literature)
1
stands
evident that mind is intertwined with matter as expressed in natural environment.
The classical Tamil literature is admired both for its own linguistic excellence and for its
conceptual frame of thinking.
2
Ancient Tamil Literature impresses people not so much by the
bulk, range and variety of the works, as by richness of its content and the culture of the South
India.
3
While the early literature is a direct evidence of specific Tamil philosophy of life, it is
extremely rich in information about the thought pattern of the Tamils.
4
Attempt is made to cull
out from the extant classical Tamil literature, a thought pattern, if we hesitate to call it a
system of thought, which is unique and specific to Tamil tradition. In its pristine purity without
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.04-17
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borrowing from any other Indian tradition even though we cannot neglect the factor of being
influenced by the other traditions - ancient Tamil community developed a holistic and
comprehensive understanding of the material world that is seen as influencing human life. In the
largely agricultural based Tamil society nature posed as a background for the philosophical
tradition. The concept of nature becomes a specific thread of thought that characterizes
something unique to the Tamil tradition.
5
Viewed as a whole, this literature helps us reconstruct
the thought pattern of the Tamils and in deciphering the history of philosophy in the Tamil
country.
A brief note on ancient Tamil thought generally on human-nature relationship, particularly on
intertwining of mind in nature, expressed in poetic forms is with the purpose of looking for their
relevance in the modern society. Surely, we benefit from the insights found in the ancient
literature in enhancing our understanding of human mind.
I
Nature in Human life and thought
The Tolkppiyam, Eutokai and Pattupu are the fine products of the Tamilian intellect
belonging to the cakam period extended from 500 BCE to 300 CE. Tolkppiyam describes how
nature is framed as the background of human behaviour and emotions in poetry.
6
In eight
anthologies, Eutokai,
7
divided into Akam and Puam
8
that deal with interior and exterior
human experiences, Nature plays a vital role. In akam songs there is much of sympathetic
interpretation of Nature. Nature is brought into relationship with man in response to human
conduct and aspirations or provoking human emotions.
9
For instance, in Kuuntokai, the mulai
region is depicted to show the rainy reason where the birds sing and flowers blossom creating a
situation of gladness and cheerfulness. The master of the house returns back home after work
abroad, bringing the same joyfulness to the family.
10
The human feelings of joy and happiness
after a long awaiting for the arrival of a person (uripporu) is mixed with the situation created by
the karupporu (natural ambience) and mutalporu (rainy season and mulai region).
11

The puam poems like Purannuu and Patiuppattu there are not much elements of the
interpretation of Nature as there is in akam poems like Ainkuunuu, Kuuntokai, Naiai and
Akannuu. Yet they have an abundance of similes and metaphors regarding Nature.
12
These
cannot be just brushed aside as mere poetic interpretation of Nature. In many cakam poems,
especially in puram natural objects are used just for making allegories and similes and merely as
poetical expressions.
13
In Puam poems, Nature has a place in human life. The poets describe the
landscape and the beauty of the country while praising the king of the region or lamenting over
the present condition of the country after the war.
14
Many poems, about hundreds of them, in
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Maturaikkci by Mkui Marutar and in Paiapplai by Uruttiraaar have a similar
setting of praising the landscape and its beauty before the destruction.
15

In the Pattupu (ten idylls)
16
there are lengthy and picturesque descriptions of the Tamil
country and its seasons. In each of the ten idylls there are passages relevant to the theme of
Nature. All these poems contain suggestiveness regarding Nature, detailed description of Nature
and an explicit avowal of the mutual influence between Human and Nature. As it is said by Mu.
Varatharasan, more than the puam songs akam poems have deliberately shown the truth that
Nature by its power can not only attract human life but also change it as well.
17
Though human
emotions form the primary subject of these anthologies, it is the human emotions of a people
who lived in intimate relationship and communion with Nature.
18
From the description of
Nature in the poetry both akam and puam we find that the environment definitely conditions
human life and ideology.
The uppaai poems have a unique way of describing Nature that helps human life in its
everydayness. uppaai forms of poems are a kind of guide-books and travelogues that adopt a
more credible and realistic device than other cakam poems.
19
They are intended not only to
praise the kings and the beauty of their country, but also to guide poets who are desperately in
need to approach these kings.
20
The uppaai is of a piece with Tamil realism and describes
the journey as experienced by a human traveler and that on terra firma.
21
Extending the mere
description to a level of inherent philosophical rendering, one finds in detail the notion that
Nature guides humans who seek prosperity and wealth. It enables the humans not only to cherish
the richness of Nature solely by oneself, but shapes the human mind to inherit priceless values
such as generosity and being helpful. The poets become magnanimous in letting know others that
there is an opportunity for others who seek decent living by having recourse to generous persons
and richly treasured country. Such ennobling process of human mind takes place by nature as
evident in these uppaai poems.
In poems of Paripal, description of Nature is clearly the natural environment of the local gods,
namely, Tiruml and Murugan.
22
Nature is said to be playing a different role here, so varied from
the other akam poems as arousing human-divine relational aspects.
23
As devotional odes to the
divine, Paripal, praises the natural scenery of gods shrines surrounded by natural loveliness,
where the river takes its origin. The poems affirm human affection for the river that confers
beauty, fertility and prosperity to the city and the kingdom of Madurai.
24
The various
descriptions of natural objects and creatures by the poets reveal to us the involvement of them in
the nature and the subtle knowledge of nature they possessed.
25
Nature is said to be arousing the
spiritual aspects in human mind. Besides evoking aesthetic, poetic and artistic feelings in human
mind, Nature plays a role of mediator by arousing spirituality in humans.

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The physical texture of the south Indian landscape has provided various types of poetry,
conceptions and cultures within the south India.
26
The ancient Tamils had conception of the
world as nilam, comprising of four types of lands.
27
As in Tolkppiyam, the landscape is
divided into only four, namely kuici, mullai, marutam and neital.
28
The fifth one, plai, is only
a derivative of kuici and mullai.
29
The abundant variety in the landscape provided the Tamil
thinkers the natural prospect of a view with all its divergence and richness.
30
Kuici is the name
given to the landscape with mountainous terrain. Whole of Tamil country has mountains, tall or
short, with different names and varieties. Some are with mere rocky stones heaped up. Some are
described as having some plants and trees in the rocky cliffs and few with green covered all over
the mountains. Cakam pictures all of them with their beauty and names many of them.
31
Entire
view of the mountains with the plains down is well portrayed in many poems.
32
Especially in
Pattupttu and Malaipaukam the picture of kurici are noteworthy. Mullai region which is of
forest terrain is portrayed with romanticism during rainy season and evening hours.
33
The region
is full of trees and flowers.
34
The land is full of creatures, big and small.
35
Marutam is the fertile
cultivated area with lots of vegetation and food crops. The land is full of domestic animals, water
channels with fishes and trees with flowers and fruits.
36

Neital is the coastal region. As Tamil country is surrounded by sea in all three sides, there are
many poems dedicated to this land. The cakam poets lie Amvanr, Culcanr and
Nalantuvanr, sing about the coastal land, its birds, trees and plants.
37
There are references about
the seashores and the ports.
38
Even though there is no specific landscape as plai, cakam
literature has many poems sung in this. As we have seen already, kurici and mullai turn to be
plai in dearth of rain and prosperity. In plai, heat of the sun is unbearable and the hills are
devoid of charm and greenery.
39
Wind is heavy and hot which dries up the branches and the
leaves of the trees.
40
Pluralistic conception of reality in Tamil tradition has its foundation in such
an interaction of nature and human mind.
In the classical Tamil literature nature is portrayed as directly involving in the life of the humans
and influencing the human living and thought patterns.
41
All the descriptions of Nature and its
surroundings in both akam and puam poems deliberately speak of the intertwining of human life
with that of nature. All these external aspects of Nature are very much reflected as the internal
human aspects. There is in Tamil love poetry much of the sympathetic interpretation of nature
whereby Nature is brought into relationship with man, furnishing lessons and analogies to human
conduct and human aspirations, and expressing itself in sympathy with or in antagonism to the
lives of men.
42
The external material world, according to classical Tamil tradition, participates
in the world of humans.
43


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Interestingly, as noted by Mu Varatharasan, although Tamils have given so great a place for
Nature in the literature, there is no mention of a term iyarkai, or any equivalent term.
44
The
interpretation of such non-mention of a particular term for Nature is rendered as Tamils gave a
non-exclusive treatment for Nature that they do not consider nature as something different from
them. They have been infused with it that they regarded it as part of human nature. It also goes to
an understanding that feelings of human hearts and the beauty of nature are so intertwined that
Tamils have forgotten that there is something out there.
45
For instance, in a poem of Kuuntokai,
the deep longing of a person in love is made to coincide with sound of the misty mountains and
the sound of the peacock.
46
The influence of Nature as obtained in the Tamil land on poetry was
final and far-reaching and very decisive. Tamil poetry bears in nearly every page the imprint of
the land and the landscape in which it has been created.
47

II
Intertwining of Mind in Nature: Philosophical Implications
1) Sincere search, unquenched yearning and systematic thinking unravel the mysteries of the
universe and enable one come closer to the truth. Tamils have been from the time
immemorial, people with simplicity of life, subtlety in their thinking and living in harmony
with the nature. Tamil tradition has recorded evidences for its thinking at least from BCE
500.
48
Much noted character in them has been their practical sense of living. They are very
close to nature with their simple and realistic descriptions of natural world. Philosophy of
Tamils is concrete and intimately connected with the nature. Tamil philosophy of life from
the cakam period onwards has been down to earth in its rational approach to nature and
world. The poetic expressions are echoes of interaction of nature and humanity that formed a
way of thinking and living.
49

2) The cakam literature ever remains a written source or a social document. It contains a
detailed description of nature and an explicit avowal of the mutual influence between human
and nature. The appreciation of nature arose not just out of interest to be associated with
human events but to be viewed as the seeding ground for human emotion and action to
emerge. Unearthing the philosophical dynamics in the social life of the Tamils, expressed in
cakam literature reveals the refreshing insight of Tamil classical thought pattern that would
enable one to get involved in realistic living in the contemporary era.
50
The cakam literature
proclaimed a fact that the environment definitely conditions human life.
51

3) Concretely mentioning one such realistic conception of mind and nature relationship would
be illustrative. The linguistic description of relationship of Uyir-Mei in Tolkppiyam has
direct implications for soul-body relation. According to Tolkppiyar, the world of nature is
divided into word and substance or categories. The natural objects are classified as uyir, mei,
uyir-mei.
52
There are rational beings, the dead and inert. (Uyartinai enmanr makkat cutte,
agrinai enmanr avarla pirave). The time, world, soul, body, God, action, elements, sun,
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moon and the word are included in the substance (poru).
53
Differentiation between soul and
matter is a significant metaphysical principle in many systems of Indian philosophy. The
Tolkppiyam upholds the reality of both soul and matter. In the following phrases uyire
utampe, cea uyiri nia ykkai uampum uyirum viyak kaum,
54
we find both soul
and matter are mentioned as separate categories. Consciousness is the one, which
differentiates soul from matter. The soul is endowed with consciousness whereas the matter
is insentient.
55
The classification of the alphabets indicates uniquely the relation between
soul or spirit and matter. The Tamil alphabets are known by Uyir and Mei. In linguistic
parlance, they are commonly known as vowels and consonants. Etymologically they stand to
mean the soul and body. The twelve such soul-letters, conjoin with the consonants to give
meaning and life. Spirit animates the body, the matter to be alive.
4) Meaning of any existence, either be it any word in a language or any life in the world, is
derived out of the combination of soul and matter, uyir and mei. While stressing the
coexistence of soul and matter for a meaningfulness of existence, Tolkppiyam maintains the
distinction of the two. In the process of conjoining with the consonants, the vowels do not
change their nature.
56
Vowel appears only through the medium of body, consonant.
57

Tolkppiyar is well aware of the differences in the nature of the two realities, soul and
matter. Analysis of the concepts of soul and matter, as metaphysical principles found in
Tolkppiyam, leads one to interpret them as clinging towards the monistic tendency.
58
One
soul-letter A pervades all other eleven letters and the body-letters. Such interpretation
too leads to explain the one soul appearing diversely according to the nature of the bodies.
Another interpretation leads to conclude that the dichotomy between spirit and matter is
maintained throughout. In either case, one finds that the spirit and matter continuum is
essential for meaningful expressions in terms of language and in ordinary existence of the
humans on earth.
5) While discussing on the personhood, it is always important that the dichotomy of soul and
body would not serve our purpose. Human being is a holistic personality having equal status
and importance given to body and soul. Personality for Tolkppiyam insists on the
importance of having a sound body. Only a body that is fit can adequately respond to the
surroundings and externalize the thoughts and feelings. Such externalization (meypptu)
being a basic function of a persona, what the body, and looks mean to a persona cannot be
underestimated.
59
Tolkppiyam shows clearly the significance of the physical aspect of
human being. The philosophical tradition of ancient Tamils was pragmatic existential
philosophy.
60

6) For the contemporary crisis of Human-Nature encounter, with serious ecological threat to the
very existence of both the nature and the humankind, Tolkppiyam provides us the insight
that meaningful existence is possible only with due recognition of spirit and matter. One
cannot underestimate and throw away the existence of either of spirit or of the matter. Uyir-
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mei combine together to form meaningful words and existence. Uyir-mei is not just
combination of uyir and mei, it is uyir-mei, having spirit and matter as constitutive of each
other. Devaneya Pavanar, a great Tamil scholar explains spirit-matter in the following way;
that which animates the matter (mei) is spirit (uyir). Mei is the body that surrounds the
constitutive spirit. Thus, uyir-mei is the mei with the spirit.
61
In classical Tamil tradition
human nature is not just body or soul alone, but the right combination of both spirit and
matter. Human or worldly nature is both spirited matter and materialized spirit.
7) In cakam literature, besides the literalism with imagery and poetic expressions realistic
approach to nature is found throughout Tamil literature that Nature is out there, existing by
itself, influencing the human living and thought patterns. The external material world
participates in the world of humans. The appreciation of Nature arose not just out of interest
to be associated with human events or to be viewed as the background to human emotion and
action.
62

8) Classical Tamil tradition with a profound thought pattern and harmonious living with nature
has something concrete to contribute to contemporary understanding of nature and by
developing respectful attitude towards nature. Sense of wonderment is the beginning of
human thought. People experiencing the nature regarded its greatness and enjoyed its beauty
and eventually were educated by it. Classical Tamil Tradition proves that human activities
concretely takes place in Natural environment and are constantly influenced by
environmental factors. Tamil philosophy of life emerged in quite compatibility with love of
nature. The Nature serves human beings as the suitable setting for their living and loving.
Changes in natural seasons and of the day were portrayed as having strong effects on human
personality. Concept of nature in classical Tamil tradition was fundamentally realistic,
humanistic and concrete. Wisdom of the Tamils had not deduced from the rationalistic mind
of the humans, but rather from the animals and the birds and their reactions the Tamils have
learned wisdom. Tamil philosophical tradition emerged from the simple life style of ancient
Tamils in harmony with nature. That life is to be lived here and now becomes Tamil
philosophy of life.
63

9) Generally in history of human thought, be it Western or Eastern traditions, Nature has been
defined mostly as the outer, external and objective world of sense perception. It is non-
human and is not the product of human either in material or in mental sense. It exists by itself
having its own uniqueness of its existence and it is an independent reality without any
ontological dependence of human existence. Realism in ancient Tamil tradition is neither
nave realism nor representationism but a common-sense realism and critical-scientific
realism. External world is a real, independent existent whose truth could well be established
by virtue of its own existence and by perception of it by human senses and mind.
Ontologically human and external world are independent realities and pragmatically they are
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interdependent and interconnected realities for their sustenance. They co-exist with each
other with relationship of mutual and complementary nature.
Concluding Remarks
The poetic lines of ancient Tamils available today as cakam literature, are deeply philosophic in
nature expressing the close association of humans with nature.
64
Tamils have been from the time
immemorial, people with simplicity of life, subtlety in their thinking and living in harmony with
the nature. Much noted character in them has been their practical sense of living. The classical
cakam literatures bear sufficient witness to this aspect of the Tamils. They are very close to
nature with their simple and realistic descriptions of natural world.
65
Tamil Philosophy of life
from the cakam period onwards was down to earth in its rational approach to nature and world.
The realistic notion of the material world is very much influential on the later philosophical
system of aiva Siddhnta, especially in its metaphysics. The positive and affirmative approach
towards physical reality and openness to pluralistic world-view is found in Tamil tradition.
In our short discussion on relationship of human mind with Nature, we have shown how the
poetic expressions revealing deep sense of realism are very much influenced and shaped by the
natural surroundings. The human feelings, emotions and thoughts are born out of situationality
that encompasses geography, socio-cultural and existential predicaments. One might be reluctant
to assert that human mind is the product of Nature, if one is not an ardent follower and defender
of a system like Samkhya. Nevertheless, from the above discussion on nature of relationship
between human mind and Nature, as evident from Tamil classical literature, one is confident to
say that the mind is intertwined with Nature in various aspects. Nature plays significantly in
activating different emotions and feelings of human mind. The mind is intertwined with Nature.
Notes & References:
1. The extant classical literature of Tamil tradition is said to be the product of ancient
Tamils about 500BCE to 300CE. Refer, Iyengar, P.T. Srinivasa (2001) History of the
Tamils: From the Earliest Times to 600A.D. Reprint 1929; Asian Educational Services.
New Delhi.
2. In a largely debated platform of Indian philosophy in general, the ancient Tamil tradition
has scanty reference and even suffered neglect in the academic discourse. Often stated
reasons are the following: Tamil tradition has not been known to have produced any
specific philosophical treatise; There is no evidence for any philosophical thining as
such in Tamil tradition; Even if there are some stray philosophical injunctions they could
well be integrated in the whole gamut of different classical Indian systems; There is
nothing specific to Tamil tradition at all. These above mentioned statements are widely
prevalent in any Indological study and in Indian philosophical discussions. However, the
present article would show little light on philosophical insight of ancient Tamils.
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3. Nayagam, Xavier S. Thani (1997) Landscape and Poetry, International Institute of Tamil
Studies, Chennai, 1.
4. Iyengar, History of the Tamils, lv.
5. Muppaalmani, K (2008) Thamizhaga Thaththuva Cinthanai Marapugal Philosophical
Thought Tradition of Tamil Country (in Tamil), New Century Book House, Chennai, iv.
6. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry, 2-3. For instance, the emotional experience of people
is termed as urikporu in cakam literature. Tolkppiyam equates this with nature.
puartal pirital iruttal, al ivain nimitam enivai, tru klait tiaiku urip poul
coition Tol. Porul. 14. It is worth mentioning here that Tolppiyar considers
idamum klamum (place and time) are mutal poru (primary). mutalenap pauvatu
nilam poutu irain ilalpena moipa iyal puarntor Tol. Porul. 4. Karupporu is that
which creates the ambience. teivam uv mmaram pupuai, ceiti yain pakutiyou
tokaiyi, avakai piavum kauena moipa Tol. Porul.18. For detailed treatement on
mutalporu, karupporu and uripporu refer: Varatharasan, Mu (2006) Pazhatamizh
Illakkiyatil Iyarkkai Nature in Ancient Tamil Literature (in Tamil), 2
nd
ed. Pari
Nilayam, Chennai, 23-25.
7. The eight texts are Ainkuunuu, Kuuntokai, Naiai, Patiuppattu, Paripal,
Kalitokai, Akannuu and Purannuu. Refer for the detailed history and number of
poems, Pillai, M. Shanmugam (1997) Cakat Tamiar Vaviyal Philosophy of Life of
Cankam Tamils (Tamil), International institute of Tamil Studies, Chennai, 20-38.
8. Akam deals with internal, personal and directly incommunicable human experience.
Puram is about all that does not come under these internal and interior experiences of
humans. In Puram poetry, the study of Nature is mainly objective and consists in similes
and metaphors, whereas in Akam poetry Nature is the background and sympathetic stage
for the emotional and aesthetic aspects of love. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry, 5.
9. Ibid.
10. vauttu tat trai teviat, takama pavin mulai malara, inpuat tanu poute,
ninkui vaitanam trka inip paar. Kuunkotai 494.
11. There is a scholarly discussion on which is given importance, mutalpporu, karupporu or
uripporu. Refer: Varatharasan, Pazhatamizh Illakkiyatil Iyarkkai Nature in Ancient
Tamil Literature, 24-25. In this paper we are concerned about how these remain
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interrelated and mutually influence each other. That the Nature plays a vital role in
arousing human feelings and emotions is largely evident in all these discussions.
12. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry, 5-6.
13. Puram 65, 155.
14. ena iratatal arite n atu nalkinum nalk yyinum velpr eipaaiku d mai auvait
tviri kauppat tuvani mmcait tapala iitarum auvinin koperu knam pdalenak
keite Puram 154. Here the poet says that it is easy for him to praise the beauty of the
ings country than to as him directly for some boon. touta vayalral pianavum, u
porutceu vutu vittunavum karumpin pttip ptta neital, iruka eumaiyin niraiuk
kunavum, kalikeu tuakai iya marukin, vaaitalai mt mpal rnavum, olitekin
imimarutin punalvyi pmpoikaip pal cna pakeu vaipin ndu Patiupattu -13.
The poet describes the fertile landscape before invaded and destroyed by the enemy.
15. Refer Maturaikkci 89-130, 152-194, 239-340; Paiapplai 101-119, 240-270.
16. The ten idylls are: Ciupuppatai by Nattattar, Kuicippu by Kapilar,
Malaipaukam by Perukaucikaar, Maturaikkci by Mkui Marutar,
Mullaippu bty Napptar, Neunalvai by Narar, Paiapplai and
Perumpuppaai by Uruttiraaar, Porunaruppaai by Muattamaaiyr
and Tirumurukauppaai by Narar. For details on these texts, refer; M. Shanmugam
Pillai, Cakat Tamiar Vaviyal Philosophy of Life of Cankam Tamils (Tamil), 7-19.
17. Varatharasan, Pazhatamizh Illakkiyatil Iyarkkai Nature in Ancient Tamil Literature, 36-
37.
18. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry, 7.
19. ktarum parum porunarum vialiyum iaik ktci uaat tnip peta peruvaam
pearkku avuic, cenu payanetirac conna pakkam. Tol. Porul. 9.
20. In Tirumurguppaai which is a poem on the god, Murukan, the descriptions of the
natural beauty of the place is given to glorify the god as his immanent presence is in the
Nature, and to declare that natural flowers, trees and animals are sacred to Him. Minute
and interesting descriptions of the hill country, of the dawn and the setting in of evening,
and of the close life of the people with Nature, occur in Malaipaukam and Kapilars
famous Kuicippu. Few passages in Neunalvai portray the interplay of human
emotions and sentiments, with that of North Wind and its effects.
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21. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry, 4.
22. Paripal 8, 9, 14-20.
23. Varatharasan, Pazhatamizh Illakkiyatil Iyarkkai Nature in Ancient Tamil Literature, 43.
24. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry, 6.
25. Pillai, Cakat Tamiar Vaviyal Philosophy of Life of Cankam Tamils, 220.
26. Tolkppiyam enumerates the names and characteristics of each landscape and its impact
on human conduct, feeling and thought pattern. Refer for instance the following hymns.
Tol. Porul. 6; 8; 9-10.
27. Pillai, Cakat Tamiar Vaviyal Philosophy of Life of Cankam Tamils, 212.
28. mullai kuici marutam neitalenac coliya muraiyl colavum paum. Tol. Poru. 5.
29. Later in one of the five great epics, aimpeukppiyam, namely, Cilappatikram, its
author Ilavatial speas of it. mullaiyum kuiciyum muaimaiyin tirintu, nalliyalpu
iantu nautuyar uuttup, plai enpatr paivam koum. Cilappatikram, kuk. 64-
66.
30. For further details, refer: K. Ramamurthi, Some aspects of the Regional Georgraphy of
Tamil Naad, Indian Geographical Journal, Vol.XXIII, No.2 ff; K.M. Panikkar,
Geographical Factors in Indian History (Bombay: n.p., 1955), 24. It has been also
observed, for instance, that monotheism is characteristic of religions which have
originated in the desert, and polytheism of cults where Nature is diversified and
luxuriant. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry, 10.
31. Different mountains like Imayam (Puram - 2), Kolli (Puram - 152), Mullr (Puram -
126), Potiyil (Puram - 128), Vekatam (Puram 389), Parkutram (Paripal 14:1-
17).
32. White clouds hovering over the green mountains as it portrayed in Patiupattu 78.
umaai tavaum kuyar neuvarai Nainai 385. maaikaam ckkum mmalai
Puram 131. koal avaraip pvin anna, vetalai mmaai cit tnal n
maineukunu Ainkuunu - 209. There are poems picturing the water falls down the
hills, for example as in malainr veneu koiyin tnum Malaipaukam 582.
33. As rainy season and evening hours are specific to mullai poems as their perumpoutu and
ciupoutu.
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34. ceiyilai ky acanam malara Mulaipttu 93.
35. Frogs, deer, cows and elephants are found all over mullai region. paumaai pointa
payamiku puavin neunr avala pakuvait trai Akam 154. tirimaruppu iralai teaal
paruki Akam - 154. kanupayir kurala manu nirai kutarum mlai Akam 14.
36. tuaimn vaakum perunrp poikai, arimalar mpal minta neimaruppu, rnta
ermaic cvalpau mutupttut, tkucu aal tucip poutupatap painnia varal
kuaip peyartantu, kuruvukkoip pantrai ci mutrp, prcei maarin pukutarum. Akam
316.
37. par araip punai vakucinait tyum, knalam peruntuai. Akam 270.
38. vlitai yeuta vaitaru vakam, palvu patam iitarum painatu Matuaikaci 536-
537.
39. attam kikatir kaukiya kavinai pakal, vika uainta cimaia, vaikau karukina
malai. Akam 399. paitaa vempiya pcer attam. Akam 371.
40. nucinai vaiya ka ollena, vupal akal ilai kaikku oiyum. Akam 143.
41. Natarasan, Ti. Su (2008) Tamizh Marapil Azhaiyal Aesthetics in Tamil Tradition, in
Tamizhar Cinthanai Marabu Philosophical Tradition of Tamils, ed., Deva Perinban,
Tenaka Aivu Maiyam, Chennai, 61.
42. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry, 5.
43. Varatharasan, Pazhatamizh Illakkiyatil Iyarkkai, 45. Further, Varatharasan argues in the
pages 45-52 that in classical Tamil literature, human life is centric where the description
of the nature serves only as a background and setting. Nature takes only the secondary
position in the literature. Humanistic aspects emerge prominently in them.
44. Ibid., 21. Iyarkkai is the Tamil term for Nature, which etymologically means that
which is by it own essential substance, iyalpaka ullatu. Refer, Pavanar, Devaneya
(2003) Sollaratchi Katturaikal-Research Essays on word, Tamizh Mann Publications,
Chennai, 12-13.
45. Varatharasan, Pazhatamizh Illakkiyatil Iyarkkai Nature in Ancient Tamil Literature, 21.
46. inamayil akaum marampayil knatu, naraimuka kam prpu panikkap, paumaai
pointa sral avarnuk kunam nkkinen toi, patai ya kaicin Kurtokai- 249.
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47. Nayagam, Landscape and Poetry , 38.
48. Muppaalmani, K (2008) Thamizhaga Thaththuva Cinthanai Marapugal Philosophical
Thought Tradition of Tamil Country (in Tamil), New Century Book House, Chennai, iii.
49. Dikshitar, V. R. Ramachandra. Studies in Tamil Literature and History, p.273, as cited in
Mu. Varatharasan, Pazhatamizh Illakkiyatil Iyarkkai Nature in Ancient Tamil
Literature, 26.
50. Singaravelu, S (2001) Social Life of the Tamils: The Classical Period, International
Institute of Tamil Studies, Chennai, 1.
51. Natarasan, Tamizh Marapil Azhaiyal Aesthetics in Tamil Tradition, in Tamizhar
Cinthanai Marabu Philosophical Tradition of Tamils, 61.
52. Selvamony, Nirmal (1998) Persona in Tolkppiyam, International Institute of Tamil
Studies, Chennai, 124.
53. Gopalarishnan, R (1994) The Perspective of Tamil Religion and Philosophy, in The
Role of the Philosopher Today, ed. Anand Amaladass, T.R. Publications, Chennai, 71.
54. Tolkappiyam(Tol.). Porulathikaram (Porul.). 71, 200, Collathikaram (Col.). 57. For
more details on this, refer, Kandaswamy, S.N (2000), Tamil Literature and Indian
Philosophy, International Institute of Tamil Studies, Chennai.
55. In the understanding of Cenavaraiyar, the conscious soul and insentient soul are treated
indiscriminately in some of the usages. aram ceytu turakkam pukkan Having
performed virtues, he entered heaven. (Tol. Col.57.) He denotes not the body but the
soul. In another expression,uyir nttu orumakan kitantn one person lay there
deprived of his soul. Here the makan denotes not the soul but the body. Therefore, in
some usages soul and body are to denote mutually. For Teyvaccilaiyar, utampu in one
context denotes the subtle body consisting of the internal elements viz., mind, intellect,
ego and the five subtle elements that are responsible for transmigration of the souls. In
another context it refers to prakti, the primal nature or the primordial matter from which
all have evolved.
56. Tol. Eluttuadhikaram (Eluttu). 10.
57. Tol. Eluttu.18.
58. Monistic Interpretation of Soul-Matter Relation: There are twelve soul-letters. A letter
is the only one Soul-letter, which combines with the other soul -letters and the body
-letters, and it assumes a variety of forms. The commentator Naccinarkkiniyar holds that
the one soul appears diversely according to the nature of the bodies. He also quotes the
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Bhagavad-gita: I am the letter a in all the letters and the Kural: All letters have a as
their source. Therefore the view is that letter a is the soul of all the other soul-letters,
just as God is the soul of souls. Thus there are letters of which the letter a is the
substance and there are bodies in which the letter a is the substance and there are bodies
in which the letter a appears variously. It is one and appears variously. Sundaram, P.K
(1979) Some Philosophical Concepts in Purananuru, University of Madras, Chennai, 16.
59. Selvamony, Persona in Tolkappiyam, 113.
60. Arunan, Tamiarin Thattuva Marapu Philosophical Tradition of Tamils, 19.
61. Devaneya Pavanar, sollaratchi katturaigal-Research Essays on word, 29.
62. Hudson, W.H (1945) An Introduction to the Study of Literature. Appendix II, On the
treatment of Nature in Poetry, London, 319-331, as cited in Nayagam, Landscape and
Poetry, 24.
63. Ibid., 268.
64. Varatharajan, Pazhantamizh Illakkiyathil Iyarkkai Nature in Ancient Tamil Literature,
251.
65. Singaravelu, C.N (2005) The Tattvas in Saiva Siddhanta, in Essays on Saiva Siddhnta,
ed., P.D. Balaji, aiva Siddhnta Perumandram, Chennai, 17.











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BUDDHISM AND DENNETT S MODEL THEORY: AN ANALYSIS IN THE
ACCOUNT OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Sheeja O.K.
Abstract
The last few decades of Twentieth century provided several intellectual developments which led
Philosophy to refocus its attention on the problem of consciousness. But the thing is that most of
the attempts have been done by the thinkers of English-speaking countries. Advances in
Neurology and Computer Technology provided material explanation to the human brain that
helped to enrich the researches on consciousness. The problem has been discussed also in Indian
literature from the early period. Almost all Indian philosophical systems, heterodox as well as
orthodox, had discussed the problem seriously. This paper proposes to discuss the Buddhist
conception of Consciousness in the light of recent developments in Cognitive Science. Buddhists
accept consciousness as multiplicity units. Recently, Daniel Dennett- a prominent cognitive
scientist who is an active contributor to the field for thirty years- also holds somewhat similar
view on the problem of consciousness through his Multiple Drafts Model theory. Analysis of
both views is to be done in the proposed paper.
*****
The last few decades of the twentieth century put forward several intellectual developments that
led to refocusing of philosophy, especially on the problem of consciousness. Advances in
neurology; the physical study of the brain, using brain scanning, rare cases of localized brain
damage, and so forth; the discovery of genetic causes for a variety of mental illnesses; and
research into the effects of drugs on the brain allowed scientists for the first time to offer
physiological, material explanations to a variety of states of consciousness. Advances in
computer technology generated advanced forms of artificial intelligence which enhanced the area
of research enormously.
The problem of consciousness has been discussed in Indian tradition from the ancient period.
Both Orthodox and Heterodox systems handled the problem very seriously. In Indian
philosophy, the problem of Mind and the Problem of Consciousness have been discussed
prominently. This paper proposes a serious attempt to make an analysis of the Buddhist approach
to the problem of Consciousness and at the same time it examines a very recent theory of
consciousness propounded by an eminent Cognitive Scientist Daniel Dennett in the West.
Dennett proposes somewhat similar view as the conception that Buddhists put forward.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.18-24
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As an alternative to the Cartesian Theatre he proposes a Multi Drafts Model theory of
consciousness. By introducing this theory he rejects the idea that consciousness is a single
continuing phenomenon. He holds that Stream of Consciousness is continuing flow of drafts of s
text; the texts are constantly being edited or reedited. As Humanism Buddhas teachings are
mainly concentrating on the life of common man. His thinking, however, is concerned with
every spheres of life. Even though he had not concentrated much on the Mind-Body problem, he
mentioned the interaction between the two. The concept of consciousness has been discussed
clearly in the higher teachings of Abbhidhamma Pitaka. This paper focuses on the account of
Yogacara tradition ant Abhidhamma conception especially.
Dennett on Consciousness
Daniel Dennett recently presents a new model theory of consciousness which is called Multiple
Drafts Model (MDM) theory of consciousness.
1
Dennett proposed this theory as an alternative to
the Cartesian theatre.
2
For Dennett, Cartesian theatre is an illusion and contends that there is no
single determinative stream of consciousness. He replaced Cartesian theatre by MDM theory. In
consequence it is argued that varieties of perceptions are completed in the brain by the process of
interpretation and elaborating sensory inputs. In other words single narrative model is discarded
and replaced it by parallel distributed multiple narratives. He insists that Cartesian theatre model
of consciousness must be abandoned. As an alternative he introduces the MDM theory and also
proposes a third person scientific methodology for studying human consciousness that he calls
heterophenomenology.
3
MDM investigated consciousness from empirical third person point of view and claims that the
facts of consciousness are to be validated by heterophenomenology. The new way in a natural
path leading from third person perspective to first person perspective of phenomenological
method, while never eliminating methodological samples of science.
4
It is a way of interpreting
behaviorism including interval behavior. It seems Dennett proposes a radical rethinking of
Stream of Consciousness according to which consciousness is a centre of negative gratuity,
where information from various sources come to have mix up. It is very similar to the
preparation of many drafts of our thoughts. This comes like a pandemonium like situation, and
this is what is strongly supported by the PDP research.
5
In Dennetts view all mental activities, lie thoughts and perceptions are accomplished by
parallel multitrack distributed process in the brain. A single stream of consciousness is a user
illusion, a mere seeming. Instead there are a number of discriminations and judgments that are
constantly evolving in different localities of neuronal networks. Interpretations of sensory inputs
flow around like many drafts of a paper or a book sent out to peers for revision. There is no
canonical final text, only verbal reports fix certain contents as being consciously experienced.
There is no show, now presentation and now audience.
6
He suggests the replacing of homunculus
with a set of small and less sophisticated agents. It is called Pandemonium a model of
competitive, nonhierarchical computational architecture.
7

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Different parts of neural processing assert more or less control at different times. For something
to reach consciousness is akin to becoming famous, in that it must leave behind consequences by
which it is remembered. Consciousness is the property of having enough influence to affect what
the mouth will say and the hands will do. The conscious self is taken to exist as an abstraction
visible at the level of intentional stance, akin to a body of mass having a central gravity. Dennett
refers to the self as the centre of narrative gravity, a story we tell ourselves about our
experiences. Consciousness exists, but not independently of behavior and behavioral dispositions
which can be studied through heterophenomenology. Dennett explains consciousness in terms of
Access consciousness alone,
8
denying the independent existence of Phenomenal consciousness.
9

Consciousness is more or less continuing (but not continuous) flow of drafts of text, the texts are
constantly being edited and reedited from one process to another. Sometimes they initiate
speech; sometimes they are stored in long-term memory, other times they are entirely forgotten.
For Dennett, our sense of continuity of consciousness comes from our insensitivity to different
inds of changes and consciousness is a gappy phenomena at all.
Buddhist Approach to Consciousness
The early theoretical roots concerning the interaction of mind and body come in the earliest texts
of Buddhism, the Pali Canon. The theories expressed in these texts are indeed theory laden, and
most central of these theories is samsara. The Buddha himself did not focus heavily on justifying
accepted metaphysical doctrines; nor did he go out of his way to refute wrong views of his time.
The Buddhist teachings are meant to enter into ones ethical and meditative practice, and only
then to be judged. The Buddha did not put great effort in describing the fine distinctions between
the mind and body, but instead indicated that through deep meditation, one gains sufficient
understanding of the issue.
The resulting description of mind and body in early Buddhism is one of neither dualism nor
monism, but a pragmatic description of both distinctions and interdependencies. Buddha argues
that consciousness is dependent upon conditions such as objects and the eye-organ for eye-
consciousness or sounds and the ear-organ for ear-consciousness. The material phenomena
described by the Buddha are those that can be directly detected (via touch, taste, smell, etc) and
that citta itself is ones experienced state of consciousness, rather than an underlying basis upon
which mental states may arise. Buddhist mind-body relation are thus of the examination of
experience, or phenomenology. Rather than hypostatize mind and body as separate substances
and confront the problem of interaction (as done in the West), the Buddhist texts retain the mere
phenomenological descriptions of each. In this view the mind is the force which creates, though
not ex nihilo, our experience of matter. Body likewise acts upon the mind, as mentioned above,
as outside objects which present themselves to the sense-organ (itself bodily) to create sense-
consciousness. In this respect, the doctrine is one of functional, though not substantial, dualism.
The most important aspect of the Buddhas teaching on mind and body, however, is the
interconnectedness of the two. The Abhidharma states that the mind and body interact in the
following ways: 1) they are co nascent, born together; 2) they are mutually dependent in their
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arising, like sticks in a tripod supporting one another; 3) they support one another as the earth
supports a tree; and 4) each is present and non-disappearant in the other, meaning that there is no
pure experience of the physical free from mind, nor any pure mind free of physicality. While
mind free from physicality is held to be possible in deep meditative states and at nirvana, the
investigation of mind becoming free of the body and the ensuing ontology of nirvana and
samsara in the Pali Canon is too great a task at present. The first notable divergence, or apparent
divergence, from the teachings in the Pali Canon on the mind-body relationship came from the
Vijnanavada (Knowledge/Teaching of Mind) School of Buddhism. This school began around
150 C.E. with the Sandhinirmochana Sutra, and was further developed from the writings of the
Asanga (4
th
Century CE) and his younger brother Vasubandhu. This school confronted the mind-
body issue through intense focus on the mind (vijnana) in meditation. This school was thus
called the Yogacara, or practice of meditation school.
The Yogacara Model of Consciousness
Dinnaga the follower of Yogacara tradition holds that both object and consciousness are
experienced simultaneously.
10
An object and its consciousness are one and the same. The
external objects cannot be taken to be as the cause of the consciousness. On the contrary, the
external object is nothing but consciousness itself. He holds that no object is ever experienced
apart from the consciousness-the external objects are the states of consciousness. The Yogacara
Schools focus on the mind consisted of a dissection of the terms citta, manas, and vijnana,
which in earlier schools had been used synonymously to refer to vijnanaskanda (the aggregate of
mind). However, Asanga defines these as three different and distinct aspects of the mind
aggregate. Citta is explained to be the alayavijnana (storehouse consciousness) in which karmic
(meaning by ones actions) bijas (seeds) are stored. It is from here that the Yogacara School
explains that all of reality emanates with the often misconstrued doctrine of cittamatra (mind-
only). Manas is that which within citta, or alayavijnana, obscures true knowledge, or stains the
citta, with false ideas. It is the rational or intellectual faculty of the mind, both in the positive
sense of actively producing feelings or wishes, and in the negative sense of passively ordering
reality (incorrectly from the absolute perspective) based on habit and conditioning. Vijnana
consists of the raw, pre-linguistic experience of the six forms of consciousness as accepted
throughout Buddhism: sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell, and mind.
Given this three-level division of the mind, Yogacarins present a complete phenomenological
description of how we come to have experiences. Vijnana is the most superficial aspect of the
aggregate of mind, the experience of colors, sounds, tastes, etc. Vijnana is the direct
consciousness, or bare phenomenon, free of the labeling or discrimination of the manas. Manas
then sorts out or schematizes such phenomena, adding labels so that they may be understood as a
particular part of ones reality. In most people the shift from bare phenomena to sorted and
labeled objects happens too quicly to observe, but through meditation, specifically vipassana
(insight) practice based on the Satipatthana Sutta.
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The Abhidhamma Model of Consciousness
The term Abhidharma means approximately higher or further Dharma. The Abhidharma,
sometimes rendered as `deeper teaching', but also as `analytical insights regarding phenomena of
existential importance', deals with consciousness in an analytic and synthetic way. A
classification is made of the types of consciousness and of the various objects it is directed to.
The basic Abhidharma conception is that to be conscious in fact requires a minimum of eight
dharmas-consciousness and associated mental factors(contact, feeling, recognition, volition, one-
pointedness, life-faculty and bringing-to-mind)--arises for a moment and then falls away to be
immediately followed by the next combination of consciousness and associated mental factors.
Each combination is conscious of just one object. The arising and passing of each moment of
consciousness is understood to occur extremely rapidly. The flow of consciousness is thus
analogous to the rapid sequence of the frames of a movie film; consciousness is experienced as a
continuous flow. The flow of consciousness involves in the mind picking up and putting down
successive objects by means of successive sets of associated mental factors.
There are two basic modes of mind: The mind that is actively perceiving objects and reacting to
those objects which is called mind is involved in process (Vitti-citta) and the mind that is free of
process, resting in the inactive mode which is called Bhavanga. According to the theory of
consciousness process, the mind momentarily returns to the inactive mode of bhavanga between
each consciousness process. Bhavanga is the state of mind a being born with and it is the state of
mind that returns in deep, dreamless sleep and in between every consciousness process. It is the
connecting link between one life and the next.
The active or surface level of the mind confuse to be seen as comprising six types of
consciousness: our primary awareness of five types of sense data and our conscious thoughts
which for human beings are mostly related to the former in various ways. But underpinning these
types of active consciousness are two further types of consciousness which are crucial in
creating the world as we ordinarily experience it. The first is the defiled mind (klista-manas) and
the eighth is the Store Consciousness. The Store Consciousness is the particular repository of
all the seeds sown by the defilements of a beings active consciousness. It is the result of beings
past karma. This is the underlying basis and support (asraya) of our conscious lives: the largely
hidden heart of our personalities.
The Abhidharma describes in a cryptic way an intricate model of consciousness on three levels.
11

The first level consists of a discrete, serial stream of atoms of awareness called cetas. Secondly,
a linear sequence of cetas may form a `molecule', being a cognitive-emotional conscious unit.
Finally, each ceta has a substructure of conscious mental factors (`elementary particles'), called
cetasikas, acting in parallel. For example, the sight of a woman or the memory of the sound of a
frog jumping in water is such an object. Examples of types of consciousness perceive these two
objects with calm joy or with restless desire. The topic of investigation is phenomenological: this
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means that it is about consciousness as it appears, like (perceived) sight, sound and memory, and
not about women, frogs or water.
The main thesis in the Abhidharma model is that consciousness is not continuous, but comes in
discrete packages of consciousness.
12
The main task of a ceta is to be concerned with some
object. A ceta is said to be directed towards it. What a ceta does further, is to contribute to the
determination of future cetas. We call this the karmic effect of the ceta. How this is done
depends partly on the object captured by the present ceta. But there are also different types of
cetas. For example, a certain visual object can be the data of a ceta with desire and attachment,
with disgust and hatred or with loving kindness and compassion. Both the type and the object of
the future cetas depend on those of the past ones. This leads to accumulated karma, transferred
and augmented from ceta to ceta. This karma, may activate something in the next ceta, or in a
near or distant future ceta. The karma is determined by the trace of the types of past cetas. It has
the objects of the present ceta as side condition. Some types of ceta may have a direct effect on
the following cetas (producing karma), some have to collaborate with others. Also the karma
force of some cetas can work against the effect of other cetas (obstructing karma), and it is even
possible that the potential action of a ceta is forever prevented by a later one (destructive karma).
The Abhidharma distinguishes 89 types of cetas. These types are divided into two major
subgroups: those ceta types with strong karma that has a direct effect without the need of
supporting karma, and those with only indirect (supporting) effect. The ceta types with
producing karma can be subdivided into unwholesome and wholesome. Unwholesome cetas lead
to attachment and increased suffering. Wholesome cetas lead to freedom and decreased
suffering. There are the sensual, sublime and supramundane spheres of consciousness. The
sensual sphere consists of those ceta types directed to pleasant feeling coming from the physical
senses.
In early Buddhism consciousness seems as the third link in the process of dependent arising.
Buddha presents the doctrine of dependent origination to explain human bondage as well as
liberation. Consciousness is the third link in this doctrine and it provides the link between the
past and the present. According to Buddhist conception ones consciousness is conditioned by
what he is experienced as well as his response to these experiences.
Dennett proposes a third person scientific methodology for studying human consciousness. He
insists that there is no single discriminative stream of consciousness. In his view all mental
activities are accomplished by parallel multitrack distributed process in the brain. Instead of a
single stream of consciousness there are a number of discriminations and judgments that are
constantly evolving in different localities of neuronal networks. Abhiddhamma describes
consciousness on three levels. The first level consists of serial streams of atom sof awareness
called cetas and secondly a linear sequence of cetas may form a molecule being a cognitive-
emotional conscious unit and finally each ceta has a substructure of conscious mental factors
acting in parallel. The flow of consciousness evolves in the mind picking up and putting down
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successive objects by means of successive sets of associated mental factors. Both accounts hold
that consciousness is not continuous, but comes in discrete packages of consciousness.

References:
1. Dennett, D.C, (1991). Consciousness Explained. USA: Penguin Books, p. 17.
2. Dennett D.C. (1999). The Cartesian Theatre and Filling in the Stream of Consciousness
in Nature of Consciousness (Eds) Block N, Flanagan, O and Guldezer, G. MIT Press, pp.
83 - 88.
3. Ibid. p. 72.
4. Ibid., p. 12.
5. Churchland, P.M.(1989). Neuro Computational Perspective. London: MIT Press.
6. Dennett, D.C, (1991). Consciousness Explained.
7. Ibid.
8. Bloc, N. (1999). On Confusion about a Function of Consciousness in Nature of
Consciousness (Eds.) Block N, Flanagan, O and Guldezer, G., 1997. MIT Press, pp. 375
415
9. Ibid.
10. Dinnaga (1993).Alambana-Parisha taen from Stcharbalskys The Buddhist Logic.
Delhi: Motilal Banarasdas. pp. 520 - 21.
11. Leo M., Pruden (Trans.) (1991) Abhidharma Kosabhasyam Ed. Louis De La Vallee
Poussin, California: Asia Humanitarian Press.
12. Thomas, E, Wood (1994). Mind Only: A Philosophical and Doctrinal Analysis of the
Vijnana Vada . Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas, p. 50.
13. Sangharakshita (2006). A Survey of Buddhism, Delhi: Banarasidas Publishers, Pvt. Ltd.
14. Buddhdhana, K.P. (1984). Buddhism and Science. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasi Das
Publishers, Pvt. Ltd.
15. Madan,G.R.,(1999). Buddhism: Its Various Manifestations. New Delhi: Mittal
Publications.



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RABINDRANATH TAGORES THOUGHTS OF MIND: PHILOSOPHY OF
EDUCATION
K.Victor Babu
Tagores idealism is a true child of Indias own past and his philosophy is Indian both in origin
and development. - Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Although not dedicated to education as his sole passion, Rabindranath Tagore stands out as is
educationist of rare brilliance. Asias first Nobel Laureate, Tagore was born into a prominent
family known for its multicultural socio-religious influence in 19
th
century Bengal, which
certainly provided the foundation for his education approach. He had thirteen siblings who
became mathematicians, journalists, novelists, musicians, artists. His cousins, who shared the
same family mansion, were leaders in theatre, science and the new art movement.
The Modern Indian philosopher of education, Rabindranath Tagore is considered to be the
spiritualist in education in the sense that they equated the highest purpose of education to the
highest purpose of man. Tagore explains,
I believe in a spiritual world not as any thing separates from this world but as its inner most
truth. With the breath we draw we must always feel this truth, which we are living in God.
Tagore focused to believe that mans birth in this world was just an accident or a dream of a
dreamer but attributed to it a spiritual significance. He makes that clear when he says, we have a
personality to which matter and force are unmeaning unless related to something intimately
personal, whose nature we have discovered, in some measure in human love, in the greatness of
the good, in the martyrdom of heroic souls, in the ineffable beauty of nature which can never be
a physical fact nor anything but an expression of personality. This shows Tagores faith in
spiritual values.
Tagore aimed at the highest ethical values through education and founded it on the noblest
fundamental laws of Gods creation.
Education is the best national investment because it holds the key of order and progress.
Education has its only meaning and objects in freedom; freedom from ignorance about the laws
of universe, and freedom from passion and prejudice in our communication with the human
world add some ideas.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.25-34
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Tagore has been described as a multi-splendoured personality. His active interest in education
goes back to the last decade of the 19
th
centaury.
1
On Tagores philosophy of life there is a
powerful impression and influence of religions, highly cultured and philosophical oriented
family to which he belonged. He imbibed the idealistic philosophy of life and adopted the
highest ideals of truth, beauty and goodness as the chief aims of education to be achieved by all
human beings. As an idealist, Tagore believed in the absolute and immortal existence of god, but
he believed in god as a superman and accepted this world as his best creation. In fact, Tagore
was a follower of Monism.
2

Tagore believed in the freedom of the individual to shape his life in his own way. But in the
individuals development he ultimately wanted the unity of manind. He said that every
individual is different from another and everyone is unique.
Tagore believed that god is one and he has created human being and nature. We perceive a unity
in him and through him, the fraternal bonds between all human beings and the external nature
and human soul i.e. man. Tagore was a great humanist and regarded man a reflection of god. He
disapproved any distinction and discrimination between man and man and advocated unity
among all the people of the world. Tagore wanted to inculcate self-respect and dignity in man-
hood and elevate his soul. For this moral and mental progress is essential. Hence, he emphasized
that education should promote this progress by all means.
Tagores Concept of Education
The role of education is not only imparts information and knowledge, but also promotes love and
fellow- feeling between us and the living beings of the world. Tagore was deadly against the then
prevalent system of education which snatched the child from the laps of nature very early in life,
confined him within the boundaries of school and then put him into an office or factory.
According to Tagore, god reveals himself through nature more effectively than through man
made instructions.
Motto of Viswa-Bharati
Tagores Educational ideas can be clear if the main motto of his Viswa-Bharati is understood.
We are of the faith that truth is one and undivided, though diverse may be the ways which
lead us to it. Through separate paths pilgrims from different lands arrive at the same
shrine of Truth.
Knowledge flows in two different streams from the east and from the west. In their unity
is perceived the oneness of Truth that pervades and sustains the entire universe.
In the relations of this oneness of Truth lies mighty again, perfect peace and profound
good of man.
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So, unto this Viswa-Bharati we render our homage weaving garlands with flowers of
learning gathered from all quarters of the earth. To all devotees of truth, both from the
west and from the east, we extend our hand with love.
3


Another main feature of Tagore was that he aspired that mans life should be steady and whole
by constantly interpreting the relationships between its various fascinating and complex aspects.
He says, The Unity of man and nature, the unity of contemplation and action, the unity between
the diverse manifestations of the human spirit, the unity between the generations the past and the
future.
4

This belief become one of the main principle of his new educational scheme, as the fullness of
life depends upon the contact with the physical and social environment of man, he must be a part
and parcel of them, but not alien to them. His ideology greatly influences his educational ideas
and schemes. His international out look, aesthetic sense, love of fine arts, humanism,
appreciation for western culture with its scientific and technological developments, can be out
rightly seen in his educational system. Tagores ideal of education is more or less utopian in its
character and very difficult to put all his ideas in real practice.
Sriniketan: An Experiment in Rural Education
Tagore also gave high importance to the economic aspect of education. Education should make
man free from poverty, besides developing culture. With this noblest object, Tagore established
on February 6, 1922, a new centre by name Sriniketan at Surat. This was established for rural
reconstruction. The villagers in rural areas will be taught to know the advantages of self-help and
co-operation. The centre used to train the people for producing village level workers and social
workers. Thus Tagore, like Gandhi, brought education to closer contact with the economic life of
the people. The village level workers should win the friendship and affection of the villagers, and
also they should aid the villagers in solving their urgent and vital problems. Even after sixty-two
years of independence we are not in a position to put our agriculture on a sound footing. Tagore
thought that the intellectuals have an important role in improving the rural conditions in India.
The cultivators should be educated, through centers like Sriniketan on important issues like
agricultural credit, better methods of production, marketing, etc. They should be taught the
methods of improving their livestock, in addition to developing cottage and small scale
industries. Tagore believed that this experiment would develop in the minds of students a spirit
of genuine social service. The student is given the opportunity to do certain things with their own
hands. They also should assist in the development of dairying, animal husbandry, poultry, and
carpentry; weaving, etc. industrial training was also given to the students at Sriniketan. Tagore
believed that the welfare of India by the large depends on the welfare of the villagers; and his
experiment in rural reconstruction met with remarkable success. And there is great need to hold
such experiments on a much larger scale today.
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Tagores interpretation of education avoids the conflicts one finds among the different schools of
educational philosophy in the west, namely Idealism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Supernaturalism
and Realism. He combines in his concept of education the respectfulness of Idealism;
naturalness, freedom and originality of Naturalism, socialization, practical efficiency, ceaseless
experimentation and ineffectiveness of Pragmatism.
Following are the main principles of his philosophy of education:
Freedom for the child
Active communication with nature and man.
Creative self-expression.
Internationalism

Education has its only meaning and objects in freedom; freedom from ignorance about the laws
of universe, and freedom from passion and prejudice in our communication with the human
world.
He believed education divorced from the streams of life and confined within the four walls of
the classroom becomes artificial and loses its value.
5

Let the child imbibe and learn freely and spontaneously from the book of nature. Let him be
happy and free. Education should be natural in content and quality. Through contact with nature
the child will be introduced to the great world of reality easily and joyfully.
Tagores Aims of Philosophy of Education
Tagore aimed at the highest ethical values through education and founded it on the noblest
fundamental laws of Gods creation. Education is the best national investment because it holds
the key of order and progress.
According to Rabindranath Tagore, the aim of education is self realization. He is a poet and a
saint who through his imagination and insight realized the universal soul within himself and in
Nature. According to him, this realization by every one is the goal of education. Self-realization,
according to Rabindranath Tagore, means the realization of the universal soul in ones self.
Mans aim in life is to achieve this status. It is a process which cannot be realized without
education. In the absence of education the individual will be deprived of self-realization.
Rabindranath Tagore does not find any dichotomy between thought and life, philosophy and
education. He believes that every one is potentially divine and every one can realize this
potentiality. His philosophy is very much influenced by the Gita and Upanishads. He is,
however, well aware of the educational ideas prevalent in the west. Therefore, like Vivekananda;
he synthesizes the ancient Vedantic traditions with the modern Western scientific attitude in
formulating him goal of education.
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Integral Development
Defining the aims of education, Rabindranath Tagore says,
The fundamental purpose of education is not merely to enrich ourselves through the fullness of
knowledge, but also to establish the bond of love and friendship between man and man.
6

This is the humanistic aim of education in Tagores philosophy. His approach to ultimate reality
is integral. He believes in an inner harmony between man, Nature and God. The trinity, man,
Nature and God are in fact three aspects of the same reality. In man, again, the physical, the
mental and the spiritual aspects are equally important and internally related. Therefore, like Sri
Aurobindo, Rabindranath Tagore believes in a multi-sided education with physical, intellectual,
moral and religious aims.
Physical Development
Like Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore condemned the prevalent system of education which partially
exercised the intellect only to the entire neglect of the body. According to Rabindranath Tagore,
education of the body in the real sense does not exist in play and exercise but in applying the
body systematically to some useful work. Thus, one of the aims of education according to
Rabindranath Tagore is physical development. Hence he much emphasizes games in school
education. Pointing out the value of physical activities in the childs education he says,
Even if they learnt nothing, they would have had ample time for play, climbing trees, diving into
ponds, plucking and tearing flowers, perpetrating thousand and one mischief on Mother nature,
they would have obtained the nourishment of the body, happiness of mind and the satisfaction of
the natural impulses of childhood.
7

Thus, physical fitness is the first cardinal principle in the childs development. This is realized
through his intimate contact with Nature. As a poet, Tagore very well realizes the life giving
value of Natures contact with man. About the childs contact with the nature he says, I spea in
very moderate terms: Till Seven years till then let the child have nothing to do with clothes and
shame. Till then let nature alone conduct the indispensable education of the savage. This is
particularly important for the educational institutions in our society. Almost all contemporary
Indian philosophers of education, including M.K.Gandhi, Vivekananda, Dayananda and Sri
Aurobindo, besides Tagore, lay emphasis upon the importance of setting educational
institutions in natural environment so that the educand may learn by their touch with Nature.
Rabindranath Tagore believed that a healthy mind lives in a healthy body. Hence he insisted that
the first aim of education should be to develop the child physically. For this he prescribed
various physical activities as swimming, diving on ponds, climbing on trees, plucking fruits and
flowers and various types of games and sports in the company of natural phenomena. He also
prescribed a healthy and wholesome diet for children.
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Mental Development:
Besides the physical aim of education, Tagore equally lays emphasis upon the mental aim of
education. Like Gandhi, he is critical of the prevalent system of education which laid sole
emphasis upon bookish learning. Presenting this attitude, he says, we touch the world not with
our mind, but with our books. This is deplorable. Intellectualism takes us away from Nature and
creates a gulf between man and man. To quote Rabindranath Tagore, We now the people of
boos, not those of the world; the former are interesting to us but the latter tiresome.
8
In fact,
the intellectual aim of education, according to Rabindranath Tagore, is the development of the
intellectual faculties such as logical thinking, critical appraisal and assimilation. Two mental
faculties which should be developed through education are the power of thinking and the power
of imagination. Both these are necessary for real manhood. Rabindranath Tagore criticizes the
prevalent system of education which puts too much stress on memory and too little on
imagination and thinking. He suggests, Ever since childhood, instead of putting the entire
burden on the memory, the power of thinking and the power of imagination should also be given
opportunities for free exercise.
Education should be to promote mental development, here again; Tagore like Rousseau
condemned bookish teaching and prescribed more and more activities and experiences in the
open fields where nature teaches him more than books.
In comparison with book learning, knowing the real living directly is true education. It not only
promotes the acquiring of some knowledge but develops the curiosity and faculty of knowing and
learning so powerfully that no class room teaching can match it.
9

Moral and Spiritual Development
Being idealist, Tagore emphasized that the third aim of education should be to promote moral
and spiritual development of the child. In his writings he has thrown light on a number of moral
and spiritual values which education should strive to inculcate in children. For this purpose
education should teach children self-discipline, tolerance, courtesy and inner freedom.
Development of International Attitude
According to Tagore the aim of the education should be to develop an international attitude in
children. Though Tagore was on individualist, yet his individualism is not cut across his
socialism and even internationalism, to the extent he emphasized individual development; to the
same extent he advocated the development of society and whole human race. Tagores vision
was that an individual should develop to the fullest extent and then he should contribute his best
to the promotion of international welfare.
Tagore, the great educational philosopher, preached the creed of internationalism to establish
international brotherhood and thus found one world where all people would live in a state of
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happiness. In preaching this, he had not overlooed the needs of India. The problems of India
are the problems of the world or rather the problems of the world are the problems of India. Her
aims of education belong to the realm of philosophical thought, the realm of truth and peace. So
Tagore in his Santiniketan not only solved the problems of India but of the world as a whole he
solved the problems of humanity at large.
Tagore is a practical educationalist. As one who has understood the psychology of the child he
has made his studies the basis of the methods, he pursued in educating the child.
Education means to bring out the innate abilities of the child and give them training of love for
truth and love of god in the child. His instinct of arriosity must be improved besides giving him
sufficient opportunity of enjoying happiness without detriment to others happiness Education at
Santiniketan led the child to reveal in nature; to understand that there is after all one god, to feel
and enjoy the celestial music and in short to find peace and happiness in the world. Tagore aimed
at the highest ethical values through education and founded it on the noblest fundamental laws of
gods creation. He found in the child, the highest revelation of gods glory and showed how it
might be worked up to make a man.
Education is the best national investment because it holds the key to order and progress. Tagore
an educational philosopher of the highest order, who stood for the ideal of internationalism and
preached it to the entire world as the only cure for the homicide committed in the spirit of the
nation which is the out come of pure selfishness. An idea of Tagore as an educational
philosopher is really necessary to understand him as an educator.
Education and philosophy are the two sides of a coin without philosophy there can not be a
good educator, an educator with a purpose.
10
a mans philosophy influences the conduct of life,
and it is the conduct of life that makes man.
Man live a according to his philosophy of life, and conception of the world. And Tagores ideas
of internationalism are his philosophy of life and on these is based his theory of education, which
has its counter part in the practical methods adopted by him.
Accordingly Rabindranath Tagore view on the aim of education, as Tagore conceived it, was to
make a citizen of the world in the true sense of the term. This is the same as the ideal of
establishing an international brotherhood or one world
11
that is true democracy. Where in
physically, spiritually and morally a man can discharge his duties and enjoy the fundamental
rights to which he has a privilege to enjoy by virtue of being born a man in this world of man.
That is a state of truth and justice.
Rabindranath Tagores greatness as a poet overshadowed standing educationist who has made
many valuable experiments in education. He is not merely a poet but a philosopher, a novelist, a
dramatist, a literary critic, social reformer, patriot, internationalist, painter, artist, actor and
producer, director, musician, and a songster. Unfortunately Tagores contribution to education
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has not attracted as much attentions it deserves. It is no exaggeration to say that there is no poet
of modern times who attained such immortal fame as Tagore did. His works have already been
translated into many languages. He visited many countries, and everywhere he was honored with
high regard and admiration. Some of his poems have indeed great educational value.
Life of my life, I shall ever try to keep my body pure;
knowing it is Thy living touch that is upon all my limbs.
I shall ever try to keep all untruths out of my thoughts;
knowing that thou art that truth which has kindled the light of reason in my mind.
I shall ever try to drive all evil away from my heart, and keep my love in flower;
knowing that Thou hast Thy seer in the inmost shrine of my heart.
And it shall be my endeavor to reveal Thee in my actions;
knowing it is Thy power gives me strength to act.
12

This small poem of Tagore contains great truths about education. It includes physical education
which implies learning and observing of all rules of health and hygiene, personal cleanliness of
body and dress; mental education which includes a very chaste discipline of thought; emotional
education which aims at developing right attitudes towards persons and things around us; and
finally by means of these three actions performed by the student in love and spirit of Karmayoga,
he is bound to exercise his developed faculties of the good of the world in a spirit of service with
complete non-attachment, trying to execute the plan and will of the divine in the terrestrial
manifestation, like His loyal and obedient son. Thus Tagore in many of his poems clearly
explained his educational philosophy. Also it is clear that Tagore attached as much importance to
physical education as to spiritual education.
Tagore is a great visionary and a man of spiritual wisdom, and hence he said that the true aim of
education is the emancipation of man from all kinds of bondages. In other words, education
should aim at the perfection of not only body and mind, but also the soul. And to achieve this
objective, education should be as broad based as possible. Tagore thus attached great
significance to moral and spiritual aspects of education. This does not, of course, mean that he
neglected science education and technology. He made it clear that there is great need to borrow
science and technology from the west but he advised us not to forget our own moral wealth of
wisdom. As love and action are important, Tagore felt the urgent need for moral instruction in
schools. He believed that knowledge is not an end in itself, but also a means to wisdom. The
great object of education according to Tagore is to know man and to make oneself known to
man. Science brought the people all over the world closer to one another physically but science
has miserably failed to bring the hearts and spirits of all people together. Hence a better
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understanding of different peoples is only possible through spirit and not by science. He blamed
India for losing the creative mind and Indians for satisfying with only second hand knowledge.
Evaluation of Rabindranath Tagores Philosophy of Education
Rabindranath Tagores philosophy of education aims at developing a system of education for
human regeneration. Man is in the centre of all his thinking, his philosophy, religion, literature,
poetry, social activities and educational programmes. He is a humanist in the real sense of the
term, not naturalistic humanist but an integral humanist in the Indian tradition. He is not a
rationalist but believes in something higher than reason in man. He does not think science alone
to be capable of delivering the human goods but wants to synthesize it with Vedanta. He is a
nationalist and at the same time, an internationalist. To him the ultimate God is the universal
man and the only aim of all the mans activities was the realization of the God. Human
regeneration is his sole aim and only ideal. His educational system is a means to achieve this
aim. He, therefore, bases his educational system on essential human virtues such as freedom,
joy, purity, sympathy, perfection and world brotherhood.
Like other contemporary Indian thinkers of his time, Tagore objected to the prevalent system of
education due to its origination in a foreign country. He protested against emphasis on foreign
language resulting in the alienation of the educated people from the general society. He tried to
build up educational centers where these defects may be removed. He deliberated on different
problems of Indian society, particularly that of the rural people and tried to remove them through
education. His educational system was a synthesis of East West, ancient and modern, Science
and Vedanta.It is hence that man like Jawaharlal Nehru considered Viswa-Bharati as the true
representative of India.
Pointing out humanist element in Tagores philosophy, Humayun Kabir wrote, Rabindranath
Tagore was one of the greatest humanists that the world has known. The keynote of his life was
resistance to tyranny in all forms. He struggled against economic exploitation, political
subjugation, social inertia and injustice and religious intolerance and insensitiveness. The
humanism of Rabindranath Tagore is generally expressed to his literature. Besides literature,
Tagores humanism is expressed by his idea of Religion of Man. In his works every where he
laid emphasis upon the uniqueness of the human individual, his greatness in the world of living
beings and his intimate relationship with Nature and God. It is this humanism which made
Rabindranath Tagore work relentlessly for the establishment of a cosmopolitan educational
institution in the form of Santiniketan. His educational philosophy is no less an example of his
humanism than his literature and religious writings. He tried to build up an ideal education
system and experimented in all its branches such as aims, medium, means, curriculum,
administration and extra-curricular activities. One may not agree with the details of his
educational system and may not accept all of it, but none can deny that it was a bold attempt
based upon a very comprehensive philosophy and with the most human intention of developing
perfect men and women, citizens of a world community.
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References:
1. Venkateswaran. S.(1965). Principles of Education. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House
Pvt.,Ltd., p. 79.
2. Swarup Samena N.R. Foundation of Educational Thought and Practice. Meerut: Raj
Printers, p.251.
3. Viswa-Bharati Quarterly (1947). Santiniketan: Viswa-Bharati, p.1.
4. Quoted from D.Zakir Husan (1960) in his Convocation Address at Lucknow University,
Lucknow.
5. Ibid.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid.
8. Ibid.
9. Ibid.
10. Suryanarayana A.V.(1962). Tagore as Educationist. Visakhapatnam: M. S. R. Murthy
and Co., p.8.
11. Ibid, p.9.
12. Ibid.










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ADHITHANA(DETERMINATION) LEADING TO HAPPINESS
Ashima Verma
Abstract
This paper highlights and explores the link between the existing Indian-Buddhist trait of
Adhihana (determination) towards positive psychology and its role in ones happiness. Since
Indian thought and positive psychology have had a mutual effect, the paper elaborates on the
Indian trait being a contributing force in the area of happiness, wellbeing and positive thought
processing. It explores the dynamics between will power, its Indian history, and role in positive
theories. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical groundwork for the possible
application of this Indian trait, without tampering with the spiritual and religious importance of
this notion. This paper incorporates both the Indian and western thoughts on the trait, along with
its comprehensive roles in both the cultures.
Introduction
To begin with, the historical origin of the trait Adhitthana is referred bac to Buddhist
philosophies and mythologies. History claims in the city of Amaravati, there lived a very rich
and learned man called Sumedha. Being a learned individual, he soon realised that despite
acquiring wealth, he just as other humans will have to die and be dissolved into oblivion. This
realization made him strive towards the ultimate goal he could attain while he was alive, to
become self-actualised lie Lord Buddha, who he worshipped. He followed Buddhas footsteps,
and teachings and even willingly threw himself in a muddy pit so that Buddha may cross it
conveniently. His motives were tested as honest and with deep commitment, after which he was
declared to be like Buddha himself.
Thus, Indian traditions narrated that through intense meditation and following Buddhahood, he
arrived at the 10 pre-requisites towards attaining this ultimate unity with almighty- Dana
(Charity), Sila (Observance of precepts), Nekkhamma (Renunciation), Panna (Wisdom), Viriya
(Energy), Khanti (Patience), Sacca (Truthfulness), Adhitthana (Determination), Metta (Loving
Kindness), and Upekkha (Equanimity). When he realized these virtues, the earth shook and
everyone present shouted "Sadhu", "Sadhu".
Henceforth, aspiring to become one with the almighty not only involves yogic traditions and
meditation but also a deep sense of commitment to withstand and persist. This persistence and
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determination is what Indian society preaches to embibe so as to lead a better and happier life
with greater meaning than materialistic ambitions.
Discussion
Indian society is diverse and culturally rich, with multiple languages, fables and myths to
unravel. However, Indian psychology has often been overshadowed and sidelined for its merit as
only being a contributing meditative or spiritual ideal. The debate I wish to raise is to provide a
framework for Adhitthana(determination) to be laid as the stepping stone towards sustaining
positivity and happiness.
You have the right to wor, but for the wor's sae only. You have no right to the fruits of
work. Desire for the fruits of work must never be your motive in working. Never give way to
laziness, either. Perform every action with your heart fixed on the Supreme Lord. Renounce
attachment to the fruits. Be even tempered in success and failure; for it is this evenness of temper
which is meant by yoga. Work done with anxiety about results is far inferior to work done
without such anxiety, in the calm of self-surrender. Seek refuge in the knowledge of Brahman.
They who wor selfishly for results are miserable. Bhagvadgita
The above quote, is with reference to the practical implication of determination in achievement
and just as much, being a part in Indian philosophy. Work and persistence go hand in hand, thus
with work will come either success or failure. This intention and ambition to only succeed is
what Adhitthana claims to differentiate, as only an individual who can continue to work in the
face of adversity can succeed.
Indian psychology rests its focus on spiritual and meditative healing as being facilitative in the
process and perusal of happiness. Borrowing from this idea and expanding on this notion,the
intermingling of karma with joy(work and pleasure) is what is explored.
Indian thoughts promote well being through work and dedication, which makes us recall of the
ancient trait of aditthana(determination).The spiritual and subtle traits of humanity and
rigorous meditation can succeed only when one is persistent enough to forge through the difficult
times. The Bhagwadgita proposes that to fully attain happiness in work sphere, become the
wor itself, which is a state of nishkama karma leading to differentiation from the confines of
ego, success, arrogance or depression.
In todays competitive wor, happiness is often considered as important as success. However,in
Indian philosophy happiness is in equanimity-in both failure and gain. It is independent of the
restrictions of only gain theories and is based on ones subjective perusal towards the tas
despite adversities. This is where aditthana plays a role, in practical embodiment of such
philosophies to attain happiness.
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If a person is happy through the deeds then one should also owe up to it and in case of failure
also not lose hope. This hope will give rise to the ability of aditthana and hence, persistence to
continue with the task until satisfaction is achieved. Happiness can be contextual and based on
gains lie we mentioned, however there is a theoretical idea of Sustainable happiness that was
proposed, which uses determination as being the foundation for it.
Is Sustained happiness a myth till now?
How to gain, how to eep, how to recover happiness is in fact for most men at all times the
secret motive of all they do, and of all they are willing to endure William James (philosopher
and psychologist)
The quest for ever-greater happiness has existed since antiquity. Interest has not abated in
todays society, whose preoccupation with becoming happier is evident in countless boos and
magazine articles promising the secret to a happy life. Indeed, the pursuit of happiness is not
without reward, as empirical support is accumulating for the notion that happiness promotes
multiple successful life outcomes (including superior health, higher income, and stronger
relationships (Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener,2005).
Several theorists in India and abroad have argued over such a concept even existing, as in
todays time only success leads to happiness. Hence only someone who is always successful will
be happy truly, but since this is an utopian concept, it is shunned off as a myth.
However, Indian researches have enabled happiness being induced into a subjective experience
rather than the objective-material accomplishment. This subjective experience, can be based on
determination as being ey towards feeling happy through work. In other words-one who
persists will always be happy since the attempt in itself will be a positive experience, irrespective
of future outcomes.
Life Satisfaction, Cognition, and Will Power
Since achievement and material accomplishment is a prime criteria towards one being happy, as
proposed by the western theorists. How can aditthana\determination be applied to such a domain
and thought process?
The answer lies in the term-life satisfaction. The interlinked term to positive well being is life
satisfaction, which incorporates not only the material success of an object or goal, but also the
emphasis it holds to ones thining. Life satisfaction defined by Seligman and Peterson in 2002,
is a recent addition to positive theories of life, and they encompass the ability of an individual to:
gain positive affect (happiness), exclude negative affect (rejection) and to evaluate the life
situations constructively.
Through this idea, the western theorists have laid their focus on the individual affect and
construal of life situation that will lead to life satisfaction and in turn to happiness. This indicates
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that cognition (higher thinking) shapes how an individual would perceive a life situation. This is
where the mind-body dichotomy comes in, where the mind shapes the way the body and
behavior respond.
Therefore, the mind is the sole controller that disseminates-subjective affect, experience and will
power to pursue a task to the end. The mind is more than being a psychological reservoir of
thoughts; its a processor of information and situations to churn out affect and emotional
responses.
These emotional responses will then on lead to regulating life situations in either a positive or
negative manner. In turn, the emotional experiences will lead to one perceiving either happiness
or despair. This level of hopefulness, if independent of material gains and needs, is what Indian
psychology proposes.
This does not go on to say that a poor person can be happy even in face of poverty, but it
represents the attitude of will-power to think and create a life that is better, more constructive
and better perceived by him\her as being satisfactory. This ability to reason out self-worth and
perceive aims as being possible is arising from the notion of determination, or in Indian thought-
aditthana.
With reference to the origin of the term, the learned man who wished to lead a life like that of
Buddha did not merely be hopeful. Rather, he worked towards the ultimate goal through
meditation and bore upon himself plenty hardships in order to gain what he had wished. This is
symbolic of not only hard work but also the ability to cope with life adversities in order to
challenge them and overcome them so as to attain ultimate happiness as the final goal.
Sustainable Happiness and Determination
The eternal quest for happiness and joy is a difficult theoretical concept to understand and
achieve. However, psychologists have proposed a model of sustainable happiness, that aims to
provide strategies of achieving a life of satisfaction through controlled thinking and behavior.
The sustainable happiness model (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005) provides a
theoretical framework for experimental intervention research on how to increase and maintain
happiness.
According to this model, three factors contribute to an individuals chronic happiness level :
1) the set point and goals
2) life circumstances
3) determination

1. Set point and goals-the baseline or situation from which one arises and then consequently
wishes to change or modify is what the set point denotes. The set point for an impoverished
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person is poverty stricken situation and the aim is to attain food, shelter and clothing which are
basic for his\her happiness, thus the change one experiences substantially in happiness and aims
will affect the overall happiness level for the person subjectively.

Role of goals -creating goals is a task of any individual, but to unrealistically create an absolute
all-or none goal is not desirable. Making a goal that will ultimately result in substantial happiness
is what one must aim at by taking gradual and eventual steps towards it through less reinforcing
yet happy goals.Happy and unhappy people also differ in how they make decisions in the face of
many options. Research suggests that happy individuals are relatively more liely to satisfice
namely, to be satisfied with an option that is merely good enough, without concern for
alternative, potentially better options (Schwartz et al., 2002). Unhappy individuals, by contrast,
are more likely to maximize their options that is, they seek to make the absolute best choice.

2. Circumstances-in face of adverse situations only, happiness gets tested. The ability to adapt
to a given life situation even if it is bad marks the ability of a happy person. Happy people tend
to be more satisfied with all of their available options (including the option they eventually
choose) and only express dissatisfaction in situations when their sense of self is threatened.

3. Determination and effort-the aim of cherishing good goals and actively dealing with bad
situations is what characterizes a person who is constructive, optimistic and secure about the
future.

The goals and hurdles keep changing daily, as one will encounter daily hassles and will have to
overcome them. These can be done through activities like-being persistent and finding
alternatives, expressing gratitude, relieving good past experiences as motivators, visualizing new
goals or modifying the achievement value of certain goals etc.

Thus the emphasis of western ideologies is on the level of motivation and persistence one has
towards a goal that is set, which is regulated as variably with the changing goal situation. The
role of an individuals thought is then to perform intentional and effortful tasks towards the aim
up till satisfaction is attained. In face of rejection, the goals can be re-set and regulated
accordingly Aditthana can hence, be seen as part of the third step in the process of the model,
where determination to get the aim is prime.

Indian Thought on Determination

In the words of Swami Vivekananda-Become established in virtue. Youth is meant for this
grand process. Your life is the active development and fulfillment of these processes through
determination. Well being IN life, is important. Not well being OF life.

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What spiritual guru Swami Vivekananda claims is that the essence of true happiness is what you
make of yourself. It is the conduct of life that you develop, it is the character that you cultivate
and it is the type of person you become. This is the central meaning of successful living.

The Indian perspective on happiness has flourished with the ideas of harmony, evolution and
connectivity across life forms. It is embedded in the ecology in which a person or group is
embedded. It is broad enough to incorporate the whole range of existential concerns as reflected
in the Upanishadic concept of Pancha Koshas (Annamaya, Pranamaya, Vigyanmaya,
Manomaya and Anandmaya), which articulates human existence in terms of a multilayered
organization. In this scheme, the idea of being is of a conscious being and not of a reactive
organism. It operates following the principles of complementarity, interdependence, sharing and
reciprocity between self and tasks externally, through persistence (Dalal.A and Misra.G,2000).

Bridge Between Aditthana(determination) and Positive Psychology
Positive psychology resides on the inherent goodness, constructive ability, thinking and sense of
control of a person. It basis its notions of Indian psychology by referring to healing, Ayurveda
and yogic practices. Positive psychology though began after second world war, however it was
cultivated through the spiritual healing idea of nazi camp survivors, who were physically weak
but mentally had the will to live life.

Indian psychology took first from ideas of SRI AUROBINDO by inculcating yogic ideas into an
area called integral psychology, where the mental energies were channelized and constructed
into the ability to not only meditate and transcend but to be mentally resilient with resolution
towards a goal. Thus the mental energies and will power transform the person to lead the person
into working effectively, in sync with the environment despite difficulties. This is the core of
Indian psychology and folk philosophy, which entails from the mind-body duality and claims
that mind and body both require a sense of resolution which will in turn provide happiness in
every task that a person aims to do.

Therefore, Indian culture is an amalgam of not only mental will power and tolerance but also
appreciates the amount of effort, intention and persistence that a person undertakes to perform a
task. Thus, physical patience through yogic and meditative practices is coupled with mental
exercising of will and regaining a sense of control even in a difficult situation.

Hence, now to clearly state the interconnection of determination being relevant to happiness, that
has been discussed through the above theoretical concepts. The key themes that are underlying
is-determination towards a goal is in itself a reinforcing thought to persist and not give up, so as
to attain happiness. This will therefore require a sense of control, cognition and mental will that
can be enhanced through Indian practices and ideas.

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Indian psychology is still at a nascent stage of existence and is still evolving in the global arena,
however through incorporating practical traits like determination (aditthana), it is enhancing its
domain and becoming a formidable area of study.

References:

1. Misra.G. (1994). Psychology of control: Cross-cultural considerations; Journal of Indian
Psychology. New Delhi: Sage publications.

2. Dalal, A. K. (2001). Health psychology. In J. Pandey (Ed.), Psychology in India revisited,
Vol. 1 (pp. 356411). New Delhi: Sage publications.

3. Lyubomirsky & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does
happiness lead to success? Psychological bulletin.

4. Mohanty & Misra.G.(2000). Perspectives of indigenous psychology. New delhi: Concept
publishing company.















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The Principal Upaniads on Vtti Theory of Perception

Surjya Kamal Borah & Shruti Rai

Abstract
The foundational nature of the Upanisads, which are said to be the basis of most of the Indian
philosophical schools of later period, is a subject-matter of great discussion and on this
background, it is very necessary to trace out the roots of later developments of philosophical
ideas. One of such issue is that of vrtti theory of perception. The theory of perception in Indian
philosophy has been discussed mostly in relation to two different kinds of model sense-object
contact model, followed by Nyya-Vaiesika and vrtti model, accepted by Smkhya-Yoga and
Vednta systems basically. The vrtti theory, where the antahakarana goes out, removes the
ajna covering the object, and takes the form of the object, has been accepted as a development
on the foundation of the concept of mental modification, developed by Patajali. Vednta
Paribhs of Dharmarja Adhrindra which is an important text of epistemology in the Vedntic
tradition has explained this vrtti theory of perception in relation to the non-dual metaphysical
position of Advaita-Vednta in later period. But still, there is little has been discussed in modern
times, regarding the contribution of the Upanisads on vrtti theory. So, here is an attempt to bring
out the relevant ideas for the possible later development of the vrtti theory of perception from a
proper textual study of the principal Upanisads.

*****

Indian knowledge tradition is very rich in its quest for knowledge, relating to the various aspects
of this universe and thus, it has contributed a lot to the journey of development of human
civilization. Within the tradition, when we go through the Rgvedic period to the recent
developments, we find the fact about the Upanisadic literature that they are the product of
highest human intellect or thinking in the field of philosophical speculation. Its uniqueness lies in
its holistic approach to the problem of Ultimate Reality as well as the practical solution to the
age old problem of sorrow and suffering. The problem of Ultimate Reality is also dealt with from
two different perspectives metaphysical as well as epistemological. Thus, the Upanisads are
full of philosophical discourses and a serious study of the Upanisads are always thought
provoking. Further, the foundational nature of the Upanisads, on the basis of which most of the
Indian philosophical schools have been developed, is a subject-matter of great discussion and on
this background, it is very necessary to trace out the roots of later developments. One of such
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issue is that of vrtti theory of perception. It is commonly accepted by the scholars of Indian
philosophy that unlike the sense-object contact theory of perception which is followed by the
Nyya-Vaiesika; Advaita Vednta follows the vrtti theory of perception. Since, Advaita Vednta
is regarded as the closest interpretation of the Upanisadic philosophy, it is very natural to find
out the root of such a conception in the Upanisads. Vednta Paribhs of Dharmarja
Adhrindra which is an important text of epistemology in the Vedntic tradition, has explained
this vrtti theory of perception on the background of non-dual metaphysical position of pure-
consciousness. But, in this regard, Swami Bhajanananda says that vtti theory is not mentioned
anywhere in the Upanisads, Gt, Brahmastra and other ancient scriptures. According to him,
in the vrtti model, where mind goes out through the sense-organs towards the object and takes
the form of the object and thereby creating a vrtti, is the creation of Patajali.
1
This is true that
Patajali has developed this vtti theory in a systematic way since he talks clearly about mental
modifications. Hence, the question remains that what is the Upanisadic foundation regarding
vrtti theory of perception? Here, is an attempt to see this issue on the basis of the principal
Upanisads, with the help of the discussions regarding the perceptual process as in the Upanisads.
Because, in relation to the knowledge process only, it is necessary to know that how the mind
and the sense-organs interact to apprehend an object and vrtti is nothing but mental modification.

In vtti model, the antahakarana goes out, removes the ajna covering the object, and takes the
form of the object. Simultaneously, the light of Pratyagtman also goes out as cidbhsa and
becomes one with the consciousness within the object. So, to find out the roots of vtti model,
our discussion will be based on the following issues:

1. Existence of perceptual process in the Upanisads. Tracing of the germs of vtti theory
in the Upaniads is possible only when there is the discussion regarding the empirical
knowledge process.
2. Nature of Mind and its significance to perceptual knowledge; because, it is mind
which acts as the reflecting medium to consciousness due to closeness and its subtle
nature.
3. Nature of knowledge. The antahkarana associated with consciousness goes out and
takes the form of the object, thus, perceptual knowledge is nothing but mental
modifications.

Although the Upanisads are known as brahmavidy or tmavidy, yet they have discussed about
the empirical world in contrast to that Ultimate Reality in order to show that any empirical means
of knowledge is not capable to apprehend this Ultimate Reality. Thus, we find the references in
the Upanisads about the perceptual knowledge process and the nature of mind together with
mental functions.

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It is a fact that this phenomenal world is characterized by duality or multiplicity and this duality
is the basis for epistemology
2
within which we discuss about the knowledge process that requires
the senses, mind, object, and the consciousness. The first instance of mentioning ten indriyas
with separate mentioning of mind and heart together with their objects, is found in the
Brhadranyakopanisad-2.4.11, as it says- As the ocean is the one goal of all waters, as the sin
is the one goal of all kinds of touch, as the nostrils are the all goal of all smells, as the tongue is
the one goal of all taste, as the eye is the one goal of all forms, as the ear is the one goal of all
sounds, as the mind is the one goal of all determinations, as the heart is the one goal of all forms
of knowledge, as the hands are the one goal of all acts, as the organ of generation is the one goal
of all kinds of enjoyment, the excretory organ is the one goal of all evacuations, as the feet are
the one goal of all movements, as speech is the one goal of all Vedas. The Mu. Up., Pr. Up. and
Ch. Up. also mention about the separate existence of mind and the sense-organs and as well as
their respective objects of knowledge. The Kenopanisad raises the question Willed by whom
does the directed mind go towards its object? Being directed by whom does the vital force that
precedes all, proceed towards his duty? By whom is this speech willed that people utter? Who is
the effulgent being who directs the eyes and the ears?
3


Kathopanisad also says that the sense organs proceed outward for revealing their objects, sound
etc. by their nature and required to control the senses and the mind to take inward journey for
realization.
4
The mind and the sense-organs are always in contact in relation to outward
knowledge process and so it is said that in the inward journey to self-realization, the indriyas
should be dissolved in the mind as they cannot function.
5
Again, the centrality of mind in relation
to the sense-organs, in the process of perceptual knowledge makes it clear that there is certain
relation between the mind and the senses. Since the organs do not function in the sleeping state,
rather they dissolve in mind,
6
it means that for their respective functions, they are dependent on
mind or they stay connected with mind. Upanisads say that it is through the mind that one sees
and hears.
7
That means behind every sense perception, there is mind. Our sense-organs work
only when it is in contact with the mind, because of which we can have only one cognition at a
time. So, it is very common to hear in the vyavahra that I was absent minded, I did not see it, I
was absent minded, I did not hear it.
8
And it is the external cognition and internal cognition both
which we know through mind, although external cognitions take the help of the sense-organs.
That is why the sruti says, Desire, resolve, doubt, faith, want of faith, steadiness, unsteadiness,
shame, intelligence and fear-all these are but the mind. Even if one is touched from behind, one
nows it through the mind; therefore (the mind exists).
9
These mental functions clearly describe
the dependence on mind for any state of cognition. Mind is antahkarana here, i.e. it signifies all
the four different aspects of antahkarana manas, buddhi, citta and ahamkra. The existence of
material mind
10
behind the senses also clarify the process that tman or the witnessing principle
is connected with the mind which is in connection with the senses which are in connection with
their respective objects.

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This idea of perceptual process and centrality of mind in this regard are found in an expanded
form in the Ka. Up. 1.3.3, where through the imagery of chariot it describes the Atman as the
Lord or Master of the chariot, the body as the chariot, the mind merely as reins and the intellect
as the charioteer.
11
In this analogy, the Self is the master of the chariot which means Self is the
witnessing faculty. It is functionless, but like a chariot without a master cannot move, the
absence of master (Self) creates the absence of the whole process of knowing, because Atman or
Self is the only conscious factor in the body chariot or among the entire functioning faculty. The
nature of the Self is consciousness which is the underlying principle of all cognition or basis of
knowledge, which precedes all the various forms of knowledge that appear in our experience. It
is the principle of continuity of knowledge without any change. It is always present, at every
moment that we know; as the illuminating principle which is shared in common by all the
various perceptions, thoughts and feelings that succeed each other in our minds. As different
perceptions, thoughts and feelings appear and disappear, consciousness continues through
experience, knowing all the changing appearances that come and go. So, it is the body which is
not conscious in itself and moves with the help of other. The pure discriminating intellect is the
charioteer. While the mind is of the nature of samkalp-vikalpa, buddhi is of the nature certainty.
Intellect has the power of discrimination between good or bad. It is the intellect, which has the
capacity of deciding - Buddhirnma niscaytmikntakaranavrttih.
12
So, it is said-Buddhim tu
srathim viddhi manah pragrahameva ca. The body of the individual is the chariot and the reins
with which the intellect guides the movement of the body are the mind. As the horses are
controlled by the reins in a chariot, likewise, the sense-organs is controlled or commanded by the
mind in the perceptual knowledge. Sense-organs follow to where the mind allows. Continuing
the analogy, it says that senses are the horses and their roads are the sense-objects. The wise call
the Atman as the experiencer when it is united with the body, the senses and the mind.
13
The
sense-organs are always tempted to go outside as the horses have a designation of moving fast in
any direction. Kathopanisad puts that they have a natural tendency to go to their respective
objects.
14
Without the organs such as the ears, the eyes, the nose, the tongue and the skin, the
body chariot cannot move. It is obvious that the instruments through which we can acquire the
experiences of the outer world are the five sense-organs. If our sense-organs terminate to
function, the outer world will keep no meaning for us. Their roads are the sense-objects. Mind
keeps in contact with the senses as the reins with the horses and as the horses move in the road,
the senses moves towards the objects. As the horse, not connected with the reins deviates here
and there from the roads, the senses also if not in contact with the senses, cannot have knowledge
of any object. The five sense-organs have different objects to perceive such as color, taste,
sound, touch and smell. We acquire the knowledge of this whole phenomenal world in the form
of these objects since these are the substances, evolved from the self first in the process of
creation of this world. They become the object of sense-organs to be the object of knowledge.
In this explanation of the process of perceptual knowledge where Atman is the witnessing
consciousness, which is connected with the internal organs which in turn connected with the
sense-organs, described here as horses, go out and get connected with their respective objects,
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give us the impression that Upanisads are adhere to the sense-object contact model of perception
as given by Nyya. But this is not so. Upanisadic epistemology is an outcome of its metaphysics,
since Upanisad primarily maintains a metaphysical position and whatever the other discussions
like ethics, epistemology, etc., are only in relation to that metaphysical position only, so, that
Nyya position is not tenable.

Though there is no direct reference of vrtti model in the Upanisads, but, this vrtti model has the
basis of ruti as Vjasaneya samhit says, Dragamam jyotism jyotirekam tanme manah
ivasamkalpamastu.
15
When the Upanisads say- sarvesm samkalpnm mana ekyanam-
mind is the goal of all determinations,
16
or I was absentminded, therefore I did not see it, I was
absent minded, I did not hear it. It is through the mind that one sees and hears. Desire, resolve,
doubt, faith, want of faith, steadiness, unsteadiness, shame, intelligence, fear - all these are but
the mind. Even if one is touched from behind, one nows it through the mind
17
- there is the
clear implication of vrtti model (going mind out to take the form of the object) in the perceptual
knowledge process. It is the modification of the mind or antahkarana which takes the particular
shape of an object either external or internal, thereby the object is known.

Ch. Up. explains that food when eaten divided into three parts and the subtlest part is the mind.
This is the case of any food like curd, etc. of which the subtlest part or ingredient constitutes
what we call mind.
18
This mind or antahkarana is subtle than the senses and the sense-objects in
nature.
19
Because of its closeness as well as its subtle nature, antahkarana works as the reflecting
medium of consciousness due to my. Unless the mind works, there can be no perception in
spite of the existence of objects of perception. The centrality of the mind in the perceptual
process as evidenced by the above reference he was absent minded so, he did not hear it, etc.
establish the fact that mind precedes sense-organs in the knowledge process and comes in contact
with the object outside. Since, through manas the jva perceives the objective world, it is
therefore called the divine eye of tman (mano asya daivam caksu).
20


There is another important ruti which says that the vijnamaya purusa wanders along the two
worlds seeming to think, seeming to move about
21
, which is a clear indication of mental
modification. The self never goes out or think, etc., but the mind. Due to its close association
with the mind, it seems that the self goes out or think. This association of mind with the
consciousness leads to the vtti theory of perception.

Moreover, from the position that Brahman is pure consciousness, non-dual, all-pervading and
everything is Brahman strongly support a vrtti model more close to the Upanisad. It is One
Consciousness (Brahma-Caitanya) which has become (i.e. which underlies) the world in its
various forms such as man, animals, plants and even the supposedly inanimate objects.
Everything has the same consciousness within it although the outward expression differs in
degree and intensity. The act of perception must be understood in the light of this ontological
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background. Every act of perception can be regarded as a realization of the One Self by an
unveiling of the nescience which currently exists between the subject-consciousness and the
object-consciousness, the Knower and the Known. Knowledge is only to wipe out the cover of
ignorance only.

Again, in view of the fact that the knowledge of Brahman is svayampraka
22
as well as
sarvntarah
23
, it is revealed at the level of the senses and mind as correspondence between the
pramt (pramtrcaitanya) and prameya (visayacaitanya) through pramna (vrtticaitanya). This
is the unity of the apparently divided consciousness that leads to knowledge. This unity of the
apparently divided consciousness happens through the medium of antahkarana. thereby, vrtti is
necessary for perceptual knowledge. The Upanisads shows the self-luminosity of tman through
the dialogue between Janaka and Yjavalkya where Yjavalkya says that when the sun and the
moon have both set, the fire has gone out, the speech has stopped, the self serves as his light. It is
through the light of the self that he sits, goes out, works and returns.
24
vetvatara also says that
He shining, everything shines after him and through his radiance all these are manifest. And
because of this nature of consciousness, empirical knowledge is possible only through the
antahkaranavrtti, not by sense-object contact. Knowledge is not produced here, but unification
of consciousness through mental modification.

Further, here we want to draw an attention towards the word pratibodhaboditam
25
in relation to
that position. The word says that the Self is known with reference to each cognition. There are
two possibilities- we may know the thinker of thinking as the witnessing principle, on the other
hand we know an object in relation to the consciousness. So, there will be no contact of the
sense-object form, but of the consciousness of subject and object (pramtr and prameya
caitanyam.) and it is also because of that vrtti or mental modification. Such a point of reference
towards the vrtti theory of perception is mentioned in the ruti- Whatever it is desirable to now
is a form of the mind, for the mind is what it is desirable to know. Whatever is the object of
perception, mind takes the form of that object through the senses to make aware the jvtm.
26
It
is supported by another ruti from Ke. Up. which says that the mind seems to go to It (Brahman)
as through mind only one recollects or repeatedly remembered and thought (samkalpa) about
Brahman.
27


Actually, it is the one consciousness that is apprehended differently at different levels of
awareness and the different pramnas are nothing but the different methods devised for
contacting the same caitanya in diverse ways as the occasion demands. The root of all
knowledge, through whatever channel we may have it, is ultimately the tman. That is why it is
said,-That which is heart, this mind, that is sentience, perception, discrimination intelligence,
wisdom, insight, steadfastness, thought, thoughtfulness, impulse, memory conception, purpose,
life, desire, control, all these verily are the names of consciousness.
28
It is because of the
limiting adjunct, i.e. antahkarana, all the functions is said to be the different names of
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consciousness. That means, consciousness due to its reflection in the antahkarana, seems to be
many, as the antahkarana goes out and takes different forms of objects, i.e. mental modification.
It proves that it is not the senses that go out and contact with the objects outside; rather it is the
antahkarana which goes out and modifies itself accordingly. This is true for external as well as
the internal objects. Among all these different functions - sentience, perception, discrimination
intelligence, wisdom, insight, steadfastness, thought, thoughtfulness, memory, volition,- comes
under the cognitive aspect of antahkarana which proves that perception whether it is external or
internal, is a form of mental modification. ankara in his commentary has shown how the single
antahkarana, becomes multiformed - as transformed into the eye, one sees colour; transformed
into the ear, one hears; transformed into the sense of smell, one smells; etc. Therefore this is the
one single organ (mind or antahkarana) which acts with regard to all objects of the senses, so
that the perceiver may perceive everything.
29
We have already mentioned earlier an another list
of mental functions from the Brhadranyaka Upanisad and Maitri Upanisad. This philosophical
position is beautifully summarizes in the Aitareya Upanisad- 3.1.3 as:

Prajnetro loka: Netra is not merely eye here; it means that the world is seen by
consciousness. The statement answers the question: how is the world known? Clearly, the world
is known by consciousness, which illuminates the appearance of objects in every experience.
But, pure consciousness is non-dual in nature, it happens through its reflecting medium
antahkarana which is said in the Upanisads that all the forms are nothing but the mind and
known through the mind. Whatever is to be known is a form of mind.

Praj pratith: Consciousness is the foundation. The existence of each object is established on
the basis of consciousness. Whatever object may appear, and however it may appear,
consciousness is always there as an underlying basis of existence that all appearances show. All
these including various mental functions are different appearances of tman. So, we cannot
separate empirical knowledge from the absolute knowledge in its essential nature. Hence, the
Upanisads call it pratibodhaviditam, cognized in every act of knowledge. It is a postulate of all
knowledge. It is the root of all experience and makes experience possible which happens through
mental modifications.

Thus, Upanisads adheres to the vrtti theory of perception. This vrtti theory of perception in the
Upanisads can be said to be as ignorance removal theory of vrtti model as mentioned by
Swami Bhajanananda in accordance with the metaphysical position of the Upanisads, where the
antahakarana goes out, removes the ajna covering the object, and takes the form of the object.
Simultaneously, the light of Pratyagtman also goes out as cidbhsa and becomes one with the
consciousness within the object. Hence, Though there is no direct reference to the vrtti model,
yet, if we explain the above mentioned references in terms of perceptual process on the
background of the metaphysical position of the Upanisads, it is very easy to establish that the
vrtti theory has its firm presence in the principal Upanisads.
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Notes & References:
1. Bhajanananda, Swami (2009). Understanding Consciousness: Recent Advances (Papers
read at a seminar held at the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Kolkata),
Ramkrishna Mission, Institute of Culture, Kolkata P. 70-71
2. Bhadrayaka Upaniad 4.5.15
3. Kena Upaniad 1.1,2
4. Parcikhni vyatrnat svayambhstasmtparmpayati nntartman. Kahopaniad 2.1.1
5. Indriyni manas samniveya. vetvataropaniad, 2.8
6. Pranopaniad, 4.2
7. Manas hyeva payati manas rnoti. Bhadrayaka Upaniad 1.5.3
8. Anyatraman abhvam ndaramanyatraman abhvam nrausamiti. Ibid., 1.5.3
9. Ibid. 1.5.3
10. Annamayam hi somya manah. Chndogyopaniad 6.5.4
11. Atmanam rathinam viddhi sarram rathameva tu,
Buddhim tu srathim viddhi manah pragrahameva ca. Kahopaniad 1.3.3.
12. Sadnanda, Vedntasra, (Eng. trans.) Swami Nikhilananda (1990). Advaita
Ashram,Calcutta.
13. Indriyn haynahurvisaymstesu gocarn,
Atmendriya manoyuktam bhoktyetyhurmansinah. Kahopaniaad 1.3.4
14. Parcikhni vyatrnat svayambhstasmtparnpasyati nntartman. Ibid., 2.1.1.
15. Vjasaney. Sahit., XXX. IV.1
16. Bhadrayakopaniad 2.4.11
17. Ibid., 1.5.3; Maitr Upaniad 6.3
18. Ibid, 6.5.1; 6.4
19. Kahopaniad 1.3.10.
20. Chndogyopaniad VIII. 12.5
21. Sa samnah sannubhau lokvanusacarati dhyyatva lelyatva. Bhadrayakopaniad
4.3.7
22. Atrayam pursah svayam jyotir bhavati. Ibid. 4.3.14
23. Ya tm sarvntarah. Ibid., 3.4.1
24. Ibid. 4.3.2-6
25. Kena Upaniad 2.4
26. Yatkica vijijsyam manasastadrram mano hi vijijsyam man enam tadbhutvvati.
Bhadrayakopaniad 1.5.9
27. Yadetadgacchatva ca manonena caitadupasmaratyabhksnn samkalpah. Kena Upaniad
4.5
28. Yadetaddhrdayam manacaitat. Samjnamajnam vijnam prajnam medh drsti
dhrtirmati mans jutih smrtih samkalpah kraturasuh kmovaa iti sarvnyevaitni
prajnasya nmadheyni bhavanti. Aitareya Upaniad 3.1.2
29. Aitareyopaniad . B., 3.1.2
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THE REVELATION OF THE MIND
Prashanata Kumar Dash
Abstract
The revelation of the mind is vastly entrusted to the every researchers and scholars. This paper is
a capsule of the mind which is immediately gets result and gives ecstasy to the scholars. The
mind is very short word but to define is very difficult. Hence, in this article there are several
evidences in the shortest way and all information is minutely touches in Indian philosophy and
mythology. By the help of the mind, we are able to do everything in proper channel, but those
have scraped their mind they become mad. Therefore mind is the most powerful and sharp part
of the physical body which actives our senses and diagnosis system, not only this but also helps
for the sake of material world. The function of the mind, ultimate goal is liberation. Mind is most
necessary and without mind liberation is not possible. Further, there are many Scholars, Rishis,
Philosophers, and Sadhus, have interrupted the mind in several way and many perspectives; but
mind is nothing that: it is a single substance. We did only many contradictories and
interpolations way. Whatever it is, discussions about mind there is no limit.
*****
The Mind is the superior and super commander of the organs and physical activities. It is an
invisible and individual organ, which is most powerful and faculty of the body. It has an
interconnection with divine nature and divine power. Whatever work are performed by our body
and organs that enactments by the mind. This is the revelation system of the mind. The Mind and
soul are some apparently similarities; but they are totally different because mind does all soul is
constant.

The modern concept of the identity of the brain and the mind, with the elimination souls and
God, was first propounded by the Carvaa in ancient India
1

There are falsifications of Svarga, Mokshya, and Atama. But most Indian thinkers did not accept
this Charvaka doctrine. He says there is nothing out of this world; whatever we should get pain
and please all are here only. Those persons are saying there is another world existed, after death
merit souls should get that place, they are stupid fellows, because neither themselves are
enjoying nor to others. How can we belief? Whatever things are not perceived by the live that
may get after death! Is it possible? Those are only imaginaries of human-beings. That is why,
whatever your mind is expecting or desiring that immediately fill of. Who can say these bodies
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Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.50-56
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come again? Do not belief foolish words, this live never come to return.

2
till death you live cheerfully if require then do debt with other.

Nyaya and Baisesia
3
Whatever men material enjoys and
suffers that is only for mind because of it is an instrument and also the faculty of all the sense
organs and active organs. The material stuffs enjoyments and deep grief of the earth both
imbalance system of body are satisfied by the mind only.

4
The mind is the smallest of smallest particle of our body, we cant see but only fill, it is
like as atom which is untouchable and invisible object, but all workable and also everlasting.
He is getting ecstasy embodiment of tiny particle.
5
the mind is
subtler than the subtle and greater than the great is lodged in the heart of every creature.
Whatever subtle are in the elements, the mind is more than that subtle, so far mind creates
creature and razors. All the thing of the creature in the Universe that all embodiment of
revelation of mind. In all respects mind is master of nature and beyond of atom and particles, it is
most tiny particle which may attain the divine state and also immerses in the inertia.

The Sankya school of Philosophy, with Kapila as its founder, was very ancient in India. The
Sanya concept of mind was very elaborate in aesthetic bacground

6
(s.k-1/1). There are three types of melancholies in the world, Adyatmika,
Ahibhutika and Adhidaibika, in Adhyatmika in to two categories saririka and Manasika, among
the all dcategories of dukhas manasika is the more painful than others. All the pains can tolerable
but cannot bearable. The great the famous exponent of the Yoga
school, presented an advanced parapsychology, all of which has not yet been not grasped by
modern science. In fact, we have striven to arrive at some conception of that supreme infinite
being, conscious force and self delight of which our world is a creation and our mentality a
perceive figure; we have tried to give ourselves an idea of what this divine Maya be, this truth
consciousness, this real ideal by which the conscious force of the transient and universal
existence conceives, forms and governs the universe, the order the cosmos of its manifested
delight of beings.

.
7
He knew Bill as Brahman; for from Bliss, indeed, all these beings
originated; having been born, they are sustained by the bliss; they move toward and merge
inbliss. This knowledge realization by the Brhrugu and omparted by Bruna terminates in the
supreme bliss, established in the cavity of the heart. He who knows thus becomes firmly
established, he becomes the possessor of food and the eater food; and they became great in
progeny, cattle and the luster of holiness, and in glory. Thus becoming pure in mind through
concentration and failing to find the definition of Brahaman, in its fullness, in the selves
composed of the vital force etc.

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The existence of God has been accepted by the Yoga school.
8
Patanjali
describes the mind or chitta is making up of three components, Mana, budhhi, and ahamkara.
The Mind is the recording faculty which receives impressions slathered by the senses from the
outside world. But he is not indispensable for the Yogic attainments. One atheist can ascend to
submit of Yoga if he properly practices the Yogic techniques. The Vedantacs have adopted the
Sankhya and Yoga theories and practices of psychology, commensurate with its metaphysics.
The Buddhists were agnostics and the Jains were atheists. They presented their respective,
elaborate psychology, and their theories and practices of Yoga.


9
One who desires from the bottom of heart to control the
mind as well as; due to past habits, attachment worldly objects and force of latencies of past
karma, his mind reverts to worldly objects in spite of himself. He cannot, therefore, be blamed
for this obduracy of the mind; and it is but natural for the mind to act in this way ward way
during the initial stages of ones spiritual discipline. The connection it should be born in mind
that he who endeavors to restrain the sense forcefully from running after sense object in order to
bring them under control, so as to be able to concentrate his thoughts on God, and yet owning to
the wandering of his mind cannot help dwelling on sense objects, will not be classed as a
hypocrite. He is spiritual aspirant; for like the hypocrites, it is not his object to medicate on
object of enjoyment. He desires from the bottom of his heart to control the mind as well; but due
to past habits, attachment for worldly object s and the force of the latencies of past karma, his
mind reverts to worldly object of in spite of himself. He cannot, therefore be blamed for this
obduracy of the mind; and it is but natural for the mind to act in this wayward way during the
initial stage of ones Samadhi or Spiritual discipline.
10
Krishna says to
Artjuna; he who controlling the organs of sense and action by the power of his well, and
remaining unattached actions. They are the superior then those guide by the mind. Aham atma
According to Sri Aurobindo I who written thee, here was saying I who am here in this human
body, I for whom all exists, acts strives, an at once the cosmic attention The Lord says I am the
physical body, and non-physical also, naturally I am not in this body, but in consciousness,
instead of all beings are inside me, and I am also inside them. The consciousness of the beings, I
am that, amongst the Vedas I am the Sama Veda, amongst the Debas I am the Basui, all
Supreme stage of thins that is me. My super reality is above the body and mind, the higher level
of stage is to me.
According to Sri Aurobindo; The self governs the diversity of its
creation by its unity on all the planes from the higher mind upward on which the relation of the
one is the natural basis of the consciousness. But as one goes upward, the view changes, the
power of consciousness change, the light becomes ever more intense and potent. Although the
static transition of infinity and eternity and the timeless one remains the same, the vision of the
working of the one becomes ever wider and is attended with a greater instrumentality of force
and more comprehensive grasp of what has to be known and done. All possible form and
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constructions of things becomes more and more visible, put in their proper place, utilizable.
Moreover, what is thought-knowledge in the higher mind becomes illumination in the
illuminated mind direct intimate vision in the illusion

11
Then is the instruction analogy in the context of the individual self:
This known fact, that the mind seems to go to it Brahaman, and the fact that Brahman is
repeatedly remembered through the mind regard to Brahman. Mind is an instrumental of the
ignorance trying to know superimind is the knower possening the knowledge, because one with
it and the known, therefore seeing all things in the light of his own truth, the light of their true
self which is he. Therefore the supermind does not transcend all possible manifestation, but it is
above the triplicity of mind, life and Matter which is our present experience of this
manifestation.
12
The man, however, whoever, who has under
control the rein of the mind, attains the end of the road; and that is the highest place of Bisnu. It
means those who can control his mind he may reach very supreme goal to be reached beyond the
course of the world. He becomes free from all the worldly bondage. That paramapadam it is the
topmost place of the Universe. Lord says I am the supreme consciousness of all cosmic nature, I
am the Brahma, become me all pancha mahabhutas, animalcules, plants, beasts, and human
beings are produced from Maya, these are consciounes I am the super consciousness, in this
world those have consciousness thy are Jivatma, only I am Paramatma, end of Leela or action all
creatures comes to me, if those are not interested in this Mayaa thy can practice of yoga, by the
yoga can now my highest secret of Leela, that is only is supreme nowledge jnana deepena
bhasvata
13
I lays hauls on our obscure ignorant nature and transformed in to his own lash and
wisdom.
According to Satya Sai Baba, the study of the mind and science of perfecting consciousness has
not developed because man seeks place and enjoy in external things and adjective pleasures. The
attention all along has been on the outer sense and methods by which they can be used to collect
information and pleasurable experiences. The vast religion of inner conciouseness has been left
follow; the fact that the mind is the creator of the multiple worlds of the senses is ignored. When
a thorn enters the sole, it has to be removed by anther thorn, and after that is done, both thorns
are thrown away. So too, the world of things that the mind has projected has to be negated by the
clarified and concentrated mind. And then both the universe and the mind disappear. The thorn
it is that pricks; the thorn it is that removes the thorn. The mind binds; the moralize.
14


15
(The mind and the control of
thought, understanding and the content of understanding, egoism and the content of egoism,
awareness of and the content of awareness.

16
If anyone , resorts to the mind, that is meditates; two
letters and of Om. He becomes identified with the mind. By the Yajur mantra he is lifted
to the intermediate space, the world of the moon. Having experience greatness in the lunar world
and an Another concept this text enjoys a meditation on Hiranyagarbha who embodies Himself
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in the subtle cosmos conceived of as a subtle dream state; the earlier text similarly enjoins a
meditation on virata, embodying Himself in the gross universe, conceived of as the waking state.
The godhead referred to above is the illuminator of all external light such as
sun, moon, planets and stars, of all physic light visualized, the intellect mind and sense etc., and
all of essential lights in the shape of delights presiding over the different worlds and objects.
Even the powder of illumination inherent in all these is only a fraction of God. That is why he is
light of all lights, He is illuminated by none. And all
17
For
Krishna says Arjuna, the mind is very unsteady, turbulent, tenacious and powerful, therefore it is
most difficult to control the air that course incessantly through the body in the shape of
inhalation and exhalation, through violence, reason, discrimination and force etc.
The world has its existence on the movement of the mind, and the
motionlessness of the mind produces the liberation. So one, being indifferent should make stable
his mind.
18
The so-called river of flows in
two directions, it flows towards good and it flows towards evil. It promotes two types of world
one is Mandan world another is divine world.
Accordiing to Ramana Maharsi For men constantly
active their mind attached to sensory objects, because of their strong impression, the mind
becomes difficult to control. To the sense and sensory object of enjoyment, their mind is
attached, keeps company; so they have constantly the activities, the operations of the senses of
action and senses of knowledge, acts of remembering them and uniting with them. To those men
of the world on account of the comparative strength of their vasanas special impressions which
the reasons for remembrance born out of previous experiences accumulated, mind becomes very
difficult to control. It means that the mind control can effected only with great difficulty. The
reason for difficulty in controlling the mind is attributed strength of the Vasana. So man should
subjugate, bring under control that the fickle wavering mind by the breath control, by the restrain
of the life breathe.
19

The Budhhi is the self
of the soul, and Budhhi is heroin of the soul. When it changes its from then it is called Manas.
Upanishad Says Tattva masi (thou art that) It is secret things you are not in you, you are that,
that means the Supreme, your not in body, you are soul, this soul is inside you, that hidden stay
in the body, search your secret part of body that is eternal of dross gross. According to Sri
Aurobindo If thou art that all time, then my grace thou shalt pass safe through all difficult and
perilous passage; if formed eyed thou hear not, thou shalt fall into perdition. It means Lord says
Arjuna is not in Arjuna you are the Supreme, this name is periodic time, this birth before you
were not in Arjuna, after this birth not to be this name, everything may be changed, further your
soul never be transited. We all are becomes Brahma again we will disposal in Brahma.
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According to Vivekananda; the chitta or mind-stuff is like a transparent lake, and the waves
which rise in it by the impact of sense-impressions constitute manas or the mind. Therefore the
mind consists of a succession of through-waves. From these mental waves arises desire. Then
that desire transforms itself into will and works through its gross instrument, the body.
20

The Yogins depend
on the control of their mind for fearless, destruction of misery, the knowledge of self and eternal
peace. The liberation activities of the satvic self-discipline must no doubt be pervaded by a spirit
of renunciation, that is an essential elements, but what renunciation and in what manner or the
sprit? Not the renunciation of work in the world, not any outward asceticism or any ostentation
of visible giving up of enjoyment, but renunciation, a living, tyaga, of vital desire and ego, a total
laying aside, sannyasa, of the separate personal life of the desire soul and ego-governed mind
rajasic vital nature.


The mind is the only means of bondage and liberation for the people. But Mind attaches with
worldly objects like; bondage, pain, suffer and death. He also attains the peace, serenity, ecstasy
and liberation. Only mind can give the salvation to the soul through the physical body. That may
reach the stage of liberation state and can dissolves in the panic state. Therefore wises say always
your mind should be positive side then you may get success in your life. If the mind should be
toward negative side, it will go down part of life. The natures of mind it will pull forcefully the
negative side, we but should not follow his command, in all like-hood pull toward positive
activities or by the divine force.
According to the Indian concept, the soul and mind are separate each to other, consequently both
inter related with, and the mind is material, although its matter is too subtle to be perceived by
the senses. The mind is an important component of the subtle body, which survives death and
continues to exist until liberation is attained.

References:
1. Rusi Umashankar Sharma (2008). Sarvadarshanasasngraha. Varanasi: Chaukhamba
Vidyabhavan.
2. Ibid.
3. Shastri, Rakesh (2011). Tarkasangraha. Delhi: Chaukhamba Sanskruta Pratisttha.
4. Ibid.
5. Gambhiranada, Swami (2004) Svetasvatara Upanishad, Kolkata : Avaita Asharam ,v-
3/20.
6. Shastri, Rakesh (2004). Sankhyakarika. Delhi :Sanskruta Granthagara ,v-1/1.
56 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
http://lokayatajournal.webs.com
7. Gambhiranada Swami (2004). Taittiriya Upanishad. Kolkata:Avaita Asharam,v-3/4.
8. Shastri, Ashok Chatarji (2010). Yogadarshan of Patanjali. Delhi: Parimal Publications,
s-1/2.
9. Gayandaka, Jaydayal (2008). Bhagavat-Gita Tattvavivechani. Gorakhpur: Gita Press ,v-
3/6.
10. Ibid, v-3/7.
11. Kena Upanishad, v- 4/5
12. Katha Upanishad, v-1.3.9.
13. Gayandaka, Jaydayal (2008). Bhagavat-Gita Tattvavivechani, v-10/11.
14. Sadweiss Samuel H, M.D. (2007). Spirit and the Mind. Andhra Pradesh: Sri Satya Sai
Books and Publication Trust, India, p.143.
15. Prasna Upanishad,v-4/8.
16. Prasna Upanishad, v-5/4.
17. Gayandaka, Jaydayal (2008). Bhagavat-Gita Tattvavivechani,v-6/34.
18. Aranya, Srimat Swami Hariharanada (2003). Patanjala Yogadarshan Vyasabhasya.
Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas, s-2/12.
19. Sri Ramana Gita (2009). Trilubanamalai : Sri ramana Ashrama, p-87.
20. Talk with Swami Vivekanda (2009). Kolkata: Avaita Asharam, p.295.














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iin| i .- ;lnri - i i -ii - i r| ;r - i i| |i ri ii i
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il -|i n r in i
z
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s
l i i | -|-ii -n i ln -n r
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ln nii- | ni (Consciousnes) ln (Thinking)
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2 i in-| ---ln z.s
3 in i i-ii-i i|
in i il in lln||r| z.s/
4 i c..
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.57-62
58 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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i i nii , l ii| lin- ( Learning)
i , l ii| -i|i ( Perception)
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59 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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z
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l-ini li - ~li | lnii r|
z
- | nln i i| ~ - in r|
(~ ,/,r) li i - -i ni ri ni r| i
(c,or,) - - - | n|nln i -i - nri n r ri ni rr ii n! l
i i|i ni-| -, - lii ii ini r, | i n - i| iin ii |
~ (o,c,z) - , rii i r i r i ii -
i iin rn lii - i ni r| ~ -i n (o,rs) i li
- in- r| l- -n, li|, lii, iii, - , iilii il lli -iii - n -
i i-i | iii | n; r|
~-i - - ii ; i i| ~i ri r| - i -| i - -| rn| r n
- i ; i r- r| in|
zz
ri ii - i i -inn ~ i ; i i

12 ir| r.c.
13 r| s.s.r
14 ir| s.o.r
15 ~ s.oo.r
16i lrni s
17 i c.z.s
18 ; n -l- -i i r lin-|r| s.s.
19 inni -ln n n- ni ln| i lrni s.
20 r| s.c
21 i -n - | i o./.s/

22 n -i ; ili| ~ o.o.s
60 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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l,nn ii li r | l ii n ; ii ii i lii ii ;
- l-in - iin ni li r| i (s,/,) - - n i ~ ( ) - -
li ii i i n - ii ri r| i ; i i i r|
zs
ii lii in
iiii ,ii li - i ni i r| i li ni r|
z
~li - iiii
li | -ini | i| iii n r,
zr
n - l ni | -iln i nin n|n
rini r ni li (ln )
zc
| ln iln i| li -i r| n i i -i i|
ln i, ii, -ni lii r
z/
, ;|ii ni - l--l n -in
ii-
zs
r ri ni r l l - - ilii i --n li i n in rni r| n
ni i r| rin r i| li r r, i i n li i -iii ln
i l | i l- n r ini r| ; i l iil l- - -, ;, li i n
ni r, i -in -i n|n ri n r i| nn i r|
~ o.so.c, ~ o.//.,
~ o.ss. ~ii - - ,ii i - in r| ri r
i| ri ni r, l - i lii l, i ni ri, i l
(nili s..s) l, i ni ,ii r| l| -n i ni in rini r, i l -
n ;l ,ii li nri | li i llrnii r| ii | l-ilni - n -
n ii nri - - | i l-i li in r| rii li - - i i
~i i -i i ri r|
zs
n li ~ n i- r| -- ni r, l l
lrnii - - i - i ~ i -ii ni r| - r| i -i iii i i n ri,
n ii, i-i ;si il | - r| ni i n rin r| rii li ii-, ~,
lll-i, ,i, ,i, ilni ln, ;|, i|, i ........ i| - r| r |
so
li - ii - - i
i ni lln r| i (s,zo) n - | li -ii iln | ii ni r -

23li ni-| ii ii ~ o.s.s lnil niil ln s.s, ni, -, ni--r|i i lrni
s.r, niil, liil| ii ii i s.zr.c
24r| .s., s.z.r, s.zr.r, c.s.z, c.s. s
25 -i - r li-ii-| ~ o.s.s
26 ln- nn |ln .c
27i-i lnlnn -, nln - niln nn, i-i liini--r|i i ilrni s.s
(-ni- n ni iln |)
28 i. lrni s.r
29 ii ~ii - i-| riili z..
30 i- ~illl-i ,i,i ilnilnr|i|i|lni...........n - | r| .r.s
61 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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ri ni r l - ; ~i i in |
s
in -n - n -i
n - ~i |s iln - li i i ii i li ni r|
sz


i c./s.z, i .s. ~ii -
iln i - i ; - l- ri ni r| i l r li - - rin| r|
i s..z - - ; ini | i li
| -ini ri ni r| -nn iln - - - ri i ~, ;si i i-i i i- r,
i l
ss
~ - - ri ; r i - - i
i nii ni r , r| --n - i
s
;i lii i| ri
ni r| -i - ~ -i r| iln i i| - i i- nii ni r, ln ~ |
lini i i ni lilin r| r, ni iln | ni | i-i | n; r|
- ii, i|, i|ln, iln, -ln i -|ii i- ;n l, ni i r i r l n , --l n,
li il i- r| r| l, - | iiii-- i lii-- ni r| ; i-i iii
-i - ; - i ii | -|-ii r; r| -ii | iiiiiln l, i -ii
(~ .s.c), i| (i c..), i|ln (i s.o./) i i ln ( i lrni z.s) ri
ni r | iiii i i lnln - i ln ii iii l, -|ii (~
.c.z) i -ln (~ .ss.z) i- r | i i| - i i| r r, i ;- i nn ln
- n r| l i - i- r, | i -ii(i /.c.),i i -ln(~ .
.s),i i -ln(~ .s.) i- r| -iiil r l l, - lln ~li i -
-ln l,r|ni ini r
sr
, i -ln, ii n - l|n l, i ii irni
r|
sc
i (c.os) - i n - - ii i iri r| ;- i| lii i in i
i- i li li ni r| l, ni| - - l, | i-i n n| r l
l l- - i, i i- l, | -rii lli r|
l, nii i - i-|lni .zz - ri ni r, l l, in n i r


31 i i in|- i r | i s.zo.s
32 i i ii ii i- iin - i s/
33 ~ o.s.
34 ir| o.zs.
35n -i lii - -n | ~ r.sc.s
36 -iii i-i- n ln rn-|r| o.o.s
62 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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-i | ;si, i, -ni (nri i), -n i ni - ii i, nln
ni i i l i, i i ll n i ni nii - i n- i ii l, ni r ,
iin l, i nri l r li i - i | ;si n| r| ;si
ln | lnii i -i- i i n| r | ln i -n n ri n| r| nr|n ni
i ni - l-i n| r; li - n ln -i- i ll n i ni
n- i linri n| r | ;|l ni l i .- - l, i ni | iiii iln ri
ni r|

l i.- - - i l, iil l - iril i |i i n| i ni
--il ni i - ii i r | i-i ii i | n; r| - ii
i r| l i .- li r - iiln i ii -ini r, i l r| - ii -
l li, -i i i- - iiln i ln ni r| ; r| -il in n r,
l -il iln i ri - i i - i i i li~n -
li ni r| i, ii rini ni -il ni - r| r| rin | l i -
ii - ii i ii - -r- i i - i l,i lrn ii nii
r | i n iilni- i (s.zo.z) ~i - -il ni i ii - i -i
-i ii| i n li r|
l ~li , iil-- ln i| i i - l li ini |
iln ii| - - iil-- ln - iil ni i i li -i r| r| ;| ii
-i - -ii-ii -i| ni i ; -, lli ii - iil ln
,iln i iril -n i rini r | in r l ; -i - llin li
iil ii lii nn -n r i li l- nii nr n|n rin r| n l
iil n | i -i l lii li n r i ii r| iin| i |
iiii|i -n n n r|
s/







37 ~ii, i.i i ssc l ilr- - lli lni , .|.llin ri | l~| - i s/

63 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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EDUCATION DISPELS DARKNESS
R.K.Behera
Education is a ladder of development. It dispels darkness and brings light. It gives an opportunity
to man to understand the world around him and his place in it. The Greek philosopher Plato
accorded top priority to education in his ideal state. He frankly assumed that the state is first and
foremost an educational institution. Plato writes: With a good system of education almost any
improvement is possible; if education is neglected, it matters little what else the state does. It
has been observed that economic progress of the developed countries is due to their human
capital. They have borrowed and stolen the best brains of other countries to enrich their country.
Not only Plato, but a number of other eminent philosophers right from the ancient times down to
the present have dealt with the subject of education. For Aristotle, as for Plato, aside from
physical conditions of good life, the most important force of molding citizens is a compulsory
system of education. Among the moderns, Mahatma Gandhi was eloquent in the need of
education for man. In ancient times man was completely at the mercy of nature which was a
mystery to him. The dark forces of nature like the earthquakes, floods and other such calamities
were beyond the comprehension of man and to console himself he had to depend upon the
existence of supernatural powers. This led to the growth of religion and superstition.
Then gradually, under the impact of necessity of is survival, man started developing various
kinds of tools to cope with nature and this led to the growth of natural sciences. Knowledge and
understanding come to us through the study of natural sciences- chemistry, physics, biology, etc.
on the one hand and the social sciences- history, political science, economics, etc. on the other.
The acquisition, interlinking and transmission of this knowledge and understanding are the
primary function of education. Hence, education is an important social resource that improves
the qualities of man. It is not only meant for job but also for judgment. Education, properly
speaking, should develop a spirit of enquiry and rational thinking in the youth so as to enable
them to understand the society and change if whenever it is fond necessary.
One country needs different educational systems at different times and different countries need
different systems at a particular time. One particular system or one particular set of educational
ideals does not fit in to the educational schemes of all countries. The educational ideals of a
country are determined by the requirements of the age and by its social order, its culture, and
morality, the genius of the people, its spiritual values and the state of its economy. Thus,
different countries are in requirement of their own system of education. India needs her own
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.63-66
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national system of education. The scheme of education evolved in America or Russia or in
another country cannot serve the purpose, if India is to make progress in keeping with her own
individuality and genius. Education in India is primarily the responsibility of state Governments
but the Union Government has also been entrusted with certain responsibilities specified in the
constitution. Let us first discuss the objectives of education in India.
OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION IN INDIA
Indias educational system needs to be reorganized and reoriented in the context of the
Indian constitution which provides for a political democratic set up. The spirit of
secularism and nationalism should be produced in the minds of the students right from
the start.
To lay the foundation of such a society this has efficient and farsighted citizens.
To develop science, technology and scientific approach.
Our educational system should reflect regard for the great cultural values of the past.
Education in India should be such as inculcates the spirit of brotherhood, fellow feeling
and community feeling. The shell of narrow regimented outlook should crack and our
children should be encouraged to think in terms of the well-being of the entire human-
race.
Liberal and technical education should be judiciously combined. In this connection
Gandhijis philosophy of education needs to be given due consideration. He was in
favour of furthering the cause of handicrafts which he regarded as the best policy of
education.
India is committed to establish a socialistic pattern of society. Disparities of income and
wealth have to be reduced. People are to be provided with economic justice.
Education in India must strive to develop national language.

DEVLOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA
Development of education in India may be studied with reference to two different periods:
a. State of education before independence: During British rule education did not make any
progress. The objective of British government to set up educational institutions in India
was to produce an English knowing class which would support their rule and assist them
in running their administration. British also wanted the common people to be weak and
helpless in order to perpetuate their rule. Thus, in less than 200 years of British rule, India
which had given scripts to half the world became an educationally backward country. At
the time of independence hardly 15% people were literate.
b. State of education after independence: After Independence, since 1950-51, attempts have
been made for the development of education as a national plan objective as a result of
which the educational scene in independent India is completely transformed. Some of the
major development areas have been highlighted in the following paragraphs:
65 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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Expansion of general education: During the plans great progress has been achieved in
the field of education. The number of educational institution has increased roughly by
four times and the number of students has increased nine-fold.

Spread of literacy: in 1951 hardly 16% of the total population was literate. In 1996, the
percentage of literacy increased to 54%. Now 100% students of the age group 6-11 years
are going to schools.

Primary education is free and compulsory: Free mid-day meal programme has been
introduced in schools.

Education for girls: Education for girls is free throughout the country up to class 12.
One third of the seats are secured of Navodaya Vidyalaya for girls.

Adult education: The National Adult Education programme was taken up in 1978 with
the aim of reaching 100% literacy (age group 15-33) by the year 1990. As a result, the
overall literacy percentage has increased to 63% in 1999-2000.

Technical education: Taking into consideration the need for technical education, the
government took steps to open industrial training institutes, poly techniques, engineering
colleges and medical colleges. At present there are 230 recognized engineering colleges,
146 medical colleges and 40 dental colleges.

Vocationalisation of secondary education: The government is committed to the
programme of vocationalisation of education at +2 stages.

Improvement in education in science: It was in 1988 that the central government
started a scheme for the improvement of education in science in the schools.

Encouragement to Indian languages and culture: The government is promoting
Indian language as medium of instruction and examinations. There has been a revival of
interest in music, dance, yoga, folk art and Indian literature.

Programme of mass orientation: The national council for teacher education (NCTE)
has been established in 1995 with a view to developing teachers education, regulation
and proper maintenance of norms and standards of teachers education.


66 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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Navodaya Vidyalaya: The government of India launched in 1985-86 a scheme to
establish navodaya vidyalaya on an average of one in each district to provide good
quality modern education to the talented children, predominantly for rural areas. The
vidyalayas are fully residential and co-educational.

Non-formal education (6-14 age groups): It is meant for those children who cannot go
to full-time schools. From the year 1987-88 central assistance was made available to state
and voluntary organizations for setting up non-formal education centers in rural, tribal,
hilly remote areas and urban slums.

Several other measures are being taken to strengthen our educational system so as to make
the people not only educated but through education make them more productive and socially
useful. There are also certain problems which stand as barriers in the way of educational
development. They are wastage of resources, lack of funds, faulty examination system,
problem of brain drain and unbalanced development, etc. In spite of all problems or country
will be educationally developed if people become aware of the running situations and
actively co-operate. As a fitting finale, let us close with an ancient proverb which says: If
you are planning for one year, plant rice; if you are planning for five years, plant trees; if you
are planning for the future, educate your children. Education is the base of all human
resource development, a stepping stone for the onward march of culture, the bed-rock of all
human progress.












67 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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EFFECT OF KNOWLEDGE VALUES ON LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG
ADOLESCENTS
Himani Anand & Shailendra Pratap
Abstract
The present study was designed to study the effect of knowledge values on life satisfaction. The
sample consisted of 60 adolescents in the age range of 15 to 24 years. Life satisfaction and
Personal Values were measured by Life Satisfaction Scale prepared by Q.G. Alam and Ramji
Srivastava and Personal Values Questionnaire (PVQ) prepared by G. P. Sherry and R.P. Verma
respectively. x
2
was applied to study the effect of knowledge values on life satisfaction. Results
indicated that there is a significant relationship between knowledge values and life satisfaction.
Person with knowledge values works hard for develop his knowledge and ability. For him
knowledge is virtue. It is clear that values gives positive thoughts, conducts and actions so that a
man can develop himself with all dimensions of life successfully and become a satisfied person.
Key words: Knowledge Values, Life Satisfaction
Introduction
Indians have laid high stress on values like peaceful co-existence, spirituality, deference to
elders, seeking prosperity, strong family ties, respecting even the tools of their trade. A value is a
belief, a mission, or a philosophy that is meaningful. Every individual has a core set of personal
values. Values can range from the commonplace, such as the belief in hard work and punctuality,
to the more psychological, such as self-reliance, concern for others, and harmony of purpose.
Everyone is motivated to move their lives in certain directions. That motivation is determined by
the values. Without values or beliefs, one would be mechanical-like beings, driven here and there
by the vicissitudes of life. Without values, one would be creature-like, compelled to action solely
by their urges and passions. In this reality devoid of values, one would live unconscious lives,
without meaning or purpose. On the other hand, with the values one lives a purposeful and
dynamic existence i.e. become truly human.
Personal values and beliefs are indeed very significant influences on peoples assessment of their
subjective wellbeing. Belief in the importance of generating new ideas and being creative,
valuing respect from others, and following traditions all exert a significant positive effect on life
satisfaction. Values can be understood as enduring beliefs that specific modes of conduct or end-
states of existence are personally or socially preferable to opposite or converse modes of conduct
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or end-states of existence (Roeach, M. 1968). Value is that what satisfies human desires.
(Urbanas view). According to Roeach, values constitute the driving force of human behavior.
Rokeach also distinguishes between instrumental values and terminal values. Instrumental values
can be divided into: moral values solidarity, justice, liberty, etc. and competence- related
valuesabilities and knowledge; terminal values can be divided into personal values sensitivity,
pleasantness, material aspects and social values skills for interacting with people (people
skills). Rokeach argues that each person has a system of values, an organization of his/her beliefs
in relation to the forms of behavior he or she prefers, along a continuum according to their
importance. Value systems have a hierarchical structure, some of them being more nuclear than
others (Rokeach, M. 1973). Although the value system of each individual is relatively stable, it
may change in different social contexts and in different cultural conditions, and it is particularly
influenced by the social and political development of each society (Pinillos, J. L. 1982).
Nowadays, satisfaction with life as a whole is understood by many authors as a global evaluation
of life (Veenhoven, R. 1994), contrasting with satisfaction in different domains and being
considered the former something more than the summing up of the latter. On the other hand,
the two types of satisfaction can be explained both through individual and cultural differences
(Diener, E. 1994). As an example, it has been repeatedly observed by Diener and Suh (1997) and
Diener et al. (2000) that levels of satisfaction with life as a whole vary by country.
Psychological Wellbeing
Wellbeing is categorically defined as a positive state of human being. Some authors name this
phenomena as subjective well-being (Huebner, E. S. 1991; Huebner, E. S., Laughlin, J. E.,
Asch, C. & Gilman, R. 1998) or as subjective quality of life (Cummins, R. and Cahill, J.
2000). Psychological wellbeing refers to how people evaluate their lives. Wellbeing involves
subjective satisfaction and individuals pleasure depending upon psychological status of the
individual and his environmental conditions. Wellbeing may be defined as a subjective, positive
emotional state with general life satisfaction (Diener, E. 1984). It involves the way the individual
feels about himself or herself due to achievement of goals in life. Therefore the most common
and comprehensive indicator of the sense of wellbeing includes life satisfaction which refers to
an individuals own global judgment of his or her quality of life, feeling of contentment and
happiness. The sense of enjoyment of life (commonly referred as satisfaction, happiness and
joy) or subjective appreciation of life is also conceptualized as an indicator of wellbeing
(Veenhoven, R. 2004). Diener (1984) reported that happy people tend to have high self-esteem, a
satisfying love relationship, a meaningful religious faith and sufficient social activities. Happy
people may have greater self-confidence, sociability or better social relationships and other
characteristics of those high in well-being. According to Lama (2000) the very purpose of life is
to see happiness. Happiness is determined more by ones state of mind than by external events.
Success, material pleasures, recognition, may result in a temporary feeling of elation but one
return to his baseline.
69 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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Life satisfaction is categorized by satisfaction with current life, satisfaction with past, satisfaction
with future, significant others views of ones life and desire to change ones life. People are said
to have high subjective wellbeing if they are satisfied with their life conditions, experience
frequent positive emotions and frequent negative emotions. Wellbeing or wellness is often
referred to as wholeness of body, mind and spirit in terms of health, prosperity and self-
actualization by Maslow (1968). Tatariewicz (1976) wrote, ..happiness requires total
satisfaction that is satisfaction with life as a whole Life satisfaction often refers to the attitudes
that individuals have about their past, present as well as future in relation to their psychological
wellbeing (Chaddha, N. K. & Van Willigen, J. V. 1995).
METHOD
Problem: To study the effect of knowledge values on life satisfaction among adolescents.
Hypothesis: There is no significant effect of knowledge values on life satisfaction among
adolescents.
Variables:
Independent variable: Knowledge Values
Dependent Variable: Life Satisfaction
Rant Relevant Variable: Age, Educational Qualification, Socio-Economic Status
Procedure: After selecting the subjects on the basis of random sampling the Life Satisfaction
Scale and Personal Values Questionnaire were administered. x
2
was used in order to find the
effect of knowledge values on life satisfaction.
Sample: Scales were administered on a group of 60 adolescents both male and female of the Dev
Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya in the city of Haridwar in 2010. The selection of the sample is made
on the basis of random sampling method.
Tools: To study the variables Life Satisfaction Scale and Personal Values Questionnaire were
utilized.
Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS) developed by Dr. Q.G. Alam and Dr. Ramji Srivastava. The
test retest reliability of the scale was found to be 0.84. Test validity of the scale was obtained by
correlating it with Saxenas Adjustment inventory and Srivastava Adjustment Inventory. The
quotients obtained were 0.74 & 0.84 respectively.
Personal Values Questionnaire prepared by Dr. (Mrs.) G. P. Sherry, (Agra) and Dr. R. P.
Verma, (Varanasi). The test retest reliability of the questionnaire was found to be 0.63 with three
months interval.
Statistical Analysis: x
2
was used to test the effect of knowledge values on life satisfaction
among adolescents.
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
TABLE I -A: Levels of Knowledge Values in different levels of Life Satisfaction (Frequency)

df = 8, N=60
TABLE I -B: Levels of Knowledge Values in different levels of Life Satisfaction
(Percentage)









Table IA

Levels of Life
Satisfaction
LEVELS OF KNOWLEDGE VALUES
X
2

Level of
Significance

VERY
HIGH

HIGH

AVERA
GE

LOW

VERY
LOW

HIGH

3

4

4

4

3



19.90


Significant at
0.05 level

AVERAGE

2

0

10

14

10

LOW

0

0

3

0

3


Levels of
Life
Satisfaction
LEVELS OF KNOWLEDGE VALUES

VERY
HIGH

HIGH

AVERAG
E

LOW

VERY
LOW

HIGH

10

13.33

13.33

13.33

10

AVERAGE

6.67

0

33.33

46.67

33.33

LOW

0

0

10

0

10
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presents the levels of knowledge values in different levels of life satisfaction The results show a
significant relationship between knowledge values and life satisfaction. Table IB shows the
percentage relationship in knowledge values and life satisfaction. The null hypothesis is rejected
at 0.05 level of significance and there is a relationship between the knowledge values and life
satisfaction.
GRAPH

Table shows the result that the chi-square(x
2
) value has been found to be 19.90.The given x
2
value suggests that the result is significant at 0.05 level. Our null hypothesis which states There
is no significant effect of nowledge values on life satisfaction among adolescents is rejected. A
clear basis is obtained to state that there exist a significant relationship between the level of
knowledge values and life satisfaction.
This indicates that the knowledge values effect the life satisfaction. A life based on satisfaction
brings meaning, purpose and direction to living. Clarifying life satisfaction forms a strong
foundation for personal growth and development. A life consciously based on satisfaction is
fulfilling and meaningful. The life satisfaction helps a person to connect the consciousness with
the grace, balance and restorative powers of natural system. A true peace, love and happiness can
easily get by it. Research done by Aznar, Estrada, Ramirez, Carrasco & Amelia (2005), found
significant and positive Pearson correlations for the values related to abilities and knowledge
with the dimensions of satisfaction.
Conclusion
Conclusion of this study is that knowledge values effects the life satisfaction of an individual.
This shows that to mae on satisfied, persons personal values is needed, values keeps an
important place in persons life.
He is a rich who is satisfied.
72 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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Huebner, E. S. (1991). Correlates of Life Satisfaction in Children. School Psychology
Quarterly, Vol. 6, pp. 103-11.
Huebner, E. S., Laughlin, J. E., Asch, C. & Gilman, R. (1998). Further Validation of the
Multidimensional Students Life Satisfaction Scale. Journal of Psychoeducational
Assessment, Vol. 16 (2), pp. 118-34.
Pinillos, J. L. (1982). El Cambio de los Sistemas de Valores en las Sociedades
Desarrolladas yen las Sociedadesen Desarrollo [Change in value systems in developed
and developing societies]. Reunin Internacional sobre Psicologa de los Valores,
Policopied.
Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human values, New York: The Free Press.
Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes and values. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Tatarkiewicz, W. (1976). Analysis of happiness. The Hague,Netherlands: Martinus
Nijhoff.
Veenhoven, R. (2004). Subjective measures of Wellbeing. In Mark McGillivray (Ed.),
Human Well-being, Concept and Measurement, (pp. 214-239). Hounds mill, UK:
Palgrave Macmillan Series.
Veenhoven, R. (1994). El Estudio de la Satisfaccin con la Vida [The study of Life
Satisfaction]. Intervencin Psicosocial, Vol. 3 (9), pp. 87-116.
73 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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BOOK-REVIEWS
Merina Islam
I.Positive Philosophy for Contemporary Indian Society
Desh Raj Sirswal
E-book size: 489 KB; 38 pages; US$ 3
http://www.ideaindia.com/product_detail.php?pid=1930
Also available as Kindle eBook

The e-boo entitled, Positive Philosophy for Contemporary Indian Society has contains three
chapters. (i) Meaning of Positive Philosophy which deals with the conception of Positive
Philosophy and Methodology, (ii) Nature of Philosophy in General which discuss about general
conception of philosophy, methods of study and writing philosophy, and (iii) Philosophy of
Social Change which discuss the need of Indian Model of Philosophy of Social Change and in
the end we find that there is an excellent concluding remarks and suggestions.

The author has started the chapter with questions lie what does life mean?, Did I have any
existence before I was born? Most of people also have some ind of philosophy in the sense of
a personal outlook on life. Even a person, who claims that considering philosophic questions is a
waste of time, is expressing his views on what is important, worthwhile or valuable .The first
chapter gave an analysis of a positive attitude, which leaves religious and metaphysical
speculations at the time of application.

He has beautifully explained that in our country, in order to reach at the goal of creating
nowledge society, the majority of the people in India must be helped to overcome
information poverty. The deprived peoples be given access to relevant and timely information
and knowledge to address the roles they should play in the development process and in our
society we are also working to erase information poverty related to philosophy discipline in India
there is an urgent need of those peoples who can think positively about humanities and social
sciences for the growth of society and can make nation more competent with intellectual
development. There is a definite impetus and a sense of need towards an independent Indian
philosophical identity to reinforce research and philosophical studies in India at different levels.

The author also has shortlisted for some topics of Positive Philosophy in Indian context that
should be discussed. This is a very good observation and I welcome this.
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.73-76
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In the 2
nd
chapter nature of philosophy the author mentions the different branches of philosophy
but while relating the importance of logic and philosophy with heading philosophy is nothing
without logic I would like to mention here that instead of mentioning the elementary course of
logic adopted by Department of Philosophy, Kurukshetra University, the author can also take
initiative to show how logic is closely related to philosophy. Most philosophers use logical
arguments to argue in favour of what they believe.

In another chapter the author mentions about the role of education in social change In this
context he talk about the Human rights in India and beautifully cited the some of the cases of
Haryana State, where people are still waiting for justice and compensation. He mentions
different ideologies but ultimately talks about serious concern for the youth and intellectuals for
development of nation.

Above all the author does well to highlight in the concluding remarks that Philosophy should be
one of the foundation courses in the curriculum of the modern schools, colleges and universities.
Awarding Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy) in all fields of knowledge is not enough to fulfill the
need and significance of philosophy in educational system. Its a very good effort taen by the
author Dr Sirswal .As now a days students are showing less interest in reading philosophy.

The language of this e-book is very lucid and well written. The reader will face no obstacle at
linguistic level in reading this e-book. This is a high quality of e-book and I will request the
author to bring print version copy of this e-book so that it can, be recommended to all students of
Philosophy .

II. Philosophy, Education and Indian Value System
Desh Raj Sirswal
E-book size: 309 KB; 28 pages; US$ 2
http://www.ideaindia.com/product_detail.php?pid=1926
Also available as Kindle eBook
In this e-book an attempt is made by the author to draw out the contemporary relevance of
philosophy in school education of India. It includes some studies done in this field and also
reports on philosophy by such agencies like UNESCO & NCERT. Many European countries
emphasises on the above said theme. There are lots of work and research done by many
philosophers on philosophy for children. Indian value system is different from the West and
more important than others. Every nation started developing its own specific set of educational
values. For India it is very necessary to increase philosophical thinking study and research.
Anyone going through this e-book cannot fail to notice the amazingly wide breadth of
scholarship that the author has shown.
75 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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The e-book is beautifully divided into three chapters Chapter-I : Philosophy and Values in
School Education of India ,Chapter-II : Sri Aurobindos Philosophy of Education, Chapter-III :
Spiritual Approach to Education with concluding remark . The author has done an exhaustive
study of the different dimensions of the usefulness of philosophy. Philosophy could make
significant contribution, particularly in relation to childrens moral development because the
Indian curriculum currently neglects this aim. A teacher can play an important role in promoting
this discussion because a teacher has the capacity to influence students with their thoughts and
personality and engages them in these activities. Philosophy needs to be included in the
curriculum and have demonstrated cognitive and social gains in children who were explored to
philosophy in their schooling.
The author has started his analysis by discussing Jean Piagets well nown theory of cognitive
development suggests that prior to age 11 or 12, most children are not capable of philosophical
thining. This is because, prior to this time, children are not capable of thining about
thinking.(p. 8) . Again he brings the view of philosopher Gareth Matthews that Piaget failed to
see that philosophical thinking manifest in the very children he studied. Matthews provides a
number of delightful examples of very young childrens philosophical puzzlement.
In this context the author mentioned that in primary level we can teach philosophy to children
with the help of stories, novel and particular issues. Agreeing with the author I would like to
mention here that even the small children start leaning and knowing this world by questioning
their parents like the dialectical method of Socrates
The author also mentioned ICPR analyses that one thing that appears not to have been done in
India in recent times is to take a serious look on the teaching, study and research in philosophy.
Philosophy itself has always been a very core area in the history and culture of our country. But,
for all practical purposes, philosophy seems to have become just like any other routine academic
discipline in the country since its teachers appear to have lost the vision of its special place and
role in the general scheme of thing.
In the chapter SRI AUROBINDOS PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION as the author has mention
about Sri Aurobindo has acclaimed as a modern seer scholar. His approach to Integral
education is in itself a unique concept. Education of the body, mind and spirit are each
expounded in his writings on education, but their integration is even more significant. He has
also dwelt on the social and psychological aspects of education. His thought has been put to
practice at Sri Aurobindo Ashrams educational programmes, The Auroville and several other
schools of the country. Sri Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research, Auroville
produced two books The Aim of Life and The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil and they can
already be made a good vehicle of teachers training in value education and they can also be
recommended for tertiary education. A constant insistence of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother has
been on detailed perfection of the human mind, life and body. We may, therefore, turn to the
three domains of mental education, vital education, and physical education as expounded and
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experimented upon at Sri Aurobindo Ashram at Pondicherry and subsequently at the Sri
Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research at Auroville.
I am grateful for the efforts taken by the author for writing e-boo highlighting Sri Aurobindos
thoughts on education. But I would like to focus that in this chapter we find one heading with
value oriented education and its weak point. I think for this he can make a separate chapter with
this heading and more elaborate about Aurobindo philosophy of education. In A National
System of Education, Sri Aurobindo points out that the question is not between modernism and
antiquity, but between an imported civilization and the greater possibilities of the Indian mind
and nature, not between the present and the past, but between the present and the future.
In SPIRITUAL APPROACH TO EDUCATION: AN INDIAN EXPERIENCE I would like to
make appreciate the observation made by the author how Indian thinkers have dwelt on the
philosophy of education and all related aspects like knowledge, intelligence, mind and the
functions of teaching and learning to which author has given references illustrious teachers of
yore like Mahrishi Dayananda Saraswati, Swami Vivekananda: Rabindranath Tagore, again Sri
Aurobindo, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, J. Krishanamurti and lastly Sri Raman Mahrishi.
I conclude this review with the observation that the e-book throws light on aspects of education
that has become a tool to achieve efficiency in all walks of human life whether social, political,
religious or philosophical, which deserve intensive analyses, discourse and validation. The
author beautifully quotes J.H. Pestalozzi, Education is natural, harmonious and progressive
development of mans innate powers. The e-book contain a systematic inquiry with a definite
objective to attain in this sense, it embodies a philosophical quest made by the young talented
author. We are also accepting such good philosophical wrings from author in coming future.










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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.77-80
PHILOSOPHY NEWS IN INDIA
First Session of SPPIS,Haryana
First Session of Society for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS),
Haryana on the theme The Contribution of Contemporary Indian Philosophy to World
Philosophy 30
th
June, 2012, Organizes by Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary
Studies (CPPIS),Milestone Education Society (Regd), Pehowa,(Kurukshetra)-136128
(HARYANA)
The 150
th
Birth Anniversary of Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) will be celebrated all over the
world during 2012-13. First Session of SPPIS, Haryana focuses on contemporary Indian
philosophy. In the 19
th
century Mother India gave the birth to some bright Stars, of course, not in
the sky, but on her soil. They were luminaries in their respective fields. Rabindranath Tagore,
Keshab Chandra Sen, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Roy, Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose, Raja
Rammohan Roy, Iswarchandra Vidyasagar, Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Mahatma Gandhi,
Lokmanya Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Swami Vivekananda and Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose are
some of the most revered personalities of that century. In this regard the Centre for Positive
Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Pehowa (Kurukshetra) devoted its first session
on contemporary Indian philosophy.
In the last decays, a number of monographs on the history of Indian philosophy have been
published. Of the books by Indian authors, the following are worthy of notice, first and foremost:
the two volume Indian Philosophy by Dr .Sarvepalli Radhakrishanan, the former President of the
Republic of Indian, A History of Indian Philosophy by Surendrantha Dasgupta; Suryanarayana
Sastrys Short History of Indian Materialism in Sansrit; Hiriyannas Outlines of Indian
Philosophy; An Introduction to Indian Philosophy by S.Chatterjee and D. Datta; A History of Indian
Philosophy by Ram Mohan Roy and many more treatises on contemporary Indian philosophy too.
The common feature of these works is that they are all written form the positions of idealist
interpretation of history and are limited to the ancient, medieval and modern periods of the history
of Indian philosophy. The situation is the same in the works of the Western historians of
philosophy, where the whole of the history of Indian philosophy is essentially reduced to the history
of the three unorthodox and six orthodox systems. Our attempt is to make a critical evaluation of all
philosophers with their main issues or trends of philosophical speculations in contemporary times
whether they are academicians or non-academicians.

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Main Features of the Session:
It is neither easy nor impossible to translate into action all noble goals set forth by the eminent
thinkers and scholars, but we might try to discuss and propagate their ideas. On this occasion this
session has relevance for academicians and students from their academic part and also as an event
to propagate contemporary Indian thoughts. These are the main features of this event:
All papers will be submitted electronically.
Selected abstract will be published in an e-book uploaded on event website.
Participants will be issued a certificate of participation.
Proceedings of the session will be published in print book with an ISBN.
CALL FOR PAPERS: Research papers are invited from faculty members and research scholars
on the thrust area of the session or any other related topic with an abstract format as given below:
Format of Submission: The abstract/summary should be short not more than 200-300 words,
mention essential facts only and submitted on a separate paper. The paper should be typewritten
preferably in Times New Roman with 12 font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size
(Hindi) in MS-Word 2003 and between 3000 to 5000 words. The authors should submit the hard
copy along with a CD and a certificate of originality of the paper to be sent to the mentioned
address. Kindly follow the instruction for paper writers available in CPPIS Manual for
Contributors & Reviewers (available at http://lokayatajournal.webs.com/apps/documents/ )
Time Line: Abstract: December April 30, 2012. Full Paper: May 31, 2012.
Registration Fees: A registration fees of Rs.1000/- through Demand Draft in favor of
Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa through State Bank of India payable at
Pehowa (KKR) should be submitted along with the abstract and registration form attached
herewith. This will be considered as the contribution to the works of CPPIS, Pehowa
(Kurukshetra). Areas of Concentration and registration form can be downloaded from this
website: http://cppisevents.webs.com
Organizing Committee:
Convener: Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, General Secretary, MSES (Regd.) & Programmed Co-
ordinator of the Centre. M-.09896848775, E-mail: mses.02@gmail.com
State Co-ordinator: Acharya Shilak Ram, Assistant Professor, Deptt. of Philosophy,
Kurukshetra University,Kurukshetra. M- 09813013065, Email: shilakram9@gmail.com
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National Co-ordinator: Dr. Merina Islam, Assistant Professor, Deptt. of Philosophy, Assistant
Professor (Philosophy), Cachar College, Silchar Assam. M-09435730344, Email:
merin_in@yahoo.com
Associate Members:
Ms. Poonama Verma, Secretary, Society for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies
(SPPIS) Haryana
Dr. Vijay Pal Bhatnagar, Research Associate, Centre for Buddhist Studies, Deptt. of Philosophy,
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra.
Mr Vikram Lohat, Associate Member, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary
Studies (CSPPIS), Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Mr Vipin Sangar, Associate Member, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary
Studies (CSPPIS), Pehowa (Kurukshetra).

Call for Papers: Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389)
Respected Faculty/Scholar,
I would like to invite all academicians from all disciplines to contribute research papers and
articles for our journal. Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) is a bi-
annual interdisciplinary journal of the Center for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary
Studies (CPPIS). The name Loyata can be traced to Kautilya's Arthashastra, which refers to
three nvkiks (logical philosophies), Yoga, Samhya and Loyata. Loyata here still refers
to logical debate (disputatio, "criticism") in general and not to a materialist doctrine in particular.
The objectives of the journal are to encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical
frameworks in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences to disseminate such new ideas
and research papers (with strong emphasis on modern implications of philosophy) which have
broad relevance in society in general and mans life in particular. The Centre will publish two
issues of the journal every year. Each regular issue of the journal will contain full-length papers,
discussions and comments, book reviews, information on new books and other relevant academic
information. Each issue will contain about 100 Pages.
Theme: Philosophy, Education and Human Rights
Last date for paper submission: 31
st
August, 2012
Format of Submission: The paper should be typewritten preferably in Times New Roman with
12 font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size (Hindi) in MS-Word 2003 and
between 3000 to 5000 words. They should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced
80 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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with ample margins. The authors should submit the hard copy along with a CD and a certificate
of originality of the paper to be sent to the editorial address.
For detailed reference-style sheet follow our CPPIS Manual for Contributors & Reviewers
available at http://lokayatajournal.webs.com
All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to be sent to:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Near Guaga Maidi, Balmiki Basti, H.No.255/6, Pehowa, Distt.
Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India) Mobile No.09896848775, 08968544048, E-mail:
dr.sirswal@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com, Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com
ICSP & ICYS
11
th
Conference of The International Congress of Social Philosophy (ICSP) and4ht Conference
of Congress of Yoga and Spirituality (ICYS)
May 28-30
th
May, 2012
Focal Theme: Social Philosophy, Spiritualism, Mass-Media & Global Peace
Call for paper:
Scholars are requested to send hard copy of their full paper on the topics mentioned in the
voucher on or before 30
th
April, 2012 or to Prof, B.P.Siddhashrama.
For more details contact to:
Dr. M.Gangadharappa
Professor & Chairman
P.G.Dept.of Mass Communication & Journalism,
Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka (India)
Email: trisha.g@rediffmail.com





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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN: 2249-8389)
Volume II, No. 01 (March 2012), pp.81

CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE
Dr. Vallabadoss John Peter, Department of Indian Philosophy, St. Josephs Philosophical
College, Kotagiri, Nilgiris, T.N.

Dr. Sheeja O.K., Department of Philosophy, University of Calicut , Malappuram , Kerala

Dr. Koppula Victor Babu, Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Visakha Institute of
Engineering and Technology, Visakhapatnam.

Dr.R.K.Behera, Dean of Social Sciences & Associate Professor, Dept. of Philosophy, Patkai
Christian College (Autonomous), Nagaland, India.

Dr. Merina Islam, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy Cachar College, Cachar
(Assam).

Mr. Shailendra Pratap, Post Graduate Institute of Behavioural and Medical Sciences, Raipur.

Mr. Surjya Kamal Borah, Research Scholar, Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal
Nehru University, New Delhi.

Ms. Shruti Rai, Research Scholar, Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru
University, New Delhi.

Mr. Prashant Kumar Dash, Research Scholar, Department of Sanskrit, Pondicherry University,
Puducherry.

Mr. Vijender Singh , Research Scholar, Department of Sanskrit, Panjab University,Chandigarh.

Ms. Himani Anand, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology,Faculty of Social Sciences,
Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, U.P.

Ms. Ashima Verma, M.A Psychology (Final Year), Delhi University, North Campus, Delhi.

82 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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Instructions to the Contributors
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) welcomes contributions in all areas of
research proposed by the Centre. All articles are sent to experts who evaluate each paper on
several dimensions such as originality of the work, scientific argument, and English style, format of
the paper, references, citations and finally they comment on suitability of the article for the
particular Journal. In case of review articles the importance of the subject and the extent the review
is comprehensive are assessed. Prospective authors are expected that before submitting any article
for publication they should see that it fulfils these criteria. The improvement of article may be
achieved in two ways (i) more attention to language (ii) more attention to the sections of the article.
Format of Submission: The paper should be typewritten preferably in Times New Roman with 12
font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size (Hindi) in MS-Word 2003 and between
3000 to 5000 words. They should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced with ample
margins. The authors should submit the hard copy along with a CD and a certificate of originality
of the paper to be sent to the editorial address.
Time Line: The last dates of submission of the manuscript are as follows:
For April to September Issue: 31
st
August every year.
For October to March Issue: 31
st
January every year.
Reference Style:
Notes and references should appear at the end of the articles as Notes. Citations in the text and
References must correspond to each other; do not over reference by giving the obvious/old classic
studies or the irrelevant. Give all journal titles in full and not in an abbreviated form, LJPP follows
APA format for references. The following style of reference may be strictly followed:

In case of Journal: Venkona Rao,A.(1980) Gita and mental sciences. Indian Journal of Psyhiatry,
22, 19-31.
In case of a Book: McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York: Random
House, 23-24.
Chapter in an Edited Book: Hartley, J. T., Harker J. O.,& Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary
issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.),
Aging in the 1980s:Psychological issues . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological
Association,250-253.
For unpublished work: Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic Speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of
collegiate hate speech codes (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago, 1999),54-55.
In case of institution/Govt. Report: Administration on Aging. (1984). Alzheimer's disease
handbook (DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 65.

For detailed reference-style sheet follow our CPPIS Manual for Contributors &
Reviewers available at http://lokayatajournal.webs.com


83 | P a g e Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy
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CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies(CPPIS) Pehowa is a
joint academic venture of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa and Society
for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS), Haryana(online) to do
fundamental research in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences.
SPPIS Newsletter
The Centre also circulates a Newsletter which includes new information related to
events, new articles and programme details. One can register himself on the below
given address and will get regular updates from us.
Link for registration: http://drsirswal.webs.com/apps/auth/signup
All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to
be sent to:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal,
Chief-Editor, Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy,
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS),
Milestone Education Society (Regd), Valmiki Dharamshala, Pehowa,
Distt. Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India)
Mobile No.09896848775
E-mail: dr.sirswal@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com
Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com





My object is to achieve an intellectual detachment from all philosophical systems, and not to solve
specific philosophical problems, but to become sensitively aware of what it is when we
philosophise.- Dr Desh Raj Sirswal

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