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H C T P K

O KCATA POPAMM -2.0


PACETA HECMMETPHOO PEMA
ACTKA EKTPECKO CET C
TPAHCOPMATOPHM CTPOCTBAM
- ..,

KHEB-1994
-2COEPAHE
1.BBEEHE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.OEE OCAHE METOK AOPTMA PACETA HECMMETPHOO PEMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.PHTE PABA HMEPA MHOOOCHKOB,BETBE
OB CXEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.OOTOBKA CXOHX AHHX. . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1 OE AHHE O CXEME. . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2 MHOOOCHK TA "TPAHCOPMATOP". . . . . 6
4.3 MHOOOCHK TA "H","HAPKA" . . . 8
4.4 MHOOOCHK TA "MHOOEHA H". . . 9
4.5 MHOOOCHK TA "COPOTBEHE". . . . . 9
5.EPEEH COOEH O OKAX . . . . . . . . . .10
6.KOHTPOH PMEP PACETA . . . . . . . . . . .12
6.1 A OX CXOHX AHHX. . . . . . . .12
6.2 A,COEPA APAMETP TPAHCOPMATOPOB. .13
6.3 A,COEPA APAMETP H,HAPOK,
KOMEKCHX COPOTBEH . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
6.4 PETAT PACET. . . . . . . . . . . . .15
-3BBEEHE
aaa pacea ecepx peo
pao
yaca
epeco ce, coepaeo pacopaope ycpoca c
pa cxea coee ooo ec . Ocoy pyoc pacea peca
ecepe pe, oae cece
oopeex
cox opee, apep, papo a

opox
aa, p oao ypae oypy aapaa,
p eoaox apaepax a , ae
p a pacopaopo pacopaopx apeao,
ex ooceo coe cxe coee ooo.
oooaoe pacopaop poooo
oepeoo peypoa ape. Haoee yepca
eoo,oecea peee yaax aa
ec eo
ax oopa,oop coyec

papaoao
popae. aa eo oe cooa pacea
ecepx peo
pao
paccapaeoo
yaca
epeco ce p a pacopaopo c oec
oea pacopa p oao ypae py ycpoca, oa peee ecx popa,
ocoax a eoe cepx cocax, e
ooe oy peya.
OEE OCAHE METOK AOPTMA PACETA

HECMMETPHOO PEMA
peoea eoa pacea ecepoo pea pao
yaca epeco ce c pacopaop ycpoca
ocoaa a cooa aeaeco oe peeoo
ooooooo pacopaopa, ocpoeo a ocoe apx
copoe
opooo aa ooo
pacopaopa,
oope oy ae c eoxoo ooc ec
cepea / pace eoa.
cooae
yaao oe ooe coe pacopaop
c yeo pax copoe opooo aa oeo pacopa a p pax ooex epeax
ycpoc, a ae c ye-4o peao cxe coee ooo. Kpoe yoyo oe
pacopaopa, coyec ae oe pexaoo eea
ce, xapaepyeoc copoe po,
opao,
yeo
oceoaeoc

oopaaeo
pexay
,apyy aeoe
copoee
aeo
eepaopa ce.
eec
ae
aao
ee,
oecea
oepoae ooeo ooex, yx o oo
pacce oo ya copoee ao y
o yeo oceoaeoc.
, . , , ,

.
oepoa ooax eeo, apep, ex
epa pacopaopo peaopo peycope
ee a "oecoe copoee".
ocoaa a pee eoa yox ape
ooe pacca o ape yo

ee
epeco cxe, oepye opeee yaco peao
epeco cce p aax oax
apex
eepaopx yo. aea cxea, oepya peay
epecy ccey , cocaec yoyoo e aopa
eeo,
ooe
oepoa
pacopaop
c
pooo cxeo coee ooo, epoepea,
pexay apyy e cocpeooex oecx copoe, ooee epoepea. aea cxea
oa pecaea e
cooyoc
yaax
eeo, ex ey coo oo epece c. Oee
co yo ee oyaeo aeo cxe opaeo

64 coca 13O yo 25O ee.
B ocoe eo e cooae ap
yox
poooce epecex ocox eeo. Ha ocoe
aax
apaepo
eeo
paccac
ap
poooce ee aee o opa o cxeax coee
-5oooco - ap
yox
poooce.
ae,
peopay yaae ap cooec c aa opo
coee yo oooco, axo apy
yox
poooce aeo cxe. oyc aa ae oo ape yo, oo opee eece o
ape ocax yo, a ae o ape ee -

aeo cxe. aee, p eoxooc,


a
ocoe
paccax e axoc cepe cocae oo
ape yo, oo ee aax aopo ee
yo. poep coae paccaoo
cepoo
pea aeo cxee c cxo cep peo
cceyeo cxe, oy ae paccac oo ooce
aae oe ao e, oep ao peao
ooc ee.
3.PHTE PABA HMEPA MHOOOCHKOB,
BETBE OB CXEM.
Papaoa aop peoaae coee
pa yepa oooco, yo ee aeo
cxe. Hyepoa oooc oo pooo ope,
ao , o a
cey
oooc
e
epecy c c a o paee poyepoax.co
oooco e oo pea 1OO.
Heoxoo pepac opeeex pa yepa
ee yo
oooco

(.pae
4.2-4.5.). pe ceye poec
coy
yepa caaa ee,a ae yo oooco aeo cxe.
Oe, o eoope
oepa
oy

poye, ao , o o e oopc. Bce oepa


yo ee o coco e oee e pex p.
4.OOTOBKA CXOHX AHHX.
4.1 O .
Oe ae o cxee f0 a
ceyy opa, eoxoy poee pacea:
1.oeco oooco, oopx cocaea ae-6a cxea;
2.opa o e aoo xox aey cxey
oooco,oopa coyec aee

xoe
pacea; pa ceya opoa o oooco:
a) 1-
) 3-pacopaop
) 4-ooea apya
) 5-ooea
) 6-oecoe copoee
3.opa o ope coee ee oooca e
a, oopo cex ee,epecex ope
opaca oepo, yaa oepa yo,e aaec
aaaec aa e.
4.ap yo oex oooco, oope coec
ey coo.
5.pa, xapaepy opy ox oecx ce
aax oo ape yax cxe: 1 - o oy
yo, 2 - ecey y ac;
6. yoe ape;
7. aa oe o;
, .
8.oeco epa, oxoo o pacea ( ec aa y, o yoee pooc
e ye);
9.pa, xapaepy eoxooc pacea cepx
cocax oo ape yo ee cxe;ec
yaa 1, o pace pooc; p o aee eoxoo

pec epee yo ee, oopx eoxoo c cepe cocae; f0 0/ (.


f0.)
4.2 MHOOOCHK TA TPAHCOPMATOP
Ocoo ocpoe
oe
oooca
a
"pacopaop" ec
ccea
ypae
peeoo
ooooooo pacopaopa, oopa
ao

peaoaa pacopaopa, eeo o ooo a


ay. B aece cxox ax coyc ape copoe opooo aa
-7ooo, peee o ooe a A, c oopo aaec
yepa ooo pacopaopa.Hyepyc caaa ce oo
a A,ae B ..,pe oceoaeoc
yepa
ooo o cex aax oa oaoo,
.e.,ec,
apep,epo
ae
A
poyepoaa
ooa
H
aopacopaopa(),o oa e oa epo

ocax aax(c.,apep, pc.1).


f3. Ceye pepac opeeeoo
opa p aa apx copoe () opooo
aa ooo, oope eoxoo aaa
ceye oceoaeoc:
ZK12,ZK13,ZK23,ZK14,ZK24,ZK34,ZK15,ZK25,ZK35,ZK45, ..
Kpoe oo, eoxoo
ae
aa
oe
pee ( ) cex ooo, pae
ooe ca o ao oo aooy cy o,
aece oopoo po co o epo oo.Koe pee oc o e ope,
oopo
poyepoa oo. Oeo, o oe pee
epo oo oe aa pa ee.
..
.. %., ., , ,
.
ae o aa
ao

a
pacopaopa. Kpoe oo, eoxoo yaa co
a
pacopaopa, oopoe oe pe oac o pex.
pao ooo cxox ax ceye opa py cxey coee ooo oe x
aaa
.
ooee apae oo ape ooo p o
aa oa. o eoxoo ya p cocae a coee ooo (ee) paoo yaa aa
oo ee.
B cyae, ec peec aopacopaopa
cxea
coee ooo, aece cxox ax oy ae
cooa ae o oax opooo aa
copo
aopac-8opaopa, oope poc execo oyea.
Ec coyc ape copoe () opooo
aa , o ae cxox ax (c. f3)
cooecye o pocaec 1,
a
ec

copoe
()

copo
aopacopaopa, o o e o cac 2.
ape copoe .. o ec coooe a ocoe ax o apex opooo
aa ooo p pax
ooex
epeax
ycpoc:
2
X = ((U%) /1)*(U) / S ()
Copoee oyaec pee o ooe,
oopo apee ooc. Koe pee
oy ae ae a ooe ape
ooo ape aoo oo aao
ooe PH.
ecee cocae apx copoe .. oy
ae c cooae oep ao ooc oax
.. o eco opye:
2
R = P *(U) / S
aee , a oe pee

ooo
aopacopaopa

pacopeo opoo pepe.


Koe pee oceoaeo oo a A
AT, oopa opoo pepe ooaea po 1,pae ee. oe oo (2) o e a AT
oe
pee , pa ooe ee ape
ape
oo(1). (1). op ac
cxox
ax

pacopaop pee f3.6, f3.27.


4.3 MHOOOCHK TA "H", "HAPKA".
oepoa epoepea, a ae apyo
-9coyec pexa caec ee e pex yo cax oecx copoe, oop oe
aa co copoe po, opao

yeo
oceoaeeoc. aaa ce p copoe pa,
oo oy pexa ee, coco pex oaox
copoe, oope oy oepoa pexay cepy apyy , , .
aoo oooca, ae a M pyx o
eoxoo coa p opo yepa yo ee
(. .1), oa yepyc op e, ae y, aa
c ae e a ,ae
a

copoe
oooca.
Coe
cooecy
opao
y
paccapaeoo oooca, oo oy
pexay
apyy c coeee ey peyo.ooee
apae ee pa o ex oepo yo o.
4.4 MHOOOCHK TA "MHOOEHA H"
oepoa ooex epoepea, a
ae ooex , poxox o oo pacce, oa
eoxoo ya ay yy c o oa
yeo oceoaeoc, peycope
a
ee,
xapaepyc copoe po , opao yeo
oceoaeoc ao ee () a
copoee yeo oceoaeoc ey e. p-

opo yepa yo ee aoo oooca


pee, , a pc.2.
, ,
,
. pep ac cxox ax
cya
yxe eec f4.27. .
4.5 MHOOOCHK TA "COPOTBEHE"
pacpe oooce oepoa pax cxe
-10 aop cxox eeo e ae ee a "copoee", oo oepoa,apep, peaop
aee epa pacopaopo ya copoee y p opox aax .. apaep eo aac
e oecoo copoe,opo yepa yo
ee ao cyae ae e ee,a
ee,
oeo, ee oy e a ya, pe ooeoe
apaee e, a paee, pao o eeo oepa
oey.
5. EPEEH COOEH O OKAX
1."HEBEPHO AAH PHAK BBOA CXOHX AHHX CTPOCTBA ..."epao yaa cooecyeo ycpoca aae
aa ox ax.
2."OOHO KAAH PHAK AAH CXOHX HAPEH TOKOB" - aee oo paa oe pao oo 1 2.
3."OKA B AAH CXOHX HAPEH TOKOB B AX" - co
aax oo / ape e cooecye cy yo
cxe.
4."HAPEH POK CEOBAH OB B...APE MACCBA O'EHEMX OB" - ep ape cea oe co ye c
e oepo.
5."B M ... HE OHO T A C HOMEPOM ... TAK OH E ECT B
CXEME" - e oep oopeoc ya.
6."B M ... B APE ... O'EHEH OTCTCTB B CXEME E"
- aoo ya o coce e o, o o ce p oee
pae o'ee.
7."CO OB B CXEME OCE M ... OE 13O" - eoxoo,
ec o ooo, oac o'e o oo oea a
oo oe coeex ey coo yo, o ye
oee co yo cxee a ao ae ee cop.
8."CTPOCTBO ... HE CBAHO C OCTAHO CET" - e aao
oo epeco c paccapaeoo M c ocao ce.
9."CO BETBE M ... PEBAET PEEHOE HAEHE" - co
ee cooecyeo eeapoo oooca peae
3O.
1O."CO OB M ... PEBAET PEEHOE HAEHE" - co
-11yo cooecyeo eeapoo oooca peae
3O.
11."OKA OPAEH MATP B OPOPAMME" - oa
opae ap a ae ocpoe ap poooce
ee pacopaopa.
poep
cxoe
ae
o
cooeccyey pacopaopy ( pacopaopo c co
ooo oee pex).
12. "OKA PEEH CCTEM PABHEH" -

epao peea ccea ypae, ocaa copay aey cxey ce.Boo, (, )


, ,
.
.
13."ABAPHOE
ABEPEHE POPAMM" - eec oa epec ex paee
oo.
14."B M...HOMEP BETB... COETC OBTOPHO"-c oopee p yepa ee M c cooecy
oepo.
15." ... " ,
3.
16." ...
" , 3.
17." ... .. 250" - .
18." ...
... "- .
19." ...
..., "
- .
20." ... ...
..."- , , ,

.
21."...

, "- , .
22." ... ,
"- .
23." , HAPEH B Y..."
-
-1224."OOHO YKAAH PHAK AAH CXOHX HAP
25."OKA B AAH CXOHX HAPEH TOKOB
26." "

TOKOB"
YAX"

6.KOHTPOH PMEP PACETA.


B aece opo pep pacea a
aea cxea , peea
a
pc.1,
aa aopacopaop (1), oao pacopaop
oepeoo peypoa ape (2), pacopaop
poooo peypoa ape (6). cooa ae
p pexax caecx eea, cocoe epoao-cax copoe (3,4,5), oepy
copo cpeeo, eo
ape aopacopaopa. ,
, f0.6, f3.6, f4.6. .2,3
,
f0.27, f3.27, f4.27.
6.1 A OX CXOHX AHHX

cxoe ae pacea coco ox, oocxc


o ce cxee aoy oooco xapaepyx
oeco yo ee oooco coco x coee
ey coo, ax o apaepax aoo oooco.
pep ox ax f0.6,
f0.27.

cooec c aopo pacea, caaa eoxoo yaa


co oooco a oopoe paa cxea. Ha pc.1,2,
pee cxe opo pe, oepa oooco
pocae poyoax, oepa pexax ee
oee oaa, oepa yo pocae po c oa.
.1,3 oaaa yepa ee yo aopacopaop
pacopaopo poooo oepeoo peypoa
ape. Haaa ooo oee eoa, ooee
apae ee oaa cpea.
-13B aae aa cxox ax aao co M, a oope
paa cxea, ae aoo oooco yaac
oep a, aee a coee ee c yaa
e oep e, oepo yo
, ap yo ,oope ao o'e a ao ae pacea. Cyeceo
oe,
o
o'eee yo pooc oo apa, ooy, ec
eoxoo o'e ece oee yx yo, x eoxoo
aca e ecox ap. p o, ao ape a
epoe eco cac ye c e oepo, a oce x
o'ee oyc o ye oyae e oep. o
eoxoo ya , ec aee aoy yy yy
ee pcoec ae-o y.
Kpoe oo, o a
y aeo cxe, oopx aao apee , a
ae oec x oo ape. ,
, . , , , . ,
. , ( 1-, 2-)
, .Bapa aa ox ax peeo

f0.6, - f0.27.
6.2 A, COEPA APAMETP TPAHCOPMATOPOB.
Kpoe ox ax pacea eoxoo ae yaa
apaep aoo o oooco, xox aey cxey. ae yaac yx aax. O
x ( f3 )coep ae o pacopaopax , pyo o x,
apyax, oecx copoex ( f4 ).
O pacopaopax eoxoo aa ceyy opa:
a) co a pacopaopa;
-14) pa, pa 1 2 opee opy aa cxo
x ax.
.. , 1. .. , 2.
) oe pee ooo p pax ooex PH ao a.

) , 1, ..
.. 2, ape copoe ..
ao a A,B,C, cooecye ooe exaa PH.
)
... Ec cxee ec ecoo pacopaopo,
opa aaec yaao e aoo pacopaopa
ope opaca x yepa cxee. Caaa
oe pee ( ) , poyepoa oo, aac ape
copoe () opooo aa ao a.

f3.6, -
f3.27.
6.3 A, COEPA APAMETP H, HAPOK,
KOMEKCHX COPOTBEH
eoxoo yaa
copoe
po,
opao, yeo oceoaeoce, ooex
ooeo aac copoe ao y o oa
yeo oceoaeoc. Caaa
aae
copoe
oceoaeoce cex ee , ae copoe
ao y.Ceye pepac ceye p aa copoe ao y ee:
Z12,Z13,Z14,...,Z23,Z24,...,Z34,Z35,... ..

,
.
-15,
, .
oecoo copoe o e ae
aaec eo ea e oeco eceo ac.
B cyae, ec eec ecoo oox eeo, x
apaep, aaoo peyey, aac ope
x
yepa cxee.
pep aa apaepo apyo
f4.6 f4.27.
6.4 PETAT PACET
epe oo peyao pacea eaac opo
ca paccax peo cxoe ae. ae oc
e a peya paceo ape oo yo aeo cxe, ape oo ee. Ec ape
aa B, copoe oax, o oyac A.
Ec ox cxox ax a yaaa eoxooc pacea
cepx cocax oo ape yo ee o oc cooecye o ape.
aee eaac ae o ooax ao peao
ooc aaax oax ee oep ooc ao
e. ae eaaec "KOHE PACETA". Opae xoo opa opo pep rezsym.6 rezsym.27.
rezokz.6 rezokz.27 pee peya pacea
ecepoo pea aoo opo aae
. a copoe ceo
ape a A aopacopaopa ( 1 .1). -

( 19 .2).

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