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342____ 10_____

, ( 2-4)
.
2 ,
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2 .

, .
:
(MSU),
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(LSSU),

(FISU),
.
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:
LI=0 - ,
LI=1 2 - ,
LI>2 - .

MSU. ITU-T Q.703 . 10.2.
MSU ,
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.
,
.
,
8-
.

.
: 11110.
,
MSU
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.

7_________________343

BSN - ; BIB - ;
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LI , - MSU.
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344

10_____________________________________

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_______ 345

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3
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346

10__________________________________________

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FSN.

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347

3 .
3
1 2. 3

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.

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(. 10.2).
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. ,

348

10_______________________________________

DPC, .
, 4

.
DPC ( )
: 8 , 6
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DPC
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.

7 ____

_______351

1 ,
.
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.

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(OSI).
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OSI .

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NSP.
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, . , SCCP 1
,
.

352

10_____________________________________

OSI , SCCP
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. . 10.5.
, SCCP 4.

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SCCP ,
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353

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SCCP SIF
MSU. MSU, SCCP,
SIF , .
SIF SCCP . 10.6.


-

.10.6. SIF SCCP



SCCP.
SCCP. ,
, :
(CR) ;
() CR;
(RLSD) ;
(RLC): ,
;

(DT) . ,
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;
(UDTS),
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. 10.7.
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354

10

. 10.7.

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. 10.8.
4
3

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1

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355

SCCP .
( 0 1)
.
256 ,
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256
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0 NSDU
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.
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(SLS).
;
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, . 10.9.
. SCCP-A

SCCP-. SCCP-A (..
SCCP-).
.
SCCP-

356

10________________________________________

CR. CR
SCCP-. , SCCP , CR ,
. SCCP-A
.

. 10.9. : ,

CR ,
.
SCCP-A SCCP-
RLSD.
RLSD
RLC.
(. 10.10)
.
SCCP-A ,
SCCP-.

SCCP.
SCCP.

.
.

, CR,
SCCP-A. SCCP-

______ 7

. 10.10. SDL- SCOC


SCCP OTLOC

357

358

10________________________________________.

(, 3 2)
CR ,
2. , , , 3
.

, . 10.11,
SCCP-A ,
SCCP-, CR
SCCP-B. CR, SCCP-B
, SCCP-.
SCCP-B SCCP-,
CR SCCP-. , SCCP-
SCCP-A SCCP-B. SCCP-B
,
SCCP-A SCCP-.

. 10.11. : ,
,
SCCP 7 OSI
3 4
.
SCCP
, 7-- OSI,
, 7
,

.

359

10. 4. ISUP

SCCP ,
,
4.
,

.
, ,
7, ,
(TUP), ISDN (ISUP).
TUP

7,
-ISUP.
TUP
. ,
ISDN, , ISUP,
, ,
TUP.
DUP
7
. DUP
,
.
ISUP,
DUP .
TUP DUP .
ISDN, ISUP
TUP DUP. ISUP TUP,
.
,
1, - ,
,
.
ISUP : . / .
, -

360

10______________________________

, , ,
.

. ISUP
, TUP. ISUP
, SCCP
. SCCP

, ISUP
. ISUP
,
ISUP ( TUP)
CIC.
ISUP SIF ,
. 10.12.
MSU . 10.2,
.
, ,
.
, ,
SCCP . 10.6. (CIC)
,
. , 2.048 /,
CIC
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- .

.
ISUP.
.
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. SCCP,
:
, , .
. ,
,
.

. -

362____ 10________________________________________

.
, SIF
.
.
,
.

.
( ) ( )
.
ISUP ITU-T Q.763
. 10.13.

. 10.13. ISUP

363

ISUP .
:
(IAM),
(INR),
(),
(ANM),
(CMC),
(RCM),
(BLO),
(BLA),

(, ) (CON),
(ANM),
(REL),
(RLC) .
ISUP [44], ,
.
(CCL)

.
(CRG),
ANM CON ,
(RNG),
( ).
.
IAM ,
.
(, , ).
.
IAM 00000001. IAM
.
1
.

,
,

, ..
2 ,
, ISUP
.

364

10________________________________________

, ..
, ..

, , 64
/.
IAM
4-11 ,
(, ), :
4-12
- 3-131 ,
.


.
00000110.

1 ,
, IAM (
, ..).
2
IAM, ,
, ,
ISUP .
,
3 3-131 , IAM.
, ISUP
,
. , ,
. ,
IAM ITU-T 14
131 . ISUP
,
. ,
,
, .

www.kiev-security.org.ua
BEST rus DOC FOR FULL SECURITY

_____ 7

365

,
, , , ISUP
, .
. 10.14
.

IAM.

. . 10.14
.
IAM
- 64 /.
,
.

. 10.14. ISUP

366__ 10____________________________________


,
,
. , ,
,
. - (overlap),
IAM ,
,
.
IAM
.
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IAM
,

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.
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7__________________367

TUP, ,
, .. ISUP
. . 10.14
.

REL ,
.


RLC .
REL
.
,
,
,

TUP, ISUP.
ISUP :
(REL - release), (RLSD - released)
(RLC - release complete).
, SCCP.
ISUP
,
TUP.
-90 . 10.2 .

. 10.2 , 8,

.
(DDI)

() . ISUP
DDI , .
TUP. ISUP
:
(1),

368

10________________________________________

(2)
(3).
10.2. ISUP
Q.731
DDI -
CLIP -
CLIR -
COLP -
COLR -
MCID -
SUB -
Q.732
-
CFNR -
CFU -
CD -
Q.733
CW -
-
-
Q.734
CONF - -
3PTY -
Q.735
CUG -
MLPP -
Q.737
UUS - " - "

-
.
,

.

(SUS), .
, (RES).


.

7__________________369

, ISUP,
,

.
,
( 64 /)
. IAM
, ,
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.
,
CMR.
,
CMC,
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-
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-.
.
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. (IAM),
(), (ANM)
(REL).
- ,
.
/
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.
ISUP ,
TUP.
TUP, , .

370____ 10_______________________________________

, 7.
7,
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ISUP .
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SCCP.

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(CIC).

371


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.
SCCP
SCCP.
: , , ,
.

ISUP ( IAM) .
,
SCCP.

. , SCCP.
ISUP
CR.
ISUP, CR IAM,
,
ISUP. IAM CR ,
.
CR ISUP SCCP,
SCCP
.
SCCP.


,
. ,
.

, ISUP.

372____ 10_________________ _______

ISUP , TUP,

. ISUP ,
SCCP. ISUP
, , .
.
,
.
,
TUP. , ISUP
, , ,

SCCP.
ISUP (release)
(release complete). ISUP ,
TUP, , .
ISUP
ISDN,
,
,
. ,
ISUP.
ISUP
TUP - ;
. ISUP
-,

.
10.5.
- ,
(SCCP )
, .

.

.

7__________________373

,
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10.7.

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374

10________________________________________

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10.9.
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375

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10.3 10.4. ITU-T
, (. 10.15).

. 1
: 2 , - 1 , 5 .

376____ 10

. 10.15.

. 10.16.
: 00 - , 01 , 10 - -, 11 - .
00 .208 ,
, .400. 01 7.
10, - ,

-, .
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(. . 10.16
Q.733).

.

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1 , 0,
, 1, .

377

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(TPIEs), , ,
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. ,
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.
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, .

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(. 10.17).

. 10.17.

378____ 10__________________ ____

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. 10.18.

. 10.18.
(1) ,
.
(2),
(2). ,
.
, -

___379

,
.
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(DNID) X,
, .

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DTID - Y.
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,
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380

10________________________

10. 6. INAP
,
1984 . Bell Laboratory
(IN),
7.
, IN , ,
, 7
.
IN :
SSF (Service Switching Function)
SSP (Service Switching Point);
SCF (Service Control Function) SCP
(Service Control Point); SDF (Service Data Function)
SDP (Service Data Point).
,
, INAP.
INAP
Q.1218.
INAP-R ETS 300 374-1: 1994 .
(ETSI).
. 10.19
INAP.
INAP.

,
.

ASE SACF
. SAO SACF
ASE,
.
MACF
SAO,
SAO, .
ITU-T ETSI INAP
ASN. 1, 2. INAP
ROSE, 2.
INAP
, ..
.

381

INAP
SCF
SDF INAP
, , ,
SCCP,
, ,
. 10.19.

. 10.19.
SCF SDF INAP
10.7. MAP BSSAP
GSM
10.5
.

382____ 10_________________________________________

, ,
. to roam
()

, .

, GSM
,
,
.

Mobile Application Part
(MAP). , ,

. MAP ,

, ,
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.
MAP

;
; ;
HLR, VLR;
.
MAP -, ,
, MSC, . 10.20.
SDL- MAP
I-ETS 300 044 ETSI,
.

,
.

, HLR (home location register),
,

383

. 10.20. - BTS MSC


. .
7 ,
HLR VLR (visitor location
register) , .
, HLR
,
.
HLR
7.
,
. 10.21.
MAP
SCCP,
( 0 1).
BSSAP
MSC BSC. .
10.22 BSSAP, :
BSSMAP (Base Station System Management
Application Part), DTAP (Direct Transfer
Application Part) . BSSAP
SCCP :
.

384____ 10

. 10.21. 7

. 10.22. BSSAP
10.8. MUP HUP
NMT
MUP OKC7

NMT-450 NMT-900, .. ,
10.7. MUP

,
, . MUP
MSU,
. 10.23. . 10.2 .
10.12 .

(12 ),
(16 ).

7__________________385

. 10.23.
,
HI .
:
0001 - (LDF location data forward messages);
0010 - /
(CSF - category/supplementary services forward messages);
0011 - (LDB
- location data backward messages);
0100 - : /
(CSB - category/supplementary services backward messages);
0101 -;
0100 - ( -management
and administration messages);
- (RSM - roaming signalling
messages).
MUP LGF
, ,
HI:
(LUM - location updating message)
(LCM - location cancellation message).
MUP CSF
/ ,
HI: -

386

10___________________________

/ (CSU - category/supplementary services updating


message); / (SRM supplementary services registration/cancellation message);
/ (PSR - presupplementary services registration/cancellation message).
MUP
LBD, HI:
(LUA - location
updating accepted message);
(LUR - location updating rejected message)
(LCA - location cancellation
accepted message).
MUP CSB,
HI:
/ (CSA - category/supplementary services
accepted message); / (SRA supplementary services registration/cancellation
acknowledgement message);
/ (PSA - pre-supplementary services
registration/cancellation acknowledgement message).
MUP
, HI:
(RES - restart information message)
(REA - restart information
acknowledgement message).
HUP
7
(-)
() NMT-450L HUP
,
.
HUP
:
(, ) (, ).
HUP . -
(SIF) ,
40 .
:

7
CIC
,


(12 )



(14 )

387



(14 )

. 10.24. HUP
40
.
. 10.24 DPC
(14 )
(14 ). CIC HUP
LOC, ,
HUP, 12 .
,

. , , LOC.
LOC (
) ,
.
10.9.

,
().

, 7. ,

,
.
, ,
(),
.
:
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.
, ,
.

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, -

388____ 10

________________

.
,
.
, ,
.
(, SCCP)
(MRVT, OMASE). .

( Routing Verification Test - MRVT),
Q.753 Q.754 ITU-T. 7
, .
,
. MRVT
. , ,
,
. MRVT
,
. MRVT ,
( ),
.
MRVT
( )
.
.
,
MRVA ( Routing
Verification
Acknowledgement),



MRVR ( Routing Verification Result). . 10.25
.
(CIC) .
, , ,
, . ,
,
.

. , -

389

. 10.25.

.
, . CVT
,
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,
.


.
.
(, )
(,
).
.
,
,
, ITU-T
. ,

.

11

,


The proof of the pudding is in the eating, .
, .
11.1.


: ,
, , - ;
, ,
[34].
,
, ,
, 2.
- ,
..
.

. , ,
-
,
,
, ,
, ..

-,
.
,
,
Q.543 ITUT, . 11.1.
,
,

____ ,

391

0.95. 11.1
,
, 35%.
11.1. Q.543

()

+35% ()

95%

95%

"
" (dial tone sending
delay)


(incoming response delay)

400

600

800

1000

300

400

400

600


(call setup
delay)-

300

400

500

800


(call setup
delay)-

250

300

400

600



(through connection delay)



(through connection delay)
,

250

300

300

400

650

900

1000

1600



. 11.1. ()
( )
, i (i=1,2,...,N).
N (T1=Nt0), , 2 ,
, i
.

392

11

. 11.1.


,
B(t)
1/. , , N
(N , ).

1/, ..
[98].

- :

(11.1)

______,

393



. , =20
455
2 6 ( 6); =10
..


:
1) ;
2) (t)
, ;
3) N
.
- ,
, (11.1)
:


, [),

( NN-k)e

Pk=

-N

(e -1)k.

(11.2)

(t)
[),
:
(11.3)
:

394

11____________._____________________


(11.4)

(11.5)
. 11.2. (t),
(11.3), N=2 ./, =10
, =5 ./ : N=8 (
1), N=16 ( 2), N=32 ( 3), N=64 ( 4), N=256 ( 5), N=512
( 6). 7 [118]

.

,
(tc)>1-, ,
10-6 < < 10-2. , , tc -
, ,
N .
,
. -
, ,
, .. .
T0=Nt0i, , , t0i =(0,05-0,02)1/; i=l,2,....N.
, , -
.
, .

(11.6)
- ,

1. 525 .

395

. 11.2.
N

396____ 11_________________________________________

- tM -
( , ,
, . .)
:
tM1 ( N)
tM2, , (11.6). , tk - t, , N.
t,

(11.7)
N
:
1. N=8.
2. t=max{tc,0}, tc (11.7).
(t) (11.3). 1-(tc) < .
, 3, 4.
3. N=2N. 2.
4. NA=NB=N/2.
5. NB=NB/2; N=NA+NB. tc (11.7).
(tc) (11.3). 1 - (tc)<.
, NA=N,
N=NA.
6. NB=1. ,
5. N
.
, ,
,
N
,
.

N, ,
, .
,

, -

397

. [19] :
S1, ,
S2 .
, ,
:

(11.8)
].[ : n=l,2,...; 0 t T.

( ) W
, ..
.

.
W,
- [120]:

W1 - , ,
, - (=0,1,2,...).
:
(11.9)
,

/2 . [117]
, /2
.
, (),
.
, -
( [98]),
, ,

398

11

(11.10)

S1() , S2() , , , S1()+S2()


[19], :


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413

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. .: , 1984.
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-. . .: , 1986.
21. .., .., .., .., ..,
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). .:, 1980.
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. 2. . .: ,
1980.
23. .. . .: , 1970.
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.: , 1981.
27. .., .., .. -. .
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1973.
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414

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35. .., .. . :
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36. .., .., .. -
. .: , 1973.
37. .., .., .. . , 1963.
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1993.
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... .: , 1995.
40. . : , .
.: , 1989.
41. .. . . 4- ., .
. .: , 1986.
42. .., .., .. . 2- ., . . .: , 1980.
43. .. . .: , 1968.
44. .., .. 7.
, 1997. 1.
45. .., .. . .:
, 1972.
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. 1987.
47. .., .., ..
. .: , 1984.
48. ., .., ..
.
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49. .., B.C., ..
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.:, 1979.
51. .., ..
. .: , 1973.
52. .. .
. , 1958.
53. . . .: , 1979.

415

54. .., .., .. .


.: , 1967.
55. .. .
. .:
, 1925.
56. .., .. :
.
, 1989. 1.
57. ().
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58. .. -
(-47). , 1949.
59. .., .., .. .
. .: , 1974.
60. .., ..
. , 1995. 11.
61. .. . .: ,
1996.
62. .., .. . .:
, 1982.
63. .. -47
. , 1953.
64. B.C., ..
. .: , 1966.
65. B.C., .., .. 100/2000. .: , 1968.
66. B.C., .., ..
. .:
, 1958.
67. B.C., .., ..
. . . .
. . . .: , 1971.
68. B.C., .., .. . .:
, 1975.
69. .., .. -54. , 1959.
70. .., .., ..
. .: , 1988.
71. .., .., ..
. .: , 1985.

416

___________________________________

72. .. . , 1942.
73. .. . .: , 1972.
74. .., .. . , 1950.
75. .., .., .. .
, 1960.
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. , 1989. 11.
77. .., ..
. .: , 1970.
78. .., .., ..
-100/2000. .: , 1970.
79. .. . , 1961.
80. .. . 1000. .: , 1968.
81. .. , , . .: , 1927.
82. ..
ARM-20. , 1976.
83. ., . . . .
. .. .: , 1976.
84. .., ..
. , 1948.
85. .., .. . .:
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86.
()..: , 1982.
87.
(). .: , 1988.
88. .. 7 -
. , 1996. 11.
89. .. . .
, , 1994.
90. .., .. . .: , 1981.
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SDL-92: . , 1995.9.
92. .., .., .., ..
- (-47). .: , 1951.
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, 1961.

417

94. .. . .: , 1984.
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. , 1992. 1.
96. .. -20. .:
, 1992.
97. .., .., .. .
. .. .: , 1980.
98. .. . . .: ,
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99. .. . .: , 1983.
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____________________
.
,.......................................................................................... 3
..............................................................................6
1.
...........................................................................................7
1.1. .............................. 7
1.2. ...................................... 11
1.3. ........................................ 12
1.4.
............................................................................... 20
2.
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2.2. MSC ............... 46
2.3.
................. 54
3.
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3.2. : ......................... 70
3.3. :
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3.4.
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4.
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5.4.
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5.5. 2100 1600
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5.6. 1200 1600 ................... 225
5.7. 600 750 ....................... 236
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8.
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8.1.
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8.2.
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9. ................................ 320
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10. 7... 337
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10.2. .................................. 341
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10.4. ISUP ...................................................................... 359
10.5. .......................372
10.6. INAP .............................380

___

421

10.7. MAP BSSAP


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10.8. MUP HUP
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11.2. - ........... 399
11.3 ...................................406
11.4.
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...........................................................................................412
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