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Children's literature

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Contents
Articles
Overview
Children's literature Children's literature timeline Children's literature canon Children's literature criticism 1 1 12 13 14 17 17 29 35 35 49 49 50 59 69 87 89 91 100 100 112 119 124 128 139 145 145 158 165 168

Types of children's literature


Fairy tale Picture book Chapter book Young-adult fiction

Early Works
Orbis Pictus Brothers Grimm Hans Christian Andersen The Pilgrim's Progress A Little Pretty Pocket-Book The Governess, or The Little Female Academy Lessons for Children

19th Century Works


Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There Little Women The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The Jungle Book

1900-1960 Works
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Tale of Peter Rabbit The Call of the Wild The Wind in the Willows

Peter and Wendy Winnie-the-Pooh Little House in the Big Woods The Hobbit The Little Prince Pippi Longstocking The Chronicles of Narnia The Cat in the Hat

175 184 192 196 210 222 228 246 252 252 258 262 269 274 277 297 309 318 318 338 342

Modern Works
James and the Giant Peach Where the Wild Things Are Charlie and the Chocolate Factory A Wizard of Earthsea Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret. Harry Potter A Series of Unfortunate Events Percy Jackson

Other Works
List of fairy tales List of children's classic books List of children's literature authors

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 360 373

Article Licenses
License 376

Overview
Children's literature
Children's literature as such probably started in the 17th century; it is generally believed that before then books were written mainly for adults. Additionally, most printed works were hard to come by due to their cost and were mostly available for purchase only by upper class society. Scholarship on children's literature includes professional organizations, dedicated publications, and university courses.

Four children reading Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas!

Defining children's literature


There is some debate on what constitutes children's literature. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as "a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier".[1] Books written by children Some books written for children, such as The Young Visiters by Daisy Ashford (aged nine) or the juvenilia of Jane Austen, written to amuse brothers and sisters, are also written by children. Anne Frank wrote a novel and many short stories in addition to her diary (which is not described as children's literature). Barbara Newhall Follett wrote four books, beginning with a novel called The House Without Windows at the age of nine; when the manuscript was destroyed in a fire, she rewrote it from memory. In 1937 two schoolchildren, Pamela Whitlock and Katharine Hull sent their manuscript of The Far-Distant Oxus to Arthur Ransome, who persuaded his publisher Jonathan Cape to produce it, characterising it as "the best children's book of 1937". In Daisy Ashford as a child 1941 The Swish of the Curtain written by Pamela Brown was published while Pamela Brown herself was still only 17 years old. Dorothy Straight's How the World Began and S.E. Hinton's The Outsiders are more recent examples of books written by children. Books written for children

Children's literature Children's literature is usually understood to comprise books intentionally written for children to read. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa,[2] defines children's literature as all books written for children, "excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material".[3] Some of this work is also very popular among adults. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was originally written and marketed for children, but it was so popular among children and adults that The New York Times created a separate bestseller list. Another work dating back to the Victorian Era is Charles Dicken's "A Christmas Carol". Both children and adults continue to enjoy this story and the lessons it teaches. Often no consensus is reached whether a given work is best categorized as adult or children's literature, and many books are marketed for both adults and children. Books chosen for children The most restrictive definition of children's literature are those books various authorities determine are "appropriate" for children, such as teachers, reviewers, scholars, parents, publishers, librarians, retailers, and the various book-award committees. Parents wishing to protect their children from the unhappier aspects of life often find the traditional fairy tales, nursery rhymes and other voyages of discovery problematic, because often the first thing a story does is remove the adult influence, leaving the central character to learn to cope on his or her own: prominent examples of this include Snow White, Hansel and Gretel, Bambi and A Series of Unfortunate Events. Many see such isolation of child characters from supporting adults as necessary preparation for the transition to adulthood. The school story became a common device for this, beginning with Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857) by Thomas Hughes and F.W. Farrar's Eric, or, Little by Little, although the framework had been explored as early as 1749 by Sarah Fielding in The Governess, or The Little Female Academy. Life begins for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn in the Mark Twain stories (1876 and 1885) once Aunt Polly's ineffectual tutelage is shaken off. In the classic British novels Tom's Midnight Garden (Philippa Pearce, 1958) and Jessamy (Barbara Sleigh, 1967), for example, the responsibility is enhanced by isolating the child not just spatially, but in time, through the use of time slip. Arthur Ransome used the device of children acting for themselves extensively in his Swallows and Amazons series (193048) and included poignant discussion of it (the "duffer" question in Swallows and Amazons and Swallowdale). Books chosen by children

Children's literature

The broadest definition of children's literature applies to books that are actually selected and read by children. Children choose many books, such as comics, which some would not consider to be literature at all in the traditional sense; they also choose literary classics and recognized great works by modern writers, and often enjoy stories which speak on multiple levels. In the opinion of novelist Orson Scott Card, "one can make a good case for the idea that children are often the guardians of the truly great literature of the world, for in their love of story and unconcern for stylistic fads and literary tricks, children unerringly gravitate toward truth and power."[4] Someone who enjoyed Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as a child may come back to the text as an adult and see the darker themes that were lost on them as younger readers. In addition, many classic books that were originally intended for adults are now commonly thought of as works for children. Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was originally intended for an adult audience.[5] Today it is widely read as a part of children's school curriculum in the United States.
Huckleberry Finn

Types of children's literature


Children's literature can be divided in many ways. Children's literature by genres A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length. Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida in Tampa,[2] has delineated six major categories of children's literature, with some significant subgenres:[6] 1. Picture books, including board books, concept books (teaching an alphabet or counting), pattern books, and wordless books 2. Traditional literature: there are ten characteristics of traditional literature: (1) unknown authorship, (2) conventional introductions and conclusions, (3) vague settings, (4) stereotyped characters, (5) anthropomorphism, (6) cause and effect, (7) happy ending for the hero, (8) magic accepted as normal, (9) brief stories with simple and direct plots, and (10) repetition of action and verbal patterns.[7] The bulk of traditional Literature consists of folktales, which conveys the legends, customs, superstitions, and beliefs of people in past times. This large genre can be further broken down into subgenres: myths, fables, ballads, folk music, legends, and fairy tales.[8] 3. Fiction, including the sub-genres of fantasy and realistic fiction (both contemporary and historical). This genre would also include the school story, a genre unique to children's literature in which the boarding school is a common setting. 4. Non-fiction 5. Biography, including autobiography 6. Poetry and verse. Children's literature by age category Children's literature is an age category opposite adult literature, but it is sub-divided further due to the divergent interests of children age 018. Picture books appropriate for pre-readers ages 05. Caldecott Medal winners often (but not always) fall within this category. Early Reader Books appropriate for children age 57. These books are often designed to help a child build his or her reading skills.

Children's literature Chapter book appropriate for children ages 711. Short chapter books, appropriate for children ages 79. Longer chapter books, appropriate for children ages 912. Newbery Medal winners often (but not always) fall within this category. Young-adult fiction appropriate for children age 1318. The criteria for these divisions are vague, and books near a borderline may be classified either way. Books for younger children tend to be written in very simple language, use large print, and have many illustrations. Books for older children use increasingly complex language, normal print, and fewer, if any, illustrations. Series Book series are common in all literary genres, and children's literature is no exception. Sometimes the success of a book for children prompts the author to continue the story in a sequel or to launch a series, such as L. Frank Baum's Wizard of Oz. Enid Blyton and R. L. Stine have specialized in open-ended series. Sometimes a series will outlive its author; when Baum died, his publisher hired Ruth Plumly Thompson to write more Oz books. The Nancy Drew series and others were written by several authors using the same pen name.

Illustrations
Children's books are often illustrated, sometimes lavishly, in a way that is rarely used for adult literature except in the illustrated novel genre popular especially in Japan, Korea and France. Generally, the artwork plays a greater role in books intended for the youngest readers (especially pre-literate children). Children's picture books can be a cognitively accessible source of high quality art for young children. Many authors work with a preferred artist who illustrates their words; others create books together, and some illustrators write their own books. Even after children attain sufficient levels of literacy to enjoy the story without illustrations, they continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books. Folklore is the oldest of stories including nursery rhymes, folktales, myths, epics, legends, fables, songs, and ballads that have been passed down by storytellers for hundreds, even thousands, of years to enlighten and entertain generations of listeners, young and old. (Literature and the Child, 7th edition, Lee Galda, Bernice E. Cullian, and Lawrence R. Sipe, p.175).
"The Journey": illustration by Elizabeth Shippen Green for a series of poems by Josephine Preston Peabody, entitled "The Little Past", which relate experiences of childhood from a child's perspective.

History

It is difficult to trace the history of literature specifically for children to a precise starting point. Literature mainly for readers and listeners up to about age 12 is detailed below. Literature for older children includes Tom Sawyer, Anne of Green Gables, the Hardy Boys mysteries, The Jinx Ship and its sea story sequels, the Nancy Drew mysteries, The Hobbit and the Lord of the Rings trilogy, Lassie Come Home, The Black Stallion and its sequels, the Harry Potter fantasy series, and the His Dark Materials fantasy trilogy. 15th Century

Children's literature Some stories which became popular among children were written in the 15th Century. Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur (1486) and the tales of Robin Hood (c. 1450) were not written with children in mind, but children have been fascinated by these stories for centuries. 17th Century In 1658 Jan mos Komensk published the illustrated informational book Orbis Pictus in Bohemia. It is considered to be the first picture book published specifically for children. Also during this time, Charles Perrault (16281703) laid the foundations of the fairy tale in France. His stories include Little Red Riding Hood, Sleeping Beauty, Puss in Boots, and Cinderella. 18th Century In 1744 John Newbery published A Little Pretty Pocket-Book in England. He sold it with a ball for boys or a pincushion for girls. It is considered a landmark for the beginning of pleasure reading marketed specifically to children. Previously, literature marketed for children had been intended to instruct the young, though there was a rich oral tradition of storytelling for children and adults. But by the time William Blake's Songs of Innocence was published in 1789, books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become, according to F.J. Harvey Darton, "a clear but subordinate branch of English literature."[9] Popular examples of this growing branch included Thomas Day's The History of Sandford and Merton (1783-9) - which embodies many of the educational and philosophical tenets espoused by Jean-Jacques Rousseau - and Maria and Richard Lovell Edgeworth's Practical Education: The History of Harry and Lucy (1780), which urged children to teach themselves.[10] 19th Century In the early 19th century the brothers Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm wrote down and preserved tales told by oral tradition in Germany, such as Snow White, Rapunzel, and Hansel and Gretel (1812). Recent research suggests that many such tales were based ultimately on written materials, usually French or Italian.[11] One of many didactic An English writer popular in the first half of the nineteenth century was Maria Elizabeth Budden. From 1830 to 1834 Russian poet Alexander Pushkin published his Russian folklore-based fairy tales in verse: The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda (1830), The Tale of Tsar Saltan (1831), The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (1833), The Tale of the Dead Princess (1833), The Tale of the Golden Cockerel (1834).
Wilhelm (left) and Jakob Grimm (right) from an 1855 Between 1835 and 1848 Hans Christian Andersen (18051875) of painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann Denmark published his beloved fairy tales: The Little Mermaid (1836), The Emperor's New Clothes (1837), The Ugly Duckling (1844), The Snow Queen (1845) and others. During Andersen's lifetime he was feted by royalty and acclaimed for having brought joy to children across Europe. His fairy tales have been translated into over 150 languages and continue to be published in millions of copies all over the world and inspired many other works.[12] "The emperor's new clothes" and "ugly duckling" are expressions that have passed into the English language.

In 1865 Lewis Carroll (18321898) published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland in England. The tale plays with logic in ways that have given the story lasting popularity to adults as well as children. It is considered to be one of the most characteristic examples of the genre of literary nonsense, and its narrative course and structure has been enormously influential, mainly in the fantasy genre. Also in 1865, Mary Mapes Dodge published Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates, the story of a Dutch boy who seeks a speed skating prize--silver skates--in a boy's race. Hans lets a friend win, because the friend needs the prize more.

Children's literature In 1880 Johanna Spyri (18271901) published Heidi (1880) in Switzerland. The subtitle declared that it is a book "for children and those who love children". In 1881 Joel Chandler Harris (18451908) published Uncle Remus, a collection of stories narrated by the fictional storyteller Uncle Remus and featuring Br'er Rabbit and other animals speaking African-American dialect. In 1883 Carlo Collodi wrote his puppet story, The Adventures of Pinocchio as a first Italian fantasy novel for the children of Italy. In 1883 Robert Louis Stevenson wrote the classic pirate adventure novel Treasure Island. Traditionally considered a coming-of-age story, it is an adventure tale known for its atmosphere, character and action, and also a wry commentary on the ambiguity of moralityas seen in Long John Silver. It is one of the most frequently dramatised of all novels, and its influence on popular perception of pirates is vast. In 1894 Rudyard Kipling published The Jungle Book, a collection of stories about a boy who lives in the jungle with animals, that has been made into a series of animated and live-action film adaptations. In 1898 Albert Bigelow Paine wrote the first of his three Hollow Tree books, The Hollow Tree and Deep Woods Book. This was followed in 1901 by the Hollow Tree Snowed-in Book and in 1915 by Hollow Tree Days and Nights. In 1899 Helen Bannerman published Little Black Sambo, the story of a boy abused by four tigers who, at the end of the story, suffer the consequences of their abuse--melting into butter and being eaten on pancakes. In 1900 L. Frank Baum (18561919) published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. It has been constantly in print since. It is one of the best-known stories in American culture and has been translated into 40 languages. Its success led Baum to write thirteen sequels. Other authors continued the series for decades. 20th Century In 1902 Beatrix Potter published The Tale of Peter Rabbit, that follows Peter Rabbit, a mischievous and disobedient young rabbit, as he ventures into the garden of Mr. McGregor. The book has generated considerable merchandise over the decades since its release with toys, dishes, foods, clothing, videos and other products made available. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903. In 1908 Kenneth Grahame wrote The Wind in the Willows from his retired position as secretary of the Bank of England. He moved to the country, where he spent his time in the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book do; namely, as one of the most famous phrases from the book says, "simply messing about in boats" for his son.

Children's literature

In 1911 J.M Barrie (18601937) published Peter and Wendy where Peter Pan, one of the most famous characters in children's literature, magically refuses to grow up and spends his never-ending childhood in the small island called Neverland. In 1920 Hugh Lofting wrote The Story of Dr. Doolittle, the first of ten Dr. Doolittle books. In 1926 A. A. Milne wrote Winnie-the-Pooh, chapter stories about an adorable bumbling teddy bear, his best friend Piglet, and other animal characters. The House at Pooh Corner, more Pooh stories, followed in 1928. In 1930 The Little Engine That Could was published. Written by Arnold Munk under the pen name Watty Piper and adapted from earlier stories by other authors dating back to 1906, the book is the story of an undersized anthropomorphic switch engine that successfully accepts a challenging job turned down by bigger, main-line engines: hauling a load of toys over a mountain to children on the other side.

Peter and Wendy

In 1931 Jean de Brunhoff published Histoire de Babar, the French edition of the first of seven Babar the elephant stories. English versions titled The Story of Babar were published in Britain and the United States in 1933. In 1933 Laura Ingalls Wilder (18671957) published the first installment of the Little House on the Prairie series in the United States based on her childhood in a Western-pioneering family. The books have remained continuously in print since their initial publication and are considered classics of American children's literature. Several of them were named Newbery Honor books. They remain widely read. The books were also adapted into a long running, popular American television series, Little House on the Prairie. In 1934 Pamela L. Travers wrote Mary Poppins, the first of a long series of books about a magical nanny and the children she shepherded. The last Mary Poppins book was published in 1989. In 1936 Munro Leaf wrote The Story of Ferdinand, the story of a gentle Spanish bull who refused to accept his appointed role as a bull ring combatant. In 1945 E. B. White (co-author of Strunk and White's The Elements of Style), wrote Stuart Little, the story of an intelligent, semi-anthropomorphic mouse who sailed a tiny boat and drove a tiny car. A few years later, in 1952, White published Charlotte's Web, the story of a barnyard spider and her animal friends. In 1945 Marguerite Henry published Misty of Chincoteague, the story of a wild Assateague Island, Virginia, pony who is tamed and domesticated on nearby Chincoteague Island. Though based on a real pony named Misty who was born and raised on Chincoteague, the story alters Misty's birth island and domestic heritage. In 1950 C. S. Lewis (18981963) published the first of installment of his Chronicles of Narnia series in the UK. The Chronicles of Narnia has sold over 120million copies in 41 languages, and has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, television, stage, and cinema. In addition to numerous traditional Christian themes, the series borrows characters and ideas from Greek and Roman mythology, as well as from traditional British and Irish fairy tales. In 1957 Theodore Seuss Geisel, writing under the pen name Dr. Seuss, wrote the first and best known of his Dr. Seuss books: The Cat in the Hat. Several sequels followed. Also in 1957, the next best known Dr. Seuss book, How the Grinch Stole Christmas, was published.

Children's literature In 1964 Roald Dahl wrote Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, the story of Charlie Bucket's adventures inside Willy Wonka's chocolate factory. At the end of the story, Charlie wins a prize--the chocolate factory! In 1964 Louise Fitzhugh wrote Harriet the Spy, the story of an 11 year old girl who gets into trouble by spying on her neighbors, classmates, and friends. She ultimately becomes editor of the school newspaper, in which capacity she makes amends for earlier remarks that alienated people. In 1972 Graham Oakley wrote The Church Mouse, the first of a series of twelve Church Mouse books extending until 2000. The main characters are Arthur and Humphrey, two mice who, along with the lazy cat Sampson, operate in England's Anglican Church of Saint John. In 1990 Joanne (J.K.) Rowling wrote The Harry Potter Series, in which 3 characters embark on new adventures across 7 books, all leading up to an epic battle between good and evil. The main characters are Harry Potter, Hermione Granger and Ronald Weasley. 21st Century In 2001, Eoin Colfer (born 1965) published the first installment of his Artemis Fowl series in Ireland. In 2008, titles from the series spent six weeks at number one and helped the Penguin Group post record profits in a tough economy.[13]

Scholarship
Scholarship in children's literature written in or translated into English is primarily conducted in three different disciplinary fields: (1) literary studies (English departments, language departments), (2) library and information science, and (3) education (Wolf, et al., 2011). There has historically been little overlap between the topics studied or the methodologies used to conduct research in each of these fields, but recently more attention has been paid to how scholars from across disciplines might collaborate, as well as how each field of study contributes unique information and theories to scholarship related to children's literature. Research from a Literary Perspective: Typically, children's literature scholars from literature departments in universities (English, German, Spanish, etc. departments) conduct literary analyses of books. These studies are considered literary criticism analyses and may focus on an author, a thematic (e.g.,) or topical (e.g., ) concern, a genre, a period, or a literary device (e.g., ). The results of this type research are typically published as books or articles in scholarly journals. The highly regarded research journals that publish literary studies in children's Dutch writer Anne de Vries literature include Children's Literature Association Quarterly, Children's Literature in Education, Children's Literature, The Lion and the Unicorn, and International Research in Children's Literature. Research from a Library & Information Science Perspective: The field of Library and Information Science has a long history of conducting research related to children's literature. The focus of the 1999 Trejo Foster Institute for Hispanic Library Education was Library Services for Youth of Hispanic Heritage. [14] Research from an Education Perspective: Most educational researchers studying children's literature explore issues related to the use of children's literature in classroom settings. Some educational researchers, however, study home settings, children's out-of-school reading or parents' use of children's books, for example.

Children's literature Educational Application Children's literature has long been used by good teachers to augment classroom instruction providing a meaning-centered application for one of education's richest resources - children's literature. When introducing fiction to young readers, using a children's literature is an effective means to introduce the parts of a story to students (characters, setting, plot, introduction, theme, and conclusion). For our youngest students, the teacher may elect to start out with only characters, introduction, and conclusion. As the students become more proficient, the other components of a story may be introduced. By grade 5, students are able to grasp more complicated concepts, such as theme, on a basis level of understanding. Scholarly associations & centers: the Children's Literature Association, the International Research Society for Children's Literature, the Library Association Youth Libraries Group, the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators the Irish Society for the Study of Children's Literature, IBBY Canada and Centre for International Research in Childhood: Literature, Culture, Media (CIRCL), National Centre for Research in Children's Literature.

Awards
Some noted awards for children's literature are: Australia: the Children's Book Council of Australia runs a number of annual CBCA book awards Canada: the Governor General's Literary Award for Children's Literature and Illustration (English and French). A number of the provinces' school boards and library associations also run popular "children's choice" awards where candidate books are read and championed by individual schools and classrooms. These include the Blue Spruce (grades K-2) Silver Birch Express (grades 34), Silver Birch (grades 56) Red Maple (grades 78) and White Pine (High School) in Ontario. Programs in other provinces include The Red Cedar and Stellar Awards in B.C., the Willow Awards in Saskatchewan, and the Manitoba Young Readers Choice Awards. IBBY Canada offers a number of annual awards. The Philippines: The Carlos Palanca Memorial Award for Literature for Short Story for Children in English and Filipino Language (Maikling Kathang Pambata) since 1989 and Children's Poetry in English and Filipino Language since 2009. The Pilar Perez Medallion for Young Adult Literature (2001 and 2002). The major awards are given by the Philippine Board on Books for Young People. They include the PBBY-Salanga Writer's Prize for excellence in writing and the PBBY-Alcala Illustrator's Prize for excellence in illustration. The Ceres Alabado Award for Outstanding Contribution in Children's Literature; the Gintong Aklat Award (Golden Book Award); The Gawad Komisyon para sa Kuwentong Pambata (Commission Award for Children's Literature in Filipino) and the National Book Award (given by the Manila Critics' Circle) for Outstanding Production in Children's Books and Young Adult Literature. United States: the major awards are given by the American Library Association Association for Library Service to Children. They include the Newbery Medal for writing, Michael L. Printz Award for writing for teens, Caldecott Medal for illustration, Golden Kite Award in various categories from the SCBWI, Sibert Medal for informational, Theodor Seuss Geisel Award for beginning readers, Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal for impact over time, Batchelder Award for works in translation, Coretta Scott King Award for work by an African-American writer, and the Belpre Medal for work by a Latino writer. Other notable awards are the National Book Award for Young People's Literature and the Orbis Pictus Award for excellence in the writing of nonfiction for children. United Kingdom and Commonwealth: the Carnegie Medal for writing and the Kate Greenaway Medal for illustration; the Nestl Smarties Book Prize; and the Guardian Award. Internationally: the Hans Christian Andersen Award, the Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award and the Ilustrarte Bienale for children's book illustration (Barreiro, Portugal). Online: the Cybils Awards, or Children's and Young Adult Bloggers' Literary Awards, are the first major series of book awards given by children's and young adult book bloggers.

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Notes
[1] Convention on the Rights of the Child (http:/ / www. hakani. org/ en/ convention/ Convention_Rights_Child. pdf) The Policy Press, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights [2] "Biography of Nancy A. Anderson, EdD" (http:/ / www. nancyaanderson. com/ ). . Retrieved 2009-03-03. [3] Anderson 2006, p. 2. [4] Card, Orson Scott (November 5, 2001). "Hogwarts" (http:/ / www. hatrack. com/ osc/ reviews/ everything/ 2001-11-05. shtml). Uncle Orson Reviews Everything. Hatrack River Enterprises Inc. . Retrieved 2009-03-03. [5] Liukkonen, Petri (2008). "Mark Twain" (http:/ / www. kirjasto. sci. fi/ mtwain. htm). . Retrieved 2009-03-03. [6] Anderson 2006 [7] Anderson 2006, pp. 8485. [8] Anderson 2006, p. 89. [9] Leader, Zachary, Reading Blake's Songs, p.1 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=z7Q9AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA1& dq=books+ written+ specifically+ for+ the+ use+ of+ children+ outside+ of+ school+ had+ become& ei=1menS_jiOJPyzATkqvXbCA& cd=1#v=onepage& q=books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become& f=false) [10] Leader, Zachary, Reading Blake's Songs, p.3 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=z7Q9AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA1& dq=books+ written+ specifically+ for+ the+ use+ of+ children+ outside+ of+ school+ had+ become& ei=1menS_jiOJPyzATkqvXbCA& cd=1#v=onepage& q=books written specifically for the use of children outside of school had become& f=false) [11] See Ruth Bottigheimer: Fairy tales, old wives and printing presses. History Today, 31 December 2003. Retrieved 3 March 2011. Subscription required. (http:/ / www. historytoday. com/ ruth-bottigheimer/ fairy-tales-old-wives-and-printing-presses) [12] Elias Bredsdorff, Hans Christian Andersen: the story of his life and work 180575, Phaidon (1975) ISBN 0-7148-1636-1 [13] "Penguin Group Announces Record 2008 Profits" (http:/ / www. booktrade. info/ index. php/ showarticle/ 20011) (Press release). Book Trade Announcements. Monday 2 March 2009. . Retrieved 2009-03-03. [14] Immroth, Barbara Froling, and Kathleen de la Pea McCook. 2000. Library services to youth of Hispanic heritage. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. Toggle expanding/contracting information section Harvard (18th ed.)

References
Anderson, Nancy (2006). Elementary Children's Literature. Boston: Pearson Education. ISBN0205452299. Chapleau, Sebastien (2004). New Voices in Children's Literature Criticism. Lichfield: Pied Piper Publishing. ISBN9780954638443. Huck, Charlotte (2001). Children's Literature in the Elementary School, 7th ed.. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN0072322284. Hunt, Peter (1991). Criticism, Theory, and Children's Literature. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN0631162313. Hunt, Peter (1996). International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. London: Routledge. ISBN0415088569. Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin (1996). "Defining Children's Literature and Childhood". In Hunt, Peter (ed.). International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. London: Routledge. pp.1731. ISBN0415088569. Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin (1994). Children's Literature: Criticism and the Fictional Child. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN0198119984. Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin (2004). Children's Literature: New Approaches. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN1403917388. Rose, Jacqueline (1993, orig. pub. 1984). The Case of Peter Pan or the Impossibility of Children's Fiction. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN0812214358. Wolf, Shelby (2010). Handbook of Research in Children's and Young Adult Literature. Cambridge: Routledge. ISBN9780415965064.

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Further reading
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature, ed. by Jack Zipes, Oxford [etc.]: Oxford Univ. Press, 2006, 4 vls.

External links
International Children's Digital Library (http://www.childrenslibrary.org/) Repository of 2,827 children's books in 48 languages viewable over the Internet. Small World Books children's literature from around the world (http://www.itsasmallworld.co.nz) Arne Nixon Center for the Study of Children's Literature (http://www.arnenixoncenter.org) Children's Literature Research Collections (http://special.lib.umn.edu/clrc/), at the University of Minnesota Baldwin Digital Library of Children's Literature (http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/UFDC/UFDC.aspx?c=juv) Children's Books Wiki (http://childrensbooks.wikia.com), a Wikia-hosted wiki about children's literature. Children's eTexts (http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/results?subject=Children) at Project Gutenberg ( more (http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/results?locc=PZ)) German Children and Young Adult Literature Portal, Goethe-Institut (http://www.goethe.de/kue/lit/prj/kju/ enindex.htm) International Board on Books for Young People (http://www.ibby.org) Popular Children's Book for Teaching Chinese (http://www.mandyandpandy.com) CBI Clubhouse, Informational Site for Children's Book Writers (http://www.cbiclubhouse.com:The) The Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators (http://www.scbwi.org) Children's Literature Network (http://www.childrensliteraturenetwork.org) The academic discipline of Children Literature of ZJNU in China (http://www.chchc.cn/) Children's Book Council of Australia (CBCA), Sutherland Sub branch literacy in children and young adults of the Sutherland Shire (http://www.cbcasutherland.org.au/) Litland.com Review of Children's Literature against character education guidelines (http://www.litland.com) The Ball State University Digital Media Repository Historic Children's Book collection (http://libx.bsu.edu/ cdm4/collection.php?CISOROOT=/HistChldBks) provides online access to children's books from the 20th and 19th centuries.

Children's literature timeline

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Children's literature timeline


Timeline of turning points in children's literature
Orbis Pictus (1658) by John Amos Comenius: Earliest picturebook specifically for children. Fairy tale collections are one of the earliest forms of published fiction that have never lost their charm for children, though several of the classic tales are gruesome and were not originally collected for children. Famous collectors and retellers of Fairy Tales include Charles Perrault, the brothers Grimm, Hans Christian Andersen and Andrew Lang. The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (1678): many later children's fantasies were modeled on this Christian allegory. A Token for Children. Being An Exact Account of the Conversion, Holy and Exemplary Lives, and Joyful Deaths of several Young Children (1672) by James Janeway: One of the first books specifically written for children which shaped much eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century writing for children. A Little Pretty Pocket-Book (1744) by John Newbery: Earliest marketing tie-in and storybook marketed as pleasure reading in English The Governess, or The Little Female Academy (1749) by Sarah Fielding: Often described as the first novel for children. Lessons for Children (1778-9) by Anna Laetitia Barbauld: The first series of age-adapted reading primers for children printed with large text and wide margins; in print for over a century. Struwwelpeter (1845) by Heinrich Hoffmann (published in English as Slovenly Peter): One of the earliest examples of grotesque humor as well as of modern picturebook design. Little Eva: The Flower of the South by Philip J. Cozans (1853): First known children's novel to feature racial (i.e. pro-slavery) bias. Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857) by Thomas Hughes, the first true school story. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll: Early surrealism and extensive criticism of didacticism. The Jungle Book (1894) by Rudyard Kipling. Swallows and Amazons (1930) by Arthur Ransome, started trend of outdoor holiday adventures. Five on a Treasure Island is published in 1942 by Enid Blyton. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950) by C. S. Lewis. The Lord of the Rings (19541955) by J.R.R. Tolkien. The Cat in the Hat (1957) by Dr. Seuss: First high quality limited-vocabulary book, written for early readers. To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) by Harper Lee: Pulitzer for book market to children; also seminal work on race. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997) by J. K. Rowling, and sequels; worldwide publishing phenomenon, one of the bestselling books of all time and one of the most widely translated works of literature. Worldwide popularity caused resurgence of interest in children's literature. Maggie Goes on a Diet (2011) by Paul Kramer: Insperational book for children who are over weight, and stiring controversy before being released.

Children's literature canon

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Children's literature canon


As with adult literature, the validity of defining a canon of worthy or renowned works in children's literature is hotly debated. Nevertheless, many books have had enormous impact on publishing history and are still in print today. Due to the didactic nature of much children's publishing, in which the majority of books are written, published, selected, and taught by adults but consumed by children [1] , the children's literature canon is extremely powerful in influencing the books actually read.

Important Children's Books


Nineteenth Century
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass (1871) by Lewis Carroll: early surrealism and children's novels as pleasurable and non-didactic. Max and Moritz (1865) by Wilhelm Busch. Little Women (1868) by Louisa May Alcott. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) by Mark Twain. The Adventures of Pinocchio (1883) by Carlo Collodi. Treasure Island (1883) by Robert Louis Stevenson. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) by Mark Twain. The Jungle Book (1894) by Rudyard Kipling: a collection of several stories.

Early Twentieth Century


The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) by L. Frank Baum, later expanded into a series of books which were tremendously popular in America during the first half of the twentieth century. One of the earliest fantasy books where children go to another world. The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1902) by Beatrix Potter. The first in her series of 23 animal stories, published in a miniature format. The Call of the Wild (1903) by Jack London: Inspired by the high adventure of the Yukon gold rush. The Wind in the Willows (1908) by Kenneth Grahame Anne of Green Gables (1908) by Lucy Maud Montgomery Peter and Wendy (1911) by J. M. Barrie (better known as Peter Pan) Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) and The House at Pooh Corner (1928) by A. A. Milne. Little House in the Big Woods (1932) and sequels by Laura Ingalls Wilder The Hobbit or There and Back Again (1937) by J. R. R. Tolkien: an early example of the modern lighthearted quest fantasy Le Petit Prince (1943, English: The Little Prince) by Antoine de Saint-Exupry Pippi Longstocking (1944) by Astrid Lindgren. The Chronicles Of Narnia (19491954) by C. S. Lewis The Cat in the Hat (1957) by Dr. Seuss: First high quality limited-vocabulary book, written for early readers

Children's literature canon

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Since 1960
James and the Giant Peach (1961) by Roald Dahl The Phantom Tollbooth (1961) by Norton Juster Where the Wild Things Are (1963) by Maurice Sendak Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964) by Roald Dahl A Wizard of Earthsea (1968) by Ursula K. Le Guin, and sequels broke ground for epic fantasy in several ways: the first book had a non-white hero, the later books explored the role of gender in fantasy and power, and the quest structure isn't good vs. evil but balance. Are You There, God? It's Me, Margaret (1970) by Judy Blume, approached puberty more openly than children's books had in the past. Harry Potter (1997) by J.K. Rowling

References
[1] Nodelman, Perry (1992). "The Other: Orientalism, Colonialism, and Children's Literature". Children's Literature Association Quarterly 17: 2935.

Children's literature criticism


The term children's literature criticism includes both generalist discussions of the relationship between children's literature and literary theory and literary analyses of a specific works of children's literature. Some academics consider young adult literature to be included under the rubric of 'children's literature.' Nearly every school of theoretical thought has been applied to children's literature, most commonly reader response (Chambers 1980) and new criticism. However, other schools have been applied in controversial and influential ways, including Orientalism (Nodelman 1992), feminist theory (Paul 1987), postmodernism (Stevenson 1994), structuralism (Neumeyer 1977), post-structuralism (Rose, 1984, Lesnik-Oberstein, 1994) and many others.

Approaches
Child focused
Early children's literature critics aimed to learn how children read literature specifically (rather than the mechanics of reading itself) so that they could recommend "good books" for children. These early critics were often teachers, librarians and other educationalists. The critics often disagreed about what books they think children would like, and why, and about which books will be "good" for children and why. Though many critics are still child-centric, the discipline has expanded to include other modes of analysis. As children's literature criticism started developing as an academic discipline (roughly in the past thirty years or so, see historical overviews by Hunt (1991) and McGillis (1997)), children's literature criticism became involved with wider work in literary theory and cultural studies. Construction of the child Many children's literature critics now point out that children are not one group, but differ according to gender, ethnicity, religious background, and so on. Feminist children's literature critics such as Lissa Paul (1987) therefore try to work out how boys and girls read differently, for instance. Other critics (for instance, Peter Hunt (1991), Perry Nodelman (1992), John Stephens (1992), and Roderick McGillis (1996)) take this idea a step further and argue that children are often "colonized" by adults, including children's literature critics, because adults speak on behalf of children instead of letting children express themselves. However, these critics too can not agree on what then are "true" children expressing themselves, and which books are therefore "good" for them. Finally, a few critics, notably

Children's literature criticism Jacqueline Rose (1984) and Karin Lesnik-Oberstein (1994 and 2004) take this discussion even further, arguing that identities are created and not "inherent", and that in the case of an identity such as "childhood" it is created by "adults" in the light of their own perceptions of themselves. That is, "adulthood" defines "childhood" in relation to differences and similarities it perceives to itself. This post-structuralist approach is similar to that argued by critics in gender studies such as Judith Butler and is widely accepted and used in sociological and anthropological studies of childhood (Jenks 1996; Jenks, James and Prout 1997).1

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Textual focus
Many scholars approach children's literature from the perspective of literary studies, examining the text as text without focus on audience. Stephens and McCallum (1998) discuss the intertextuality of children's literature, while Rose explores the identifying characteristics of the genre. Nodelman (1990) looks at the synthesis of text and illustration in picturebooks.

Cultural studies focus


Culture studies scholars investigate children's literature as an aspect of culture. Children's literature, in this light, is a product consumed like other aspects of children's culture: video games, television, and the like. For more analysis of children's culture in general, see Jenkins. For literature in particular as cultural artifact, see Mackey.

References
Chambers, Aidan (1980). "The Reader in the Book". In C.Carpelan, A.Parpola P.Koskikallio (ed.). The Signal Approach to Children's Books. Metuchen: Scarecrow. pp.250275. Hunt, Peter (1991). Criticism, Theory, and Children's Literature. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN0-631-16231-3. Hunt, Peter (1996). International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. London: Routledge. ISBN0-415-08856-9. Jenkins, Henry (1998). The Children's Culture Reader. New York: New York UP. Jenks, Chris (1996). Childhood. London: Routledge. Jenks, Chris, Allison James and Alan Prout (1997). Theorizing Childhood. Oxford: Blackwells. Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin (1994). Children's Literature: Criticism and the Fictional Child. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin (2004). Children's Literature: New Approaches. London: Palgrave. McGillis, Roderick (1996). The Nimble Reader: Literary Theory and Children's Literature. New York: Twayne Publishers. Mackey, Margaret (1998). The Case of Peter Rabbit: Changing Conditions of Literature for Children. New York and London: Garland. Neumeyer, Peter (1977). "A Structural Approach to the Study of Literature for Children". Elementary English 44: 883887. Nodelman, Perry. "Bibliography of Children's Literature Criticism" [1]. Retrieved October 26, 2005. Nodelman, Perry (1992). "The Other: Orientalism, Colonialism, and Children's Literature". Children's Literature Association Quarterly 17: 2935. Nodelman, Perry (1990). Words About Pictures: The Narrative Art of Children's Picture Books. Athens, Ga: U. Georgia Press. ISBN0-8203-1271-1. Nodelman, Perry (1996). The Pleasures of Children's Literature, 2nd ed. New York: Longman. ISBN0-8013-1576-X. Paul, Lissa (1987). "Enigma Variations: What Feminist Theory Knows about Children's Literature". Signal 53: 186201.

Children's literature criticism Rose, Jacqueline (1992 (originally published 1984)). The Case of Peter Pan or the Impossibility of Children's Fiction. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Stephens, John (1992). Language and Ideology in Children's Fiction. London: Longman. Stephens, John and Robyn McCallum (1998). Retelling Stories, Framing Culture: Traditional Story and Metanarratives in Children's Literature. New York: Garland. Stevenson, Deborah (1994). "'If You Read This Last Sentence, It Won't Tell You Anything': Postmodernism, Self-Referentiality, and The Stinky Cheese Man". Signal 19: 3234.

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External links
Centre for International Research in Childhood: Literature, Culture, Media (CIRCL) [2] Children's Literature Association [3] National Centre for Research in Children's Literature [4] The International Research Society for Children's Literature [5]

References
[1] http:/ / io. uwinnipeg. ca/ ~nodelman/ resources/ allbib. htm [2] http:/ / www. rdg. ac. uk/ circl/ [3] http:/ / www. childlitassn. org/ [4] http:/ / www. ncrcl. ac. uk/ [5] http:/ / www. irscl. ac. uk/ news. htm

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Types of children's literature


Fairy tale
A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features folkloric characters, such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. However, only a small number of the stories refer to fairies. The stories may nonetheless be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described)[1] and explicitly moral tales, including beast fables. In less technical contexts, the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending)[2] or "fairy tale romance" (though not all fairy tales end happily). Colloquially, a "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can also mean any far-fetched story or tall tale. In cultures where demons and witches are perceived as real, fairy tales may merge into legends, where the narrative is perceived both by teller and hearers as being grounded in historical truth. However, unlike legends and epics, they usually do not contain more than superficial references to religion and actual places, people, and events; they take place once upon a time rather than in actual times.[3]

1865 illustration of Tom Thumb and the Giant

Fairy tales are found in oral and in literary form. The history of the fairy tale is particularly difficult to trace because only the literary forms can survive. Still, the evidence of literary works at least indicates that fairy tales have existed for thousands of years, although not perhaps recognized as a genre; the name "fairy tale" was first ascribed to them by Madame d'Aulnoy in the late 17th century. Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations, in multiple cultures around the world.[4] Fairy tales, and works derived from fairy tales, are still written today. The older fairy tales were intended for an audience of adults, as well as children, but they were associated with children as early as the writings of the prcieuses; the Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales, and the link with children has only grown stronger with time. Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways. The Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp are among the most notable. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales.

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Definition
Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute.[5] One universally agreed-upon matter is that fairy tales do not require fairies. (The term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's conte de fes, first used in her collection in 1697.)[6] Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, and scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or similarly mythical beings (e.g., elves, goblins, trolls, giants) should be taken as a differentiator. Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals.[7] Nevertheless, to select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folk lore Aarne-Thompson 300-749 in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction to gain a clear set of tales.[8] His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself easily to tales that do not involve a quest, and furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works.[9]

From The Facetious Nights of Straparola by Giovanni Francesco Straparola

Were I asked, what is a fairytale? I should reply, Read Undine: that is a fairytale ... of all fairytales I know, I think Undine the most beautiful. (George MacDonald, The Fantastic Imagination)

As Stith Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves.[10] However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale, especially when the animal is clearly a mask on a human face, as in fables.[11] In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Farie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves, elves, and not only other magical species but many other marvels.[12] However, the same essay excludes tales that are often considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.[11] Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales.[13] Davidson and Chaudri identify "transformation" as the key feature of the genre.[14] From a psychological point of view, Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives.[15] Some folklorists prefer to use the German term Mrchen or "wonder tale"[14] to refer to the genre, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes. It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses."[16] The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls; youngest sons and gallant princes; ogres, giants, dragons, and trolls; wicked stepmothers and false heroes; fairy godmothers and other magical helpers, often talking horses, or foxes, or birds; glass mountains; and prohibitions and breaking of prohibitions.[17] In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, because of the economy and concision of the tales.[18]

Fairy tale

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History of the genre


Originally, stories we would now call fairy tales were not marked out as a separate genre. The German term "Mrchen" literally translates as "tale" not any specific type of tale. Roots of the genre come from different oral stories passed down in European cultures. The first significant person to record fairy tales was Charles Perrault who recorded stories such as Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella in his book of Mother Goose fairy tales. The fairy tale emerged as an unquestioned genre in the works of the Brothers Grimm, who recorded various tales from different cultures and revised many of Perrault's.[19] In this evolution, the name was coined when the prcieuses took up writing literary stories; Madame d'Aulnoy invented the term conte de fe, or fairy tale, in the late 17th century.[20] Before the definition of the genre of fantasy, many works that would now be classified as fantasy were termed "fairy tales", including Tolkien's The Hobbit, George Orwell's Animal Farm, and L. Frank [21] Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Indeed, Tolkien's "On Fairy-Stories" includes discussions of world-building and is considered a vital part of fantasy criticism. Although fantasy, particularly the sub-genre of fairytale fantasy, draws heavily on fairy tale motifs,[22] the genres are now regarded as distinct.
A picture by Gustave Dor of Mother Goose reading written (literary) fairy tales

Folk and literary


The fairy tale, told orally, is a sub-class of the folktale. Many writers have written in the form of the fairy tale. These are the literary fairy tales, or Kunstmrchen.[6] The oldest forms, from Panchatantra to the Pentamerone, show considerable reworking from the oral form.[23] The Brothers Grimm were among the first to try to preserve the features of oral tales. Yet the stories printed under the Grimm name have been considerably reworked to fit the written form.[24] Literary fairy tales and oral fairy tales freely exchanged plots, motifs, and elements with one another and with the tales of foreign lands.[25] Many 18th-century folklorists attempted to recover the "pure" folktale, uncontaminated by literary versions. Yet while oral fairy tales likely existed for thousands of years before the literary forms, there is no pure folktale, and each literary fairy tale draws on folk traditions, if only in parody.[26] This makes it impossible to trace forms of transmission of a fairy tale. Oral story-tellers have been known to read literary fairy tales to increase their own stock of stories and treatments.[27]

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History
The oral tradition of the fairy tale came long before the written page. Tales were told or enacted dramatically, rather than written down, and handed down from generation to generation. Because of this, the history of their development is necessarily obscure.[28] The oldest known written fairy tales stem from ancient Egypt, c. 1300 BC (ex. The Tale of Two Brothers),[29] and fairy tales appear, now and again, in written literature throughout literate cultures, as in The Golden Ass, which includes Cupid and Psyche (Roman, 100200 AD),[30] or the Panchatantra (India 3rd century BCE),[30] but it is unknown to what extent these reflect the actual folk tales even of their own time. The stylistic evidence indicates that these, and many later collections, reworked folk tales into literary forms.[23] What they do show is that the fairy tale has ancient roots, older than the Arabian Nights collection of magical tales (compiled circa 1500 AD),[30] such as Vikram and the Vampire, and Bel and the Dragon. Besides such collections and individual tales, in China, Taoist philosophers such as Liezi and Zhuangzi recounted fairy tales in their philosophical works.[31] In the broader definition of the genre, the first famous Western fairy tales are those of Aesop (6th century BC) in ancient Greece.

Ivan Bilibin's illustration of the Russian fairy tale about Vasilisa the Beautiful

Jack Zipes writes in When Dreams Came True, "There are fairy tale elements in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, and... in many of William Shakespeare plays".[32] King Lear can be considered a literary variant of fairy tales such as Water and Salt and Cap O' Rushes.[33] The tale itself resurfaced in Western literature in the 16th and 17th centuries, with The Facetious Nights of Straparola by Giovanni Francesco Straparola (Italy, 1550 and 1553),[30] which contains many fairy tales in its inset tales, and the Neapolitan tales of Giambattista Basile (Naples, 16346),[30] which are all fairy tales.[34] Carlo Gozzi made use of many fairy tale motifs among his Commedia dell'Arte scenarios,[35] including among them one based on The Love For Three Oranges (1761).[36] Simultaneously, Pu Songling, in China, included many fairy tales in his collection, Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (published posthumously, 1766).[31] The fairy tale itself became popular among the prcieuses of upper-class France (16901710),[30] and among the tales told in that time were the ones of La Fontaine and the Contes of Charles Perrault (1697), who fixed the forms of Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella.[37] Although Straparola's, Basile's and Perrault's collections contain the oldest known forms of various fairy tales, on the stylistic evidence, all the writers rewrote the tales for literary effect.[38] The first collectors to attempt to preserve not only the plot and characters of the tale, but also the style in which they were told, were the Brothers Grimm, collecting German fairy tales; ironically, this meant although their first edition (1812 & 1815)[30] remains a treasure for folklorists, they rewrote the tales in later editions to make them more acceptable, which ensured their sales and the later popularity of their work.[39] Such literary forms did not merely draw from the folktale, but also influenced folktales in turn. The Brothers Grimm rejected several tales for their collection, though told orally to them by Germans, because the tales derived from Perrault, and they concluded they were thereby French and not German tales; an oral version of Bluebeard was thus rejected, and the tale of Briar Rose, clearly related to Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, was included only because Jacob Grimm convinced his brother that the figure of Brynhildr, from much earlier Norse mythology, proved that the sleeping princess was authentically Germanic folklore.[40]

Fairy tale This consideration of whether to keep Sleeping Beauty reflected a belief common among folklorists of the 19th century: that the folk tradition preserved fairy tales in forms from pre-history except when "contaminated" by such literary forms, leading people to tell inauthentic tales.[41] The rural, illiterate, and uneducated peasants, if suitably isolated, were the folk and would tell pure folk tales.[42] Sometimes they regarded fairy tales as a form of fossil, the remnants of a once-perfect tale.[43] However, further research has concluded that fairy tales never had a fixed form, and regardless of literary influence, the tellers constantly altered them for their own purposes.[44] The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence. Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev (first published in 1866),[30] the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjrnsen and Jrgen Moe (first published in 1845),[30] the Romanian Petre Ispirescu (first published in 1874), the English Joseph Jacobs (first published in 1890),[30] and Jeremiah Curtin, an American who collected Irish tales (first published in 1890).[26] Ethnographers collected fairy tales over the world, finding similar tales in Africa, the Americas, and Australia; Andrew Lang was able to draw on not only the written tales of Europe and Asia, but those collected by ethnographers, to fill his "coloured" fairy books series.[45] They also encouraged other collectors of fairy tales, as when Yei Theodora Ozaki created a collection, Japanese Fairy Tales (1908), after encouragement from Lang.[46] Simultaneously, writers such as Hans Christian Andersen and George MacDonald continued the tradition of literary fairy tales. Andersen's work sometimes drew on old folktales, but more often deployed fairytale motifs and plots in new tales.[47] MacDonald incorporated fairytale motifs both in new literary fairy tales, such as The Light Princess, and in works of the genre that would become fantasy, as in The Princess and the Goblin or Lilith.[48]

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Cross-cultural transmission
Two theories of origins have attempted to explain the common elements in fairy tales found spread over continents. One is that a single point of origin generated any given tale, which then spread over the centuries; the other is that such fairy tales stem from common human experience and therefore can appear separately in many different origins.[49] Fairy tales with very similar plots, characters, and motifs are found spread across many different cultures. Many researchers hold this to be caused by the spread of such tales, as people repeat tales they have heard in foreign lands, although the oral nature makes it impossible to trace the route except by inference.[50] Folklorists have attempted to determine the origin by internal evidence, which can not always be clear; Joseph Jacobs, comparing the Scottish tale The Ridere of Riddles with the version collected by the Brothers Grimm, The Riddle, noted that in The Ridere of Riddles one hero ends up polygamously married, which might point to an ancient custom, but in The Riddle, the simpler riddle might argue greater antiquity.[51] Folklorists of the "Finnish" (or historical-geographical) school attempted to place fairy tales to their origin, with inconclusive results.[52] Sometimes influence, especially within a limited area and time, is clearer, as when considering the influence of Perrault's tales on those collected by the Brothers Grimm. Little Briar-Rose appears to stem from Perrault's Sleeping Beauty, as the Grimms' tale appears to be the only independent German variant.[53] Similarly, the close agreement between the opening of Grimms' version of Little Red Riding Hood and Perrault's tale points to an influence although Grimms' version adds a different ending (perhaps derived from The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids).[54] Fairy tales also tend to take on the color of their location, through the choice of motifs, the style in which they are told, and the depiction of character and local color.[55]

Fairy tale

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Association with children


Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children.[56] Literary fairy tales appeared in works intended for adults, but in the 19th and 20th centuries the fairy tale became associated with children's literature. The prcieuses, including Madame d'Aulnoy, intended their works for adults, but regarded their source as the tales that servants, or other women of lower class, would tell to children.[57] Indeed, a novel of that time, depicting a countess's suitor offering to tell such a tale, has the countess exclaim that she loves fairy tales as if she were still a child.[58] Among the late prcieuses, Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont redacted a version of Beauty and the Beast for children, and it is her tale that is best known today.[59] The Brothers Grimm titled their collection Children's and Household Tales and rewrote their tales after complaints that they were not suitable for children.[60]

Cutlery for children. Detail showing fairy-tale scenes: Snow White, Little Red Riding Hood, Hansel and Gretel.

In the modern era, fairy tales were altered so that they could be read to children. The Brothers Grimm concentrated mostly on eliminating sexual references;[61] Rapunzel, in the first edition, revealed the prince's visits by asking why her clothing had grown tight, thus letting the witch deduce that she was pregnant, but in subsequent editions carelessly revealed that it was easier to pull up the prince than the witch.[62] On the other hand, in many respects, violence particularly when punishing villains was increased.[63] Other, later, revisions cut out violence; J. R. R. Tolkien noted that The Juniper Tree often had its cannibalistic stew cut out in a version intended for children.[64] The moralizing strain in the Victorian era altered the classical tales to teach lessons, as when George Cruikshank rewrote Cinderella in 1854 to contain temperance themes. His acquaintance Charles Dickens protested, "In an utilitarian age, of all other times, it is a matter of grave importance that fairy tales should be respected."[65] [66] Psychoanalysts such as Bruno Bettelheim, who regarded the cruelty of older fairy tales as indicative of psychological conflicts, strongly criticized this expurgation, because it weakened their usefulness to both children and adults as ways of symbolically resolving issues.[67] The adaptation of fairy tales for children continues. Walt Disney's influential Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was largely (although certainly not solely) intended for the children's market.[68] The anime Magical Princess Minky Momo draws on the fairy tale Momotar.[69] Jack Zipes has spent many years working to make the older traditional tales accessible to modern readers and their children.[70] In Waldorf schools, fairy tales are used in the first grade as a central part of the curriculum. Rudolf Steiner's work on human development claims that at age six to seven, the mind of a child is best taught through storytelling. The archetypes and magical nature of fairy tales appeals strongly to children of these ages. The nature of fairy tales, following the oral tradition, enhances the child's ability to visualize a spoken narrative, as well as to remember the story as heard.

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Contemporary tales
Literary
In contemporary literature, many authors have used the form of fairy tales for various reasons, such as examining the human condition from the simple framework a fairytale provides.[71] Some authors seek to recreate a sense of the fantastic in a contemporary discourse.[72] Some writers use fairy tale forms for modern issues;[73] this can include using the psychological dramas implicit in the story, as when Robin McKinley retold Donkeyskin as the novel Deerskin, with emphasis on the abusive treatment the father of the tale dealt to his daughter.[74] Sometimes, especially in children's literature, fairy tales are retold with a twist simply for comic effect, such as The Stinky Cheese Man by Jon Scieszka and The ASBO Fairy Tales by Chris Pilbeam. A common comic motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place, and the characters are aware of their role in the story,[75] such as in the film series Shrek.

John Bauer's illustration of trolls and a princess from a collection of Swedish fairy tales

Other authors may have specific motives, such as multicultural or feminist reevaluations of predominantly Eurocentric masculine-dominated fairy tales, implying critique of older narratives.[76] The figure of the damsel in distress has been particularly attacked by many feminist critics. Examples of narrative reversal rejecting this figure include The Paperbag Princess by Robert Munsch, a picture book aimed at children in which a princess rescues a prince, and Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber, which retells a number of fairy tales from a female point of view. One use of the genre occurred in a military technology journal named Defense AT&L, which published an article as a fairytale titled Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal/Noise Ratios. Written by Maj. Dan Ward (USAF), the story uses a fairy named Garble to represent breakdowns in communication between operators and technology developers.[77] Ward's article was heavily influenced by George MacDonald. Other notable figures who have employed fairy tales include Oscar Wilde, [78] Jean Ingelow, Sara Coleridge, [78] Kathryn Davis, A. S. Byatt, Italo Calvino, Jane Yolen, Terri Windling, Donald Barthelme, Robert Coover, Margaret Atwood, Kate Bernheimer, Espido Freire, Tanith Lee, James Thurber, Robin McKinley, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Kelly Link, Bruce Holland Rogers, Donna Jo Napoli, Cameron Dokey, Rikki Ducornet, Robert Bly, Gail Carson Levine, Katie Farris, Annette Marie Hyder, Jasper Fforde, and many others. It may be hard to lay down the rule between fairy tales and fantasies that use fairy tale motifs, or even whole plots, but the distinction is commonly made, even within the works of a single author: George MacDonald's Lilith and Phantastes are regarded as fantasies, while his "The Light Princess", "The Golden Key", and "The Wise Woman" are commonly called fairy tales. The most notable distinction is that fairytale fantasies, like other fantasies, make use of novelistic writing conventions of prose, characterization, or setting.[79]

Film
Fairy tales have been enacted dramatically; records exist of this in commedia dell'arte,[80] and later in pantomime.[81] The advent of cinema has meant that such stories could be presented in a more plausible manner, with the use of special effects and animation; the Disney movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 was a ground-breaking film for fairy tales and, indeed, fantasy in general.[68] Disney's influence helped establish this genre as a children's genre, and has been blamed for simplification of fairy tales ending in situations where everything goes right, as opposed to the pain and suffering and sometimes unhappy endings of many folk fairy tales.[74]

Fairy tale Many filmed fairy tales have been made primarily for children, from Disney's later works to Aleksandr Rou's retelling of Vasilissa the Beautiful, the first Soviet film to use Russian folk tales in a big-budget feature.[82] Others have used the conventions of fairy tales to create new stories with sentiments more relevant to contemporary life, as in Labyrinth,[83] My Neighbor Totoro, the films of Michel Ocelot,[84] and Happily N'Ever After. Other works have retold familiar fairy tales in a darker, more horrific or psychological variant aimed primarily at adults. Notable examples are Jean Cocteau's Beauty and the Beast[85] and The Company of Wolves, based on an Angela Carter's retelling of Little Red Riding Hood.[86] Likewise, Princess Mononoke,[87] Pan's Labyrinth,[88] Suspiria, and Spike[89] create new stories in this genre from fairy tale and folklore motifs. In comics and animated TV series, The Sandman, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Princess Tutu, Fables and MR all make use of standard fairy tale elements to various extents but are more accurately categorised as fairytale fantasy due to the definite locations and characters which a longer narrative requires. A more modern cinematic fairy tale would be Luchino Viscontis Le Notti Bianche, starring Marcello Mastroianni before he became a superstar. It involves many of the romantic conventions of fairy tales, yet it takes place in post-World War II Italy, and it ends realistically.

24

Motifs
Any comparison of fairy tales quickly discovers that many fairy tales have features in common with each other. Two of the most influential classifications are those of Antti Aarne, as revised by Stith Thompson into the Aarne-Thompson classification system, and Vladimir Propp's Morphology of the Folk Tale.

Aarne-Thompson
This system groups fairy and folk tales according to their overall plot. Common, identifying features are picked out to decide which tales are grouped together. Much therefore depends on what features are regarded as decisive.

Beauty and the Beast, illustration by Warwick Goble

For instance, tales like Cinderella in which a persecuted heroine, with the help of the fairy godmother or similar magical helper, attends an event (or three) in which she wins the love of a prince and is identified as his true bride are classified as type 510, the persecuted heroine. Some such tales are The Wonderful Birch; Aschenputtel; Katie Woodencloak; The Story of Tam and Cam; Ye Xian; Cap O' Rushes; Catskin; Fair, Brown and Trembling; Finette Cendron; Allerleirauh; and Tattercoats. Further analysis of the tales shows that in Cinderella, The Wonderful Birch, The Story of Tam and Cam, Ye Xian, and Aschenputtel, the heroine is persecuted by her stepmother and refused permission to go to the ball or other event, and in Fair, Brown and Trembling and Finette Cendron by her sisters and other female figures, and these are grouped as 510A; while in Cap O' Rushes, Catskin, and Allerleirauh, the heroine is driven from home by her father's persecutions, and must take work in a kitchen elsewhere, and these are grouped as 510B. But in Katie Woodencloak, she is driven from home by her stepmother's persecutions and must take service in a kitchen elsewhere, and in Tattercoats, she is refused permission to go to the ball by her grandfather. Given these features common with both

Fairy tale types of 510, Katie Woodencloak is classified as 510A because the villain is the stepmother, and Tattercoats as 510B because the grandfather fills the father's role. This system has its weaknesses in the difficulty of having no way to classify subportions of a tale as motifs. Rapunzel is type 310 (The Maiden in the Tower), but it opens with a child being demanded in return for stolen food, as does Puddocky; but Puddocky is not a Maiden in the Tower tale, while The Canary Prince, which opens with a jealous stepmother, is. It also lends itself to emphasis on the common elements, to the extent that the folklorist describes The Black Bull of Norroway as the same story as Beauty and the Beast. This can be useful as a shorthand but can also erase the coloring and details of a story.[90]

25

Morphology
Vladimir Propp specifically studied a collection of Russian fairy tales, but his analysis has been found useful for the tales of other countries.[91] Having criticized Aarne-Thompson type analysis for ignoring what motifs did in stories, and because the motifs used were not clearly distinct,[92] he analyzed the tales for the function each character and action fulfilled and concluded that a tale was composed of thirty-one elements and eight character types. While the elements were not all required for all tales, when they appeared they did so in an invariant order except that each individual element might be negated twice, so that it would appear three times, as when, in Brother and Sister, the brother resists drinking from enchanted streams twice, so that it is the third that enchants him.[93] One such element is the donor who gives the hero magical assistance, often after testing him.[94] In The Golden Bird, the talking fox tests the hero by warning him against entering an inn and, after he succeeds, helps him find the object of his quest; in The Boy Who Drew Cats, the Father Frost acts as a donor in the Russian fairy priest advised the hero to stay in small places at night, which protects tale Father Frost, testing the heroine before him from an evil spirit; in Cinderella, the fairy godmother gives giving her riches. Cinderella the dresses she needs to attend the ball, as their mothers' spirits do in Bawang Putih Bawang Merah and The Wonderful Birch; in The Fox Sister, a Buddhist monk gives the brothers magical bottles to protect against the fox spirit. The roles can be more complicated.[95] In The Red Ettin, the role is split into the mother who offers the hero the whole of a journey cake with her curse or half with her blessing and when he takes the half, a fairy who gives him advice; in Mr Simigdli, the sun, the moon, and the stars all give the heroine a magical gift. Characters who are not always the donor can act like the donor.[96] In Kallo and the Goblins, the villain goblins also give the heroine gifts, because they are tricked; in Schippeitaro, the evil cats betray their secret to the hero, giving him the means to defeat them. Other fairy tales, such as The Story of the Youth Who Went Forth to Learn What Fear Was, do not feature the donor. Analogies have been drawn between this and the analysis of myths into the Hero's journey.[97] This analysis has been criticized for ignoring tone, mood, characters and, indeed, anything that differentiates one fairy tale from another.[98]

Fairy tale

26

Interpretations
Many fairy tales have been interpreted for their (purported) significance. One mythological interpretation claimed that many fairy tales, including Hansel and Gretel, Sleeping Beauty, and The Frog King, all were solar myths; this mode of interpretation is rather less popular now.[99] Many have also been subjected to Freudian, Jungian, and other psychological analysis, but no mode of interpretation has ever established itself definitively.[100] Specific analyses have often been criticized for lending great importance to motifs that are not, in fact, integral to the tale; this has often stemmed from treating one instance of a fairy tale as the definitive text, where the tale has been told and retold in many variations.[101] In variants of Bluebeard, the wife's curiosity is betrayed by a blood-stained key, by an egg's breaking, or by the singing of a rose she wore, without affecting the tale, but interpretations of specific variants have claimed that the precise object is integral to the tale.[102] Other folklorists have interpreted tales as historical documents. Many German folklorists, believing the tales to have been preserved from ancient times, used Grimms' tales to explain ancient customs.[103] Other folklorists have explained the figure of the wicked stepmother historically: many women did die in childbirth, their husbands remarried, and the new stepmothers competed with the children of the first marriage for resources.[104]

Compilations
See also: Collections of fairy tales Authors and works: Mixed Up Fairy Tales Book of British Fairy Tales (United Kingdom, 1984) by Alan Garner Fairy Tales (USA, 1965) by E. E. Cummings Fairy Tales, Now First Collected: To which are prefixed two dissertations: 1. On Pygmies. 2. On Fairies (England, 1831) by Joseph Ritson Giovanni Francesco Straparola (Italy, 16th century) Grimm's Fairy Tales (Germany, 18121857) Hans Christian Andersen (Denmark, 18051875) Italian Folktales (Italy, 1956) by Italo Calvino Joseph Jacobs (18541916) Legende sau basmele romnilor (Romania, 1874) by Petre Ispirescu Madame d'Aulnoy (France, 16501705) Norwegian Folktales (Norway, 18451870) by Peter Christen Asbjrnsen and Jrgen Moe Narodnye russkie skazki (Russia, 18551863) by Alexander Afanasyev Pentamerone (Italy, 16341636) by Giambattista Basile Charles Perrault (France, 16281703) Panchatantra (India, 3rd century BCE) Popular Tales of the West Highlands (Scotland, 1862) by John Francis Campbell Ruth Manning-Sanders (Wales, 18861988) Kunio Yanagita (Japan, 18751962) World Tales (United Kingdom, 1979) by Idries Shah

Fairy tale

27

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] Thompson, Stith. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology & Legend, 1972 s.v. "Fairy Tale" Merriam-Webster definition of "fairy tale" (http:/ / m-w. com/ dictionary/ fairy tale) Catherine Orenstein, Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked, p. 9. ISBN 0-465-04125-6 Gray, Richard. "Fairy tales have ancient origin." (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ science/ science-news/ 6142964/ Fairy-tales-have-ancient-origin. html) Telegraph.co.uk. 5 September 2009. [5] Heidi Anne Heiner, " What Is a Fairy Tale? (http:/ / www. surlalunefairytales. com/ introduction/ ftdefinition. html)" [6] Terri Windling, "Les Contes de Fes: The Literary Fairy Tales of France" (http:/ / www. endicott-studio. com/ rdrm/ forconte. html) [7] Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p. 5. ISBN 0-292-78376-0. [8] Propp, p. 19. [9] Steven Swann Jones, The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination, Twayne Publishers, New York, 1995, p. 15. ISBN 0-8057-0950-9. [10] Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 55, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977 [11] J. R. R. Tolkien, "On Fairy-Stories" , The Tolkien Reader, p. 15. [12] Tolkien, pp. 1011. [13] The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of the Imagination. Routledge, 2002, p. 8. [14] A companion to the fairy tale. By Hilda Ellis Davidson, Anna Chaudhri. Boydell & Brewer 2006. p. 39. [15] http:/ / www. freudfile. org/ psychoanalysis/ fairy_tales. html [16] Stith Thompson, The Folktale, 1977 (Thompson: 8). [17] A. S. Byatt, "Introduction" p. xviii, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4. [18] Italo Calvino, Six Memoes for the Next Millennium, pp. 3637. ISBN 0-674-81040-6. [19] Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, pp. xi-xii, ISBN 0-393-97636-X. [20] Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 858. [21] Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p. 83, ISBN 0-253-35665-2. [22] Philip Martin, The Writer's Guide of Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Liar to Hero's Quest, pp. 3842, ISBN 978-0871161956. [23] Swann Jones, p. 35. [24] Brian Attebery, The Fantasy Tradition in American Literature, p. 5, ISBN 0-253-35665-2. [25] Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. xii. [26] Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 846. [27] Linda Degh, "What Did the Grimm Brothers Give To and Take From the Folk?" p. 73, James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, The Three donars .ISBN 0-252-01549-5. [28] Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 2. ISBN 0-415-92151-1. [29] John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Fairytale," p. 331. ISBN 0-312-19869-8. [30] Heidi Anne Heiner, "Fairy Tale Timeline" (http:/ / www. surlalunefairytales. com/ introduction/ timeline. html) [31] Moss Roberts, "Introduction", p. xviii, Chinese Fairy Tales & Fantasies. ISBN 0-394-73994-9. [32] Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 12. [33] Soula Mitakidou and Anthony L. Manna, with Melpomeni Kanatsouli, Folktales from Greece: A Treasury of Delights, p. 100, Libraries Unlimited, Greenwood Village CO, 2002, ISBN 1-56308-908-4. [34] Swann Jones, p. 38. [35] Terri Windling, White as Ricotta, Red as Wine: The Magic Lore of Italy (http:/ / www. endicott-studio. com/ rdrm/ forital. html)" [36] Italo Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. 738. ISBN 0-15-645489-0. [37] Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, pp. 3842. [38] Swann Jones, pp. 3839. [39] Swann Jones, p. 40. [40] G. Ronald Murphy, The Owl, The Raven, and the Dove: The Religious Meaning of the Grimms' Magic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-19-515169-0. [41] Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 77. [42] Degh, pp. 6667. [43] Iona and Peter Opie, The Classic Fairy Tales p. 17. ISBN 978-0192115591. [44] Jane Yolen, p. 22, Touch Magic. ISBN 0-87483-591-7. [45] Andrew Lang, The Brown Fairy Book, "Preface" (http:/ / www. mythfolklore. net/ andrewlang/ brown. htm) [46] Yei Theodora Ozaki, Japanese Fairy Tales, "Preface" (http:/ / www. surlalunefairytales. com/ books/ japan/ freemanmitford/ preface. html) [47] Grant and Clute, "Hans Christian Andersen," pp. 2627. [48] Grant and Clute, "George MacDonald," p. 604. [49] Orenstein, pp. 7778. [50] Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 845. [51] Joseph Jacobs, More Celtic Fairy Tales. London: David Nutt, 1894, " Notes and References (http:/ / www. surlalunefairytales. com/ authors/ jacobs/ moreceltic/ ridere. html)" [52] Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. xx.

Fairy tale
[53] Harry Velten, "The Influences of Charles Perrault's Contes de ma Mre L'oie on German Folklore", p. 962, Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm. [54] Velten, pp. 96667. [55] Calvino, Italian Folktales, p. xxi. [56] Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 1. [57] Lewis Seifert, "The Marvelous in Context: The Place of the Contes de Fes in Late Seventeenth Century France", Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 913. [58] Seifert, p. 915. [59] Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p. 47. [60] Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 19, ISBN 0-691-06722-8. [61] Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 20. [62] Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 32. [63] Byatt, pp. xlii-xliv. [64] Tolkien, p. 31. [65] K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, pp. 181182, University of Chicago Press, London, 1967. [66] http:/ / www. victorianweb. org/ authors/ dickens/ pva/ pva239. html [67] Jack Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, p. 48, ISBN 0-312-29380-1. [68] Grant and Clute, "Cinema", p. 196. [69] Patrick Drazen, Anime Explosion!: The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation, pp. 4344, ISBN 1-880656-72-8. [70] wolf, Eric James The Art of Storytelling Show Interview Jack Zipes Are Fairy tales still useful to Children? (http:/ / www. artofstorytellingshow. com/ 2008/ 06/ 29/ jack-zipes-fairy-tales/ ) [71] Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition and so on!, pp. 2425. [72] Grant and Clute, "Fairytale," p. 333. [73] Martin, p. 41. [74] Helen Pilinovsky, "Donkeyskin, Deerskin, Allerleirauh: The Reality of the Fairy Tale" (http:/ / www. endicott-studio. com/ rdrm/ fordnky. html) [75] Briggs, p. 195. [76] Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, pp. 25152. [77] D. Ward, Optimizing Bi-Modal Signal to Noise Ratios: A Fairy Tale (http:/ / www. dau. mil/ pubs/ dam/ 09_10_2005/ ward_so05. pdf)PDF(304KB), Defense AT&L, Sept/Oct 2005. [78] Children's Literature: An Illustrated History edited by Peter Hunt. Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-212320-3 [79] Diana Waggoner, The Hills of Faraway: A Guide to Fantasy, pp. 2223, 0-689-10846-X. [80] Grant and Clute, "Commedia Dell'Arte", p. 219. [81] Grant and Clute, "Commedia Dell'Arte", p. 745. [82] James Graham, "Baba Yaga in Film" (http:/ / www. endicott-studio. com/ crossroads/ crBabaYagaF. html) [83] Richard Scheib, Review of Labyrinth (http:/ / www. moria. co. nz/ fantasy/ labyrinth. htm) [84] Drazen, p. 264. [85] Terri Windling, "Beauty and the Beast" (http:/ / www. endicott-studio. com/ rdrm/ forbewty. html) [86] Terri Windling, "The Path of Needles or Pins: Little Red Riding Hood" (http:/ / www. endicott-studio. com/ rdrm/ rrPathNeedles. html) [87] Drazen, p. 38. [88] Spelling, Ian (2006-12-25). "Guillermo del Toro and Ivana Baquero escape from a civil war into the fairytale land of Pan's Labyrinth" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070707173614/ http:/ / www. scifi. com/ sfw/ interviews/ sfw14471. html). Science Fiction Weekly. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. scifi. com/ sfw/ interviews/ sfw14471. html) on July 7, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-07-14. [89] "Festival Highlights: 2008 Edinburgh International Film Festival" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ index. asp?layout=festivals& jump=features& id=3168& articleid=VR1117987482). Variety. 2008-06-13. . Retrieved 2010-04-28. [90] Tolkien, p. 18. [91] Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale. [92] Propp, pp. 89. [93] Propp, p. 74. [94] Propp, p. 39. [95] Propp, pp. 8182. [96] Propp, pp. 8081. [97] Christopher Vogler, The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers, 2nd edition, p. 30, ISBN 0-941188-70-1. [98] Vladimir Propp's Theories (http:/ / www. brown. edu/ Courses/ FR0133/ Fairytale_Generator/ propp. html) [99] Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 52. [100] Bettleheim Bruno (1991). The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. Penguin. ISBN978-0140137279. [101] Alan Dundes, "Interpreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically", pp. 1819, James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ISBN 0-252-01549-5. [102] Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 46.

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Fairy tale
[103] Zipes, The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, p. 48. [104] Marina Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And Their Tellers, p. 213. ISBN 0-374-15901-7.

29

References
Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson: The Types of the Folktale: A Classification and Bibliography (Helsinki, 1961) Thompson, Stith, The Folktale. Heidi Anne Heiner, "The Quest for the Earliest Fairy Tales: Searching for the Earliest Versions of European Fairy Tales with Commentary on English Translations" (http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/introduction/ earliesttales.html) Heidi Anne Heiner, "Fairy Tale Timeline" (http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/introduction/timeline.html) Carrassi, Vito, "Il fairy tale nella tradizione narrativa irlandese. Un itinerario storico e culturale", Bari 2008.

External links
Cabinet des Fees (http://www.cabinet-des-fees.com/) - An Online Journal of Fairy Tale Fiction Fables (http://www.lefavole.org/en/) - Collection and guide to fables and Fairy Tales for children Once Upon a Time (http://www.folkstory.com/articles/onceupon.html) - How Fairy Tales Shape Our Lives, by Jonathan Young, Ph.D. Once Upon A Time: Historical and Illustrated Fairy Tales. Special Collections, University of Colorado Boulder (http://libcudl.colorado.edu:8180/luna/servlet/UCBOULDERCB1~53~53) CiffCiaff (http://www.ciffciaff.org/en) - Multilanguage fairy tales collection

Picture book
A picture book combines visual and verbal narratives in a book format, most often aimed at young children. The images in picture books use a range of media such as oil paints, acrylics, watercolor and pencil.Two of the earliest books with something like the format picture books still retain now were Heinrich Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter from 1845 and Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit from 1902. Some of the best-known picture books are Robert McCloskey's Make Way for Ducklings, Dr. Seuss' The Cat In The Hat, and Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are. The Caldecott Medal (established 1938) and Kate Greenaway Medal (established 1955) are awarded annually for illustrations in children's literature. From the mid-1960s several children's literature awards include a category for picture books.
Peter Rabbit with his family, from The Tale of Peter Rabbit by Beatrix Potter, 1902

Picture book

30

Characteristics
Any book that pairs a narrative format with pictures can be categorized as a picture book. "In the best picturebooks, the illustrations are as much a part of the experience with the book as the written text."[1] Picture books are most often aimed at young children, and while some may have very basic language especially designed to help children develop their reading skills, most are written with vocabulary a child can understand but not necessarily read. For this reason, picture books tend to have two functions in the lives of children: they are first read to young children by adults, and then children read them themselves once they begin to learn to read.

A child with an illustrated book of Three Billy Goats Gruff

There are several subgenres among picture books including concept books, nursery rhymes, toy books, alphabet books and early readers. Picture books also cover a wide variety of themes and are also published with content aimed at older children or even adults. Tibet: Through the Red Box by Peter Sis is one example of a picture book aimed at an adult audience. Board books are picture books published on a hard cardboard. Board books are often intended for small children to use and play with. Cardboard is used for the cover as well as the pages, and is intended to be more durable. Pop-up books employ paper engineering to make parts of the page pop up or stand up when pages are opened. More broadly books using similar techniques are known as movable books. The Wheels on the Bus by Paul O. Zelinsky is one example of a bestseller pop-up picture book. Often the author and illustrator are two different people. Once an editor in a publishing house has accepted a manuscript for a text from an author, the editor selects an illustrator.

Early picture books


Orbis Pictus from 1658 by John Amos Comenius was the earliest illustrated book specifically for children. It is something of a children's encyclopedia and is illustrated by woodcuts.[2] A Little Pretty Pocket-Book from 1744 by John Newbery was the earliest illustrated storybook marketed as pleasure reading in English.[3] The German children's book Struwwelpeter (literally "Shaggy-Peter") from 1845 by Heinrich Hoffmann was one of the earliest examples of modern picturebook design. Collections of Fairy tales from early nineteenth century, like those by the Brothers Grimm or Hans Christian Andersen A reprint of the 1658 illustrated Orbis Pictus were sparsely illustrated, but beginning in the middle of the century, collections were published with images by illustrators like Gustave Dor, George Cruikshank,[4] Vilhelm Pedersen, Ivan Bilibin and John Bauer. Andrew Lang's twelve Fairy Books published between 1889 and 1910 were illustrated by among others Henry J. Ford and Lancelot Speed. Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, illustrated by John Tenniel in 1866 was one of the first highly successful entertainment books for children.

Picture book

31 Toy books were introduced in the latter half of the 19th century, small paperbound books with art dominating the text. These had a larger proportion of pictures to words than earlier books, and many of their pictures were in color.[5] The best of these were illustrated by the triumvirate of English illustrators Randolph Caldecott, Walter Crane, and Kate Greenaway whose association with colour printer and wood engraver Edmund Evans produced books of great quality.[6] In the late 19th and early 20th century a small number of American and British artists made their living illustrating children's books, like Rose O'Neill, Arthur Rackham, Cicely Mary Barker, Willy Pogany, Edmund Dulac, W. Heath Robinson, Howard Pyle, or Charles Robinson. Generally, these illustrated books had eight to twelve pages of illustrated pictures or plates accompanying a classic children's storybook.

Alice from Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, illustration by John Tenniel, 1866

Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit was published in 1902 to immediate success. Peter Rabbit was Potter's first of many The Tale of..., including The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin, The Tale of Benjamin Bunny, The Tale of Tom Kitten, and The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck, to name but a few which were published in the years leading up to 1910. Swedish author Elsa Beskow wrote and illustrated some 40 children's stories and picture books between 18971952. Andrew Lang's twelve Fairy Books published between 1889 and 1910 were illustrated by among others Henry J. Ford and Lancelot Speed. In the US, illustrated stories for children appeared in magazines like Ladies Home Journal, Good Housekeeping, Cosmopolitan, Woman's Home Companion intended for mothers to read to their Cover of Babes in the Wood, children. Some cheap periodicals appealing to the juvenile reader started to illustrated by Randolph Caldecott appear in the early 20th century, often with uncredited illustrations. Helen Bannerman's Little Black Sambo was published in 1899, and went through numerous printings and versions during the first decade of the 20th century. Little Black Sambo was part of a series of small-format books called The Dumpy Books for Children, published by British publisher Grant Richards between 1897 and 1904.

Picture book

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Early to mid 20th century


L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was published in 1900, and Baum created a number of other successful Oz-oriented books in the period from 1904 to 1920. In 1910, American illustrator and author Rose O'Neill's first childrens book was published, The Kewpies and Dottie Darling. More books in the Kewpie series followed: The Kewpies Their Book in 1912 and The Kewpie Primer 1916. In 1918, Johnny Gruelle wrote and illustrated Raggedy Ann and in 1920 followed up with Raggedy Andy Stories. Other Gruelle books included Beloved Belinda, Eddie Elephant, and Friendly Fairies. In 1913, Cupples & Leon published a series of 15 All About books, emulating the form and size of the Beatrix Potter books, All About Peter Rabbit, All About The Three Bears, All About Mother Goose, and All About Little Red Hen. The latter, along with several others, was illustrated by Johnny Gruelle. Wanda Gg's Millions of Cats was published in 1928 and became the first picture book to receive a Newbery Medal runner-up award. Wanda Gg followed with The Funny Thing in 1929, Snippy and Snappy in 1931, and then The ABC Bunny in 1933, which garnered her a second Newbery runner-up award.

Title page from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum from 1900

In 1931, Jean de Brunhoff's first Babar book, The Story Of Babar was published in France, followed by The Travels of Babar then Babar The King. In 1930, Marjorie Flack authored and illustrated Angus and the Ducks, followed in 1931 by Angus And The Cats, then in 1932, Angus Lost. Flack authored another book in 1933, The Story about Ping, illustrated by Kurt Wiese. The Elson Basic Reader was published in 1930 and introduced the public to Dick and Jane. In 1930 The Little Engine That Could was published, illustrated by Lois Lenski. In 1954 it was illustrated anew by George and Doris Hauman. It spawned an entire line of books and related paraphernalia and coined the refrain "I think I can! I think I can!". In 1936, Munro Leaf's The Story of Ferdinand was published, illustrated by Robert Lawson. Ferdinand was the first picture book to crossover Babar by Jean de Brunhoff, from into pop culture. Walt Disney produced an animated feature film along with 1931 corresponding merchandising materials. In 1938 to Dorothy Lathrop was awarded the first Caldecott Medal for her illustrations in Animals of the Bible, written by Helen Dean Fish. Thomas Handforth won the second Caldecott Medal in 1939, for Mei Li, which he also wrote. Ludwig Bemelmans' Madeline was published in 1939 and was selected as a Caldecott Medal runner-up, today known as a Caldecott Honor book. In 1942, Simon & Schuster began publishing the Little Golden Books, a series of inexpensive, well illustrated, high quality children's books. The eighth book in the series, The Poky Little Puppy, is the top selling children's book of all time.[7] Many of the books were bestsellers[8] including The Poky Little Puppy, Tootle, Scuffy the Tugboat, The Little Red Hen. Several of the illustrators for the Little Golden Books later became staples within the picture book industry. Corinne Malvern, Tibor Gergely, Gustaf Tenggren, Feodor Rojankovsky, Richard Scarry, Eloise Wilkin, and Garth Williams. In 1947 Goodnight Moon written by Margaret Wise Brown and illustrated by Clement Hurd was published. By 1955, such picture book classics as Make Way for Ducklings, The Little House, Curious George, and Eloise, had all been published. In 1955 the first book was published in the Miffy series by Dutch author and illustrator Dick Bruna. In 1937, Dr. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel,) at the time a successful graphic artist and humorist, published his first book for children, And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street. It was immediately successful, and Seuss followed

Picture book up with The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins in 1938, followed by The King's Stilts in 1939, and Horton Hatches the Egg in 1940, all published by Random House. From 1947 to 1956 Seuss had twelve children's picture books published. Dr. Seuss created The Cat in the Hat in reaction to a Life magazine article by John Hersey in lamenting the unrealistic children in school primers books. Seuss rigidly limited himself to a small set of words from an elementary school vocabulary list, then crafted a story based upon two randomly selected wordscat and hat. Up until the mid-1950s, there was a degree of separation between illustrated educational books and illustrated picture books. That changed with The Cat in the Hat in 1957. Because of the success of The Cat In The Hat an independent publishing company was formed, called Beginner Books. The second book in the series was nearly as popular, The Cat in the Hat Comes Back, published in 1958. Other books in the series were Sam and the Firefly (1958), Green Eggs and Ham (1960), Are You My Mother? (1960), Go, Dog. Go! (1961), Hop on Pop (1963), and Fox in Socks (1965). Creators in the Beginner Book series were Stan and Jan Berenstain, P. D. Eastman, Roy McKie, and Helen Palmer Geisel (Seuss' wife). The Beginner Books dominated the children's picture book market of the 1960s. Between 1957 and 1960 Harper & Brothers published a series of sixteen "I Can Read" books. Little Bear was the first of the series. Written by Else Holmelund Minarik and illustrated by a then relatively unknown Maurice Sendak, the two collaborated on three other "I Can Read" books over the next three years. From 1958 to 1960, Syd Hoff wrote and illustrated four "I Can Read" books: Danny and the Dinosaur, Sammy The Seal, Julius, and Oliver.

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Mid to late 20th century


In 1949 American writer and illustrator Richard Scarry began his career working on the Little Golden Books series. His Best Word Book Ever from 1963 has sold 4 million copies. In total Scarry wrote and illustrated more than 250 books and more than 100 million of his books have been sold worldwide.[9] In 1963, Where The Wild Things Are by American writer and illustrator Maurice Sendak was published. It has been adapted into other media several times, including an animated short in 1973, a 1980 opera, and, in 2009, a live-action feature film adaptation directed by Spike Jonze. By 2008 it had sold over 19 million copies worldwide.[10] American illustrator and author Gyo Fujikawa created more than 50 books between 1963 and 1990. Her work has been translated into 17 languages and published in 22 countries. Her most popular books, Babies and Baby Animals, have sold over 1.7 million copies in the U.S.[11] Fujikawa is recognized for being the earliest mainstream illustrator of picture books to include children of many races in her work.[12] [13] [14] Most of the Moomin books by Finnish author Tove Jansson were novels, but several Moomin picture books were also published between 1952 and 1980, like Who Will Comfort Toffle? (1960) and The Dangerous Journey (1977). The Barbapapa series of books by Annette Tison and Talus Taylor was published in France in the 1970s. They feature the shapeshifting pink blob Barbapapa and his numerous colorful children. The Mr. Men series of 40-some books by English author and illustrated Roger Hargreaves started in 1971. The Snowman by Raymond Briggs was published in Britain in 1978 and was entirely wordless. It was made into an Oscar nominated animated cartoon that has been shown every year since on British television. Japanese author and illustrator Mitsumasa Anno has published a number of picture books beginning in 1968 with Mysterious Pictures. In his "Journey" books a tiny character travels through depictions of the culture of various countries. Everyone Poops was first published in Japan in 1977, written and illustrated by the prolific children's author Tar Gomi. It has been translated into several languages. Australian author Margaret Wild has written more than 40 books since 1984 and won several awards. In 1987 the first book was published in the Where's Wally? (known as Where's Waldo? in the United States and Canada) series by the British illustrator Martin Handford. The books were translated into many languages and the franchise also spawned a TV series, a comic strip and a series of video games. Since 1989 over 20 books have been created in the Elmer the Patchwork Elephant series by the British author David McKee. They have been translated in 40 languages and adapted into a children's TV series.

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Awards
In 1938, the American Library Association (ALA) began presenting annually the Caldecott Medal to the most distinguished children's book illustration published in the year. The Caldecott Medal was established as a sister award to the ALA's Newbery Medal, which was awarded to a children's books "for the most distinguished American children's book published the previous year" and presented annually beginning in 1922. During the mid-forties to early-fifties honorees included Marcia Brown, Barbara Cooney, Roger Duvoisin, Berta and Elmer Hader, Robert Lawson, Robert McCloskey, Dr. Seuss, Maurice Sendak, Ingri and Edgar Parin d'Aulaire, Leo Politi, Tasha Tudor, and Leonard Weisgard. The Kate Greenaway Medal was established in the United Kingdom in 1955 in honour of the children's illustrator, Kate Greenaway. The medal is given annually to an outstanding work of illustration in children's literature. It is awarded by Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP). Since 1965 the Deutscher Jugendliteraturpreis (German Youth literature prize) includes a category for picture books. The Danish Hans Christian Andersen Award for Illustration has been awarded since 1966. The Boston Globe-Horn Book Award, first presented in 1967, includes a category for picture books. In 2006, the ALA started awarding the Geisel Award, named after Dr. Seuss, to the most distinguished beginning reader book. The award is presented to both the author and illustrator, in "literary and artistic achievements to engage children in reading."

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Kiefer, 156 Hunt, p. 217 Hunt, p. 668 Hunt, p. 221 Whalley, p. Hunt, p. 674 according to a 2001 list of bestselling children's hardback books compiled by Publishers Weekly. Four of the top eight books on the Publishers Weekly list are Little Golden Books. New York Times obituary of Richard Scarry (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9D04E0D91030F930A35756C0A962958260) [10] Thornton, Matthew (February 4, 2008) "Wild Things All Over" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA6528120. html). Publishers Weekly [11] Publishers Weekly (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ article/ CA186995. html). Retrieved 23 April 2007. [12] Gyo Fujikawa, a Children's Illustrator Forging the Way, Dr. Andrea Wyman. Versed, Sept. 2005. (http:/ / ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ diversity/ versed/ versedbackissues/ september2005a/ fujikawa. cfm) URL accessed 21 July 2009. [13] Penguin Group Diversity. (http:/ / us. penguingroup. com/ static/ html/ aboutus/ youngreaders/ grosset. html) URL accessed 23 April 2007. [14] Ask Art:Gyo Fujikawa. (http:/ / www. askart. com/ AskART/ F/ gyo_fujikawa/ gyo_fujikawa. aspx) URL accessed 23 April 2007.

Source
Kiefer, Barbara Z. (2010). Charlotte Huck's Children's Literature.New York, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-337856-5 Ray, Gordon Norton (1991). The Illustrator and the book in England from 1790 to 1914 (http://books.google. com/books?id=HsTU8eWtej8C&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154&dq=edmund+evans+printer#v=onepage& q=edmund evans printer&f=false). New York: Dover. ISBN0-486-26955-8. Retrieved 2010-02-28. Hunt, Peter; Sheila Ray (1996). International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature (http://books. google.com/books?id=XqaTzQBVDCAC&pg=PA465&dq="edmund+evans"#v=onepage&q="edmund evans"&f=false). London: Routledge. ISBN0-203-16812-7. Retrieved 2010-03-01. Zielinski, Linda & Stan; "Children's Picturebook Price Guide", Chap. 1: Today's Golden Era Of Picturebooks; Flying Moose Books; 2006. ISBN 0977939405

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External links
Children's Picture Book Database (http://www.lib.muohio.edu/pictbks/) at Miami University

Chapter book
A chapter book is a story book intended for intermediate readers, generally age 7-10.[1] [2] Unlike picture books for younger readers, a chapter book tells the story primarily through prose, rather than pictures. Unlike books for older readers, chapter books contain plentiful illustrations. The name refers to the fact that the stories are usually divided into short chapters, which provide children with opportunities to stop and resume reading if their attention spans are not long enough to finish the book in one sitting. Chapter books are usually works of fiction of moderate length and complexity. The New York Times Best Seller list of Children's Chapter Books has included books with intended audience age ranges from 6 to 14 and up.[3] This may reflect a straightforward interpretation of "chapter books" as those books directed at children that are long enough to include chapters. However, some publishers such as Scholastic Corporation and Harper Collins include the phrase "chapter book" in series titles aimed specifically at younger readers, including the I Can Read! series and the Magic School Bus series.

References
[1] http:/ / www. findmeanauthor. com/ childrens_fiction_genre. htm [2] Loer, Stephanie (2001-04-29). "Chapter Books Lead Young Readers from Pictures to Novels". Boston Globe. [3] Taylor, Ihsan. "Hardcover" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ best-sellers-books/ 2011-01-02/ chapter-books/ list. html). The New York Times. .

Young-adult fiction
Young-adult fiction or young adult literature (often abbreviated as YA),[1] [2] also juvenile fiction, is fiction written for, published for, or marketed to adolescents and young adults, roughly ages 14 to 21.[3] The Young Adult Library Services (YALSA) of the American Library Association (ALA) defines a young adult as "someone between the ages of twelve and eighteen". Young adult novels have also been defined as texts written for the ages of twelve and up. Authors and readers of young adult (YA) novels often define the genre as "literature written for ages ranging from ten years up to the age of twenty" (Cole). Another suggestion for the definition is that Young Adult Literature is any text being read by adolescents, though this definition is still somewhat controversial. Accordingly, the terms young-adult novel, juvenile novel, young-adult book, etc. refer to the works in the YA category. Although YA literature shares the fundamental elements of character, plot, setting, theme, and style common to other genres of fiction, theme and style are often subordinated to the more tangible basic narrative elements such as plot, setting, and character, which appeal more readily to younger readers. The vast majority of YA stories portray an adolescent as the protagonist, rather than an adult or a child It is generally agreed that Young Adult Literature is literature written for adolescent readers, and in some cases published by adolescent writers. The subject matter and story lines are typically consistent with the age and experience of the main character, but beyond that YA stories span the entire spectrum of fiction genres. Themes in YA stories often focus on the challenges of youth, so much so that the entire age category is sometimes referred to as problem novels or coming of age novels.[4] Writing styles of YA stories range widely, from the richness of literary style to the clarity and speed of the unobtrusive and even free verse.

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History of young-adult fiction


Sarah Trimmer
The first recognition of young adults as a distinct group was by Sarah Trimmer, who in 1802 described "young adulthood" as lasting from ages 14 to 21.[3] In her self-founded children's literature periodical, The Guardian of Education, Trimmer introduced the terms "Books for Children" (for those under fourteen) and "Books for Young Persons" (for those between fourteen and twenty-one), establishing terms of reference for young adult literature that remain in use today.[3] However, nineteenth-century publishers did not specifically market to young readers, and adolescent culture did not exist in a modern sense.

The Beginning
Beginning in the 1920s, it was said that "this was the first time when it became clear that the young were a separate generation" (Cart 43); but multiple novels that fit into the YA category had been published long before. In the nineteenth century there are several early examples that appealed to young readers (Garland 1998, p.6) including The Swiss Family Robinson (1812), Waverley (1814), Oliver Twist (1838), The Count of Monte Cristo (1844), Tom Brown's Schooldays (1857), Great Expectations (1860), Alice in Wonderland (1865), The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), Kidnapped (1886), The Jungle Book (1894) and Moonfleet (1898). A few other novels that were published around the turn of the century include Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson, Heidi, by Johanna Spyri, and Black Beauty by Anna Sewell. In 1937 The Hobbit, by J. R. R. Tolkien, was published, and Betty Smith's A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1943) also is a beloved by adolescents today. Some claim that the first real young adult novel was The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, and that it opened up a whole new eye to what types of texts adolescent readers read. Following this novel, other classic texts such as Harper Lee's, To Kill a Mockingbird; Maya Angelou's novel, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings; and Toni Morrison's, The Bluest Eye all entered the genre of Young Adult Literature as well, along with many others.

Mid-Century
In the 1950s, shortly before the advent of modern publishing for the teen romance market, two novels drew the attention of adolescent readers: The Catcher in the Rye (1951), and Lord of the Flies (1954). Unlike more-recent fiction classified as YA, these two were written with an adult audience in mind.[5] The modern classification of young-adult fiction originated during the 1950s and 1960s, especially after the publication of S.E. Hinton's The Outsiders. This book focused on a group of teens not yet represented and instead of having the nostalgic tone that was typical in young adult books written by adults, it displayed a truer, darker side of young adult life because it was written by a young adult. As the decades moved on, the stormy sixties became the era "when the 'under 30' generation became a subject of popular concern, and that research on adolescence began to emerge. It would also be the decade when literature for adolescents could be said to have come into its own" (Cart 43). For this reason others adopt The Outsiders, published in 1967 by S. E. Hinton who at the time was only a teenager, as the initiator of the adolescent literature genre. This book sparked talk about what adolescents face, and that adolescents can produce books that they can relate to. 1967 was the year when a multitude of YA books began to be seen, and ever since YA lit has grown into a thriving, popular genre. In the 1970s, what has become to be known as the "fab five" were published. "For the record, the fab five are: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou; The Friends by Rosa Guy; The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath; Bless the Beasts and Children by Glendon Swarthout; and Deathwatch by Robb White" (Cart 77).

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70's and 80's


As publishers began to focus on the emerging adolescent market, booksellers and libraries, in turn, began creating YA sections distinct from either children's literature or novels written for adults. The 1970s to the mid-1980s have been described as the golden age of young-adult fictionwhen challenging novels began speaking directly to the interests of the identified adolescent market.[3] In the 1980s: "the 1980s contained a large amount of Young Adult publications which pushed the threshold of topics that adolescents faced such as rape, suicide, parental death, and murder. Also in the 1980s, "teenagers seemed to want to read about something closer to their daily lives-romance novels were revived" (Cart 99). In the 1990s, Young Adult Literature pushed adolescent issues even further by including topics such as, drinking, sexuality, drug use, identity, beauty, and even teen pregnancy" (Lubar). Also in the 1990s, it seemed as though the era of Young Adult Literature was going to lose steam but "due in part to an increase in the number of teenagers in the 1990s the field matured, blossomed, and came into its own with the better written, more serious, and more varied young adult books published during the last two decades" (Tomlinson and Lynch-Brown 5).

Marketing
Teens have also become more and more marketable to text publications, bookstores have begun dedicating entire sections of their bookshelves to "teen" and "young adult" novels and texts, and movies are now produced more often that portray popular young adult texts with adolescent protagonists. As the genre continues to become more popular, and authors continue to publish texts that adolescents can relate to, Young Adult Literature will continue to be read and supported by adolescent and adult readers alike. Examples of other novels that predate the young-adult classification, but that are now frequently presented alongside YA novels are (Garland 1998, p.6): Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1903) Anne of Green Gables (1908) The Secret Garden (1909) The Yearling (1938) My Friend Flicka (1941) Johnny Tremain (1943) The Outsiders (1967) The Pigman (1968)

Notable authors
V.C. Andrews (19231986): American author of several popular gothic horror family sagas for teenagers; examples include Flowers in the Attic and Melody. Laurie Halse Anderson: American author of both fiction and non-fiction. Some of her more well known novels include Speak, Fever 1793, Catalyst, Prom, Twisted, and Wintergirls. Anderson is a Margret A. Edwards Award [6] recipient. Clive Barker Although not usually a young adult writer, "Abarat" was written for a young adult audience and is considered one of his most important works. David Belbin (born 1958): English author. His novels include Love Lessons and Denial. Tim Bowler (born 1953): English author. His novels include River Boy and Frozen Fire. Judy Blume (born 1938): American author; wrote teen classics Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret. and Forever.

Young-adult fiction Malorie Blackman (born 1962): British author of the award winning Noughts & Crosses Trilogy and Boys Don't Cry. Rae Bridgman: Canadian author known for her fantasy-adventure series The MiddleGate Books, including The Serpent's Spell, Amber Ambrosia and Fish & Sphinx Meg Cabot (born 1967): American author of many popular books and series, such as The Princess Diaries series. Kate Cann: Young adult trilogies and "Holiday" stand-alones. Isobelle Carmody (born 1958): Wrote the award-winning, Obernewtyn Chronicles. Born in Melbourne, Australia as was Garth Nix, they are often compared and are close friends. P. C. Cast and her daughter Kristin Cast: American writers of the House of Night series of vampire-based fantasy novels. Eoin Colfer (born 1965): Irish author noted for the Artemis Fowl series. Suzanne Collins (born 1964): American author of the popular The Hunger Games trilogy which includes The Hunger Games, Catching Fire and Mockingjay. Susan Cooper (born 1935): British author, Susan Cooper wrote the popular The Dark is Rising series. Joe Craig (born 1980): British author, wrote Jimmy Coates series. Sarah Dessen (born 1970): American author of such popular young-adult fare as The Truth About Forever and That Summer. Cory Doctorow (born 1971): Canadian author. His novels include Little Brother and For the Win. Cornelia Funke (born 1958): German author, Cornelia Funke wrote the successful Inkheart trilogy. John Green (born 1977): The American Michael L. Printz Award winning author of Looking for Alaska, An Abundance of Katherines, and Paper Towns, also awarded a 2007 Michael L. Printz Award Honor for An Abundance of Katherines and the 2009 Edgar Award for Best Young Adult Novel for Paper Towns. William Golding (19111993): British author, Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. Lisi Harrison: author of bestselling series The Clique and The Alphas Robert A. Heinlein (19071988): American science fiction writer, whose novels include Tunnel in the Sky and Citizen of the Galaxy. Charlie Higson (born 1958): British author, wrote Young Bond series. S.E. Hinton (born 1950): American author, wrote The Outsiders, Rumble Fish, That Was Then, This Is Now, and Tex. Ellen Hopkins (born 1955): American New York Times Bestselling author, wrote "Crank" series, and several other novels in verse Anthony Horowitz (born 1956): British author, Anthony Horowitz is writing the best selling Alex Rider series. Brian Jacques (1939-2011): British author of the successful and critically acclaimed Redwall series. Maureen Johnson (born 1973): American author of 13 Little Blue Envelopes and the Suite Scarlett series. Gordon Korman C. S. Lewis (18981963): British author, 95 million copies of his Chronicles of Narnia series have been published worldwide since The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe debuted in 1950. Megan McCafferty (born 1973): American author of the New York Times Bestselling Jessica Darling series, which debuted in 2001. Lurlene McDaniel (born 1948): American author; penned a series of novels dealing with terminal illness that were enormously popular during the 1980s and 1990s.

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Young-adult fiction Stephenie Meyer (born 1973): American creator of the popular vampire romance franchise Twilight.[7] Robert Muchamore (born 1972): British author, known for writing the hugely successful CHERUB series, and the new spin-off series, Henderson's Boys. Walter Dean Myers (born 1937) : American author, known for his writing about Harlem including Fallen Angels, Monster, Scorpions and many other books. Garth Nix (born 1963): Australian author, Garth Nix wrote the Keys to the Kingdom and Old Kingdom series. Francine Pascal (born 1938): American creator of the popular Sweet Valley Twins and Sweet Valley High franchises. Gary Paulsen (born 1939): American author, wrote Hatchet and many other young-adult novels. Philip Pullman (born 1946): British author, Philip Pullman wrote the successful and controversial His Dark Materials trilogy. Kathryn Reiss (born 1957): American Author, Kathryn Reiss is an award winning author of time travel and suspense novels for young-adults, as well as American Girl mysteries for younger readers. Sample titles: Time Windows, Dreadful Sorry, PaperQuake, Paint by Magic, Sweet Miss Honeywell's Revenge, Blackthorn Winter, A Bundle of Trouble. Rick Riordan (born 1964): American author, wrote the award winning Percy Jackson and the Olympians series, the best-selling The Kane Chronicles, and The Heroes of Olympus J. K. Rowling (born 1965): British author, J.K. Rowling is an award winning young-adult author today and arguably the most successful. Being the author of the extremely successful and critically well received Harry Potter series, her books have been sold in more than 400 million copies worldwide and are translated into more than 63 languages. She is also the first billionaire-author (in terms of US-dollars). J.D. Salinger (19192010): American author of the young adult classic The Catcher in the Rye. Elizabeth Scott (born 1972) : American author, writes romance along with contemporary issue fiction, The Unwritten Rule, Living Dead Girl, and As I Wake. L.J. Smith (author) (born 1965)an American author of young-adult literature. Wrote many romantic fantasy stories. Two of her book series have turned into television series. Jerry Spinelli (born 1941): Very prolific American author of young adult fare such as Stargirl and Eggs. Jonathan Stroud (born 1970): British author, wrote the best-selling Bartimaeus Trilogy amongst other books. Julian F(rancis) Thompson (born 1927): American author of nineteen popular, award-winning YA novels, including The Grounding of Group 6 currently being made into a movie. Mark Walden (born 197?): British author, wrote the bestselling H.I.V.E. series. Scott Westerfeld (born 1963): Scott has written books such as the Uglies series which contains the best selling books Uglies Pretties Specials and Extras. He also wrote So Yesterday and Peeps as well as the Midnighters trilogy. So Yesterday won an award for American Library Association 2005 best book for young adults, and Uglies and Peeps got the 2006 American Library Association best book for young adults award. Edward Irving Wortis (pen name Avi; born 1937): American author of critically acclaimed young adult historical fiction, such as Something Upstairs and The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle. Cecily von Ziegesar (born 1970): American author of the popular teen novels Gossip Girl. Paul Zindel (19362003): This Pulitzer-Prize winning American author wrote over 40 young adult novels, including The Pigman. His books have sold over 10 million copies and have been translated into languages all over the globe.

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Genre
Young Adult Literature has become a genre which covers various text types including: novels, graphic novels, short stories, and poetry. Much of the literature published consists of young adult fiction which in itself contains several different types of text, but the genre also contains other various types of non-fiction such as biographies, autobiographies, journal entries/diaries, and letters. Although many genres exist in young adult literature, the problem novel tends to be the most popular among young readers. Problem novel refers to young adult novels in the realistic fiction category that addresses personal and social issues across socioeconomic boundaries and within both traditional and nontraditional family structures (Cole 98). Memoirs are also popular forms of Young Adult Literature. The genre itself has been challenged due its seemingly mature content by critics of Young Adult Literature, but "other converted critics have embraced Young Adult so dearly that they have scoured the canon for any classics they could adopt into the YA family" (Stephens 2007).

Themes
Young Adult Literature uses a wide array of themes in order to appeal to a wide variety of adolescent readers. Some of these themes include: identity, sexuality, science fiction, depression, suicide, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, familial struggles, bullying, and numerous others. Some issues that are talked about in young adult literature are things such as friendship, love, race, money, divorce, relationships within families.[8] The culture that surrounds and absorbs young adults plays a huge role in their lives. Young Adult Literature explores themes important and crucial to adolescence such as relationships to authority figures, peer pressure and ensuing experimentations, issues of diversity as it relates to gender, sociocultural, and/or socioeconomic status. Primarily, the focus is centered around a young lead character and the reader experiences emotions, situations, and the like through this character and is able to see how these problems/situations are resolved.[9] It also needs to play a significant role in how we approach this group and the books we offer them to read (Lesesne 14). Reading about issues that adolescents can relate to allows them to identify with a particular character, and creates a sense of security when experiencing something that is going on within their lives. "Whether you call them archetypes or stereotypes, there are certain experiences and certain kinds of people that are common to adolescents. Reading about it may help a young person validate his or her own experience and make some kind of meaning out of it" (Blasingame, 12). In a paper written by April Dawn Wells, she discovers seventeen common traits of young adult novels. These include: friendship, getting into trouble, interest in the opposite sex, money, divorce, single parents, remarriage, problems with parents, grandparents, younger siblings, concern over grades/school, popularity, puberty, race, death, neighborhood, and job/working.[10]

Characteristics
Young adult literature contains specific characteristics that are present throughout the genre. These characteristics encompass: multi-themed story, tension versus shock effect, memorable characters, accurate facts and details, no unlikely coincidences, original idea, memorable voice, authentic dialogue, effective/clear writing style, sense of humor, widespread appeal, intriguing openings and memorable closings (Cole 61-65). Other characteristics of Young Adult Literature include: "(1) Characters and issues young readers can identify with; those issues and characters are treated in a way that does not invalidate, minimize, or devalue them; (2) Is framed in language that young readers can understand; (3) Emphasizes plot above everything else; and (4)Is written for an audience of young adults" (Blasingame 11). Overall, Young Adult Literature needs to contain specific elements that will not only interest adolescent readers, but elements that relate directly to real situations adolescents face, and contain believable, empathetic characters.

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Usage in Education
Research suggests young adult literature can be advantageous to reluctant student readers by addressing their needs. Authors who write young adult literature have an adolescents age and interests in mind. The language and plots of young adult literature are similar to what students are accustomed to finding in reality, television, movies, and popular culture (Bucher, Manning, 328-332). The following are criteria that researchers have come up with to evaluate the effectiveness of young adult literature in the classroom (Bucher and Manning, 9-10). The subject matter should reflect age and development by addressing their interest levels, reading and thinking levels. The content should deal with contemporary issues and experiences with characters adolescents can relate. Subjects can relate to dealing with parents and adults, illness and death, peer pressure with regards to drugs, sex, and the complications of addiction and pregnancy. The content should consider existing global concerns such as cultural, social, and gender diversity; environmental and political issues as it relates to adolescents. Young Adult Literature has been integrated into classrooms in order to increase student interest in reading. Research has been performed on what type of impact the introduction YA Lit has on students, particularly adolescent males and struggling readers: "Researchers have shown that introducing YA Literature to males improves their reading ability. YA Literature, because of its range of authors and story types, is an appropriate literature for every adolescent male who needs compelling material that speaks to him" (Gill). Research shows that not only adolescent males have been labeled as reluctant readers, struggling readers use reluctance as a coping mechanism. Young Adult Literature has been used to open up the door of reading literature to these readers as well: "When voluntary reading declines, the problems of struggling readers are only aggravated. By allowing adolescents to read good young adult literature, educators are able to encourage independent reading, which will, in turn, help adolescents develop the skills necessary to succeed" (Bucher and Manning). Another reason that Young Adult Literature has been incorporated into classrooms is to be paired with classic texts that are traditionally read in classrooms, and required by many schools curricula. Using YA Lit alongside a canonical piece of text can increase a students comprehension of the common themes the various texts have, and make reading a classic text more enjoyable: "Young adult literature can spark interest in the classics and vice versa. Although it's clear that young adult literature is more accessible, that doesn't warrant denying the classics to struggling readers. The classics shouldn't be reserved for exceptional students, and Young Adult Literature shouldn't be reserved for at-risk readers. (Cole 513).

Situational Archetypes in Literature


The classic canon in high school literature classes can often be too overwhelming and far removed from everyday life of the adolescence. Sarah K. Herz and Donald Gallo suggest using archetypes from traditional literature to build bridges to the classics through young adult literature. Young Adult Literature offers teachers an effective way to introduce the study of archetypes in literature by grouping a variety of titles around archetypal situations and characters. Herz and Gallo suggest before or after studying a traditional classic or contemporary novel it is a good time to introduce the concept of archetypes in literature. Based on the Jungian theory of archetypes, consider a literary archetype as a character type or theme which recurs frequently in literature (Herz and Gallo, 64-66). Recognizing archetypes in literature will help students build the foundation for making connection among various works of literature. Students can begin to grasp and identify the archetypal images and patterns that appear in new forms. Archetypes also help students become more conscious of an authors style and to think about and recognize the way in which a particular writer develops a character or story (Herz and Gallo, 66).

Young-adult fiction

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Using Classic Situational Archetypes in the Classroom


A partial list of classic situational literary archetypes as comprised by Herz and Gallo in two separate editions of their book, From Hinton to Hamlet: Building Bridges between Young Adult Literature and the Classics. The Young Adult Novels are paired with Classic Novels based on situational archetypes.(Herz and Gallo, 66-70).

Birth/Death/Rebirth:
Presents the main character in a conflict. Through pain and suffering, the characters spirit survives the fight and through a development of self awareness the main character is reborn. Breathing Underwater by Alex Flinn / Hamlet by William Shakespeare

The Fall: Expulsion from Eden.


The main character is expelled because of undesirable actions on his or her part. Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson / The Scarlet Letter by Nathanial Hawthorne

The Journey.
The protagonist takes journey, either physically or emotionally, and brings meaning in their life. The Crazy Horse Electric Game by Chris Crutcher / The Odyssey by Homer and Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck.

The Test or Trial.


The main character experiences growth and change; he or she experiences a transformation. The True Confessions by Charlotte Doyle by Avi, Permanent Connections by Sue Ellen Bridgers, Dancing on Dark Waters by Alden Carter, and Driver's Ed by Caroline Cooney / The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane and The Color Purple by Alice Walker.

Annihilation; Absurdity; Total Oblivion.


In order to exist in an unbearable world, the main character accepts that life is absurd, ridiculous, and ironic. The Giver by Lois Lowry / Catch 22 by Joseph Heller and Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut Jr..

Parental Conflicts and Relationships.


The protagonist deals with parental conflict by rejecting or bonding with parents. Tiger Eyes by Judy Blume, Midnight Hour Encores by Bruce Brooks, Ironman by Chris Crutcher, and The Runner by Cynthia Voigt / Ordinary People by Judith Guest, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan, and The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams.

Young-adult fiction

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The Wise Old Woman or Man.


This figure protects or assists the main character in facing challenges. Phoenix Rising by Karen Hesse, Memoirs of a Bookbat by Kathryn Lasky, Jacob I have Loved by Katherine Paterson, and Remembering The Good Times by Richard Peck / To Kill A Mocking Bird by Harper Lee and The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck.

The Hero.
The main character leaves his or her community to go on an adventure, performing actions that bring honor to the community. Staying Fat for Sarah Byrnes by Chris Crutcher and Make Lemonade by Virginia Euwer Wolff / A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens and Cyrano de Bergerac by Edmond Rostand.

The Sacrificial Redeemer.


The protagonist is willing to die for a belief; the main character maintains a strong sense of morality. The Chocolate War and The Bumblebee Flies Anyway by Robert Cormier / Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare and Antigone by Sophocles. Other suggestions for classical/young adult text pairings using YA publications (List generated by Joan Kaywell, as cited in Cole 515-516): Classical Text / Young Adult Text / Common Themes / Topics To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee / Monster by Walter Dean Myers / Trial: Guilty before Innocent Lord of the Flies by William Golding / The Clique by Lisi Harrison [11] / Use and Abuse of Power The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain / The Watsons Go To Birmingham 1963 by Christopher Paul Curtis / Prejudice Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury / Feed by M. T. Anderson / Exploring the Future Dracula by Bram Stoker / Twilight by Stephenie Meyer / Vampires The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne / Sandpiper by Ellen Wittlinger / Sexual Behavior Alienation Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger / America by E. R. Frank / Mental Illness Rebellion

Edgy content
From its very beginning, young-adult fiction has portrayed teens confronting situations and social issues that have pushed the edge of then-acceptable content. Such novels and their content are sometimes referred to as "edgy." In particular, authors and publishers have repeatedly pushed the boundaries of what was previously considered acceptable regarding human sexuality. Examples include: Paul Zindel's The Pigman (1968) (teen smoking, drinking, pranks, peer pressure) Paul Zindel's My Darling, My Hamburger (1969) (a teen's first sexual encounter and abortion) Judy Blume's Forever (1975) (a teen's first sexual encounter and contraception) Nancy Garden's Annie on My Mind (1982) (two high-school girls who fall in love) Julian F. Thompson's [12] The Grounding of Group 6 (1983) (comedic satiric thriller: parents send their children to boarding school to be murdered, sexual encounters among the teens and assassin/teen romantic relationship). Shelley Stoehr's Crosses (1991) (self-mutilation) Chris Crutcher's Staying Fat for Sarah Byrnes (1993) (religion, peer pressure, child abuse, abortion, suicide) Melvin Burgess's Junk (1996) (US title: Smack (heroin addiction, teenage prostitution, squatting) Rob Thomas's Rats Saw God (1996) (drugs, sex)

Young-adult fiction David Belbin's Love Lessons (1998) (teacher/student sexual affair) Linda Glovach's Beauty Queen (1998) (teenage exotic dancing and heroin addiction) Laurie Halse Anderson's Speak (1999) (rape) Stephen Chbosky's The Perks of Being a Wallflower (1999) (suicide, teenage sexuality, drug use, and abusive relationships) Sarah Dessen's Dreamland (2000) (emotionally, mentally, and physically abusive relationships, drug abuse, and running away) Alex Flinn's Breathing Underwater (2001) (emotionally, mentally, and physically abusive relationships) Alex Sanchez's Rainbow Boys (2001) (high school boys exploring gay sex, accepting their sexuality, and falling in love) Patricia McCormick's Cut (2001) (self-mutilation) Linda Newbery's The Shell House (2002) (a split narrative, one concerning a homosexual relationship during the First World War, the other in the present day concerning a possible gay relationship between teenage boys) KL Going's Fat Kid Rules The World (2003) (obesity, depression, homelessness, drug addiction, social alienation) Alice Hoffman's Green Angel (2003) (self-mutilation) Angela Johnson's The First Part Last (2003) (teen fatherhood) Jonathan Trigell's Boy A (2004) (rehabilitation, suicide, abuse, media) Julie Anne Peters' Luna (2004) (transsexuality) John Green's Looking for Alaska (2005) (Under age drinking, smoking, oral sex) Steve Berman's Vintage: A Ghost Story (2007) (depressed gay boy who deals with suicide and loneliness) An Na's The Fold (2008) (plastic surgery, race relations, lesbianism) Elizabeth Scott's Living Dead Girl (2008) (kidnapping, rape, oral sex, violence) Greg Neri Surf Mules (2009) (drug trafficking) Lucy Christopher Stolen (2010) (kidnapping) Joanne Hichens's Stained (2009) (sexual abuse, teen pregnancy, post-natal depression, drugs, suicide) David-Matthew Barnes's Mesmerized (2010) (gay teen love, hate crime) and Swimming to Chicago (2011) (gay teen love, teen pregnancy)

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YA novels currently in print include content about peer pressure, illness, divorce, drugs, gangs, crime, violence, sexuality, incest, oral sex, and female/male rape. Critics of such content argue that the novels encourage destructive or immoral behavior. Others argue that fictional portrayal of teens successfully addressing difficult situations and confronting social issues helps readers deal with real-life challenges. Debate continues regarding the amount and nature of violence and profanity appropriate in young-adult fiction.

Hyphens (young adult vs. young-adult)


Recognition of the noun young adult and its punctuation as an adjectival modifier are inconsistent. Some dictionaries recognize young adult as a noun (Random House, 2nd 1987), while others do not (Webster's International, 3rd 2002). When recognized (as by Random House), young adult is treated as an open compound noun, with no hyphen. When the noun young adult is placed before another noun (such as fiction, novel, author), however, the use of a hyphen varies widely. For example, an Internet search (of the Web or of news articles) using the key words young adult fiction shows widespread inconsistency in hyphenation. Although the Chicago Manual of Style falls short of declaring the omission of the hyphen as grammatically incorrect, it clearly addresses the issue in "Compounds and Hyphenation," sections 7.82-7.86: "When such compounds precede a noun, hyphenation usually makes for easier reading. With the exception of proper nouns (such as United States) and compounds formed by an adverb ending in ly plus an adjective, it is never incorrect to hyphenate adjectival compounds before a noun."(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition 2003, p.300) The Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference is a little more forceful on the subject: "The most complicated business conducted by hyphens is uniting words into adjectival compounds that

Young-adult fiction precede nouns. Many writers neglect to hyphenate such compounds, and the result is ramshackle sentences that often frustrate the reader." (Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference 2005, pp.274275) The Wikipedia Manual of Style also addresses the issue of hyphens for compound adjectives. Although none of the sources cited above list young adult as an example, each clearly expresses a preference for hyphenating compound modifiers. With that in mind, young adult is a noun (without a hyphen) as defined by Random House. But when the noun young adult precedes another noun, it becomes a compound modifier and warrants a hyphen, as in young-adult fiction, young-adult author, young-adult novel, and so on. Because the sources do not declare the absence of a hyphen as grammatically incorrect, widespread inconsistencies in the punctuation of young adult are likely to continue, either out of ignorance or as conscious choice of style.

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Literature
Whether any particular work of fiction qualifies as literature can be disputed. In recent years, however, YA fiction has been increasingly treated as an object of serious study by children's literature critics. A growing number of young-adult-fiction awards recognize outstanding works of fiction for adolescents.

Trends
The category of YA fiction continues to expand into new genres: graphic novels, light novels, manga, fantasy, mystery fiction, romance novels, even subcategories such as cyberpunk, splatterpunk, techno-thrillers, and contemporary Christian fiction. New formats such as ebooks make it easier for teens to access these online.

Boundaries between children's, YA, and adult fiction


The distinctions between children's literature, YA literature, and adult literature have historically been flexible and loosely defined. This line is often policed by adults who feel strongly about the border.[13] At the lower end of the YA age spectrum, fiction targeted to readers age 10 to 12 is referred to as middle-grade fiction. Some novels originally marketed to adults have been identified as being of interest and value to adolescents and, in the case of several books such as the Harry Potter novels, vice versa.

Awards
Various young-adult-fiction awards are presented annually, and mark outstanding adolescent literature writing. The Michael L. Printz Award is an award for a book that exemplifies literary excellence in young adult literature. It is named for a Topeka, Kansas school librarian who was a long-time active member of the Young Adult Library Services Association.[14] The William C. Morris YA Debut Award first awarded in 2009, honors a debut book published by a first-time author writing for teens and celebrating impressive new voices in young adult literature. The first William C. Morris award was given to Elizabeth C. Bunce for A Curse Dark as Gold.[15] The Margaret A. Edwards Award was established in 1988, honors an author, as well as a specific body of his or her work, for significant and lasting contribution to young adult literature. The annual award is administered by YALSA and sponsored by School Library Journal magazine. It recognizes an author's work in helping adolescents become aware of themselves and addressing questions about their role and importance in relationships, society, and in the world.[16] The Alex Awards are given annually to ten books written for adults that have special appeal to young adults. The winning titles are selected from the previous year's publishing. The Alex Awards were first given annually beginning in 1998 and became an official ALA award in 2002.[17]

Young-adult fiction Odyssey Award honors the producer of the best audiobook produced for children and/or young adults, available in English in the United States. Co-administered with Association for Library Service to Children.[18] YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults [19] honors the best nonfiction book published for young adults (ages 1218) during a November 1 October 31 publishing year.[20]

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Notes
Blasingame, James. Books That Don't Bore 'Em: Young Adult Books That Speak to This Generation. New York: Scholastic, 2007. Print. Bucher, K., Manning, M. Lee. "Young Adult Literature and the School Curriculum" Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall. 2006.Web. 12 May 2009.
[21]

education.com Pearson

Bucher, Katherine Toth, and M. Lee. Manning. Young Adult Literature: Exploration, Evaluation, and Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2006. Print. Cart, Michael. From Romance to Realism: 50 Years of Growth and Change in Young Adult Literature. New York: Harper Collins, 1996. Print. Cole, Pam B. Young Adult Literature: In the 21st Century. New York: McGraw Hill, 2009. Print. Gill, Sam D. "Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males" 2009.
[22]

. The Alan Review Winter 1999. Web. 12 May

Herz, Sarah K., and Donald R. Gallo. From Hinton to Hamlet: Building Bridges between Young Adult Literature and the Classics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996. Print. Herz, Sarah K., and Donald R. Gallo. From Hinton to Hamlet: Building Bridges between Young Adult Literature and the Classics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2005. Print. Lesesne, Teri S. Making the Match: The Right Book for the Right Reader at the Right Time, Grades 4-12. Maine: Stenhouse Publishers, 2003. Print. Lubar, David. "The History of Young Adult Novels" [23]. The Alan Review Spring 2003. Web. 12 May 2009. Stephens, Jonathan. "Young Adult: A Book by Any Other Name...:Defining the Genre" 2007. Web. 12 May 2009.
[24]

. The Alan Review Fall

Thomlinson, Carl M., Lynch-Brown, Carol. Essentials of Young Adult Literature. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2007. Print. John Grossman (2003). Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN0-226-10403-6. Eccleshare, Julia (1996). "Teenage Fiction: Realism, romances, contemporary problem novels". In Peter Hunt, ed.. International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. London: Routledge. pp.387396. Egoff, Sheila (1980). "The Problem Novel". In Shiela Egoff, ed.. Only Connect: readings on children's literature (2nd ed.). Ontario: Oxford University Press. pp.356369. Garland, Sherry (1998). Writing for Young Adults. Cincinnati, OH: Writer's Digest Books. pp.511. ISBN0-89879-857-4. Lutz and Stevenson (2005). "The Hyphen". The Writer's Digest Grammar Desk Reference. Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. pp.274275. ISBN1-58297-335-0. Nilsen, Alleen Pace (April 1994). "That Was Then ... This Is Now". School Library Journal 40 (4): 6270. Stuart Berg Flexner, editor in chief ; Leonore Crary Hauck, managing editor. (1987). Random House Dictionary, 2nd edition. Random House. ISBN0-394-50050-4. ed. in chief Philip Babcock Gove (2002). Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. ISBN0-87779-206-2.

Young-adult fiction Kenneth L. Donelson, Alleen Pace Nilsen. (1980). Literature for Today's Young Adults. Scott, Foresman and Company. ISBN0-673-15165-4.

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Other publications
Authors and Artists for Young Adults, serial publication (Gale, 1989+) with bio-bibliographies of novelists, poets, dramatists, filmmakers, cartoonists, painters, architects, and photographers which appeal to teenagers. Entries typically are six to twelve pages in length, have a black & white photo of the author/artist and other illustrations. Recent volumes include a sidebar recommending similar books/works the reader might like also. ALA Best Books for Young Adults[25] by YALSA, edited by Holly Koelling. Books for the Teen Age, annual book list selected by teens for teens, sponsored by the New York Public Library
[26]

More Outstanding Books for the College Bound [27], by YALSA (Young Adult Library Services Association), professional organization for librarians serving teens in either public libraries or school library/media centers; a division of ALA.[28] Diana Tixier Herald. (2003) Teen Genreflecting. 2nd ed. Wesport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited. Judging a Book by Its Cover: Publishing Trends in Young Adult Literature [29], by Cat Yampbell, The Lion and the Unicorn; Sep 2005; 29:3; Children's Module, The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp348372, at p350-351. Frances FitzGerald, "The Influence of Anxiety" in Harper's, September 2004, p.62-70 Grenby, Matthew. Introduction. The Guardian of Education. Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2002. ISBN 1843710110

References
[1] Fox, Rose (2008-03-17). "The Narrowing Gulf between YA and Adult" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ blog/ 860000286/ post/ 1610023361. html). Publishers Weekly. . Retrieved 2008-09-24. [2] Cruz, Gilbert (2005-03-07). "Teen Playas" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,1033923,00. html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved 2008-09-24. [3] Grenby, "Conservative Woman", 155 [4] Lamb, Nancy, Crafting Stories for Children. Cincinnati: Writer's Digest Books, p. 24 [5] FitzGerald 2004, p.62 [6] http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ booklistsawards/ margaretaedwards/ margaretedwards. cfm [7] Serjeant, Jill. "Vampires Turn Gentler With Eye Toward Teen Girls" (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ Entertainment/ wireStory?id=8297240), ABC News, August 10, 2009. Accessed August 14, 2009. "Stephenie Meyer's young adult romance novel Twilight has sold some 17 million copies, and fans of shy 17-year-old Bella Swan and outsider vampire Edward Cullen helped the movie bring in $383 million at global box offices." [8] Wells, April Dawn " Themes Found in Young Adult Literature: A Comparison Study Between 1980 and 2000 (http:/ / www. ils. unc. edu/ MSpapers/ 2861. pdf)." University of North Carolina, Apr 2003. Web. 28 Sept. 2010. [9] " Qualities of Young Adult Literature (http:/ / www. education. com/ reference/ article/ qualities-young-adult-literature/ )." education.com. Education.com, Inc., 2006. Web. 28 Sept. 2010. [10] http:/ / ils. unc. edu/ MSpapers/ 2861. pdf [11] http:/ / lisiharrison. net/ [12] http:/ / julianthompson. net/ [13] muse.jhu.edu: Children's Literature Association Quarterly (http:/ / muse. jhu. edu/ journals/ childrens_literature_association_quarterly/ v033/ 33. 2. flynn. html) [14] " Michael L. Printz Award (http:/ / www. ala. org/ yalsa/ printz)." ala.org. American Library Association, 2007. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. [15] William C. Morris YA Debut Award (http:/ / www. ala. org/ yalsa/ morris)." ala.org. American Library Association, 2007. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. [16] " Margaret A. Edwards Award (http:/ / www. ala. org/ yalsa/ edwards)." ala.org. American Library Association, 2006. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. [17] " Alex Awards (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ booklistsawards/ alexawards/ alexawards. cfm)." ala.org. American Library Association, 2006. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. [18] " Odyssey Award (http:/ / www. ala. org/ yalsa/ odyssey)." ala.org. American Library Association, 2006. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. [19] http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ booklistsawards/ nonfiction/ nonfiction. cfm [20] " YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ booklistsawards/ nonfiction/ nonfiction. cfm)." ala.org. American Library Association, 2006. Web. 02 Oct. 2010.

Young-adult fiction
[21] http:/ / www. education. com/ reference/ article/ young-adult-literature-school-curriculum/ [22] http:/ / scholar. lib. vt. edu/ ejournals/ ALAN/ winter99/ gill. html [23] http:/ / www. davidlubar. com/ yahist. htm [24] http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa4063/ is_200710/ ai_n21137330/ [25] Best Books for Young Adults, 3rd ed. (http:/ / www. alastore. ala. org/ SiteSolution. taf?_sn=catalog2& _pn=product_detail& _op=2339) [26] The New York Public Library. "Resources for Teens" (http:/ / teenlink. nypl. org/ bta1. cfm). The New York Public Library. . Retrieved 2010-09-13. [27] http:/ / www. alastore. ala. org/ SiteSolution. taf?_sn=catalog2& _pn=product_detail& _op=1855 [28] YALSA: The Young Adult Library Services Association (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ yalsa/ yalsa. htm) [29] http:/ / muse. jhu. edu/ journals/ lion_and_the_unicorn/ v029/ 29. 3yampbell. html

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External links
In defense of mean-girl books (http://www.macleans.ca/culture/media/article. jsp?content=20071015_110183_110183), by Lianne George, Macleans, 15 Oct 2007. " New Trend in Teen Fiction: Racy Reads; Parents Alarmed that Books are More 'Sex and the City' than Nancy Drew (http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8962686/)", by Janet Shamlian, NBC News, 15 Aug 2005. " Now and Forever: The Power of Sex in Young Adult Literature (http://pdfs.voya.com/VO/YA2/ VOYA200602AuthorTalk.pdf)," by Tanya Lee Stone, VOYA, Feb 2006. NPR: Multicultural Books Offer Diverse Reading Experience (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story. php?storyId=12093236&sc=emaf) Michel Martin interviews ALA President Loriene Roy, 19 Jul 2007. " Racy Reading; Gossip Girl Series is Latest Installment in Provocative Teen Fiction, and It's As Popular As It Is Controversial (http://www.southcoasttoday.com/daily/08-05/08-06-05/b01li276.htm)," by Linda Shrieves, The Orlando Sentinel, 6 Aug 2005. " Teens and their Literature are Rocking the Marketplace (http://www.seattlepi.com/books/306531_teenlit08. html)", Seattle Post Intelligencer, 7 Mar 2007. "Teens Reading More Challenging Books" (http://www.wdbj7.com/Global/story.asp?S=6474837), WDBJ-7, 5 May 2007. "Who Says Teens Don't Read?" (http://www.roanoke.com/entertainment/wb/xp-136866) by Erinn Hutkin, Roanoake Times, 30 Oct 2007. " Young Adult Fiction: Wild Things (http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/12/books/review/12wolf.html)," by Naomi Wolf, The New York Times, 12 Mar 2006. A Change in the Weather (http://talistay.bitpartmedia.com) by Robert Gould, a modern-day fairy tale for young adults. Best Books For Young Adults - A growing resource of some amazing books (http://www. bestbooksforyoungadults.com)

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Early Works
Orbis Pictus
Orbis Pictus, or Orbis Sensualium Pictus (The Visible World in Pictures) is a textbook for children written by Czech educator Comenius and published in1658. It is something of a children's encyclopedia and is considered to be the first picture book intended for children.[1]

Contents
The book is divided into chapters illustrated by woodcuts, which are described in the accompanying text. The book has 150chapters and covers a wide range of subjects: inanimate nature botanics zoology religion humans and their activities
A late 18th-century reprint of Orbis Pictus, published in Pressburg (Bratislava).

History
Originally published in Latin and German in 1658 in Nuremberg, the book soon spread to schools in Germany and other countries. The first English edition was published in1659. The first quadrilingual edition (in Latin, German, Italian and French) was published in1666. The first Czech translation was published in the 1685 quadrilingual edition (together with Latin, German and Hungarian), by the Breuer publishing house in Levoa. In the years 16701780, new editions were published in various languages, with upgraded both pictures and text content. Orbis Pictus had a long-lasting influence on children's education. It was a precursor of both audio-visual techniques and the lexical approach in language learning.[2]
Plaque commemorating the publication of Orbis Pictus in Levoa

Orbis Pictus

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External links
Online Orbis Pictus in Latin [3] orbis sensualium pictus - translation by Charles Hoole Published 1777 online at Google Book Search [4] Online Orbis Sensualium Pictus in Latin and English Audio [5]

References
[1] Epstein, Connie C. (1991). The Art of Writing for Children. Archon Books. p.2. ISBN0-208-02297-X. [2] "Learning from Comenius - the pedagogical underpinnings of the Orbis Pictus" (http:/ / www. teflideas. com/ 2011/ 05/ 14/ learning-comenius/ ). . [3] http:/ / www. grexlat. com/ biblio/ comenius/ index. html [4] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?vid=OCLC27390661& id=pxkaVd0-bpgC& pg=RA3-PA1& lpg=RA3-PA1& dq=inauthor:Comenius& as_brr=1 [5] http:/ / comenius. posterous. com/

Brothers Grimm
The Brothers Grimm (German: Die Brder Grimm or Die Gebrder Grimm), Jacob Grimm (January 4, 1785 September 20, 1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (February 24, 1786 December 16, 1859), were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, and authors who collected folklore and published several collections of it as Grimm's Fairy Tales, which became very popular.[1] Jacob also did academic work in philology, related to how the sounds in words shift over time (Grimm's law); he was also a lawyer whose legal work, German Legal Antiquities (Deutsche Rechtsaltertmer) in 1828, made him a valuable source of testimony about the origin and meaning of much legal historical idiom usage and symbolism.[2] They can be counted along with Karl Lachmann and Georg Friedrich Benecke as founding fathers of Germanic philology and German studies. Late in life they undertook the compilation of the first German dictionary: Wilhelm died in December 1859, having completed the letter D; Jacob survived his brother by nearly four years, completing the letters A, B, C and E, and was working on Frucht (fruit) when he collapsed at his desk. The first collection of fairy tales Children's and Household Tales (Kinder-und Hausmrchen) was published in 1812 and it contained more than 200 fairy tales. Some collections of the stories had already been written by Charles Perrault in the late 1600s, with somewhat unexpected versions. In the original published forms, the Grimm's fairy tales were dark and violent, in contrast to the lighter, modern "Disney versions" of those tales.

Wilhelm (left) and Jacob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann

1000 Deutsche Mark (1992)

They are among the best-known story tellers of European folk tales, and their work popularized such stories as "Cinderella" (Aschenputtel), "The Frog Prince" (Der Froschknig), "Hansel and Gretel" (Hnsel und Gretel), "Rapunzel", "Rumpelstiltskin" (Rumpelstilzchen), "Sleeping Beauty" (Dornrschen), and "Snow White" (Schneewittchen).

Brothers Grimm

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Life
Origin and early life
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (also Carl - see Note a below) and Wilhelm Carl Grimm[a] were born on 4 January 1785 and 24 February 1786 respectively, in the Wolfgang section of Hanau, Germany near Frankfurt in Hessen, the sons of Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist and bailiff with offices at Schlchtern and Steinau, originally from Hanau, and Dorothea Grimm, ne Zimmer, a former neighbor and the daughter of an apothecary.[3] They were among a family of nine children, six of whom survived infancy.[4] Their early childhood was spent in the countryside. The Grimm family lived near the magistrate's house between 1790 and 1796 while the father was employed by the Prince of Hessen. When the eldest brother, Jacob, was 11 years old, their father, Philip Wilhelm, died and the family moved into a cramped urban residence.[4] Two years later, the children's grandfather also died, leaving their mother to struggle to support them in reduced circumstances.[5] "They urged fidelity to the spoken text, without embellishments, and though it has been shown that Sculpture of brothers Grimm in Hanau they did not always practice what they preached, the idealized 'orality' of their style was much closer to reality than the literary retellings previously thought necessary."[6] Others argue that "scholars and psychiatrists have thrown a camouflaging net over the stories with their relentless, albeit fascinating, question of 'What does it mean?'"[7] Another possible environmental influence can be discerned in the selection of stories such as The Twelve Brothers, which mirrors the collectors' family structure of one girl and several brothers overcoming opposition.[8]

Kassel and educational career


Both brothers Jacob and Wilhelm were educated at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium in Kassel and later both studied law at the University of Marburg. There they were inspired by their professor Friedrich von Savigny, who awakened an interest in the past. They were in their early twenties when they began the linguistic and philological studies that would culminate in both Grimm's law and their collected editions of fairy and folk tales. Though their collections of tales became immensely popular, they were essentially a by-product of the linguistic research, which was the brothers' primary goal.

Graves of the Brothers Grimm in the St Matthus Kirchhof Cemetery in Schneberg, Berlin.

In 1808, Jacob Grimm was appointed court librarian to the King of Westphalia. In 1812 the brothers published their first volume of fairy tales, Tales of Children and the Home. They had collected the stories from peasants and villagers; they were also aided by their close friend August von Haxthausen. In their collaboration, Jacob did more of the research, while Wilhelm, less sturdy in stature and intellect, put the work into a literary form that would appeal to children and the masses. They were also interested in folklore and primitive literature. In 1816

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Jacob became a librarian in Kassel, where Wilhelm was also employed. Between 1816 and 1818, they published two volumes of German legends and a volume of early literary history.

The German Grammar


In time, the brothers became interested in older languages and their relation to German. Jacob began to specialize in the history and structure of the Germanic languages, devising a theory that became Berlin memorial plaque, Brder Grimm, Alte known as Grimm's law, based on immense amounts of data. In 1825, Potsdamer Strae 5, Berlin-Tiergarten, Germany Wilhelm Grimm married Henriette Dorothea (Dortchen) Wild, (Jacob never married and lived most of his life in his brother's home). In 1830, they moved together to Gttingen, where both secured positions at the University of Gttingen.[9] Jacob was named professor and head librarian in 1830, Wilhelm a professor in 1835. In 1837, the Brothers Grimm joined five of their colleague professors at the University of Gttingen, later known as the Gttingen Seven, in protesting against the abrogation of the liberal constitution of the Kingdom of Hanover by King Ernest Augustus I, the reactionary son of King George III. They were fired from their university posts and three were deported, including Jacob Grimm, who with Wilhelm settled in Kassel, outside Ernest's realm, at the home of their brother Ludwig. However, the next year brought an invitation to Berlin from the King of Prussia.[10]

German Dictionary
Jacob and Wilhelm were ignored in the appointment of a chief librarian place in Kassel. A year later, in 1830 the two brothers moved away from Kassel to Gttingen, where they had also a common household. They spent time in writing a definitive dictionary, the German Dictionary, in German: Deutsches Wrterbuch, the first volume being published in 1854. The work was carried on by future generations.[11] Jacob then got a job as a librarian and professor of German Classical Studies. His brother William was also a librarian in Gttingen and a year later, Associate Professor. In his teaching, Wilhelm was often compromised by disease. Around 1832, the first volume of Jacob Grimm's "German Mythology" (Vol. 2: 1844, Volume 3: 1854) was published. This edition had an inspiring effect on many fairy tales and legends collectors.[11] (retrieved 28-03-2011) Between then and 1837, Jacob published two more volumes of "German Grammar". The two brothers then dealt with animal fables and in the same Title page of the first volume of the year, 1834, Jacob Grimm finalized a work he began in 1811, "Reinhart German Dictionary. (Reineke) Fox", which was the first publication of this traditional animal epic, and the first coherent documentation of its vernacular versions. Subsequently, in 1835 he published his work on "German Mythology"; in this work Jacob examined pre-Christian beliefs and superstitions. This work had enormous influence on the research of myths. The third edition of the Children's and Household Tales was written in 1837 by Wilhelm alone. In 1838, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm began their joint work on the German dictionary.[11] (retrieved 28-03-2011)

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Grimms Tales
The Brothers Grimm began collecting folk tales[12] around 1806, in response to a wave of awakened interest in German folklore that followed the publication of Ludwig Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano's folksong collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn ("The Youth's Magic Horn"), 180508. By 1810 the Grimms produced a manuscript collection of several dozen tales, which they had recorded by inviting storytellers to their home and transcribing what they heard. However, these oral tales were heavily edited and many of the tales had its roots in written sources[13] . The brothers were bound to come across the same story more than once. When they did, the brothers used a technique of contamination, meaning they would strip away the similarities and try to rediscover the core of the story[14] . Buchmrchen (book tales) is a term used to imply a mix of written and oral work. Some of the Grimm tales were referred to as this[15] . Although they were said to have collected tales from peasants, many of their informants were middle-class or aristocratic, recounting tales they had heard from their servants. For example; it was Dortchen Wilds family and their nursery maid who told the brothers some of the more famous tales, such as Hansel and Gretel and Sleeping Beauty[16] . Several of the informants were of Huguenot ancestry and told tales that were French in origin.[1] Marie Hassenpflug, an educated woman of the French Huguenot ancestry, was just one of the women who shared her stories. They then adapted it [17] . It is possible that these informants could have been familiar with Charles Perraults tales because certain Grimm works are similar to those of Perrault's[18] . Some scholars have theorized that certain elements of the stories were "purified" for the brothers, who were devout Christians.[19] Aside from the added Christian elements, gender role models emerged and, over time, edited to become more homey and cute to appeal to children.[20]

Front cover of the Grimms Fairy Tales Book

In 1812, the Brothers published a collection of 86 German fairy tales in a volume titled Kinder- und Hausmrchen (Children's and Household Tales). In this volume, Wilhelm said that their stories came from the oral tradition of tales, which was a tradition they wanted to save[21] . They published a second volume of 70 fairy tales in 1814 ("1815" on the title page), which together make up the first edition of the collection, containing 156 stories. They wrote a two-volume work titled Deutsche Sagen, which included 585 German legends; these were published in 1816 and 1818.[22] The legends are organized in the chronological order of historical events to which they were related.[23] The brothers arranged the regional legends thematically for each folktale creature, such as dwarfs, giants, monsters, etc. not in any historical order.[23] These legends were not as popular as the fairytales.[22]
First page of Grimm's Children's and Household Tales, First part

A second edition of the Children's and Household Tales followed in 181922, expanded to 170 tales. Five more editions were issued during the Grimms' lifetimes,[24] in which stories were added or subtracted. The seventh edition

Brothers Grimm of 1857 contained 211 tales. Many of the changes were made in light of unfavorable reviews, particularly those that objected that not all the tales were suitable for children, despite the title.[25] The tales were also criticized for being insufficiently German; this not only influenced the tales the brothers included, but their language. They changed "fee" (fairy) to an enchantress or wise woman, every prince to a king's son, every princess to a king's daughter.[26] (It has long been recognized that some of these later-added stories were derived from printed rather than oral sources.)[27] These editions, equipped with scholarly notes, were intended as serious works of folklore. The Brothers also published the Small Edition (German: Kleine Ausgabe), containing a selection of 50 stories expressly designed for children (as opposed to the more formal Large Edition (German: Groe Ausgabe). Ten printings of the "small edition" were issued between 1825 and 1858. The Grimms were not the first to publish collections of folktales. There were others, including a German collection by Johann Karl August Musus published in 178287. The earlier collections, however, made little pretence to strict fidelity to sources. The Brothers Grimm were the first workers in this genre to present their stories as faithful renditions of the kind of direct folkloric materials that underlay the sophistication of an adapter such as Perrault. In doing so, the Grimms took a basic and essential step toward modern folklore studies, leading to the work of folklorists like Peter and Iona Opie[28] and others. The Grimms' method was common in their historical era. Arnim and Brentano edited and adapted the folksongs of Des Knaben Wunderhorn; in the early 19th century Brentano collected folktales in much the same way as the Grimms.[29] The early researchers did their work before academic practices for such collections had been codified.

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Linguistics
In the very early 19th century, the time in which the Brothers Grimm lived, the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had recently dissolved, and the modern nation of Germany did not exist. In its place was a confederacy of 39 small- to medium-size German states, many of which had been newly created by Napoleon as client states. The major unifying factor for the German people of the time was a common language. Part of what motivated the Brothers in their writings and in their lives was the desire to help create a German identity. Less well known to the general public outside of Germany is the Brothers' work on a German dictionary, the Deutsches Wrterbuch. It was extensive, having 33 volumes and weighing 84kg (185lbs). It is still considered the standard reference for German etymology. Work began in 1838, but by the end of their lifetime, only sections from the letter 'A' to part of the letter 'F' were completed. The work was not considered complete until 1960.[30] Jacob is recognized for enunciating Grimm's law, the Germanic Sound Shift, that was first observed by the Danish philologist Rasmus Christian Rask. Grimm's law was the first non-trivial systematic sound change to be discovered.

Books, film and television


From the 1930s to the present, some of the Grimms' best known fairy tales have been adapted by Walt Disney Animation Studios as animated feature films and other media: Snow White[31] [32] (1937), Sleeping Beauty (1959), The Princess and the Frog (2009) which is an adaptation of "The Frog Prince," Tangled (2010) as an adaptation of "Rapunzel". Hansel and Gretel is no exception having had numerous opera, movies, and television adaptations. A live action adaptation of "Snow White", tentatively titled Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, is in development at the Disney Studios, with Francis Lawrence, the director of I Am Legend, at the helm.[33] Henry Levin and George Pal released the 1962's United States movie The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm, with a cast including Barbara Eden, Russ Tamblyn, Yvette Mimieux and other high-profile stars of the time.[34] Directed by Henry Levin, the movie intertwined a fictionalised version of the Grimm brothers' lives as young men with fantasy productions of some of their fairy tales (directed by George Pal). It went on to win the 1963 Oscar for costume design and was nominated in several other categories.

Brothers Grimm A made-for-TV musical called Once Upon a Brothers Grimm was released in 1977, aired in the United States. It starred Dean Jones as Jacob and Paul Sand as Wilhelm. The basic plot presented the brothers traveling and getting lost in a forest, and encountering various characters from the tales that made them famous. In the late 1980s and early 1990s Nickelodeon aired a cartoon series called "Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics" as a part of its daytime Nick Jr. block. It was originally broadcast in Japan as "Gurimu Meisaku Gekijou". In 1998, in the movie Ever After, the Grimm Brothers visit an elderly woman, the Grande Dame of France, who questions their version of the Cinderella story. The Brothers Grimm reply that there was no way for them to verify the authenticity of their story as there were so many different versions. She proceeds to tell the story of "Danielle De Barbarac". The Grimme Prize-nominated German TV crime thriller, titled A Murderous Fairytale (Ein mrderisches Mrchen) was produced in 2001, used elements of Brothers Grimm fairytales. In the film directed by Manuel Siebenmann, which was written by Daniel Martin Eckhart, the elderly killer challenges the detectives with a series of Brothers Grimm fairytale riddles. Comic book writer Bill Willingham created in 2002 the comic book Fables, which includes characters from fables as the main characters.[35] Many of these characters are among those collected by the Grimm brothers. The author Michael Buckley began a popular young reader's series (geared for age 712) titled The Sisters Grimm in 2005, in which the two characters, sisters, are the direct descendants of the Brothers Grimm. They discover the family secret in which the fairy tales told in their ancestor's stories are not fictional, but instead are documentations of fairy-tale encounters. The brothers brought all of the characters to New York to escape prosecution. The sisters solve mysteries inside the town the characters are trapped in. Also in 2005 The Brothers Grimm, a film directed by Terry Gilliam based roughly on the Grimm brothers and their tales, starring Heath Ledger as Jacob Grimm and Matt Damon as Wilhelm Grimm in the title roles, resembles the contents of the sagas from the brothers' collections, much more than the academic nature of their lives. In this version, the Brothers Grimm aren't innocent fairy tale collectors.[36] Zenescope Entertainment began in 2005 releasing a monthly on-going comic series titled Grimm's Fairy Tales, a horror comic book that presents classic fairy tales, albeit with modern twists or expanded plots. John Conolly, an Irish writer, publishes in 2005 a book named The Book of Lost Things, it is his first non-mystery novel.[37] [38] This book includes many darker adaptions of the Grimm's tales; including Little Red Riding Hood, Snow White, Sleeping Beauty and Rumpelstiltskin. The crime novel Brother Grimm, by Craig Russell, was published in 2006. A serial killer stalks Hamburg and uses themes of Brothers Grimm fairytales, to pose his victims and to write riddles about the next one. Chief Detective Jan Fabel has to hunt down the Fairytale Killer, as the press soon calls him. In 2010, the novel was adapted for German television, directed by Urs Egger and written by Daniel Martin Eckhart under the title Wolfsfhrte (engl.: wolfs spoor), the German title of Craig Russell's novel. Actor Peter Lohmeyer took on the role of Chief Detective Jan Fabel. The book The Grimm Legacy was published in 2010 by Polly Shulman, about a girl who starts working at a mysterious museum which holds items from Grimm fairy tales. Lethe Press published A Twist of Grimm by William Holden in 2010, a collection of Grimm's Fairy Tales re-imagined as gay erotica. NBC Universal greenlit pilot entitled in 2010 Grimm starring Bitsie Tulloch, Kate Burton, Russell Hornsby and Silas Weir Mitchell. Created by David Greenwalt and Jim Kouf and to be directed by Marc Buckland, Grimm is described as a dark but fantastical cop drama about a world in which characters inspired by Grimms Fairy Tales exist. Mark Miller's Empyrical Tales series is strongly influenced by these works. The Fourth Queen (Comfort Publishing, 2009) and The Lost Queen (Comfort Publishing, 2011) adapt several of the characters and stories into the fantasy world of Empyrean. The stories serve both as an homage and as a new fairytale. As the Empyrical Tales continues, later books will include references to other folklore and mythology from around the world.

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Brothers Grimm

56

Notes
a. The New German Biography records their names as "Grimm, Jacob Ludwig Carl"[39] and "Grimm, Wilhelm Carl".[40] The German Biographical Archive records Wilhelm's name as "Grimm, Wilhelm Karl".[40] The General German Biography gives the names as "Grimm: Jacob (Ludwig Karl)"[41] and "Grimm: Wilhelm (Karl)".[42] The National Union Catalog Pre-1956 Imprints also gives Wilhelm's name as "Grimm, Wilhelm Karl".[40]

References
[1] Zipes 1998, pp.6970 [2] Seul, Jrgen (2011-01-04). "Jacob Grimm zum Geburtstag: Von der Poesie im Recht" (http:/ / www. lto. de/ de/ html/ nachrichten/ 2267/ Von-der-Poesie-im-Recht/ ) (in German). Legal Tribune ONLINE, Spiegel Online. . Retrieved 2011-03-29. [3] "Geschichte der Grimms" (http:/ / www. grimm01. de/ geschichte/ index. html?1). . Retrieved 2011-04-06. [4] Michaelis-Jena 1970, p.9 [5] It has been argued that this is the reason behind the brothers' tendency to idealize and excuse fathers, leaving a predominance of female villains in the talesthe infamous wicked stepmothers, for example, the evil stepmother and stepsisters in "Cinderella", but this disregards the fact that they were collectors, not authors of the tales.Alister & Hauke 1998, pp.216219 [6] Simpson & Roud 2000 [7] Thomas O'Neill, National Geographic, December 1999 [8] Tatar 2004, p.37 [9] "Jakob Ludwig Karl Grimm", Major Authors and Illustrators for Children and Young Adults, 2nd e., 8 vols. Gale Group, 2002.

[10] Die Brueder Grimm Timeline (http:/ / www. diebruedergrimm. de/ texte/ seiten/ ebiogrimm. htm) at DieBruederGrimm.de, Retrieved 4 February 2007 [11] "Grimm, Jacob und Wilhelm, Biographie" (http:/ / www. zeno. org/ nid/ 20004900235) (in German). Zeno.org (Contumax GmbH & Co. KG). 2003. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [12] James M. McGlathery, ed., The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, Champaigne, University of Illinois Press, 1988 [13] Haase, Donald, ed. "Literary Fairy Tales." The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales. Greenwood Group, 2008. 579. Web. <http://books.google.ca/books?id=-sj5cJz0_OsC&pg=PA578&lpg=PA578&dq=Rhymes+and+Reasons+in+the+Grimms'+Kinder-+und+Hausm%C3%A4rchen&s [14] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Edited by Jack Zipes. Oxford University Press 2006. York University. 25 October 2011 <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t204.e1320> [15] Haase, Donald, ed. "Literary Fairy Tales." The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales. Greenwood Group, 2008. 579. Web. <http://books.google.ca/books?id=-sj5cJz0_OsC&pg=PA578&lpg=PA578&dq=Rhymes+and+Reasons+in+the+Grimms'+Kinder-+und+Hausm%C3%A4rchen&s [16] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Edited by Jack Zipes. Oxford University Press 2006. York University. 25 October 2011 <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t204.e1320> [17] Haase, Donald, ed. "Literary Fairy Tales." The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales. Greenwood Group, 2008. 579. Web. <http://books.google.ca/books?id=-sj5cJz0_OsC&pg=PA578&lpg=PA578&dq=Rhymes+and+Reasons+in+the+Grimms'+Kinder-+und+Hausm%C3%A4rchen&s [18] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Edited by Jack Zipes. Oxford University Press 2006. York University. 25 October 2011 <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t204.e1320> [19] Clarissa Pinkola Estes, 'Women Who Run with the Wolves, p 15 ISBN 0-345-40987-6 [20] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Edited by Jack Zipes. Oxford University Press 2006. York University. 25 October 2011 <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t204.e1320> [21] Vanessa Joosen "Grimm" The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Edited by Jack Zipes. Oxford University Press 2006. York University. 25 October 2011 <http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t204.e1320> [22] Michaelis-Jena 1970, p.84 [23] Kamenstsky, Christa. The Brothers Grimm & Their Critics: Folktales the Quest for Meaning. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1992 [24] Two volumes of the second edition were published in 1819, with a third volume in 1822. The third edition appeared in 1837; fourth edition, 1840; fifth edition, 1843; sixth edition, 1850; seventh edition, 1857. All were of two volumes, except for the three-volume second edition. Donald R. Hettinga, The Brothers Grimm: Two Lives, One Legacy, New York, Clarion Books, 2001; p. 154 [25] Tatar 1987, pp.1517 [26] Tatar 1987, p.31 [27] Kathleen Kuiper, Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature, Springfield, MA, Merriam-Webster, 1995, p. 494; Valerie Paradiz, Clever Maids: The Secret History of the Grimm Fairy Tales, New York, Basic Books, 2005, p. xii. One example: the tale "All Fur," Allerleirauh, in the 1857 collection derives from Carl Nehrlich's 1798 novel Schilly. Laura Gonzenbach, Beautiful Angiola: The Great Treasury of Sicilian

Brothers Grimm
Folk and Fairy Tales, London, Rootledge, 2003; p. 345 [28] Peter and Iona Opie. The Classic Fairy Tales, London, Oxford University Press, 1974, is the most famous of their many works in the field [29] Ellis, One Fairy Story too Many, pp. 27 [30] Grimm Brothers' Home Page (http:/ / www. pitt. edu/ ~dash/ grimm. html), University of Pittsburgh, Retrieved 28 February 2007 [31] Disney Archives Retrieved 2011-03-21 (http:/ / disney. go. com/ vault/ archives/ movies/ snow/ snow. html) [32] "Schneewittchen und die sieben Zwerge (1937)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0029583/ ). . Retrieved 2011-03-22. [33] Hall, Peter (2011-02-08). "Upcoming 'Snow White' Movies: Here's What We Know About Them" (http:/ / blog. moviefone. com/ 2011/ 02/ 08/ new-snow-white-movie/ ). Moviefone (AOL). . Retrieved 2011-04-06. [34] Crowther, Bosley (1962-08-08). "The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm (1962)" (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?res=9A01E6DC103CE63ABC4053DFBE668389679EDE). The New York Times (The New York Times Company). . Retrieved 2011-04-06. "Screen: 'Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm':George Pal Production at Loew's Cinerama Laurence Harvey Heads a Cast of Stars" [35] Boucher, Geoff (2010-01-17). "Fables writer Bill Willingham finds a happy ending despite that damned Shrek" (http:/ / herocomplex. latimes. com/ 2010/ 01/ 17/ fables-writer-bill-willingham-finds-a-happy-ending-despite-that-damned-shrek-1/ ). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2011-03-23. "Over the last decade, one of the most consistently compelling comic-book runs has been writer Bill Willinghams Fables, an intricate tapestry that weaves together familiar characters from fables, fairy tables, literature, childrens rhymes and folklore. Its a great time to revisit the Vertigo series or discover for the first time with the recently released hardcover Fables: The Deluxe Edition, Book One, which collects the first 10 issues of the dark refugee epic that chronicles the very unexpected modern-day adventures of Bigby (aka, the Big Bad Wolf), Snow White, Jack Horner, Mowgli, Geppetto, Old King Cole and many, many others. The 53-year-old Virginia native has also recently published Peter and Max: A Fables Novel, which takes his franchise into the prose novel sector with a tale of Peter Piper and his brother Max." [36] Brand, Sira (2003-11-14). "Grimmige Gebrder Grimm" (http:/ / www. spielfilm. de/ news/ 6213/ grimmige-gebrueder-grimm-inszeniert-terry-gilliam-in-prag. html) (in German). Spielfilm.de (Think-Media GmbH). . Retrieved 2011-03-29. "Matt Damon und Heath Ledger in bayerischen Lederhosen in Terry Gilliams Version der Gebrder Grimm" [37] "John Conolly" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ John_Connolly_(author)). Wikipedia. . Retrieved 2011-03-21. [38] The Book of Lost Things Conolly, John (2007-10-16). The Book of Lost Things (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=GSRhnPVpNyQC& lpg=PP1& dq=The Book of Lost Things& pg=PP1#v=onepage& q& f=false). ISBN9780743298902. . Retrieved 2011-03-21. [39] Deutsche National Bibliothek (http:/ / d-nb. info/ gnd/ 118542257), citing Neue Deutsche Biographie. [40] Deutsche National Bibliothek (http:/ / d-nb. info/ gnd/ 118542265), citing Neue Deutsche Biographie, Deutsches Biographisches Archiv and The National Union Catalog Pre-1956 Imprints. [41] Wilhelm Scherer(1879)Grimm, Jacob (Ludwig Karl). In Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. 9. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. pp.678688.

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(German)
[42] Wilhelm Scherer(1879)Grimm, Wilhelm (Karl). In Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. 9. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot. pp.690695.

(German)

Further reading
Alister, Ian; Hauke, Christopher, eds (1998). Contemporary Jungian Analysis. London: Routledge. ISBN0415141664 Michaelis-Jena, Ruth (1970). The Brothers Grimm. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN0710064497 Simpson, Jacqueline; Roud, Steve (2000). A Dictionary of English Folklore. Oxford University Press. ISBN019210019X Tatar, Maria (1987). The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales. Princeton University Press. ISBN0-691-06722-8 Tatar, Maria (2004). The Annotated Brothers Grimm. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN0-393-05848-4 Zipes, Jack (1988). The Brothers Grimm. Routledge Kegan and Paul. ISBN0416019110 Zipes, Jack (1998). When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition. Routledge. ISBN0-415-92151-1 Zipes, Jack (2002). The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN978-0312293802 Stratmann, Rolf, ed (1978). Rechtshistorische Reihe (German Edition). Hamburg: Lang. ISBN3-261-02674-X

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External links
Brothers Grimm (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00h8t18) on In Our Time at the BBC. ( listen now (http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/console/b00h8t18/In_Our_Time_Brothers_Grimm)) Brothers Grimm (http://www.imdb.com/name/nmhttp://www.imdb.com/title/tt0355295//) at the Internet Movie Database The Museum of the Brothers Grimm in Kassel, Germany (http://www.grimms.de) Brothers Grimm's Stories (http://www.slapastory.com/user/profile/username/Brothers+Grimm) Grimm Brothers' Home Page (http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm.html) Grimmstories.com/ The fairy-tales of the brothers Grimm (http://www.grimmstories.com) Grimm's fairy tales Stories for children, folktales, fairy tales and fables from around the world (http:// worldoftales.com/fairy_tales/Grimm_fairy_tales.html) Brothers Grimm, Household Tales, translated by Margaret Hunt (http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/authors/ grimms.html) The fairy-tales of the brothers Grimm (http://www.ciffciaff.org/en/content/fairy-tales-brothers-grimm) - All the fairy-tales of the brothers Grimm - Multilanguage website Grimm's Fairy Tales (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/2591) at Project Gutenberg Grimm's household tales (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/5314) at Project Gutenberg. Translated by Margaret Hunt. Brothers Grimm Fairy Tales (http://www.classicistranieri.com/ jakob-and-wilhelm-grimm-fairy-tales-mp3-audiobook.html) Audiobooks Recording of 63 Fairy Tales by the Brothers Grimm at LibriVox.org (http://librivox.org/ fairy-tales-by-the-brothers-grimm/)

Hans Christian Andersen

59

Hans Christian Andersen


Hans Christian Andersen

Born

April 2, 1805 Odense, Denmark August 4, 1875 (aged70) Copenhagen, Denmark

Died

Occupation Novelist, short story writer, fairy tales writer Nationality Danish Genres Children's literature, travelogue

Signature

Hans Christian Andersen (Danish pronunciation:[hans ksdjan nsn], referred to using the initials H. C. Andersen (Danish pronunciation:[h se nsn]) in Denmark and the rest of Scandinavia; April 2, 1805 August 4, 1875) was a Danish author, fairy tale writer, and poet noted for his children's stories. These include "The Steadfast Tin Soldier," "The Snow Queen," "The Little Mermaid," "Thumbelina," "The Little Match Girl," and "The Ugly Duckling." During his lifetime he was acclaimed for having delighted children worldwide, and was feted by royalty. His poetry and stories have been translated into more than 150 languages. They have inspired motion pictures, plays, ballets, and animated films.[1]

Hans Christian Andersen

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Biography
Childhood
Hans Christian Andersen was born in the town of Odense, Denmark, on Tuesday, April 2, 1805. He was an only child. "Hans" and "Christian" are traditional Danish names. Andersen's father considered himself related to nobility. His paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had in the past belonged to a higher social class, but investigations prove these stories unfounded. The family apparently was affiliated with Danish royalty, but through employment or trade. Today, speculation persists that Andersen may have been an illegitimate son of the royal family. Whatever the reason, King Frederick VI took a personal interest in him as a youth and paid for a part of his education.[2] According to writer Rolf Dorset, Andersen's ancestry remains indeterminate. Hans Christian was forced to support himself. He worked as a weaver's apprentice and, later, for a tailor. At 14, he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor. Having an excellent soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told him that he considered Andersen a poet. Taking the suggestion seriously, he began to focus on writing. Jonas Collin, who, following a chance encounter with Andersen, immediately felt a great affection for him, sent him to a grammar school in Slagelse, covering all his expenses.[3] Andersen had already published his first story, The Ghost at Palnatoke's Grave, in 1822. Though not a keen student, he also attended school at Elsinore until 1827.[4] He later said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life. At one school, he lived at his schoolmaster's home. There he was abused in order "to improve his character", he was told. He later said the faculty had discouraged him from writing in general, causing him to enter a state of depression.

Andersen's childhood home in Odense

Early works
In 1829, Andersen enjoyed considerable success with a short story titled "A Journey on Foot from Holmen's Canal to the East Point of Amager". He also published a comedy and a collection of poems that season. Though he made little progress writing and publishing immediately thereafter, in 1833 he received a small traveling grant from the King, enabling him to set out on the first of many journeys through Europe. At Jura, near Le Locle, Switzerland, he wrote the story, "Agnete and the Merman". He spent an evening in the Italian seaside village of Sestri Levante the same year, inspiring the name, The Bay of Fables. (An annual festival celebrates his visit.[5] ) In October, 1834, he arrived in Rome. Andersen's first novel, "The Improvisatore", was published at the beginning of 1835, becoming an instant success. During these traveling years, Hans Christian Andersen lived in an apartment at number 20, Nyhavn, Copenhagen. There, a memorial plaque was unveiled on May 8, 1935, a gift by Peter Schannong.[6]

Hans Christian Andersen

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Fairy tales
It was during 1835 that Andersen published the first installment of his immortal Fairy Tales (Danish: Eventyr). More stories, completing the first volume, were published in 1836 and 1837. The quality of these stories was not immediately recognized, and they sold poorly. At the same time, Andersen enjoyed more success with two novels: O.T. (1836) and Only a Fiddler.

Jeg er en Skandinav
After a visit to Sweden in 1837, Andersen became inspired by Scandinavism and committed himself to writing a poem to convey his feeling of relatedness between the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians.[7] It was in July 1839 during a visit to the island of Funen that Andersen first wrote the text of his poem Jeg er en Skandinav (I am a Scandinavian).[7] Andersen designed the poem to capture "the beauty of the Nordic spirit, the way the three sister nations have gradually grown together" as part of a Scandinavian national anthem.[7] Composer Otto Lindblad set the poem to music and the composition was published in January 1840. Its popularity peaked in 1845, after which it was seldom sung.[7]

Paper chimney sweep cut by Andersen

Travelogues
In 1851, he published to wide acclaim In Sweden, a volume of travel sketches. A keen traveler, Andersen published several other long travelogues: Shadow Pictures of a Journey to the Harz, Swiss Saxony, etc. etc. in the Summer of 1831 (A Poet's Bazaar (560), In Spain, and A Visit to Portugal in 1866 (The latter describes his visit with his Portuguese friends Jorge and Jose O'Neill, who were his fellows in the mid 1820s while living in Copenhagen.) In his travelogues, Andersen took heed of some of the contemporary conventions about travel writing; but always developed the genre to suit his own purposes. Each of his travelogues combines documentary and descriptive accounts of the sights he saw with more philosophical excurses on topics such as being an author, immortality, and the nature of fiction in the literary travel report. Some of the travelogues, such as In Sweden, even contain fairy-tales. In the 1840s Andersen's attention returned to the stage, however with no great success at all. His true genius was however proved in the miscellany the Picture-Book without Pictures (1840). The fame of his fairy tales had grown steadily; a second series began in 1838 and a third in 1845. Andersen was now celebrated throughout Europe, although his native Denmark still showed some resistance to his pretensions. Between 1845 and 1864, H. C. Andersen lived in 67, Nyhavn, Copenhagen, where a memorial plaque is placed.[6]

Meetings with Dickens


In June 1847, Andersen paid his first visit to Britain and enjoyed a triumphal social success during the summer. The Countess of Blessington invited him to her parties where intellectual and famous people could meet, and it was at one

Painting of Andersen, 1836, by Christian Albrecht Jensen

Hans Christian Andersen party that he met Charles Dickens for the first time. They shook hands and walked to the veranda which was of much joy to Andersen. He wrote in his diary, "We had come to the veranda, I was so happy to see and speak to England's now living writer, whom I love the most."[8] Ten years later, Andersen visited Britain again, primarily to visit Dickens. He stayed at Dickens' home for five weeks.[8]

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Love life
In Andersen's early life, his private journal records his refusal to have sexual relations.[9] [10] Andersen often fell in love with unattainable women and many of his stories are interpreted as references to his sexual grief.[11] At one point he wrote in his diary: "Almighty God, thee only have I; thou steerest my fate, I must give myself up to thee! Give me a livelihood! Give me a bride! My blood wants love, as my heart does!"[12] A girl named Riborg Voigt was the unrequited love of Andersen's youth. A small pouch containing a long letter from Riborg was found on Andersen's chest when he died. Other disappointments in love included Sophie rsted, the daughter of the physicist Hans Christian rsted, and Louise Collin, the youngest daughter of his benefactor Jonas Collin. The most famous of these was the opera soprano Jenny Lind. One of his stories, "The Nightingale", was a written expression of his passion for Lind, and became the inspiration for her nickname, the "Swedish Nightingale". Andersen was often shy around women and had extreme difficulty in proposing to Lind. When Lind was boarding a train to take her to an opera concert, Andersen gave Lind a letter of proposal. Her feelings towards him were not the same; she saw him as a brother, writing to him in 1844 "farewell... God bless and protect my brother is the sincere wish of his affectionate sister, Jenny."[13] Just as with his interest in women, Andersen would become attracted to nonreciprocating men. For example, Andersen wrote to Edvard Collin:[14] "I languish for you as for a pretty Calabrian wench... my sentiments for you are those of a woman. The femininity of my nature and our friendship must remain a mystery." Collin, who only preferred women, wrote in his own memoir: "I found myself unable to respond to this love, and this caused the author much suffering." Likewise, the infatuations of the author for the Danish dancer Harald Scharff[15] and Carl Alexander, the young hereditary duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach,[16] did not result in any relationships. In recent times some literary studies have speculated about the homoerotic camouflage in Andersen's works.[17]

Death
In the spring of 1872, Andersen fell out of his bed and was severely hurt. He never fully recovered, but he lived until August 4, 1875, dying of insidious causes in a house called Rolighed (literally: calmness), near Copenhagen, the home of his close friends Moritz Melchior, a banker, and his wife.[18] Shortly before his death, he had consulted a composer about the music for his funeral, saying: "Most of the people who will walk after me will be children, so make the beat keep time with little steps."[18] His body was interred in the Assistens Kirkegrd in the Nrrebro area of Copenhagen.

The Hanfstaengl portrait of Andersen dated July 1860

At the time of his death, he was an internationally renowned and treasured artist. He received a stipend from the Danish Government as a "national treasure". Before his death, steps were already underway to erect the large statue in his honor, which was completed and is prominently placed in Rosenborg Garden ("Kongens Have", sculptor A.V. Saabye, 1880) in Copenhagen.[1]

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Legacy
In the English-speaking world, stories such as "Thumbelina", "The Snow Queen", "The Little Match Girl", "The Ugly Duckling", "The Little Mermaid", "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Steadfast Tin Soldier", and "The Princess and the Pea" remain popular and are widely read. "The Emperor's New Clothes" and "The Ugly Duckling" have both passed into the English language as well-known expressions. In the Copenhagen harbor there is a statue of The Little Mermaid, placed in honor of Hans Christian Andersen. April 2, Andersen's birthday, is celebrated as International Children's Book Day. The year 2005 was the bicentenary of Andersen's birth and his life and work was celebrated around the world.

The statue of Hans Christian Andersen in H.C. Andersen Boulevard in Copenhagen

Postage stamp, Denmark, 1935

In the United States, statues of Hans Christian Andersen may be found in Central Park, New York, Chicago's Lincoln Park and in Solvang, California. The Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division holds a unique collection of Andersen materials bequeathed by the Danish-American actor Jean Hersholt.[19] Of particular note is an original scrapbook Andersen prepared for the young Jonas Drewsen.[20] The city of Bratislava, Slovakia features a statue of Hans Christian Andersen in memory of his visit in 1841.[21] The city of Funabashi, Japan has a children's theme park named after Hans Christian Andersen.[22]

Hans Christian Andersen and "The Ugly Duckling" in Central Park, New York

In the city of Lublin, Poland is the Puppet & Actor Theatre of Hans Christian Andersen.[23] A $13-million theme park based on Andersen's tales and life opened in Shanghai at the end of 2006. Multi-media games as well as all kinds of cultural contests related to the fairy tales are available to visitors. He was chosen as the star of the park because he is a "nice, hardworking person who was not afraid of poverty", Shanghai Gujin Investment general manager Zhai Shiqiang was quoted by the AFP news agency as saying.[24]

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Famous fairy tales


Some of his most famous fairy tales include: The Angel (1843) University of Southern Denmark [25] (Danish) The Bell (1845) University of Southern Denmark [26] (Danish) The Emperor's New Clothes (1837) University of Southern Denmark [27] The Galoshes of Fortune (1838) "Lykkens Kalosker" [28] The Fir Tree (1844) University of Southern Denmark [29] (Danish) The Happy Family (1847) The Ice Maiden (1861) "Iisjomfruen" [30] It's Quite True! (1852) University of Southern Denmark [31] (Danish) The Little Match Girl (1848) University of Southern Denmark [32] The Little Mermaid (1836) University of Southern Denmark [33] (Danish) Little Tuck (1847) University of Southern Denmark [34] (Danish) The Nightingale (1844) University of Southern Denmark [35] (Danish) The Old House (1847) University of Southern Denmark [36] (Danish) Sandman (1841) University of Southern Denmark [37] (Danish) The Princess and the Pea (1835; also known as The Real Princess) University of Southern Denmark [38] (Danish) Several Things (1837) University of Southern Denmark [38] (Danish) The Red Shoes (1845) University of Southern Denmark [39] (Danish) The Shadow (1847) University of Southern Denmark [40] (Danish) The Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep (1845) The Snow Queen (1844) University of Southern Denmark [41] (Danish) The Steadfast Tin Soldier (1838) University of Southern Denmark [42] (Danish) The Story of a Mother (1847) University of Southern Denmark [43] (Danish) The Swineherd (1841) University of Southern Denmark [44] (Danish) Thumbelina (1835) University of Southern Denmark [45] (Danish) The Tinderbox (1835) University of Southern Denmark [46] (Danish) The Ugly Duckling (1844) University of Southern Denmark [47] (Danish) The Wild Swans (1838) University of Southern Denmark [48] (Danish)

Influence
Contemporary literary and artistic works inspired by Andersen's stories include: "The Naked King" (" (Goliy Korol)" 1937), "The Shadow" (" (Ten)" 1940), and "The Snow Queen" (" (Sniezhenaya Koroleva)" 1948) by Eugene Schwartz: reworked and adapted to the contemporary reality plays by one of Russia's most famous playwrights. Schwartz's versions of "The Shadow" and "The Snow Queen" were later made into movies (1971 and 1966, respectively). Sam the Lovesick Snowman at the Center for Puppetry Arts: a contemporary puppet show by Jon Ludwig inspired by The Snow Man.[49] The Ugly Duckling (" ") (Children's opera) - Opera-Parable By Hans Christian Andersen. For Mezzo-Soprano (Soprano), Three-part Children's Choir And the Piano. 1 Act: 2 Epigraphs, 38 Theatrical Pictures. Length: Approximately 28 minutes. The opera version (Free transcription) Written by Lev Konov ( ) (1996). On music of Sergei Prokofiev: The Ugly Duckling, op. 18 (1914) And Visions Fugitives, op. 22 (19151917). (Vocal score language: Russian, English, German, French). The first representation in Moscow in 1997. The Girl Who Trod on a Loaf by Kathryn Davis: a contemporary novel about fairy tales and opera

Hans Christian Andersen The Snow Queen by Joan Vinge: an award-winning novel that reworks the Snow Queen's themes into epic science fiction The Nightingale by Kara Dalkey: a lyrical adult fantasy novel set in the courts of old Japan The Wild Swans by Peg Kerr: a novel that brings Andersen's fairy tale to colonial and modern America Daughter of the Forest by Juliet Marillier: a romantic fantasy novel, set in early Ireland, thematically linked to "The Wild Swans" Birdwing by Rafe Martin, a young adult novel that continues the tale of "The Wild Swans" with the story of Ardwin, the brother whose arm remained a wing The Snow Queen by Eileen Kernaghan: a gentle Young Adult fantasy novel that brings out the tale's subtle pagan and shamanic elements "The Snow Queen", a short story by Patricia A. McKillip (published in Snow White, Blood Red) "You, Little Match Girl", a short story by Joyce Carol Oates (published in Black Heart, Ivory Bones) "Sparks", a short story by Gregory Frost (based on The Tinder Box, published in Black Swan, White Raven) "Steadfast", a short story by Nancy Kress (based on The Steadfast Tin Soldier, published in Black Swan, White Raven) "The Sea Hag", a short story by Melissa Lee Shaw (based on The Little Mermaid, published in Silver Birch, Blood Moon) "The Real Princess", a short story by Susan Palwick (based on The Princess and the Pea, published in Ruby Slippers, Golden Tears) "Match Girl", a short story by Anne Bishop (published in Ruby Slippers, Golden Tears) Le Petit Claus et le Grand Claus, (film, 1964), ((Lille Claus og store Claus) by Jacques Prvert, and his brother Pierre Prvert, French TV 1964. "The Pangs of Love", a short story by Jane Gardam (based on The Little Mermaid, published in Close Company: Stories of Mothers and Daughters) "The Shepherdess and the Chimney Sweep", (film, 1980), French, by Paul Grimault and Jacques Prvert, French title : Le Roi et l'Oiseau (the king and the bird). "The Chrysanthemum Robe", a short story by Kara Dalkey (based on The Emperor's New Clothes, published in The Armless Maiden) "The Steadfast Tin Soldier", a short story by Joan Vinge (published in Women of Wonder) "In the Witch's Garden", a short story by Naomi Kritzer (based on The Snow Queen, published in Realms of Fantasy magazine, October 2002 issue) "I Hear the Mermaids Singing", a short story by Nancy Holder (based on The Little Mermaid) "The Last Poems About the Snow Queen", a poem cycle by Sandra Gilbert (published in Blood Pressure) The Little Mermaid (2005) for children's chorus, narrator, orchestra by Richard Mills "La petite marchande d'allumettes", film by Jean Renoir (1928)[50] "The Andersen Project" by Robert Lepage: Freely inspired from two stories by Andersen (The Dryad and The Shadow). "The Little Mermaid (1989 movie) (Walt Disney Pictures) Based on the original story. The Little Match Girl (2006 short) With the DVD Release of The Little Mermaid (Walt Disney Pictures)Based on the original story. The Little Mermaid for actress, two pianos and chamber ensemble/orchestra.[51] Ponyo got its inspiration from the Little Mermaid. The Little Match Girl Passion - a choral work composed in 2007 by David Lang. It won the 2008 Pulitzer Prize in Music. The Ghost, an episode in the third series of the British TV show Hustle is based on the theft of an Andersen manuscript from an old English manor house.

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Hans Christian Andersen A Designer's Paradise, an episode in the fourth series of the British TV show Hustle bases a confidence trick around the story of The Emperor's New Clothes Broken Angels (Merciless in the U.S.), a novel by Richard Montanari focuses on a serial killer who murders people in accordance with Hans Christian Andersen stories. Stories included are The Nightingale, Thumbelina, The Red Shoes, The Little Match Girl, The Steadfast Tin Soldier, The Tinderbox, What The Moon Saw, Anne Lisbeth, Little Claus and Big Claus, The Snow Man, and Little Ida's Flowers. "Striking Twelve", a Staged Concert/Musical by the New York band, Groove Lily, about a grumpy guy reading "The Little Match Girl" on New Year's Eve. "Until My Dancing Days are Done", a short story by Angela D. Mitchell that gave a modern gothic twist to "The Red Shoes." The story was published in Fables Magazine in October 2003, and in April 2004 was voted the 2003 Reader's Choice Award by the magazine's readers. "The Song Is A Fairy-tale", 20 songs composed by Frederik Magle based on fairy tales by Hans Christian Andersen (1994). "Prisoners" by Regina Spektor references Hans Christian Anderson.

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References
[1] Elias Bredsdorff, Hans Christian Andersen: the story of his life and work 1805-75, Phaidon (1975) ISBN 0-7148-1636-1 [2] Hans Christian Andersen - Childhood and Education (http:/ / www. danishnet. com/ info. php/ cultural/ hans-christian-andersen-281. html). Danishnet. [3] "H.C. Andersens skolegang og livet i Slagelse" (http:/ / www. hcandersen-homepage. dk/ skolegang_slagelse. htm). Hcandersen-homepage.dk. . Retrieved 2010-04-02. [4] "H.C. Andersens skolegang i Helsingr Latinskole" (http:/ / www. hcandersen-homepage. dk/ skolegang_helsingoer. htm). Hcandersen-homepage.dk. . Retrieved 2010-04-02. [5] Andersen Festival, Sestri Levante (http:/ / andersenfestival. it) [6] "Official Tourism Site of Copenhagen" (http:/ / www. visitcopenhagen. com/ content/ press/ press_information/ hans_christian_andersen/ in_the_footsteps_of_andersen). Visitcopenhagen.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-02. [7] Hans Christian Andersen and Music. I am a Scandinavian. (http:/ / www. kb. dk/ elib/ noder/ hcamusik/ skandinav/ index_en. htm). Retrieved January 12, 2007. [8] "H.C. Andersen og Charles Dickens 1857" (http:/ / www. hcandersen-homepage. dk/ charles-dickens-1857. htm). Hcandersen-homepage.dk. 2001-12-30. . Retrieved 2010-04-02. [9] Lepage, Robert (2006-01-18). "Bedtime stories" (http:/ / books. guardian. co. uk/ departments/ classics/ story/ 0,6000,1689053,00. html). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2006-07-19. [10] Recorded using "special Greek symbols".Garfield, Patricia (2004-06-21). "The Dreams of Hans Christian Andersen" (http:/ / www. patriciagarfield. com/ publications/ anderson_2004IASD. pdf) (PDF). p. 29. . Retrieved 2006-07-20. [11] Hans Christian Andersen (http:/ / www. northern. edu/ hastingw/ hcandersen. htm) [12] "The Tales of Hans Christian Andersen" (http:/ / scandinavian. wisc. edu/ mellor/ hca_summer/ glossary/ bachelor. html). Scandinavian.wisc.edu. . Retrieved 2010-04-02. [13] "H.C. Andersen homepage (Danish)" (http:/ / www. hcandersen-homepage. dk/ jenny_lind. htm). Hcandersen-homepage.dk. . Retrieved 2010-04-02. [14] Hans Christian Andersen's correspondence, ed Frederick Crawford6, London. 1891 [15] de Mylius, Johan. "The Life of Hans Christian Andersen. Day By Day" (http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ liv/ tidstavle/ vis_e. html?date=1862-00-00). Hans Christian Andersen Center. . Retrieved 2006-07-22. [16] Pritchard, Claudia (2005-03-27). "His dark materials" (http:/ / enjoyment. independent. co. uk/ books/ features/ article8437. ece). The Independent. . Retrieved 2006-07-23. [17] Heinrich Detering: "Ich wnschte, ich htte Ihr ganzes Ich", in: Otmar Werner (ed.): Arbeiten zur Skandinavistik, Frankfurt/M. 1989; Heinrich Detering: Intellectual amphibia. Odense 1991; Heinrich Detering: Das offene Geheimnis. Gttingen 1995 [18] Bryant, Mark: Private Lives, 2001, p.12 [19] "Jean Hersholt Collections." (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ rr/ rarebook/ coll/ 114. html). Loc.gov. 2009-04-15. . Retrieved 2010-04-02. [20] "Billedbog til Jonas Drewsen." (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ cgi-bin/ ampage?collId=rbc3& fileName=rbc0001_2008gen51371page. db) (April 15, 2009) Retrieved November 2, 2009. [21] Picture on Wikimedia Commons [22] "Chiba Sightseeing Spots" (http:/ / www. chiba-tour. jp/ html/ sight_tokatsu_en. html). Chiba Prefectional Government. . Retrieved 2011-06-16. [23] "Theatre Site" (http:/ / www. teatrandersena. pl). Teatrandersena.pl. . Retrieved 2010-04-02.

Hans Christian Andersen


[24] China to open Andersen theme park (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ asia-pacific/ 4782955. stm), BBC News, August 11, 2006. Retrieved July 2, 2008. [25] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheAngel_e. html [26] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheBell_e. html [27] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheEmperorsNewClothes_e. html [28] http:/ / www. adl. dk/ adl_pub/ vaerker/ cv/ e_vaerk/ e_vaerk. xsql?ff_id=22& id=2264& hist=fmL& nnoc=adl_pub [29] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheFirTree_e. html [30] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ register/ info_e. html?vid=154 [31] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ ItsQuiteTrue. html [32] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheLittleMatchGirl_e. html [33] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheLittleMermaid_e. html [34] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ LittleTuck_e. html [35] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheNightingale_e. html [36] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheOldHouse_e. html [37] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ OleLukoie_e. html [38] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ ThePrincessOnThePea_e. html [39] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheRedShoes_e. html [40] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheShadow_e. html [41] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheSnowQueen_e. html [42] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheSteadfastTinSoldier_e. html [43] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheStoryOfAMother_e. html [44] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheSwineherd_e. html [45] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ Thumbelina_e. html [46] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheTinderBox_e. html [47] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheUglyDuckling_e. html [48] http:/ / www. andersen. sdu. dk/ vaerk/ hersholt/ TheWildSwans_e. html [49] "Jon Ludwig's ''Sam the Lovesick Snowman''" (http:/ / puppet. org/ perform/ snowman. shtml). Puppet.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-02. [50] La petite marchande d'allumettes (1928) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0019267/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [51] "Lior Navok's ''The Little Mermaid''" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071120140213/ http:/ / www. liornavok. com/ music. asp?name=The+ Little+ Mermaid+ -+ for+ chamber+ ensemble+ / + orchestra& id=75). Liornavok.com. 2007-07-28. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. liornavok. com/ music. asp?name=The+ Little+ Mermaid+ -+ for+ chamber+ ensemble+ / + orchestra& id=75) on November 20, 2007. . Retrieved 2010-04-02.

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Further reading
Andersen, Hans Christian (2005) [2004]. Jackie Wullschlager. ed. Fairy Tales. Tiina Nunnally. New York: Viking. ISBN0-670-03377-4. Andersen, Jens (2005) [2003]. Hans Christian Andersen: A New Life. Tiina Nunnally. New York, Woodstock, and London: Overlook Duckworth. ISBN9781-58567-7375. Stig Dalager, Journey in Blue, historical, biographical novel about H.C.Andersen, Peter Owen, London 2006, McArthur & Co., Toronto 2006. Ruth Manning-Sanders, Swan of Denmark: The Story of Hans Christian Andersen, Heinemann, 1949 Norton, Rictor (ed.) My Dear Boy: Gay Love Letters through the Centuries. Leyland Publications, San Francisco. 1998 ISBN 0-943595-71-1 Terry, Walter (1979). The King's Ballet Master. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. ISBN0-396-07722-6. Wullschlager, Jackie (2002) [2000]. Hans Christian Andersen: The Life of a Storyteller. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN0-226-91747-9. Zipes, Jack (2005). Hans Christian Andersen: The Misunderstood Storyteller. New York and London: Routledge. ISBN0-415-97433-X.

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External links
Works by Hans Christian Andersen on Open Library at the Internet Archive Works by Hans Christian Andersen (http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=creator:Hans Christian Andersen -contributor:gutenberg AND mediatype:texts) at Internet Archive. Scanned, color illustrated first editions. Works by or about Hans Christian Andersen (http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n97-16738) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) And the cobbler's son became a princely author (http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/04/arts/04hans.html) Details of Andersen's life and the celebrations. The Hans Christian Andersen Center (http://www.andersen.sdu.dk/index_e.html) - contains many Andersen's stories in Danish and English The Hans Christian Andersen Museum in Odense has a large digital collection of Hans Christian Andersen papercuts (http://www.museum.odense.dk/andersen/klip/billedstart.asp?sprog=engelsk), drawings (http:// www.museum.odense.dk/andersen/tegning/billedstart.asp?sprog=engelsk) and portraits (http://www. museum.odense.dk/andersen/portraet/billedstart.asp?sprog=engelsk) - You can follow his travels (http:// www.museum.odense.dk/andersen/rejser/index.aspx?lang=uk) across Europe and explore his Nyhavn study (http://www.museum.odense.dk/andersen/nyhavn/nyhavnuk.asp). The Orders and Medals Society of Denmark (http://www.omsd.dk/themes/hc_andersen_uk/ uk_hc_andersen_main_frame.htm) has descriptions of Hans Christian Andersen's Medals and Decorations.

The Pilgrim's Progress

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The Pilgrim's Progress


The Pilgrim's Progress

Author(s) Country Language Genre(s)

John Bunyan England English Religious allegory

Publication date 1678 Media type Pages ISBN Print 191 pp NA

The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come is a Christian allegory written by John Bunyan and published in February, 1678. It is regarded as one of the most significant works of religious English literature,[1] has been translated into more than 200 languages, and has never been out of print.[2] Bunyan began his work while in the Bedfordshire county gaol for violations of the Conventicle Act, which prohibited the holding of religious services outside the auspices of the established Church of England. Early Bunyan scholars like John Brown believed The Pilgrim's Progress was begun in Bunyan's second shorter imprisonment for six months in 1675,[3] but more recent scholars like Roger Sharrock believe that it was begun during Bunyan's initial, more lengthy imprisonment from 1660-1672 right after he had written his spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners.[4] The English text comprises 108,260 words and is divided into two parts, each reading as a continuous narrative with no chapter divisions. The first part was completed in 1677 and entered into the stationers' register on December 22, 1677. It was licensed and entered in the "Term Catalogue" on February 18, 1678, which is looked upon as the date of first publication.[5] After the first edition of the first part in 1678, an expanded edition, with additions written after Bunyan was freed, appeared in 1679. The Second Part appeared in 1684. There were eleven editions of the first part in John Bunyan's lifetime, published in successive years from 1678 to 1685 and in 1688, and there were two editions of the second part, published in 1684 and 1686.

The Pilgrim's Progress

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Plot
First Part
Christian, an everyman character, is the protagonist of the allegory, which centers itself in his journey from his hometown, the "City of Destruction" ("this world"), to the "Celestial City" ("that which is to come": Heaven) atop Mt. Zion. Christian is weighed down by a great burden, the knowledge of his sin, which he believed came from his reading "the book in his hand", (the Bible). This burden, which would cause him to sink into Tophet (hell), is so unbearable that Christian must seek deliverance. He meets Evangelist as he is walking out in the fields, who directs him to the "Wicket Gate" for deliverance. Since Christian cannot see the "Wicket Gate" in the distance, Evangelist directs him to go to a "shining light", which Christian thinks he sees.[6] Christian leaves his home, his wife, and children to save himself: he cannot persuade them to accompany him. Obstinate and Pliable go after Christian to bring him back, but Christian refuses. Obstinate returns disgusted, but Pliable is persuaded to go with Christian, hoping to take advantage of the paradise that Christian claims lies at the end of his journey. Pliable's journey with Christian is cut short when the two of them fall into the Slough of Despond. It is there that Pliable abandons Christian after getting himself out. After struggling to the other side of the bog, Christian is pulled out by Help, who has heard his cries. On his way to the Wicket Gate, Christian is diverted by Mr. Worldly Wiseman into seeking deliverance from his burden through the Law, supposedly with the help of a Mr. Legality and his son Civility in the village of Morality, rather than through Christ, allegorically by way of the Wicket Gate. Evangelist meets the wayward Christian as he stops before Mount Sinai on the way to Legality's home. It hangs over the road and threatens to crush any who would pass it. Evangelist shows Christian that he had sinned by turning out of his way, but he assures him that he will be welcomed at the Wicket Gate if he should turn around and go there, which Christian does. At the Wicket Gate begins the "straight and narrow" King's Highway, and Christian is directed onto it by the gatekeeper Good Will. In the Second Part, Good-will is shown to be Jesus himself.[7] To Christian's query about relief from his burden, Good Will directs him forward to "the place of deliverance."[4] [8] Christian makes his way from there to the House of the Interpreter, where he is shown pictures and tableaux that portray or dramatize aspects of the Christian faith and life. Roger Sharrock denotes them "emblems."[4] [9]

Burdened Christian flees from home

From the House of the Interpreter, Christian finally reaches the "place of deliverance" (allegorically, the cross of Calvary and the open sepulcher of Christ), where the "straps" that bound Christian's burden to him break, and it rolls away into the open sepulchre. This event happens relatively early in the narrative: the immediate need of Christian at the beginning of the story being quickly remedied. After Christian is relieved of his burden, he is greeted by three shining ones, who give him the greeting of peace, new garments, and a scroll as a passport into the Celestial City these are allegorical figures indicative of Christian Baptism.

The Pilgrim's Progress Atop the Hill of Difficulty, Christian makes his first stop for the night at the House Beautiful, which is an allegory of the local Christian congregation. Christian spends three days here, and leaves clothed with armour (Eph. 6:11-18),[10] which stands him in good stead in his battle against Apollyon in the Valley of Humiliation. This battle lasts "over half a day" until Christian manages to wound Apollyon with his two-edged sword (a reference to the Bible, Heb. 4:12).[11] "And with that Apollyon spread his dragon wings and sped away." As night falls Christian enters the Valley of the Shadow of Death. When he is in the middle of the valley amidst the gloom and terror he hears the words of the Twenty-third Psalm, spoken possibly by his friend Faithful: Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. (Psalms 23:4.) As he leaves this valley the sun rises on a new day. Just outside the Valley of the Shadow of Death he meets Faithful, also a former resident of the City of Destruction, who accompanies him to Vanity Fair, where both are arrested and detained because of their disdain for the wares and business of the fair. Faithful is put on trial, and executed as a martyr. Hopeful, a resident of Vanity, takes Faithful's place to be Christian's companion for the rest of the way. Along a rough stretch of road, Christian and Hopeful leave the highway to travel on the easier By-Path Meadow, where a rainstorm forces them to spend the night. In the morning they are captured by Giant Despair, who takes them to his Doubting Castle, where they are imprisoned, beaten and starved. The giant wants them to commit suicide, but they endure the ordeal until Christian realizes that a key he has, called Promise, will open all the doors and gates of Doubting Castle. Using the key, they escape. The Delectable Mountains form the next stage of Christian and Hopeful's journey, where the shepherds show them some of the wonders of the place also known as "Immanuel's Land". As at the House of the Interpreter pilgrims are shown sights that strengthen their faith and warn them against sinning. On Mount Clear they are able to see the Celestial City through the shepherd's "perspective glass", which serves as a telescope. This device is given to Mercy in the second part at her request. On the way, Christian and Hopeful meet a lad named Ignorance, who believes that he will be allowed into the Celestial City through his own good deeds rather than as a gift of God's grace. Christian and Hopeful meet up with him twice and try to persuade him to journey to the Celestial City in the right way. Ignorance persists in his own way that leads to his being cast into hell. After getting over the River of Death on the ferry boat of Vain Hope without overcoming the hazards of wading across it, Ignorance appears before the gates of Celestial City without a passport, which he would have acquired had he gone into the King's Highway through the Wicket Gate. The Lord of the Celestial City orders shining ones to take Ignorance to one of the byways to hell and throw him in. Christian and Hopeful make it through the dangerous Enchanted Ground into the Land of Beulah, where they ready themselves to cross the River of Death on foot to Mount Zion and the Celestial City. Christian has a rough time of it, but Hopeful helps him over; and they are welcomed into the Celestial City.

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Second Part
The Second Part of The Pilgrim's Progress presents the pilgrimage of Christian's wife, Christiana; their sons; and the maiden, Mercy. They visit the same stopping places that Christian visited, with the addition of Gaius' Inn between the Valley of the Shadow of Death and Vanity Fair; but they take a longer time in order to accommodate marriage and childbirth for the four sons and their wives. The hero of the story is Greatheart, the servant of the Interpreter, who is a pilgrim's guide to the Celestial City. He kills four giants and participates in the slaying of a monster that terrorizes the city of Vanity. The passage of years in this second pilgrimage better allegorizes the journey of the Christian life. By using heroines, Bunyan, in the Second Part, illustrates the idea that women as well as men can be brave pilgrims. Alexander M. Witherspoon, professor of English at Yale University, writes in a prefatory essay:

The Pilgrim's Progress Part II, which appeared in 1684, is much more than a mere sequel to or repetition of the earlier volume. It clarifies and reinforces and justifies the story of Part I. The beam of Bunyan's spotlight is broadened to include Christian's family and other men, women, and children; the incidents and accidents of everyday life are more numerous, the joys of the pilgrimage tend to outweigh the hardships; and to the faith and hope of Part I is added in abundant measure that greatest of virtues, charity. The two parts of The Pilgrim's Progress in reality constitute a whole, and the whole is, without doubt, the most influential religious book ever written in the English language.[12] This is exemplified by the frailness of the pilgrims of the Second Part in contrast to those of the First: women, children, and physically and mentally challenged individuals. When Christiana's party leaves Gaius's Inn and Mr. Feeble-mind lingers in order to be left behind, he is encouraged to accompany the party by Greatheart: But brother ... I have it in commission, to comfort the feeble-minded, and to support the weak. You must needs go along with us; we will wait for you, we will lend you our help, we will deny ourselves of some things, both opinionative and practical, for your sake; we will not enter into doubtful disputations before you, we will be made all things to you, rather than you shall be left behind.[4] When the pilgrims end up in the Land of Beulah, they cross over the River of Death by appointment. As a matter of importance to Christians of Bunyan's persuasion reflected in the narrative of The Pilgrim's Progress, the last words of the pilgrims as they cross over the river are recorded. The four sons of Christian and their families do not cross, but remain for the support of the church in that place.

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The Pilgrim's Progress

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Characters
Main characters are in capital letters.

First Part
CHRISTIAN, whose name was Graceless at some time before, the protagonist in the First Part, whose journey to the Celestial City is the plot of the story. EVANGELIST, the religious man who puts Christian on the path to the Celestial City. He also shows Christian a book, which readers assume to be the Bible. Obstinate, one of the two residents of the City of Destruction, who run after Christian when he first sets out, in order to bring him back. Pliable, the other of the two, who goes with Christian until both of them fall into the Slough of Despond. Pliable escapes from the slough and returns home. Help, Christian's rescuer from the Slough of Despond. MR. WORLDLY WISEMAN, a resident of a place called Carnal Policy, who persuades Christian go out of his way to be helped by a Mr. Legality and then move to the City of Morality. GOODWILL, the keeper of the Wicket Gate through which one enters the "straight and narrow way" (also referred to as "the King's Highway") to the Celestial City. In the Second Part we find that this character is none other than Jesus Christ Himself.

Beelzebub, literally "Lord of the Flies", is one of the devil's companion archdevils, who has erected a fort near the Wicket Gate from which he and his companions can shoot arrows at those about to enter the Wicket Gate. He is also the Lord of Vanity Fair. Christian calls him "captain" of the fiend Apollyon.[4]

Christian enters the Wicket Gate, opened by Goodwill. Engraving from a 1778 edition printed in England.

THE INTERPRETER, the one who has his House along the way as a rest stop for travellers to check in to see pictures and dioramas to teach them the right way to live the Christian life. He has been identified as the Holy Spirit. He also appears in the Second Part. Shining Ones, the messengers and servants of "the Lord of the Hill", God. They are obviously the holy angels. Formalist, one of two travellers on the King's Highway, who do not come in by the Wicket Gate, but

The Pilgrim's Progress climb over the wall that encloses it, at least from the hill and sepulcre up to the Hill Difficulty. He and his companion Hypocrisy come from the land of Vainglory. He takes one of the two bypaths that avoid the Hill Difficulty, but is lost. Hypocrisy, the companion of Formalist. He takes the other of the two bypaths and is also lost. Timorous, one of two who try to persuade Christian to go back for fear of the chained lions near the House Beautiful. He is a relative of Mrs. Timorous of the Second Part. His companion is Mistrust.

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"Beelzebub and them that are with him shoot arrows"

Watchful, the porter of the House Beautiful. He also appears in the Second Part and receives "a gold angel" coin from Christiana for his kindness and service to her and her companions. "Watchful" is also the name of one of the Delectable Mountains' shepherds. Discretion, one of the beautiful maids of the house , who decides to allow Christian to stay there. Prudence, another of the House Beautiful maidens. She appears in the Second Part. Piety, another of the House Beautiful maidens. She appears in the Second Part. Charity, another of the House Beautiful maidens. She appears in the Second Part. APOLLYON, literally "Destroyer"; the lord of the City of Destruction and one of the devil's companion archdevils, who tries to force Christian to return to his domain and service. His battle with Christian takes place in the Valley of Humiliation, just below the House Beautiful. He appears as a dragon-like creature with scales and bats' wings. He takes darts from his body to throw at his opponents. Giants "Pope" and "Pagan", allegories of Roman Catholicism and paganism as persecutors of Protestant Christians. "Pagan" is dead, indicating the end of pagan persecution with Antiquity, and "Pope" is alive but decrepit, indicating the then diminished power and influence of the Roman Catholic pope. FAITHFUL, Christian's friend from the City of Destruction, who is also going on pilgrimage. Christian meets him just after getting through the Valley of the Shadow of Death. Wanton, a temptress who tries to get Faithful to leave his journey to the Celestial City. She may be the popular resident of the City of Destruction, Madam Wanton, who hosted a house party for friends of Mrs. Timorous. Adam the First, "the old man" (representing carnality) who tries to persuade Faithful to leave his journey and come live with his 3 daughters: the Lust of the flesh, the Lust of the eyes, and the Pride of life. Moses, the severe, violent avenger (representing the Law, which knows no mercy) who tries to kill Faithful for his momentary weakness in wanting to go with Adam the First out of the way. Talkative, a hypocrite known to Christian from the City of Destruction, who lived on Prating Row. He talks fervently of religion, but has no evident works as a result of true salvation. Lord Hate-good, the judge who tries Faithful in Vanity Fair. Envy, the first witness against Faithful. Superstition, the second witness against Faithful.

The Pilgrim's Progress Pick-Thank, the third witness against Faithful. HOPEFUL, the resident of Vanity Fair, who takes Faithful's place as Christian's fellow traveler. The character HOPEFUL poses an inconsistency in that there is a necessity imposed on the pilgrims that they enter the "King's Highway" by the Wicket Gate. HOPEFUL did not; however, of him we read: "... one died to bear testimony to the truth, and another rises out of his ashes to be a companion with Christian in his pilgrimage". HOPEFUL assumes FAITHFUL'S place by God's design. Theologically and allegorically it would follow in that "faith" is trust in God as far as things present are concerned, and "hope", biblically the same as "faith", is trust in God as far as things of the future are concerned. HOPEFUL would follow FAITHFUL. The other factor is Vanity Fair's location right on the straight and narrow way. IGNORANCE, in contrast to HOPEFUL, came from the Country of Conceit, that connected to the "King's Highway" by means of a crooked lane. IGNORANCE was told by CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL that he should have entered the highway through the Wicket Gate. Mr. By-Ends, a hypocritical pilgrim who perishes in the Hill Lucre silver mine with three of his friends. A "by-end" is a pursuit that is achieved indirectly. In the case of By-Ends and his companions, it is pursuing financial gain through religion. Demas, a deceiver, who beckons to pilgrims at the Hill Lucre to come and join in the supposed silver mining going on in it. GIANT DESPAIR, the owner of Doubting Castle, where Christians are imprisoned and murdered. He is slain by GREAT-HEART in the Second Part. Giantess Diffidence, Despair's wife. She is slain by OLD HONEST in the Second Part. Knowledge, one of the shepherds of the Delectable Mountains. Experience, another of the Delectable Mountains shepherds. Watchful, another of the Delectable Mountains shepherds. Sincere, another of the Delectable Mountains shepherds. IGNORANCE, "a brisk young lad", who joins the "King's Highway" by way of the "crooked lane" that comes from his native country, called "Conceit." He follows Christian and Hopeful and on two occasions talks with them. He believes that he will be received into the Celestial City because of his doing good works in accordance with God's will. Jesus Christ is for him only an example not a Savior. Christian and Hopeful try to set him right, but they fail. He gets a ferryman, Vain-Hope, to ferry him across the River of Death rather than cross it on foot as one is supposed to do. When he gets to the gates of the Celestial City, he is asked for a "certificate" needed for entry, which he does not have. The King, then, orders that he be bound and cast into hell. The Flatterer, a deceiver who leads Christian and Hopeful out of their way, when they fail to look at the road map given them by the Shepherds of the Delectable Mountains. Atheist, a mocker of CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL, who goes the opposite way on the "King's Highway" because he boasts that he knows that God and the Celestial City do not exist.

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Second Part
Mr. Sagacity, a guest narrator who meets Bunyan himself in his new dream and recounts the events of the Second Part up to the arrival at the Wicket Gate. CHRISTIANA, wife of CHRISTIAN, who leads her four sons and neighbour MERCY on pilgrimage. MATTHEW, CHRISTIAN and CHRISTIANA's eldest son, who marries MERCY. SAMUEL, second son, who marries Grace, Mr. Mnason's daughter. JOSEPH, third son, who marries Martha, Mr. Mnason's daughter. JAMES, fourth and youngest son, who marries Phoebe, Gaius's daughter. MERCY, CHRISTIANA's neighbour, who goes with her on pilgrimage and marries MATTHEW. Mrs. Timorous, relative of the Timorous of the First Part, who comes with MERCY to see CHRISTIANA before she sets out on pilgrimage.

The Pilgrim's Progress Mrs. Bat's-Eyes, a resident of The City of Destruction and friend of Mrs. Timorous. Since she has a bat's eyes, she would be blind or nearly blind, so her characterization of Christiana as blind in her desire to go on pilgrimage is hypocritical. Mrs. Inconsiderate, a resident of The City of Destruction and friend of Mrs. Timorous. She characterizes Christiana's departure "a good riddance" as an inconsiderate person would. Mrs. Light-Mind, a resident of The City of Destruction and friend of Mrs. Timorous. She changes the subject from Christiana to gossip about being at a bawdy party at Madam Wanton's home. Mrs. Know-Nothing, a resident of The City of Destruction and friend of Mrs. Timorous. She wonders if Christiana will actually go on pilgrimage. Ill-favoured Ones, two evil characters CHRISTIANA sees in her dream, whom she and MERCY actually encounter when they leave the Wicket Gate. Innocent, a young serving maid of the INTERPRETER, who answers the door of the house when Christiana and her companions arrive; and who conducts them to the garden bath, which signifies Christian baptism. MR. GREAT-HEART, the guide and body-guard sent by the INTERPRETER with CHRISTIANA and her companions from his house to their journey's end. He proves to be one of the main protagonists in the Second Part. Giant Grim, who "backs the [chained] lions" near the House Beautiful, slain by GREAT-HEART. He is also known as Bloody-man. Humble-Mind, one of the maidens of the House Beautiful, who makes her appearance in the Second Part. Mr. Brisk, a suitor of MERCY's, who gives up courting her when he finds out that she makes clothing only to give away to the poor. Mr. Skill, the physician called to the House Beautiful to cure Matthew of his illness, which is caused by eating the apples of Beelzebub. Giant Maul, a giant that GREAT-HEART kills as the pilgrims leave the Valley of the Shadow of Death. OLD HONEST, a pilgrim that joins them, a welcome companion to GREAT-HEART. Mr. Fearing, a pilgrim whom GREAT-HEART had "conducted" to the Celestial City in an earlier pilgrimage. Noted for his timidness. He is Mr. Feeble-Mind's uncle. Gaius, an innkeeper with whom the pilgrims stay for some years after they leave the Valley of the Shadow of Death. He gives his daughter Phebe to JAMES in marriage. The lodging fee for his inn is paid by the Good Samaritan. Giant Slay-Good, a giant that enlists the help of evil-doers on the King's Highway to abduct, murder, and consume pilgrims. Mr. Feeble-Mind, rescued from Slay-Good by Mr. Great-Heart, who joins Christiana's company of pilgrims. Phoebe, Gaius's daughter, who marries JAMES. Mr. Ready-to-Halt, a pilgrim who meets CHRISTIANA's train of pilgrims at Gaius's door, and becomes the companion of Mr. Feeble-mind, to whom he gives one of his crutches. Mr. Mnason, a resident of the town of Vanity, who puts up the pilgrims for a time, and gives his daughters Grace and Martha in marriage to SAMUEL and JOSEPH respectively. Grace, Mnason's daughter, who marries SAMUEL. Martha, Mnason's daughter, who marries JOSEPH. Mr. Despondency, a rescued prisoner from Doubting Castle. Much-Afraid, his daughter. Mr. VALIANT-FOR-TRUTH, a pilgrim they find all bloody, with his sword in his hand, after leaving the Delectable Mountains. Mr. Stand-Fast, a pilgrim found while praying for deliverance from Madame Bubble. Madame Bubble, a witch whose enchantments made the Enchanted Ground enchanted. She is the adulterous woman mentioned in the Biblical Book of Proverbs.

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The Pilgrim's Progress

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Places in The Pilgrim's Progress


City of Destruction, Christian's home, representative of the world (cf. Isaiah 19:18) Slough of Despond, the miry swamp on the way to the Wicket Gate; one of the hazards of the journey to the Celestial City. In the First Part, Christian falling into it, sinks further under the weight of his sins (his burden) and his sense of their guilt. Mount Sinai, a frightening mountain near the Village of Morality that threatens all who would go there. Wicket Gate, the entry point of the straight and narrow way to the Celestial City. Pilgrims are required to enter the way by way of the Wicket Gate. House of the Interpreter, a type of spiritual museum to guide the pilgrims to the Celestial City. Cross and Sepulchre, emblematic of Calvary and the tomb of Christ. Hill Difficulty, both the hill and the road up is called "Difficulty"; it is flanked by two treacherous byways "Danger" and "Destruction." There are three choices: CHRISTIAN takes "Difficulty" (the right way), and Formalist and Hypocrisy take the two other ways, which prove to be fatal dead ends. House Beautiful, a palace that serves as a rest stop for pilgrims to the Celestial City. It apparently sits atop the Hill Difficulty. From the House Beautiful one can see forward to the Delectable Mountains. It represents the Christian congregation, and Bunyan takes its name from a gate of the Jerusalem temple (Acts 3:2, 10). Valley of Humiliation, the valley on the other side of the Hill Difficulty, going down into which is said to be extremely slippery by the House Beautiful's damsel Prudence. It is where Christian meets Apollyon in the place known as "Forgetful Green." This valley had been a delight to the "Lord of the Hill", Jesus Christ, in his "state of humiliation." Valley of the Shadow of Death, a treacherous valley with a quick sand bog on one side and a deep chasm/ditch on the other side of the King's Highway going through it (cf. Psalm 23:4). Gaius's inn, a rest stop in the Second Part Vanity and Vanity Fair, a city through which the King's Highway passes and the yearlong fair that is held there. Plain Ease, a pleasant area traversed by the pilgrims. Hill Lucre, location of a reputed silver mine that proves to be the place where By-Ends and his companions are lost. The Pillar of Salt, which was Lot's wife, who was turned into a pillar of salt when Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed. The pilgrim's note that its location near the Hill Lucre is a fitting warning to those who are tempted by Demas to go into the Lucre silver mine. River of God or River of the Water of Life, a place of solace for the pilgrims. It flows through a meadow, green all year long and filled with lush fruit trees. In the Second Part the Good Shepherd is found there to whom Christiana's grandchildren are entrusted. By-Path Meadow, the place leading to the grounds of Doubting Castle. Doubting Castle, the home of Giant Despair and his wife; only one key could open its doors and gates, the key Promise. The Delectable Mountains, known as "Immanuel's Land." Lush country from whose heights one can see many delights and curiosities. It is inhabited by sheep and their shepherds, and from Mount Clear one can see the

A map of the places Pilgrim travels through on his progress; a fold-out map from an edition printed in England in 1778

The Pilgrim's Progress Celestial City. The Enchanted Ground, an area through which the King's Highway passes that has air that makes pilgrims want to stop to sleep. If one goes to sleep in this place, one never wakes up. The shepherds of the Delectable Mountains warn pilgrims about this. The Land of Beulah, a lush garden area just this side of the River of Death. The River of Death, the dreadful river that surrounds Mount Zion, deeper or shallower depending on the faith of the one traversing it. The Celestial City, the "Desired Country" of pilgrims, heaven, the dwelling place of the "Lord of the Hill", God. It is situated on Mount Zion.

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Geographical and topographical features behind the fictional places


Scholars have pointed out that Bunyan may have been influenced in the creation of places in The Pilgrim's Progress by his own surrounding environment. Albert Foster[13] describes the natural features of Bedfordshire that apparently turn up in The Pilgrim's Progress. Vera Brittain in her thoroughly researched biography of Bunyan,[14] identifies seven locations that appear in the allegory. Other connections are suggested in books not directly associated with either John Bunyan or The Pilgrim's Progress. At least twenty-one natural or man-made geographical or topographical features from The Pilgrim's Progress have been identifiedplaces and structures John Bunyan regularly would have seen in his travels on foot or horseback. The entire journey from The City of Destruction to the Celestial City may have been based on Bunyan's own usual journey from Bedford, on the main road that runs less than a mile behind his Elstow cottage, through Ampthill, Dunstable and St Albans, to London. In the same sequence as these subjects appear in The Pilgrim's Progress, the geographical realities are as follows: 1. The plain (across which Christian fled) is Bedford Plain, which is fifteen miles wide with the town of Bedford in the middle and the river Ouse meandering through the northern half; 2. The "Slough of Despond" (a major obstacle for Christian and Pliable: "a very miry slough") is the large deposits of gray clay, which supplied London Brick's works in Stewartby, which was closed in 2008. On either side of the Bedford to Ampthill road these deposits match Bunyan's description exactly. Presumably, the road was built on the "twenty thousand cart loads" of fill mentioned in The Pilgrim's Progress;[15] 3. "Mount Sinai", the high hill on the way to the village of Morality, whose side "that was next the way side, did hang so much over,"[16] is the red, sandy, cliffs just north of Ridgmont (i.e. "Rouge Mont"); 4. The "Wicket Gate" is the wooden gate at the entrance to the Elstow parish church;[17] 5. The castle from which arrows were shot at those who would enter the Wicket Gate is the stand-alone tower, the remnant of an abbey that stood beside the church. 6. The "House of the Interpreter" is the rectory of St John's church in the south end of Bedford, where Bunyan was mentored by the pastor John Gifford; 7. The wall "Salvation" that fenced in the King's Highway coming after the House of the Interpreter[18] is the red brick wall, over four miles long, beside the Ridgmont to Woburn road, marking the boundary of the Duke of Bedford's estate; 8. The "place somewhat ascending ... [with] a cross ... and a sepulchre"[18] is the village cross and well that stands by the church at opposite ends of the sloping main street of Stevington, a small village five miles west of Bedford. Bunyan would often preach in a wood by the River Ouse just outside the village. 9. The "Hill Difficulty" is Ampthill Hill, on the main Bedford road, the steepest hill in the county. A sandy range of hills stretches across Bedfordshire from Woburn through Ampthill to Potton. These hills are characterized by dark, dense and dismal woods reminiscent of the byways "Danger" and "Destruction", the alternatives to the way "Difficulty" that goes up the hill;[19]

The Pilgrim's Progress 10. The pleasant arbour on the way up the Hill Difficulty is a small "lay-by", part way up Ampthill Hill, on the east side. A photo, taken in 1908, shows a cyclist resting there;[20] 11. The "very narrow passage" to the "Palace Beautiful"[21] is an entrance cut into the high bank by the roadside to the east at the top of Ampthill Hill; 12. The "Palace Beautiful" is Houghton (formerly Ampthill) House, built in 1621 but a ruin since 1800. The house faced north; and, because of the dramatic view over the Bedford plain, it was a popular picnic site during the first half of the twentieth century when many families could not travel far afield;.[22] The tradesman's entrance was on the south side looking out over the town of Ampthill and towards the Chilterns, the model of "The Delectable Mountains"; 13. The "Valley of the Shadow of Death" is Millbrook gorge to the west of Ampthill; 14. "Vanity Fair" is Stourbridge Fair, held in Cambridge during late August and early September. It fits John Bunyan's account of the fair's antiquity and its vast variety of goods sold.[23] Other suggested markets or fairs, such as Bedford, Elstow or Ampthill, were much too modest to match the description in The Pilgrim's Progress.[24] Sermons were preached each Sunday during Stourbridge Fair in an area called the "Dodderey." John Bunyan preached often in Toft, just four miles west of Cambridge, and there is a place known as "Bunyan's Barn" in Toft.[25] It is surmised that Bunyan visited the notable Stourbridge Fair; 15. The "pillar of salt", Lot's wife,[26] is a weather-beaten statue that looks much like person-sized salt pillar. It is located on small island in the river Ouse just north of Turvey bridge, eight miles west of Bedford near Stevington; 16. The "River of the Water of Life", with trees along each bank[27] is the river Ouse east of Bedford, where John Bunyan as a boy would fish with his sister Margaret. It might also be the valley of river Flit, flowing through Flitton and Flitwick south of Ampthill; 17. "Doubting Castle" is Ampthill Castle, built in the early 15th century and often visited by King Henry VIII as a hunting lodge. Henry, corpulent and dour, may have been considered by Bunyan to be a model for Giant Despair. Amphill Castle was used for the "house arrest" of Queen Catherine of Aragon and her retinue in 1535-36 before she was taken to Kimbolton. The castle was dismantled soon after 1660, so Bunyan would have seen its towers in the 1650s and known of the empty castle plateau in the 1670s[28] Giant Despair was killed and Doubting Castle was demolished in the second part of The Pilgrim's Progress.[29] 18. The "Delectable Mountains" are the Chiltern Hills that can be seen from the second floor of Houghton House. "Chalk hills, stretching fifty miles from the Thames to Dunstable Downs, have beautiful blue flowers and butterflies, with glorious beech trees."[30] Reminiscent of the possibility of seeing the Celestial City from Mount Clear,[31] on a clear day one can see London's buildings from Dunstable Downs near Whipsnade Zoo; 19. The "Land of Beulah" is Middlesex county north and west of London, which had pretty villages, market gardens, and estates containing beautiful parks and gardens): "woods of Islington to the green hills of Hampstead & Highgate";[32] 20. The "very deep river"[33] is the River Thames, one thousand feet wide at high tide; however, in keeping with Bunyan's route to London, the river would be to the north of the city; 21. The "Celestial City" is London, center of John Bunyan's worldmost of his neighbours never travelled that far. In the 1670s, after the Great Fire of 1666, London sported a new, gleaming, city center with forty churches.[34] In the last decade of Bunyan's life (16781688) some of his best Christian friends lived in London, including a Lord Mayor.

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Cultural Influence
The allegory of this book has antecedents in a large number of Christian devotional works that speak of the soul's path to Heaven, from the Lyke-Wake Dirge forward. Bunyan's allegory stands out above his predecessors because of his simple and effective, prose style, steeped in Biblical texts and cadences. He confesses his own navet in the verse prologue to the book: ". . . I did not think To shew to all the World my Pen and Ink In such a mode; I only thought to make I knew not what: nor did I undertake Thereby to please my Neighbour; no not I; I did it mine own self to gratifie."

The frontispiece and title-page from an edition printed in England in 1778

John Bunyan himself wrote a popular hymn that encourages a hearer to become a pilgrim-like Christian: All Who Would Valiant Be. Because of the widespread longtime popularity of "The Pilgrim's Progress", Christian's hazards whether originally from Bunyan or borrowed by him from the Bible the "Slough of Despond", the "Hill Difficulty", "Valley of the Shadow of Death", "Doubting Castle", and the "Enchanted Ground", his temptations (the wares of "Vanity Fair" and the pleasantness of "By-Path Meadow"), his foes ("Apollyon" and "Giant Despair"), and the helpful stopping places he visits (the "House of the Interpreter", the "House Beautiful", the "Delectable Mountains", and the "Land of Beulah") have become commonly used phrases proverbial in English. For example, "One has one's own Slough of Despond to trudge through." Famous Christian preacher C.H Spurgeon was influenced by The Pilgrim's Progress and is said to have read the book over 100 times.[35] Pilgrim's Progresss is listed as one of Mr Tulliver's books in George Elliot's "The Mill on the Floss".

Context in Christendom
The explicit Protestant theology of The Pilgrim's Progress made it much more popular than its predecessors. Bunyan's plain style breathes life into the abstractions of the anthropomorphized temptations and abstractions that Christian encounters and with whom he converses on his course to Heaven. Samuel Johnson said that "this is the great merit of the book, that the most cultivated man cannot find anything to praise more highly, and the child knows nothing more amusing." Three years after its publication (1681), it was reprinted in colonial America, and was widely read in the Puritan colonies. Because of its explicit English Protestant theology The Pilgrim's Progress shares the then popular English antipathy toward the Roman Catholic Church. It was published over the years of the Popish Plot (16781681) and ten years before the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and it shows the influence of John Foxe's Acts and Monuments. Bunyan presents a decrepit and harmless giant to confront Christian at the end of the Valley of the Shadow of Death that is explicitly named "Pope": Now I saw in my Dream, that at the end of this Valley lay blood, bones, ashes, and mangled bodies of men, even of Pilgrims that had gone this way formerly: And while I was musing what should be the reason, I espied a little before me a Cave, where two Giants, Pope and Pagan, dwelt in old times, by whose Power and Tyranny the Men whose bones, blood ashes, &c. lay there, were cruelly put to death. But by this place Christian went without much danger, whereat I somewhat wondered; but I have learnt

The Pilgrim's Progress since, that Pagan has been dead many a day; and as for the other, though he be yet alive, he is by reason of age, and also of the many shrewd brushes that he met with in his younger dayes, grown so crazy and stiff in his joynts, that he can now do little more than sit in his Caves mouth, grinning at Pilgrims as they go by, and biting his nails, because he cannot come at them.[36] When Christian and Faithful travel through Vanity Fair, Bunyan adds the editorial comment: But as in other fairs, some one Commodity is as the chief of all the fair, so the Ware of Rome and her Merchandize is greatly promoted in this fair: Only our English Nation, with some others, have taken a dislike thereat.[37] In the Second Part while Christiana and her group of pilgrims led by Greatheart stay for some time in Vanity, the city is terrorized by a seven-headed beast[38] which is driven away by Greatheart and other stalwarts.[39] In his endnotes W.R. Owens notes about the woman that governs the beast: "This woman was believed by Protestants to represent Antichrist, the Church of Rome. In a posthumously published treatise, Of Antichrist, and his Ruine (1692), Bunyan gave an extended account of the rise and (shortly expected) fall of Antichrist."[40]

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Foreign language versions


Beginning in the 1850s, illustrated versions of The Pilgrim's Progress in Chinese were printed in Hong Kong, Shanghai and Fuzhou and widely distributed by Protestant missionaries. Hong Xiuquan, the quasi-Christian leader of the Taiping Rebellion, declared that the book was his favorite reading.[41]

African version of Pilgrim's Progress from 1902

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The "Third Part"


The Third Part of the Pilgrim's Progress was written by an anonymous author; beginning in 1693, it was published with Bunyan's authentic two parts. It continued to be republished with Bunyan's work until 1852.[42] This third part presented the pilgrimage of Tender-Conscience and his companions.

Musical settings
Tender-Conscience, hero of Part Three, awakens The book was the basis of an opera by Ralph Vaughan Williams, from sleep in the palace of Carnal-Security premiered in 1951; see The Pilgrim's Progress (opera). It was also the basis of a condensed radio adaptation starring John Gielgud, including, as background music, several excerpts from Vaughan Williams's orchestral works. This radio version, originally presented in 1942, was newly recorded by Hyperion Records in 1990, in a performance conducted by Matthew Best. It again starred Gielgud, and featured Richard Pasco and Ursula Howells.

English composer Ernest Austin set the whole story as a huge narrative tone poem for solo organ, with optional 6-part choir and narrator, lasting approximately 2 hours. Twin brothers Keith and Kurt Landaas also composed, recorded, and performed a compelling rock opera version of the work in the early 1990s. The first act focused on Christian's journey, the second on that of Christiana, and their teenage son Matthew. A musical based on the book was presented at the LifeHouse Theater in Redlands, California, in 2004 and 2008, with book, music and lyrics by Kenneth Wright, with additional text, music and lyrics by Wayne Scott. In 2007 Cuban based duet Quidam Pilgrim released a musical setting of the book under the name of "Pilgrim" combining elements of alternative rock, Celtic, new age and Cuban folk music. The songs were written in English and Latin, also including one track in Spanish, these were performed on Cuban national television on several occasions receiving a positive audience response.

References in literature
Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist (1838) is subtitled 'The Parish Boy's Progress'. In 1847 William Makepeace Thackeray entitled his work Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero with the Vanity Fair of Pilgrim's Progress in mind. Mark Twain gave his 1869 travelogue, The Innocents Abroad, the alternate title The New Pilgrims' Progress. In Twain's later work Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huckleberry Finn mentions The Pilgrim's Progress as he describes the works of literature in the Grangerfords' library. Twain uses this to satirize the Protestant southern aristocracy. E. E. Cummings also makes numerous references to it in his prose work, The Enormous Room. "The Celestial Railroad", a short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne, recreates Christian's journey in Hawthorne's time. Progressive thinkers have replaced the footpath by a railroad, and pilgrims may now travel under steam power. The journey is considerably faster, but somewhat more questionable... John Buchan was an admirer of Bunyan, and Pilgrim's Progress features significantly in his third Richard Hannay novel, Mr Standfast, which also takes its title from one of Bunyan's characters. Alan Moore in his League of Extraordinary Gentlemen enlists The Pilgrim's Progress protagonist, Christian, as a member of the earliest version of this group, Prospero's Men, having become wayward on his journey during his visit in Vanity Fair, stepping down an alleyway and found himself in London in the 1670s, and unable to return to his homeland. This group disbanded in 1690 after Prospero vanished into the Blazing World; however, some parts of

The Pilgrim's Progress the text seem to imply that Christian resigned from Prospero's league before its disbanding and that Christian traveled to the Blazing World before Prospero himself. The apparent implication is that; within the context of the League stories; the Celestial City Christian seeks and the Blazing World may in fact be one and the same. In Louisa May Alcott's Little Women, whose protagonist Jo reads it at the outset of the novel, and tries to follow the good example of Bunyan's Christian. C. S. Lewis wrote a book inspired by The Pilgrim's Progress called The Pilgrim's Regress, in which a character named John follows a vision to escape from The Landlord, a less friendly version of The Owner in Pilgrim's Regress. It is an allegory of C. S. Lewis' own journey from a religious childhood to a pagan adulthood in which he rediscovers his Christian God. Henry Williamson's The Patriot's Progress references the title of The Pilgrim's Progress and the symbolic nature of John Bunyan's work. The protagonist of the semi-autobiographical novel is John Bullock, the quintessential English soldier during World War I. The character of Billy Pilgrim in Slaughterhouse-5: The Children's Crusade, by Kurt Vonnegut, is a clear homage to a similar journey to enlightenment experienced by Christian, although Billy's journey leads him to an existential acceptance of life and of a fatalist human condition. Vonnegut's parallel to The Pilgrim's Progress is deliberate and evident in Billy's surname. Charlotte Bront refers to Pilgrim's Progress in most of her novels, including Jane Eyre,[43] Shirley,[44] and Villette.[45] Her alterations to the quest-narrative have led to much critical interest, particular with the ending of Jane Eyre.[46] A classic science fiction fan novelette, The Enchanted Duplicator by Walt Willis and Bob Shaw, is explicitly modeled on The Pilgrim's Progress; it has been repeatedly reprinted over the decades since its first appearance in 1954: in professional publications, in fanzines and as a monograph. Enid Blyton wrote The Land of Far Beyond as a children's version of Pilgrim's Progress. First published in 1942 by Methuen. The book is briefly referenced in the David Foster Wallace novel Infinite Jest, when it is compared to the Eschaton vademecum that is written by Hal Incandenza. Lois McMasters Bujold quotes Pilgrim's Progress in her short story "Borders of Infinity" set in her science fiction Vorkosigan Saga. John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath mentions The Pilgrim's Progress as one of an (anonymous) character's favorite books. Steinbeck's novel was itself an allegorical spiritual journey by Tom Joad through America during the Great Depression, and often made Christian allusions to sacrifice and redemption in a world of social injustice. Christopher Nicholson's character Tom Page in The Elephant Keeper identifies Pilgrim's Progress as being one of two books he has read; the other being Gulliver's Travels. Sarah Orne Jewett's novel The Country of the Pointed Firs describes the progressing of carriages towards a family reunion as a "Pilgrim's Progress".

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The Pilgrim's Progress in films, television, video games, and music


The novel was made into a film, Pilgrim's Progress, in 1912. [47] In 1950 an hour-long animated version was made by Baptista Films. This version was edited down to 35 minutes and re-released with new music in 1978. As of 2007 the original version is difficult to find, but the 1978 has been released on both VHS and DVD.[48] English band Procol Harum released a song titled "Pilgrim's Progress" on their album A Salty Dog in 1969. In 1979, another film version was made by Ken Anderson, in which Liam Neeson played the role of the Pilgrim [49] and other smaller roles like the crucified Christ. Maurice O'Callaghan played the Evangelist,[50] and Peter Thomas played Worldly Wiseman. [51] A sequel Christiana followed later. In 2008, a version by Danny Carrales,Pilgrim's Progress: Journey to Heaven, was produced. In 1985 Yorkshire Television produced a 129-minute 9-part serial presentation of The Pilgrim's Progress with animated stills by Alan Parry and narrated by Paul Copley entitled Dangerous Journey. In 1989, Orion's Gate, a producer of Biblical/Spiritual audio dramas produced The Pilgrim's Progress as a 6 hour audio dramatization. Samples and more information may be found at http:/ / www. OrionsGate. org. This production was followed several years later by Christiana: Pilgrim's Progress Part II, another 8 hour audio dramatization. In 1993, the popular Christian radio drama, Adventures in Odyssey (produced by Focus on the Family), featured a two-part story, titled "Pilgrim's Progress: Revisited." In 2003 the game Heaven Bound was released by Emerald Studios. The 3D adventure-style game, based on the novel, was only released for the PC.[52] A 2006 computer animation version was made, directed and narrated by Scott Cawthon. The novel is frequently alluded to in the video game Deus Ex: Invisible War. Saman, a significant character, utilizes its allegories to create purpose in his speech; "Young enemy, thy name is Pliable... you bend your ear to the Worldly Wiseman, to continue the archaic analogy.". If the player makes the choice to side with the Templar faction at the end of the game, after the cinematic, the quote appears, taken from both the novel and Proverbs 21:16 - "He that wandereth out of the way of understanding, shall remain in the congregation of the dead." Curiously, the player's actions towards the Templar faction are not entirely unlike the struggle of Christian throughout the Pilgrim's Progress. At the 2009 San Antonio Independent Christian Film Festival, the adaptation Pilgrim's Progress: Journey to Heaven received one nomination for best feature length independent film and one nomination for best music score. British music band Kula Shaker released an album called Pilgrim's Progress on June 28, 2010. Director Todd Fietkau is making a version of Pilgrim's Progress. The family film The Wylds was inspired by The Pilgrim's Progress.

Editions
James Clarke & Co Ltd, 1987, ISBN 0-7188-2164-5 Oxford at the Clarendon Press, edited by James Wharey and Roger Sharrock, providing a critical edition of all 13 editions of both parts from the author's lifetime, 1960, ISBN 0-19-811802-3 Oxford World's Classics edition, edited by W.R. Owens, Oxford, 2003, ISBN 978-0-19-280361-0 Penguin Books, edited with an introduction by Roger Sharrock, London, 1965, ISBN 0-14-043004-0 Pocket Books, New York, 1957 Altemus Edition, Henry Altemus, 507, 509, 511 and 513 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, 1891

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Abridged editions
The Children's Pilgrim's Progress. The story taken from the work by John Bunyan. New York: Sheldon and Company, 1866.

Retellings
"The Aussie Pilgrim's Progress" by Kel Richards. Ballarat: Strand Publishing, 2005. John Bunyan's Dream Story: the Pilgrim's Progress retold for children and adapted to school reading by James Baldwin. New York: American Book Co., 1913. John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress as retold by Gary D. Schmidt & illustrated by Barry Moser Published by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Copyright 1994. "The Land of Far-Beyond" by Enid Blyton. Methuen, 1942. Little Pilgrim's Progress-Helen L. Taylor simplifies the vocabulary and concepts for younger readers, while keeping the story line intact. Published by Moody Press, a ministry of Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, Illinois, 1992, 1993. Pilgrim's Progress (graphic novel by Marvel Comics). Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1993. The Pilgrim's Progress - A 21st Century Re-telling of the John Bunyan Classic - Dry Ice Publishing, 2008 directed by Danny Carrales http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1000768/ The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan Every Child Can Read. Edited by Jesse Lyman Hurlbut. Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Co., 1909. Pilgrim's Progress in Today's English - as retold by James H. Thomas (ISBN : [53]) - Moody Publishers, 1971. The Pilgrim's Progress in Words of One Syllable by Mary Godolphin. London: George Routledge and Sons, 1869. Pilgrim's Progress retold and shortened for modern readers by Mary Godolphin (1884). Drawings by Robert Lawson. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1939. [a newly illustrated edition of the retelling by Mary Godolphin] The New Amplified Pilgrim's Progress (both book and dramatized audio) - as retold by James Pappas. Published by Orion's Gate (1999). A slightly expanded and highly dramatized version of John Bunyan's original. Large samples of the text are available at http://www.orionsgate.org "Quest for Celestia: A Reimagining of The Pilgrim's Progress" by Steven James, 2006 "The Pilgrim's Progress" A graphic novel by Stephen T. Moore http://www.pilgrimstory.com (c)2011 # ISBN 1461032717 # ISBN 978-1461032717 150 pages.

Notes
[1] "The two parts of The Pilgrim's Progress in reality constitute a whole, and the whole is, without doubt, the most influential religious book ever written in the English language" (Alexander M. Witherspoon in his introduction, John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, (New York: Pocket Books, Inc., 1957), vi.; cf. also John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., Oxford World's Classics, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), xiii; Abby Sage Richardson, Familiar Talks on English Literature: A Manual (Chicago, A.C. McClurg and Co., 1892), 221; "For two hundred years or more no other English book was so generally known and read" (James Baldwin in his foreword, James Baldwin, John Bunyan's Dream Story, (New York: American Book Company, 1913), 6). [2] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., Oxford World's Classics, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), xiii: "... the book has never been out of print. It has been published in innumerable editions, and has been translated into over two hundred languages." Cf. also F.L. Cross, ed., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), 1092 sub loco. [3] John Brown, John Bunyan: His Life, Times and Work, (1885, revised edition 1928) [4] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, edited with an introduction by Roger Sharrock, (Harmondsworth: Penguins Books, Ltd., 1965), 10, 59, 94, 326-27, 375. [5] "The copy for the first edition of the First Part of The Pilgrim's Progress was entered in the Stationers' Register on 22 December 1677 ... The book was licensed and entered in the Term Catalogue for the following Hilary Term, 18 February 1678; this date would customarily indicate the time of publication, or only slightly precede it" [John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, James Blanton Wharey and Roger Sharrock, eds., Second Edition, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), xxi]. [6] 2 Peter 1:19: "a lamp shining in a dark place" [7] Go to section 1.2.3.1 Mr. Sagacity leaves the author

The Pilgrim's Progress


[8] A marginal note indicates, "There is no deliverance from the guilt and burden of sin, but by the death and blood of Christ", cf. Sharrock, page 59. [9] "Many of the pictures in the House of the Interpreter seem to be derived from emblem books or to be created in the manner and spirit of the emblem. ... Usually each emblem occupied a page, and consisted of an allegorical picture at the top with underneath it a device or motto, a short Latin verse, and a poem explaining the allegory. Bunyan himself wrote an emblem book, A Book for Boys and Girls (1688) ...", cf. Sharrock, p. 375. [10] "the whole armour (panoply) of God" [11] "the whole armour (panoply) of God" [12] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, (New York: Pocket Books, Inc., 1957), vi. [13] Albert J. Foster, Bunyan's Country: Studies in the Topography of Pilgrim's Progress, (London: H. Virtue, 1911) [14] Vera Brittain, In the Steps of John Bunyan, (London: Rich & Cowan, 1949)[http/::www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jbrittain.htm] [15] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 17 [16] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 20. [17] See article on John Bunyan [18] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 37. [19] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 41-42. [20] A. Underwood, Ampthill in old picture postcards, (Zaltbommel, Netherlands: European Library, 1989). [21] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 45. [22] A. Underwood, Ampthill in Old Picture Cards, (Zaltbommel, Netherlands: European Library, 1989) [23] E. South and O. Cook, Prospect of Cambridge, (London: Batsford, 1985). [24] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 85-86. [25] Vera Brittain, In the Steps of John Bunyan, (London: Rich & Cowan, 1949) [26] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 105. [27] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 107. [28] A.J. Foster, Ampthill Towers, (London: Thomas Nelson, 1910). [29] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 262-264. [30] J. Hadfield, The Shell Guide to England, (London: Michael Joseph, 1970) [31] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 119. [32] E. Rutherfurd, London: The Novel, (New York: Crown Publishers, 1997). [33] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 147. [34] H.V. Morton, In Search of London, (London: Methuen & Co., 1952) [35] http:/ / www. seegod. org/ Spurgeon. htm [36] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 66, 299. [37] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 86, 301. [38] Revelation 17:1-18. [39] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 258-59. [40] John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, W.R. Owens, ed., Oxford World's Classics (Oxford: University Press, 2003), 318: "See Misc. Works, xiii. 421-504." [41] Jonathan D. Spence, God's Chinese Son, 1996. p. 280-282 [42] New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, vol. 2 sub loco. (http:/ / www. ccel. org/ ccel/ schaff/ encyc02. html?term=Bunyan, John) [43] Bront, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Ed. Richard J. Dunn. WW Norton: 2001. p. 385. [44] Bront, Charlotte. Shirley. Oxford University Press: 2008. p. 48, 236. [45] Bront, Charlotte. Villette. Ed. Tim Dolin. Oxford University Press: 2008, p. 6, 44. [46] Beaty, Jerome. "St. John's Way and the Wayward Reader". Bront, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Ed. Richard J. Dunn. WW Norton: 2001. 491-503. p. 501 [47] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0234464/ [48] A Brief History of Christian Films: 1918-2002 (http:/ / www. avgeeks. com/ bhess/ christian_film_history. html#_ftn2) [49] http:/ / www. astralresearch. org/ mysticalmovieguide/ mmlist. pl?exact=Pilgrim:27s%20Progress& year=1979& findwhere=allsyn& index=1 [50] http:/ / www. astralresearch. org/ mysticalmovieguide/ mmlist. pl?exact=Pilgrim:27s%20Progress& year=1979& findwhere=allsyn& index=1 [51] http:/ / www. astralresearch. org/ mysticalmovieguide/ mmlist. pl?exact=Pilgrim:27s%20Progress& year=1979& findwhere=allsyn& index=1 [52] Heaven Bound Game for PC (http:/ / www. ceganmo. com/ 2008/ 07/ heaven-bound. html#_ftn2) [53] http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 080246520X/ 978-0802465207

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External links
Pilgrim's Progress (actual text) Pilgrim's Progress (http://www.verselink.org/topics/stories.html) (condensed and illustrated) Pilgrim's Progress (http://librivox.org/the-pilgrims-progress-by-john-bunyan/) (audio version) Audio studies on the characters in Pilgrim's Progress (http://www.sermonsfortoday.org/browse/ sermonsinseries.php?series=Series on Bunyan's Characters) Commentary on Pilgrim's Progress (http://www.bunyanministries.org/commentary_pp.htm) (PDF format) Biography of Bunyan (http://www.wholesomewords.org/biography/bbunyan.html) Bunyan Meeting Church Bedford (http://www.bedfordmuseum.org/johnbunyanmuseum/church.htm) John Bunyan Museum Bedford (http://www.bedfordmuseum.org/johnbunyanmuseum/bunyan_home.htm) Moot Hall Elstow Museum specialising in 17th C life and John Bunyan (http://www.bedford.gov.uk/ moothall) International John Bunyan Society (http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/~dgay/Bunyan.htm) Bunyan Ministries.org (http://www.bunyanministries.org) Large Bunyan Resource site Works by John Bunyan (http://www.gutenberg.org/author/John_Bunyan) at Project Gutenberg Writings of Bunyan (http://www.ccel.org/b/bunyan) at the Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Complete works online (http://www.johnbunyan.org) John Bunyan Online (http://www.mountzion.org/johnbunyan/) Online Bunyan Archive. Acacia John Bunyan Online Library (http://acacia.pair.com/Acacia.John.Bunyan/) Anthology of English Literature (http://www.luminarium.org/eightlit/bunyan/bunyanbio.htm) International Literary Quarterly (http://www.interlitq.org/issue4/michael_schmidt/job.php) Glimpses of Christian History (http://www.chinstitute.org/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps086.shtml) Books by Bunyan (http://swordbooks.com/bunyanjohn.aspx) Sword of the Lord Publishers

A Little Pretty Pocket-Book

A Little Pretty Pocket-Book

88

A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, intended for the Amusement of Little Master Tommy and Pretty Miss Polly with Two Letters from Jack the Giant Killer is the title of a 1744 children's book by British publisher John Newbery. It is generally considered the first children's book, and consists of simple rhymes for each of the letters of the alphabet. To market the book to the children of the day, the book came with either a ball or a pincushion, depending on which gender the child is. The book was very popular, and earned Newbery much fame. Eventually the Newbery Medal was named after him. The book includes a woodcut of stoolball and a rhyme entitled "Base-Ball." This is the first known instance of the word baseball in print.[1] The book was very popular in England, and was then later published in Colonial America in 1762.[1] Of Baseball's English origin, "The game of Rounders has been played in England since Tudor Times, with the earliest reference being in 1744 in "A Little Pretty Pocketbook" where it is called Baseball. It is a striking and fielding team game, which involves hitting a small hard leather cased ball with a round wooden or metal bat and then running around 4 bases in order to score" [2] .

A woodcut from A Pretty Little Pocketbook, (1744) England, showing the first reference to baseball

References
[1] Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006. [2] National Rounders Association - History of the Game (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071112065508/ http:/ / www. nra-rounders. co. uk/ dyncat. cfm?catid=17177) in an Archive.org snapshot from 2007

External links
Digital edition (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbc3&fileName=rbc0001_2003juv05880page. db) at the Library of Congress Article (http://www.history.org/history/teaching/enewsletter/volume2/june04/pocketbook.cfm) from History.org

The Governess, or The Little Female Academy

89

The Governess, or The Little Female Academy


The Governess, or The Little Female Academy (published 1749) by Sarah Fielding is the first full-length novel written for children,[1] and a significant work of children's literature of the 18th century.[2]

Title page from the first edition of Fielding's The Governess

In her preface, the author says: My young Readers, Before you begin the following Sheets, I beg you will stop a Moment at this Preface, to consider with me, what is the true Use of Reading; and if you can once fix this Truth in your Minds, namely, that the true Use of Books is to make you wiser and better, you will then have both Profit and Pleasure from what you read. One Thing quite necessary to make any Instructions that come either from your Governors, or your Books, of any Use to you, is to attend with Desire of Learning, and not to be apt to fansy yourselves too wise to be taught. For this Spirit will keep you ignorant as long as you live, and you will be like the Birds in the following Fable:
"The Mag-pye alone, of all the Birds, had the Art of building a Nest, the Form of which was with a covering over Head, and only a small Hole to creep out at.The rest of the Birds, being without Houses, desired the Pye to teach them how to build one.A Day is appointed, and they all meet.The Pye then says, "You must lay two Sticks across, thus.""Aye, says the Crow, I thought that was the way to begin.Then lay a Feather, or a Bit of Frontispiece to Mrs. Sherwood's 1820 revised edition of The Governess. Moss.Certainly, says the Jack-Daw, I knew that must

The Governess, or The Little Female Academy


follow.Then place more Sticks, Straws, Feathers and Moss, in such a manner as this.Aye, without doubt, cries the Starling, that must necessarily follow; any one could tell how to do that." ...

90

The Reason these foolish Birds never knew how to build more than half a Nest, was, that instead of trying to learn what the Pye told them, they would boast of knowing more already than he could teach them: And this same Fate will certainly attend all those, who had rather please themselves with the Vanity of fansying they are already wise, than take Pains to become so. But take care, that instead of being really humble in your own Hearts, you do not, by a fansied Humility, run into an Error of the other Extreme, and say that you are incapable of understanding it at all; and therefore, for Laziness, and sooner than take any Pains, fit yourselves down contented to be ignorant, and think, by confessing your Ignorance, to make full Amends for your Folly. This is being as contemptible as the Owl who hates the Light of the Sun; and therefore often makes Use of the Power he has, of drawing a Film over his Eyes, to keep himself in his beloved Darkness.

Notes
[1] Fielding, Sarah (with an introduction and bibliography by Jill E. Grey). 1749, 1968. The Governess or, The Little Female Academy. Oxford University Press, London. 375 pages. [2] Carpenter, H. and M. Prichard. 1984. The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York.

Bibliography
Bree, Linda. Sarah Fielding. Boston: Twayne, 1996. Bundan, Judith. "Girls Must Be Seen and Heard: Domestic Surveillance in Sarah Fielding's The Governess". Children's Literature Association Quarterly 19.1 (1994): 8-14. Downs-Miers, Deborah. "For Betty and the Little Female Academy: A Book of Their Own". Children's Literature Association Quarterly 10.1 (1985): 30-33. Fielding, Sarah. The Governess; or, The Little Female Academy. Ed. Candace Ward. Peterborough: Broadview Editions, 2005. ISBN 1551114127. Suzuki, Mika. "The Little Female Academy and The Governess". Women's Writing 1.3 (1994): 325-39. Wilner, Arlene Fish. "Education and Ideology in Sarah Fielding's The Governess. Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture 24 (1995): 307-27.

External links
The Governess, or The Little Female Academy (http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/f#a747) at Project Gutenberg

Lessons for Children

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Lessons for Children


Lessons for Children is a series of four age-adapted reading primers written by the prominent 18th-century British poet and essayist Anna Laetitia Barbauld. Published in 1778 and 1779, the books initiated a revolution in children's literature in the Anglo-American world. For the first time, the needs of the child reader were seriously considered: the typographically simple texts progress in difficulty as the child learns. In perhaps the first demonstration of experiential pedagogy in Anglo-American children's Title page for an 1801 edition of Lessons for Children, part I literature, Barbauld's books use a conversational style, which depicts a mother and her son discussing the natural world. Based on the educational theories of John Locke, Barbauld's books emphasize learning through the senses. One of the primary morals of Barbauld's lessons is that individuals are part of a community; in this she was part of a tradition of female writing that emphasized the interconnectedness of society. Charles, the hero of the texts, explores his relationship to nature, to animals, to people, and finally to God. Lessons had a significant effect on the development of children's literature in Britain and the United States. Maria Edgeworth, Sarah Trimmer, Jane Taylor, and Ellenor Fenn, to name a few of the most illustrious, were inspired to become children's authors because of Lessons and their works dominated children's literature for several generations. Lessons itself was reprinted for over a century. However, because of the disrepute that educational writings fell into, largely due to the low esteem awarded Barbauld, Trimmer, and others by contemporary male Romantic writers, Barbauld's Lessons has rarely been studied by scholars. In fact, it has only been analyzed in depth since the 1990s.

Publication, structure, and pedagogical theory


Publication and structure
Lessons depicts a mother teaching her son. Presumably, many of the events were inspired by Barbauld's experiences of teaching her own adopted son, her nephew Charles, as the events correlate with his age and growth.[1] Although there are no surviving first edition copies of the works, children's literature scholar Mitzi Myers has reconstructed the probable publication dates from Barbauld's letters and the books' earliest reviews as follows: Lessons for Children of two to three (1778); Lessons for Children of three, part I (1778); Lessons for Children of three, part II (1778); and Lessons for Children of three to four (1779).[2] After its initial publication, the series was often published as a single volume.

Lessons for Children

92 Barbauld demanded that her books be printed in large type with wide margins, so that children could easily read them; she was more than likely the "originator" of this practice, according to Barbauld scholar William McCarthy, and "almost certainly [its] popularizer".[3] In her history of children's literature in The Guardian of Education (18021806), Sarah Trimmer noted these innovations, as well as the use of good-quality paper and large spaces between words.[4] While making reading easier, these production changes also made the books too expensive for the children of the poor, therefore Barbauld's books helped to create a distinct aesthetic for the middle-class children's book.[5] Barbauld's texts were designed for the developing reader, beginning with words of one syllable and progressing to multi-syllabic words.[6] The first part of Lessons includes simple statements such as: "Ink is black, and papa's shoes are black. Paper is white, and Charles's frock is white."[7] The second part increases in difficulty: "February is very cold too, but the days are longer, and there is a yellow crocus coming up, and the mezereon tree is in blossom, and there are some white snow-drops peeking up their little heads."[8]

A page from Barbauld's Lessons for Children, part 2, the first part for children of three (1779 Dublin edition); demonstrating wide spacing and large type

Barbauld also "departs from previous reading primers by introducing elements of story, or narrative, piecemeal before introducing her first story": the narrator explains the idea of "sequentiality" to Charles, and implicitly to the reader, before ever telling him a story.[9] For example, the days of the week are explained before Charles's trip to France.

Pedagogical theory
Barbauld's Lessons emphasizes the value of all kinds of language and literacy; not only do readers learn how to read but they also acquire the ability to understand metaphors and analogies.[10] The fourth volume in particular fosters poetic thinking and as McCarthy points out, its passages on the moon mimic Barbauld's poem "A Summer Evening's Meditation":[11]
Lessons for Children The Moon says My name is Moon; I shine to give you light in the night when the sun is set. I am very beautiful and white like silver. You may look at me always, for I am not so bright as to dazzle your eyes, and I never scorch you. I am mild and gentle. I let even the little glow-worms shine, which are quite dark by day. The stars shine all round me, but I am larger and brighter than the stars, and I look like a large pearl amongst a great many small sparkling diamonds. When you are asleep I shine through your curtains with my gentle beams, [12] and I say Sleep on, poor little tired boy, I will not disturb you. "A Summer Evening's Meditation" A tongue in every star that talks with man, And wooes him to be wise; nor wooes in vain: This dead of midnight is the noon of thought, And wisdom mounts her zenith with the stars. At this still hours the self-collected soul Turns inward, and beholds a stranger there Of high descent, and more than mortal rank; An embryo GOD; a spark of fire divine, Which must burn on for ages, when the sun, (Fair transitory creature of a day!) Has clos'd his golden eye, and wrapt in shades Forgets his wonted journey thro' the east. (lines [13] 4960)

Lessons for Children

93 Barbauld also developed a particular style that would dominate British and American children's literature for a generation: an "informal dialogue between parent and child", a conversational style that emphasized linguistic communication.[14] Lessons starts out monopolized by the mother's voice but slowly, over the course of the volumes, Charles's voice is increasingly heard as he gains confidence in his own ability to read and speak.[10] This style was an implicit critique of late 18th-century pedagogy, which typically employed rote learning and memorization. Barbauld's Lessons also illustrates mother and child engaging in quotidian activities and taking nature walks. Through these activities, the mother teaches Charles about the world around him and he explores it. This, too, was a challenge to the pedagogical orthodoxy of the day, which did not encourage experiential learning.[15] The mother shows Charles the seasons, the times of the day, and different minerals by bringing him to them rather than simply describing them and having him recite those descriptions. Charles learns the principles of "botany, zoology, numbers, change of state in chemistry ... the money system, the calendar, geography, meteorology, agriculture, political economy, geology, [and] astronomy".[16] He also inquires about all of them, making the learning process dynamic.

Benjamin Harris's Protestant Tutor, a primer popular for decades and the source for the New England Primer. The typographical layout of Barbauld's predecessors contrasts with her wide margins and large letters in Lessons for Children.

Barbauld's pedagogy was fundamentally based on John Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693), the most influential pedagogical treatise in 18th-century Britain.[17] Building on Locke's theory of the association of ideas, which he had outlined in Some Thoughts, philosopher David Hartley had developed an associationist psychology that greatly influenced writers such as Barbauld (who had read Joseph Priestley's redaction of it).[18] For the first time, educational theorists and practitioners were thinking in terms of developmental psychology. As a result, Barbauld and the women writers she influenced produced the first graded texts and the first body of literature designed for an age-specific readership.[19]

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94

Themes
Further information: Rousseau on Education Lessons not only teaches literacy, "it also initiates the child [reader] into the elements of society's symbol-systems and conceptual structures, inculcates an ethics, and encourages him to develop a certain kind of sensibility".[20] One of the series' overall aims is to demonstrate that Charles is superior to the animals he encountersbecause he can speak and reason, he is better than they are. Lessons for Children, of Three Years Old, part 2 begins: Do you know why you are better than Puss? Puss can play as well as you; and Puss can drink milk, and lie upon the carpet; and she can run as fast as you, and faster too, a great deal; and she can climb trees better; and she can catch mice, which you cannot do. But can Puss talk? No. Can Puss read? No. Then that is the reason why you are better than Pussbecause you can talk and read.[21] Andrew O'Malley writes in his survey of 18th-century children's literature, "from helping poor animals [Charles] eventually makes a seamless transition to performing small acts of charity for the poor children he encounters".[22] Charles learns to care for his fellow human beings through his exposure to animals. Barbauld's Lessons is not, therefore, Romantic in the traditional sense; it does not emphasize the solitary self or the individual. As McCarthy puts it, "every human being needs other human beings in order to live. Humans are communal entities".[23] Lessons was probably meant to be paired with Barbauld's Hymns in Prose for Children (1781), which were both written for Charles. As F. J. Harvey Darton, an early scholar of children's literature, explains, they "have the same ideal, in one aspect held by Rousseau, in another wholly rejected by him: the belief that a child should steadily contemplate Nature, and the conviction that by so doing he will be led to contemplate the traditional God".[24] However, some modern scholars have pointed to the lack of overt religious references in Lessons, particularly in contrast to Hymns, to make the claim that it is secular.[25] One important theme in Lessons is restriction of the child, a theme which has been interpreted both positively and negatively by critics. In what Mary Jackson has called the "new child" of the 18th century, she describes "a fondly sentimentalized state of childishness rooted in material and emotional dependency on adults" and she argues that the "new good child seldom made important, real decisions without parental approval ... In short, the new good child was a paragon of dutiful submissiveness, refined virtue, and appropriate sensibility."[26] Other scholars, such as Sarah Robbins, have maintained that Barbauld presents images of constraint only in order to offer images of liberation later in the series: education for Barbauld, in this interpretation, is a progression from restraint to liberation, physically represented by Charles' slow movement from his mother's lap in the opening scene of first book, to a stool next to her in the opening of the subsequent volume, to his detachment from her side in the final book.[27]
Anna Laetitia Barbauld (17431825)

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Reception and legacy


Lessons for Children and Barbauld's other popular children's book, Hymns in Prose for Children, had an unprecedented impact; not only did they influence the poetry of William Wordsworth and William Blake, particularly Blake's Songs of Innocence and Experience (178994),[28] they were also used to teach several generations of schoolchildren both in Britain and the United States. Barbauld's texts were used to perpetuate the ideal of Republican motherhood in 19th-century America, particularly the notion of the mother as the educator of the nation.[29] British children's author and critic Charlotte Yonge wrote in 1869 that the books had taught "three-quarters of the gentry of the last three generations" to read.[30] Poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning could still recite the beginning of Lessons at age thirty-nine.[31] Writers of all stamps immediately recognized the revolutionary nature of Barbauld's books. After meeting Barbauld, the famous 18th-century novelist Frances Burney described her and her books:
Maria Edgeworth, one of the most important children's writers to benefit from Barbauld's innovations

... the authoress of the most useful books, next to Mrs. Trimmer's, that have been yet written for dear little children; though this for the world is probably her very secondary merit, her many pretty poems, and particularly songs, being generally esteemed. But many more have written those as well, and not a few better; for children's books she began the new walk, which has since been so well cultivated, to the great information as well as utility of parents.[32]

Barbauld herself believed that her writing was noble and she encouraged others to follow in her footsteps. As Betsy Rodgers, her biographer, explains: "she gave prestige to the writing of juvenile literature, and by not lowering her standard of writing for children, she inspired others to write on a similar high standard".[33] In fact, because of Barbauld, Sarah Trimmer and Hannah More were galvanized to write for poor children and to organize a large-scale Sunday School movement.[4] Ann and Jane Taylor began writing children's poetry, the most famous of which is "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star". Ellenor Fenn wrote and designed a series of readers and games for middle-class children, including the bestselling Cobwebs to Catch Flies (1784). Richard Lovell Edgeworth began one of the first systematic studies of childhood development which would culminate not only in an educational treatise co-authored with Maria Edgeworth entitled Practical Education (1798), but also in a large body of children's stories by Maria, beginning with The Parent's Assistant (1798). Thomas Day originally began his important The History of Sandford and Merton (178389) for Edgeworth's collection, but it grew too long and was published separately.[34] In the second half of the 1790s, Barbauld and her brother, the physician John Aikin, wrote a second series of books, Evenings at Home, aimed at more advanced readers, ages eight to twelve.[35] While not as influential, these were also popular and remained in print for decades. Lessons was reprinted, translated, pirated, and imitated up until the 20th century; according to Myers, it helped found a female tradition of educational writing.[36]

Lessons for Children

96

While Day, for example, has been hailed as an educational innovator, Barbauld has most often been described through the unsympathetic words of her detractors. The politician Charles James Fox and the writer and critic Samuel Johnson ridiculed Barbauld's children's books and believed that she was wasting her poetic talents.[37] In his Life of Johnson (1791), James Boswell recorded Johnson's thoughts: Endeavouring to make children prematurely wise is useless labour ... Too much is expected from precocity, and too little performed. [Barbauld] was an instance of early cultivation, but in what did it terminate? In marrying a little Presbyterian parson, who keeps an infant boarding-school, so that all her employment now is, 'To suckle fools, and chronicle small beer.' She tells the children 'This is a cat, and that is a dog, with four legs and a tail; see there! you are much better than a cat or a dog, for you can speak.'[38] Barbauld had published a successful book of poetry in 1773 which Johnson greatly admired; he viewed her switch to children's literature as a descent. The most damning and lasting criticism, however, came from the Romantic essayist Charles Lamb in a letter to the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge:

Mrs. Barbauld['s] stuff has banished all the old classics of the nursery ... Mrs. B's and Mrs. Trimmer's nonsense lay in piles about. Knowledge insignificant & vapid as Mrs. B's books convey, it seems, must come to a child in the shape of knowledge, & his empty noddle must be turned with conceit of his own powers, when he has learnt, that a Horse is an animal, & billy is better than a Horse, & such like: instead of that beautiful Interest which made the child a man, while all the time he suspected himself to be no bigger than a child. Science has succeeded to Poetry no less in the little walks of Children than with Men.: Is there no possibility of averting this sore evil? Think what you would have been now, if instead of being fed with Tales and old wives fables in childhood, you had been crammed with Geography & Natural History? Damn them. I mean the cursed Barbauld Crew, those Blights & Blasts of all that is Human in man & child. [emphasis Lamb's][39] This quote was used by writers and scholars to condemn Barbauld and other educational writers for a century. As Myers argues: [Lamb] expresses in embryonic form ways of thinking about children, teaching, and literature that have long since been institutionalized in historical account and classroom practice: the privileging of an imaginative canon and its separation from all the cultural knowledge that had previously been thought of as literature; the binary opposition of scientific, empiricist ways of knowing and intuitive, imaginative insights; even the two-tiered structure of most modern English departments, with male-dominated imaginative literature on the upper-deck and practical reading and writing instruction, taught most often by women and the untenured, relegated to the lower levels.[40] It is only in the 1990s and 2000s that Barbauld and other female educational writers are beginning to be acknowledged in the history of children's literature and, indeed, in the history of literature itself.[41] As Myers points out, "the writing woman as teacher has not captured the imagination of feminist scholars",[42] and Barbauld's children's works are usually consigned to "the backwaters of children's literature surveys, usually deplored for their pernicious effect on the emergent cultural construction of Romantic childhood, or in the margins of commentary on male high Romanticism, a minor inspiration for Blake or Wordsworth perhaps".[42] The male Romantics did not

Title page from Sarah Trimmer's An Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature (1780), which acknowledges Barbauld's influence in its [4] preface

Lessons for Children explore didactic genres that illustrated educational progress; rather, as Myers explains, their works embodied a "nostalgia for lost youth and [a] pervasive valorization of instinctive juvenile wisdom" not shared by many female writers at this time.[43] Serious scholarship is just beginning to investigate the complexities of Barbauld's Lessons; McCarthy, for example, has noted the resonances between Lessons and T. S. Eliot's The Wasteland that have yet to be explored:
Lessons for Children Come, let us go home, it is evening. See ... how tall my shadow is. [44] It is like a great black giant stalking after me ... The Wasteland (Come in under the shadow of this red rock), And I will show you something different from either Your shadow at morning striding behind you Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you. (lines 5354) [44]

97

Notes
[1] McCarthy, 92. [2] Myers, 282, n. 17. [3] McCarthy, 88; see also, O'Malley, 57 and Pickering, 146. [4] Pickering, 146. [5] Robbins, "Teaching Mothers", 137. [6] O'Malley, 57; see also Jackson, 129 and Robbins, "Teaching Mothers", 140. [7] Barbauld, Lessons for Children, from Two to Three Years Old, 2930. [8] Barbauld, Lessons for Children, of Three Years Old. Part I, 12. [9] McCarthy, 95. [10] Myers, 27071. [11] McCarthy, 103. [12] Barbauld, Lessons for Children from Three to Four Years Old, 10507. [13] Barbauld, Anna Laetitia. "A Summer Evening's Meditation". Anna Letitia Barbauld: Selected Poetry and Prose. Eds. William McCarthy and Elizabeth Kraft. Peterborough: Broadview Literary Texts (2002), 99. [14] McCarthy, 8889; see also Myers, 27071. [15] Myers, 261; Robbins, "Teaching Mothers", 142. [16] McCarthy, 100. [17] Pickering, 147; Richardson, 128. [18] Richardson, 128; Robbins, "Teachings Mothers", 142. [19] Myers, 258. [20] McCarthy, 93. [21] Barbauld, Second Part of Lessons for Children of Three Years Old, 46. [22] O'Malley 57; see also Richardson, 133. [23] McCarthy, 97; see also Robbins, "Teaching Mothers", 139. [24] Darton, 152. [25] McCarthy, 97. [26] Jackson, 131. [27] Robbins, "Teaching Mothers", 14042. [28] McCarthy, 8586. [29] Robbins, "Re-making Barbauld's Primers", 158. [30] Pickering, 147. [31] McCarthy, 85. [32] Qtd. in Myers, 261. [33] Rodgers, 72. [34] Myers, 261; see also Richardson, 12930; Darton, 164; Jackson, 13436; O'Malley, 57; Robbins, "Teaching Mothers", 139. [35] Richardson, 130. [36] Myers, 260. [37] Rodgers, 71. [38] Qtd. in Myers, 264. [39] Qtd. in Myers, 266. [40] Myers, 26667.

Lessons for Children


[41] McCarthy, William. "A 'High-Minded Christian Lady': The Posthumous Reception of Anna Letitia Barbauld". Romanticism and Women Poets: Opening the Doors of Reception. Eds. Harriet Kramer Linkin and Stephen C. Behrendt. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky (1999), 18385. [42] Myers, 262. [43] Myers, 266. [44] Qtd. in McCarthy, 86.

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Bibliography
Primary sources
Barbauld, Anna Laetitia. Lessons for Children, from Two to Three Years Old. London: Printed for J. Johnson, 1787. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Barbauld, Anna Laetitia. Lessons for Children, of Three Years Old. Part I. Dublin: Printed and sold by R. Jackson, 1779. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Barbauld, Anna Laetitia. Second Part of Lessons for Children of Three Years Old. Dublin: Printed and sold by R. Jackson, 1779. Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Barbauld, Anna Laetitia. Lessons for Children from Three to Four Years Old. London: Printed for J. Johnson, 1788. Eighteenth Century Collections Online.

Secondary sources
Darton, F. J. Harvey. Children's Books in England: Five Centuries of Social Life. 3rd ed. Revised by Brian Alderson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-521-24020-4. Jackson, Mary V. Engines of Instruction, Mischief, and Magic: Children's Literature in England from Its Beginnings to 1839. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8032-7570-6. McCarthy, William. "Mother of All Discourses: Anna Barbauld's Lessons for Children". Princeton University Library Chronicle 60.2 (Winter 1999): 196219. Myers, Mitzi. "Of Mice and Mothers: Mrs. Barbauld's 'New Walk' and Gendered Codes in Children's Literature". Feminine Principles and Women's Experience in American Composition and Rhetoric. Eds. Louise Wetherbee Phelps and Janet Emig. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995. ISBN 978-0-8229-5544-3 O'Malley, Andrew. The Making of the Modern Child: Children's Literature and Childhood in the Late Eighteenth Century. New York: Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-94299-3. Pickering, Samuel F., Jr. John Locke and Children's Books in Eighteenth-Century England. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1981. ISBN 0-87049-290-X. Richardson, Alan. Literature, Education, and Romanticism: Reading as Social Practice, 17801832. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-60709-4. Robbins, Sarah "Lessons for Children and Teaching Mothers: Mrs. Barbauld's Primer for the Textual Construction of Middle-Class Domestic Pedagogy". The Lion and the Unicorn 17.2 (Dec. 1993): 13551. Robbins, Sarah. "Re-making Barbauld's Primers: A Case Study in the Americanization of British Literary Pedagogy". Children's Literature Association Quarterly 21.4 (199697): 15869. Rodgers, Betsy. Georgian Chronicle: Mrs. Barbauld and Her Family. London: Methuen, 1958.

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External links
Lessons for Children (http://www.cts.dmu.ac.uk/AnaServer?hockliffe+87209+hoccview.anv) at the Hockliffe Collection Barbauld, Anna Letitia (1814). Lessons for children from three to four years old (http://books.google.com/ books?id=jsMqAAAAYAAJ). J. Cumming. Missing pages 110.

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19th Century Works


Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Title page of the original edition (1865) Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Lewis Carroll John Tenniel United Kingdom English Fiction Macmillan

Publication date 26 November 1865 Followed by Through the Looking-Glass

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.[1] It tells of a girl named Alice who falls down a rabbit hole into a fantasy world (Wonderland) populated by peculiar, anthropomorphic creatures. The tale plays with logic, giving the story lasting popularity with adults as well as children.[2] It is considered to be one of the best examples of the literary nonsense genre,[2] [3] and its narrative course and structure have been enormously influential,[3] especially in the fantasy genre.

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Synopsis
Chapter 1 Down the Rabbit Hole: Alice is feeling bored while sitting on the riverbank with her sister, when she notices a talking, clothed White Rabbit with a pocket watch run past. She follows it down a rabbit hole when suddenly she falls a long way to a curious hall with many locked doors of all sizes. She finds a small key to a door too small for her to fit through, but through which she sees an attractive garden. She then discovers a bottle on a table labelled "DRINK ME", the contents of which cause her to shrink too small to reach the key which she has left on the table. A cake with "EAT ME" on it causes her to grow to such a tremendous size her head hits the ceiling. Chapter 2 The Pool of Tears: Alice is unhappy and cries as her tears flood the hallway. After shrinking down again due to a fan she had picked up, Alice swims through her own tears and meets a Mouse, who is swimming as well. She tries to make small talk with him in elementary French (thinking he may be a French mouse) but her opening gambit "Ou est ma chatte?" offends the mouse.

The White Rabbit

Chapter 3 The Caucus Race and a Long Tale: The sea of tears becomes crowded with other animals and birds that have been swept away. Alice and the other animals convene on the bank and the question among them is how to get dry again. The mouse gives them a very dry lecture on William the Conqueror. A Dodo decides that the best thing to dry them off would be a Caucus-Race, which consists of everyone running in a circle with no clear winner. Alice eventually frightens all the animals away, unwittingly, by talking about her cat. Chapter 4 The Rabbit Sends a Little Bill: The White Rabbit appears again in search of the Duchess's gloves and fan. Mistaking her for his maidservant, Mary Ann, he orders Alice to go into the house and retrieve them, but once she gets inside she starts growing. The horrified Rabbit orders his gardener, Bill the Lizard, to climb on the roof and go down the chimney. Outside, Alice hears the voices of animals that have gathered to gawk at her giant arm. The crowd hurls pebbles at her, which turn into little cakes. Alice eats them, and they reduce her again in size. Chapter 5 Advice from a Caterpillar: Alice comes upon a mushroom and sitting on it is a blue Caterpillar smoking a hookah. The Caterpillar questions Alice and she admits to her current identity crisis, compounded by her inability to remember a poem. Before crawling away, the caterpillar tells Alice that one side of the mushroom will make her taller and the other side will make her shorter. She breaks off two pieces from the mushroom. One side makes her shrink smaller than ever, while another causes her neck to grow high into the trees, where a pigeon mistakes her for a serpent. With some effort, Alice brings herself back to her usual height. She stumbles upon a small estate and uses the mushroom to reach a more appropriate height. Chapter 6 Pig and Pepper: A Fish-Footman has an invitation for the Duchess of the house, which he delivers to a Frog-Footman. Alice observes this transaction and, after a perplexing conversation with the frog, lets herself into the house. The Duchess's Cook is throwing dishes and making a soup that has too much pepper, which causes Alice, the Duchess and her baby (but not the cook or her grinning Cheshire Cat) to sneeze violently. Alice is given the baby by the Duchess and to her surprise, the baby turns into a pig. The Cheshire Cat appears in a tree, The Cheshire Cat directing her to the March Hare's house. He disappears but his grin remains behind to float on its own in the air prompting Alice to remark that she has often seen a cat without a grin but never a grin without a cat. Chapter 7 A Mad Tea-Party: Alice becomes a guest at a "mad" tea party along with the March Hare, the Hatter, and a sleeping Dormouse who remains asleep for most of the chapter. The other characters give Alice many riddles

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and stories, including the famous 'Why is a raven like a writing desk?'. The Hatter reveals that they have tea all day because Time has punished him by eternally standing still at 6pm (tea time). Alice becomes insulted and tired of being bombarded with riddles and she leaves claiming that it was the stupidest tea party that she had ever been to. Chapter 8 The Queen's Croquet Ground: Alice leaves the tea party and enters the garden where she comes upon three living playing cards painting the white roses on a rose tree red because the Queen of Hearts hates white roses. A procession of more cards, kings and queens and even the White Rabbit enters the garden. Alice then meets the King and Queen. The Queen, a figure difficult to please, introduces her trademark phrase "Off with his head!" which she utters at the slightest dissatisfaction with a subject. Alice is invited (or some might say ordered) to play a game of croquet with the Queen and the rest of her subjects but the game quickly descends into chaos. Live flamingos are used as mallets and hedgehogs as balls and Alice once again meets the Cheshire Cat. The Queen of Hearts then orders the Cat to be beheaded, only to have her executioner complain that this is impossible since the head is all that can be seen of him. Because the cat belongs to the Duchess, the Queen is prompted to release the Duchess from prison to resolve the matter.

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Alice trying to play croquet with a Flamingo.

Chapter 9 The Mock Turtle's Story: The Duchess is brought to the croquet ground at Alice's request. She ruminates on finding morals in everything around her. The Queen of Hearts dismisses her on the threat of execution and she introduces Alice to the Gryphon, who takes her to the Mock Turtle. The Mock Turtle is very sad, even though he has no sorrow. He tries to tell his story about how he used to be a real turtle in school, which The Gryphon interrupts so they can play a game. Chapter 10 Lobster Quadrille: The Mock Turtle and the Gryphon dance to the Lobster Quadrille, while Alice recites (rather incorrectly) "'Tis the Voice of the Lobster". The Mock Turtle sings them "Beautiful Soup" during which the Gryphon drags Alice away for an impending trial. Chapter 11 Who Stole the Tarts?: Alice attends a trial whereby the Knave of Hearts is accused of stealing the Queen's tarts. The jury is composed of various animals, including Bill the Lizard, the White Rabbit is the court's trumpeter, and the judge is the King of Hearts. During the proceedings, Alice finds that she is steadily growing larger. The dormouse scolds Alice and tells her she has no right to grow at such a rapid pace and take up all the air. Alice scoffs and calls the dormouse's accusation ridiculous because everyone grows and she can't help it. Meanwhile, witnesses at the trial include the Hatter, who displeases and frustrates the King through his indirect answers to the questioning, and the Duchess's cook. Chapter 12 Alice's Evidence: Alice is then called up as a witness. She accidentally knocks over the jury box with the animals inside them and the King orders the animals be placed back into their seats before the trial continues. The King and Queen order Alice to be gone, citing Rule 42 ("All persons more than a mile high to leave the court"), but Alice disputes their judgement and refuses to leave. She argues with the King and Queen of Hearts over the ridiculous proceedings, eventually refusing to hold her tongue. The Queen shouts her familiar "Off with her head!" but Alice is unafraid, calling them out as just a pack of cards; just as they start to swarm over her. Alice's sister wakes her up for tea, brushing what turns out to be some leaves and not a shower of playing cards from Alice's face. Alice leaves her sister on the bank to imagine all the curious happenings for herself.

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

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Characters
Further information: List of minor characters in the Alice series The following is a list of prominent characters in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Alice The White Rabbit The Mouse The Dodo The Lory The Eaglet The Duck Pat Bill the Lizard The Caterpillar The Duchess The Cheshire Cat The March Hare The Hatter The Dormouse The Queen of Hearts The Knave of Hearts The King of Hearts The Gryphon The Mock Turtle

Jessie Willcox Smith's illustration of Alice surrounded by the characters of Wonderland. (1923)

Character allusions
In The Annotated Alice Martin Gardner provides background information for the characters. The members of the boating party that first heard Carroll's tale show up in Chapter 3 ("A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale"). Alice Liddell herself is there, while Carroll is caricatured as the Dodo (because Dodgson stuttered when he spoke, he sometimes pronounced his last name as Dodo-Dodgson). The Duck refers to Canon Duckworth, the Lory to Lorina Liddell, and the Eaglet to Edith Liddell (Alice Liddell's sisters).[4] Bill the Lizard may be a play on the name of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.[5] One of Tenniel's illustrations in Through the Looking-Glass depicts the character referred to as the "Man in White Paper" (whom Alice meets as a fellow passenger riding on the train with her), as a caricature of Disraeli, wearing a paper hat.[6] The illustrations of the Lion and the Unicorn also bear a striking resemblance to Tenniel's Punch illustrations of Gladstone and Disraeli.[7] The Hatter is most likely a reference to Theophilus Carter, a furniture dealer known in Oxford for his unorthodox inventions. Tenniel apparently drew the Hatter to resemble Carter, on a suggestion of Carroll's.[8] The Dormouse tells a story about three little sisters named Elsie, Lacie, and Tillie. These are the Liddell sisters: Elsie is L.C. (Lorina Charlotte), Tillie is Edith (her family nickname is Matilda), and Lacie is an anagram of Alice.[9] The Mock Turtle speaks of a Drawling-master, "an old conger eel", who came once a week to teach "Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils". This is a reference to the art critic John Ruskin, who came once a week to the Liddell house to teach the children drawing, sketching, and painting in oils. (The children did, in fact, learn well; Alice Liddell, for one, produced a number of skilled watercolours.)[10]

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland The Mock Turtle also sings "Beautiful Soup". This is a parody of a song called "Star of the Evening, Beautiful Star", which was performed as a trio by Lorina, Alice and Edith Liddell for Lewis Carroll in the Liddell home during the same summer in which he first told the story of Alice's Adventures Under Ground.[11]

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Poems and songs


Carroll wrote multiple poems and songs for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, including: "All in the golden afternoon..."the prefatory verse, an original poem by Carroll that recalls the rowing expedition on which he first told the story of Alice's adventures underground "How Doth the Little Crocodile"a parody of Isaac Watts' nursery rhyme, "Against Idleness And Mischief" "The Mouse's Tale"an example of concrete poetry "You Are Old, Father William"a parody of Robert Southey's "The Old Man's Comforts and How He Gained Them" The Duchess's lullaby, "Speak roughly to your little boy..."a parody of David Bates' "Speak Gently" "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Bat"a parody of Jane Taylor's "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" "The Lobster Quadrille"a parody of Mary Botham Howitt's "The Spider and the Fly" "'Tis the Voice of the Lobster"a parody of Isaac Watts' "The Sluggard" "Beautiful Soup"a parody of James M. Sayles's "Star of the Evening, Beautiful Star" "The Queen of Hearts"an actual nursery rhyme "They told me you had been to her..."the White Rabbit's evidence

Background
Alice was published in 1865, three years after the Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed in a boat, on 4 July 1862,[12] up the Isis with the three young daughters of Henry Liddell, (the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University and Dean of Christ Church) : Lorina Charlotte Liddell (aged 13, born 1849) ("Prima" in the book's prefatory verse); Alice Pleasance Liddell (aged 10, born 1852) ("Secunda" in the prefatory verse); Edith Mary Liddell (aged 8, born 1853) ("Tertia" in the prefatory verse).[13] The journey began at Folly Bridge near Oxford and ended five miles away in the village of Godstow. During the trip the Reverend Dodgson told the girls a story that featured a bored little girl named Alice who goes looking for an adventure. The girls loved it, and Alice Liddell asked Dodgson to write it down for her. He began writing the manuscript of the story the next day, although that earliest version no longer exists. The girls and Dodgson took another boat trip a month later when he elaborated the plot to the story of Alice, and in November he began working on the manuscript in earnest.[14]

First page from Alice's Adventures Under

Ground, the facsimile edition published by To add the finishing touches he researched natural history for the Macmillan in 1886 animals presented in the book, and then had the book examined by other childrenparticularly the MacDonald children. He added his own illustrations but approached John Tenniel to illustrate the book for publication, telling him that the story had been well liked by children.[14]

On 26 November 1864 he gave Alice the handwritten manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground, with illustrations by Dodgson himself, dedicating it as "A Christmas Gift to a Dear Child in Memory of a Summer's

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Day".[15] Some, including Martin Gardner, speculate there was an earlier version that was destroyed later by Dodgson when he printed a more elaborate copy by hand.[16] But before Alice received her copy, Dodgson was already preparing it for publication and expanding the 15,500-word original to 27,500 words,[17] most notably adding the episodes about the Cheshire Cat and the Mad Tea-Party.

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Writing style and themes


Symbolism
Most of the book's adventures may have been based on and influenced by people, situations and buildings in Oxford and at Christ Church, e.g., the "Rabbit Hole," which symbolized the actual stairs in the back of the main hall in Christ Church. A carving of a griffon and rabbit, as seen in Ripon Cathedral, where Carroll's father was a canon, may have provided inspiration for the tale.[18] Since Carroll was a mathematician at Christ Church, it has been suggested[19] [20] that there are many references and mathematical concepts in both this story and also in Through the Looking-Glass; examples include: In chapter 1, "Down the Rabbit-Hole", in the midst of shrinking, Alice waxes philosophic concerning what final size she will end up as, perhaps "going out altogether, like a candle."; this pondering reflects the concept of a limit. In chapter 2, "The Pool of Tears", Alice tries to perform multiplication but produces some odd results: "Let me see: four times five is twelve, and four times six is thirteen, and four times seven isoh dear! I shall never get to twenty at that rate!" This explores the representation of numbers using different bases and positional numeral systems: 4 x 5 = 12 in base 18 notation, 4 x 6 = 13 in base 21 notation, and 4 x 7 could be 14 in base 24 notation. Continuing this sequence, going up three bases each time, the result will continue to be less than 20 in the corresponding base notation. (After 19 the product would be 1A, then 1B, 1C, 1D, and so on.) In chapter 5, "Advice from a Caterpillar", the Pigeon asserts that little girls are some kind of serpent, for both little girls and serpents eat eggs. This general concept of abstraction occurs widely in many fields of science; an example in mathematics of employing this reasoning would be in the substitution of variables. In chapter 7, "A Mad Tea-Party", the March Hare, the Hatter, and the Dormouse give several examples in which the semantic value of a sentence A is not the same value of the converse of A (for example, "Why, you might just as well say that 'I see what I eat' is the same thing as 'I eat what I see'!"); in logic and mathematics, this is discussing an inverse relationship. Also in chapter 7, Alice ponders what it means when the changing of seats around the circular table places them back at the beginning. This is an observation of addition on the ring of integers modulo N. The Cheshire cat fades until it disappears entirely, leaving only its wide grin, suspended in the air, leading Alice to marvel and note that she has seen a cat without a grin, but never a grin without a cat. Deep abstraction of concepts, such as non-Euclidean geometry, abstract algebra, and the beginnings of mathematical logic, was taking over mathematics at the time Dodgson was writing. Dodgson's delineation of the relationship between cat and grin can be taken to represent the very concept of mathematics and number itself. For example, instead of considering two or three apples, one may easily consider the concept of 'apple', upon which the concepts of 'two' and 'three' may seem to depend. A far more sophisticated jump is to consider the concepts of 'two' and 'three' by themselves, just like a grin, originally seemingly dependent on the cat, separated conceptually from its physical object. Mathematician Keith Devlin asserted in the journal of The Mathematical Association of America that Dodgson wrote Alice in Wonderland in its final form as a scathing satire on new modern mathematics that were emerging in the mid-19th century.[21]

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland It has been suggested by several people, including Martin Gardner and Selwyn Goodacre,[19] that Dodgson had an interest in the French language, choosing to make references and puns about it in the story. It is most likely that these are references to French lessonsa common feature of a Victorian middle-class girl's upbringing. For example, in the second chapter Alice posits that the mouse may be French. She therefore chooses to speak the first sentence of her French lesson-book to it: "O est ma chatte?" ("Where is my cat?"). In Henri Bu's French translation, Alice posits that the mouse may be Italian and speaks Italian to it. Pat's "Digging for apples" could be a cross-language pun, as pomme de terre (literally; "apple of the earth") means potato and pomme means apple, which little English girls studying French would easily guess.[22] In the second chapter, Alice initially addresses the mouse as "O Mouse", based on her memory of the noun declensions "in her brother's Latin Grammar, 'A mouse of a mouse to a mouse a mouse O mouse!'" These words correspond to the first five of Latin's six cases, in a traditional order established by medieval grammarians: mus (nominative), muris (genitive), muri (dative), murem (accusative), (O) mus (vocative). The sixth case, mure (ablative) is absent from Alice's recitation. In Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, the White Queen offers to hire Alice as her lady's maid and to pay her "Twopence a week, and jam every other day." Alice says that she doesn't want any jam today, and the Queen tells her: "You couldn't have it if you did want it. The rule is, jam tomorrow and jam yesterday- but never jam to-day." This is a reference to the rule in Latin that the word iam or jam meaning now in the sense of already or at that time cannot be used to describe now in the present, which is nunc in Latin. Jam is therefore never available today. In the eighth chapter, three cards are painting the roses on a rose tree red, because they had accidentally planted a white-rose tree that the Queen of Hearts hates. Red roses symbolized the English House of Lancaster, while white roses were the symbol for their rival House of York. This scene is an allusion to the Wars of the Roses.[23]

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Illustrations
The manuscript was illustrated by Dodgson himself who added 37 illustrationsprinted in a facsimile edition in 1887.[15] John Tenniel provided 42 wood engraved illustrations for the published version of the book. The first print run was destroyed at his request because he was dissatisfied with the quality. The book was reprinted and published in 1866.[15] John Tenniel's illustrations of Alice do not portray the real Alice Liddell, who had dark hair and a short fringe. Alice has provided a challenge for other illustrators, including those of 1907 by Charles Pears and the full series of colour plates and line-drawings by Harry Rountree published in the (inter-War) Children's Press (Glasgow) edition.

Reception
When it was released Alice in Wonderland received little attention; the book failed to be named in an 1888 poll of the most popular childrens stories. Generally it received poor reviews with reviewers giving more credit to Tenniel's illustrations than to Carrolls story. At the release of Through the Looking-Glass, the first Alice tale gained in popularity and by the end of the 19th century Sir Walter Besant wrote that Alice in Wonderland "was a book of that extremely rare kind which will belong to all the generations to come until the language becomes obsolete".[24]

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

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Publication history
In 1865, Dodgson's tale was published as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by "Lewis Carroll" with illustrations by John Tenniel. The first print run of 2,000 was held back because Tenniel objected to the print quality.[25] A new edition, released in December of the same year, but carrying an 1866 date, was quickly printed. As it turned out, the original edition was sold with Dodgson's permission to the New York publishing house of Appleton. The binding for the Appleton Alice was virtually identical to the 1866 Macmillan Alice, except for the publisher's name at the foot of the spine. The title page of the Appleton Alice was an insert cancelling the original Macmillan title page of 1865, and bearing the New York publisher's imprint and the date 1866. The entire print run sold out quickly. Alice was a publishing sensation, beloved by children and adults alike. Among its first avid readers were Queen Victoria and the young Oscar Wilde. The book has never been out of print. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has been translated into at least 97 languages.[26] There have now been over a hundred editions of the book, as well as countless adaptations in other media, especially theatre and film. The book is commonly referred to by the abbreviated title Alice in Wonderland, an alternative title popularized by the numerous stage, film and television adaptations of the story produced over the years. Some printings of this title contain both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There.

Publication timeline
The following list is a timeline of major publication events related to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: 1865: First UK edition (the suppressed edition). 1865: First US edition.[27] 1869: Alice's Abenteuer im Wunderland [28] is published in German translation by Antonie Zimmermann. 1869: Aventures d'Alice au pays des merveilles [29] is published in French translation by Henri Bu. 1870: Alice's fventyr i Sagolandet [30] is published in Swedish translation by Emily Nonnen. 1871: Dodgson meets another Alice during his time in London, Alice Raikes, and talks with her about her reflection in a mirror, leading to another book Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, which sells even better. 1872: Le Avventure di Alice nel Paese delle Meraviglie [31] is published in Italian translation by Teodorico Pietrocla Rossetti. 1886: Carroll publishes a facsimile of the earlier Alice's Adventures Under Ground manuscript.
Cover of the 1898 edition

1890: Carroll publishes The Nursery "Alice", a special edition "to be read by Children aged from Nought to Five". 1905: Mrs J. C. Gorham publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland retold in words of one syllable in a series of such books published by A. L. Burt Company, aimed at young readers. 1906: First translation into Finnish by Anni Swan (Liisan seikkailut ihmemaailmassa). 1907: Copyright on AAIW expires in UK, and so AAIW enters the public domain. At least 8 new editions are published in that year alone.[32] 1916: Publication of the first edition of the Windermere Series, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Milo Winter.

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 1928: The manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground that Carroll wrote and illustrated and that he had given to Alice Liddell was sold at Sotheby's on April 3. It sold to Philip Rosenbach for 15,400, a world record for the sale of a manuscript at the time.[33] 1960: American writer Martin Gardner publishes a special edition, The Annotated Alice, incorporating the text of both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. It has extensive annotations explaining the hidden allusions in the books, and includes full texts of the Victorian era poems parodied in them. Later editions expand on these annotations. 1961: The Folio Society publication with 42 illustrations by John Tenniel. 1998: Lewis Carroll's own copy of Alice, one of only six surviving copies of the 1865 first edition, is sold at an auction for US$1.54 million to an anonymous American buyer, becoming the most expensive children's book (or 19th-century work of literature) ever sold, up to that time.[34] 2008: Folio Alice's Adventures Under Ground facsimile edition (limited to 3,750 copies, boxed with The Original Alice pamphlet). 2009: Childrens book collector and former American football player Pat McInally reportedly sold Alice Liddells own copy at auction for $115,000.[35]

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Adaptations
Cinema and television
The book has inspired numerous film and television adaptations. The following list is of direct adaptations of Adventures in Wonderland (sometimes merging it with Through the Looking-Glass), not other sequels or works otherwise inspired by the works (such as Tim Burton's 2010 film Alice in Wonderland): Alice in Wonderland (1903 film), silent film, directed by Cecil Hepworth and Percy Stow, UK Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1910 film), silent film, directed by Edwin Stanton Porter Alice in Wonderland (1915 film), silent film, directed by W. W. Young Alice in Wonderland (1931 film), talkie, directed by Bud Pollard Alice in Wonderland (1933 film), directed by Norman Z. McLeod, US Alice in Wonderland (1937 TV program), directed by George More O'Ferrall Alice (1946 TV program), on BBC, starring Vivian Pickles directed by George More O'Ferrall, UK Alice in Wonderland (1949 film), live-action/stop motion film, animation directed by Lou Bunin Alice in Wonderland (1951 film), traditional animation, Walt Disney Animation Studios, US Alice in Wonderland (1955 TV program), a live television adaptation of the 1932 Broadway version of the novel, co-written by Eva LeGallienne and directed by George Schaefer for the Hallmark Hall of Fame Alice in Wonderland (or What's a Nice Kid Like You Doing in a Place Like This?), 1966 animated Hanna-Barbera TV movie, with Janet Waldo as Alice Alice in Wonderland (1966 television film), BBC television play directed by Jonathan Miller, UK "Alice in Wonderland" (1983 television film), PBS Great Performances presentation of a 1982 stage play which was in turn a revival of the 1932 LeGalienne/Schaefer production Alice (1988 film) by Jan vankmajer Stop motion and live action

Alice in the trailer for Disney's animated version

Adventures in Wonderland, 1991 to 1995 Disney television series Alice, 2010' a Syfy adaptation

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

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Comic books
The book has also inspired numerous comic book adaptations: Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Dell Comics, 1951) Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Gold Key Comics, 1965) Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Whitman, 1984) Glenn Diddit's Alice's Adventures In Wonderland (CreateSpace, 2009)

Live performance
With the immediate popularity of the book, it did not take long for live performances to begin. One early example is Alice in Wonderland, a musical play by H. Saville Clark (book) and Walter Slaughter (music), which played in 1886 at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London. As the book and its sequel are Carroll's most widely recognized works, they have also inspired numerous live performances, including plays, operas, ballets, and traditional English pantomimes. These works range from fairly faithful adaptations to those that use the story as a basis for new works. An example of the latter is The Eighth Square, a murder mystery set in Wonderland, written by Matthew Fleming and music and lyrics by Ben J. Macpherson. This goth-toned rock musical premiered in 2006 at the New Theatre Royal in Portsmouth, England. The TA Fantastika, a popular Black light theatre in Prague performs "Aspects of Alice"; written and directed by Petr Kratochvl. This adaptation is not faithful to the books, but rather explores Alice's journey into adulthood while incorporating allusions to the history of Czech Republic. Over the years, many notable people in the performing arts have been involved in Alice productions. Actress Eva Le Gallienne famously adapted both Alice books for the stage in 1932; this production has been revived in New York in 1947 and 1982. One of the most well-known American productions was Joseph Papp's 1980 staging of Alice in Concert at the Public Theater in New York City. Elizabeth Swados wrote the book, lyrics, and music. Based on both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, Papp and Swados had previously produced a version of it at the New York Shakespeare Festival. Meryl Streep played Alice, the White Queen, and Humpty Dumpty. The cast also included Debbie Allen, Michael Jeter, and Mark Linn-Baker. Performed on a bare stage with the actors in modern dress, the play is a loose adaptation, with song styles ranging the globe. Similarly, the 1992 operatic production Alice used both Alice books as its inspiration. It also employs scenes with Charles Dodgson, a young Alice Liddell, and an adult Alice Liddell, to frame the story. Paul Schmidt wrote the play, with Tom Waits and Kathleen Brennan writing the music. Although the original production in Hamburg, Germany, received only a small audience, Tom Waits released the songs as the album Alice in 2002.

Works influenced
Alice and the rest of Wonderland continue to inspire or influence many other works of art to this day, sometimes indirectly via the Disney movie, for example. The character of the plucky, yet proper, Alice has proven immensely popular and inspired similar heroines in literature and pop culture, many also named Alice in homage.

References
[1] BBC's Greatest English Books list [2] Lecercle, Jean-Jacques (1994) Philosophy of nonsense: the intuitions of Victorian nonsense literature Routledge, New York, page 1 and following (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=pRY6V95WsoMC& pg=PA1), ISBN 978-0-415-07652-4 Jos de Creeft, Statue of Alice in Central Park, 1959

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland


[3] Schwab, Gabriele (1996) "Chapter 2: Nonsense and Metacommunication: Alice in Wonderland" The mirror and the killer-queen: otherness in literary language Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, pp. 49102, ISBN 978-0-253-33037-6 [4] Gardner, p. 27 [5] Brooker, Will (2004). Alice's Adventures: Lewis Carroll in Popular Culture. New York: Continuum. pp.6970. ISBN978-0-8264-1433-5. [6] Gardner, p. 172 [7] Gardner, p. 226 [8] Gardner, p. 69 [9] Gardner, p. 75 [10] Gardner, p. 98 [11] The diary of Lewis Carroll, 1 August 1862 entry [12] "Story Museum The real Alice" (http:/ / www. storymuseum. org. uk/ the-story-museum/ familyevents/ alice/ the-real-alice). www.storymuseum.org.uk. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [13] The Background & History of Alice In Wonderland (http:/ / www. the-office. com/ bedtime-story/ alice-background. htm). Bedtime-Story Classics. Retrieved 29 January 2007. [14] Carpenter, p. 57 [15] Ray, p. 117 [16] (Gardner, 1965) [17] Everson, Michael (2009) "Foreword", in Lewis Carroll (2009). Alice's Adventures under Ground (http:/ / evertype. com/ books/ alice-underground. html). Evertype. ISBN978-1-904808-39-8. . [18] "Ripon Tourist Information" (http:/ / www. hello-yorkshire. co. uk/ ripon/ tourist-information). Hello-Yorkshire.co.uk. . Retrieved 2009-12-01. [19] Gardner, Martin (1990). More Annotated Alice. New York: Random House. p.363. ISBN978-0-394-58571-0. [20] Bayley, Melanie (2010-03-06). "Algebra in Wonderland" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 03/ 07/ opinion/ 07bayley. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-03-13. [21] Devlin, Keith (March 2010). "The Hidden Math Behind Alice in Wonderland" (http:/ / www. maa. org/ devlin/ devlin_03_10. html). Devlin's Angle. Mathematical Association of America. . Retrieved April 15, 2010. [22] Lewis Carroll (2009). Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=V-g1dR6en90C& pg=PA264& lpg=PA264& dq="Digging+ for+ apples"+ alice+ in+ wonderland+ potatoes#v=onepage& q& f=false). Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0-19-955829-2. . [23] "Other explanations | Lenny's Alice in Wonderland site" (http:/ / www. alice-in-wonderland. net/ explain/ alice8xx. html). Alice-in-wonderland.net. . Retrieved 2010-09-04. [24] Carpenter (1988), p. 68 [25] Only 23 copies of this first printing are known to have survived; 18 are owned by major archives or libraries, such as the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, while the other five are held in private hands. [26] Bandersnatch: The Newsletter of The Lewis Carroll Society, Issue 149 (January 2011), p. 11. [27] Carroll, Lewis (1995). The Complete, Fully Illustrated Works. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN978-0-517-10027-1. [28] http:/ / www. evertype. com/ books/ alice-de. html [29] http:/ / www. evertype. com/ books/ alice-fr. html [30] http:/ / www. evertype. com/ books/ alice-sv. html [31] http:/ / www. evertype. com/ books/ alice-it. html [32] Page 11 of Introduction, by John Davies, of Ovenden, Graham (1972). The Illustrators of Alice. New York: St. Martin's Press. p.102. ISBN978-0-902620-25-4. [33] Basbanes, Nicholas (1999). A Gentle Madness: Bibliophiles, Bibliomanes, and the Eternal Passion for Books. Macmillan. ISBN978-0-8050-6176-5. [34] "Auction Record for an Original 'Alice'" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1998/ 12/ 11/ nyregion/ auction-record-for-an-original-alice. html). The New York Times: p.B30. 11 December 1998. [35] Real Alice in Wonderland book sells for $115,000 in USA http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ england/ oxfordshire/ 8416127. stm

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Sources
Carpenter, Humphrey (1985). Secret Gardens: The Golden Age of Children's Literature. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN978-0-395-35293-9. Gardner, Martin (2000). The Annotated Alice: the definitive edition. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN978-0-393-04847-6. Ray, Gordon Norton (1991). The Illustrator and the book in England from 1790 to 1914 (http://books.google. com/?id=HsTU8eWtej8C&pg=PA154&lpg=PA154&dq=edmund+evans+printer#v=onepage&q=edmund evans printer&f=false). New York: Dover. ISBN978-0-486-26955-9.

External links
University of Adelaide: Text with illustrations by Tenniel (http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/c/carroll/lewis/ alice/) Images of the illustrated editions (https://sites.google.com/site/lewiscarrollillustratedalice/) of Alice in Wonderland from 1899 to the present. Carpe Diem: Theatrical version of Alice in Wonderland (http://www.carpediem.im/media.php?do=details& mid=7) The Real Alice In Wonderland (http://www.life.com/image/3326160/in-gallery/40212/ the-real-alice-in-wonderland) slideshow by Life magazine British Library: Original manuscript and drawings by Lewis Carroll (requires Flash) (http://www.bl.uk/ onlinegallery/ttp/ttpbooks.html) Indiana.edu: Text only (http://www.cs.indiana.edu/metastuff/wonder/wonderdir.html) LCSNA: List of illustrators of Alice on the web (http://web.archive.org/web/20080822020326/http://www. lewiscarroll.org/illus.html) Alice in Wonderland Tate Liverpool Exhibition: (http://www.tate.org.uk/liverpool/exhibitions/ aliceinwonderland/default.shtm) Alice in Wonderland Tate Exhibition Shop: (http://www.tate.org.uk/shop/do/Alice-Wonderland/range/ 2945) DocOzone: Illustrations by Arthur Rackham (http://www.bugtown.com/alice/) (1907) Scans of Illustrations by Attwell, Gutmann, Hudson, Jackson, Kirk and Rackham (http://www.exit109.com/ ~dnn/alice/) Project Gutenberg: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/19033), (abridged) 1920 New York publication, HTML Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11), plain text Alice's Adventures Under Ground (http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/19002), HTML with facsimiles of original manuscript pages, and illustrations by Carroll GASL.org: First editions of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (http://www.gasl.org/refbib/Carroll__Alice_1st.pdf) With 92 Illustrations by Tenniel, 1866/1872. Audiorecording of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland on the LibriVox website. (http://www.archive.org/ details/alice_in_wonderland_librivox)

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Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There


Through the Looking-Glass

First edition cover of Through the Looking-Glass Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Lewis Carroll John Tenniel United Kingdom English Children's fiction Macmillan

Publication date 1871 Media type Pages ISBN Preceded by Print (hardback) 224 pp NA Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). It is the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865). The themes and settings of Through the Looking-Glass make it a kind of mirror image of Wonderland: the first book begins outdoors, in the warm month of May (4 May),[1] uses frequent changes in size as a plot device, and draws on the imagery of playing cards; the second opens indoors on a snowy, wintry night exactly six months later, on 4 November (the day before Guy Fawkes Night),[2] uses frequent changes in time and spatial directions as a plot device, and draws on the imagery of chess. In it, there are many mirror themes, including opposites, time running backwards, and so on.

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Plot summary
Alice is playing with a white kitten (whom she calls "Snowdrop") and a black kitten (whom she calls "Kitty")the offspring of Dinah, Alice's cat in Alice's Adventures in Wonderlandwhen she ponders what the world is like on the other side of a mirror's reflection. Climbing up on the fireplace mantel, she pokes at the wall-hung mirror behind the fireplace and discovers, to her surprise, that she is able to step through it to an alternative world. In this reflected version of her own house, she finds a book with looking-glass poetry, "Jabberwocky", Alice entering the Looking Glass. Illustration by Sir John Tenniel whose reversed printing she can read only by holding it up to the mirror. She also observes that the chess pieces have come to life, though they remain small enough for her to pick up. Upon leaving the house (where it had been a cold, snowy night), she enters a sunny spring garden where the flowers have the power of human speech; they perceive Alice as being a "flower that can move about." Elsewhere in the garden, Alice meets the Red Queen (now human-sized), who impresses Alice with her ability to run at breathtaking speedsa reference to the chess rule that queens are able to move up to seven spaces at once, and in any direction, making them the most "agile" of the pieces. The Red Queen reveals to Alice that the entire countryside is laid out in squares like a gigantic chessboard, and offers to make Alice a queen if she can move all the way to the eighth rank/row in a chess match. Alice is placed in the second rank as one of the White Queen's pawns, and begins her journey across the chessboard by boarding a train that literally jumps over the third row and directly into the fourth rank, acting on the rule that pawns can advance two spaces on their first move. She then meets the fat twin brothers Tweedledum and Tweedledee, whom she knows from the famous nursery rhyme. After reciting the long poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter", the Tweedles draw Alice's attention to the Red Kingloudly snoring away under a nearby treeand maliciously provoke her with idle philosophical banter that she exists only as an imaginary figure in the Red King's dreams (thereby implying that she will cease to exist the instant he wakes up). Finally, the brothers begin acting out their nursery-rhyme by suiting up for battle, only to be frightened away by an enormous crow, as the nursery rhyme about them predicts.

Red King snoring, by John Tenniel

Alice next meets the White Queen, who is very absent-minded but boasts of (and demonstrates) her ability to remember future events before they have happened. Alice and the White Queen advance into the chessboard's fifth rank by crossing over a brook together, but at the very moment of the crossing, the Queen transforms into a talking Sheep in a small shop. Alice soon finds herself struggling to handle the oars of a small rowboat, where the Sheep annoys her with (seemingly) nonsensical shouting about "crabs" and "feathers". (Unknown to Alice, these are standard terms in the jargon of rowingand thus the Queen/Sheep, for a change, is speaking in a perfectly logical and meaningful way!) After crossing yet another brook into the sixth rank, Alice immediately encounters Humpty Dumpty, who, besides celebrating his unbirthday, provides his own translation of the strange terms in "Jabberwocky" (in the process, introducing Alice and the reader to the concept of portmanteau words) before his inevitable fall. "All the king's horses and all the king's men" come to Humpty Dumpty's assistance, naturally, and are accompanied by the White King along with the Lion and the Unicorn, who again proceed to act out a nursery rhyme by fighting each other. In this chapter, the March Hare and Hatter of the first book make a brief re-appearance in the guise of "Anglo-Saxon messengers" called "Haigha" and "Hatta" (i.e. "Hare" and "Hatter"these names are the only hint given as to their

Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There identities other than John Tenniel's illustrations). Upon leaving the Lion and Unicorn to their fight, Alice reaches the seventh rank by crossing another brook into the forested territory of the Red Knight, who is intent on capturing the "white pawn" Alice until the White Knight comes to her rescue. Escorting her through the forest towards the final brook-crossing, the Knight recites a long poem of his own composition, and repeatedly falls off his horsehis clumsiness is a reference to the "eccentric" L-shaped movements of chess knights, and may also be interpreted as a self-deprecating joke about Lewis Carroll's own physical awkwardness and stammering in real life. Bidding farewell to the White Knight, Alice steps across the last brook and is automatically crowned a queen (the crown materialising abruptly on her head). She soon finds herself in the company of both the White and Red Queens who relentlessly confound Alice by using word play to thwart her attempts at logical discussion. They then invite one another to a party that will be hosted by the newly crowned Alice (of which Alice herself had no prior knowledge). Alice arrives and seats herself at her own party which quickly turns to a chaotic uproar (much like the ending of the first book) in which Alice finally grabs the Red Queen, believing her to be responsible for all the day's nonsense, and begins shaking her violently with all her might. (By thus "capturing" the Red Queen, Alice unknowingly puts the Red Kingwho has remained stationary throughout the bookinto checkmate, and is allowed to wake up.) Alice suddenly awakes in her armchair to find herself holding the black kitten, whom she deduces to have been the Red Queen all along, with the white kitten having been the White Queen. The story ends with Alice recalling the speculation of the Tweedle brothers, that everything may have, in fact, been a dream of the Red King and that Alice might herself be no more than a figment of his imagination. One final poem is inserted by the author as a sort of epilogue which suggests that life itself is but a dream.

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Theme of chess
Whereas the first book has the deck of cards as a theme, this book is based on a game of chess, played on a giant chessboard with fields for squares. Most main characters in the story are represented by a chess piece, with Alice herself being a pawn. Although the chess problem is generally regarded as a nonsense composition because of the story's 'faulty link with chess',[3] the French researchers Christophe LeRoy and Sylvain Ravot have argued[4] that it contains a 'hidden code' presented to for the reader by Carroll. The code is related to Carroll's relationship with Alice Liddell, and may contain several references to Carroll's favourite number, 42. The theory and its implications have been criticised[5] for lack of solid evidence, misrepresenting historical facts about Carroll and Alice Lidell,[6] and flirting with numerology and esotericism. The looking-glass world is divided into sections by brooks or streams, with the crossing of each brook usually signifying a notable change in the scene and action of the story: the brooks represent the divisions Lewis Carroll's diagram of the story as a chess game between squares on the chessboard, and Alice's crossing of them signifies advancing of her piece one square. Furthermore, since the brook-crossings do not always correspond to the beginning and ends of chapters, most editions of the book visually represent the crossings by breaking the text with several lines of asterisks (***). The sequence of moves (white and red) is not always followed. The most extensive treatment of the chess motif in Carroll's novel is provided in Glen Downey's The Truth About Pawn Promotion: The Development of the Chess Motif in Victorian Fiction.[7]

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Returning characters
The characters of Hatta and Haigha (pronounced as the English would have said "hatter" and "hare") make an appearance, and are pictured (by Sir John Tenniel, not by Carroll) to resemble their Wonderland counterparts, the Hatter and the March Hare. However, Alice does not recognise them as such. Dinah, Alice's cat, also makes a return this time with her two kittens; Kitty (the black one) and Snowdrop (the white one). At the end of the book they are associated with the Red Queen and the White Queen respectively in the looking glass world. Though she does not appear, Alice's sister is mentioned. In both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through The Looking-Glass, there are puns and quips about two non-existing characters, Nobody and Somebody. Paradoxically, the gnat calls Alice an old friend, though it was never introduced in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland; however, the Caterpillar in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland also refers to Alice as an "old friend", so could be another counterpart, much like Hatta and Haigha.

Poems and songs


Prelude ("Child of the pure unclouded brow") "Jabberwocky" (seen in the mirror-house) (Jabberwocky (full poem) including readings) "Tweedledum and Tweedledee" "The Lion and the Unicorn" "The Walrus and the Carpenter" (The Walrus and the Carpenter (full poem)) "Humpty Dumpty" "In Winter when the fields are white..." "Haddocks' Eyes" / The Aged Aged Man / Ways and Means / A-sitting On a Gate, the song is A-sitting On a Gate, but its other names and callings are placed above. "To the Looking-Glass world it was Alice that said..." White Queen's riddle "A boat beneath a sunny sky" is the first line of a titleless acrostic poem at the end of the bookthe beginning letters of each line, when put together, spell Alice Pleasance Liddell.
The Walrus and the Carpenter

The Wasp in a wig


Lewis Carroll decided to suppress a scene involving what was described as "a wasp in a wig" (possibly a play on the commonplace expression "bee in the bonnet"). It has been suggested in a biography by Carroll's nephew, Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, that one of the reasons for this suppression was due to the suggestion of his illustrator, John Tenniel. In a letter to Carroll, dated 1 June 1870, Tenniel wrote: ...I am bound to say that the 'wasp' chapter doesn't interest me in the least, and I cant see my way to a picture. If you want to shorten the book, I cant help thinking with all submission that there is your opportunity.[8] For many years no one had any idea what this missing section was or whether it had survived. In 1974, a document purporting to be the galley proofs of the missing section was sold at Sotheby's; the catalogue description read, in part, that "The proofs were bought at the sale of the author's ... personal effects ... Oxford, 1898...". The bid was won by John Fleming, a Manhattan book dealer. The winning bid was 1,700. The contents were subsequently published in Martin Gardner's The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition, and is also available as a hardback book The Wasp in a Wig: A Suppressed Episode ....[9]

Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There The rediscovered section describes Alice's encounter with a wasp wearing a yellow wig, and includes a full previously unpublished poem. If included in the book, it would have followed, or been included at the end of, chapter 8 the chapter featuring the encounter with the White Knight. The discovery is generally accepted as genuine, though some doubting voices have been raised. The proofs have yet to receive any physical examination to establish age and authenticity.[10]

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Main characters
Alice Bandersnatch Hatta (The Hatter) Humpty Dumpty The Jabberwock Jubjub Bird Red King Red Queen The Sheep Tweedledum and Tweedledee The Walrus and the Carpenter The Lion and the Unicorn White King White Knight White Queen

Haigha (March Hare)

For all other characters see: List of minor characters in Through the Looking Glass

Adaptations
The book has been adapted several times, in combination with Alice in Wonderland and as a stand alone film or television special.

Stand alone versions


The adaptations include live and TV musicals, live action and animated versions. One of the earliest adaptations was a silent movie directed by Walter Lang, Alice Through a Looking Glass, in 1928.[11] A dramatized version directed by Douglas Cleverdon and starring Jane Asher was recorded in the late-1950s by Argo Records, with actors Tony Church, Norman Shelley and Carleton Hobbs, and Margaretta Scott as the narrator.[12] Musical versions include the 1966 TV musical with songs by Moose Charlap, and Judi Rolin in the role of Alice,[13] [14] a Christmas 2007 multimedia stage adaptation at The Tobacco Factory directed and conceived by Andy Burden, written by Hattie Naylor, music and lyrics by Paul Dodgson and a 2008 opera Through the Looking Glass by Alan John.

The Jabberwock, as illustrated by John Tenniel for Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass, including the poem "Jabberwocky".

Television versions include the 1974 BBC TV movie, Alice Through the Looking Glass, with Sarah Sutton playing Alice,[15] a 1982 38-minute Soviet cutout-animated film made by Kievnauchfilm studio and directed by Yefrem Pruzhanskiy,[16] an animated TV movie in 1987, with Janet Waldo as the voice of Alice (Mr. T was the voice of the Jabberwock)[17] and the 1998 Channel 4 TV movie, with Kate Beckinsale playing the role of Alice. This production restored the lost "Wasp in a Wig" episode.[18] In March 2011, Japanese companies Toei and Banpresto announced that a collaborative animation project based on Through the Looking-Glass tenatively titled Kys Giga ()[19] was in production.

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With Alice in Wonderland


Adaptations combined with Alice in Wonderland include the 1933 live-action movie Alice in Wonderland, starring a huge all-star cast and Charlotte Henry in the role of Alice. It featured most of the elements from Through the Looking Glass as well, including W. C. Fields as Humpty Dumpty, and a Leon Schlesinger Productions animated version of The Walrus and the Carpenter.[20] The 1951 animated Disney movie Alice in Wonderland also featured several elements from Through the Looking-Glass, including the poems "Jabberwocky" and "The Walrus and the Carpenter".[21] Another adaptation, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, was produced by Joseph Shaftel Productions (distributed by Fox-Rank productions) in 1972, and is felt by many to be the most faithful adaptation to the original novel, with the exception of the omitted scene with the Cheshire Cat (Roy Kinnear) replaced by Tweedledum and Tweedledee (in a scene which remains faithful to their respective scene from Alice Through the Looking Glass). Fiona Fullerton played Alice, Michael Crawford played the White Rabbit, Peter Sellers played the March Hare, and Dudley Moore played the Dormouse.[22] The 2010 movie Alice in Wonderland by Tim Burton contains elements of both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass.[23] Combined stage productions include the 1980 version, produced and written by Elizabeth Swados, Alice in Concert (aka Alice at the Palace), performed on a bare stage. Meryl Streep played the role of Alice, with additional supporting cast by Mark Linn-Baker and Betty Aberlin. In 2007, Chicago-based Lookingglass Theater Company debuted an acrobatic interpretation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass with Lookingglass Alice.[24] Lookingglass Alice was performed in New York City, Philadelphia and is currently in an open-ended run in Chicago.[25] There is also a version of the show touring in the United States. The 1985 two-part TV musical Alice in Wonderland, produced by Irwin Allen, covered both books; Alice was played by Natalie Gregory. In this adaptation, the Jabberwock materialises into reality after Alice reads Jabberwocky, and pursues her through the second half of the musical.[26] The 1999 made-for-TV Hallmark/NBC film Alice in Wonderland, with Tina Majorino as Alice, merged elements from Through the Looking Glass including the talking flowers, Tweedledee and Tweedledum, The Walrus and the Carpenter, and the Chess theme including the snoring Red King and White Knight.[27] The 2009 Syfy TV mini-series Alice contains elements from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass.[28]

Other
The 1977 film Jabberwocky expands the story of the poem "Jabberwocky".[29] The 1936 Mickey Mouse short film "Thru the Mirror" has Mickey travel through his mirror and into a bizarre world. The 1959 film Donald in Mathmagic Land includes a segment with Donald Duck dressed as Alice meeting the Red Queen on a chessboard.

Notes
[1] In Chapter 7, "A Mad Tea-Party", Alice reveals that the date is "the fourth" and that the month is "May." [2] In the first chapter, Alice speaks of the snow outside and the "bonfire" that "the boys" are building for a celebration "to-morrow", a clear reference to the traditional bonfires on Guy Fawkes Night, 5 November; in the fifth chapter, she affirms that her age is "seven and a half exactly." [3] See Lewis Carroll and chess (http:/ / lewiscarrollsociety. org. uk/ pages/ lewiscarroll/ randrchess. htm) on the Lewis Carroll Society Website [4] See their web-site Lewis CARROLL's chess game (http:/ / www. echecs-histoire-litterature. com/ index_english. html) dedicated to the problem and its possible meaning [5] Moll, Arne (13 July 2008). "Lewis Carrolls chess problem" (http:/ / www. chessvibes. com/ columns/ lewis-carrolls-chess-problem/ ). . Retrieved 12 September 2009. [6] See: Leach, Karoline In the Shadow of the Dreamchild, London 1999, The Unreal Alice [7] http:/ / www. nlc-bnc. ca/ obj/ s4/ f2/ dsk2/ tape15/ PQDD_0006/ NQ34258. pdf [8] Gardner, Martin (2000). The Annotated Alice. W. W. Norton & Company. p.283. ISBN0393048470. [9] (Clarkson Potter, MacMillan & Co.; 1977) [10] see lengthy discussion about the 'absence' of investigation on the Lewis Carroll Discussion List (http:/ / groups. yahoo. com/ group/ lewiscarroll/ ) [11] Alice Through a Looking Glass (1928) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0018640/ ) at the Internet Movie Database

Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There


[12] "Alice in Wonderland: Wired for Sound" (http:/ / myweb. tiscali. co. uk/ tauspace/ sound_only2. htm). . Retrieved 2009-11-15. [13] http:/ / www. kiddiematinee. com/ a-alice66. html [14] Alice Through the Looking Glass (1966) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0060088/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [15] Alice Through the Looking Glass (1974) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0071116/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [16] http:/ / www. animator. ru/ db/ ?ver=eng& p=show_film& fid=3482 [17] Alice Through the Looking Glass (1987) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0101294/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [18] Alice Through the Looking Glass (1998) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0167758/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [19] "Kyousogiga.com" (http:/ / www. kyousogiga. com). Kyousogiga.com. . Retrieved 2011-11-05. [20] Alice in Wonderland (1933) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0023753/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [21] Alice in Wonderland (1951) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0043274/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [22] Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1972) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0068190/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [23] Alice in Wonderland (2010) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt1014759/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [24] http:/ / www. lookingglasstheatre. org/ content/ node/ 766 [25] "Lookingglass Alice Video Preview" (http:/ / lookingglasstheatre. org/ content/ node/ 2043). Lookingglasstheatre.org. . Retrieved 2011-11-05. [26] Alice in Wonderland (1985) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0088693/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [27] Alice in Wonderland (1999) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt164993/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [28] Alice (2009) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt1461312/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [29] Jabberwocky (1977) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0076221/ ) at the Internet Movie Database

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References
Tymn, Marshall B.; Kenneth J. Zahorski and Robert H. Boyer (1979). Fantasy Literature: A Core Collection and Reference Guide. New York: R.R. Bowker Co.. p.61. ISBN0-8352-1431-1. Gardner, Martin (1990). More Annotated Alice. New York: Random House. p.363. ISBN0-394-58571-2. Gardner, Martin (1960). The Annotated Alice. New York: Clarkson N. Potter. pp.180181.

External links
A catalogue of illustrated editions of the Alice books from 1899 to 2009 (https://sites.google.com/site/ lewiscarrollillustratedalice/) On-line texts Through the Looking-Glass (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12) at Project Gutenberg Through the Looking-Glass (http://librivox.org/through-the-looking-glass-by-lewis-carroll/) Free audio book at LibriVox HTML version with commentary of Sabian religion (http://www.sabian.org/alice.htm) Text of A Wasp in a Wig (http://www.alice-in-wonderland.net/alice4.html) Through the looking-glass, and what Alice found there ([c1917 (http://www.archive.org/details/ throughlookinggl00carr7)) scanned read online or download] Multiple Formats (http://www.jus.uio.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass.lewis_carroll/sisu_manifest.html) ( html (http://www.jus.uio.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass.lewis_carroll/toc.html), XML, opendocument ODF (http://www.jus.uio.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass.lewis_carroll/opendocument.odt), pdf ( landscape (http://www.jus.uio.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass.lewis_carroll/landscape.pdf), portrait (http://www.jus.uio.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass.lewis_carroll/portrait.pdf)), plaintext (http://www. jus.uio.no/sisu/through_the_looking_glass.lewis_carroll/plain.txt), concordance (http://www.jus.uio.no/ sisu/through_the_looking_glass.lewis_carroll/concordance.html) ) SiSU

Little Women

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Little Women
Little Women
Two-volume Roberts Brothers printing, from the early 1870s Author(s) Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Louisa May Alcott United States English Coming of Age Roberts Brothers 1868 (1st volume) 1869 (2nd volume) Print Little Men

Media type Followed by

Little Women is a novel by American author Louisa May Alcott (18321888). The book was written and set in the Alcott family home, Orchard House, in Concord, Massachusetts. It was published in two volumes in 1868 and 1869. The novel follows the lives of four sisters Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy March and is loosely based on the author's childhood experiences with her three sisters. The first volume Little Women was an immediate commercial and critical success, prompting the composition of the book's second volume titled Good Wives, which was successful as well. The publication of the book as a single volume first occurred in 1880 and was titled Little Women. Alcott followed Little Women with two sequels, also featuring the March sisters, Little Men (1871) and Jo's Boys (1886).

Background
Louisa May Alcott's father Bronson Alcott approached publisher Thomas Niles about a book he wanted to publish.Their talk soon turned to Louisa. Niles, an admirer of her book Hospital Sketches, suggested she write a book about girls which would have widespread appeal. She was not interested at first and instead asked to have her short stories collected. He pressed her to do the girls' book first. In May 1868, she wrote in her journal: "Niles, partner of Roberts, asked me to write a girl's book. I said I'd try."[1] She later recalled she did not think she could write a successful book for girls and did not enjoy writing one.[2] "I plod away", she wrote in her diary, "although I don't enjoy this sort of things."[3] By June, she sent the first dozen chapters to Niles and both thought they were dull. Niles's niece Lillie Almy, however, reported that she enjoyed them.[4] The completed manuscript was shown to several girls, who agreed it was "splendid". Alcott wrote, "they are the best critics, so I should definitely be satisfied."[3]

Characters
Josephine "Jo" March Bhaer
Jo March starts out as a tomboyish, hot-tempered, fifteen-year-old girl. She loves activity and can't bear to be left on the sidelines; it drives her crazy that she can't go and fight in the Civil War alongside her father, who has volunteered as a chaplain. Instead, Jo has to stay at home and try to reconcile herself to a nineteenth-century woman's place in the domestic sphere, which is extremely difficult for her. She's clumsy, blunt, opinionated, and jolly. Her behavior is often most unladylike she swears (mildly), burns her dress while warming herself at the fire, spills things on her only gloves, and barely tolerates her cranky old Aunt March. She's so boyish that Mr. March has referred to her as

Little Women his "son Jo" in the past, and her best friend Laurie sometimes calls her "my dear fellow." Jo also loves literature, both reading and writing it. She composes plays for her sisters to perform and writes stories that she eventually gets published. She imitates Dickens and Shakespeare and Scott, and whenever she's not doing chores or washing the poodle, cleaning Polly's cage, sewing towels (for Aunt Josephine March) she curls up in her room, in a corner of the attic, or outside, completely absorbed in a good book. Jo hopes to do something great when she grows up, although she's not sure what that might be perhaps writing a great novel. Whatever it is, it's not going to involve getting married; Jo hates the idea of romance, because marriage might break up her family and separate her from the sisters she adores. Jo is being set up for a meaningful journey of self-discovery and surprises. By the end of the novel, her dreams and dislikes are turned topsy-turvy; her desire to make her way in the world and her distaste for staying at home are altered forever. She does not find romance in the places that readers expect, but she did find it. She also realizes that romantic love has its place, even though it changes the relationships one already has. As Jo discovers her feminine side, she also figures out how to balance her ambitious nature with the constraints placed on nineteenth-century women.

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Margaret "Meg" March Brooke


At sixteen, she is the oldest sister. She is considered the beauty of the March household (written as very pretty, plump and fair, with large eyes, plenty of soft, brown hair, a sweet mouth, and white hands, of which she is rather vain) and she is well-mannered. Meg runs the household when her mother is absent. Meg also guards Amy from Jo when the two quarrel, just as Jo protects Beth. Meg is employed as a governess for the Kings, a wealthy local family. Because of the genteel social standing of her family, Meg is allowed into society. However, after a few disappointing experiences (first, the Kings' eldest son is disinherited for bad behavior, and later she visits her friend Annie Moffat and discovers that her family believes Mrs. March is plotting to match her with Laurie only to gain his family's wealth), Meg learns that true worth does not lie with money. She falls in love with Mr. John Brooke, Laurie's tutor, whom she marries. Meg bears twin children, Margaret "Daisy" and John Brooke "Demi" (short for Demi-John), and "Demi" and "Daisy" live a happy life.

Elizabeth "Beth" March


Beth is described as even-tempered and has always been very close to Jo. As her sisters begin to leave the nest, Beth wonders what will become of her, as all she wants is to remain at home with her parents. When Beth's health eventually begins a rapid decline, the entire family nurses her - especially Jo, who rarely leaves her side. Finally, the family began to realize that Beth will not live much longer. They separate a room for her, filled with all the things she loved best; her kittens, piano, father's books, Amy's sketches, and her beloved dolls. In her last year, Beth is still trying to make it better for those who will be left behind. She is never idle, except in sleep. But soon, Beth puts down her sewing needle, saying that it grew "so heavy", never to pick it up again. In her final illness, she gives the attention of her death to Jo.

Amy March Laurence


The youngest sisterage twelve when the story beginsAmy is interested in art. She is described by the author as a 'regular snow-maiden' with curly golden hair and blue eyes, 'pale and slender' and 'always carrying herself' like a very proper young lady.[5] She is dissatisfied with the shape of her nose which she attempts to fix with a clothespin. She is "cool, reserved and worldly" which sometimes causes her trouble. Often "petted" because she is the youngest, she can behave in a vain and spoiled way, and throws tantrums when she is unhappy. Her relationship with Jo is sometimes strained; the literary Jo particularly dislikes when Amy uses big words, mispronouncing them or using them incorrectly. Their most significant argument occurs when Jo will not allow Amy to accompany Jo and Laurie to the theater. In revenge, Amy finds Jo's unfinished novel and throws it all in the fireplace grate, burning years of

Little Women work. When Jo discovers this, she boxes Amy's ears and tells her, "I'll never forgive you! Never!" Amy's attempt to apologize to Jo are unsuccessful. When Laurie and Jo go skating, Amy tags along after them, but she arrives at the lake too late to hear Laurie's warning about rotten ice. Under Jo's horrified stare, Amy falls through the ice, and is rescued by Laurie's prompt intervention. Realizing she might have lost her sister, Jo's anger dissolves and the two become more close. When Beth is ill with scarlet fever, Amy is sent to stay with Aunt March as a safety precaution. Aunt March grows fond of her, as Amy's natural grace and docility are more to her taste. Amy is invited to accompany Uncle and Aunt Carrol and cousin Flo on a European trip. Although she enjoys travelling, after seeing the works of artists such as Michelangelo and Raphael, Amy gives up her art, because she believes herself to be lacking in talent. In Europe, Amy meets up with Laurie, and shortly after Beth dies, they marry. Later, Amy gives birth to daughter Elizabeth (Beth or Bess).

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Additional characters
Margaret "Marmee" March: The girls' mother and head of household while her husband is away at war. She engages in charitable works and attempts to guide her girls' morals and to shape their characters, usually through experiments. She confesses to Jo (after the argument with Amy) that her temper is as volatile as Jo's own, but that she has learned to control it. Robert "Father" March: Formerly wealthy, it is implied that he helped friends who could not repay a debt, resulting in the family's poverty. A scholar and a minister, he serves as a colonel in the Union Army and is wounded in December 1862. Hannah Mullet: The March family maid. She is of Irish descent and very dear to the family. She is treated more like a member of the family than a servant. Aunt Josephine March: Mr. March's aunt, a rich widow. Somewhat temperamental and prone to being judgmental, she disapproves of the family's poverty, their charitable work, and their general disregard for the more superficial aspects of society's ways. Her vociferous disapproval of Meg's impending engagement to the impoverished Mr. Brooke becomes the proverbial 'last straw', convincing Meg to affiance herself with the young man. Uncle and Aunt Carrol: Sister and brother-in-law of Mr. March. Theodore "Laurie" Laurence: A rich young man who is a neighbor to the March family. Laurie lives with his overprotective grandfather, Mr. Laurence. Laurie's father had eloped with an Italian pianist and was disowned. Both died young, and as an orphan, Laurie was sent to live with his grandfather. Laurie is preparing to enter at Harvard and is being tutored by Mr. John Brooke. He is described as attractive and charming, with black eyes, brown skin, curly black hair, and small hands and feet. In the second book, Laurie falls in love with Jo and after her return from New York City, he offers to marry her. She refuses, and out of pity, Mr. Laurence persuades Laurie to go abroad with him to Europe. There he meets up with Amy March and the two eventually fall for each other. They later marry while still in Europe, shortly before their return home to America. Mr. James Laurence: A wealthy neighbor to the Marches and Laurie's grandfather. Lonely in his mansion, and often at odds with his high-spirited grandson, he finds comfort in becoming a benefactor to the Marches. He protects the March sisters while their parents are away. He was a friend to Mrs March's father, and admires their charitable works. He develops a special, tender friendship with Beth, who reminds him of his deceased granddaughter, and he gives Beth his daughter's piano. John Brooke: During his employment with the Laurences as a tutor to Laurie, he falls in love with Meg. When Laurie leaves for college, Brooke continues his employment with Mr. Laurence as an assistant. He accompanies Mrs. March to Washington D.C. when her husband is ill. When Aunt March overhears Meg rejecting John's declaration of love, she threatens Meg with disinheritance on the basis that Brooke is only interested in Meg's future prospects. Eventually Meg admits her feelings to Brooke, they defy Aunt March (who ends up accepting the marriage), and they are engaged. Brooke serves in the Union Army for a year and is invalided home after being wounded. Brooke marries Meg a few years later when the war has ended and she has turned twenty.

Little Women The Hummels: A poor German family consisting of a widowed mother and seven children. Marmee and the girls help them by bringing food, firewood, blankets and other comforts. Three of the children die of scarlet fever and Beth contracts it while caring for them. The Kings: A wealthy family who employs Meg as a governess. They are not described any further in the book. The Gardiners: Wealthy friends of Meg's. The Gardiners are portrayed as goodhearted but vapid. Mrs. Kirke: A friend of Mrs March's who runs a boarding house in New York. She employs Jo as governess to her two girls. Professor Friedrich "Fritz" Bhaer: A poor German immigrant who was a famous professor in Berlin but now lives in Mrs. Kirke's boarding house and works as a language master, seeing some of his students in Mrs. Kirke's parlor. He and Jo become friendly and he subtly critiques Jo's writing, encouraging her to become a serious writer instead of writing "sensation" stories for weekly tabloids. The two eventually marry, raise Fritz's two orphaned nephews, Franz and Emil, and their own sons, Rob and Teddy. Franz and Emil Hoffmann: Mr. Bhaer's two nephews whom he looks after following the death of his sister. Franz is two years older than Emil. Tina: The small daughter of Mrs. Kirke's French washerwoman: she is a favorite of Professor Bhaer's. Miss Norton: A worldly tenant living in Mrs. Kirke's boarding house. She occasionally takes Jo under her wing and entertains her.

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Publication history
The first volume of Little Women was published by Roberts Brothers in 1868. The first printing of 2,000 copies sold out quickly and more printings were soon ordered but the company had trouble keeping up with demand. They announced: "The great literary hit of the season is undoubtedly Miss Alcott's Little Women, the orders for which continue to flow in upon us to such an extent as to make it impossible to answer them with promptness."[3] Alcott delivered the manuscript for the second part on New Year's Day 1869, only three months after publication of part one.[6]

Response
G. K. Chesterton noted that in Little Women, Alcott "anticipated realism by twenty or thirty years," and that Fritz's proposal to Jo, and her acceptance, "is one of the really human things in human literature."[7] Gregory S. Jackson recently argued that Alcott's use of realism belongs to the American Protestant pedagogical tradition that includes a range of religious literary traditions with which Alcott was familiar. The nineteenth-century images he produces of devotional guides for children provides an interesting background for the game of "playing pilgrim" that, in part, comprises Book I's plot structure.[8]

Little Women

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References
[1] Madison, Charles A. Irving to Irving: Author-Publisher Relations 18001974. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1974: 36. ISBN 0-8352-0772-2. [2] Matteson, John. Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007: 335. ISBN 978-0-393-33359-6. [3] Madison, Charles A. Irving to Irving: Author-Publisher Relations 18001974. New York: R. R. Bowker Company, 1974: 37. ISBN 0-8352-0772-2. [4] Matteson, John. Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007: 335336. ISBN 978-0-393-33359-6. [5] Louisa May Alcott (1880). Little women: or, Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=_TDZogFTvDUC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage& q& f=false). John Wilson and Son Cambridge. p.5. . Retrieved 2010-05-31. [6] Matteson, John. Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007: 345. ISBN 978-0-393-33359-6. [7] G. K. Chesterton, "Louisa Alcott," in A Handful of Authors. [8] Gregory S. Jackson, "The Word and Its Witness: The Spiritualization of American Realism." Chicago: Chicago The University of the Frankfort Christian Academy, 2009: 125-156. ISBN 13: 978-0-226-39004-8.

External links
Little Women (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/514) at Project Gutenberg Lesson plans (http://www.webenglishteacher.com/alcott.html) for Little Women at Web English Teacher

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

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The Adventures of Tom Sawyer


The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

Front piece of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Author(s) Cover artist Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Dewey Decimal Mark Twain aka Samuel Clemens created by Mark Twain United States English Bildungsroman, Picaresque, Satire, Folk, Children's Novel American Publishing Company 1876 [1]

Print (Hardback & Paperback) 1111pp NA 47052486 Fic] 22 [2]

LC Classification PZ7.T88 Ad 2001 Preceded by Followed by The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today A Tramp Abroad

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain is an 1876 novel about a young boy growing up along the Mississippi River. The story is set in the Town of "St. Petersburg", inspired by Hannibal, Missouri, where Mark Twain lived.

Plot
In the 1840s an imaginative and mischievous boy named Tom Sawyer lives with his Aunt Polly and his half-brother, Sid, in the Mississippi River town of St. Petersburg, Missouri. After playing hooky from school on Friday and dirtying his clothes in a fight, Tom is made to whitewash the fence as punishment on Saturday. At first, Tom is disappointed by having to forfeit his day off. However, he soon cleverly persuades his friends to trade him small treasures for the privilege of doing his work. Later, he realizes that in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing, it is only necessary to make the thing difficult to attain. He trades the treasures he got by tricking his friends for whitewashing for tickets given out in Sunday school for memorizing Bible verses, which can be used to claim a Bible as a prize. He received enough tickets to be given the Bible. However, he loses much of his glory when, in response to a question to show off his knowledge, he incorrectly answers that the first two disciples were David and

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Goliath. Tom falls in love with Becky Thatcher, a new girl in town, and persuades her to get "engaged" by kissing him. Becky kisses Tom, but their romance collapses when she learns that Tom has been "engaged" previously to a girl named Amy Lawrence. Shortly after being shunned by Becky, Tom accompanies Huckleberry Finn, the son of the town drunk, to the graveyard at night to try out a "cure" for warts with a dead cat. At the graveyard, they witness the murder of young Dr. Robinson by the Native-American "half-breed" Injun Joe. Scared, Tom and Huck run away and swear a blood oath not to tell anyone what they have seen. Injun Joe frames his companion, Muff Potter, a hapless drunk, for the crime. Potter is wrongfully arrested, and Tom's anxiety and guilt begin to grow. Tom, Huck, and Tom's friend Joe Harper run away to an island to become pirates. While frolicking around and enjoying their new found freedom, the boys become aware that the community is sounding the river for their bodies. Tom sneaks back home one night to observe the commotion. After a brief moment of remorse at the suffering of his loved ones, Tom is struck by the idea of appearing at his funeral and surprising everyone. He persuades Joe and Huck to do the same. Their return is met with great rejoicing, and they become the envy and admiration of all their friends. Back in school, Tom gets himself back in Becky's favor after he nobly accepts the blame for a book that she has ripped. Soon, Muff Potter's trial begins, and Tom, overcome by guilt, testifies against Injun Joe. Potter is acquitted, but Injun Joe flees the courtroom through a window. Summer arrives, and Tom and Huck go hunting for buried treasure in a haunted house. After venturing upstairs they hear a noise below. Peering through holes in the floor, they see Injun Joe enter the house disguised as a deaf and mute Spaniard. He and his companion, an unkempt man, plan to bury some stolen treasure of their own. From their hiding spot, Tom and Huck wriggle with delight at the prospect of digging it up. By an amazing coincidence, Injun Joe and his partner find a buried box of gold themselves. When they see Tom and Huck's tools, they become suspicious that someone is sharing their hiding place and carry the gold off instead of reburying it. Huck begins to shadow Injun Joe every night, watching for an opportunity to nab the gold. Meanwhile, Tom goes on a picnic to McDougal's Cave with Becky and their classmates. That same night, Huck sees Injun Joe and his partner making off with a box. He follows and overhears their plans to attack the Widow Douglas, a kind resident of St. Petersburg. By running to fetch help, Huck forestalls the violence and becomes an anonymous hero. Tom and Becky get lost in the cave, and their absence is not discovered until the following morning. The men of the town begin to search for them, but to no avail. Tom and Becky run out of food and candles and begin to weaken. The horror of the situation increases when Tom, looking for a way out of the cave, happens upon Injun Joe, who is using the cave as a hideout. Eventually, just as the searchers are giving up, Tom finds a way out. The town celebrates, and Becky's father, Judge Thatcher, locks up the cave. Injun Joe, trapped inside, starves to death. A week later, Tom takes Huck to the cave and they find the box of gold, the proceeds of which are invested for them. The Widow Douglas adopts Huck, and, when Huck attempts to escape civilized life, Tom promises him that if he returns to the widow, he can join Tom's robber band. Reluctantly, Huck agrees.[3] [4]

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Adaptations and influences


Film
Tom Sawyer (1930 film), directed by John Cromwell, starring Jackie Coogan as Tom A 1936 Soviet Union version, directed by Lazar Frenkel and Gleb Zatvornitsky In 1938 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was filmed in Technicolor by the Selznick Studio. It starred Tommy Kelly as Tom and was directed by Norman Taurog. Most notable was the cave sequence designed by William Cameron Menzies.

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer A 1968 French/German made-for-television miniseries, directed by Wolfgang Liebeneiner, starring Roland Demongeot as Tom and Marc Di Napoli as Huck The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1968) was a half-hour live-action/animated series produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions A 1969 Mexican film called Las Aventuras de Juliancito Tom Sawyer (1973 film), A musical adaption. A TV movie version sponsored by Dr Pepper was released that same year. It starred Buddy Ebsen as Muff Potter and was filmed in Upper Canada Village. Huckleberry Finn and His Friends (1979 TV series) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (anime) (1980), a Japanese anime TV series by Nippon Animation, part of the World Masterpiece Theater; aired in the United States on HBO The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn ( ), a 1981 Soviet Union version directed by Stanislav Govorukhin. A 1984 Canadian claymation version produced by Hal Roach studios Tom and Huck (1995), starring Jonathan Taylor Thomas as Tom and Brad Renfro as Huck Finn A 1995 episode for the PBS television series Wishbone, entitled "A Tail in Twain". A 2000 animated adaptation, featuring the characters as anthropomorphic animals with an all-star voice cast, including country singers Rhett Akins (as Tom), Mark Wills (as Huck Finn), Lee Ann Womack, Waylon Jennings and Hank Williams Jr. as well as Betty White as Aunt Polly Tom Sawyer appears as a United States Secret Service agent in the 2003 movie The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen Tom Sawyer (2011), German Film directed by Hermine Huntgeburth

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Theatrical
In 1956 'We're From Missouri', a musical adaptation of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, with book, music and lyrics by Tom Boyd, was presented by the students at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. In 1960, Boyd's musical version (re-titled Tom Sawyer) was presented professionally at Theatre Royal Stratford East in London, England, and in 1961 toured provincial theatres in England.Tom Boyd's musical of TOM SAWYER was produced again in April and June 2010 in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England. Another musical adaptation is Mississippi Melody, a musical by Jack Hylton. In April 2010, The Hartford Stage presented a theatrical adaptation entitled Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer [5] as part of a centennial observation of Mark Twain's passing.

Ballet
"Tom Sawyer: A Ballet in Three Acts" received its world premiere Oct. 14, 2011 at the Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts in Kansas City, Mo. The score was by Broadway composer Maury Yeston. The choreographer was William Whitener, artistic director of the Kansas City Ballet.

Literature
Don Borchert's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Undead is a retelling of the story set in an alternate universe with a zombie outbreak.

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

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Internet
On November 30, 2011 to celebrate Twains 176th birthday, the Google doodle was a scene from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

Music
A song called Tom Sawyer is featured on the Canadian rock band Rush's eighth studio album Moving Pictures.

References
[1] Facsimile of the original 1st edition. [2] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 47052486 [3] "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer: Plot Overview" (http:/ / www. sparknotes. com/ lit/ tomsawyer/ summary. html). SparkNotes. 2011-09-29. . Retrieved 2011-10-10. [4] "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,"Mark Twain. 1900's. Classic [5] http:/ / hartfordstage. org/ files/ shows/ mark_twains_the_adventures_of_tom_sawyer/ ts_portal/ index. html

External links
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 135th Anniversary Edition (http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/1693002. php), University of California Press, 2010. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer with embedded audio (http://publicliterature.org/books/tom_sawyer/xaa.php) (PDF available) Free audio book at LibriVox (http://librivox.org/tom-sawyer-by-mark-twain) Twain, Mark, 1835-1910. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/ Twa2Tom.html) - Free eBook in HTML format at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Project Gutenberg ebook in various formats (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/74) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (http://www.shmoop.com/tom-sawyer/) guide for students and teachers First edition illustrations by True Williams (http://djelibeibi.unex.es/libros/Williams/)

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

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Adventures of Huckleberry Finn


Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

1st edition book cover Author(s) Illustrator Cover artist Country Language Series Genre(s) Publisher Mark Twain E. W. Kemble TAYLOR United Kingdom / United States English 27 Satirical novel Chatto & Windus / Charles L. Webster And Company.

Publication date 1884 UK & Canada [1] 1885 United States Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Preceded by Followed by Print (hardcover) 366 NAA 29489461 [2]

Life on the Mississippi A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a novel by Mark Twain, first published in England in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885. Commonly named among the Great American Novels, the work is among the first in major American literature to be written in the vernacular, characterized by local color regionalism. It is told in the first person by Huckleberry "Huck" Finn, a friend of Tom Sawyer and narrator of two other Twain novels (Tom Sawyer Abroad and Tom Sawyer, Detective). It is a sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. The book is noted for its colorful description of people and places along the Mississippi River. Satirizing a Southern antebellum society that had ceased to exist about twenty years before the work was published, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is an often scathing look at entrenched attitudes, particularly racism. Perennially popular with readers, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has also been the continued object of study by serious literary critics since its publication. It was criticized upon release because of its coarse language and became even more controversial in the 20th century because of its perceived use of racial stereotypes and because of its frequent use of the racial slur "nigger", despite strong arguments that the protagonist, and the tenor of the book, is in fact anti-racist.[3] [4]

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

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Publication history
Twain initially conceived of the work as a sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer that would follow Huckleberry Finn through adulthood. Beginning with a few pages he had removed from the earlier novel, Twain began work on a manuscript he originally titled Huckleberry Finn's Autobiography. Twain worked on the manuscript off and on for the next several years, ultimately abandoning his original plan of following Huck's development into adulthood. He appeared to have lost interest in the manuscript while it was in progress, and set it aside for several years. After making a trip down the Mississippi, Twain returned to his work on the novel. Upon completion, the novel's title closely paralleled its predecessor's: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer's Comrade).[5]

Mark Twain

Unlike The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn does not have the definite article "the" as a part of its proper title. Essayist and critic Spencer Neve asserts that this absence represents the "never fulfilled anticipations" of Huck's adventureswhile Tom's adventures were completed (at least at the time) by the end of his novel, Huck's narrative ends with his declared intention to head West.[6] Mark Twain composed the story in pen on notepaper between 1876 and 1883. Paul Needham, who supervised the authentication of the manuscript for Sotheby's books and manuscripts department in New York in 1991, stated, "What you see is [Clemens'] attempt to move away from pure literary writing to dialect writing". For example, Twain revised the opening line of Huck Finn three times. He initially wrote, "You will not know about me", which he changed to, "You do not know about me", before settling on the final version, "You don't know about me, without you have read a book by the name of 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'; but that ain't no matter".[7] The revisions also show how Twain reworked his material to strengthen the characters of Huck and Jim, as well as his sensitivity to the then-current debate over literacy and voting.[8] A later version was the first typewritten manuscript delivered to a printer.[8] Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was eventually published on December 10, 1884, in Canada and England, and on February 18, 1885, in the United States.[9] The illustration on page 283 became a point of issue after an engraver, whose identity was never discovered, made a last-minute addition to the printing plate of Kembles picture of old Silas Phelps. In the mischievous tradition of graffiti he drew in a line outlining the bulge against inside of pants of a male sex organ. The sabotage was discovered while the book was at press and the offending plate was replaced, the corrected plate being slightly altered in the area of Silas Phelps trousers fly. Thirty thousand copies of the book had been printed before the obscenity was discovered. A new plate was made to correct the illustration and repair the existing copies;[10] versions with the so-called "curved fly" are valuable collectors items.[9] In 1885, the Buffalo Public Library's curator, James Fraser Gluck, approached Twain to donate the manuscript to the Library. Twain sent half of the pages, believing the other half to have been lost by the printer. In 1991, the missing half turned up in a steamer trunk owned by descendants of Gluck. The Library successfully proved possession and, in 1994, opened the Mark Twain Room in its Central Library to showcase the treasure.[11]

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Plot summary
Life in St. Petersburg
The story begins in fictional Langlem, Missouri, on the shores of the Mississippi River, sometime between 1835 (when the first steamboat sailed down the Mississippi[12] ) and 1845. Two young boys, Thomas 'Tom' Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, have each come into a considerable sum of money as a result of their earlier adventures (The Adventures of Tom Sawyer). Huck has been placed under the guardianship of the Widow Douglas, who, together with her sister, Miss Watson, are attempting to civilize him. Huck appreciates their efforts, but finds civilized life confining. In the beginning of the story, Tom Sawyer appears briefly, helping Huck escape at night from the house, past Miss Watson's slave, Jim. They meet up with Tom Sawyer's self-proclaimed gang, who plot to carry out adventurous crimes. Life is changed by the sudden appearance of Huck's shiftless father "Pap", an abusive parent and drunkard. Although Huck is successful in preventing his Pap from acquiring his fortune, Pap forcibly gains custody of Huck and the two move to the backwoods where Huck is kept locked inside his father's cabin. Equally dissatisfied with life with his father, Huck escapes from the cabin, elaborately fakes his own death, and sets off down the Mississippi River, where he meets Jim.

Huckleberry Finn, as depicted by E. W. Kemble in the original 1884 edition of the book.

The Floating House and Huck as a Girl


While living quite comfortably in the wilderness along the Mississippi, Huck happily encounters Miss Watson's slave Jim on an island called Jackson's Island, and Huck learns that he has also run away, after he overheard Miss Watson acknowledging that she intended to sell Jim downriver, where conditions for slaves were even harsher, because he would bring a price of $800. Jim is trying to make his way to Cairo, Illinois and then to Ohio, a free state, so he can buy his family's freedom. At first, Huck is conflicted over whether to tell someone about Jim's running away, but as they travel together and talk in depth, Huck begins to know more about Jim's past and his difficult life. As these talks continue, Huck begins to change his opinion about people, slavery, and life in general. This continues throughout the rest of the novel. Huck and Jim take up in a cavern on a hill on Jackson's Island to wait out a storm. When they can, they scrounge around the river looking for food, wood, and other items. One night, they find a raft they will eventually use to travel down the Mississippi. Later, they find an entire house floating down the river and enter it to grab what they can. Entering one room, Jim finds a man lying dead on the floor, shot in the back while apparently trying to ransack the house. Jim refuses to let Huck see the man's face. To find out the latest news in the area, Huck dresses as a girl and goes into town. He enters the house of a woman new to the area, thinking she won't recognize him. As they talk, she tells Huck there is a $300 reward for Jim, who is accused of killing Huck. She first becomes suspicious when he threads a needle incorrectly. Her suspicions are confirmed after she puts Huck through a series of tests. She cleverly tricks him into revealing he is a boy, but allows him to run off. He returns to the island and tells Jim of the manhunt, and the two load up the raft and leave the island.

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The Grangerfords and the Shepherdsons


Huck and Jim's raft is swamped by a passing steamship, separating the two. Huck is given shelter by the Grangerfords, a prosperous local family. He becomes friends with Buck Grangerford, a boy about his age, and learns that the Grangerfords are engaged in a 30-year blood feud against another family, the Shepherdsons. The Grangerfords and Shepherdsons go to church. Both families bring guns to continue the feud, despite the church's preachings on brotherly love. The vendetta comes to a head when Buck's sister, Sophia Grangerford, elopes with Harney Shepherdson. In the resulting conflict, all the Grangerford males from this branch of the family are shot and killed, although Grangerfords elsewhere survive to carry on the feud. Upon seeing Buck's corpse, Huck is too devastated to write about everything that happened. However, Huck does describe how he narrowly avoids his own death in the gunfight, later reuniting with Jim and the raft and together fleeing farther south on the Mississippi River.

The Duke and the King


Further down the river, Jim and Huck rescue two cunning grifters, who join Huck and Jim on the raft. The younger of the two swindlers, a man of about thirty, introduces himself as a son of an English duke (the Duke of Bridgewater) and his father's rightful successor. The older one, about seventy, then trumps the Duke's claim by alleging that he is actually the Lost Dauphin, the son of Louis XVI and rightful King of France. He continually misprounounces the duke's title as "Bilgewater" in conversation. The Duke and the King then join Jim and Huck on the raft, committing a series of confidence schemes on the way south. To allow for Jim's presence, they print fake bills for an escaped slave; and later they paint him up entirely in blue and call him the "Sick Arab". On one occasion they arrive in a town and advertise a three-night engagement of a play which they call "The Royal Nonesuch". The play turns out to be only a couple of minutes of hysterical cavorting, not worth anywhere near the 50 cents the townsmen were charged to see it. On the afternoon of the first performance, a drunk called Boggs arrives in town and makes a nuisance of himself by going around threatening a southern gentleman by the name of Colonel Sherburn. Sherburn comes out and warns Boggs that he can continue threatening him up until exactly one o'clock. At one o'clock, Boggs continues and Colonel Sherburn kills him. Somebody in the crowd, whom Sherburn later identifies as Buck Harkness, cries out that Sherburn should be lynched. They all head up to Colonel Sherburn's gate, where they are met by Sherburn, who is standing on his porch carrying a loaded rifle. He causes them to back down, by making a defiant speech telling them about the essential cowardice of "Southern justice". The only lynching to be done here, says Sherburn, will be in the dark, by men wearing masks. By the third night of "The Royal Nonesuch", the townspeople are ready to take their revenge; but the Duke and the King have already skipped town, and together with Huck and Jim, they continue down the river. Once they are far enough away, the two grifters test the next town, and decide to impersonate two brothers of Peter Wilks, a recently deceased man of property. Using an absurd English accent, the King manages to convince nearly all the townspeople that he is one of the brothers, a preacher just arrived from England, while the Duke pretends to be a deaf-mute to match accounts of the other brother. One man in town is certain that they are a fraud and confronts them on the matter, but the crowd refuse to support him. Afterwards, the Duke, out of fear, suggests to the King that they should cut and run. The King boldly states his intention to continue to liquidate Wilks' estate, saying, "Hain't we got all the fools in town on our side? And ain't that a big enough majority in any town?" Huck likes Wilks' daughters, who treat him with kindness and courtesy, so he tries to thwart the grifters' plans by stealing back the inheritance money. However, when he is in danger of being discovered, he has to hide it in Wilks' coffin, which is buried the next morning without Huck knowing whether the money has been found or not. The arrival of two new men who seem to be the real brothers throws everything into confusion when none of their signatures match the one on record. (The deaf-mute brother, who is said to do the correspondence, has his arm in a sling and cannot currently write.) The townspeople devise a test, which requires digging up the coffin to check.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn When the money is found in Wilks' coffin, the Duke and the King are able to escape in the confusion. They manage to rejoin Huck and Jim on the raft to Huck's utter despair, since he had thought he had escaped them.

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Jim's escape
After the four fugitives have drifted far enough from the town, the King takes advantage of Huck's temporary absence to sell his interest in the "escaped" slave Jim for forty dollars. Outraged by this betrayal, Huck rejects the advice of his "conscience", which continues to tell him that in helping Jim escape to freedom, he is stealing Miss Watson's property. Accepting that "All right, then, I'll go to hell!", Huck resolves to free Jim. Jim is being held at the plantation of Silas and Sally Phelps, Tom's aunt and uncle. Since Tom is expected for a visit, Huck is mistaken for Tom. He plays along, hoping to find Jim's location and free him. When Huck intercepts Tom on the road and tells him everything, Tom decides to join Huck's scheme, pretending to be his younger half-brother Sid. Jim has also told the household about the two grifters and the new plan for "The Royal Nonesuch", so this time the townspeople are ready for them. The Duke and King are captured by the townspeople, and are tarred and feathered and ridden out of town on a rail. Rather than simply sneaking Jim out of the shed where he is being held, Tom develops an elaborate plan to free him, involving secret messages, hidden tunnels, a rope ladder sent in Jim's food, and other elements from popular novels,[13] including a note to the Phelps warning them of a gang planning to steal their runaway slave. During the resulting pursuit, Tom is shot in the leg. Jim remains with him rather than completing his escape, risking recapture. Huck has long known Jim was "white on the inside". Although the doctor admires Jim's decency, he betrays him to a passing skiff, and Jim is captured while sleeping and returned to the Phelps family.

Conclusion
After Jim's recapture, events quickly resolve themselves. Tom's Aunt Polly arrives and reveals Huck's and Tom's true identities. Tom announces that Jim is a free man: Miss Watson died two months earlier and freed Jim in her will, but Tom chose not to reveal Jim's freedom so he could come up with an elaborate plan to rescue Jim. Jim tells Huck that Huck's father has been dead for some time (he was the dead man they found in the floating house) and that Huck may return safely to St. Petersburg. In the final narrative, Huck declares that he is quite glad to be done writing his story, and despite Sally's plans to adopt and "sivilize" him, Huck intends to flee west to Indian Territory.

Major themes
Twain wrote a novel that embodies the search for freedom. He wrote during the post-Civil War period when there was an intense white reaction against blacks.Twain took aim squarely against racial prejudice, rising segregation, lynchings, and the generally accepted belief that blacks were sub-human. He "made it clear that Jim was good, deeply loving, human, and anxious for freedom".[14] However, others have criticized the novel as racist, citing the use of the word "nigger" and Jim's Sambo-like character.[3] [4] Throughout the story, Huck is in moral conflict with the received values of the society in which he lives, and while he is unable to consciously refute those values even in his thoughts, he makes a moral choice based on his own valuation of Jim's friendship and human worth, a decision in direct opposition to the things he has been taught. Mark Twain in his lecture notes proposes that "a sound heart is a surer guide than an ill-trained conscience", and goes on to describe the novel as "...a book of mine where a sound heart and a deformed conscience come into collision and conscience suffers defeat".[15] To highlight the hypocrisy required to condone slavery within an ostensibly moral system, Twain has Huck's father enslave him, isolate him, and beat him. When Huck escapes which anyone would agree was the right thing to do he then immediately encounters Jim "illegally" doing the same thing. [16]

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Reception
The publication of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn resulted in generally friendly reviews, but the novel was controversial from the outset.[17] Upon issue of the American edition in 1885 a number of libraries banned it from their stacks.[18] The early criticism focused on what was perceived as the book's crudeness. One incident was recounted in the newspaper, the Boston Transcript: The Concord (Mass.) Public Library committee has decided to exclude Mark Twain's latest book from the library. One member of the committee says that, while he In this scene illustrated by E. W. Kemble, Jim does not wish to call it immoral, he thinks it contains but thinks Huck is a ghost little humor, and that of a very coarse type. He regards it as the veriest trash. The library and the other members of the committee entertain similar views, characterizing it as rough, coarse, and inelegant, dealing with a series of experiences not elevating, the whole book being more suited to the slums than to intelligent, respectable people.[18] Twain later remarked to his editor, "Apparently, the Concord library has condemned Huck as 'trash and only suitable for the slums.' This will sell us another twenty-five thousand copies for sure!" Soon after, in 1905, New Yorks Brooklyn Public Library also banned the book due to bad word choice and Huck having not only itched but scratched within the novel, which was considered obscene.[19] When asked by a Brooklyn librarian about the situation, Twain replied: I am greatly troubled by what you say. I wrote 'Tom Sawyer' & 'Huck Finn' for adults exclusively, & it always distressed me when I find that boys and girls have been allowed access to them. The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean. I know this by my own experience, & to this day I cherish an unappeased bitterness against the unfaithful guardians of my young life, who not only permitted but compelled me to read an unexpurgated Bible through before I was 15 years old. None can do that and ever draw a clean sweet breath again on this side of the grave.[20] Many subsequent critics, Ernest Hemingway among them, have deprecated the final chapters, claiming the book "devolves into little more than minstrel-show satire and broad comedy" after Jim is detained.[21] Hemingway declared, "All modern American literature comes from" Huck Finn, and hailed it as "the best book we've had". He cautioned, however, "If you must read it you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating."[22] (The words "nigger" and "Jim" appear side-by-side once in the novel, in Chapter XXXI, in a letter Huck writes to Mrs. Watson, but they are not used as a name. After "nigger Jim" appears in Albert Bigelow Paine's 1912 Clemens biography, it continued to be used by twentieth century critics, including Leslie Fiedler, Norman Mailer, and Russell Baker.) Writer Louisa May Alcott criticized the books publication as well, saying that if Twain "[could not] think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them".[23] Pulitzer Prize winner Ron Powers states in his Twain biography (Mark Twain: A Life) that "Huckleberry Finn endures as a consensus masterpiece despite these final chapters", in which Tom Sawyer leads Huck through elaborate machinations to rescue Jim.[24]

Controversy
Much modern scholarship of Huckleberry Finn has focused on its treatment of race. Many Twain scholars have argued that the book, by humanizing Jim and exposing the fallacies of the racist assumptions of slavery, is an attack on racism.[25] Others have argued that the book falls short on this score, especially in its depiction of Jim.[18] According to Professor Stephen Railton of the University of Virginia, Twain was unable to fully rise above the stereotypes of black people that white readers of his era expected and enjoyed, and therefore resorted to minstrel

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn show-style comedy to provide humor at Jim's expense, and ended up confirming rather than challenging late-19th century racist stereotypes.[26] In one instance, the controversy caused a drastically altered interpretation of the text: In 1955, CBS tried to avoid controversial material in a televised version of the book, by deleting all mention of slavery and having a white actor play Jim.[19] Because of this controversy over whether Huckleberry Finn is racist or anti-racist, and because the word "nigger" is frequently used in the novel, many have questioned the appropriateness of teaching the book in the U.S. public school systemthis questioning of the word nigger is illustrated by a school administrator of Virginia in 1982 calling the novel the "most grotesque example of racism Ive ever seen in my life".[27] According to the American Library Association, Huckleberry Finn was the fifth most-frequently-challenged book in the United States during the 1990s.[28] There have been several more recent cases involving protests for the banning of the novel. In 2003 high school student Calista Phair and her grandmother, Beatrice Clark, in Renton, Washington, proposed banning the book from classroom learning in the Renton School District, though not from any public libraries, because of the word "nigger". Clark filed a request with the school district in response to the required reading of the book, asking for the novel to be removed from the English curriculum. The two curriculum committees that considered her request eventually decided to keep the novel on the 11th grade curriculum, though they suspended it until a panel had time to review the novel and set a specific teaching procedure for the novel and its controversial topics.[29] In 2007 Ibrahim Mohamed, a North Richland Hills, Texas, student, requested the word nigger be changed to the N-word. According to him, the teacher responded by asking him, Does it offend you? It hurts, doesnt it? The exercise that was being done was to put the word into proper context for students, though officials apologized for the teachers blunt actions and tone. Despite the apology, Mohameds mother wanted the book banned. A group called The Coalition to Stop the N-Word requested the school board send a written apology to the family, give sensitivity training to all the teachers, and ban the book based on the feelings of the Mohamed family. In response, the school board said it would try to find better ways in which to present the novel and its controversial content to students.[30] In 2009 a Washington state high school teacher called for the removal of the novel from a school curriculum. The teacher, John Foley, called for replacing The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn with a more modern novel.[31] In an opinion column that Foley wrote in the Seattle Post Intelligencer, he states that all "novels that use the N-word repeatedly need to go". He states that teaching the novel is not only unnecessary, but difficult due to the offensive language within the novel with many students becoming uncomfortable at "just hear[ing] the N-word". He views this change as common sense, with Obamas election into office as a sign that Americans are ready for a change, and that by removing these books from the reading lists, they would be following this change.[32] A 2011 edition of the book, published by NewSouth Books, replaced the word "nigger" with "slave" (although being incorrectly addressed to a freed man) and did not use the term "Injun". The initiative to update the book was led by Mark Twain scholar Alan Gribben, who said the change was made to better express Twain's ideas in the 21st century.[33] Gribben said he hoped the edition would be more friendly for use in classrooms, rather than have the work banned outright from classroom reading lists due to its language.[34] According to publisher Suzanne La Rosa "At NewSouth, we saw the value in an edition that would help the works find new readers. If the publication sparks good debate about how language impacts learning or about the nature of censorship or the way in which racial slurs exercise their baneful influence, then our mission in publishing this new edition of Twains works will be more emphatically fulfilled."[35] Another scholar, Thomas Wortham, criticized the changes, saying the new edition "doesn't challenge children to ask, 'Why would a child like Huck use such reprehensible language?'".[36] Responses to this include the publishing of The Hipster Huckleberry Finn which is an edition with the word "nigger" replaced with the word "hipster". The book's description includes this statement "Thanks to editor Richard Grayson, the adventures of Huckleberry Finn are now neither offensive nor uncool."[37]

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Adaptations
Film
Tom Sawyer (1917 silent) by Famous Players-Lasky; directed by William Desmond Taylor; starring Jack Pickford as Tom, Robert Gordon as Huck and Clara Horton as Becky Huck and Tom (1918 silent) by Famous Players-Lasky; directed by William Desmond Taylor; starring Jack Pickford as Tom, Robert Gordon as Huck and Clara Horton as Becky Huckleberry Finn (1920 silent) by Famous Players-Lasky; directed by William Desmond Taylor; starring Lewis Sargent as Huck, Gordon Griffith as Tom and Thelma Salter as Becky[38] Tom Sawyer (1930) by Paramount Pictures; directed by John Cromwell; starring Jackie Coogan as Tom, Junior Durkin as Huck and Mitzi Green as Becky Huckleberry Finn (1931) by Paramount Pictures; directed by Norman Taurog; starring Jackie Coogan as Tom, Junior Durkin as Huck and Mitzi Green as Becky[39] The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (February 1938) by Selznick International Pictures; directed by Norman Taurog; starring Tommy Kelly as Tom, Jackie Moran as Huck and Ann Gillis as Becky Tom Sawyer, Detective (December 1938) by Paramount Pictures; directed by Louis King; starring Billy Cook as Tom and Donald O'Connor as Huck [Becky Thatcher was absent from this feature] The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1939) by MGM; directed by Richard Thorpe; starring Mickey Rooney as Huck [Tom Sawyer and Becky Thatcher were absent from this feature] The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a 1954 film starring Thomas Mitchell and John Carradine produced by CBS ([40]) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn a 1960 film directed by Michael Curtiz, starring Eddie Hodges and Archie Moore The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a 1968 animated television series for children Hopelessly Lost, a 1972 Soviet film Huckleberry Finn, a 1974 musical film Huckleberry Finn, a 1975 ABC movie of the week with Ron Howard as Huck Finn Huckleberry Finn, a 1976 Japanese anime with 26 episodes Huckleberry Finn and His Friends, a 1979 television series starring Ian Tracey The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn(1981)(TV) Kurt Ida as Huckleberry Finn Rascals and Robbers: The Secret Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn (1982) (TV) Anthony Michael Hall as Huck Finn Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a 1985 television movie which was filmed in Maysville, Kentucky. The Adventures of Con Sawyer and Hucklemary Finn, a 1985 ABC movie of the week with Drew Barrymore as Con Sawyer The Adventures of Huck Finn, a 1993 film starring Elijah Wood and Courtney B. Vance Huckleberry Finn Monogatari, a 1994 Japanese anime with 26 episodes Tom and Huck, a 1995 Disney film starring Jonathan Taylor Thomas, Brad Renfro, Joey Stinson, and Rachael Leigh Cook Tomato Sawyer and Huckleberry Larry's Big River Rescue, a VeggieTales parody of Huckleberry Finn created by Big Idea Productions with Larry the Cucumber as the titular character. (2008) See also: Film adaptations as listed in the Internet Movie Database [41]

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Stage
Big River, a 1985 Broadway musical with lyrics and music by Roger Miller Downriver, a 1975 Off Broadway musical, music and lyrics by John Braden

Literature
The Further Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1983), a novel which continues Huck's adventures after he "lights out for the Territory" at the end of Twain's novel, by Greg Matthews. Finn: A Novel (2007), a novel about Huck's father, Pap Finn, by Jon Clinch. My Jim (2005), a novel narrated largely by Sadie, Jim's enslaved wife, by Nancy Rawles. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1973), a simplified version by Robert James Dixson.

Music
Mississippi Suite (1926), by Ferde Grofe: the second movement is a lighthearted whimsical piece entitled "Huck Finn" Huckleberry Finn EP (2009), comprising five songs from Kurt Weill's unfinished musical, by Duke Special

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Facsimile of the 1st US edition. http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 29489461 Lester, Julius. Morality and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Woodard, Fredrick and MacCann, Donnarae. Minstrel Shackles and Nineteenth Century "Liberality" in Huckleberry Finn. Twain, Mark (October 1, 2001). "Introduction". The Annotated Huckleberry Finn. introduction and annotations by Michael Patrick Hearn. W. W. Norton & Company. xivxvii, xxix. ISBN0-393-02039-8. [6] Young, Philip (December 1, 1966). Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration. Penn State Press. p.212. ISBN0-271-02092-X. [7] Reif, Rita (February 14, 1991). "First Half of 'Huck Finn,' in Twain's Hand, Is Found" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9D0CE6D9103FF937A25751C0A967958260). The New York Times. . Retrieved February 10, 2008. [8] Baker, William (June 1, 1996). "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (book reviews)". Antioch Review (Antioch University) 54 (3): 3634. [9] ""All Modern Literature Comes from One Book by Mark Twain": Rare First Edition, First Issue of Huckleberry Finn in Original Publisher's Full Sheep Binding, with All First-state Points, Including the Curved Fly, One of the First Copies to Be Printed" (http:/ / www. baumanrarebooks. com/ rare-books/ twain-mark/ adventures-of-huckleberry-finn/ 63515. aspx). Bauman Rare Books. . Retrieved January 24, 2011. [10] Blair, Walter (1960). Mark Twain & Huck Finn. University of California Press. [11] Reif, Rita. Antiques: How Huck Finn was rescued. New York Times, March 17, 1991 http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9D0CE7D81E3DF934A25750C0A967958260 [12] http:/ / www. mvn. usace. army. mil/ PAO/ history/ MISSRNAV/ steamboat. asp [13] Victor A. Doyno (1991). Writing Huck Finn: Mark Twain's creative process. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp.191. ISBN tk. (http:/ / books. google. ca/ books?id=b-DTQwA4lDEC& pg=PA190& lpg=PA190& dq=benvenuto+ chelleeny& source=web& ots=_gofpI_335& sig=bXuZjSvs1Ejq3HR7SzC0m4n9ZPE& hl=en) [14] Leonard, James S.; Thomas A. Tenney and Thadious M. Davis (December 1992). Satire or Evasion?: Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=fdrBtpSSCisC& pg=RA1-PA116& lpg=RA1-PA116& dq=hemingway+ "huckleberry+ finn"+ "green+ hills"). Duke University Press. pp.224. ISBN978-0-8223-1174-4. . [15] Mark Twain: Critical Assessments, Stuart Hutchinson, Ed, Routledge 1993, p. 193 [16] http:/ / www. sparknotes. com/ lit/ huckfinn/ themes. html [17] Mailer, Norman (December 9, 1984). "Huckleberry Finn, Alive at 100" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1984/ 12/ 09/ books/ mailer-huck. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved February 10, 2008. [18] Leonard, James S.; Thomas A. Tenney and Thadious M. Davis (December 1992). Satire or Evasion?: Black Perspectives on Huckleberry Finn (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=fdrBtpSSCisC& pg=RA1-PA116& lpg=RA1-PA116& dq=hemingway+ "huckleberry+ finn"+ "green+ hills"). Duke University Press. pp.2. ISBN978-0-8223-1174-4. . [19] "Banned Books" (http:/ / 205. 188. 238. 181/ time/ specials/ packages/ article/ 0,28804,1842832_1842838_1844945,00. html). Time Magazine. Time Magazine. August 29, 2008. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. [20] The 'n'-word gone from Huck Finn what would Mark Twain say? (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ Books/ chapter-and-verse/ 2011/ 0105/ The-n-word-gone-from-Huck-Finn-what-would-Mark-Twain-say)

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[21] Nick, Gillespie (February 2006). "Mark Twain vs. Tom Sawyer: The bold deconstruction of a national icon" (http:/ / www. reason. com/ news/ show/ 36203. html). . Retrieved February 7, 2008. [22] Hemingway, Ernest (1935). Green Hills of Africa. New York: Scribners. pp.22. [23] Brown, Robert. "One Hundred Years of HUCK FINN" (http:/ / www. americanheritage. com/ articles/ magazine/ ah/ 1984/ 4/ 1984_4_81. shtml). American Heritage Magazine. AmericanHeritage.com. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. "If Mr. Clemens cannot think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them." [24] Powers, Ron (September 13, 2005). Mark Twain: A Life. Free Press. pp.4767. [25] For example, Shelley Fisher Fishin, Lighting out for the Territory: Reflections on Mark Twain and American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). [26] Stephen Railton, "Jim and Mark Twain: What Do Dey Stan' For?" Virginia Quarterly Review 63 (1987). [27] Brown, Robert. "One Hundred Years of HUCK FINN" (http:/ / www. americanheritage. com/ articles/ magazine/ ah/ 1984/ 4/ 1984_4_81. shtml). American Heritage Magazine. AmericanHeritage.com. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. "most grotesque example of racism Ive ever seen in my life." [28] ALA | 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 19901999 (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ banned/ frequentlychallenged/ challengedbydecade/ index. cfm) [29] Roberts, Gregory (November 26, 2003). "'Huck Finn' a masterpiece or an insult" (http:/ / www. seattlepi. com/ local/ 149979_huck26. html). Seattle PI. SeattlePI.com. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. [30] Fox, Laurie (November 1, 2007). "Huckleberry Finn N-word lesson draws controversy" (http:/ / www. dallasnews. com/ sharedcontent/ dws/ news/ localnews/ stories/ 110107dnmethuckfinn. 1c65c58d9. html). Seattle PI. SeattlePI.com. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. [31] "Wash. teacher calls for 'Huck Finn' ban" (http:/ / www. upi. com/ Top_News/ 2009/ 01/ 19/ Wash-teacher-calls-for-Huck-Finn-ban/ UPI-39901232395760/ ). United Press International. UPI.com. January 19, 2009. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. [32] Foley, John (January 5, 2009). "Guest Columnist: Time to update schools' reading lists" (http:/ / www. seattlepi. com/ opinion/ 394832_nword06. html). Seattle PI. SeattlePI.com. . Retrieved November 8, 2010. [33] . http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2011/ SHOWBIZ/ 01/ 04/ new. huck. finn. ew/ . [34] Memmot, Mark (January 4, 2011). "New Edition of 'Huckleberry Finn' Will Eliminate Offensive Words" (http:/ / www. npr. org/ blogs/ thetwo-way/ 2011/ 01/ 04/ 132652272/ new-edition-of-huckleberry-finn-will-eliminate-offensive-words?ft=1& f=1001). NPR. NPR.org. . Retrieved January 5, 2011. [35] "A word about the NewSouth edition of Mark Twains Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn" (http:/ / www. newsouthbooks. com/ pages/ 2011/ 01/ 04/ a-word-about-the-newsouth-edition-of-mark-twains-tom-sawyer-and-huckleberry-finn/ ). . Retrieved January 8, 2011. [36] "New editions of Mark Twain novels to remove racial slurs" (http:/ / www. heraldsun. com. au/ entertainment/ new-editions-of-mark-twain-novels-to-remove-racial-slurs/ story-e6frf96f-1225981589323). . Retrieved January 8, 2011. [37] "Hipster Huckleberry Finn Solves Censorship Debate By Replacing "N-Word" With "H-Word"" (http:/ / blogs. villagevoice. com/ runninscared/ 2011/ 01/ hipster_huckleb. php). . Retrieved February 10, 2011. [38] IMDB, Huckleberry Finn (1920) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0011313/ ) [39] IMDB, Huckleberry Finn (1931) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0021981/ ) [40] http:/ / www. movierevie. ws/ movies/ 890030/ The-Adventures-of-Huckleberry-Finn. html [41] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ find?s=all& q=huckleberry+ finn

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External links
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (http://www.archive.org/details/adventureshuckle00twaiiala). Digitized copy of the first American edition from Internet Archive (1885). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/76) at Project Gutenberg Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, 125th Anniversary Edition (http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9353001. php). University of California Press, 2010. "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" (http://adventuresofhuckleberryfinn.org). Retrieved September 19, 2010. Cross-browser compatible HTML edition "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" (http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/huckfinn/). SparkNotes. Retrieved September 21, 2007. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Study Guide and Lesson Plan" (http://www.gradesaver.com/ classicnotes/titles/huckfinn/). GradeSaver. Retrieved April 9, 2008. "Huckleberry Finn" (http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/LitNote/Huckleberry-Finn.id-20.html). CliffsNotes. Retrieved September 21, 2007. "Huck Finn in Context:A Teaching Guide" (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/cultureshock/teachers/huck/index. html). PBS.org. Retrieved September 21, 2007.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn "Special Collections: Mark Twain Room (Houses original manuscript of Huckleberry Finn)" (http://www. buffalolib.org/libraries/collections/index.asp?sec=twain). Libraries of Buffalo & Erie County. Retrieved September 21, 2007. Smiley, Jane (January 1996). "Say It Aint So, Huck: Second thoughts on Mark Twains "masterpiece"," (http:// www.harpers.org/archive/1996/01/0007861) (PDF). Harper's Magazine 292 (1748): 61.

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The Jungle Book

139

The Jungle Book


The Jungle Book

Embossed cover from the original edition of The Jungle Book based on art by John Lockwood Kipling Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Series Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN Preceded by Followed by Rudyard Kipling John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyard's father) United Kingdom English The Jungle Books Children's book Macmillan Publishers 1894 Print (hardback & paperback) NA "In the Rukh" The Second Jungle Book

The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by British Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling. The stories were first published in magazines in 18934. The original publications contain illustrations, some by Rudyard's father, John Lockwood Kipling. Kipling was born in India and spent the first six years of his childhood there. After about ten years in England, he went back to India and worked there for about six-and-half years. These stories were written when Kipling lived in Vermont.[1] The tales in the book (and also those in The Second Jungle Book which followed in 1895, and which includes five further stories about Mowgli) are fables, using animals in an anthropomorphic manner to give moral lessons. The verses of The Law of the Jungle, for example, lay down rules for the safety of individuals, families and communities. Kipling put in them nearly everything he knew or "heard or dreamed about the Indian jungle."[2] Other readers have interpreted the work as allegories of the politics and society of the time.[3] The best-known of them are the three stories revolving around the adventures of an abandoned "man cub" Mowgli who is raised by wolves in the Indian jungle. The most famous of the other stories are probably "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi", the story of a heroic mongoose, and "Toomai of the Elephants", the tale of a young elephant-handler. As with much of Kipling's work, each of the stories is preceded by a piece of verse, and succeeded by another. The Jungle Book, because of its moral tone, came to be used as a motivational book by the Cub Scouts, a junior element of the Scouting movement. This use of the book's universe was approved by Kipling after a direct petition of Robert Baden-Powell, founder of the Scouting movement, who had originally asked for the author's permission for the use of the Memory Game from Kim in his scheme to develop the morale and fitness of working-class youths in

The Jungle Book cities. Akela, the head wolf in The Jungle Book, has become a senior figure in the movement, the name being traditionally adopted by the leader of each Cub Scout pack.

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Chapters
The complete book, having passed into the public domain, is on-line at Project Gutenberg's official website and elsewhere. 1. "Mowgli's Brothers": A boy is raised by wolves in the Indian Jungle with the help of Baloo the bear and Bagheera the black panther, and then has to fight the tiger Shere Khan. This story has also been published as a short book in its own right: Night-Song in the Jungle 2. "Hunting-Song of the Seeonee Pack" 3. "Kaa's Hunting": This story takes place before Mowgli fights Shere Khan. When Mowgli is abducted by monkeys, Baloo and Bagheera set out to rescue him with the aid of Chil the Kite and Kaa the python. Maxims of Baloo. 4. "Road Song of the Bandar-Log" 5. "Tiger! Tiger!": Mowgli returns to the human village and is adopted by Messua and her husband who believe him to be their long-lost son Nathoo. But he has trouble adjusting to human life, and Shere Khan still wants to kill him. The story's title is taken from the poem "The Tyger" by William Blake. 6. "Mowgli's Song" 7. "The White Seal": Kotick, a rare white-furred Northern fur seal, searches for a new home for his people, where they will not be hunted by humans. The "animal language" words and names in this story are a phonetic spelling of Russian spoken with an Aleut accent, for example "Stareek!" (= !) = "old man!", "Ochen scoochnie" (said by Kotick) = "I am very lonesome" = (correctly means "very boring"), holluschick (plural -i.e.) "bachelor male seal" () from = "unmarried". 8. "Lukannon" 9. "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi": Rikki-Tikki the mongoose defends a human family living in India against a pair of cobras. This story has also been published as a short book. 10. "Darzee's Chant" 11. "Toomai of the Elephants": Toomai, a ten-year old boy who helps to tend working elephants, is told that he will never be a full-fledged elephant-handler until he has seen the elephants dance. This story has also been published as a short book. 12. "Shiv and the Grasshopper" 13. "Her Majesty's Servants" (originally titled "Servants of the Queen"): On the night before a military parade a British soldier eavesdrops on a conversation between the camp animals. 14. "Parade-Song of the Camp Animals" parodies several well-known songs and poems, including Bonnie Dundee.

Characters
In alphabetical order: Akela An Indian Wolf Bagheera A melanistic (black) panther Baloo A Sloth Bear Bandar-log A tribe of monkeys Chil A kite (renamed "Rann" in US editions) Chuchundra A Muskrat

Darzee A tailorbird Father Wolf The Father Wolf who raised Mowgli as his own cub Grey brother One of Mother and Father Wolf's cubs

The Jungle Book Hathi An Indian Elephant Ikki An Asiatic Brush-tailed Porcupine (mentioned only) Kaa Indian Python Karait Common Krait Kotick A White Seal Mang A Bat Mor An Indian Peafowl Mowgli Main character, the young jungle boy Nag A male Black cobra Nagaina A female King cobra, Nag's mate Raksha The Mother wolf who raised Mowgli as her own cub Rikki-Tikki-Tavi An Indian Mongoose Sea Catch A Northern fur seal and Kotick's father Sea Cow A Steller's Sea Cow Sea Vitch A Walrus Shere Khan A Royal Bengal Tiger Tabaqui An Indian Jackal

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Adaptations
The book's text has often been abridged or adapted for younger readers, and there have also been several comic book adaptations.

Comics
A comic book series Petit d'homme ("Man Cub") was published in Belgium between 1996 and 2003. Written by Crisse and drawn by Marc N'Guessan and Guy Michel, it resets the stories in a post-apocalyptic world in which Mowgli's friends are humans rather than animals: Baloo is an elderly doctor, Bagheera is a fierce African woman warrior and Kaa is a former army sniper. Marvel Comics published several Jungle Book adaptations by Mary Jo Duffy and Gil Kane in the pages of Marvel Fanfare (vol. 1). These strips were collected in the 2007 one-shot Marvel Illustrated: The Jungle Book. The DC Comics Elseworlds' story, "Superman: The Feral Man of Steel", is based loosely on the Jungle Book stories, as well as the Edgar Rice Burroughs' Tarzan stories. The infant Superman, like Mowgli, is raised by wolves, and takes the name K'l'l. Bagheera, Akela, and Shere Khan all make appearances. The character is later given the civilized name of 'Clark' by Lois Lane, and is captured along with his friends, and used for profit by Lex Luthor, who is also eventually slain.[4] Bill Willingham's Eisner Award-winning comic book series Fables, published by Vertigo Comics, features the Jungle Book's Mowgli, Bagheera and Shere Khan; though their characterisation remains true to Kipling's stories, Willingham and artist Mark Buckingham also make oblique references to the 1967 Disney animation in dialogue and artwork. The series amalgamates characters from fairy tales and folklore, as well as children's literature; Shere Kahn, for instance, is shot dead by Snow White, whilst Mowgli is employed as a spy by Big Bad Wolf.

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Books
Neil Gaiman's The Graveyard Book is inspired by The Jungle Book. It follows a baby boy who is found and brought up by the dead in a cemetery. It has many scenes that can be directly linked back to Kipling, but with Gaiman's dark twist. Mr. Gaiman has spoken in some detail about this on his website.[5]

Live-action film
"Toomai of the Elephants" was filmed as Elephant Boy (1937), starring Sabu Dastagir. In the 1960s there was a television series of the same name, loosely based on the story and film. Jungle Book (1942) directed by Zoltn Korda, starring Sabu Dastagir as Mowgli. Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book (1994) starring Jason Scott Lee as Mowgli. The Second Jungle Book: Mowgli and Baloo (1997) starring Jamie Williams as Mowgli. The Jungle Book: Mowgli's Story (1998) starring Brandon Baker as Mowgli. The Jungle Book, an upcoming adaptation that will begin production in September 2007 and continue for two years.[6]

Animation
Disney's 1967 animated film version, inspired by the Mowgli stories, was extremely popular, though it took great liberties with the plot, characters and the pronunciation of the characters' names. These characterizations were further used in the 1990 animated series TaleSpin, which featured several anthropomorphic characters loosely based on those from the film in a comic aviation-industry setting. In 1967, another animated adaptation was released in the Soviet Union called Mowgli (Russian: ; published as Adventures of Mowgli in the USA), also known as the 'heroic' version of the story. Five animated shorts of about 20 minutes each were released between 1967 and 1971, and combined into a single 96-minute feature film in 1973. It's also very close to the book's storyline, and one of the few adaptations which has Bagheera as a female panther. It also features stories from The Second Jungle Book, such as Red Dog and a simplified version of The King's Ankus. "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi" has also been released in 1965 as a cartoon ([7]) and in 1976 as a feature film. The former made its way into the hearts of viewers and is even now sometimes aired by TV stations of the Former Soviet Union countries as a classic of Soviet animation. Interestingly, in keeping with Soviet ideology, the Colonial English family in Rikki-Tikki-Tavi has been replaced with an Indian family. Chuck Jones's made for-TV cartoons Mowgli's Brothers, Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and The White Seal stick to the original storylines more closely than most adaptations. There was a Japanese anime television series called Jungle Book Shonen Mowgli broadcast in 1989. Its adaptation represents a compromise between the original stories and the Walt Disney version. Many of Kipling's stories are adapted into the series, but many elements are combined and changed to suit more modern sensibilities. For instance, Akela, the wolf pack alpha eventually steps aside, but instead of being threatened with death, he stays on as the new leader's advisor. Also, there is an Indian family in the series which includes Rikki-Tikki-Tavi as a pet mongoose. Finally at the series' conclusion, Mowgli leaves the jungle for human civilization, but still keeps strong ties with his animal friends. The Japanese anime was dubbed in Hindi and telecast as Jungle Book by Doordarshan in India during the early 1990s. The Indian version featured original music by Vishal Bharadwaj (with words by noted lyricist Gulzar and Nana Patekar doing the voice over for Sher Khan), which made it quite popular among television viewers of that time. The anime was also dubbed in Arabic under the title "( " Fat al Adghl: Boy Of The Jungle) and became a hit with Arab viewers in the 1990s.

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Stage
A Hungarian musical was composed by Lszl Ds, lyrics by Pter Geszti and Pl Bks. The musical was first performed in 1996 in Budapest and is still running today in many Hungarian theatres. It won the prize of the Hungarian Theatre Critics as the musical of the year in 1996. Stuart Paterson wrote a stage adaptation in 2004, first produced by the Birmingham Old Rep in 2004 and published in 2007 by Nick Hern Books.[8] In 2006 the Orlando Shakespeare Theater commissioned a unique adaptation for their Theater For Young Audiences series. With Book and Lyrics by April-Dawn Gladu and Music and Lyrics by Daniel Levy, this version explores the joy and pain felt by his two mothers, the human Messua and Raksha the wolf, and stresses the benefits of community and compassion. The music is distinctly Indian in nature with two of the seven songs sung in Hindi. It has since been produced by Imagination Stage in MD, Pennsylvania Shakespeare Festival, Brigham Young University, and dozens of community and collegiate theaters. It is published by www.TYAscripts.com A dance adaptation by the Boom Kat Dance Company premiered on 2 May 2008 at Miles Playhouse in Santa Monica, California. It was choreographed by the company with artistic direction by Lili Fuller, Marissa Goodhill, Emily Iscoff-Daigian and Adam North. A new adaptation written by Leonard Joseph Dunham was premiered by the Hunger Artists Theatre Company in Fullerton, California, on 12 September 2008.[9] Art rock adaptation The Third Jungle Book from Progres 2. The Jungle story is extended about the jungle of civilization. English version 1981. The Castle Theatre, Wellingborough is performing a brand new musical version of the much loved story for the 2009 Christmas season.

Music
Australian composer Percy Grainger, an avid Kipling reader wrote a Jungle Book cycle, which was published in 1958.

References
[1] Rao, K. Bhaskara (1967) Rudyard Kipling's India. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press [2] The Long Recessional: the Imperial Life of Rudyard Kipling, David Gilmour, Pimlico, 2003 ISBN 0-7126-6518-8 [3] Hjejle, Benedicte 1983 'Kipling, Britisk Indien og Mowglihistorieine', Feitskrifi til Kristof Glamann, edited by Ole Fddbek and Niels Thomson. Odense, Denmark: Odense Universitetsforlag. pp. 87114. [4] Superman Annual No.6 (1994) [5] Neil Gaiman's Journal, February 13, 2008 (http:/ / journal. neilgaiman. com/ search/ label/ The Graveyard Book?updated-max=2008-02-14T15:32:00-06:00& max-results=1) [6] BBC, Pathe team for 'Jungle Book' Entertainment News, Film News, Media Variety (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1117970122. html?categoryid=13& cs=1) [7] http:/ / animator. ru/ db/ ?ver=eng& p=show_film& fid=2178 [8] Stuart Paterson complete guide to the Playwright and Plays (http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsP/ paterson-stuart. html#62440) [9] Hunger Artists Show Archives (http:/ / www. hungerartists. com/ )

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External links
The Jungle Book Collection (http://www.jb-c.eu/): a website demonstrating the variety of merchandise related to the book and film versions of The Jungle Book. The Jungle Book (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/236) at Project Gutenberg Boom Kat Dance (http://www.boomkatdance.com/): a website describing the dance adaptation of The Jungle Book by Boom Kat Dance Company.

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1900-1960 Works
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

Original title page. Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Series Genre(s) Publisher L. Frank Baum W. W. Denslow United States English The Oz Books Fantasy Children's novel George M. Hill Company

Publication date 17 May 1900 Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Followed by Print (hardback & paperback), Audiobook 259 p., 21 leaves of plates (first edition hardcover) N/A 9506808 [1]

The Marvelous Land of Oz

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a children's novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W. W. Denslow. Originally published by the George M. Hill Company in Chicago on May 17, 1900,[2] it has since been reprinted numerous times, most often under the name The Wizard of Oz, which is the name of both the 1902 stage play and the 1939 film version. The story chronicles the adventures of a young girl named Dorothy Gale in the Land of Oz, after being swept away from her Kansas farm home in a storm. Thanks in part to the 1939 MGM movie, it is one of the best-known stories in American popular culture and has been widely translated. Its initial success, and the success of the popular 1902 Broadway musical which Baum adapted from his original story, led to Baum's writing thirteen more Oz books. The original book has been in the public domain in the US since 1956. Baum dedicated the book "to my good friend & comrade, My Wife", Maud Gage Baum. In January 1901, George M. Hill Company, the publisher, completed printing the first edition, which probably totaled around 35,000 copies. Records indicate that 21,000 copies were sold through 1900. Historians, economists and literary scholars have examined and developed possible political interpretations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; however, the majority of

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz the reading public simply takes the story at face value.

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Background
Born on May 15, 1856, in a frame house in Chittenango, New York, Lyman Frank Baum was the seventh child of Cynthia Stanton and Benjamin Ward Baum, an affluent oil baron.[3] Raised in Rose Lawn, the Baum country property on the outskirts of Syracuse, Baum had a sheltered upbringing. As a child, he was extremely bashful and was diagnosed with a deficient heart.[4] [5] Baum spent considerable time playing with his imaginary friends and reading books.[5] When he was 15 years old, he and Harry, a younger brother produced The Rose Lawn Home Journal.[6] When he was 18 years old, Baum spent much time around local theaters and hoped to pursue acting. Though his father initially opposed his dream, he later capitulated. Baum traveled through different states and worked at various jobs to support his acting career.[7] [8] In 1882, Baum married Maud Gage, daughter of suffragist Matilda Joslyn Gage. His mother-in-law believed that Baum was idealistic and wrote in a letter that he was "a perfect baby". However, she urged him to put to paper the many tales he had related to his sons for many years. Maud Gage, a practical woman, served as a foil to Baum. She was consistent and wary of their finances, complementing her husband, an imaginative dreamer.[5]

1900 first edition cover, George M. Hill, Chicago, New York.

Publication
Published by George M. Hill Company, the novel's first edition had a printing of 10,000 copies and was sold in advance of the publication date of September 1, 1900. By October 1900, the first edition had already sold out and the second edition of 15,000 copies was nearly depleted.[9] In a letter to his brother Harry, Baum wrote that the book's publisher, Back cover. George M. Hill, predicted a sale of about 250,000 copies. In spite of this favorable conjecture, Hill did not initially predict the book would be phenomenally successful. He agreed to publish the book only when the manager of the Grand Opera House, Fred R. Hamlin, committed to making The Wizard of Oz into a play to publicize the novel.[10] After Hill's publishing company became bankrupt in 1901, Baum and Denslow agreed to have the Indiannapolis-based Bobbs-Merrill Company resume publishing the novel.[11] Baum's son Harry Neal told the Chicago Tribune in 1944 that he told his children "whimsical stories before they became material for his books". Harry called his father the "swellest man I knew", a man who was able to give a decent reason as to why black birds cooked in a pie could afterwards get out and sing.[12] By 1938, over one million copies of the book had been printed.[13] Less than two decades later, in 1956, the sales of his novel grew to 3 million copies in print.[11]

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Plot summary
Dorothy is an orphan raised by her Uncle Henry and Aunt Em in the bleak landscape of a Kansas farm. She has a little black dog Toto, who is her sole source of happiness on the dry, gray prairies. One day the farmhouse, with Dorothy and Toto inside, is caught up in a tornado and deposited in a field in Munchkin Country, the eastern quadrant of the Land of Oz. The falling house kills the evil ruler of the Munchkins, the Wicked Witch of the East. The Good Witch of the North comes with the Munchkins to greet Dorothy and gives Dorothy the silver shoes (believed to have magical properties) that the Wicked Witch had been wearing when she was killed. In order to return to Kansas, the Good Witch of the North tells Dorothy that she will have to go to the "Emerald City" or "City of Emeralds" and ask the Wizard of Oz to help her. On her way down the yellow brick road, Dorothy frees the Scarecrow from the pole he is hanging on, restores the movements of the rusted Tin Woodman with an oil can, and encourages them and the Cowardly Lion to journey with her and Toto to the Emerald City. The Scarecrow wants to get a brain, the Tin Woodman a heart, and the Cowardly Lion, courage. All are convinced by Dorothy that the Wizard can help them too. Together, they overcome obstacles on the way including narrow pieces of the yellow brick road, Kalidahs, a river, and the Deadly Poppies. When the travelers arrive at the Emerald City, they are asked to use green spectacles by the Guardian of the Gates. When each traveler meets with the Wizard, he appears each time as someone or something different. To Dorothy, the Wizard is a giant head; the Scarecrow sees a beautiful woman; the Tin Woodman sees a ravenous beast; the Cowardly Lion sees a ball of fire. The Wizard agrees to help each of them, but only if one of them kills the Wicked Witch of the West who rules over the Winkie Country. As the friends travel across the Winkie Country, the Wicked Witch sends wolves, crows, bees, and then her Winkie soldiers to attack them, but they manage to get past them all. Then, using the power of the Golden Cap, the Witch summons the Winged Monkeys to capture Dorothy, the Cowardly Lion and Toto, and to destroy the Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman. When the Wicked Witch gains one of Dorothy's silver shoes by trickery, Dorothy in anger grabs a bucket of water and throws it on the Wicked Witch. To her shock, this causes the Witch to melt away. The Winkies rejoice at being freed of the witch's tyranny, and they help to reassemble the Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman. The Winkies love the Tin Woodman, and they ask him to become their ruler, which he agrees to do after helping Dorothy return to Kansas. Dorothy uses the Golden Cap to summon the Winged Monkeys to carry her and her companions back to the Emerald City, and the King of the Winged Monkeys tells how he and the other monkeys were bound by an enchantment to the cap by the sorceress Gayelette.

The Wicked Witch melts, from the W. W. Denslow illustration of the first edition (1900).

When Dorothy and her friends meet the Wizard of Oz again, he tries to put them off. Toto accidentally tips over a screen in a corner of the throne room, revealing the Wizard to be an ordinary old man who had journeyed to Oz from Omaha long ago in a hot air balloon. The Wizard has been longing to return to his home and be in a circus again ever since. The Wizard provides the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, and the Cowardly Lion with a head full of bran, pins, and needles ("a lot of bran-new brains"), a silk heart stuffed with sawdust, and a potion of "courage", respectively. Because of their faith in the Wizard's power, these otherwise useless items provide a focus for their desires. In order to help Dorothy and Toto get home, the Wizard realizes that he will have to take them home with him in a new

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz balloon, which he and Dorothy fashion from green silk. Revealing himself to the people of the Emerald City one last time, the Wizard appoints the Scarecrow, by virtue of his brains, to rule in his stead. Dorothy chases Toto after he runs after a kitten in the crowd, and before she can make it back to the balloon, the ropes break, leaving the Wizard to rise and float away alone. Dorothy turns to the Winged Monkeys to carry her and Toto home, but they cannot cross the desert surrounding Oz, subsequently wasting her second wish. The Soldier with the Green Whiskers advises that Glinda, the Good Witch of the South, may be able to send Dorothy and Toto home. They, the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, and the Cowardly Lion journey to Glinda's palace in the Quadling Country. Together they escape the Fighting Trees, dodge the Hammer-Heads, and tread carefully through the China Country. The Cowardly Lion kills a giant spider, who is terrorizing the animals in a forest, and he agrees to return there to rule them after Dorothy returns to Kansasthe Hungry Tiger, the biggest of the tigers ruling in his stead as before. Dorothy uses her third wish to fly over the Hammer-Heads' mountain, almost losing Toto in the process. At Glinda's palace, the travelers are greeted warmly, and it is revealed by Glinda that Dorothy had the power to go home all along. The Silver Shoes she wears can take her anywhere she wishes to go. She tearfully embraces her friends, all of whom will be returned, through Glinda's use of the Golden Cap, to their respective kingdoms: the Scarecrow to the Emerald City, the Tin Woodman to the Winkie Country, and the Cowardly Lion to the forest. Then she will give the Golden Cap to the king of the Winged Monkeys, so they will never be under its spell again. Having bid her friends farewell one final time, Dorothy taps her heels three times, and wishes to return home. When she opens her eyes, Dorothy and Toto have returned to Kansas to a joyful family reunion. The Silver Shoes are dropped in the desert during Dorothy's flight and never seen again (at least, in the official books).

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Illustration and design


The book was illustrated by Baum's friend and collaborator W. W. Denslow, who also co-held the copyright. The design was lavish for the time, with illustrations on every page, backgrounds in different colors, and several color plate illustrations. In September 1900, The Grand Rapids Herald wrote that Denslow's illustrations are "quite as much of the story as in the writing". The editorial opined that had it not been for Denslow's pictures, the readers would be unable to picture precisely the figures of Dorothy, Toto, and the other characters.[14] A new edition of the book appeared in 1944, with illustrations by Evelyn Copelman. Although it was claimed that the new illustrations were based on Denslow's originals, they more closely resemble the characters as seen in the famous 1939 film version of Baum's book, starring Judy Garland, Ray Bolger, Jack Haley, and Bert Lahr.[15] The distinctive look led to imitators at the time, most notably Eva Katherine Gibson's Zauberlinda, the Wise Witch, which mimicked both the typography and the illustration design of Oz.[16] The typeface was the newly designed Monotype Old Style. Denslow's illustrations were so well-known that merchants of many products obtained permission to use them to promote their wares. The forms of the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, the Cowardly Lion, the Wizard, and Dorothy were made into rubber and metal sculptures. Costume jewelry, mechanical toys, and soap were also designed using their figures.[17]

Themes
Baum explores the theme of self-contradiction in The Wizard of Oz. He created characters wholike humanshave complex, contradictory natures.[18] The Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, and the Cowardly Lion all lack self-confidence. The Scarecrow believes that he has no brains, though he comes up with clever solutions to several problems that they encounter on their journey. The Tin Woodman believes that he lacks a heart, but is moved to tears when misfortune befalls the various creatures they meet. The Cowardly Lion believes that he has no courage even though he is consistently brave through their journey. Carl L. Bankston, III of Salem Press noted that "These three characters embody the classical human virtues of intelligence, caring, and courage, but their self-doubts keep them

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz from being reduced to mere symbols of these qualities."[18] By the end of novel, the characters attain self-fulfillment when they have met their objectives. To convince the characters they have the qualities they desire, the Wizard places an amalgamation of bran, pins, and needles in the Scarecrow's head to inspire intellect; gives a silk heart to the Tin Woodman to inspire love; and a drink to the Cowardly Lion to inspire bravery.[18]

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Sources of images and ideas


Baum acknowledged the influence of the Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen, which he was deliberately revising in his "American fairy tales" to include the wonder without the horrors.[19] Local legend has it that Oz, also known as The Emerald City, was inspired by a prominent castle-like building in the community of Castle Park near Holland, Michigan where Baum summered. The yellow brick road was derived from a road at that time paved by yellow bricks. These bricks were found in Peekskill, New York where Baum attended the Peekskill Military Academy. Baum scholars often reference the 1893 Chicago World's Fair (the "White Town") as an inspiration for the Emerald City. Other legends allude that the inspiration came from the Hotel Del Coronado near San Diego, California. Baum was a frequent guest at the hotel, and had written several of the Oz books there.[20] In a 1903 interview with Publishers Weekly,[5] Baum said that the name "OZ" came from his file cabinet labeled "O-Z".[21]
Dorothy meets the Cowardly Lion, from the first edition.

Alice in Wonderland
Another influence lay in Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. A September 1900 review in the Grand Rapids Herald called The Wonderful Wizard of Oz a "veritable Alice in Wonderland brought up to the present day of standard of juvenile literature".[14] Although Baum found their plots incoherent, he identified their source of popularity as Alice herself, a child with whom the child readers could identify; this influenced his choice of a protagonist.[19] Baum was also influenced by Carroll's belief that children's books should have many pictures and be pleasurable reads. Carroll rejected the Victorian-era ideology that children's books should be saturated with morals, instead believing that children should be allowed to be children. Building on Carroll's style of numerous images accompanying the text, Baum amalgamated the conventional features of a fairy tale (witches and wizards) with the well-known things in his readers' lives (scarecrows and cornfields).[22]

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Personal life
Many of the characters, props, and ideas in the novel were drawn from Baum's experiences. As a child, Baum frequently had nightmares of a scarecrow pursuing him across a field. Moments before the scarecrow's "ragged hay fingers" nearly gripped his neck, it would fall apart before his eyes. Decades later as an adult, Baum integrated his tormentor into the novel as the Scarecrow.[23] According to his son Harry, the Tin Woodman was born from Baum's attraction to window displays. Because he wished to make something captivating for the window displays, he used an eclectic assortment of scraps to craft a striking figure. From a washboiler he made a body, from bolted stovepipes he made arms and legs, and from the bottom of a saucepan he made a face. Baum then placed a funnel hat on the figure, which ultimately became the Tin Woodman.[24] John D. Rockefeller was the nemesis of Baum's father, an oil baron who declined to purchase Standard Oil shares in exchange for selling his own oil refinery. Baum scholar Evan I. Schwartz posited that Rockefeller inspired one of the Wizard of Oz's numerous faces. In one scene in the novel, the Wizard is seen as a "tyrannical, hairless head". When Rockefeller was 54 years old, the medical condition alopecia caused him to lose every strand of hair on his head, making people fearful of speaking to him.[25] In the early 1880s, when Baum's play Matches was being performed, a "flicker from a kerosene lantern sparked the rafters", causing the Baum opera house to be consumed by flames. Scholar Evan I. Schwartz posited that this may have inspired the Scarecrow's severest terror: "There is only one thing in the world I am afraid of. A lighted match."[26] In 1890, while Baum lived in Aberdeen which was experiencing a drought, he wrote a witty story in his "Our Landlady" column in Aberdeen's The Saturday Pioneer.[27] The story was about a farmer who gave green goggles to his horses, causing them to believe that the wood chips they were eating were pieces of grass. Similarly, the Wizard made the people in the Emerald City wear green goggles so that they would believe their city was built from emeralds.[28] Baum, a former salesman of china, wrote in chapter 20 about china that had sprung to life.[28] During Baum's short stay in Aberdeen, the dissemination of myths about the plentiful West continued. However, the West, instead of being a wonderland, turned into a wasteland because of a drought and a depression. In 1891, Baum moved his family from South Dakota to Chicago. At that time, Chicago was getting ready for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. Scholar Laura Barrett stated that Chicago was "considerably more akin to Oz than to Kansas". After discovering that the myths about the West's incalculable riches were baseless, Baum created "an extension of the American frontier in Oz". In many respects, Baum's creation is similar to the actual frontier save for the fact that the West was still undeveloped at the time. The Munchkins Dorothy encounters at the beginning of the novel represent farmers, as do the Winkies she later meets.[29] Baum's wife frequently visited her niece, Dorothy Louise Gage. The infant became gravely sick and died on November 11, 1898, of "congestion of the brain" at exactly five months. When the baby, whom Maud adored as the daughter she never had, died, she was devastated and needed to consume medicine.[30] To assuage her distress, Frank made his protagonist of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz a female named Dorothy.[31] Uncle Henry was modeled after Henry Gage, his wife Maud's father. Bossed around by his wife Matilda, Henry rarely dissented with her. He flourished in business, though, and his neighbors looked up to him. Likewise, Uncle Henry was a "passive but hard-working man" who "looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke".[32] The witches in the novel were influenced by witch-hunting research gathered by Baum's mother-in-law, Matilda. The stories of barbarous acts against accused witches scared Baum. Two key events in the novel involve wicked witches who both meet their death through metaphorical means.[33]

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151

The Gold Standard representation of the story


Baum did not offer any conclusive proof that he intended his novel to be a political allegory. Historian Ranjit S. Dighe wrote that for sixty years after the book's publication, "virtually nobody" had such an interpretation until Henry Littlefield, a high school teacher.[34] In his 1964 American Quarterly article, "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism",[35] Littlefield posited that the book contained an allegory of the late 19th-century bimetallism debate regarding monetary policy.[36] At the beginning of the novel, Dorothy is swept from her farm to Oz by a cyclone, which was frequently compared to the Free Silver movement in Baum's time.[35] The Yellow Brick Road represents the gold standard and the Silver Shoes which enable Dorothy to travel more comfortably symbolizes the Populist Party's desire to construct a bimetallic standard of both gold and silver in place of the gold standard. She learns that to return home, she must reach the Emerald City, Oz's political center, to speak to the Wizard, representing the President of the United States.[35] While journeying to the Emerald City, she encounters a scarecrow, who represents a farmer; a woodman made of tin, who represents a worker dehumanized by industrialization; and a cowardly lion, who represents William Jennings Bryan, a prominent leader of the silverite movement.[37] The villains of the story, the Wicked Witch of the West and the Wicked Witch of the East, represent the wealthy railroad and oil barons of the American West and the financial and banking interests of the eastern U.S. respectively. Both these groups opposed Populist efforts to move the U.S. to a bimetallic monetary standard since this would have devalued the dollar and made investments less valuable. Workers and poor farmers supported the move away from the gold standard as this would have lessened their crushing debt burdens. The Populist party sought to build a coalition of southern and midwestern tenant farmers and northern industrial workers. These groups are represented in the book by the Good Witches of the North and South. "Oz" is the abbreviated form of ounce, a standard measure of gold. Littlefield's thesis achieved some popular interest and elaboration[38] but is not taken seriously by literary historians.[39] [40] Bradley A. Hansen, a professor of economics at the University of Mary Washington, disagreed that the novel is a monetary allegory. He argued that the numerous intersections between both the individuals and happenings in the novel and those in the 1896 presidential election are the central evidence upon which proponents of the allegory depend. Further stating that research has shown that neither Baum's works nor his life history indicate that he supported Populism, Hansen concluded that "the true lesson of The Wizard of Oz may be that economists have been too willing to accept as a truth an elegant story with little empirical support, much the way the characters in Oz accepted the Wizard's impressive tricks as real magic".[37]

Cultural impact
The Wizard of Oz has been an inspiration for many fantasy novels and films. It has been translated or adapted into well over fifty languages, at times being modified in local variations. For instance, in some abridged Indian editions, the Tin Woodman was replaced with a snake.[41] In Russia, a translation by Alexander Melentyevich Volkov produced five books, the The Wizard of the Emerald City series, which became progressively distanced from the Baum version, as Ellie and her dog Totoshka travel throughout the Magic Land. However, its fame has greatly increased mainly because of the many network telecasts of the 1939 film version of the book. In 1967, The Seekers recorded "Emerald City", with lyrics about a visit there, set to the melody of Beethoven's "An die Freude". In 1995, Gregory Maguire published Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West, a revisionist look at the land and characters of Oz. Instead of depicting Dorothy, the novel focuses on Elphaba, the future Wicked Witch of the West. The Independent characterized the novel as an "an adult read reflecting on the nature of being an outcast, society's pressures to conform, and the effects of oppression and fascism".[42] Universal Pictures, which bought the novel's rights, initially intended to make it into a film. Composer and lyricist Stephen Schwartz convinced

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz the company to make the novel into a musical instead. Schwartz wrote Wicked's music and lyrics, and it premiered on Broadway in October 2003.[42] Many of these draw more directly on the 1939 MGM Technicolor film version of the novel, a now-classic of popular culture shown annually on American television from 1959 to 1991, and shown several times a year every year beginning in 1999.[43]

152

Critical response
This last story of The Wizard is ingeniously woven out of commonplace material. It is of course an extravaganza, but will surely be found to appeal strongly to child readers as well as to the younger children, to whom it will be read by mothers or those having charge of the entertaining of children. There seems to be an inborn love of stories in child minds, and one of the most familiar and pleading requests of children is to be told another story. The drawing as well as the introduced color work vies with the texts drawn, and the result has been a book that rises far above the average children's book of today, high as is the present standard. ... The book has a bright and joyous atmosphere, and does not dwell upon killing and deeds of violence. Enough stirring adventure enters into it, however, to flavor it with zest, and it will indeed be strange if there be a normal child who will not enjoy the story. The New York Times, September 8, 1900
[44]

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz received positive critical reviews upon release. In a September 1900 review, The New York Times praised the novel, writing that it would appeal to child readers and to younger children who could not read yet. The review also praised the illustrations for being a pleasant complement to the text.[44] In the first 50 years after The Wizard of Oz's publication in 1900, it received little critical analysis from scholars of children's literature. According to Ruth Berman of Science Fiction Studies, the lists of suggested reading published for juvenile readers never contained Baum's work. The lack of interest stemmed from the scholars' misgivings about fantasy, as well as to their belief that lengthy series had little literary merit.[45] It has repeatedly come under fire over the years. In 1957, the director of Detroit's libraries banned The Wizard of Oz for having "no value" for children of today, for supporting "negativism", and for bringing children's minds to a "cowardly level". Professor Russel B. Nye of Michigan State University countered that "if the message of the Oz bookslove, kindness, and unselfishness make the world a better placeseems of no value today", then maybe the time is ripe for "reassess[ing] a good many other things besides the Detroit library's approved list of children's books".[46] In 1986, seven Fundamentalist Christians families in Tennessee opposed the novel's inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit.[47] [48] They based their opposition to the novel on its depicting benevolent witches and promoting the belief that integral human attributes were "individually developed rather than God given".[48] One parent said, "I do not want my children seduced into godless supernaturalism".[49] Other reasons included the novel's teaching that females are equal to males and that animals are personified and can speak. The judge ruled that when the novel was being discussed in class, the parents were allowed to have their children leave the classroom.[47] On a more secular note, feminist author Margery Hourihan has described the book as a "banal and mechanistic story which is written in flat, impoverished prose" and dismissed the central character from the movie adaptation of the book as "the girl-woman of Hollywood".[50] Providing a twenty-first century perspective about the novel, Leonard Everett Fisher of The Horn Book Magazine wrote in 2000 that Oz has "a timeless message from a less complex era, and it continues to resonate". The challenge of valuing oneself during impending adversity has not, Fisher noted, lessened during the prior 100 years.[51]

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz In a 2002 review, Bill Delaney of Salem Press praised Baum for giving children the opportunity to discover magic in the mundane things in their everyday lives. He further commended Baum for teaching "millions of children to love reading during their crucial formative years".[22]

153

Editions
Baum's novel has been adapted and retold numerous times. In some cases, the adaptations bear only a slight semblance to the original edition.[52] By its centennial, the novel had been translated into 22 languages such as Swahili, Tamil and Serbo-Croatian.[7] To celebrate the centennial of the book's publication, the University Press of Kansas published a new edition titled The Kansas Centennial Edition. Illustrated by Michael McCurdy, the black-and-white pictures spanned 24 full pages. Andrew Karp of Utopian Studies critiqued the illustrations as being "stunningly detailed" but "somber, sharp-edged, and stark". Whereas W.W. Denslow's illustrations in the first edition portrayed Dorothy and her friends as exuding warmth, McCurdy's depicted Dorothy as "plain, dumpy, even ugly" and her friends as frightened. Karp concluded that the centennial edition, because it is considerably dismal, more resembles the beginning of the 1939 MGM movie than Baum's first edition.[53] Robert Sabuda created a pop-up book to commemorate the book's centennial. Baum scholar Michael Patrick Hearn called the book a "fond tribute" to W. W. Denslow and an "inventive interpretation" of Baum's novel. Sabuda used Denslow's first edition illustrations as "color linoleum cuts" and improved upon them by portraying the features that Denslow failed to capture.[54] The 2002 Sterling Publishing edition of the novel was illustrated by Michael Foreman with bright watercolors. Reviewer Heide Piehler of School Library Journal applauded Foreman for his "skillful command of color and light to emphasize the story's sense of adventure and enchantment". Piehler also admired the "subtle humorous details", including the winged monkeys' adorned with "Red Baron-style googles". In her generally favorable review, she critiqued Foreman's depiction of a normal Dorothy as a "disappointment".[52]

Sequels
Baum wrote The Wizard of Oz without any thought of a sequel. After reading the novel, thousands of children wrote letters to him, requesting that he craft another story about Oz. In 1904, he wrote and published the first sequel, The Marvelous Land of Oz, explaining that he grudgingly wrote the sequel to address the popular demand.[55] Baum also wrote sequels in 1907, 1908, and 1909. In his 1911 The Emerald City of Oz, he wrote that he could not continue writing sequels because Ozland had lost contact with the rest of the world. The children refused to accept this story, so Baum, in 1913 and every year thereafter until his death in May 1919, wrote an Oz book. The Chicago Tribune's Russell MacFall wrote that Baum explained the purpose of his novels in a note he penned to his sister, Mary Louise Brewster, in a copy of Mother Goose in Prose (1897), his first book. He wrote, "To please a child is a sweet and a lovely thing that warms one's heart and brings its own reward."[11] The exceptional success of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz resulted in the creation of many sequels. Baum wrote thirteen sequels to the novel. After he died in 1919, Baum's publishers delegated the creation of more sequels to Ruth Plumly Thompson who wrote 21.[22] An original Oz book was published every Christmas between 1913 and 1942.[7] By 1956, five million copies of the Oz books had been published in the English language, while hundreds of thousands had been published in eight foreign languages.[11]

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Adaptations
The Wizard of Oz has been adapted to other media numerous times, most famously in the MGM's 1939 film starring Judy Garland. Prior to this version, the book had inspired a number of now-less-well-known stage and screen adaptations, including a profitable Broadway musical and three silent films. The 1939 film was considered innovative because of its songs, special effects, and revolutionary use of the new Technicolor.[56] The story has been translated into other languages (at least once without permission), and adapted into comics several times. Following the lapse of the original copyright, the characters have been adapted and reused in spin-offs, unofficial sequels, and reinterpretations, some of which have been controversial in their treatment of Baum's characters.

Judy Garland as Dorothy discovering that she and Toto are no longer in Kansas

Notes and references


Notes
[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 9506808 [2] On May 17, 1900 the first copy of the book came off the press; Baum assembled it by hand and presented it to his sister, Mary Louise Baum Brewster. The public saw the book for the first time at a book fair at the Palmer House in Chicago, July 520. The book's copyright was registered on August 1; full distribution followed in September.Katharine M. Rogers, L. Frank Baum, pp. 7394. [3] Rogers 2002, p.1 [4] Rogers 2002, p.3 [5] Mendelsohn, Ink (1986-05-24). "As a piece of fantasy, Baum's life was a working model" (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=QtwRAAAAIBAJ& sjid=Tu8DAAAAIBAJ& pg=3435,6178650& dq=as-a-piece-of-fantasy-baum's-life-was-a-working-model). The Spokesman-Review. . Retrieved 2011-02-13. [6] Rogers 2002, p.4 [7] Watson, Bruce (2000). "The Amazing Author of Oz". Smithsonian (Smithsonian Institution) 31 (3): 112. ISSN00377333. [8] To support himself, Baum initially took jobs as a newspaper reporter and a dry goods salesman. Later becoming a playwright, Baum wrote The Maid of Arran, an Irish melodrama, which was his sole success. He was the leading role, Louis F. Baum, in the play, which debuted on the day he turned 26. [9] "Notes and News" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5ui5qtmRE). The New York Times. 1900-10-27. Archived from the original (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9B03E2DF143FE433A25754C2A9669D946197D6CF) on 2010-12-03. . Retrieved 2010-12-03. [10] The play version of The Wizard of Oz debuted on June 16, 1902, at Hamlin's Grand Opera House. It was revised to suit adult preferences and was crafted as a "musical extravaganza". The music was written by Paul Tietjens and the costumes were modeled after Denslow's drawings. Anna Laughlin starred as Dorothy, Dave Woodman was the Tin Woodman, and Fred Stone was the Scarecrow. Woodman and Stone immediately became stars, with the Chicago Tribune printing pictures of the two in their costumes and stating, "To Montgomery and Stone, The Tribune awards the honors of pioneers in original comedy." [11] MacFall, Russell (1956-05-13). "He created 'The Wizard': L. Frank Baum, Whose Oz Books Have Gladdened Millions, Was Born 100 Years Ago Tuesday" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uZYJbv6d). Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original (http:/ / image2. newsbank. com/ img-ctha/ clip/ 1956/ 05/ 13/ 19560513C007270011100013. pdf) on 2010-11-28. . Retrieved 2010-11-28. [12] Sweet, Oney Fred (1944-02-20). "Tells How Dad Wrote 'Wizard of Oz' Stories" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uZbon29E). Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original (http:/ / image2. newsbank. com/ img-ctha/ clip/ 1944/ 02/ 20/ 19440220C007270011300008. pdf) on 2010-11-28. . Retrieved 2010-11-28. [13] Verdon, Michael (1991). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Salem Press. [14] "New Fairy Stories: "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" by Authors of "Father Goose."" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wD5RJlqr). Grand Rapids Herald. 1900-09-16. Archived from the original (http:/ / imgcache. newsbank. com/ cache/ ean/ fullsize/ pl_002022011_2025_31199_120. pdf) on 2011-02-02. . Retrieved 2011-02-02. [15] Home-and-garden.webshots.com (http:/ / home-and-garden. webshots. com/ photo/ 2677091800103160599EMDfBX) [16] Bloom 1994, p.9 [17] Starrett, Vincent (1954-05-02). "The Best Loved Books" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uZdEcbos). Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original (http:/ / image2. newsbank. com/ img-ctha/ clip/ 1954/ 05/ 02/ 19540502C007270011100006. pdf) on 2010-11-28. . Retrieved

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz


2010-11-28. [18] Bankston, Carl L. III (03 2000). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Salem Press. [19] Baum, L. Frank; Hearn, Michael Patrick (1973). The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York: C.N. Potter. p.38. ISBN0-517-500868. OCLC800451. [20] The Writer's Muse: L. Frank Baum and the Hotel del Coronado (http:/ / infodome. sdsu. edu/ about/ depts/ spcollections/ exhibits/ 0906/ index. shtml) [21] Schwartz 2009, p.273 [22] Delaney, Bill (03 2002). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uWBcUewP). Salem Press. Archived from the original (http:/ / salempress. com/ store/ samples/ classics_of_science_fiction_and_fantasy_literature/ classics_of_science_fiction_and_fantasy_literature_the_wonderful_wizard_of_oz. htm) on 2010-11-25. . Retrieved 2010-11-25. [23] Gourley 1999, p.7 [24] Carpenter & Shirley 1992, p.43 [25] Schwartz 2009, pp.8789 [26] Schwartz 2009, p.75 [27] Culver 1988, p.102 [28] Hansen 2002, p.261 [29] Barrett 2006, pp.154155 [30] Taylor, Moran & Sceurman 2005, p.208 [31] Wagman-Geller 2008, pp.3940 [32] Schwartz 2009, p.95 [33] Schwartz 2009, pp.9798 [34] Dighe 2002, p.x [35] Dighe 2002, p.2 [36] Littlefield 1964, p.50 [37] Hansen 2002, p.255 [38] Setting the Standards on the Road to Oz, Mitch Sanders, The Numismatist, July 1991, pp 10421050 (http:/ / www. money. org/ AM/ Template. cfm?Section=Online_Numismatist& Template=/ CM/ ContentDisplay. cfm& ContentID=13804) [39] David B. Parker, "The Rise and Fall of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a Parable on Populism," Journal of the Georgia Association of Historians, 15 (1994), pp. 4963. [40] Responses to Littlefield The Wizard of Oz Turn Me On, Dead Man (http:/ / www. turnmeondeadman. net/ OZ/ Responses. php) [41] Rutter, Richard (July 2000) (Speech). Indiana Memorial Union, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. [42] Christie, Nicola (2006-08-17). "Wicked: tales of the witches of Oz" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wmaaAAsD). The Independent. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ theatre-dance/ features/ wicked--tales-of-the-witches-of-oz-412263. html) on 2011-02-26. . Retrieved 2011-02-26. [43] To See The Wizard: Oz on Stage and Film (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ exhibits/ oz/ ozsect2. html). Library of Congress, 2003. [44] "Books and Authors" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uWPkwlMh) (PDF). The New York Times: pp.BR1213. 1900-09-08. Archived from the original (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ mem/ archive-free/ pdf?res=9D00E2D9153FE433A2575BC0A96F9C946197D6CF) on 2010-11-26. . Retrieved 2010-11-26. [45] Berman 2003, p.504 [46] Vincent, Starrett (1957-05-12). "L. Frank Baum's Books Alive" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uZe6bJb8). Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original (http:/ / image2. newsbank. com/ img-ctha/ clip/ 1957/ 05/ 12/ 19570512C007270011100005. pdf) on 2010-11-28. . Retrieved 2010-11-28. [47] Abrams 2010, p.105 [48] Culver 1988, p.97 [49] Nathanson 1992, p.301 [50] Houihan, Margaret. Deconstructing the Hero. p.209. ISBN0-415-14186-9. OCLC36582073. [51] Fisher, Leonard Everett (2000). "Future Classics: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz". The Horn Book Magazine (Library Journals) 76 (6): 739. ISSN00185078. [52] Piehler, Heide (12 2005). "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz". School Library Journal (Reed Business Information) 51 (12): 100. ISSN03628930. [53] Karp, Andrew (2000). "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (Book Review)" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_7051/ is_1_11/ ai_n28818970/ ). Utopian Studies (Penn State University Press) 11 (1): 142. ISSN1045991X. . Retrieved 2011-02-23. [54] Hearn, Michael Patrick (2000). "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: A Commemorative Pop-up Review". The Horn Book Magazine (Library Journals) 76 (5): 547. ISSN00185078. [55] Littlefield 1964, pp.4748 [56] Twiddy, David (2009-09-23). "'Wizard of Oz' goes hi-def for 70th anniversary" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wSqKNxSj). The Florida Times-Union. Associated Press. Archived from the original (http:/ / jacksonville. com/ entertainment/ movies/ 2009-09-23/ story/ wizard_of_oz_goes_hi_def_for_70th_birthday) on 2011-02-13. . Retrieved 2011-02-13.

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Footnotes

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Bibliography Abrams, Dennis; Zimmer, Kyle (2010). L. Frank Baum (http://books.google.com/books?id=l71A056Q1dEC). New York: Infobase Publishing. ISBN1604135018. Aycock, Colleen and Mark Scott (2008). Joe Gans: A Biography of the First African American World Boxing Champion. McFarland & Co, 133139. Barrett, Laura (2006). "From Wonderland to Wasteland: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, The Great Gatsby, and the New American Fairy Tale" (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3708/is_200604/ai_n17178497/). Papers on Language & Literature (Southern Illinois University) 42 (2): 150180. ISSN00311294. Retrieved 2011-03-07. Baum, Frank Joslyn; MacFall, Russell P. (1961). To Please a Child. Chicago: Reilly & Lee Co. Berman, Ruth (11 2003). "The Wizardry of Oz" (http://www.webcitation.org/5uXx2zUQ5). Science Fiction Studies (DePauw University) 30 (3): 504509. Archived from the original (http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/ review_essays/parret91.htm) on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2010-11-27. Bloom, Harold (1994). Classic Fantasy Writers (http://books.google.com/books?id=Pym5AAAAIAAJ). New York: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN0791022048. Carpenter, Angelica Shirley; Shirley, Jean (1992). L. Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Group. ISBN0822596172. Culver, Stuart. "Growing Up in Oz." American Literary History 4 (1992) 60728. Culver, Stuart (1988). "What Manikins Want: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows" (http://www.jstor.org/stable/2928378). Representations (University of California Press) (21): 97116. Dighe, Ranjit S. (ed.) The Historian's Wizard of Oz: Reading L. Frank Baum's Classic as a Political and Monetary Allegory (2002) Gardner, Martin; Nye, Russel B. (1994). The Wizard of Oz and Who He Was. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press Gardner, Todd. "Responses to Littlefield" (2004), online (http://www.turnmeondeadman.net/OZ/Responses. html) Gourley, Catherine (1999). Media Wizards: A Behind-the-Scene Look at Media Manipulations (http://books. google.com/books?id=mYo2b4EnuuMC). Brookfield, CT: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN0761309675. Greene, David L.; Martin, Dick (1977). The Oz Scrapbook. Random House. Hanff, Peter E and Douglas G. Greene (1988). Bibliographia Oziana: A Concise Bibliographical Checklist. The International Wizard of Oz Club. ISBN 978-1-930764-03-3 Hansen, Bradley A. (2002). "The Fable of the Allegory: The Wizard of Oz in Economics" (http://www.jstor. org/pss/1183440). Journal of Economic Education (Taylor & Francis) 33 (3): 254264. doi:10.1080/00220480209595190. Hearn, Michael Patrick (ed). (2000, 1973) The Annotated Wizard of Oz. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-04992-2 Littlefield, Henry M. (1964). "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism" (http://www.webcitation.org/ 5uPB7UNa7). American Quarterly (Johns Hopkins University Press) 16 (1): 4758. doi:10.2307/2710826. Archived from the original (http://www.amphigory.com/oz.htm) on 2010-11-21. Nathanson, Paul (1991). Over the Rainbow: The Wizard of Oz as a Secular Myth of America (http://books. google.com/books?id=58jMRXmuHjkC). Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN0791407098. Parker, David B. (1994) "The Rise and Fall of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a 'Parable on Populism'." Journal of the Georgia Association of Historians. 16 (1994): 4963 (http://www.halcyon.com/piglet/Populism.htm) Riley, Michael O. (1997) Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L. Frank Baum. University of Kansas Press ISBN 0-7006-0832-X

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The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Ritter, Gretchen. "Silver slippers and a golden cap: L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and historical memory in American politics." Journal of American Studies (August 1997) vol. 31, no. 2, 171203. Rockoff, Hugh. "The 'Wizard of Oz' as a Monetary Allegory," Journal of Political Economy 98 (1990): 73960 online at JSTOR Rogers, Katharine M. (2002). L. Frank Baum: Creator of Oz. (http://books.google.com/ books?id=H7OKVbW-A84C). New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN031230174X. Schwartz, Evan I. (2009). Finding Oz: how L. Frank Baum discovered the Great American story (http://books. google.com/books?id=E2HUcQ66NrcC). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN0547055102. Sherman, Fraser A. (2005). The Wizard of Oz catalog: L. Frank Baum's novel, its sequels and their adaptations for stage, television, movies, radio, music videos, comic books, commercials and more. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0786417927 Sunshine, Linda. All Things Oz (2003) Swartz, Mark Evan. Oz Before the Rainbow: L. Frank Baum's "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" on Stage and Screen to 1939 (2000). Taylor, Troy; Moran, Mark; Sceurman, Mark (2005). Weird Illinois: Your Travel Guide to Illinois' Local Legends and Best Kept Secrets (http://books.google.com/books?id=gE4P1bhDCB4C). Weird. New York: Sterling Publishing. ISBN076075943X. Velde, Francois R. "Following the Yellow Brick Road: How the United States Adopted the Gold Standard" Economic Perspectives. Volume: 26. Issue: 2. 2002. (http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000776148) also online here (http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=377760) Wagman-Geller, Marlene (2008). Once Again to Zelda: The Stories Behind Literature's Most Intriguing Dedications (http://books.google.com/books?id=SjYHYOtQiwIC). New York: Penguin Books. ISBN0399534628. Ziaukas, Tim. "100 Years of Oz: Baum's 'Wizard of Oz' as Gilded Age Public Relations" in Public Relations Quarterly, Fall 1998 (http://www.halcyon.com/piglet/books8-Ziaukas.htm)

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External links
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/55) at Project Gutenberg "Down the Yellow Brick Road of Overinterpretation," by John J. Miller in the Wall Street Journal (http://online. wsj.com/article/SB114729872294849429.html) The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Audio Book (http://www.archive.org/details/wizard_of_oz) a Librivox (http:// www.librivox.org) project. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900 illustrated copy) (http://www.archive.org/details/ wonderfulwizardo00baumiala), Publisher's green and red illustrated cloth over boards; illustrated endpapers. Plate detached. Public Domain Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (http://publicliterature.org/books/wizard_of_oz/xaa.php), full text and audio. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum (http://wiredforbooks.org/oz/), an unabridged dramatic audio performance at Wired for Books. The Baum Bugle: A Journal of Oz (http://ozclub.org/) published by The International Wizard of Oz Club, provides frequent critical and historical information about L. Frank Baum and the Oz Series. Online version of the 1900 first edition on the Library of Congress website. (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ ampage?collId=rbc3&fileName=rbc0001_2006gen32405page.db&recNum=0)

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The Tale of Peter Rabbit

158

The Tale of Peter Rabbit


The Tale of Peter Rabbit

First edition cover Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Beatrix Potter Beatrix Potter England English Children's literature Frederick Warne & Co.

Publication date October 1902 Media type OCLC Number Followed by Print (Hardcover) 12533701 [1]

The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin

The Tale of Peter Rabbit is a children's book written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter that follows mischievous and disobedient young Peter Rabbit as he is chased about the garden of Mr. McGregor. He escapes and returns home to his mother who puts him to bed after dosing him with camomile tea. The tale was written for five-year-old Noel Moore, son of Potter's former governess Annie Carter Moore, in 1893. It was revised and privately printed by Potter in 1901 after several publishers' rejections but was printed in a trade edition by Frederick Warne & Co. in 1902. The book was a success, and multiple reprints were issued in the years immediately following its debut. It has been translated into 36 languages[2] and with 45 million copies sold it is one of the best-selling books of all time.[3] The book has generated considerable merchandise over the decades since its release for both children and adults with toys, dishes, foods, clothing, videos and other products made available. Potter was one of the first to be responsible for such merchandise when she patented a Peter Rabbit doll in 1903 and followed it almost immediately with a Peter Rabbit board game. By making the hero of the tale a disobedient and rebellious little rabbit, Potter subverted her era's definition of the good child and the literary hero genre which typically followed the adventures of a brave, resourceful, young white male. Peter Rabbit appeared as a character in a 1971 ballet film, and the tale has been adapted to an animated television series.

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Plot
Peter Rabbit, his sisters Flopsy, Mopsy, and Cottontail, and his mother are anthropomorphic rabbits who dress in human clothing and generally walk upright on their hind legs, though they live in a rabbit hole under a fir-tree. Mother Rabbit has forbidden her children to enter the garden of Mr. McGregor: it was there that their father met his untimely end and became the ingredient of a pie. However, while Mrs. Rabbit is shopping and the girls are collecting blackberries, Peter sneaks into the garden. There, he gorges on vegetables until he gets sick, and is then chased about by Mr. McGregor. When Peter loses his jacket and his shoes, Mr. McGregor uses them to dress a scarecrow. After several close encounters with Mr. McGregor, Peter escapes the garden and returns to his mother exhausted and ill. She puts him to bed with a dose of camomile tea while his sisters (who have been good little bunnies) enjoy bread and milk and blackberries for supper. In a 1904 sequel, The Tale of Benjamin Bunny, Peter returns to McGregor's garden to retrieve his lost clothes.

Composition
Through the 1890s, Potter sent illustrated story letters to the children of her former governess, Annie Moore, and, in 1900, Moore, realizing the commercial potential of Potter's stories, suggested they be made into books. Potter embraced the suggestion, and, borrowing her complete correspondence (which had been carefully preserved by the Moore children), selected a letter written on 4 September 1893 to five-year-old Noel that featured a tale about a rabbit named Peter. Potter had owned a pet rabbit called Peter Piper.[4] Potter biographer Linda Lear explains: "The original letter was too short to make a proper book so [Potter] added some text and made new black-and-white illustrations...and made it more suspenseful. These changes slowed the narrative down, added intrigue, and gave a greater sense of the passage of time. Then she copied it out into a stiff-covered exercise book, and painted a coloured frontispiece showing Mrs. Rabbit dosing Peter with camomile tea".[5]

Publication history
Private publication
As Lear explains, Potter titled the The Tale of Peter Rabbit and Mr. McGregor's Garden and sent it to publishers, but "her manuscript was returned... including Frederick Warne & Co.... who nearly a decade earlier had shown some interest in her artwork. Some publishers wanted a shorter book, others a longer one. But most wanted coloured illustrations which by 1900 were both popular and affordable".[6] The several rejections proved frustrating to Potter who knew exactly how her book should look (she had adopted the format and style of Helen Bannerman's Little Black Sambo) "and how much it should cost".[7] She decided to publish the book herself, and, on 16 December 1901, the first 250 copies of her privately printed The Tale of Peter Rabbit "was ready for distribution to family and friends".[8]

First commercial edition


In 1901, as Lear explains, a Potter family friend and sometime poet, Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley, set Potter's tale into "rather dreadful didactic verse and submitted it, along with Potter's illustrations and half her revised manuscript, to Frederick Warne & Co.," which had been among the original rejecters.[9] Warne editors declined Rawnsley's version "but asked to see the complete Potter manuscript" their interest stimulated by the opportunity The Tale of Peter Rabbit offered the
Cover of the 1901 privately published edition

The Tale of Peter Rabbit publisher to compete with the success of Helen Bannerman's wildly popular Little Black Sambo and other small format children's books then on the market. When Warne inquired about the lack of colour illustrations in the book, Potter replied that rabbit-brown and green were not good subjects for colouration. Warne declined the book but opened the possibility for future publication.[10] Warne wanted colour illustrations throughout the 'bunny book' (as the firm referred to the tale) and suggested cutting the illustrations "from forty-two to thirty-two ... and marked which ones might best be eliminated".[10] Potter initially resisted the idea of colour illustrations but then realized her stubborn stance was a mistake. She sent Warne several "several colour illustrations, along with a copy of her privately printed edition" which Warne then handed to their eminent children's book illustrator L. Leslie Brooke for his professional opinion, who was impressed with to Potter's work. Fortuitously, his recommendation coincided with a sudden surge in the small picture-book market.[11] Meanwhile, Potter continued to distribute her privately printed edition to family and friends, with the celebrated creator of Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Conan Doyle, acquiring a copy for his children. When the first private printing of 250 copies was sold out, another 200 were prepared.[12] She noted in an inscription in one copy that her beloved pet rabbit Peter had died.[13] Potter arrived at an agreement with Warne for an initial publication of 5,000 commercial copies.[14] Negotiations dragged on into the following year with a contract finally signed in June 1902.[13] Potter was closely involved in the publication process of the trade edition of the tale redrawing when necessary, making minor adjustments to the prose and correcting punctuation. The blocks for the illustrations and text were sent to printer Edmund Evans for engraving, and she made adjustments to the proofs when she received them. Lear writes that "Even before the publication of the tale in early October 1902, the first 8,000 copies were sold out. By the year's end there were 28,000 copies of The Tale of Peter Rabbit in print. By the middle of 1903 there was a fifth edition sporting coloured endpapers ... a sixth printing was produced within the month"; and a year after the first commercial publication there were 56,470 copies in print.[15]

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American copyright
Warne's New York office "failed to register the copyright for The Tale of Peter Rabbit in the United States" and unlicensed copies of the book "(from which Potter would receive no royalties) began to appear in the spring of 1903. There was nothing anyone could do stop them". The enormous financial loss ... [to Potter] only became evident over time", but the necessity of protecting her intellectual property hit home after the successful 1903 publication of The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin when her father returned from the Burlington Arcade in Mayfair at Christmas 1903 with a toy squirrel labelled Nutkin.[16]

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Merchandising
Potter asserted her tales would one day be nursery classics, and part of the "longevity of her books comes from strategy", writes Potter biographer Ruth MacDonald.[17] She was the first to exploit the commercial possibilities of her characters and tales; between 1903 and 1905 these included a Peter Rabbit stuffed toy, an unpublished board game, and nursery wallpaper.[18] Considerable variants on the original format and version of The Tale of Peter Rabbit as well as spin-off merchandise have been made available over the decades. Variant versions include "pop-ups, toy theatres, and lift-the-flap books". By 1998, modern technology had made available "videos, audio cassette, a CD-ROMs, a computer program, and Internet sites", as described by Margaret Mackey writing in The case of Peter Rabbit: changing conditions of literature for children. She continues: "Warne and their collaborators and competitors have produced a large collection of activity books and a monthly educational magazine". A plethora of other Peter Rabbit related merchandise exists as well, and "toy shops in the United States and Britain have whole sections of store specially signposted and earmarked exclusively for Potter-related toys and merchandise".[19] Pirating of The Tale of Peter Rabbit has flourished over the decades with products only loosely associated with the original. In 1916, American Louise A. Field cashed in on the popularity by writing books such as Peter Rabbit Goes to School or Peter Rabbit and His Ma, the illustrations of which showed him in his distinctive blue jacket.[20] In an animated movie by Golden Films, The New Adventures of Peter Rabbit, "Peter is given buck teeth, an American accent and a fourth sister Hopsy". Another video "retelling of the tale casts Peter as a Christian preacher singing songs about God and Jesus".[19]

Critical commentaries
Writing in Storyteller: The Classic that Heralded America's Storytelling Revival, in discussing the difference between stories that lend themselves well to telling and stories that lend themselves well to reading, Ramon Ross explains Peter Rabbit is a story created for reading. He believes Potter created a good mix of suspense and tension, intermixed with lulls in the action. He goes on to write that the writing style"the economy of words, the crisp writing"lends itself well to a young audience.[21] Lear writes that Potter "had in fact created a new form of animal fable in: one in which anthropomorphic animals behave as real animals with true animal instincts", and a form of fable with anatomically correct illustrations drawn by a scientifically minded artist. She further states Peter Rabbit's nature is familiar to rabbit enthusiasts "and endorsed by those who are not ... because her portrayal speaks to some universal understanding of rabbity behaviour."[22] She describes the tale as a "perfect marriage of word and image" and "a triumph of fantasy and fact".[23]

The Tale of Peter Rabbit

162 Carole Scott writes in Beatrix Potter's Peter Rabbit that the reader cannot help but identify with rebellious little Peter and his plight as all the illustrations are presented from his low-to-the-ground view, most feature Peter in close-up and within touching distance, and Mr. McGregor is distanced from the reader by always being depicted on the far side of Peter. Scott explains: "This identification dramatically instills fear and tension in the reader, and interacts with the frequently distanced voice of the verbal narrative", sometimes with contradictory effects.[24] In the verbal narrative and the illustration for the moment when Mr. McGregor attempts to trap Peter under a garden sieve, for example, the verbal narrative presents the murderous intent of Mr. McGregor as a matter-of-fact, everyday occurrence while the illustration presents the desperate moment from the terrified view of a small animal about to die a view that is reinforced by the birds that take flight to the left and the right.[25]

Mr. McGregor tries to trap Peter under a garden sieve

Scott writes that Potter is inconsistent in the use of "contradictory effects in the word-picture interaction". For example, in the illustration of Peter standing by the locked door, the verbal narrative describes the scene without the flippancy evident in the moment of the sieve. The inability to overcome obstacles is presented in the verbal narrative with objective matter-of-factness and the statement, Peter began to cry is offered without irony or attitude, thus drawing the reader closer to Peters emotions and plight. The illustration depicts an unclothed Peter standing upright against the door, one foot upon the other with a tear running from his eye. Without his clothes, Peter is only a small, wild animal but his tears, his emotions, and his human posture intensifies the readers identification with him. Here, verbal narrative and illustration work in harmony rather than in disharmony.[26] Scott writes that Potter subverts not only her ages expectations of what it takes to be a good child but subverts the hero genre with its young, objective, rational, resourceful white male who leaves the civilized world to brave obstacles and opponents in the wilderness, and, once his goal is achieved, returns home to grateful welcome and rewards.[27] Peter is quite unlike the traditional hero because "he is small, emotionally driven, easily frightened, and a not very rational animal".[28] She suggests Potters tale has encouraged many generations of children to self-indulgence, disobedience, transgression of social boundaries and ethics, and assertion of their wild, unpredictable nature against the constrictions of civilized living.[29]

Adaptations
In 1938, shortly after the success of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Walt Disney became interested in making an animated film based on The Tale of Peter Rabbit. However, Beatrix Potter refused to give the rights to Disney because of marketing issues.[30] In 1971, Peter Rabbit appeared as a character in the ballet film The Tales of Beatrix Potter, and, in 1992, the tale was adapted to animation for the BBC anthology series, The World of Peter Rabbit and Friends. In 2006, Peter Rabbit was heavily referenced in a biopic about Beatrix Potter entitled Miss Potter.

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References
Footnotes
[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 12533701 [2] Mackey 2002, p.33 [3] Worker's Press [4] Mackey 2002, p.35 [5] Lear 2007, p.142 [6] Lear 2007, p.143 [7] Lear 2007, pp.143144 [8] Lear 2007, p.145 [9] Lear 2007, pp.145146 [10] Lear 2007, p.146 [11] Lear 2007, p.147 [12] Lear 2007, p.150 [13] Lear 2007, p.149 [14] Lear 2007, p.148 [15] Lear 2007, p.152 [16] Lear 2007, p.164 [17] MacDonald 1986, p. 128 [18] Lear 2008, pp. 1725 [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] Mackey 1998, pp.xxixxii Hallinan 2002, p.83 Ross 1996, p.210 Lear 2007, p.153 Lear 2007, pp.154155 Mackey 2002, p.22 Mackey 2002, pp.2223 Mackey 2002, p.26 Mackey 2002, pp.2829 Mackey 2002, p.28 Mackey 2002, p.29 World Press Page- Walt Disney World Florida- Walt Disney | Beatrix Potter Was A Savvy Business Woman

Works cited Hallinan, Camilla (2002), The Ultimate Peter Rabbit: A Visual Guide to the World of Beatrix Potter, London (et al.): Dorling Kindersley, ISBN0-7894-8538-9 Lear, Linda (2007), Beatrix Potter: A Life in Nature, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN978-0-312-36934-7 Mackey, Margaret (2002), Beatrix Potter's Peter Rabbit: A Children's Classic at 100, Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., ISBN0-8108-4197-5 Mackey, Margaret (1998), The Case of Peter Rabbit, London: Routledge, ISBN0-8153-3094-4 Ross, Ramon Royal (1996), Storyteller: The Classic That Heralded America's Storytelling Revival, August House, ISBN978-0874834512 Waller, Philip (2006), Writers, Readers, and Reputations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN0-19-820677-1 Worker's Press acknowledge Frederick Warne's intellectual property rights (http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/ cgi/news/release?id=105175), Prnewswire.co.uk, 2003-07-10, retrieved 2009-08-31

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External links
The Tale of Peter Rabbit (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14838) at Project Gutenberg The Tale of Peter Rabbit Audio Book (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12702) at Project Gutenberg The Tale of Peter Rabbit Digital Book (http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/peterrabbit/pageflip.html) at The University of Iowa Libraries (Flash) World of Peter Rabbit (http://www.peterrabbit.com/us/index.asp): A website maintained by Potter's first publisher Frederick Warne & Co.

The Call of the Wild

165

The Call of the Wild


The Call of the wild

First edition cover Author(s) Illustrator Cover artist Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Jack London Nolan Gadient Evan Adkins Canada English Adventure novel Macmillan

Publication date 1903 Media type Pages ISBN OCLC Number Print (Hardback & Paperback) 179 NA 28228581 [1]

The Call of the Wild is a novel by American writer Jack London. The plot concerns a previously domesticated dog named Buck, whose primordial instincts return after a series of events leads to his serving as a sled dog in the Yukon during the 19th-century Klondike Gold Rush, in which sled dogs fetched generous prices. Buck learns from his experiences and becomes a pack-dominating feral beast. He learns lessons and relies on resurgent behaviors inherited from his wild predecessors, helping him to survive adversity as a ferocious animal. Published in 1903, The Call of the Wild is London's most-read book, and it is generally considered his best, the masterpiece of his so-called "early period".[2] Because the protagonist is a dog, it is sometimes classified as a juvenile novel, but it is dark in tone and contains numerous scenes of cruelty and violence. The Yeehat, a group of Alaska Natives portrayed in Call of the Wild, were a figment of London's imagination.[3]

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Epigraph
Old longings nomadic leap, Chafing at customs chain; Again from its brumal sleep Wakens the ferine strain. The novel opens with the first quatrain of John Myers O'Hara's poem, Atavism.[4] [5] The stanza outlines one of the main motifs of the novel, that Buck, raised in the "sun-kissed" Santa Clara Valley, has reverted to innate instincts of wolf-like savagery due to his captors' brutality and their having thrust him into the harsh Northland environment where The Law of Club and Fang reigns supreme.

Plot
Buck, a powerful Saint Bernard-Scotch shepherd dog,[6] [5] lives a comfortable life in the Santa Clara Valley with his owner, Judge Miller. One day, Manuel, the Judge's gardener's assistant, steals Buck and sells him(for $1000) in order to pay a gambling debt. Buck is then shipped to the "man in the red sweater" to be broken. Then Buck is shipped to Alaska and sold to a pair of French Canadians named Franois and Perrault (for $300). They train him as a sled dog, and he quickly learns how to survive the cold winter nights and the pack society by observing his teammates. He and the vicious, quarrelsome lead dog, Spitz, develop a rivalry. Buck eventually bests Spitz in a major fight, and after Spitz is defeated, the other dogs close in, killing him. Buck then becomes the leader of the team.[7] Eventually, Buck is sold to a trio, Hal, Charles, and a woman named Mercedes, looking to make a fortune http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Jack_Londonfinding gold. They know nothing about sledding nor surviving in the Alaskan wilderness. They struggle to control the sled and ignore warnings not to travel during the spring melt. They first overfeed the dogs, then when their food supply starts running out, they do not feed them at all. As they journey on, they run into John Thornton, an experienced outdoorsman who notices that all of the sled dogs are in terrible shape from the ill treatment of their handlers. Thornton warns the trio against crossing the river, but they refuse to listen and order Buck to move on. Exhausted, starving, and sensing the danger ahead, Buck refuses and continues to lie unmoving in the snow. After Buck is beaten by Hal, Thornton recognizes him as a remarkable dog and is disgusted by the driver's treatment of him. Thornton cuts Buck free from his traces and tells the trio he's keeping him, much to Hal's displeasure. After some argument, the trio leaves and tries to cross the river, but as Thornton warned, the ice gives way and the three fall into the river along with the neglected dogs and sled.[8] As Thornton nurses Buck back to health, Buck comes to love him and grows devoted to him. Buck saves Thornton when the man falls into a river. Thornton then takes him on trips to pan for gold. During one such trip, a man makes a wager with Thornton over Buck's strength and devotion. Buck wins the bet by breaking a half-ton sled out of the frozen ground, then pulling it 100 yards by himself, winning over a thousand dollars in gold dust. Thornton and his friends return to their camp and continue their search for gold, while Buck begins exploring the wilderness around them and begins socializing with a wolf from a local pack. One night, he returns from a short hunt to find his beloved master and the others in the camp have been killed by a group of Yeehat Indians. Buck eventually kills the Indians to avenge Thornton. After realizing his old life is a thing of the past, Buck follows the wolf into the forest and answers the call of the wild. Every year Buck comes to mourn for Thornton at the place where he died.[9]

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Development
Buck, the main character in the book, is based on a Saint Bernard/Scots Shepherd sled dog which belonged to Marshall Latham Bond and his brother Louis Whitford Bond, the sons of Judge Hiram Bond, who was also a mining investor, fruit packer and banker in Santa Clara, California. The Bonds were Jack London's landlords in Dawson City during the autumn of 1897 and spring of 1898; the main year of the Klondike Gold Rush.

Film adaptations
Several films based on the novel have been produced. The 1935 version starring Clark Gable and Loretta Young emphasized the human relationships over Buck's story. The 1972 The Call of the Wild starred Charlton Heston and Mick Steele. A television film starring Rick Schroder was broadcast in 1993 that focused more on the character of John Thornton. Another adaptation released 1997 called The Call of the Wild: Dog of the Yukon starring Rutger Hauer was narrated by Richard Dreyfuss and adapted by Graham Ludlow. There was also a Call of the Wild television series broadcast in 2000. On June 12, 2009, Vivendi Entertainment released "Call of the Wild in Digital Real-D 3D", a family-oriented adaption feature-length film. The TV special What a Nightmare, Charlie Brown! has a plot similar to that of The Call of the Wild.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / worldcat. org/ oclc/ 28228581 London 1998, p.xi. London 1997, p.101. London 1998, p.3. London 1903, Chapter 1. London 1998, p.4. London 1903, Chapter 1Chapter 4. London 1903, Chapter 5. London 1903, Chapter 6Chapter 7.

Bibliography London, Jack (1903). The Call of the Wild. Wikisource. London, Jack (1998). The Call of the Wild, White Fang & To Build a Fire. introduction by E.L. Doctorow. Modern Library. ISBN978-0375752513. London, Jack (1997). Dyer, Daniel Osborn. ed. The Call of the Wild: Annotated and Illustrated (http://books. google.com/books?id=xTT0b77KQtQC). Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN9780585145129. OCLC44955471.

The Wind in the Willows

168

The Wind in the Willows


The Wind in the Willows

Cover of the first edition Author(s) Country Language Genre(s) Publisher Kenneth Grahame United Kingdom English Children's novel Methuen

Publication date 1908 Media type Pages ISBN Print (Hardcover) 302 pp NA

The Wind in the Willows is a classic of children's literature by Kenneth Grahame, first published in 1908. Alternately slow moving and fast paced, it focuses on four anthropomorphised animal characters in a pastoral version of England. The novel is notable for its mixture of mysticism, adventure, morality, and camaraderie and celebrated for its evocation of the nature of the Thames valley. In 1908 Grahame retired from his position as secretary of the Bank of England. He moved back to Cookham, Berkshire, where he had been brought up and spent his time by the River Thames doing much as the animal characters in his book donamely, as one of the most famous phrases from the book says, "simply messing about in boats"and wrote down the bed-time stories he had been telling his son Alistair. The Wind in the Willows was in its thirty-first printing when then-famous playwright, A. A. Milne, who loved it, adapted a part of it for stage as Toad of Toad Hall in 1929.

Plot summary
At the start of the book, it is spring time, the weather is fine, and good-natured Mole loses patience with his spring cleaning and flees his underground home, heading up to take in the air. He ends up at the river, which he has never seen before. Here he meets Ratty (a water rat), who spends all his days in and around the river. Rat takes Mole for a ride in his rowing boat. They get along well and the two of them spend many more days on the river, with Rat teaching Mole the ways of the river. One summer day shortly thereafter, Rat and Mole find themselves near Toad Hall and pay a visit to Toad. Toad is rich, jovial and friendly, but conceited, and tends to become obsessed with current fads, only to abandon them as quickly as he took them up. Having only recently given up boating, Toad's current craze is his horse-drawn caravan.

The Wind in the Willows In fact, he is about to go on a trip, and persuades the reluctant Rat and willing Mole to join him. A few days later, a passing motor car scares their horse, causing the caravan to crash. This marks the end of Toad's craze for caravan travel, to be replaced with an obsession for motor cars. Mole wants to meet Badger, who lives in the Wild Wood, but Rat knows that Badger does not appreciate visits, and so refuses to take him, suggesting that if Mole will wait, Badger himself will pay them a visit. Nevertheless, on a winter's day, Mole goes to the Wild Wood to explore, hoping to meet Badger. He gets lost in the woods, succumbs to fright and panic and hides among the roots of a sheltering tree. Rat goes in search of Mole, finding him as snow begins to fall in earnest. Attempting to find their way home, Rat and Mole quite literally stumble across Badger's home--Mole barks his shin upon the boot scraper on Badger's doorstep. Badger welcomes Rat and Mole to his large and very cosy home, and gives them food and dry clothes. Badger learns from his visitors that Toad has crashed six cars and has been hospitalised three times, and has had to spend a fortune on fines. Though nothing can be done at the moment (it being winter), they decide that once spring arrives they should do something to protect Toad from himself, since they are, after all, his friends. With the arrival of spring, Badger visits Mole and Rat to do something about Toad's self-destructive obsession. The three of them go to visit Toad, and Badger tries talking him out of his behaviour, to no avail. They decide to put Toad under house arrest, with themselves as the guards, until Toad changes his mind. Feigning illness, Toad bamboozles the Water Rat (who is on guard duty at the time) and escapes. He steals a car, drives it recklessly and is caught by the police. He is sent to prison on a twenty-year sentence. Though Badger and Mole are furious with Rat for his stupidity, they draw comfort from the fact that they need no longer waste their summer guarding Toad. However, Badger and Mole continue to live in Toad Hall in the hope that Toad may return. Meanwhile in prison, Toad gains the sympathy of the jailer's daughter who helps him to escape disguised as a washerwoman. Though free again, Toad is without money or possessions other than the clothes upon his back, and is being pursued by the police. Still disguised as a washerwoman, Toad comes across a horse-drawn barge. The barge's owner offers him a lift in exchange for Toad's services as a "washer woman". After botching the wash, Toad gets into a fight with the barge-woman, who tosses him in the canal. After making off with the barge horse, which he then sells to a gypsy, Toad flags down a passing car, which happens to be the very one which he stole earlier. The car owners, not recognizing Toad disguised as a washer woman, permit him to drive their car. Once behind the wheel, he is repossessed by his former passion and drives furiously, declaring his true identity to the outraged passengers who try to seize him. This leads to an accident, after which Toad flees once more. Pursued by police he runs accidentally into a river, which carries him by sheer chance to the house of the Water Rat. Toad now hears from Rat that Toad Hall has been taken over by weasels, stoats and ferrets from the Wild Wood, who have driven out its former custodians, Mole and Badger. Although upset at the loss of his house, Toad realises what good friends he has and how badly he has behaved. Badger then arrives and announces that he knows of a secret tunnel into Toad Hall through which the enemies may be attacked. Armed to the teeth, Rat, Mole and Toad enter via the tunnel and pounce upon the unsuspecting weasels who are holding a party in honour of their leader. Having driven away the intruders, Toad holds a banquet to mark his return, during which (for a change) he behaves both quietly and humbly. He makes up for his earlier wrongdoings by seeking out and compensating those he has wronged, and the four friends live out their lives happily ever after. In addition to the main narrative, the book contains several independent short-stories featuring Rat and Mole. These appear for the most part between the chapters chronicling Toad's adventures, and are often omitted from abridgements and dramatizations. The chapter Dulce Domum describes Mole's return to his home, accompanied by Rat, in which despite finding it in a terrible mess after his abortive spring clean he rediscovers, with Rat's help, a familiar comfort. The Piper at the Gates of Dawn tells how Mole and Rat go in search of Otter's missing son Portly, whom they find in the care of the god Pan. (Pan removes their memories of this meeting "lest the awful remembrance should remain and grow, and overshadow mirth and pleasure".) Finally in Wayfarers All Ratty shows a restless side to his character when he is sorely tempted to join a Sea Rat on his travelling adventures.

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Main characters
Mole A mild-mannered, home-loving animal, and the first character to be introduced. Fed up with spring cleaning in his secluded home, he ventures into the outside world. Originally overawed by the hustle and bustle of the riverbank, he eventually adapts. Ratty A relaxed and friendly water vole, he loves the river and takes Mole under his wing. He is implied to be occasionally mischievous, and can be stubborn when it comes to doing things outside of his riverside lifestyle. Mr. Toad The wealthiest character and owner of Toad Hall. Although good-natured, Toad is impulsive and conceited, eventually imprisoned for theft, dangerous driving and impertinence to the rural police. He is prone to obsessions and crazes, such as punting, houseboating, and horse-drawn caravans, each of which in turn he becomes bored with and drops. Several chapters of the book chronicle his escape from prison, disguised as a washer-woman. Mr. Badger A gruff, solitary figure who "simply hates society", yet is a good friend to Mole and Ratty. A friend of Toad's now-deceased father, he is often firm and serious with Toad, but at the same time generally patient and well-meaning towards him. He can be seen as a wise hermit, a good leader and gentleman, embodying common sense. He is also brave and a skilled fighter, and helps clear the Wild Wooders from Toad Hall. Otter and Portly A friend of Ratty and his son. The Gaoler's Daughter The only major human character; helps Toad escape from prison. The Chief Weasel The story's antagonist. He and his band of weasels, stoats, and ferrets from the Wild Wood plot to take over Toad Hall. Inhabitants of the Wild Wood Weasels, stoats, ferrets, foxes and others, who are described by Ratty thus: "all right in a way... but... well, you can't really trust them". Pan A god who makes a single, anomalous appearance in Chapter 7, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. The Wayfarer A vagabond seafaring rat, who also makes a single appearance. Ratty briefly considers following his example, before Mole manages to persuade him otherwise. Squirrels and rabbits, who are generally good (although rabbits are described as "a mixed lot").

Editions
The book was originally published as plain text, but many illustrated, comic and annotated versions have been published over the years. Notable illustrators include Paul Bransom (1913), Arthur Rackham (1940), Tasha Tudor (1966), Michael Hague (1980), Scott McKowen (2005), and Robert Ingpen (2007). The most popular illustrations are probably by E. H. Shepard, originally published in 1931, and believed to be authorised as Grahame was pleased with the initial sketches, though he did not live to see the completed work.[1] The Folio Society edition published in 2006 features 85 illustrations, 35 in colour, by Charles van Sandwyk. The Folio Society Centenary limited edition published in 2008. Vellum quarter binding blocked in 22-carat gold. New etching hand-printed, signed and numbered by the artist, and tipped onto a special limitation page of thick laid paper. 100 illustrations by Charles van Sandwyk, with 16 tipped-in colour plates. Presented in a cloth-bound solander box.

"The Piper at the Gates of Dawn", frontispiece to a 1913 edition by Paul Bransom

The Wind in the Willows Michel Plessix created a Wind in the Willows comic book series, which helped to introduce the stories to France. They have been translated into English by Cinebook Ltd. Patrick Benson re-illustrated the story in 1994 and it was published together with the William Horwood sequels The Willows in Winter, Toad Triumphant and The Willows and Beyond. It was published in 1994 by HarperCollins and published in the US in 1995 by St Martin's Press. Inga Moore's abridged edition features text and illustrations paced so that a line of text, such as "oh my oh my," also serves as a caption. Seth Lerer's The Wind in the Willows: An Annotated Edition was published in 2009 by Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674034471 Annie Gauger and Brian Jacques released The Annotated Wind in the Willows in 2009, published by W. W. Norton, as part of the Norton Annotated Series. ISBN 978-0393057744

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Literary analysis
In The Enchanted Places, Milne's son Christopher (Christopher Robin Milne of Winnie-the-Pooh fame) says of The Wind in the Willows: A book that we all greatly loved and admired and read aloud or alone, over and over and over: The Wind in the Willows. This book is, in a way, two separate books put into one. There are, on the one hand, those chapters concerned with the adventures of Toad; and on the other hand there are those chapters that explore human emotions the emotions of fear, nostalgia, awe, wanderlust. My mother was drawn to the second group, of which The Piper at the Gates of Dawn was her favourite, read to me again and again with always, towards the end, the catch in the voice and the long pause to find her handkerchief and blow her nose. My father, on his side, was so captivated by the first group that he turned these chapters into the children's play, Toad of Toad Hall. In this play one emotion only is allowed to creep in: nostalgia.

Adaptations
Stage
Toad of Toad Hall by A. A. Milne, produced in 1929 Wind in the Willows, a 1985 Tony-nominated Broadway musical by Jane Iredale, Roger McGough and William P. Perry, starring Nathan Lane The Wind in the Willows by Alan Bennett (who also appeared as Mole) in 1991 Mr. Toad's Mad Adventures by Vera Morris Wind in the Willows (UK National Tour) by Ian Billings The Wind in the Willows [2] Two stage adaptations - a full musical adaptation and a small-scale, shorter, stage play version - by David Gooderson. The Wind in the Willows, a musical adaptation published by Dramatic Publishing with adaptation, music and new lyrics by Douglas Post

The Wind in the Willows

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Film and television


The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, a 1949 animated adaptation by Walt Disney, narrated by Basil Rathbone. One half of the animated feature was based on the unrelated short story, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. The Reluctant Dragon and Mr. Toad Show, a 1970 TV animated series produced by Rankin/Bass, based on both The Reluctant Dragon and The Wind in the Willows. The Wind in the Willows, a 1983 animated film version with stop-motion puppets by Cosgrove Hall. The Wind in the Willows, a TV series (19841990) following the stop-motion film, done in the same style. There was a host of famous names in the cast, including David Jason, Sir Michael Hordern, Peter Sallis and Ian Carmichael. The Wind in the Willows, a 1987 animated musical film version for television, produced by Rankin/Bass. This version was very faithful to the book and featured a number of original songs, including the title, "Wind in the Willows," performed by folk singer Judy Collins. Voice actors included Eddie Bracken as Mole, Jose Ferrer as Badger, Roddy McDowell as Ratty, and Charles Nelson Reilly as Toad.[3] The Wind in the Willows, a 1995 animated version with a cast led by Michael Palin and Alan Bennett as Ratty and Mole, Rik Mayall as Toad and Michael Gambon as Badger; followed by an adaptation of The Willows in Winter produced by the now defunct TVC (Television Cartoons) in London[4] . The Wind in the Willows, a 1996 live-action film written, directed by and starring Terry Jones along with John Cleese, Eric Idle, and Michael Palin (all of whom were previous Monty Python members). The film also starred Steve Coogan as Mr. Mole and featured appearances by Stephen Fry, Bernard Hill, Nigel Planer and Julia Sawalha. The Wind in the Willows, another live-action film in 2006 with Lee Ingleby as Mole, Mark Gatiss as Ratty, Matt Lucas as Toad, Bob Hoskins as Badger, and also featuring Imelda Staunton, Anna Maxwell Martin and Mary Walsh. In 2003, Guillermo del Toro was working on an adaptation for Disney. It was to mix live action with CG animation, and the director explained why he had to leave the helm. "It was a beautiful book, and then I went to meet with the executives and they said, 'Could you give Toad a skateboard and make him say, 'radical dude' things,' and that's when I said, 'It's been a pleasure...'"[5] In 2010, it was announced that Ray Griggs was developing a live-action/CGI blend adaptation of the story, scheduled to begin filming in late 2010 in New Zealand.[6]

Radio
The BBC has broadcast a number of radio productions of the story. Dramatisations include: 8 episodes from 4 to 14 April 1955, BBC Home Service. With Richard Goolden, Frank Duncan, Olaf Pooley and Mary O'Farrell. 8 episodes from 27 September to 15 November 1965, BBC Home Service. With Leonard Maguire, David Steuart and Douglas Murchie. Single 90-minute play, dramatised by A.A.Milne under the name Toad of Toad Hall, on 21 April 1973, BBC Radio 4. With Derek Smith, Bernard Cribbins, Richard Goolden and Cyril Luckham. 6 episodes from 28 April to 9 June 1983, BBC Schools Radio, Living Language series. With Paul Darrow as Badger. 6 episodes, dramatised by John Scotney, from 13 February to 20 March 1994, BBC Radio 5. With Martin Jarvis, Timothy Bateson, Willie Rushton, George Baker and Dinsdale Landen. Single 2-hour play, dramatised by Alan Bennett, on 27 August 1994, BBC Radio 4. Abridged readings include: 10-part reading by Alan Bennett from 31 July to 11 August 1989, BBC Radio 4.

The Wind in the Willows 12-part reading by Bernard Cribbins from 22 December 1983 to 6 January 1984, BBC channel unknown. Kenneth Williams also did a version of the book for radio. 2002 Paul Oakenfold produced a Trance Soundtrack for the story, aired on the Galaxy FM show Urban Soundtracks. These mixes blended classic stories with a mixture of dance and contemporary music.

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Sequels and alternative versions


In 1983 Dixon Scott published A Fresh Wind in the Willows, which not only predates Horwood's sequels (see below) by several years but also includes some of the same incidents, including a climax in which Toad steals a Bleriot monoplane. William Horwood created several sequels to The Wind in the Willows: The Willows in Winter, Toad Triumphant, The Willows and Beyond, and The Willows at Christmas. Jan Needle's Wild Wood was published in 1981 with illustrations by William Rushton (ISBN 0-233-97346-X). It is a re-telling of the story of The Wind in the Willows from the point of view of the working-class inhabitants of the Wild Wood. For them, money is short and employment hard to find. They have a very different perspective on the wealthy, easy, careless lifestyle of Toad and his friends.

Awards
Mr. Toad was voted Number 38 among the 100 Best Characters in Fiction Since 1900 by Book magazine in their March/April 2002 issue.[7]

Inspiration
Mapledurham House in Berkshire was an inspiration for Toad Hall.[8] The village of Lerryn, Cornwall lays claim to being the setting for the book.[9] Simon Winchester has suggested that the character of Ratty was based on Frederick Furnivall, a keen oarsman and acquaintance of Kenneth Grahame.[10] Articles in The Scotsman [11] and Oban Times [12] have suggested The Wind in the Willows was inspired by the Crinan Canal because Grahame spent some of his childhood in Ardrishaig. There is a theory that the idea for the story arose when its author saw a water vole beside the River Pang in Berkshire, southern England. A 29 hectare extension to the nature reserve at Moor Copse, near Tidmarsh Berkshire, was acquired in January 2007 by the Berks, Bucks and Oxon Wildlife Trust.[13]

In popular culture
Mr. Toad's Wild Ride is the name of a ride at Disneyland Park (and former Magic Kingdom attraction), inspired by Toad's motorcar adventure. It is the only ride with an alternate Latin title, given as the inscription on Toad's Hall: 'Toadi Acceleratio Semper Absurda' ('Toad's Ever-Absurd Acceleration'). The first album by psychedelic rock group Pink Floyd, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967), was named by former member Syd Barrett after Chapter 7 of The Wind in the Willows. However, the songs on the album are not directly related to the contents of the book. The same chapter was the basis for the name and lyrics of "Piper at the Gates of Dawn", a song by Irish singer-song writer Van Morrison from his 1997 album The Healing Game. The song "The Wicker Man" by British heavy metal band Iron Maiden also includes the phrase. British extreme metal band Cradle of Filth released a special edition of their album Thornography, called Harder, Darker, Faster: Thornography Deluxe; on the song "Snake-Eyed and the Venomous," a pun is made in the lyrics "..all vipers at the gates of dawn" referring to Chapter 7 of the book. Dutch composer Johan de Meij wrote a music piece for wind band in four movements named after and based upon The Wind in the Willows.

The Wind in the Willows Bosworth Badger XVII, a character in Susan Wittig Albert's Cottage Tales of Beatrix Potter, is said to be a cousin of Kenneth Grahame's Badger. (This is proven by the mention in The Tale of Briar Bank of an opinion attributed to Bosworth's cousin quoted directly from The Wind in the Willows.) The Piper at the Gates of Dawn is a piece for solo flute by Laurence Rosenthal

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Footnotes
[1] This information was obtained from the E.H. Shepard illustrated edition, published by Charles Scribner's Sons in the USA. Please see the introduction of that edition for full details on how the illustrations were created. [2] http:/ / david-gooderson. co. uk/ stage-plays-for-children/ the-wind-in-the-willows. php [3] "The Wind in the Willows (1987) (TV)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0094326/ ). IMDB. . Retrieved 16 February 2009. [4] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0192802 [5] "Rotten Tomatoes: del Toro on Why Wind in the Willows Went Away" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ mimic/ news/ 1740983/ exclusive_del_toro_on_why_wind_in_the_willows_went_away). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 9 May 2009. [6] McNary, Dave (10 June 2010). "New wind in the 'Willows' RG teams with Weta for live action version of classic tale" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118020457. html?categoryid=13& cs=1& ref=bd_film). Variety. . Retrieved 27 June 2010. [7] NPR report (http:/ / www. npr. org/ programs/ totn/ features/ 2002/ mar/ 020319. characters. html) [8] Fodor's (http:/ / www. fodors. com/ world/ europe/ england/ thames valley with oxford/ entity_98277. html) [9] BBC Inside Out The animals of Wind in the Willows (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ insideout/ southwest/ series7/ wind_in_willows. shtml) [10] Winchester, Simon. "The Meaning of Everything: the Story of the Oxford English Dictionary". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. [11] Wind whispered in the Scottish willows first, The Scotsman 16 April 2005 (http:/ / news. scotsman. com/ ViewArticle. aspx?articleid=2618637) [12] "Was Crinan the seed for Wind in the Willows?", Oban Times 11 January 2008 (http:/ / www. obantimes. co. uk/ ) [13] (Natural World, Spring 2007): "Ratty's Paradise joins eight new reserves" p10.

Further reading
Grahame, K, The Annotated Wind in the Willows, edited with preface and notes by Annie Gauger and Brian Jacques, Norton, ISBN 978-0393057744. Grahame, K, The Wind in the Willows: An Annotated Edition, edited by Seth Lerer. Belknap Press / Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674034471.

External links
Sources The Wind in the Willows (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/27805) at Project Gutenberg illustrated by Paul Bransom (1913) The Wind in the Willows (http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=title:The Wind in the Willows OR description:''The Wind in the Willows'' OR subject:''The Wind in the Willows'' AND mediatype:texts), scanned books from Internet Archive The Wind in the Willows (http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=title:The Wind in the Willows AND mediatype:audio), audio versions from Internet Archive and LibriVox Other Bodleian Library, Oxford, online display of original manuscript, books and drawings (http://www.ouls.ox.ac. uk/bodley/about/exhibitions/online/witw) Pictures and song excerpts from the American stage production (http://www.windinthewillows.com)

Peter and Wendy

175

Peter and Wendy


Peter and Wendy

Title page, 1911 U.S. edition Author(s) Illustrator Country Language Genre(s) Publisher J. M. Barrie F. D. Bedford United Kingdom English Fantasy Hodder & Stoughton (UK) Charles Scribner's Sons (USA)

Publication date 11 October 1911 (UK) & (USA) Media type Pages Print 267 pp.; Frontispiece and 11 half-tone plates The Little White Bird Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens

Preceded by

Peter and Wendy, published in 1911, is the novelisation by J. M. Barrie of his most famous play Peter Pan; or, the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up (1904). Both tell the story of Peter Pan, a mischievous little boy who can fly, and his adventures on the island of Neverland with Wendy Darling and her brothers, the fairy Tinker Bell, the Lost Boys, the Indian princess Tiger Lily, and the pirate Captain Hook. The play and novel were both inspired by Barrie's friendship with the Llewelyn Davies family. The novel follows the play closely, but includes a final chapter not part of the original play. The play debuted in London on 27 December 1904 with Nina Boucicault, daughter of playwright Dion Boucicault, in the title role. A Broadway production was mounted in 1905 starring Maude Adams. It was later revived with such actresses as Marilyn Miller and Eva Le Gallienne. The play has since seen adaptation as a pantomime, stage musical, a television special, and several films, including a 1924 silent film, a 1953 animated Disney full-length feature, and a 2003 live action production with state-of-the-art special effects. The play is now rarely performed in its original form on stage in the United Kingdom, whereas pantomime adaptations are frequently staged around Christmas. In the U.S., the original version has also been supplanted in popularity by the 1954 musical version, which became popular on television. The novel was first published in 1911 by Hodder & Stoughton in the United Kingdom and Charles Scribner's Sons in the United States. The original book contains a frontispiece and 11 half-tone plates by artist F. D. Bedford (whose illustrations are still in copyright in the EU). The novel was first abridged by May Byron in 1915, with Barrie's permission, and published under the title Peter Pan and Wendy, the first time this form was used. This version was later illustrated by Mabel Lucie Attwell in 1921. The novel is now usually published under that title or simply Peter

Peter and Wendy Pan. The script of the play, which Barrie had continued to revise since its first performance, was published in 1928. In 1929, Barrie gave the copyright of the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital, a children's hospital in London.

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Background
Barrie created Peter Pan in stories he told to the sons of his friend Sylvia Llewelyn Davies, with whom he had forged a special relationship. Mrs. Llewelyn Davies' death from cancer came within a few years after the death of her husband. Barrie was named as co-guardian of the boys and unofficially adopted them. The character's name comes from two sources: Peter Llewelyn Davies, one of the boys, and Pan, the mischievous Greek god of the woodlands. It has also been suggested that the inspiration for the character was Barrie's elder brother David, whose death in a skating accident at the age of thirteen deeply affected their mother. According to Andrew Birkin, author of J.M. Barrie and the Lost Boys, the death was 'a catastrophe beyond belief, and one from which she never fully recovered... If Margaret Ogilvy [Barrie's mother as the heroine of his 1896 novel of that title] drew a measure of comfort from the notion that David, in dying a boy, would remain a boy for ever, Barrie drew inspiration.'[1]

J. M. Barrie in 1901

The Peter Pan character first appeared in print in the 1902 novel The Little White Bird, written for adults,[2] a fictionalised version of Barrie's relationship with the Llewelyn Davies children. The character was next used in the very successful stage play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up that premiered in London on 27 December 1904. In 1906, the portion of The Little White Bird which featured Peter Pan was published as the book Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, with illustrations by Arthur Rackham.[3] Barrie then adapted the play into the 1911 novel Peter and Wendy (most often now published simply as Peter Pan). The original draft of the play was entitled simply Anon: A Play ('Anon' being a name Barrie used in reference to himself). Barrie's working titles for it included The Great White Father[4] and Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Hated Mothers. Producer Charles Frohman disliked the title on the manuscript, in answer to which Barrie reportedly suggested The Boy Who Couldn't Grow Up; Frohman suggested changing it to Wouldn't.[5]

Plot summary
Although the character appeared previously in Barrie's book The Little White Bird,[3] the play and the novel based on it contain the portion of the Peter Pan mythos that is best known. The two versions differ in some details of the story, but have much in common. In both versions Peter makes night-time calls on Kensington, London, listening in on Mrs. Mary Darling's bedtime stories by the open window. One night Peter is spotted and, while trying to escape, he loses his shadow. On returning to claim it, Peter wakes Mary's daughter, Wendy Darling. Wendy succeeds in re-attaching his shadow to him, and Peter learns that she knows lots of bedtime stories. He invites her to Neverland to be a mother to his gang, the Lost Boys, children who were lost in Kensington Gardens. Wendy agrees, and her brothers John and Michael go along. Their magical flight to Neverland is followed by many adventures. The children are blown out of the air by a cannon and Wendy is nearly killed by the Lost Boy Tootles. Peter and the Lost Boys build a little house for Wendy to live in while she recuperates (a structure that, to this day, is called a Wendy House.) Soon John and Michael adopt the ways of the Lost Boys.

Peter and Wendy

177 Peter welcomes Wendy to his underground home, and she immediately assumes the role of mother figure. Peter takes the Darlings on several adventures, the first truly dangerous one occurring at Mermaids' Lagoon. At Mermaids' Lagoon, Peter and the Lost Boys save the princess Tiger Lily and become involved in a battle with the pirates, including the evil Captain Hook. Peter is wounded when Hook claws him. He believes he will die, stranded on a rock when the tide is rising, but he views death as "an awfully big adventure". Luckily, a bird allows him to use her nest as a boat, and Peter sails home.

Because he has saved Tiger Lily, the Indians are devoted to him, guarding his home from the next imminent pirate attack. Meanwhile, Wendy begins to fall in love with Peter, at least as a child, and asks Peter what kind of feelings he has for her. Peter says that he is like her faithful son. One day while telling stories to the Lost Boys and her brothers, John and Michael, Wendy recalls about her parents and then decides to take them back and return to England. Unfortunately, and Illustration by F. D. Bedford from the first edition unbeknownst to Peter, Wendy and the boys are captured by Captain Hook, who also tries to poison Peter's medicine while the boy is asleep. When Peter awakes, he learns from the fairy Tinker Bell that Wendy has been kidnapped in an effort to please Wendy, he goes to drink his medicine. Tink does not have time to warn him of the poison, and instead drinks it herself, causing her near death. Tink tells him she could be saved if children believed in fairies. In one of the play's most famous moments, Peter turns to the audience watching the play and begs those who believe in fairies to clap their hands. At this there is usually an explosion of handclapping from the audience, and Tinker Bell is saved. Peter heads to the ship. On the way, he encounters the ticking crocodile; Peter decides to copy the tick, so any animals will recognise it and leave him unharmed. He does not realise that he is still ticking as he boards the ship, where Hook cowers, mistaking him for the crocodile. While the pirates are searching for the croc, Peter sneaks into the cabin to steal the keys and frees the Lost Boys. When the pirates investigate a noise in the cabin, Peter defeats them. When he finally reveals himself, he and Hook fall to the climactic battle, which Peter easily wins. He kicks Hook into the jaws of the waiting crocodile, and Hook dies with the satisfaction that Peter had kicked him off the ship, which Hook considers "bad form". Then Peter takes control of the ship, and sails the seas back to London. In the end, Wendy decides that her place is at home, much to the joy of her heartsick mother. Wendy then brings all the boys but Peter back to London. Before Wendy and her brothers arrive at their house, Peter flies ahead, to try and bar the window so Wendy will think her mother has forgotten her. But when he learns of Mrs Darling's distress, he bitterly leaves the window open and flies away. Peter returns briefly, and he meets Mrs. Darling, who has agreed to adopt the Lost Boys. She offers to adopt Peter as well, but Peter refuses, afraid they will "catch him and make him a man". It is hinted that Mary Darling knew Peter when she was a girl, because she is left slightly changed when Peter leaves. Peter promises to return for Wendy every spring. The end of the play finds Wendy looking out through the window and saying into space, "You won't forget to come for me, Peter? Please, please don't forget".

Peter and Wendy

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An Afterthought
A few years after the premiere of the original production of Peter Pan, James Barrie wrote an additional scene entitled An Afterthought, which is sometimes, but usually not, included in productions of the play. It was, however, included as the final chapter of Peter and Wendy. In this scene, Peter returns for Wendy years later, but Wendy is now grown, with a daughter of her own. When Peter learns that Wendy has "betrayed" him by growing up, he is heartbroken. But Wendy's daughter Jane agrees to come to Neverland as Peter's new mother. In the novel's last few sentences, Barrie mentions that Jane has grown up, and that Peter now takes her daughter Margaret to Neverland. Barrie says this cycle will go on forever as long as children are "innocent and heartless". This epilogue is only occasionally used in presentations of the drama, but it made a poignant conclusion to the famous musical production starring Mary Martin, and provided the premise for Disney's sequel to their animated adaptation of the story. This epilogue originally was to end the 2003 film but was cut from the final version.

Characters
Peter Pan
Peter Pan is the main character of the play and the novel. He is described in the novel as a young boy who still has all his first teeth; he wears clothes made of hemp. He is the only boy able to fly without the help of fairy dust, and he can play the flute. Peter is afraid of nothing except mothers. He loves Wendy; however, it is not a romantic love he thinks of her as his mother. Barrie attributes this to "the riddle of his existence".

The Darling Family


According to Barrie's description of the Darlings' house,[6] the family live in Bloomsbury, London. Wendy Darling Wendy is the eldest, the only daughter and the heroine of the novel. She loves the idea of homemaking and storytelling and wants to become a mother; her dreams consist of adventures in a little woodland house with her pet wolf. She bears a bit of (mutual) animosity toward Tiger Lily because of their similar affections toward Peter. She does not seem to feel the same way about Tinker Bell, but the fairy is constantly bad-mouthing her and even has attempted to have her killed. She grows up at the end of the novel, with a daughter (Jane) and a granddaughter (Margaret). She is portrayed with blonde, brown, or black hair in different stories. While it is not clear on whether or not she is in love with Peter, it is safe to assume that she does have feelings toward him, at least as a child. Perhaps consequently, Wendy is often referred to as the "mother" of the Lost Boys and, while Peter also considers her to be his "mother", he takes on the "father" role, insinuating that they play a married couple at least in their games.

Wendy Darling by Oliver Herford, "The Peter Pan Alphabet", Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1907

Several writers have stated that Barrie was the first to use the name Wendy in a published work, and that the source of the name was Barrie's childhood friend, Margaret Henley, 4-year-old daughter of poet William Ernest Henley, who pronounced the word "friend" as "Fweiendy", adapted by Barrie as "Wendy" in writing the play.[7] There is some evidence that the name Wendy may be related to the Welsh name Gwendolyn,[8] [9] and it is also used as a diminutive variant of the eastern European name "Wanda",[10] but prior to its use in the Peter Pan stories, the name was not used as an independent first name.[11]

Peter and Wendy John Darling John is the middle child. He gets along well with Wendy, but he often argues with Michael. He is fascinated with pirates, and he once thought of becoming "Redhanded Jack". He dreams of living in an inverted boat on the sands, where he has no friends and spends his time shooting flamingos. He looks up to Peter Pan, but at times they clash due to Peter's nature of showing off. He also looks up to his father and dreams of running his firm one day when he is grown up. The character of John was named after Jack Llewelyn Davies. Michael Darling Michael is the youngest child. He is approximately five years old, as he still wears the pinafores young Edwardian boys wear. He looks up to John and Wendy, dreaming of living in a wigwam where his friends visit at night. He was named after Michael Llewelyn Davies. Mr. and Mrs. Darling George and Mary Darling are the children's loving parents. Mr. Darling is a pompous, blustering businessman who seeks to attract attention (from his co-workers to his wife and children), but he is really kind at heart. Mary Darling is described as an intelligent, romantic lady. It is hinted that she knew Peter Pan before her children were born. Mr. Darling was named after the eldest Llewellyn Davies boy, George, and Mrs. Darling was named after Mary Hodgson, the Davies boys' nurse. In the stage version, the same actor who plays Mr. Darling usually also plays Captain Hook. Nana Nana is a Newfoundland dog who is employed as a nanny by the Darling family. Nana does not speak or do anything beyond the physical capabilities of a large dog, but acts with apparent understanding of her responsibilities. The character is played in stage productions by an actor in a dog costume. Barrie based the character of Nana on his dog Luath [12], a Newfoundland. Liza is the maidservant of the Darling family. She appears only in the first act, except in the 1954 musical. In this musical, she sees the Darling children fly off with Peter and begins to protest, but Michael sprinkles her with fairy dust and she ends up in Neverland. She returns with the children at the end. She is given two musical numbers in this adaptation.

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Lost Boys
Tootles Tootles is the humblest Lost Boy because he often misses out on their violent adventures. Although he is often stupid, he is always the first to defend Wendy. Ironically, he shoots her before meeting her for the first time because of Tinker Bell's trickery. He grows up to become a judge. Nibs Nibs is described as gay and debonair, probably the bravest Lost Boy. He says the only thing he remembers about his mother is she always wanted a cheque-book; he says he would love to give her one...if he knew what a cheque-book was. He's also the oldest and best looking Lost Boy. Slightly Slightly is the most conceited because he believes he remembers the days before he was "lost". He is the only Lost Boy who "knows" his last name he says his pinafore had the words "Slightly Soiled" written on the tag. He cuts whistles from the branches of trees, and dances to tunes he creates himself. Slightly is, apparently, a poor make-believer. He blows big breaths when he feels he is in trouble, and he eventually leads to Peter's almost-downfall. Curly Curly is the most troublesome Lost Boy. In Disney's version of the story, he became "Cubby". The Twins First and Second Twin know little about themselves they are not allowed to, because Peter Pan does not know what Twins are (he thinks that twins are two parts of the same person, which, while not entirely correct, is right in the sense that the Twins finish each other's sentences (at least, in the movie adaption).

Inhabitants of Neverland
Tiger Lily is the proud, beautiful princess of the Piccaninny Tribe. In the book, the Indians of Neverland were portrayed in a nature that is now regarded as stereotypical.[13] Barrie portrayed them as primitive, warlike savages who spoke with guttural voice tones.[13] She is apparently old enough to be married, but she refuses any suitors because she desires Peter over all. She is jealous of Wendy and Tinker Bell. Tiger Lily is nearly killed by Captain Hook when she is seen boarding the Jolly Roger with a knife in her mouth, but Peter saves her.

Peter and Wendy Tinker Bell is Peter Pan's fiery, jealous fairy. She is described as a common fairy who mends pots and kettles and, though she is sometimes ill-behaved and vindictive, at other times she is helpful and kind to Peter (for whom she has romantic feelings). The extremes in her personality are explained by the fact that a fairy's size prevents her from holding more than one feeling at a time. In Barrie's book, by Peter's first annual return for Wendy, the boy has forgotten about Tinker Bell and suggests that she "is no more" for fairies do not live long. Captain James Hook is the vengeful pirate who lives to kill Peter Pan, not so much because Peter cut off his right hand, but because the boy is "cocky" and drives the genteel pirate to "madness". He is captain of the ship Jolly Roger. He attended Eton College before becoming a pirate and is obsessed with "good form". Hook meets his demise when a crocodile eats him. In the stage version, the same actor who plays Mr. Darling also plays this character. Mr. Smee is an Irish nonconformist pirate. He is the boatswain of the Jolly Roger. Smee is one of only two pirates to survive Peter Pan's massacre. He then makes his living saying he was the only man James Hook ever feared. Gentleman Starkey was once an usher at a public school. He is Captain Hook's first mate. Starkey is one of two pirates who escaped Peter Pan's massacre he swims ashore and becomes baby-sitter to the Piccaninny Tribe. Peter Pan gives Starkey's hat to the Never Bird to use as a nest. Fairies In the novel Peter and Wendy, published in 1911, there are fairies on Neverland. In the part of the story where Peter Pan and the Lost Boys built a house for Wendy on Neverland, Peter Pan stays up late that night to guard her from the pirates, but then the story says: "After a time he fell asleep, and some unsteady fairies had to climb over him on their way home from an orgy. Any of the other boys obstructing the fairy path at night they would have mischiefed, but they just tweaked Peter's nose and passed on." In the early 20th Century, the word "orgy" generally referred to a large group of people consuming alcohol.[14] Mermaids live in the Mermaid Lagoon. J.M. Barrie states in the novel "Peter and Wendy" that the mermaids are only friendly to Peter, and that they will attempt to drown anyone else if they come close enough. It is especially dangerous to go to Mermaid Lagoon at night, because that's when the mermaids sing to attract potential victims.

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Major themes
The play's subtitle "The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up" underscores the primary theme: the conflict between the innocence of childhood and the responsibility of adulthood. Peter has literally chosen not to make the transition from one to the other, and encourages the other children to do the same. However, the opening line, "All children, except one, grow up", and the conclusion of the story indicates that this wish is unrealistic, and there is an element of tragedy in the alternative. There is a slight romantic aspect to the story, which is sometimes played down or omitted completely. Wendy's flirtatious desire to kiss Peter, his desire for a mother figure, his conflicting feelings for Wendy, Tiger Lily, and Tinker Bell (each representing different female archetypes), and the symbolism of his fight with Captain Hook (traditionally played by the same actor as Wendy's father), all could possibly hint at a Freudian interpretation (see Oedipus Complex). Most "children's adaptations" of the play, including the 1953 Disney film, omit any romantic themes between Wendy and Peter, but Barrie's 1904 original, his 1911 novelisation of it, the 1954 Mary Martin musical, and the 1924 and 2003 feature films, all at least hint at the romantic elements.

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Literary significance
Productions
The original stage production took place at the Duke of York's Theatre, London, on 27 December 1904. It starred Gerald du Maurier as Captain Hook and Mr Darling, and Nina Boucicault as Peter.[15] Zena Dare played Peter in the 1905-1906 production, and Pauline Chase took the role from the 190607 season until the 191415 season. Following the success of his London production, Charles Frohman also mounted a production in New York City in 1905. The 1905 Broadway production starred Maude Adams who would play the role on and off again for more than a decade, and in the US was the actress most associated in the public's consciousness with the role for the next fifty years. It was produced again in the US by the Civic Repertory Theater in November 1928 and December 1928, in which Eva LeGallienne directed and played the role of Peter Pan. An American musical version was produced in the 1950s starring Mary Martin which was later videotaped for television and rebroadcast several times. Martin remains today as the actress now most associated with the role in the US. It is traditional in productions of Peter Pan for Mr. Darling (the children's father) and Captain Hook to be played (or voiced) by the same actor. Although this was originally done simply to make full use of the actor (the characters appear in different sections of the story) with no thematic intent, some critics have perceived a similarity between the two characters as central figures in the lives of the children. It also brings a poignant juxtaposition between Mr. Darling's harmless bluster and Captain Hook's pompous vanity.

Adaptations
The story of Peter Pan has been a popular one for adaptation into other media. The story and its characters have been used as the basis for a number of motion pictures (live action and animated), stage musicals, television programs, a ballet, and ancillary media and merchandise. The best known of these are the 1953 animated feature film produced by Disney featuring the voice of 15-year-old film actor Bobby Driscoll (one of the first male actors in the title role, which was traditionally played by women); the series of musical productions (and their televised presentations) starring Mary Martin, Sandy Duncan, and Cathy Rigby; and the 2003 live-action feature film produced by P. J. Hogan starring Jeremy Sumpter. There have been several additions to Peter Pan's story, including the authorised sequel novel Peter Pan in Scarlet, and the high-profile sequel films Return to Never Land and Hook. Various characters from the story have appeared in other places, especially Tinker Bell as a mascot and character of Disney. The characters are in the public domain in some jurisdictions, leading to unauthorised extensions to the mythos and uses of the characters. Some of these have been controversial, such as a series of prequels by Dave Barry and Ridley Pearson, and Lost Girls, a sexually explicit graphic novel by Alan Moore and Melinda Gebbie, featuring Wendy Darling and the heroines of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

Copyright status
The copyright status of the story of Peter Pan and its characters has been the subject of dispute, particularly as the original version began to enter the public domain in various jurisdictions. In 1929, Barrie gave the copyright to the works featuring Peter Pan to Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), Britain's leading children's hospital, and requested that the value of the gift should never be disclosed; this gift was confirmed in his will. GOSH has exercised these rights internationally to support the work of the institution.

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United Kingdom
The UK copyright originally expired at the end of 1987 (50 years after Barrie's death), but was revived in 1995 through 31 December 2007 by a directive to harmonise copyright laws within the EU. Meanwhile in 1988, former Prime Minister James Callaghan sponsored a Parliamentary Bill granting a perpetual extension of some of the rights to the work, entitling the hospital to royalties for any performance, publication, or adaptation of the play. This is not a true perpetual copyright however, as it does not grant the hospital creative control over the use of the material, nor the right to refuse permission to use it. The law also does not cover the Peter Pan section of The Little White Bird, which pre-dates the play and was not therefore an "adaptation" of it. The exact phrasing is in section 301 of, and Schedule 6 to, the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988: 301. The provisions of Schedule 6 have effect for conferring on trustees for the benefit of the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London, a right to a royalty in respect of the public performance, commercial publication, broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service of the play 'Peter Pan' by Sir James Matthew Barrie, or of any adaptation of that work, notwithstanding that copyright in the work expired on 31 December 1987.[16]

United States
For some time, Great Ormond Street Hospital claimed that U.S. legislation effective in 1978 and again in 1998, which extended the copyright on the version of the play script published in 1928, gave them copyright over "Peter Pan" in general, until 2023.[17] The hospital's web site later acknowledged that the copyright for the novel version of the story, published in 1911, had expired in the United States, and asserted only that their copyright applied to the published version of the script and performances of it.[18] Previously, GOSH's claim of U.S. copyright had been contested by various parties. J. E. Somma sued GOSH to permit the U.S. publication of her sequel After the Rain, A New Adventure for Peter Pan. GOSH and Somma settled out of court in March 2005, issuing a joint statement which characterised her novel which she had argued was a commentary on the original work rather than a mere derivative of it as "fair use" of the hospital's "U.S. intellectual property rights". Their confidential settlement did not set any legal precedent, however.[19] Disney was a long-time licensee to the animation rights, and cooperated with the hospital when its copyright claim was clear, but in 2004 Disney published Dave Barry's and Ridley Pearson's Peter and the Starcatchers in the U.S., the first of several sequels, without permission and without making royalty payments. In 2006, Top Shelf Productions published Lost Girls, a pornographic graphic novel featuring Wendy Darling, in the U.S. also without permission or royalties.

Other jurisdictions
The original versions of the play and novel are in the public domain in countries where the term of copyright is 70 years (or less) after the death of the creators. This includes the European Union (except Spain), Australia, Canada (where Somma's book was first published without incident), and most other countries (see list of countries' copyright length). This is also true in Afghanistan and Ethiopia, which do not have copyright laws of their own and are not signatories to any of the international copyright treaties. However, the work is still under copyright in several countries: until 2013 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, where copyright lasts 75 years after the author's death; in Colombia and Spain until 2018, where the applicable term is 80 years after death; and in Mexico until 2038, where the term is 100 years after death. (It would also be under copyright in Cte d'Ivoire, Guatemala, and Honduras, but these countries recognise the "rule of the shorter term", which means that the term of the country of origin applies if it's shorter than their local term.)

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References
[1] Birkin, Andrew: J M Barrie & the Lost Boys (Yale University Press, 2003) [2] Barrie, J.M. (1999). Peter Hollindale (Introduction and Notes). ed. Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy. Oxford Press. pp.xix. ISBN0192839292. [3] Birkin, Andrew (2003). J.M. Barrie & the Lost Boys. Yale University Press. p.47. ISBN0300098227. [4] Birkin, Andrew (2003). J.M. Barrie & the Lost Boys. Yale University Press. p.105. ISBN0300098227. [5] "It's Behind You - Peter Pan" (http:/ / www. its-behind-you. com/ storypeterpan. html). Its-behind-you.com. . Retrieved 2010-05-08. [6] Act I, Peter PanHodder & Stoughton, 1928 [7] Barrie, J.M. (1999). Peter Hollindale (Introduction and Notes). ed. Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy. Oxford Press. p.231. ISBN0192839292. [8] Norman, Teresa (2003). A World of Baby Names. Perigee. pp.130,147. ISBN0399528946. [9] "Behind the Name: the Etymology and History of First Names: "Wendy"" (http:/ / www. behindthename. com/ name/ wendy). . [10] Norman, Teresa (2003). A World of Baby Names. Perigee. p.196. ISBN0399528946. [11] Withycombe, Elizabeth Gidley (1977). Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Clarendon. p.293. ISBN0198691246. [12] http:/ / neverpedia. com/ pan/ Luath [13] "The Movies and Ethnic Representation: Native Americans" (http:/ / www. lib. berkeley. edu/ MRC/ imagesnatives. html). Lib.berkeley.edu. . Retrieved 2010-05-08. [14] Barrie, J.M. (1999). Peter Hollindale. ed. Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens and Peter and Wendy. Oxford Press. p.132. ISBN0192839292. [15] Duke Of York's Theatre. "Peter Pan.", Reviews, The Times, 28 December 1904 [16] "Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988" (http:/ / www. legislation. hmso. gov. uk/ acts/ acts1988/ Ukpga_19880048_en_28. htm#sdiv6). Legislation.hmso.gov.uk. 1987-12-31. . Retrieved 2010-05-08. [17] Great Ormond Street Hospital, Peter Pan copyright (http:/ / www. gosh. org/ about-us/ peter-pan/ peter-pan-copyright/ ) - an old page, no longer linked from the site's home page [18] "Copyright - Publishing and Stage" (http:/ / www. gosh. org/ peterpan/ copyright/ publishing/ ). GOSH. 2007-12-31. . Retrieved 2010-05-08. [19] "Stanford Center for Internet and Society" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061027134508/ http:/ / cyberlaw. stanford. edu/ about/ cases/ emily_somma_v_gosh_peter_. shtml). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / cyberlaw. stanford. edu/ about/ cases/ emily_somma_v_gosh_peter_. shtml) on 2006-10-27. . Retrieved 2010-05-08.

General references
Barrie, James Matthew and Scott Gustafson (illustrator). Peter Pan: The Complete and Unabridged Text, Viking Press, October 1991. (ISBN 0-670-84180-3). Birkin, Andrew. J.M. Barrie and the Lost Boys. The original text of Peter Pan and Wendy (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/16) at Project Gutenberg (Note: Project Gutenberg claims a copyright "to assist in the preservation of this edition in proper usage". It is only to be distributed in the United States). (This is the novel, not the script of the play.) People's memories of the Peter Pan statue (http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/hamlyn/peterpan/) The Victorian Web: Frampton's Peter Pan statue (http://www.victorianweb.org/sculpture/frampton/pp1.html) The Adventures of Peter Pan (electronic text) (http://www.elook.org/literature/jmbarrie/ the-adventures-of-peter-pan/) (actually just "Peter Pan and Wendy" with the title changed) Murray, Roderick. "An Awfully Big Adventure: John Crook's Incidental Music to Peter Pan". The Gaiety (Spring 2005). (pp.3536)

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External links
Peter Pan and Wendy (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/16) at Project Gutenberg List of productions of non-musical "Peter Pan" (Internet Broadway Database) (http://www.ibdb.com/show. php?id=7047=) Numerous photos from productions of Peter Pan (http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchresult. cfm?parent_id=1036660&word=) The Peter Pan Alphabet, 1907 (http://www.archive.org/details/peterpanalphabet00herf)

Winnie-the-Pooh
Winnie-the-Pooh, also called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic bear created by A. A. Milne. The first collection of stories about the character was the book Winnie-the-Pooh (1926), and this was followed by The House at Pooh Corner (1928). Milne also included a poem about the bear in the childrens verse book When We Were Very Young (1924) and many more in Now We Are Six (1927). All four volumes were illustrated by E. H. Shepard. The hyphens in the character's name were later dropped when The Walt Disney Company adapted the Pooh stories into a series of Disney features that became one of its most successful franchises. The Pooh stories have been translated into many languages, including Alexander Lenard's Latin translation, Winnie ille Pu, which was first published in 1958, and, in 1960, became the only Latin book ever to have been featured on the New York Times Best Seller List.[1] In popular film adaptations, Pooh Bear has been voiced by actors Sterling Holloway, Hal Smith and Jim Cummings in English, Yevgeny Leonov in Russian, and Shun Yashiro and Sukekiyo Kameyama in Japanese.

History
Origin
Milne named the character Winnie-the-Pooh after a teddy bear owned by his son, Christopher Robin Milne, who was the basis for the character Christopher Robin. Christopher's toys also lent their names to most of the other characters, except for Owl and Rabbit, as well as the Gopher character, who was added in the Disney version. Christopher Robin's toy bear is now on display at the Main Branch of the New York Public Library in New York.[2]

Original Winnie-the-Pooh stuffed toys. Clockwise from bottom left: Tigger, Kanga, Edward Bear ("Winnie-the-Pooh"), Eeyore, and Piglet. Roo was lost long ago; the other characters were made up for the stories.

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Christopher Milne had named his toy bear after Winnie, a Canadian black bear which he often saw at London Zoo, and "Pooh", a swan they had met while on holiday. The bear cub was purchased from a hunter for $20 by Canadian Lieutenant Harry Colebourn in White River, Ontario, Canada, while en route to England during the First World War. He named the bear "Winnie" after his adopted hometown in Winnipeg, Manitoba. "Winnie" was surreptitiously brought to England with her owner, and gained unofficial recognition as The Fort Garry Horse regimental mascot. Colebourn left Winnie at the London Zoo while he and his unit were in France; after the war she was officially donated to the zoo, as she had become a much loved attraction there.[3] Pooh the swan appears as a character in its own right in When We Were Very Young. In the first chapter of Winnie-the-Pooh, Milne offers this explanation of why Winnie-the-Pooh is often called simply "Pooh":

Harry Colebourn and Winnie, 1914

But his arms were so stiff ... they stayed up straight in the air for more than a week, and whenever a fly came and settled on his nose he had to blow it off. And I think but I am not sure that that is why he is always called Pooh.

Ashdown Forest: the setting for the stories


The Winnie-the-Pooh stories are set in Ashdown Forest, Sussex, England. The forest is a large area of tranquil open heathland on the highest sandy ridges of the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty situated 30 miles (50km) south of London. In 1925 Milne, a Londoner, bought a country home a mile to the north of the forest at Cotchford Farm, near Hartfield. According to Christopher Milne, while his father continued to live in London "...the four of ushe, his wife, his son and his son's nannywould pile into a large blue, chauffeur-driven Fiat and travel down every Saturday morning and back again every Monday afternoon. And we would spend a whole glorious month there in the spring and two months in the summer." [4] From the front lawn the family had a view across a meadow to a line of alders that fringed the River Medway, beyond which the ground rose through more trees until finally "above them, in the faraway distance, crowning the view, was a bare hilltop. In the centre of this hilltop was a clump of pines." Most of his father's visits to the forest at this time were, he noted, family expeditions on foot "to make yet another attempt to count the pine trees on Gill's Lap or to search for the marsh gentian". Christopher added that, inspired by Ashdown Forest, his father had made it "the setting for two of his books, finishing the second little over three years after his arrival".[5] Many locations in the stories can be linked to real places in and around the forest. As Christopher Milne wrote in his autobiography: Poohs forest and Ashdown Forest are identical. For example, the fictional "Hundred Acre Wood" was in reality Five Hundred Acre Wood; Galleon's Leap was inspired by the prominent hilltop of Gill's Lap, while a clump of trees just north of Gill's Lap became Christopher Robin's The Enchanted Place because no-one had ever been able to count whether there were sixty-three or sixty-four trees in the circle.[6] The landscapes depicted in E.H. Shepards illustrations for the Winnie-the-Pooh books are directly inspired by the distinctive landscape of Ashdown Forest, with its high, open heathlands of heather, gorse, bracken and silver birch punctuated by hilltop clumps of pine trees. In many cases Shepard's illustrations can be matched to actual views, allowing for a degree of artistic licence. Shepard's sketches of pine trees and other forest scenes are on display at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The game of Poohsticks was originally played by Christopher Milne on a footbridge across a tributary of the River Medway in Posingford Wood, close to Cotchford Farm. It is traditional to play the game there using sticks gathered

Winnie-the-Pooh in nearby woodland. When the footbridge required replacement in recent times the engineer designed a new structure based closely on the drawings by E. H. Shepard of the bridge in the original books, as the bridge did not originally appear as the artist drew it. An information board at the bridge describes how to play the game.

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First publication
There are three claimants, depending on the precise question posed. Christopher Robin's teddy bear, Edward, made his character dbut in a poem called "Teddy Bear" in Milne's book of children's verse When We Were Very Young (6 November 1924) although his true first appearance was within the 13 February 1924 edition of Punch magazine which contained the same poem along with other stories by Milne and Shepard. Winnie-the-Pooh first appeared by name on 24 December 1925, in a Christmas story commissioned and published by the London newspaper The Evening News. It was illustrated by J. H. Dowd.[7] The first collection of Pooh stories appeared in the book Winnie-the-Pooh. The Evening News Christmas story reappeared as the first chapter of the book, and at the very beginning it explained that Pooh was in fact Christopher Robin's Edward Bear, who had simply been renamed by the boy. The book was published in October 1926 by the publisher of Milne's earlier children's work, Methuen, in England, and E. P. Dutton in the United States.[8]

Sequel
An authorised sequel Return to the Hundred Acre Wood was published on 5 October 2009. The author, David Benedictus, has developed, but not changed, Milne's characterisations. The illustrations, by Mark Burgess, are in the style of Shepard.[9]

Stephen Slesinger
On 6 January 1930, Stephen Slesinger purchased U.S. and Canadian merchandising, television, recording and other trade rights to the "Winnie-the-Pooh" works from Milne for a $1000 advance and 66% of Slesinger's income, creating the modern licensing industry. By November 1931, Pooh was a $50 million-a-year business.[10] Slesinger marketed Pooh and his friends for more than 30 years, creating the first Pooh doll, record, board game, puzzle, US radio broadcast (NBC), animation, and motion picture film.[11] In 1961, Disney acquired rights from Slesinger to produce articles of merchandise based on characters from its feature animation.

Red Shirt Pooh


The first time Pooh and his friends appeared in colour was 1932, when he was drawn by Slesinger in his now-familiar red shirt and featured on an RCA Victor picture record. Parker Brothers also introduced A. A. Milne's Winnie-the-Pooh Game in 1933, again with Pooh in his red shirt. In the 1940s, Agnes Brush created the first plush dolls with Pooh in his red shirt. Shepard had drawn Pooh with a shirt as early as the first Winnie-The-Pooh book, which was subsequently coloured red in later coloured editions.

Disney
After Slesinger's death in 1953, his wife, Shirley Slesinger Lasswell, continued developing the character herself. In 1961, she licensed rights to Walt Disney Productions in exchange for royalties in the first of two agreements between Stephen Slesinger, Inc. and Disney.[12] The same year, A. A. Milne's widow, Daphne Milne, also licensed certain rights, including motion picture rights, to Disney. Since 1966, Disney has released numerous animated productions starring Winnie the Pooh and related characters. These have included theatrical featurettes, television series, and direct-to-video films, as well as the theatrical feature-length films The Tigger Movie, Piglet's Big Movie, Pooh's Heffalump Movie, and Winnie the Pooh.

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Merchandising revenue dispute


Pooh videos, soft toys, and other merchandise generate substantial annual revenues for Disney. The size of Pooh stuffed toys ranges from Beanie and miniature to human-sized. In addition to the stylised Disney Pooh, Disney markets Classic Pooh merchandise which more closely resembles E.H. Shepards illustrations. It is estimated that Winnie the Pooh features and merchandise generate as much revenue as Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto combined.[13] In 1991, Stephen Slesinger, Inc. filed a lawsuit against Disney which alleged that Disney had breached their 1983 agreement by again failing to accurately report revenue from Winnie the Pooh sales. Under this agreement, Disney was to retain approximately 98% of gross worldwide revenues while the remaining 2% was to be paid to Slesinger. In addition, the suit alleged that Disney had failed to pay required royalties on all commercial exploitation of the product name.[14] Though the Disney corporation was sanctioned by a judge for destroying forty boxes of evidential documents,[15] the suit was later terminated by another judge when it was discovered that Slesinger's investigator had rummaged through Disney's garbage in order to retrieve the discarded evidence.[16] Slesinger appealed the termination, and on 26 September 2007, a three-judge panel upheld the lawsuit dismissal.[17] After the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, Clare Milne, Christopher Milne's daughter, attempted to terminate any future U.S. copyrights for Stephen Slesinger, Inc.[18] After a series of legal hearings, Judge Florence-Marie Cooper of the US District Court in California found in favour of Stephen Slesinger, Inc., as did the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. On 26 June 2006, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear the case, sustaining the ruling and ensuring the defeat of the suit.[19] On 19 February 2007 Disney lost a court case in Los Angeles which ruled their "misguided claims" to dispute the licensing agreements with Slesinger, Inc. were unjustified,[20] but a federal ruling of 28 September 2009, again from Judge Florence-Marie Cooper, determined that the Slesinger family had granted all trademark and copyright rights to Disney, although Disney must pay royalties for all future use of the characters. Both parties have expressed satisfaction with the outcome.[21] [22]

Adaptations
Theatre
Winnie-the-Pooh at the Guild Theater | Sue Hastings Marionettes, 1931 [23] "Bother! The Brain of Pooh" | Peter Dennis, 1986

Audio
Selected Pooh stories read by Maurice Evans released on vinyl LP: Winnie-the-Pooh (consisting of three tracks: "Introducing Winnie-the-Pooh and Christopher Robin"; Pooh Goes Visiting and Gets Into a Tight Place"; "Pooh and Piglet Go Hunting and Nearly Catch a Woozle") 1956 More Winnie-the-Pooh (consisting of three tracks: "Eeyore Loses a Tail"; "Piglet Meets a Heffalump"; "Eeyore Has a Birthday".) In the 1970s and 1980s, Carol Channing recorded Winnie The Pooh, The House At Pooh Corner and The Winnie The Pooh Songbook, with music by Don Heckman. These were released on vinyl LP and audio cassette by Caedmon Records. Unabridged recordings read by Peter Dennis of the four Pooh books: When We Were Very Young Winnie-the-Pooh Now We Are Six The House at Pooh Corner

Winnie-the-Pooh In the 1990s, the stories were dramatised for audio by David Benedictus, with music composed, directed and played by John Gould. They were performed by a cast that included Stephen Fry as Winnie-the-Pooh, Jane Horrocks as Piglet, Geoffrey Palmer as Eeyore and Judi Dench as Kanga.

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Radio
Winnie-the-Pooh was broadcast by Donald Calthrop over all BBC stations on Christmas Day, 1925[7] Pooh made his US radio debut on 10 November 1932, when he was broadcast to 40,000 schools by The American School of the Air, the educational division of the Columbia Broadcasting System.[24]

Film
Disney adaptation Theatrical featurettes 1966: Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree 1968: Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day 1974: Winnie the Pooh and Tigger Too 1981: Winnie the Pooh Discovers the Seasons

1983: Winnie the Pooh and a Day for Eeyore Full-length theatrical features 1977: The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh (trilogy of the Honey Tree, Blustery Day, and Tigger Too) 2000: The Tigger Movie 2003: Piglet's Big Movie 2005: Pooh's Heffalump Movie 2011: Winnie the Pooh

Soviet adaptation In the Soviet Union, three Winnie-the-Pooh, (transcribed in Russian as "Vinni Pukh") (Russian language: -) stories were made into a celebrated trilogy[25] of short films by Soyuzmultfilm (directed by Fyodor Khitruk) from 1969 to 1972. - (Winnie-the-Pooh, 1969) based on chapter 1 - (Winnie-the-Pooh Pays a Visit, 1971) based on chapter 2 - (Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day, 1972) based on chapters 4 and 6.
A postage stamp showing Piglet and Winnie-the-Pooh as they appear in the Russian adaptation

Films use Boris Zakhoder's translation of the book. Pooh was voiced by Yevgeny Leonov. Unlike the Disney adaptations, the animators did not base their depictions of the characters on Shepard's illustrations, creating a different look. The Russian adaptations make extensive use of Milne's original text, and often bring out aspects of Milne's characters' personalities not used in the Disney adaptations.

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Television
A version of Winnie The Pooh, in which the animals were played by marionettes designed, made and operated by Bil And Cora Baird, was presented on 3 October 1960, on NBC Television's The Shirley Temple Show. Pooh himself is voiced by Franz Fazakas. Magical World of Winnie the Pooh (Note: These are episodes from The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh) Television shows Welcome to Pooh Corner (*) (Disney Channel, 19831986) The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh (ABC, 19881991) The Book of Pooh (*) (Disney Channel (Playhouse Disney), 20012002) My Friends Tigger & Pooh (Disney Channel (Playhouse Disney), 20072010)

(*): Puppet/live-action show Holiday TV specials 1991: Winnie the Pooh and Christmas Too, included in A Very Merry Pooh Year 1996: Boo to You Too! Winnie the Pooh, included in Pooh's Heffalump Halloween Movie 1998: A Winnie the Pooh Thanksgiving, included in Seasons of Giving 1999: A Valentine for You

Direct-to-video shorts 1990: Winnie the Poohs ABC of Me Direct-to-video features 1997: Pooh's Grand Adventure: The Search for Christopher Robin 1999: Seasons of Giving* 2002: A Very Merry Pooh Year* 2004: Springtime with Roo 2005: Pooh's Heffalump Halloween Movie 2007 Super Sleuth Christmas Movie 2009 Tigger, Pooh, And A Musical Too 2010 Super Duper Super Sleuths

*These features integrate stories from The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh and/or holiday specials with new footage.

Legacy
Winnie the Pooh has inspired multiple texts to explain complex philosophical ideas. Benjamin Hoff used Milne's characters in The Tao of Pooh and The Te of Piglet to explain Taoism. Similarly, Frederick Crews rewrote stories from Pooh's world in abstruse academic jargon in Postmodern Pooh and The Pooh Perplex to satirize the philosophical approaches.[26] Pooh and the Philosophers by John T. Williams uses Winnie the Pooh as a backdrop to illustrate the works of philosophers including Descartes, Kant, Plato and Nietzsche.[27] Pooh has also left a legacy in popular culture. Winnie-the-Pooh is such a popular character in Poland that a Warsaw street is named after him, "Ulica Kubusia Puchatka." There is also a street named after him in Budapest (Micimack utca).[28] In music, Kenny Loggins wrote the song "House at Pooh Corner", which was originally recorded by the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band.[29] Loggins later rewrote the song as "Return to Pooh Corner", featuring on the album of the same name in 1991. Also, in Italy, a pop band took their name from Winnie, and were titled Pooh. In the "sport" of Poohsticks, competitors drop sticks into a stream from a bridge and then wait to see whose stick will cross the finish line first. Though it began as a game played by Pooh and his friends in the book The House at Pooh Corner and later in the films, it has crossed over into the real world: a World Championship Poohsticks race takes

Winnie-the-Pooh place in Oxfordshire each year.

190

References
[1] McDowell, Edwin. "Winnie Ille Pu Nearly XXV Years Later" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1984/ 11/ 18/ books/ winnie-ille-pu-nearly-xxv-years-later. html), New York Times (18 November 1984). Retrieved 2 January 2010. [2] "The Adventures of the Real Winnie-the-Pooh. (http:/ / www. nypl. org/ locations/ tid/ 36/ node/ 5557) The New York Public Library. [3] "Winnie". (http:/ / www. histori. ca/ minutes/ minute. do?id=10193) Historica Minutes, The Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved on 2008-05-30. [4] Willard, Barbara (1989). The Forest Ashdown in East Sussex. Sussex: Sweethaws Press.. Quoted from the Introduction, p. xi, by Christopher Milne. [5] Willard (1989). Quoted from the Introduction, p. xi, by Christopher Milne. [6] "Winnie-the-Pooh" (http:/ / www. ashdownforest. org/ pooh/ winnie_the_pooh. php). Ashdown Forest. The Conservators of Ashdown Forest. . Retrieved 2008-05-30. [7] "A Children's Story by A. A. Milne". London Evening News: p.1. 24 December 1925. [8] Thwaite, Ann (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Alan Alexander Milne. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [9] Kennedy, Maev (4 October 2009). "Pooh sequel returns Christopher Robin to Hundred Acre Wood" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ 2009/ oct/ 04/ winnie-pooh-hundred-acre-wood). The Guardian: p.15. . Retrieved 2009-10-05. [10] "The Merchant of Child". Fortune: p.71. November 1931. [11] McElway, St. Claire (26 October 1936). "The Literary Character in Business & Commerce". The New Yorker. [12] "The Curse of Pooh." (http:/ / jcgi. pathfinder. com/ fortune/ print/ 0,15935,404206,00. html) Fortune. [13] "The Curse of Pooh" (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ magazines/ fortune/ fortune_archive/ 2003/ 01/ 20/ 335653/ index. htm) Fortune. [14] "The Pooh Files" (http:/ / www. monitor. net/ monitor/ 0201a/ pooh1. html) The Albion Monitor. [15] Nelson, Valerie J (2007-07-20). "Shirley Slesinger Lasswell, 84; fought Disney over Pooh royalties" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ printedition/ california/ la-me-lasswell20jul20,0,4053283. story?coll=la-headlines-pe-california). Los Angeles times. . Retrieved 2007-08-14. [16] "Judge dismisses Winnie the Pooh lawsuit" (http:/ / www. disneycorner. com/ modules. php?name=News& file=article& sid=82) The Disney Corner. [17] James, Meg (2007-09-26). "Disney wins lawsuit ruling on Pooh rights" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ business/ la-fi-pooh26sep26,1,2582327. story?coll=la-headlines-business). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2007-09-26. [18] "Winnie the Pooh goes to court" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ money/ media/ 2002-11-05-pooh_x. htm) USA Today [19] "Justices Refuse Winnie the Pooh Case." ABC News. [20] "Disney loses court battle in Winnie the Pooh copyright case" (http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ news/ stories/ 2007/ 02/ 17/ 1850319. htm). ABC News. 2007-02-17. . Retrieved 2008-05-15. [21] James, Meg (29 September 2009). "Pooh rights belong to Disney, judge rules" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ business/ la-fi-ct-disney29-2009sep29,0,3287132. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2009-10-05. [22] Shea, Joe (4 October 2009). "The gordian knot of Pooh rights is finally untied in federal court" (http:/ / www. american-reporter. com/ 3,781W/ 3. html). The American Reporter. . Retrieved 2009-10-05. [23] "Hastings Marionettes: Will Open Holiday Season at Guild Theatre on Saturday". New York Times: p.28. 22 December 1931. [24] "His Master's Voice Speaks Again". Playthings. Nov.. [25] Russian animation in letters and figures | Films | Winnie the Pooh (http:/ / www. animator. ru/ db/ ?ver=eng& p=show_film& fid=6758) [26] spiked-culture | Article | Pooh-poohing postmodernism (http:/ / www. spiked-online. com/ Articles/ 00000006DB0F. htm). Spiked-online.com. Retrieved on 2011-02-12. [27] Sonderbooks Book Review of Pooh and the Philosophers (http:/ / www. sonderbooks. com/ Nonfiction/ poohandphilosophers. html). Sonderbooks.com (2004-04-20). Retrieved on 2011-02-12. [28] Google Maps (http:/ / maps. google. com/ maps?f=q& hl=en& ll=47. 415006,19. 138366& z=17) [29] House at Pooh Corner by Loggins and Messina Songfacts (http:/ / www. songfacts. com/ detail. php?id=8486)

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External links
The original bear, with A. A. Milne and Christopher Robin, at the National Portrait Gallery, London (http:// www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp09399) The real locations (http://www.ashdownforest.org/pooh/winnie_the_pooh.php), from the Ashdown Forest Conservators Winnie-the-Pooh (http://www.nypl.org/branch/central/dlc/dch/pooh/) at the New York Public Library

Little House in the Big Woods

192

Little House in the Big Woods


Little House in the Big Woods
Little House in the Big Woods book cover, illustrated by Garth Williams Author(s) Country Language Series Genre(s) Laura Ingalls Wilder United States English Little House Family Saga Western novel Harper & Brothers, Later, Scholastic 1932 Print (Hardcover, Paperback) Farmer Boy

Publisher Publication date Media type Followed by

Little House in the Big Woods is a children's novel by Laura Ingalls Wilder and was published in 1932. This book is the first of the series of books known as the Little House series. The Little House series (also known as "Laura Years") is based on decades-old memories of Laura Ingalls Wilder's early childhood in the Big Woods near Pepin, Wisconsin, in the late 19th century.

Historical background
Laura Elizabeth Ingalls Wilder was born to Caroline Ingalls and Charles Ingalls on February 7, 1867, near Pepin, Wisconsin.[1] At that time, she had one sister, Mary Amelia Ingalls. Wilders actual birthplace is about seven miles (11km) north of Pepin, and is marked by a replica cabin along the Pepin County highway CC (formerly Wisconsin 183) at the Little House Wayside (near Lund).[2] Pepin celebrates her life every September with traditional music, craft demonstrations, a "Laura look-alike" contest, a spelling bee, and other events. Other places the Ingalls lived in the Little House books have also been restored and preserved for visitors. The family actually lived in the Big Woods twice. When Laura was still a baby, Pa had the urge to move west, so the family packed up and moved via covered wagon to Independence, Kansas. Lauras sister, Carrie Ingalls, was born while they lived in the Kansas Territory, and Laura saw her first Indians (Osage) and how they lived. The family returned to the Little House in the Big Woods after a couple of years.[3] Laura and Mary went to school for the first time in Pepin (not Walnut Grove), an experience that is not included in Little House in the Big Woods. The school's name was Barry Corner School. In 1874, the family started their journey to Walnut Grove, Minnesota, stopping for a while in Lake City, Minnesota.

Little House replica at the Little House Wayside

Charles & Caroline Ingalls

Little House in the Big Woods

193 In the book, Laura turns five years old. Actually, she was only three. According to a letter from her daughter, Rose, to biographer William Anderson, the publisher had Laura change her age in the book because it seemed unrealistic for a three-year-old to have specific memories such as she wrote about.[4] This is also why Laura portrayed herself as 67 years old in Little House on the Prairie, to be consistent with her already established chronology. Since she skipped writing about 18761877 when the family lived near Burr Oak, Iowa, her age progression in later books is seamless.

At age 18 Laura married Almanzo Wilder.[5] A year of Almanzos childhood in rural New York is memorialized in her second book, Farmer Boy. Together they raised horses, which Almanzo loved, and homesteaded for decades. They had one daughter, Rose Wilder Lane, and lost a son in infancy. Rose grew up to become an Laura & Almanzo Wilder author, among other things. Laura wrote over the years in the form of essays and articles for newspapers and magazines, mostly articles related to homesteading.[6] For Little House in the Big Woods, and each of her books, Laura wrote out the manuscript by hand. Her daughter Rose typed and helped edit it before it was published in 1932.[7] The well-known illustrations by Garth Williams appeared in the revised edition, first published in 1953.[8]

Story
Little House in the Big Woods describes the homesteading skills Laura observed and began to practice during her fifth year (see comment on Lauras age, above). This first volume does not contain the more mature (yet real) themes addressed in later books of the series (danger from Indians and wild animals, serious illness, death, drought, crop destruction). Hard work is the rule, though fun is often made in the midst of it. Laura gathers woodchips, and helps Ma and Pa when they butcher animals. Laura also helps Ma preserve the meat. This is all in preparation for the upcoming winter. Fall is a very busy time, because the harvest from the garden and fields must be brought in as well. The cousins come for Christmas that year, and Laura receives a doll, which she names Charlotte. Later that winter, the family goes to Grandma Ingalls and has a sugaring off, when they harvest sap and make maple syrup. They return home with buckets of syrup, enough to last the year. Laura remembered that sugaring off, and the dance that followed, for the rest of her life.
Original cover as it appeared in 1932

Each season has its work, which the author makes attractive by the good things that result. In the spring, the cow has a calf, so there are milk, butter and cheese. Everyday housework is also described in detail. That summer and fall, the Ingalls again plant a garden and fields, and store food for the winter. Lauras Pa trades labor with other farmers so that his own crops will be harvested faster when it is time. Not all work was farming. Hunting and gathering were important parts of providing for the family as well. When Pa went into the woods to hunt, he usually came home with a deer then smoked the meat for the coming winter. One day he noticed a bee tree and returned from hunting early to get the wash tub and milk pail to collect the honey. When Pa returned in the winter evenings, Laura and Mary always begged him to play his fiddle; he was too tired from farm work to play during the summertime.[9] In the winter, they enjoyed the comforts of their home and danced to Pas fiddle playing.

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194

Related books
In addition to the Little House books, four series of books expand the Little House series to include five generations of Laura Ingalls Wilder's family. The success of the Little House series has produced many related books including two series ("Little House Chapter Books" and "My First Little House Books") that present the original stories in condensed and simplified form for younger readers. There are also Little House themed craft, music, and cookbooks.

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Gormley, Laura Ingalls Wilder: Young Pioneer, p.36 Anderson, The Little House Guidebook, p. 11 Anderson, Prairie Girl, pp.27 Anderson, Laura Ingalls Wilder: The Iowa Story pp.12 Anderson, Laura's Album, p. 29 Anderson, Laura's Album, pp.4145 Anderson, Laura's Album, pp.5354 Anderson, Laura's Album, p. 72 Each Little House Book contains lyrics to folk or patriotic songs. See The Laura Ingalls Wilder Songbook reference below for full lyrics and music.

References
Anderson, William. Lauras Album: a remembrance scrapbook of Laura Ingalls Wilder. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 1998. ISBN 0060278420. Anderson, William. Laura Ingalls Wilder: The Iowa Story. Burr Oak, Iowa. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Park and Museum. 2001. ISBN 096100889X Anderson, William. Prairie Girl: The Life of Laura Ingalls Wilder. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 2004. ISBN 0060289740 Anderson, William. The Little House Guidebook. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 1996. ISBN 0064461777 Garson, Eugenia and Haufrecht, Herbert. The Laura Ingalls Wilder Songbook: Favorite Songs from the Little House Books. New York: HarperCollins Children's Books. 1996. ISBN 0060270365 Gormley, Beatrice. Laura Ingalls Wilder: Young Pioneer. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks. 2001. ISBN 0689839243 Ward,S. Meet Laura Ingalls Wilder. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. 2001. ISBN 0823957128 Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Dear Laura: Letters From Children To Laura Ingalls Wilder. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 1996. ISBN 0060262745 Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House in the Big Woods. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 1953. ISBN 0060264306 Wilder, Laura Ingalls. A Little House Traveler: Writings from Laura Ingalls Wilders Journey Across America. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. 2006. ISBN 0060724919

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External links
Photo of a replica log cabin about 7 miles north of Pepin, WI. http://www.btinternet.com/~prgreetham/fgtrail/ BigWoods.html Rock Pickle Publishing a Historic Childrens Book website with reviews, publication history, photos of original covers, etc. http://www.rockpicklepublishing.com/websites/littlehouseinthebigwoods/ littlehouseinthebigwoods.html Fact and fiction of Laura Ingalls Wilder from A to Z http://www.pioneergirl.com

The Hobbit

196

The Hobbit
The Hobbit, or There and Back Again
Cover of the 1937 first edition, from a drawing by Tolkien Author(s) Illustrator Cover artist Country Language Genre(s) J. R. R. Tolkien J. R. R. Tolkien J. R. R. Tolkien United Kingdom English Children's literature Fantasy novel George Allen & Unwin (UK) 21 September 1937 Print (hardback) 310 pp (first edition) n/a The Lord of the Rings

Publisher Publication date Media type Pages ISBN Followed by

The Hobbit, or There and Back Again, better known by its abbreviated title The Hobbit, is a fantasy novel and children's book by J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children's literature. Set in a time "Between the Dawn of Frie and the Dominion of Men",[1] The Hobbit follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by the dragon, Smaug. Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into darker, deeper territory.[2] The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature, or type of creature, of Tolkien's Wilderland. By accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey and adventurous side of his nature (the "Tookish" side) and applying his wits and common sense, Bilbo develops a new level of maturity, competence and wisdom.[3] The story reaches its climax in the Battle of Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict. Themes of personal growth and forms of heroism figure in the story. Along with conflict, these themes lead critics to cite Tolkien's own experiences, and those of other writers who fought in World War I, as instrumental in shaping the story. The author's scholarly knowledge of Anglo-Saxon literature and interest in fairy tales are also often noted as influences. Due to the book's critical and financial success, Tolkien's publishers requested a sequel. As work on The Lord of the Rings progressed, Tolkien made retrospective accommodations for it in one chapter of The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled. The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games and video games. Some of these adaptations have received critical recognition of their own, including a video game that won the Golden Joystick Award, a scenario of a war game that won an Origins Award, and an

The Hobbit animated picture nominated for a Hugo Award.

197

Characters
Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist, a respectable, conservative hobbit. During his adventure, Bilbo often refers to the contents of his larder at home and wishes he had more food. Until he finds the magic ring, he is more baggage than help. Gandalf, an itinerant wizard who introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves. During the journey he disappears on side errands dimly hinted at, only to appear again at key moments in the story. Thorin Oakenshield, proud, pompous head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed dwarven kingdom under the Lonely Mountain. Thorin makes many mistakes in his leadership, relying on Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of trouble, but he proves himself a mighty warrior. Smaug, a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarven kingdom of Thorin's grandfather and sleeps upon the vast treasure. The plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance, such as the twelve other dwarves of the company; two types of elves: both puckish and more serious warrior types;[4] men (humans); man-eating trolls; boulder-throwing giants; evil cave-dwelling goblins; forest-dwelling giant spiders who can speak; immense and heroic eagles who also speak; evil wolves, or Wargs, who are allied with the goblins; Elrond the sage; Gollum, a strange creature inhabiting an underground lake; Beorn, a man who can assume bear form; and Bard the Bowman, a grim but honourable archer of Lake-town.[5]

Plot
Gandalf tricks Bilbo into hosting a party for Thorin and his band of twelve dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the dragon Smaug. When the music ends, Gandalf unveils a map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar". The dwarves ridicule the idea, but Bilbo, indignant, joins despite himself. The group travel into the wild, where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell, where Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. Passing over the Misty Mountains, they are caught by goblins and driven deep underground. Although Gandalf rescues them, Bilbo gets separated from the others as they flee the goblins. Lost in the goblin tunnels, he stumbles across a mysterious ring and then encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles for the path out of the tunnels, or his demise. With the help of the ring, which confers invisibility, Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves, improving his reputation with them. The goblins and Wargs give chase but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of Beorn. The company enter the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. In Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and then from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise. The expedition travel to the Mountain and find the secret door; Bilbo scouts the dragon's lair, stealing a great cup and learning of a weakness in Smaug's armour. The enraged dragon, deducing that Lake-town has aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A noble thrush who overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability reports it to Bard, who slays the Dragon. When the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the Arkenstone, an heirloom of Thorin's dynasty, and steals it. The Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the Mountain and request compensation for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, and settlement of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, having summoned his kin from the mountains of the North, reinforces his position. Bilbo tries to ransom the Arkenstone to head off a war, but Thorin is intransigent. He banishes Bilbo, and battle seems inevitable.

The Hobbit Gandalf reappears to warn all of an approaching army of goblins and Wargs. The dwarves, men, and elves band together, but only with the timely arrival of the eagles and Beorn do they win the climactic Battle of Five Armies. Thorin is fatally wounded and reconciles with Bilbo before he dies. Bilbo accepts only a small portion of his share of the treasure, having no want or need for more, but still returns home a very wealthy hobbit.

198

Concept and creation


Background
Further information: Hobbit (word) In the early 1930s Tolkien was pursuing an academic career at Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College. He had had two poems published in small collections: Goblin Feet[6] and The Cat and the Fiddle: A Nursery Rhyme Undone and its Scandalous Secret Unlocked,[7] a reworking of the nursery rhyme Hey Diddle Diddle. His creative endeavours at this time also included letters from Father Christmas to his childrenillustrated manuscripts that featured warring gnomes and goblins, and a helpful polar bearalongside the development of elven languages and an attendant mythology, which he had been developing since 1917. These works all saw posthumous publication.[8] In a 1955 letter to W. H. Auden, Tolkien recollects that he began work on The Hobbit one day early in the 1930s, when he was marking School Certificate papers. He found a blank page. Suddenly inspired, he wrote the words, "In a hole in the ground there lived a hobbit." By late 1932 he had finished the story and then lent the manuscript to several friends, including C. S. Lewis[9] and a student of Tolkien's named Elaine Griffiths.[10] In 1936, when Griffiths was visited in Oxford by Susan Dagnall, a staff member of the publisher George Allen & Unwin, she is reported to have either lent Dagnall the book[10] or suggested she borrow it from Tolkien.[11] In any event, Miss Dagnall was impressed by it, and showed the book to Stanley Unwin, who then asked his 10-year-old son Rayner to review it. Rayner's favourable comments settled Allen & Unwin's decision to publish Tolkien's book.[12]

Publication
George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. of London published the first edition of The Hobbit on 21 September 1937. The original printing numbered 1,500 copies and sold out by December due to enthusiastic reviews.[13] This first printing was illustrated with many black-and-white drawings by Tolkien, who also designed the dust jacket. Houghton Mifflin of Boston and New York reset type for an American edition, to be released early in 1938, in which four of the illustrations would be colour plates. Allen & Unwin decided to incorporate the colour illustrations into their second printing, released at the end of 1937.[14] Despite the book's popularity, paper rationing brought on by wartime conditions and not ending until 1949 meant that the book was often unavailable in this period.[15] Subsequent editions in English were published in 1951, 1966, 1978 and 1995. The novel has been reprinted frequently by many publishers.[16] In addition, The Hobbit has been translated into over forty languages, some of them more than once.[17] Revisions In December 1937, The Hobbit's publisher, Stanley Unwin, asked Tolkien for a sequel. In response Tolkien provided drafts for The Silmarillion, but the editors rejected them, believing that the public wanted "more about hobbits".[18] Tolkien subsequently began work on 'The New Hobbit', which would eventually become The Lord of the Rings,[18] a course that would not only change the context of the original story, but also lead to substantial changes to the character of Gollum. In the first edition of The Hobbit, Gollum willingly bets his magic ring on the outcome of the riddle-game, and he and Bilbo part amicably.[4] In the second edition edits, in order to reflect the new concept of the ring and its corrupting abilities, Tolkien made Gollum more aggressive towards Bilbo and distraught at losing the ring. The

The Hobbit encounter ends with Gollum's curse, "Thief! Thief, Baggins! We hates it, we hates it, we hates it forever!" This presages Gollum's portrayal in The Lord of the Rings. Tolkien sent this revised version of the chapter "Riddles in the Dark" to Unwin as an example of the kinds of changes needed to bring the book into conformity with The Lord of the Rings, but he heard nothing back for years. When he was sent galley proofs of a new edition, Tolkien was surprised to find the sample text had been incorporated.[19] In The Lord of the Rings, the original version of the riddle game is explained as a "lie" made up by Bilbo under the harmful influence of the Ring, whereas the revised version contains the "true" account.[20] The revised text became the second edition, published in 1951 in both the UK and the USA.[21] Tolkien began a new version in 1960, attempting to fit the tone of The Hobbit better to its sequel. He abandoned the new revision at chapter three after he received criticism that it "just wasn't The Hobbit", implying it had lost much of its light-hearted tone and quick pace.[22] After an unauthorized paperback edition of The Lord of the Rings appeared from Ace Books in 1965, Houghton Mifflin and Ballantine requested Tolkien to refresh the text of The Hobbit in order to renew US copyright.[23] This text became the 1966 third edition. Tolkien took the opportunity to align the narrative even more closely to The Lord of the Rings and to cosmological developments from his still unpublished Quenta Silmarillion as it stood at that time.[24] These small edits included, for example, changing the phrase elves that are now called Gnomes from the first[25] and second[26] editions on page 63, to High Elves of the West, my kin in the third edition.[27] Tolkien had used "gnome" in his earlier writing to refer to the second kindred of the High Elvesthe Noldor (or "Deep Elves")thinking "gnome", derived from the Greek gnosis (knowledge), was a good name for the wisest of the elves. However, because of its common denotation of a garden gnome, derived from the 16th Century Paracelsus, Tolkien abandoned the term.[28] Posthumous editions Since the author's death, two editions of The Hobbit have been published with commentary on the creation, emendation and development of the text. In The Annotated Hobbit Douglas Anderson provides the entire text of the published book, alongside commentary and illustrations. Anderson's commentary shows many of the sources Tolkien brought together in preparing the text, and chronicles in detail the changes Tolkien made to the various published editions. Alongside the annotations, the text is illustrated by pictures from many of the translated editions, including images by Tove Jansson.[29] Also printed here are a number of hard-to-find texts such as the 1923 version of Tolkien's poem "Iumonna Gold Galdre Bewunden". Micheal D. C. Drout and Hilary Wynn comment the work provides a solid foundation for further criticism.[30] With The History of the Hobbit, published in two parts in 2007, John Rateliff provides the full text of the earliest and intermediary drafts of the book, alongside commentary that shows relationships to Tolkien's scholarly and creative works, both contemporary and later. Rateliff also provides the abandoned 1960s retelling. The book keeps Rateliff's commentary separate from Tolkien's text, allowing the reader to read the original draft as a story. Rateliff also provides previously unpublished illustrations by Tolkien. Jason Fisher, published in Mythlore, states in his review that the work is "an indispensable new starting point for the study of The Hobbit."[31]

199

The Hobbit

200

Illustration and design


Tolkien's correspondence and publisher's records show that Tolkien was involved in the design and illustration of the entire book. All elements were the subject of considerable correspondence and fussing over by Tolkien. Rayner Unwin, in his publishing memoir, comments:[32]

In 1937 alone Tolkien wrote 26 letters to George Allen & Unwin... detailed, fluent, often pungent, but infinitely polite and exasperatingly precise... I doubt any author today, however famous, would get such scrupulous attention.

Even the maps, of which Tolkien originally proposed five, were considered and debated. He wished Thror's map to be tipped in (that is, glued in after the book has been bound) at first mention in the text, and with the moon-letters (Anglo-Saxon runes) on the reverse so they could be seen when held up to the light.[15] In the end the cost, as well as the shading of the maps, which would be difficult to reproduce, resulted in the final design of two maps as endpapers, Thror's map, and the Map of the Wilderland, both printed in black and red on the paper's cream background.[34] Originally Allen & Unwin planned to illustrate the book only with the endpaper maps, but Tolkien's first tendered sketches so charmed the publisher's staff that they opted to include them without raising the book's price despite the extra cost. Thus encouraged, Tolkien supplied a second batch of illustrations. The publisher accepted all of these as well, giving the first edition ten black-and-white illustrations plus the two endpaper maps. The illustrated scenes were: The Hill: Hobbiton across the Water, The Trolls, The Mountain Path, The Misty Mountains looking West from the Eyrie towards Goblin Gate, Beorn's Hall, Mirkwood, The Elvenking's Gate, Lake Town, and the Front Gate. All but one of the illustrations were a full page, and one, the Mirkwood illustration, required a separate plate.[35] Satisfied with his skills, the publishers thence asked Tolkien to design a dust jacket. This project, too, became the subject of many iterations and much correspondence, with Tolkien always writing disparagingly of his own ability to draw. The runic inscription around the edges of the illustration are a phonetic transliteration of English, giving the title of the book and details of the author and publisher.[36] The original jacket design contained several shades of several colours, but Tolkien redrew it several times using fewer colours each time. His final design consisted of four colours. The publishers, mindful of the cost, removed the red from the sun to end up with only black, blue, and green ink on white stock.[37]

Runes and the English letter values assigned to them by [33] Tolkien, used in several of his original illustrations and designs for The Hobbit.

The publisher's production staff designed a binding, but Tolkien objected to several elements. Through several iterations, the final design ended up as mostly the author's. The spine shows Anglo Saxon runes: two "" (Thrin and Thrr) and one "D" (Door). The front and back covers were mirror images of each other, with an elongated dragon characteristic of Tolkien's style stamped along the lower edge, and with a sketch of the Misty Mountains stamped along the upper edge.[38] Once illustrations were approved for the book, Tolkien proposed colour plates as well. The publisher would not relent on this, so Tolkien pinned his hopes on the American edition to be published about six months later. Houghton Mifflin rewarded these hopes with the replacement of the frontispiece (The Hill: Hobbiton-across-the Water) in colour and the addition of new colour plates: Rivendell, Bilbo Woke Up with the Early Sun in His Eyes, Bilbo comes to the Huts of the Raft-elves and a Conversation with Smaug, which features a dwarvish curse written in Tolkien's invented script Tengwar, and signed with two ", "Th" runes.[39] The additional illustrations proved so appealing that George Allen & Unwin adopted the colour plates as well for their second printing, with exception of Bilbo Woke Up

The Hobbit with the Early Sun in His Eyes).[38] Different editions have been illustrated in diverse ways. Many follow the original scheme at least loosely, but many others are illustrated by other artists, especially the many translated editions. Some cheaper editions, particularly paperback, are not illustrated except with the maps. "The Children's Book Club" edition of 1942 includes the black-and-white pictures but no maps, an anomaly.[40] Tolkien's use of runes, both as decorative devices and as magical signs within the story, has been cited as a major cause for the popularization of runes within "New Age" and esoteric literature,[41] stemming from Tolkien's popularity with the elements of counter-culture in the 1970s.[42]

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Genre
The Hobbit takes cues from narrative models of children's literature, as shown by its omniscient narrator and characters that pre-adolescent children can identify with, such as the small, food-obsessed, and morally ambiguous Bilbo. The text emphasizes the relationship between time and narrative progress and it openly distinguishes "safe" from "dangerous" in its geography. Both are key elements of works intended for children,[43] as is the "home-away-home" (or there and back again) plot structure typical of the Bildungsroman.[44] While Tolkien claimed later to dislike the aspect of the narrative voice addressing the reader directly,[45] the narrative voice contributes significantly to the success of the novel, and the story is, therefore, often read aloud.[46] Emer O'Sullivan, in her Comparative Children's Literature, notes The Hobbit as one of a handful of children's books that is accepted into mainstream literature, alongside Jostein Gaarder's Sophie's World (1991) and J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series (19972007).[47] Tolkien intended The Hobbit as a fairy story and wrote it in a tone suited to addressing children.[48] Many of the initial reviews refer to the work as a fairy story. However, Bilbo Baggins is not the usual fairy tale protagonist not the handsome eldest son or beautiful youngest daughter but a plump, middle-aged, well-to-do Hobbit.[49] The work is much longer than Tolkien's ideal proposed in his essay On Fairy Stories. Many fairy tale motifs, such as the repetition of similar events seen in the dwarves' arrival at Bilbo's and Beorn's homes, and folklore themes, such as trolls turning to stone, are to be found in the story.[50] The Hobbit conforms to Vladimir Propp's 31-motif model of folktales presented in his 1928 work Morphology of the Folk Tale, based on a structuralist analysis of Russian folklore.[51] The book is popularly called (and often marketed as) a fantasy novel, but like Peter Pan and Wendy by J. M. Barrie and The Princess and the Goblin by George MacDonald, both of which influenced Tolkien and contain fantasy elements, it is primarily identified as being children's literature. The two genres are not mutually exclusive, so some definitions of high fantasy include works for children by authors such as L. Frank Baum and Lloyd Alexander alongside the works of Gene Wolfe and Jonathan Swift, which are more often considered adult literature. Sullivan credits the first publication of The Hobbit as an important step in the development of high fantasy, and further credits the 1960s paperback debuts of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings as essential to the creation of a mass market for fiction of this kind as well the fantasy genre's current status.[52]

Style
Tolkien's prose is unpretentious and straightforward, taking as given the existence of his imaginary world and describing its details in a matter-of-fact way, while often introducing the new and fantastic in an almost casual manner. This down-to-earth style, also found in later fantasy such as Richard Adams' Watership Down and Peter Beagle's The Last Unicorn, accepts readers into the fictional world, rather than cajoling or attempting to convince them of its reality.[53] While The Hobbit is written in a simple, friendly language, each of its characters has a unique voice. The narrator, who occasionally interrupts the narrative flow with asides (a device common to both children's and Anglo-Saxon literature),[52] has his own linguistic style separate from those of the main characters.[54]

The Hobbit The basic form of the story is that of a quest,[55] told in episodes. For the most part of the book, each chapter introduces a different denizen of the Wilderland, some helpful and friendly towards the protagonists, and others threatening or dangerous. However the general tone is kept light-hearted, being interspersed with songs and humour. One example of the use of song to maintain tone is when Thorin and Company are kidnapped by goblins, who, when marching them into the underworld, sing:

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Clap! Snap! the black crack! Grip, grab! Pinch, nab! And down down to Goblin-town You go, my lad!

This onomatopic singing undercuts the dangerous scene with a sense of humour. Tolkien achieves balance of humour and danger through other means as well, as seen in the foolishness and Cockney dialect of the trolls and in the drunkenness of the elven captors.[56] The general formthat of a journey into strange lands, told in a light-hearted mood and interspersed with songsmay be following the model of The Icelandic Journals by Tolkien's literary idol William Morris.[57] The novel draws on Tolkien's knowledge of northern European historical literature, myth and languages.[52] The names of Gandalf and all but one of the thirteen dwarves were taken directly from the poem Vlusp from the Poetic Edda.[58] Several of the author's illustrations (including the dwarven map, the frontispiece and the dust jacket) make use of Anglo-Saxon runes. The names of the dwarf-friendly ravens are also derived from Old Norse for raven and rook,[31] but their characters are unlike the typical war-carrion from Old Norse and Anglo-Saxon literature.[59] Tolkien, however, is not simply skimming historical sources for effect: linguistic styles, especially the relationship between the modern and ancient, has been seen to be one of the major themes explored by the story.[60]

Critical analysis
Themes
The development and maturation of the protagonist, Bilbo Baggins, is central to the story. This journey of maturation, where Bilbo gains a clear sense of identity and confidence in the outside world, may be seen as a Bildungsroman rather than a traditional quest.[61] The Jungian concept of individuation is also reflected through this theme of growing maturity and capability, with the author contrasting Bilbo's personal growth against the arrested development of the dwarves.[3] The analogue of the "underworld" and the hero returning from it with a boon (such as the ring, or Elvish blades) that benefits his society is seen to fit the mythic archetypes regarding initiation and male coming-of-age as described by Joseph Campbell.[56] Jane Chance compares the development and growth of Bilbo against other characters to the concepts of just Kingship versus sinful kingship derived from the Ancrene Wisse (which Tolkien had written on in 1929) and a Christian understanding of Beowulf.[62] Specific plot elements and features in The Hobbit that show similarities to Beowulf include Bilbo's title thief, the underground path into the mountain, and Smaug's personality which leads to the destruction of Laketown.[63] The overcoming of greed and selfishness has been seen as the central moral of the story.[64] Whilst greed is a recurring theme in the novel, with many of the episodes stemming from one or more of the characters' simple desire for food (be it trolls eating dwarves or dwarves eating Wood-elf fare) or a desire for beautiful objects, such as gold and jewels,[65] it is only by the Arkenstone's influence upon Thorin that greed, and its attendant vices "coveting" and "malignancy", come fully to the fore in the story and provide the moral crux of the tale. Bilbo steals the Arkenstonea most ancient relic of the dwarvesand attempts to ransom it to Thorin for peace. However, Thorin turns on the Hobbit as a traitor, disregarding all the promises and "at your services" he had previously bestowed.[66] In the end Bilbo gives up the precious stone and most of his share of the treasure in order to help those in greater need. Tolkien also explores the motif of jewels that inspire intense greed which corrupts those that covet them in the

The Hobbit Silmarillion, and there are connections between the words "Arkenstone" and "Silmaril" in Tolkien's invented etymologies.[67] The Hobbit employs themes of animism. An important concept in anthropology and child development, animism is the idea that all thingsincluding inanimate objects and natural events, such as storms or purses, as well as living things like animals and plantspossess human-like intelligence. John D. Rateliff calls this the "Doctor Dolittle Theme" in The History of the Hobbit, and cites the multitude of talking animals as indicative of this theme. These talking creatures include ravens, spiders and the dragon Smaug, alongside the anthropomorphic goblins and elves. Patrick Curry notes that animism is also found in Tolkien's other works, and mentions the "roots of mountains" and "feet of trees" in The Hobbit as a linguistic shifting in level from the inanimate to animate.[68] Tolkien saw the idea of animism as closely linked to the emergence of human language and myth: "...The first men to talk of 'trees and stars' saw things very differently. To them, the world was alive with mythological beings... To them the whole of creation was "myth-woven and elf-patterned".'[69]

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Interpretation
The Hobbit can be seen as a creative exposition of Tolkien's theoretical and academic work. Themes found in early English literature, and specifically in the poem Beowulf, have a heavy presence in defining the ancient world Bilbo stepped into. Tolkien, an accomplished Beowulf scholar, claims the poem to be among his "most valued sources" in writing The Hobbit.[70] Tolkien is credited with being the first critic to expound on Beowulf as a literary work with value beyond merely historical, and his 1936 lecture Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics is still required reading for students of Anglo-Saxon. The Beowulf poem contains several elements that Tolkien borrowed for The Hobbit, including a monstrous, intelligent dragon.[71] Certain descriptions in The Hobbit seem to have been lifted straight out of Beowulf with some minor rewording, such as when each dragon stretches out its neck to sniff for intruders.[72] Likewise, Tolkien's descriptions of the lair as accessed through a secret passage mirror those in Beowulf. Tolkien refines parts of Beowulf's plot that he appears to have found less than satisfactorily described, such as details about the cup-thief and the dragon's intellect and personality.[73] Another influence from the Anglo-Saxon is the appearance of named blades of renown, adorned in runes. It is in the use of his elf-blade that we see Bilbo finally taking his first independent heroic action. By his naming the blade "Sting" we also see Bilbo's acceptance of the kinds of cultural and linguistic practices found in Beowulf, signifying his entrance into the ancient world in which he found himself.[74] This progression culminates in Bilbo stealing a cup from the dragon's hoard, rousing him to wrathan incident directly mirroring Beowulf, and an action entirely determined by traditional narrative patterns. As Tolkien wrote, "...The episode of the theft arose naturally (and almost inevitably) from the circumstances. It is difficult to think of any other way of conducting the story at this point. I fancy the author of Beowulf would say much the same."[70] As in plot and setting, Tolkien brings his literary theories to bear in forming characters and their interactions. He portrays Bilbo as a modern anachronism exploring an essentially antique world. Bilbo is able to negotiate and interact within this antique world because language and tradition make connections between the two worlds. For example, Gollum's riddles are taken from old historical sources, while those of Bilbo come from modern nursery books. It is the form of the riddle game, familiar to both, which allows Gollum and Bilbo to engage each other, rather than the content of the riddles themselves. This idea of a superficial contrast between characters' individual linguistic style, tone and sphere of interest, leading to an understanding of the deeper unity between the ancient and modern, is a recurring theme in The Hobbit.[60] Smaug is the main antagonist. In many ways the Smaug episode reflects and references the dragon of Beowulf, and Tolkien uses the episode to put into practice some of the ground-breaking literary theories he had developed about the Anglo-Saxon poem and its portrayal of the dragon as having bestial intelligence rather than being of purely symbolic value.[71] Smaug the dragon and his golden hoard may be seen as a symbol of the traditional relationship between evil and metallurgy as collated in the depiction of Pandmonium with its "Belched fire and rolling smoke"

The Hobbit in Milton's Paradise Lost.[75] Of all the characters, Smaug's speech is the most modern, using idioms such as "Don't let your imagination run away with you!" Just as Tolkien's literary theories have been seen to influence the tale, so have Tolkien's experiences. The Hobbit may be read as Tolkien's parable of World War I, where the hero is plucked from his rural home and thrown into a far-off war where traditional types of heroism are shown to be futile.[76] The tale as such explores the theme of heroism. As Janet Croft notes, Tolkien's literary reaction to war at this time differed from most post-war writers by eschewing irony as a method for distancing events and instead using mythology to mediate his experiences.[77] Similarities to the works of other writers who faced the Great War are seen in The Hobbit, including portraying warfare as anti-pastoral: in "The Desolation of Smaug", both the area under the influence of Smaug before his demise and the setting for The Battle of the Five Armies later are described as barren, damaged landscapes.[78] The Hobbit makes a warning against repeating the tragedies of World War I,[79] and Tolkien's attitude as a veteran may well be summed up by Bilbo's comment:[77]

204

Reception

Victory after all, I suppose! Well, it seems a very gloomy business.

On first publication in October 1937, The Hobbit was met with almost unanimously favourable reviews from publications both in the UK and the USA, including The Times, Catholic World and The New York Post. C. S. Lewis, friend of Tolkien (and later author of The Chronicles of Narnia between 19491964), writing in The Times reports:

The truth is that in this book a number of good things, never before united, have come together: a fund of humour, an understanding of children, and a happy fusion of the scholar's with the poet's grasp of mythology... The professor has the air of inventing nothing. He has studied trolls and dragons at first hand and describes them with that fidelity that is worth oceans of glib "originality."

Lewis also compares the book to Alice in Wonderland in that both children and adults may find different things to enjoy in it, and places it alongside Flatland, Phantastes, and The Wind in the Willows.[80] W. H. Auden, in his review of the sequel The Fellowship of the Ring calls The Hobbit "one of the best children's stories of this century".[81] Auden was later to correspond with Tolkien, and they became friends. The Hobbit was nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction of the year (1938). More recently, the book has been recognized as "Most Important 20th-Century Novel (for Older Readers)" in the Children's Books of the Century poll in Books for Keeps.[82] Publication of the sequel The Lord of the Rings altered many critics' reception of the work. Instead of approaching The Hobbit as a children's book in its own right, critics such as Randell Helms picked up on the idea of The Hobbit as being a "prelude", relegating the story to a dry-run for the later work. Countering a presentist interpretation are those who say this approach misses out on much of the original's value as a children's book and as a work of high fantasy in its own right, and that it disregards the book's influence on these genres.[52] Commentators such as Paul Kocher,[83] John D. Rateliff[84] and C. W. Sullivan[52] encourage readers to treat the works separately, both because The Hobbit was conceived, published, and received independently of the later work, and also in order to prevent the reader from having false expectations of tone and style dashed.

The Hobbit

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Legacy
The Lord of the Rings
While The Hobbit has been adapted and elaborated upon in many ways, its sequel The Lord of the Rings is often claimed to be its greatest legacy. The plots share the same basic structure progressing in the same sequence: the stories begin at Bag End, the home of Bilbo Baggins; Gandalf sends the protagonist into a quest eastward; Elrond offers a haven and advice; the adventurers escape dangerous creatures underground (Goblin Town/Moria); they engage another group of elves (The Elf King's realm/Lothlrien); they traverse a desolate region (Desolation of Smaug/the Dead Marshes); they fight in a massive battle; a descendant of kings is restored to his ancestral throne (Bard/Aragorn); and the questing party returns home to find it in a deteriorated condition (having possessions auctioned off/the scouring of the Shire).[85] The Lord of the Rings contains several more supporting scenes, and has a more sophisticated plot structure, following the paths of multiple characters. Tolkien wrote the later story in much less humorous tones and infused it with more complex moral and philosophical themes. The differences between the two stories can cause difficulties when readers, expecting them to be similar, find that they are not.[85] Many of the thematic and stylistic differences arose because Tolkien wrote The Hobbit as a story for children, and The Lord of the Rings for the same audience, who had subsequently grown up since its publication. Some differences are in minor details; for example, goblins are more often referred to as Orcs in The Lord of the Rings. Further, Tolkien's concept of Middle-earth was to continually change and slowly evolve throughout his life and writings.[86]

The Hobbit in education


The style and themes of the book have been seen to help stretch precocious young readers' literacy skills, preparing them to approach the works of Dickens and Shakespeare. By contrast, offering readers modern teenage-oriented fiction may not exercise their advanced reading skills, while the material may contain themes more suited to adolescents.[87] As one of several books that has been recommended for 1114 year old boys to encourage literacy in that demographic, The Hobbit is promoted as "the original and still the best fantasy ever written."[88] Several teaching guides and books of study notes have been published to help teachers and students gain the most from the book. The Hobbit introduces literary concepts, notably allegory, to young readers, as the work has been seen to have allegorical aspects reflecting the life and times of the author.[78] Meanwhile the author himself rejected an allegorical reading of his work.[89] This tension can help introduce readers to 'readerly' and 'writerly' interpretations, to tenets of New Criticism, and critical tools from Freudian analysis, such as sublimation, in approaching literary works.[90] Another approach to critique taken in the classroom has been to propose the insignificance of female characters in the story as sexist. While Bilbo may be seen as a literary symbol of 'small folk' of any gender,[91] a gender-conscious approach can help students establish notions of a "socially symbolic text" where meaning is generated by tendentious readings of a given work.[92] By this interpretation, it is ironic that the first authorized adaptation was a stage production in a girls' school.[16]

Adaptations
In 1969 (over 30 years after first publication), Tolkien sold the film and merchandising rights to The Hobbit to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of 10,000[93] plus a 7.5% royalty after costs, payable to Allen & Unwin and the author.[94] In 1976 (three years after the author's death) United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company, who trade as Tolkien Enterprises. Since then all "authorized" adaptations have been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises. In 1997 Tolkien Enterprises licensed the film rights to Miramax, which assigned them in 1998 to New Line Cinema.[95] The heirs of Tolkien, including his son Christopher Tolkien, filed suit against New Line Cinema in February 2008 seeking payment of profits and to be "entitled to cancel... all future rights of

The Hobbit New Line... to produce, distribute, and/or exploit future films based upon the Trilogy and/or the Films... and/or... films based on The Hobbit."[96] [97] The first authorized adaptation of The Hobbit appeared in March 1953, a stage production by St. Margaret's School, Edinburgh.[16] The Hobbit has since been adapted for other media many times. The BBC Radio 4 series The Hobbit radio drama was an adaptation by Michael Kilgarriff, broadcast in eight parts (four total hours) from September to November 1968. It starred Anthony Jackson as narrator, Paul Daneman as Bilbo and Heron Carvic as Gandalf. The series was released on audio cassette in 1988 and on CD in 1997.[98] The Hobbit, an animated version of the story produced by Rankin/Bass, debuted as a television movie in the United States in 1977. In 1978, Romeo Muller won a Peabody Award for his teleplay for The Hobbit. The film was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, but lost to Star Wars. The adaptation has been called "execrable"[17] and confusing for those not already familiar with the plot.[99] A two-part live-action film version is planned to be co-produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and New Line Cinema, produced and directed by Peter Jackson.[100] [101] Martin Freeman will be portraying Bilbo.[102] ME Games Ltd (formerly Middle-earth Play-by-Mail), which has won several Origin Awards, uses the Battle of Five Armies as an introductory scenario to the full game and includes characters and armies from the book.[103] Several computer and video games, both licensed and unlicensed, have been based on the story. One of the most successful was The Hobbit, an award-winning computer game developed in 1982 by Beam Software and published by Melbourne House with compatibility for most computers available at the time. A copy of the novel was included in each game package in order to encourage players to engage the text, since ideas for gameplay could be found therein.[104] Likewise, it can be seen that the game is not attempting to re-tell the story, but rather sits along-side it, using the narrative to both structure and motivate gameplay.[105] The game won the Golden Joystick Award for Strategy Game of the Year in 1983[106] and was responsible for popularizing the phrase, "Thorin sits down and starts singing about gold."[107]

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Collectors' market
While reliable figures are difficult to obtain, estimated global sales of The Hobbit run between 35[68] and 100[108] million copies since 1937. In the UK The Hobbit has not retreated from the top 5,000 books of Nielsen BookScan since 1995, when the index began, achieving a three-year sales peak rising from 33,084 (2000) to 142,541 (2001), 126,771 (2002) and 61,229 (2003), ranking it at the 3rd position in Nielsens' "Evergreen" book list.[109] The enduring popularity of The Hobbit makes early printings of the book attractive collectors' items. The first printing of the first English-language edition can sell for between 6,000 and 20,000 at auction,[110] [111] although the price for a signed first edition has reached over 60,000.[108]

Notes
[1] Eaton, Anne T. (13 March 1938). "A Delightfully Imaginative Journey" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1938/ 03/ 13/ movies/ LOTR-HOBBIT. html). The New York Times. . [2] Langford, David (2001). "Lord of the Royalties" (http:/ / www. ansible. co. uk/ sfx/ tolkien. html). SFX magazine. . Retrieved 29 September 2007. [3] Matthews, Dorothy (1975). "The Psychological Journey of Bilbo Baggins" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=TqJ7gHrwjUEC& printsec=frontcover#PPA27,M1). A Tolkien Compass. Open Court Publishing. pp.2740. ISBN9780875483030. . [4] Anderson 2003, p.120 [5] Sparknotes 101 Literature. Spark Educational Publishing. 2004. pp.366367. ISBN1411400267. (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=DlzwgasGc2oC) [6] Oxford Poetry (1915) Blackwells [7] Yorkshire Poetry, Leeds, vol. 2, no. 19, OctoberNovember 1923 [8] Rateliff 2007, pp.xxxxxxi [9] Carpenter 1977, p.181 [10] Carpenter 1981, p.294

The Hobbit
[11] Carpenter 1977, p.184 [12] Carpenter 1977, p.192 [13] Hammond 1993, p.8 [14] Hammond 1993, pp.1823 [15] Anderson 2003, p.22 [16] Anderson 2003, pp.384386 [17] Anderson 2003, p.23 [18] Carpenter 1977, p.195 [19] Carpenter 1977, p.215 [20] Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Prologue, ISBN 0-395-08254-4 [21] Anderson 2003, pp.1823 [22] Rateliff 2007, p.781, 81112 [23] Rateliff 2007, p.765 [24] Anderson 2003, p.218 [25] Tolkien, J. R. R. (1937). The Hobbit. London: George Allen & Unwin. p.63. [26] Tolkien, J. R. R. (1951). The Hobbit. London: George Allen & Unwin. p.63. [27] Tolkien, J. R. R. (1966). The Hobbit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p.62. ISBN0-395-07122-4. [28] Tolkien, Christopher (1983). The History of Middle-earth: Vol 1 "The Book of Lost Tales 1". George Allen & Unwin. pp.4344. ISBN0048232386. [29] An example, alongside other illustrations can be seen at: Houghton Mifflin (http:/ / www. houghtonmifflinbooks. com/ features/ lordoftheringstrilogy/ hobbit/ 2_5. shtml) [30] Drout, Michael D. C.; Wynne,Hilary (2000). "Review Essay: Tom Shippey's J. R. R. Tolkien: Author of the Century and a Look Back at Tolkien Criticism since 1982" (http:/ / teachingtolkien. org/ McNelis/ Envoi/ ). Envoi. . Retrieved 13 November 2010. [31] Fisher, Jason (3 2008). "The History of the Hobbit (review)" (http:/ / www. mythsoc. org). Mythlore (101/102). . [32] Anderson 2003, p.14 [33] Anderson 2003, pp.378379 [34] Hammond 1993, p.18 [35] Hammond 1993, p.21 [36] Flieger, Verlyn (2005). Interrupted Music: The Making of Tolkien's Mythology. Kent State University Press. p.67. ISBN0873388240. [37] Hammond 1993, p.48 [38] Hammond 1993, p.54 [39] Rateliff 2007, p.602 [40] Tolkien, J. R. R. (1942). The Hobbit. London: The Children's Book Club. [41] Elliot, Ralph W. V. (1998). ""Runes in English Literature" From Cynewulf to Tolkien"". In Klaus Duwel. Runeninschriften Als Quelle Interdisziplinarer Forschung. Walter de Gruyter. pp.663664. ISBN3110154552. [42] Plowright, Sweyn (2006). The Rune Primer: A Down-to-Earth Guide to the Runes. Rune-Net Press. p.137. ISBN0958043515. [43] Poveda, Jaume Alberdo (20032004). "Narrative Models in Tolkien's Stories of Middle-earth" (http:/ / dialnet. unirioja. es/ servlet/ fichero_articulo?codigo=1975822& orden=74928) (PDF). Journal of English Studies 4: 722. . Retrieved 9 July 2008. [44] Gamble, Nikki; Yates, Sally (2002). Exploring Children's Literature: Teaching the Language and Reading of Fiction. http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=96t8LdsoVX4C: Sage. p.43. ISBN0761940464. [45] Carpenter 1977, p.193 [46] "The Hobbit Major Themes" (http:/ / www. cliffsnotes. com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/ The-Hobbit-Critical-Essays-Major-Themes. id-171,pageNum-68. html). Cliff Notes The Hobbit. Cliff Notes. . Retrieved 9 July 2008. [47] O'Sullivan, Emer (2005). Comparative Children's Literature. Routledge. p.20. ISBN0415305519. [48] Carpenter 1981, p.159 [49] Zipes, Jack (2000). The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford University Press. p.525. ISBN0198601158. [50] St. Clair, Gloriana. "Tolkien's Cauldron: Northern Literature and The Lord of the Rings" (http:/ / shelf1. library. cmu. edu/ books/ gloriana/ ). Carnegie Mellon. . Retrieved 9 July 2008. [51] Brush, Nigel (2005). The Limitations of Scientific Truth (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=baZPTTwk3woC& printsec=frontcover). Kregel Publications. p.108. ISBN0825422531. . [52] Sullivan, C. W.; C. W. Sullivan (1996). "High Fantasy". In Hunt, Peter. International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. Taylor & Francis. pp.309310. ISBN0415088569. [53] Timmerman, John (1983). Other Worlds. Popular Press. p.52. ISBN087972241X. [54] Pienciak, Anne (1986). Book Notes: "The Hobbit". Barron's Educational Series. pp.3639. ISBN0812035232. [55] Auden, W. H. (2004). "The Quest Hero". In Rose A. Zimbardo and Neil D. Isaaca,. Understanding the Lord of the Rings: The Best of Tolkien Criticism. Houghton Mifflin. pp.3151. ISBNISBN 0-618-42251-x. [56] Helms, Randel (1976). Myth, Magic and Meaning in Tolkien's World. Granada. pp.4555. ISBN0415921503.

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[57] Amison, Anne (7 2006). "An unexpected Guest. influence of William Morris on J. R. R. Tolkien's works" (http:/ / www. mythsoc. org). Mythlore (98). . [58] "Tolkien's Middle-earth: Lesson Plans, Unit Two" (http:/ / www. houghtonmifflinbooks. com/ features/ lordoftheringstrilogy/ lessons/ two/ handouts. jsp). Houghton Mifflin. . Retrieved 29 September 2007. [59] St. Clair, p. 39. "Unlike the raven servants of the god of war, Roac is against war with the men of Dale and the Elves. Further, the birds carry the good news of Smaugs fall over the countryside. In The Hobbit, they do not function as scavengers after battle as ravens usually do in medieval Norse and English works." [60] Shippey, Tom: Tolkien: Author of the Century, HarperCollins, 2000, p.41 [61] Grenby, Matthew (2008). Children's Literature (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=mz2d3gYJpLkC& printsec=frontcover#PPA98,M1). Edinburgh University Press. p.98. ISBN061847885X. . [62] Chance, Jane (2001). Tolkien's Art (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=xvGLsT_dP_YC). Kentucky University Press. pp.5356. ISBN061847885X. . [63] Solopova, Elizabeth (2009), Languages, Myths and History: An Introduction to the Linguistic and Literary Background of J.R.R. Tolkien's Fiction, New York City: North Landing Books, p. 37, ISBN 0-9816607-1-1 [64] Grenby, Matthew (2008). Children's Literature (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=t8jas5ZsTBoC& pg=PA162). Edinburgh University Press. p.162. ISBN0748622748. . [65] "The Hobbit Book Notes Summary: Topic Tracking Greed" (http:/ / www. bookrags. com/ notes/ hob/ TOP1. htm). BookRags. . Retrieved 5 2 5 2008. [66] Clark, George; Timmons, Daniel (2000). J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ES0Hs75IVg0C& printsec=frontcover). Greenwood Publishing Group. pp.8586. ISBN0313308454. . [67] Rateliff 2007, pp.603609 [68] Curry, Patrick (2004). Defending Middle-earth: Tolkien: Myth and Modernity (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=mz2d3gYJpLkC& printsec=frontcover#PPA98,M1). Mariner Books. p.98. ISBN061847885X. . [69] Carpenter, Humphrey (1979). The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams and Their Friends. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p.43. ISBN0-395-27628-4. [70] Carpenter 1981, p.31 [71] Hall, Mark F. (9 2006). "Dreaming of dragons: Tolkien's impact on Heaney's Beowulf" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0OON/ is_1-2_25/ ai_n27059871). Mythlore. . [72] Faraci, Mary (2002). "Chapter 5: "I wish to speak" (Tolkien's voice in his Beowulf essay)" (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=sNTI0WTNmw4C). In Chance, Jane. Tolkien the medievalist. Routledge. pp.5859. ISBN0415289443. . [73] Purtill, Richard L. (2006). Lord of the Elves and Eldils (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=cbcuwO3bwfgC). Ignatius Press. pp.5355. ISBN1586170848. . [74] McDonald, R. Andrew (9 2006). ""In the hilt is fame": resonances of medieval swords and sword-lore in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0OON/ is_1-2_25/ ai_n27059863). Mythlore (96). . [75] Lobdell, Jared (1975). A Tolkien Compass. Open Court Publishing. p.106. ISBN0875483038. [76] Carpenter, Humphrey (23). "Review: Cover book: Tolkien and the Great War by John Garth" (http:/ / entertainment. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ books/ article1020455. ece). The Times Online. . Retrieved 05 2 5 2008. [77] Croft, Janet Brennan (6 2003). ""The young perish and the old linger, withering": J. R. R. Tolkien on World War II" (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ "The+ young+ perish+ and+ the+ old+ linger,+ withering":+ J. R. R. + Tolkien+ on. . . -a0149176346). Mythlore (89). . [78] Croft, Janet Brennan (9 2002). "The Great War and Tolkien's Memory, an examination of World War I themes in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0OON/ is_4_23/ ai_99848426). Mythlore (84). . [79] Zipes, Jack David (8 1999). When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=AkTKEJyfYLIC& printsec=frontcover). Routledge. p.24. ISBN0415921503. . [80] Anderson 2003, p.18 [81] Auden, W. H. (31 October 1954). "The Hero is a Hobbit" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ books/ 01/ 02/ 11/ specials/ tolkien-fellowship. html). New York Times. . Retrieved 28 July 2008. [82] "FAQ: Did Tolkien win any awards for his books?" (http:/ / www. tolkiensociety. org/ faq01. html#awards). Tolkien Society. 2002. . Retrieved 28 June 2008. [83] Kocher, Paul (1974). Master of Middle-earth, the Achievement of J. R. R. Tolkien. Penguin. pp.2223. [84] Rateliff 2007, p.xi [85] Kocher, Paul (1974). Master of Middle-earth, the Achievement of J. R. R. Tolkien. Penguin. pp.3132. [86] Tolkien, Christopher (1983). The History of Middle-earth: Vol 1 "The Book of Lost Tales 1". George Allen & Unwin. p.7. ISBN0048232386. [87] Jones, Nicolette (30 April 2004). "What exactly is a children's book?" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ life_and_style/ article846713. ece). Times Online. . Retrieved 15 June 2008. [88] "The Hobbit" (http:/ / www. sla. org. uk/ boys-into-books-ids. php?search=hobbit). Boys into Books (1114). Schools Library Association. . Retrieved 15 June 2008. [89] Carpenter 1981, p.131

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[90] Elizabeth T. Lawrence (1987). "Glory Road: Epic Romance As An Allegory of 20th Century History; The World Through The Eyes Of J. R. R. Tolkien" (http:/ / www. yale. edu/ ynhti/ curriculum/ units/ 1987/ 2/ 87. 02. 11. x. html). Epic, Romance and the American Dream 1987 Volume II. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. . Retrieved 15 June 2008. [91] Zipes, Jack David (1979). Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales. University Press of Kentucky. p.173. ISBN0813190304. [92] Millard, Elaine (1997). Differently Literate: boys, Girls and the Schooling of Literacy. Routledge. p.164. ISBN0750706619. [93] Lindrea, Victoria (29 July 2004). "How Tolkien triumphed over the critics" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 3935561. stm). BBC. . Retrieved 24 July 2008. [94] Harlow, John (28 May 2008). "Hobbit movies meet dire foe in son of Tolkien" (http:/ / entertainment. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ film/ article3999008. ece). The Times Online (The Times). . Retrieved 24 July 2008. [95] Cieply, Michael (16 February 2008). "The Rings Prompts a Long Legal Mire" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 02/ 16/ movies/ 16ring. html). New York Times. . Retrieved 24 July 2008. [96] Andrews, Amanda (13 February 2008). "Tolkien's family threatens to block new Hobbit film" (http:/ / business. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ business/ industry_sectors/ media/ article3354936. ece). The Times. UK. . Retrieved 3 May 2008. [97] "Tolkien Trust v. New Line Cinema Corp." (http:/ / news. findlaw. com/ nytimes/ docs/ ent/ tlknnewline21108cmp. html). FindLaw.com. 11 February 2008. . [98] Bramlett, Perry C.; Joe R. Christopher (2003). I Am in Fact a Hobbit: An Introduction to the Life and Works of J. R. R. Tolkien. Mercer University Press. p.239. ISBN0865548943. [99] Kask, T. J. (12 1977). "NBC's The Hobbit". Dragon III (6/7): 23. [100] Coyle, Jake (18 December 2007). "Peter Jackson to produce The Hobbit" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ movies/ news/ 2007-12-18-hobbit_N. htm). USA Today. . Retrieved 5 October 2009. [101] "'The Hobbit' Gets Its Greenlight, With Jackson Directing" (http:/ / www. thewrap. com/ movies/ column-post/ breaking-hobbit-gets-its-greenlight-21749?page=0,0). TheWrap.com. 16 October 2010. . Retrieved 16 October 2010. [102] "Martin Freeman to play Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ entertainment-arts-11604193). BBC News. 22 October 2010. . Retrieved 19 June 2011. [103] "Home of Middle-earth Strategic Gaming" (http:/ / middleearthgames. com/ index. html). ME Games Ltd.. . Retrieved 9 July 2008. [104] Moore, Phil (1986). Using Computers in English: A Practical Guide. Routledge. p.44. ISBN0416361803. [105] Aarseth, Espen; Marie-Laure Ryan (2004). "Quest Games as Post-Narrative Discourse" in "Narrative Across Media: The Languages of Storytelling". University of Nebraska Press. p.366. ISBN0803239440. [106] Uffindell, Matthew; Passey, Chris (5 1984). "Playing The Game" (http:/ / www. worldofspectrum. org/ showmag. cgi?mag=Crash/ Issue04/ Pages/ Crash0400043. jpg) (jpg). Crash 1 (4): 43. . Retrieved 6 July 2008. [107] Campbell, Stuart (12 1991). "Top 100 Speccy Games" (http:/ / www. ysrnry. co. uk/ articles/ ystop100_3. htm). Your Sinclair 1 (72): 22. . Retrieved 6 July 2008. [108] "Tolkien's Hobbit fetches 60,000" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ 7302101. stm). bbc.co.uk. 18 March 2008. . Retrieved 6 June 2008. [109] Jenny Holden (31 July 2008). "Books you Must Stock" (http:/ / www. thebookseller. com/ in-depth/ feature/ 64194-the-12-books-you-must-stock-. html). Daily Telegraph. UK. . Retrieved 5 July 2009. [110] "Hobbit fetches 6,000 at auction" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ norfolk/ 4045667. stm). BBC News. 26 November 2004. . Retrieved 5 July 2008. [111] Toby Walne (21 November 2007). "How to make a killing from first editions" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ money/ main. jhtml?xml=/ money/ 2007/ 11/ 20/ cmbook20. xml). Daily Telegraph. UK. . Retrieved 5 July 2008.

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References
Anderson, Douglas A. (2003). The Annotated Hobbit. London: HarperCollins. ISBN0-00-713726-3. Hammond, Wayne; Douglas A. Anderson (1993). J. R. R. Tolkien: A Descriptive Bibliography. New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press. ISBN0-938768-42-5. Carpenter, Humphrey (1977). Tolkien: A Biography. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN0-04-928037-6. Carpenter, Humphrey (1981). The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN0-395-31555-7. Rateliff, John D. (2007). The History of the Hobbit. London: HarperCollins. ISBN978-0-00-723555-1. St. Clair, Gloriana. "Tolkien's Cauldron: Northern Literature and The Lord of the Rings" (http://shelf1.library. cmu.edu/books/gloriana/). Carnegie Mellon University.

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External links
The official Harper-Collins Tolkien website (http://www.tolkien.co.uk/) Collection of edition covers, 19372007 (http://www.hobbit.ca/Library.html) The Hobbit covers around the globe gallery (http://www.tolkienlibrary.com/translations/hobbits/index.htm) Every UK edition of The Hobbit (http://www.tolkienbooks.net/php/hobbit.php) Guide to U.S. editions of Tolkien books including The Hobbit (http://tolkien.skwishmi.com/)

The Little Prince


This article is about the novella. For other uses, see Little Prince. Asteroid B-612 redirects here; for the foundation, see B612 Foundation.

The Little Prince


Author(s) Original title Translator Antoine de Saint-Exupry Le Petit Prince (English editions) Katherine Woods T.V.F. Cuffe Irene Testot-Ferry Alan Wakeman [1] Richard Howard Antoine de Saint-Exupry Antoine de Saint-Exupry United States [2] (English & French) France (French) French, English and 230+ other languages and dialects Reynal & Hitchcock (U.S.A.) [3] Gallimard (France)

Illustrator Cover artist Country

Language

Publisher

Publication date 1943 (U.S.: English & French) [3] 1945 (France: French) Media type ISBN Hardcover, Paperback, E-book, CD Audiobook, Audio tape, LP record, Filmstrip, plus others 978-0-152-02398-0 (English, U.S.A., Howard) 978-2-070-61275-8 (French, France) 978-0-152-16415-7 (French, U.S.A.) Pilote de guerre (1942) Lettre un otage (1944)

Preceded by Followed by

The Little Prince (French: ''Le Petit Prince''), first published in 1943, is a novella and the most famous work of the French aristocrat writer, poet and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupry (19001944, Mort pour la France).[4]

The Little Prince The novella is the most read and also the most translated book in the French language, and was voted the best book of the 20th century in France allowing it to maintain worldwide sales of over one million copies per year.[5] [6] It has been translated into more than 230 languages and dialects,[7] and has sold more than 200 million copies worldwide,[8] making it one of the best-selling books ever published.[9] [10] [11] Saint-Exupry, a laureate of France's highest literary awards and a reserve military pilot at the start of the Second World War, both wrote and illustrated the manuscript while exiled in the United States after the fall of France. He had traveled there on a personal mission to convince its government to quickly enter the war against Nazi Germany. In the midst of personal upheavals and failing health he produced almost half of the writings he would be remembered for, including a tender tale of loneliness, friendship, love and loss, in the form of a young prince fallen to Earth.[12] An earlier memoir by the author recounted his aviation experiences in the Sahara desert. He is thought to have drawn on those same experiences for use as plot elements in The Little Prince. Saint-Exupry's novella has been adapted to various media over the decades, including audio recordings, stage, screen, ballet and operatic works.[7] [13] [14]

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Viewpoint
Though ostensibly a children's book, The Little Prince makes several profound and idealistic observations about life and human nature. For example, Saint-Exupry tells of a fox meeting the young prince during his travels on Earth. The story's essence is contained in the lines uttered by the fox to the little prince: On ne voit bien qu'avec le cur. L'essentiel est invisible pour les yeux. ("One sees clearly only with the heart. What is essential is invisible to the eye.")[15] Other key thematic messages are articulated by the fox, such as: "You become responsible, forever, for what you have tamed" and "It is the time you have devoted to your rose that makes your rose so important."

Plot
The reader is introduced to the narrator who, as a young boy, drew a boa constrictor eating an elephant. However, he is discouraged from drawing when all adults who look at his picture see a hat, instead. The narrator attempts to explain what his first picture depicts by drawing another one clearly showing the elephant, disturbing the adults as a result. As such, he decides to become a pilot, which eventually leads to a crash in the Sahara desert. In the desert, the narrator meets the little prince, who asks him to draw a sheep. Not knowing how to draw a sheep, the narrator shows him the picture of the elephant in the snake. To the narrator's surprise, the prince recognizes the drawing for what it is. After a few failed attempts at drawing a sheep, the narrator draws a box in his frustration, claims that the box holds a sheep inside. Again to the narrator's surprise, the prince is delighted with the result. The little prince's home asteroid, or "planet", is introduced. The asteroid is the size of a house, has three volcanoes (two active, and one dormant) and a rose, among various other objects. The narrator believes this asteroid to be called B-612. The Prince spends his days caring for the asteroid, pulling out the baobab trees that are constantly trying to take root there. The Prince falls in love with the rose, who appears not to return his love due to her vain nature. The Prince loses his trust in the rose after she lies to him, and grows lonely. After he reconciles with his rose, the prince leaves to see what the rest of the universe is like. He visits six other asteroids, each of which is inhabited by a foolish adult. The sixth asteroid is inhabited by a geographer, who asks the prince to describe his home. When the prince mentions the rose, the geographer explains that he does not record roses, calling them "ephemeral". The prince is shocked and hurt by this revelation. The geographer recommends that he visit the Earth.

The Little Prince

212 On the Earth, the prince meets a snake that claims to have the power to return him to his home planet, though the prince refuses this offer. The prince then meets a desert flower, who tells him that there are only a handful of men on Earth and that they have no roots, letting the wind blow them around and living hard lives. The prince climbs the highest mountain he has ever seen, in hopes of seeing the whole planet and finding people. However, he only sees a desolate landscape. When the prince calls out, his echo answers him, and he mistakes it for the voices of other humans. Eventually, the prince comes upon a whole row of rosebushes, and becomes downcast because he thought that his rose was unique. He begins to feel that he is not a great prince at all, as his planet contains only three tiny volcanoes and a flower he now thinks of as common. He lies down in the grass and weeps.

As the prince cries, a fennec fox comes across him. The prince tames the fox, who explains to him that his rose really is unique and special, because she is the one whom the prince loves. The fox also explains that, in a way, the prince has tamed the flower, and that this is why the prince now feels responsible for her.
One of several statuary tributes to The Little Prince, this one in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.

The prince then comes across a railway switchman and a merchant. The switchman tells the Prince how passengers constantly rush from one place to another aboard trains, never satisfied with where they are and not knowing what they are after. Only the children amongst them bother to look out of the windows. The merchant tells the prince about his product, a pill which eliminates thirst and is very popular, saving people fifty-three minutes a week. The prince replies that he would use the time to walk and find fresh water. Back in the present, the narrator is dying of thirst, but finds a well with the help of the prince. The narrator later finds the prince discussing his return home with the snake. The prince bids an emotional farewell to the narrator and states that if it looks as though he has died, it is because his body is too heavy to take with him to his planet. The prince warns the narrator not to watch him leave, as it will make him sad. The narrator, realizing what will happen, refuses to leave the prince's side. The prince allows the snake to bite him, and falls without making a sound. The next morning, the narrator tries to look for the prince, but is unable to find his body. The story ends with a portrait of the landscape where the prince and the narrator met and where the snake took the prince's life. The narrator makes a plea that anyone encountering a strange child in that area who refuses to answer questions should contact the narrator immediately.

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Inspiration
In The Little Prince, Saint-Exupry talks about being stranded in the desert beside a crashed aircraft. This account clearly draws on his own experience in the Sahara, an ordeal he described in detail in his 1939 award-winning memoir Wind, Sand and Stars (original French: Terre des hommes). On December 30, 1935 at 02:45 a.m., after 19 hours and 44 minutes in the air, Saint-Exupry, along with his mechanic/navigator Andr Prvot, crashed in the Sahara desert.[17] They were attempting to break the speed record for a Paris-to-Saigon flight and win a prize of 150,000francs.[18] Their plane was a Caudron C-630 Simoun,[19] and the crash site is thought to have been near to the Wadi Natrun valley, close to the Nile Delta.[20]

The Bevin House on Long Island, N.Y., one of the locations where The Little Prince was written [16] during 1942.

Both survived the crash, only to face rapid dehydration in the intense desert heat. Their maps were primitive and ambiguous. Lost among the sand dunes with a few grapes, a single orange, and some wine, the pair had only one day's worth of liquid. They both began to see mirages, which were quickly followed by more vivid hallucinations. By the second and third day, they were so dehydrated that they stopped sweating altogether. Finally, on the fourth day, a Bedouin on a camel discovered them and administered a native rehydration treatment that saved Saint-Exupry and Prvot's lives.[18] The rose was inspired by his Salvadoran wife Consuelo de Saint Exupry and the small home planet was inspired by her small home country El Salvador which is also known as "The Land of Volcanoes" due to having many of them.[21] In the desert, Saint-Exupry had viewed a fennec (desert sand fox), which most likely inspired him to create the fox character in the book. In a letter written to his sister Didi from Cape Juby in 1928, he tells her of raising a fennec which he adored. Saint-Exupry may have drawn inspiration for the little prince's appearance from himself as a youth. Friends and family would call him le Roi-Soleil (Sun King), due to his golden curly hair. He had also met a precocious eight year old with curly blond hair while residing with a family in Quebec City, Canada in 1942,[22] [23] the son of philosopher Charles De Koninck. A third possible inspiration for the little prince has been suggested as that of Land Morrow Lindbergh, the young, golden-haired son of the pioneering American aviator Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow, who lived not far away from the Saint-Exuprys, and whom they met briefly during their stay on Long Island.[24] [25] The little prince's reassurance to the Pilot that his dying body is only an empty shell resembles the last words of Antoine's younger brother Franois: "Don't worry. I'm all right. I can't help it. It's my body" (from Airman's Odyssey). The literary device of presenting philosophical and social commentaries in the form of the impressions gained by a fictional extraterrestrial visitor to Earth had already been used by the philosopher and satirist Voltaire in his story Micromgas of 1752a classic work in French literature which Saint-Exupry was likely familiar with.

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Novella's creation
Upon the outbreak of World War II, Saint-Exupry, a successful pioneering aviator prior to the war, initially flew with a reconnaissance squadron in the Arme de l'Air (French Air Force). After France's defeat in 1940 and its armistice with Germany, he and his wife Consuelo fled occupied France and sojourned in North America, with Saint-Exupry first arriving by himself at the very end of December 1940. His intention for the visit was to convince the United States to quickly enter the war against Germany and the Axis forces. Between January 1941 and April 1943 the Saint-Exuprys lived in two penthouse apartments on Central Park South,[26] then the Bevin House mansion in Asharoken, Long Island, N.Y., and still later at a rented house on Beekman Place in New York City.[27] [28] During his stay on Long Island, Saint-Exupry would meet Land Morrow Lindbergh, the young, golden-haired son of the pioneering American aviator Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne Morrow.[24] [29] [30] The couple also stayed in Quebec, Canada for five weeks during the late spring of 1942, where they met a precocious eight year old boy with blond curly hair, Thomas, the son of philosopher Charles De Koninck whom the Saint-Exupry's were residing with.[31] [32] [33] [34]
The writer-aviator near Montreal, Canada in May, 1942 during a speaking tour in support of France after its armistice with Germany. He started his work on the novella shortly after returning to the United States.

After returning to the United States from his Quebec speaking tour, Saint-Exupry was pressed to work on a children's book by Elizabeth Reynal, one of the wives of his U.S. publisher, Reynal & Hitchcock. The French wife of Eugene Reynal had closely observed Saint-Exupry for several months, and noting his high stress levels and ill health, thought that working on a children's story would help him.[35] The author wrote and illustrated The Little Prince in New York City and Asharoken in mid-to-late 1942, with the manuscript being completed in October.[31]
[16] [36]

Although the book was started in his Central Park South penthouse, Saint-Exupry soon found New York City's noise and sweltering summer heat too uncomfortable to work in, so Consuelo was dispatched to find improved accommodations. The result was a new home: the Bevin House, a 22 room mansion in Asharoken overlooking Long Island Sound. The author-aviator initially complained "I wanted a hut [but it's] the Palace of Versailles"; however as the weeks wore on and the author became invested in the project, the home would become "....a haven for writing, the best place I have ever had anywhere in my life". He devoted himself to the book on both extended daytime and midnight shifts, fueled by helpings of scrambled eggs on English muffins, gin and tonics, Coke-Colas, cigarettes and numerous reviews by friends and ex-patriots who dropped in to see on their famous countryman. Included among the reviewers was Consuelo's Swiss writer paramour Denis de Rougemont, who also modeled for a painting of the Little Prince lying on his stomach, feet and arms extended up in the air.[28] [12] De Rougemont would later help Consuelo write her autobiography, The Tale of the Rose, as well as write his own biography of Saint-Exupry. The large white Second French Empire style mansion, hidden behind tall trees, afforded the writer a multitude of work environments. It allowed him to alternately work on his writings, and then on his sketches and watercolours for hours at a time, moving his armchair and paint easel from the library towards the parlor one room at a time in order to follow the Sun's light. His meditative view of the sunsets at the Bevin House eventually became part of the gist of The Little Prince, in which 43 or 44 daily sunsets would be discussed. "On your planet..." the story told, "...all you need do is move your chair a few steps."[28] [12] [37] Only weeks after his novella was first published in April 1943, before Saint-Exupry had received any of its royalties (he never would), the author-aviator joined the Free French Forces. He would remain immensely proud of The Little Prince, and almost always kept a personal copy with him which he often read to others during the war. As part of a 32 ship military convoy he voyaged to North Africa where he rejoined his old squadron to fight with the Allies,

The Little Prince resuming his work as a reconnaissance pilot. Saint-Exupry was lost in action in a July 1944 spy mission from the moonscapes of Corsica to the continent in preparation for the Allied invasion of occupied France, some three weeks before the liberation of Paris.[12]

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Illustrations
All of the novella's simple but elegant watercolour illustrations were painted by Saint-Exupry, who had studied architecture as a young adult but who nevertheless could not be considered an artistwhich he self-mockingly referred to in the novella's introduction. Several of his paintings were committed on the wrong side of the delicate onion skin paper that he used, his medium of choice.[28] As with some of his draft manuscripts, he occasionally gave away preliminary sketches to close friends and colleagues; others were even recovered as crumpled balls from the floors in the cockpits of the P-38 Lightnings he later flew. Two or three original Little Prince drawings were reported in 1967 in the collections of New York artist, sculptor and experimental filmmaker Joseph Cornell.[38] One rare original Little Prince watercolour would be mysteriously sold at a second-hand book fair in Japan in 1994, and subsequently authenticated in 2007.[39] [40] An unrepentant life-long doodler, Saint-Exupry had for numerous years sketched little people on his napkins, tablecloths, letters to paramours and friends, lined notebooks and other scraps of paper. Early little princes took on a multitude of appearances, engaged in a variety of tasks. Some appeared as doll-like figures, baby puffins, angel's with wings, and even a similar Keep On Truckin' figure later to be made famous by Robert Crumb. Figures were frequently seen chasing butterflies; when asked why they did so, Saint-Exupry, who thought of the figures as his alter-ego, replied that they were actually pursuing a "realistic ideal".[12] Saint-Exupry eventually settled on the image of the young, precocious child with curly blond hair, an image which in the future would become the subject of many speculations as to its source. In 2001 Japanese researcher Yoshitsugu Kunugiyama speculated that the cover illustration Saint-Exupry painted for Le Petit Prince deliberately depicted a stellar arrangement chosen to celebrate the author's own centennial of birth. According to Kunugiyama, the cover art Saint-Exupry drew contained the planets Saturn and Jupiter, plus the star Aldebaran, arranged as an isosceles triangle, a celestial configuration which occurred in the early 1940s, and which he likely knew would next reoccur in 2000.[41] Saint-Exupry possessed superior mathematical skills and was a master celestial navigator, a vocation he had studied in the French Air Force.

Manuscript
The original autographed manuscript of The Little Prince, as well as various drafts and trial drawings were acquired in 1968 by the Pierpont Morgan Library (now the The Morgan Library & Museum) in Manhattan, New York City.[6] The manuscript pages includes content that was struck-through and therefore not published as part of the first edition. In addition to the manuscript, several watercolour illustrations by the author are also held by the museum. They were not part of the first edition.

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Translations
Katherine Wood's classic English version of 1943 was later joined by other English translations, as her original version contained some errors.[42] [43] As of 2009, four such additional translations[44] have been published: T.V.F. Cuffe (ISBN 0-14-118562-7, 1st ed. 1995) Irene Testot-Ferry (ISBN 0-7567-5189-6, 1st ed. 1995) Alan Wakeman (ISBN 1-86205-066-X, 1st ed. 1995)[45] Richard Howard (ISBN 0-15-204804-9, 1st ed. 2000)[1] Each of these translators approaches the essence of the original, each with their own style and focus.[46] [47]
Two illustrated editions of The Little Prince (lower left in French and upper right in English) in the Saint-Exupry permanent exhibit at the French Air and Space Museum, Le Bourget, Paris.

Le Petit Prince is often used as a beginner's book for French language students. As of 2005 it has been translated into over 230 languages and dialects, including the Congolese language Alur and Sardinian.[48] The book is one of the few modern books to have been translated into Latin, as Regulus vel Pueri Soli Sapiunt.[49] [50]

In 2005, the book was also translated into Toba, an indigenous language of northern Argentina, as So Shiyaxauolec Nta'a. It was the first book translated into this language since the New Testament of the Bible. Anthropologist Florence Tola commenting on the suitability of the work for Toban translation said there is "nothing strange [when] the Little Prince speaks with a snake or a fox and travels among the stars, it fits perfectly into the Toba mythology."[51] Linguists have compared the many translations and even editions of the same translation for style, composition, titles, wordings and genealogy. As an example as of 2011 there are approximately 47 translated editions of The Little Prince in Korean, and there are also about 50 different translated editions in Chinese (produced in both mainland China and in Taiwan). Many of them are titled Prince From a Star, while others carry the book title that is a direct translation of The Little Prince.[52] By studying the use of word phrasings, nouns and other content in such translations, linguists can identify the source material for each as to whether it was derived from the original French manuscript or from its first English translation by Katherine Woods, or from a number of adapted sources.[53] The original French edition would not be published in Saint-Exupry's homeland by his French publisher Gallimard, until after the end of the Second World War,[3] as the blunt views within his eloquent writings were quickly banned by the Germans in occupied France. Prior to France's liberation new printings of Saint-Exupry's works were made available there only by means of covert print runs,[54] [55] such as that of February 1943 when 1,000 copies of an underground version of his best seller Pilote de guerre, describing the German invasion of France, were printed in Lyon.[56]

Adaptations
Saint-Exupry's novella has been adapted to various media over the decades, including: Richard Burton narrating a Grammy Award-winning recording in 1974. Russian operatic composer Lev Knipper wrote a 3-part symphony in 196271, his skazka (tale) entitled Malenkiy prints (The Little Prince), which was first performed in Moscow in 1978.[57] In the late 1970s, The Adventures of the Little Prince, a Japanese anime adaptation, was televised. In 2002, composer Riccardo Cocciante produced a French-language musical Le Petit Prince, which was later revived in Hong Kong in 2007.[58] [59] In film and television, songwriters Lerner and Loewe, together with director Stanley Donen, produced a film musical based on the story for Paramount Pictures in 1974. [60] [61] [62]

The Little Prince In 2011, Oliver d'Agay of the Saint-Exupryd'Agay Estate, responsible for author's intellectual property and head of the Antoine de Saint-Exupry Youth Foundation, reached an agreement with the author's original French publisher and others on creating updated adaptations of the little prince's story. The prince will be made more attuned to children of the 21st century and will include a 3D animated movie, an animated TV series in 52 parts, a new video game, and 100 serial print story editions.[63] The little prince has himself been adapted to a number of roles, including: As a symbol of environmental protection by the Toshiba Group.[63] As a 'virtual ambassador' in a campaign against smoking, employed by the Veolia Energy Services Group.[63] As a character in an episode of Lost, and in a Super Mario computer game.[63]

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Sequels
In 1997, Jean-Pierre Davidts wrote what could be considered a sequel to The Little Prince, entitled Le petit prince retrouv[64] (The Little Prince Returns). In this version, the narrator is a shipwrecked man who encounters the little prince on a lone island; the prince has returned to find help against a tiger who threatens his sheep.[65] Another sequel titled The Return of the Little Prince was written by former actress Ysatis de Saint-Simone, niece of Consuelo de Saint Exupery.[66] In spring 2007, "Les nouvelles aventures du petit prince" (The New Adventures of the Little Prince), was written by Katherine Pardue and Elisabeth Mitchell. It documents the search of a new flower for the little prince, because the sheep had eaten his rose.

Honours and legacy


Museums and exhibits
In Le Bourget, Paris, France, the Air and Space Museum of France established a special exhibit honoring Saint-Exupry, and which displays many of his literary creations. Among them are various early editions of The Little Prince. Remnants of the Free French Air Force P-38 Lightning in which he disappeared, and which were recovered from the Mediterranean Sea in 2004, are also on view. In Hakone, Japan there is the Museum of The Little Prince featuring outdoor squares and sculptures such as the B-612 Asteroid, the Lamplighter Square, and a sculpture of the Little Prince. On the museum grounds there is a large Little Prince Park featuring the Consuelo Rose Garden. However the main part of the museum is its indoor exhibition. In Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, there is an imitation French village, A tribute to The Little Prince atop Asteroid B-612, at the Museum of The Little Prince, Petite France, which has adapted the story elements of The Little Hakone, Japan. Prince into its architecture and monuments. There are several sculptures of the story's characters, and the village also offers overnight housing in some of the French-style homes. Featured are the history of The Little Prince, an art gallery, and a small amphitheatre situated in the middle of the village for musicians and other performances.[67] [68] In San Paulo, Brazil, in 2009 the giant Oca Art Exhibition Centre presented The Little Prince as part of The Year of France and The Little Prince. The displays covered over 10,000 square metres on four floors, examining Saint-Exupry, The Little Prince and their philosophies, as visitors passed through theme areas of the dessert, different worlds, stars and the cosmos. The ground floor of the exhibit area was laid out as a huge map of the

The Little Prince routes flown by the author and Aeropostale in South America and around the world. Also included was a full scale replica of his Caudron Simoun, crashed in a simulated Sahara dessert.

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Astronomy
An asteroid discovered in 1975, 2578 Saint-Exupry, was named after the author of The Little Prince. An asteroid discovered in 1993 was named 46610 Bsixdouze, which is French for "B six twelve". The asteroid's number, 46610, becomes B612 in hexadecimal notation. B-612 was the name of the asteroid the little prince lived on. The B612 Foundation was created to track asteroids that might pose a threat to Earth, and named in honour of the little prince's home. In 2003, a small asteroid moon, Petit-Prince (discovered in 1998), was named in part after The Little Prince.

Numismatics and philatelic


Before France adopted the euro as its currency, Saint-Exupry and drawings from The Little Prince were on the 50 franc banknote; the artwork was by Swiss designer Roger Pfund.[69] Among the anti-counterfeiting measures on the banknote was micro-printed text from Le Petit Prince, visible with a strong magnifying glass. Additionally, a 100-franc commemorative coin was also released in 2000, with Saint-Exupry's image on one side, and that of the Little Prince on the obverse.[70] In commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the writer's untimely death, Israel issued a stamp honoring "Saint-Ex" and The Little Prince in 1994.[71] Philatelic tributes have been printed in at least 24 other countries as of 2011.[72]

Other
Prior to its decommissioning in 2010, the GR I/33 (later renamed as the 1/33 Belfort Squadron), one of the French Air Force squadrons Saint-Exupry flew with, adopted the image of the Little Prince as part of the squadron and tail insignia of its Dassault Mirage fighter jets.[73] Some of the fastest jets in the world were flown with The Little Prince gazing over their pilots' shoulders. "Saint Ex", a song featured on the Widespread Panic album Dirty Side Down, is a reference to Antoine de Saint-Exupry.[74]

References
Notes
[1] New Strait Times (2000) "'Definitive' Translation of 'Le Petit Prince'", New Strait Times, 20 September 2000. Accessed via Gale General OneFile, 9 November 2011; Gale Document Number: GALE|A65327245. [2] The first English translation by Katherine Woods was published in the United States approximately one week prior to its first French printing by the same publisher, Reynal & Hitchcock. Saint-Exupry, also a fiercely patriotic military pilot, had wisely fled occupied France after the German invasion of WWII, and his literary works were banned there by the Nazis. Le Petit Prince would not be published in France until after its liberation, with Gallimard's first printing in November 1945. [3] LePetitePrince.net website (2011) Le Petit Prince - 1945 - Gallimard (http:/ / www. lepetitprince. net/ sub_1945/ 1945gallimard-E. html), lepetitprince.net website. Retrieved 26 October 2011. Note: although Saint-Exupry's French publisher (at the time of his death) lists Le Petit Prince as being published in 1946, that is apparently a legalistic interpretation possibly designed to allow for an extra year of the novella's copyright protection period, and is based on Gallimard's explanation that the book was 'sold' only starting in 1946. Other sources, such as this one, depict the first Librairie Gallimard printing of 12,250 copies as occurring on 30 November 1945. [4] Mort pour la France (Died for France) is a French civil code designation applied by the French Government to fallen or gravely injured armed forces personnel. The designation was applied to Saint-Exupry's estate in 1948. Amongst the law's provisions is an increase of 30 years in the copyright duration of creative works; thus most of Saint-Exupry's literary and other creative works (sketches, poetry, drawings, photos, etc...) will not fall out of copyright status for an extra 30 years in France. [5] Goding, Stowell C. (1972) Le Petit Prince de Saint-Exupry by George Borglum (review) (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 387281), The French Review, American Association of Teachers of French, October 1972, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 244-245. Retrieved 26 October 2011.

The Little Prince


(subscription) [6] Van Gelder, Lawrence. Footlights: Celestial Traveler (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2000/ 05/ 09/ theater/ footlights. html?ref=owinstonlink), The New York Times, 9 May 2000. [7] Shattuck, Kathryn. A Prince Eternal (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9F07E3DE1E3FF930A35757C0A9639C8B63& pagewanted=all), The New York Times, 3 April 2005. [8] Inman, William H. (2011) "Hotelier Saint-Exupery's Princely Instincts", Institutional Investor, March 2011. Retrieved online from General OneFile, 6 November 2011 (subscription). [9] The Independent. The Little Prince' Graphic Novel To Be Published in English (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ books/ the-little-prince-graphic-novel-to-be-published-in-english-2087327. html), The Independent, 23 September 2010. Retrieved 18 September