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Graduate Coursework

WES C. ERBSEN
September 2010 - December 2011
This document last updated on January 27, 2013
Contents
Contents i
1 Electrodynamics II 1
1.1 Homework #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Homework #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3 Homework #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.4 Homework #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1.5 Homework #5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.6 Homework #6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
1.7 Homework #7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
1.8 Homework #8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
1.9 Homework #9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2 Quantum Mechanics II 89
2.1 Homework #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
2.2 Homework #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
2.3 Homework #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
2.4 Homework #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
2.5 Homework #5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
2.6 Homework #6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
2.7 Homework #7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
2.8 Homework #9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
2.9 Homework #10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Appendix A * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Appendix B * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
3 Statistical Mechanics 227
3.1 Homework #1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
3.2 Homework #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
3.3 Homework #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
3.4 Homework #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
3.5 Homework #7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
4 Mathematical Methods 283
4.1 Homework #3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
4.2 Homework #4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
4.3 Homework #5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
4.4 Homework #6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
W. Erbsen CONTENTS
4.5 Homework #7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
4.6 Homework #8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
4.7 Homework #9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
4.8 Homework #10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
4.9 Homework #11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
4.10 Homework #12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
5 Departmental Examinations 367
5.1 Quantum Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
5.2 Electrodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
5.3 Modern Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
5.4 Statistical Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Chapter 1
Electrodynamics II
1.1 Homework #1
Problem 9.1
A copper ring of radius a is xed at a distance d (with a d) directly above an identical copper ring. Each ring
has a resistance R for circulating currents. An increasing current I = I
o
t
/

is applied in the lower ring. Neglect


the self-inductance of each ring, and make appropriate approximations.
a) Find the dipole moment in the lower ring.
b) Find the magnetic ux through the upper ring.
c) Find the induced EMF and the current in the upper ring.
d) Find the induced dipole moment of the upper ring.
e) Show that the force between the rings is

F =
12
4
a
8
I
2
o
t
c
3
Rd
7

2
(1.1.1)
Is the force repulsive or attractive?
Solution
a) An expression for the magnetic dipole moment for a circular loop can be realized by applying
multipole expansion of the magnetic scalar potential (
m
) and noting that the coecients of
P

(cos ) /r
+1
are in fact the magnetic dipole moments (from Franklin p. 209). ?

=
2Ia
+1
c
_

1
/
2
+1
/
2
_

1
=
Ia
2
c
(1.1.2)

Errata indicates that c


3
c
4
.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
Where
=1
represents the magnetic moment of a dipole. The elementary magnetic dipole is
found by taking the limit of (1.1.1) as a 0 keeping Ia
2
xed. We subsequently arrive at
=
a
2
I
o
t
c
z (1.1.3)
b) The magnetic ux is of course given by

B
=
_
s
B dA
While the magnetic eld of a magnetic dipole is given by (7.108) on p. 209 as
B =
_
r
r
3
_
=
3 ( r) r
r
3
(1.1.4)
The closed surface we choose to integrate over is the upper hemisphere closed on the bottom by a
disk, as inspired by Griths in Ex. 8.2 on p. 353. ?
The general idea is that since the source of the eld lies outside the surface, the total ux
through the volume is zero:
_
v
B dA = 0. We then note that the ux entering through the disk
is the same as that exiting through the top of the hemisphere:
disk
=
hemisphere
. It i easiest to
calculate the ux through the hemisphere.
We also recognize that since a d, we can use the following approximation: tan a/d
sin = a/d cos a/d, as per the small angle approximation. We can then proceed to nd the ux
through the hemisphere:

B
=
_

0
B 2r
2
sin d
=2
_

0
_
3 ( r) r
r
3
_
r
2
sin d z
=
2
r
_

0
_
Ia
2
c
z
_
sin d z
=
2
2
a
2
I
cr
_

0
sin d

2
2
a
2
I
cr
_

0
_
a
d
_
d (
a
/
d
)

2
2
a
2
I
cr
a
2
d
2
(1.1.5)
Since d a, we can approximate r =

d
2
+ a
2
d
2
, and if we recall that I = I
o
t
/

, (1.1.5)
becomes

B

2
2
a
4
I
o
t
cd
3

(1.1.6)
c) The induced EMF in the upper ring is given by
E =
1
c
d
B
dt
(1.1.7)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 3
Substituting (1.1.6) into (1.1.7), we have
E
1
c
d
dt
_
2
2
a
4
I
o
t
cd
3

_
E
2
2
a
4
I
o
c
2
d
3

(1.1.8)
And the current in the upper ring (I

) can be found from Ohms Law,


I


E
R
I


2
2
a
4
I
o
c
2
d
3
R
(1.1.9)
d) To nd the induced dipole moment in the upper ring (

), we proceed in the same spirit that led


us to (1.1.3), but this time we use I

from (1.1.9):

2
2
a
4
I
o
c
2
d
3
R
_
a
2
c
z


2
3
a
6
I
o
c
3
d
3
R
z (1.1.10)
e) The force on a dipole in a magnetic eld B is given by Franklin as (7.144) on p. 216:
F = (B ) (1.1.11)
Assuming that the charges are xed and that the force of the lower loop on the upper loop is the
same as that of the upper loop and the lower loop, we can say that the eld is provided by the lower
loop, and the opposing magnetic moment is that of the upper ring. Substituting the expression for
B and (1.1.10) into (1.1.11),
F
__
a
2
I
o
t
cd
3

z
_

2
3
a
6
I
o
c
3
d
3
R
z
__

_
2
4
a
8
I
2
o
t
c
4
d
6

2
R
_
(1.1.12)
And in our case the gradient reduces to = (/r) r where r d, and (1.1.12) becomes
F
12
4
a
8
I
2
o
t
c
4
d
7

2
R
z (1.1.13)
Which is identical to (1.1.1) (with correction). Since (1.1.13) is positive, the force is repulsive .
Problem 9.2
a) Find the mutual inductance of the two rings in Problem 9.1 (making the suitable approximations).
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
b) Use their mutual inductance to nd the EMF induced in the upper ring for the current I = I
o
t
/

in the lower
ring.
c) Find the mutual interaction energy in this system.
Solution
a) We know from (9.18) on p. 245 of Franklin that

2
= cM
21
I (1.1.14)
Using (1.1.6) from the previous problem, we can solve (1.1.14) to nd the mutual inductance:
M
21

_
1
cI
__
2
2
a
4
I
cd
3
_
M
21

2
2
a
4
c
2
d
3
(1.1.15)
b) As before, the induced EMF is given by
E =
1
c
d
B
dt
(1.1.16)
The magnetic ux can be found from the mutual inductance by substituting (1.1.15) into (1.1.14),
and the induced EMF can then be found by substituting the result into (1.1.16):
E
1
c
d
dt
__
cI
o
t

__
2
2
a
4
c
2
d
3
__
E
2
2
a
4
I
o
c
2
d
3

(1.1.17)
which is identical to (1.1.8).
c) The mutual interaction energy is most easily calculated from (5.152) from Jackson on p. 215: ?
w =
1
2
N

i=1
L
i
I
2
i
+
N

i=1
N

j=i
M
ij
I
i
I
j
(1.1.18)
Ignoring the self inductance terms in (1.1.18), we nd that
w =
1
2
[M
12
I
1
I
2
+ M
21
I
2
I
1
] (1.1.19)
Where the mutual inductances are of course equal. Substituting (1.1.9) and (1.1.15) into (1.1.19),
w
_
2
2
a
4
c
2
d
3
__
I
o
t

__

2
2
a
4
I
o
c
2
d
3
R
_
w
4
4
a
8
I
2
o
t
c
4
d
6

2
R
Problem 9.3
A long straight copper wire of radius a and resistance R carries a constant current I.
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 5
a) Find the electric and magnetic elds at the surface of the wire.
b) Integrate the Poynting power ux through the surface of a piece of the wire of length L to show that the
power through the surface equals I
2
R.
c) Find the electromagnetic energy and momentum in this piece of wire.
Solution
a) Assuming that the wire can be approximated as innite, the magnetic eld can be found using
Amperes Law:
_
c
B d =
4
c
I
enc
B =
2I
ca

(1.1.20)
To nd the electric eld,
V =
_
f
i
E d
Where in our case E = [E[z and d = [d[z = dz z. We also note that
V = EL = IR E =
IR
L
z (1.1.21)
b) The Poynting power ux is most likely referring to the Poynting vector, which is really the
Poynting power ux density. We must rst nd S using (9.48) on p. 249
S =
c
4
(EH) (1.1.22)
Where in our case H = B. First, we calculate EH using (1.1.20) and (1.1.21),
E H =
_
IR
L
z
_

_
2I
ca

_
=
2I
2
R
caL
_
z

_
=
2I
2
R
caL
r (1.1.23)
The power loss is dened by P =
_
S
S dA. It is to our advantage to integrate in cylindrical
coordinates, and we recall that in our case r z = 0. Therefore, we can nd the Poynting power ux
using (1.1.22) and (1.1.23):
P =
c
4
_
S
(E H) dA
=
c
4
_

2I
2
R
caL
__
2
0
_
L
0
r ar ddz
=
I
2
R
2L
(2) (L) (1.1.24)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
It is easy to see that (1.1.24) reduces to
P = I
2
R
c) The electromagnetic energy density is given by (9.47) on p. 249 as
U
EM
=
1
8
(E D+ B H) (1.1.25)
Where in our case D = E and H = B. Therefore, (1.1.25) becomes
U
EM
=
1
8
_
E
2
+B
2
_
(1.1.26)
Where E and B are the values within the conductor. If we assume that the electric eld is uniform,
then we can use our previous value. To nd the magnetic eld,
_
C
B d =
4
c
_
r
2
_
I
a
2
B =
2I
ca
2
r

(1.1.27)
Substituting (1.1.21) and (1.1.27) into (1.1.26),
U
EM
=
1
8
_
_
IR
L
_
2
+
_
2I
ca
2
r
_
2
_
(1.1.28)
To nd the electromagnetic energy, we integrate the electromagnetic energy density (1.1.28) over
the entire volume:
w =
_
V
U
EM
d
=
1
8
_
V
_
_
IR
L
_
2
+
_
2I
ca
2
r
_
2
_
d
=
1
8
_
I
2
R
2
L
2
_
r drddz +
4I
2
c
2
a
4
_
r
3
drddz
_
=
1
8
_
I
2
R
2
L
2
_
a
0
r dr
_
2
0
d
_
L
0
dz +
4I
2
c
2
a
4
_
a
0
r
3
dr
_
2
0
d
_
L
0
dz
_
=
1
8
_
I
2
R
2
L
2
_
a
2
2
_
(2) (L) +
4I
2
c
2
a
4
_
a
4
4
_
(2) (L)
_
Simplifying this expression leads to:
w =
I
2
R
2
a
2
8L
+
I
2
L
4c
2
The electromagnetic momentum stored in the eld is given by (9.80) on p. 255 in Franklin:
P
EM
=
1
4c
_
V
E B d (1.1.29)
First calculating the cross product,
E B =
_
IR
L
z
_

_
2I
ca
2
r

_
=
2I
2
R
ca
2
L
r r (1.1.30)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 7
Substituting (1.1.30) into (1.1.29),
P
EM
=
1
4c
_
V
_

2I
2
R
ca
2
L
r
_
d =
I
2
R
2c
2
a
2
L
_
L
0
_
2
0
_
a
0
r drddz P
EM
= 0
Problem 9.4
The upper and lower curves of the hysteresis loop of a hard ferromagnetic are given by
B
+
=B
o
[tanh (H/H
o
+.5) .1] , (1.1.31a)
B

=B
o
[tanh (H/H
o
.5) + .1] , (1.1.31b)
respectively, for 1.5 < H/H
o
< +1.5.
a) Find the energy lost from the magnetic eld in one cycle.
b) If B
o
= 3 kilogauss, H
o
= 1 gauss, and the frequency is 60 Hz, nd the power loss in watts.
Solution
a) The work done per unit volume in each cycle of a hysteresis loop is given by the total area,
w =
_
B dH (1.1.32)
Where B = (B
+
B

). Applying this to (1.1.32) over the specied intervals,


w =
_
+1.5
1.5
(B
+
B

) dH
=
_
+1.5
1.5
_
B
o
_
tanh
_
H
H
o
+.5
_
.1
_
B
o
_
tanh
_
H
H
o
.5
_
+ .1
__
dH (1.1.33)
If we dene = H/H
o
and d = (1/H
o
) dH, (1.1.33) becomes
w =H
o
_
+1.5
1.5
[B
o
(tanh ( +.5) .1) B
o
(tanh ( .5) + .1)] d
=B
o
H
o
__
+1.5
1.5
tanh ( + .5) d
_
+1.5
1.5
tanh ( .5) d .2
_
+1.5
1.5
d
_
=B
o
H
o
_
_
ln[cosh ( + .5)]

+1.5
1.5

_
ln[cosh ( .5)]

+1.5
1.5
.2
_

+1.5
1.5
d
_
=B
o
H
o
ln [cosh (2)] ln[cosh (1)] ln[cosh (1)] + ln[cosh (2)] .6 (1.1.34)
Evaluating (1.1.34) numerically leads to
w 1.18244 B
o
H
o
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
b) To nd the energy loss according to the given parameters,
w
(1.18244)(1 gauss)(3 10
3
gauss)
1/60 Hz

w 212.832 10
3
erg s
1
(CGS)
w 212.832 10
4
Watts (SI)
Problem 9.5
Two point charges, each of charge q, are a distance 2d apart.
a) Find the Maxwell stress tensor [T] on the plane surface midway between the charges.
b) Find the force on either charge by integrating [T] dS over a plane surface, closing the surface with a large
hemisphere of radius R. (Show that the integral over the hemisphere vanishes in the limit R .)
c) Repeat parts (a) and (b) if the charges have opposite signs.
d) What would the force on either charge be if they were immersed in a simple dielectric of innite extent?
Solution
a) The Maxwell stress tensor is given in Griths as (8.19) on p. 352 as
[T] =
o
_
E
i
E
j

1
2

ij
E
2
_
+
1

o
_
B
i
B
j

1
2

ij
B
2
_
(1.1.35)
For the case in question, our charges are stationary so that the second portion of (1.1.35) vanishes.
We can then express [T] in matrix form as
[T] =
_
_
T
xx
T
xy
T
xz
T
yx
T
yy
T
yz
T
zx
T
zy
T
zz
_
_
=
o
_
_
E
2
x

1
/
2
E
2
E
x
E
y
E
x
E
z
E
x
E
y
E
2
y

1
/
2
E
2
E
y
E
z
E
z
E
x
E
y
E
z
E
2
z

1
/
2
E
2
_
_
In order to resolve the individual components of [T], we must nd the corresponding electric elds.
We note that the charges are located on the x-axis, and the plane between the charges is the
yz-plane. Furthermore, we recall that the electric eld of an electric dipole is given by
E =
1
4
o
p
r
3
(1.1.36)
And in our case r =
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_1
/2

_
d
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
_1
/2
. With this in mind, we can now nd the
electric elds in the x, y, and z directions respectively:
E
x
=0
E
y
=
1
2
o
ey
(d
2
+ y
2
+z
2
)
3
/2
y
1
2
o
er cos
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
/2
r
E
z
=
1
2
o
ez
(d
2
+ y
2
+z
2
)
3
/2
z
1
2
o
er sin
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
/2
r
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 9
Where I shamelessly switched to polar coordinates. The total electric eld is then
E
2
=E
2
x
+E
2
y
+E
2
z
=
_
1
2
o
er cos
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
/2
r
_
2
+
_
1
2
o
er sin
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
/2
r
_
2
=
_
e
2
o
_
2
r
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
_
cos
2
+ sin
2

_
=
e
2
4
2

2
o
r
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
We now have all the tools required to calculate the components of [T]:
T
xx
=
e
2
8
2

2
o
r
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
T
yy
=
e
2
4
2

2
o
r
2
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
_
cos
2

1
2
_
T
yz
=T
zy
=
e
2
4
2

2
o
r
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
sin cos
T
zz
=
e
2
4
2

2
o
r
2
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
_
sin
2

1
2
_
T
xy
=T
xz
= T
yx
= T
zx
= 0
We now dene
=
e
2
4
2

2
o
r
2
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
(SI)
=4e
2
r
2
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
(CGS)
And the Maxwell stress tensor becomes
[T] =
o
_
_
/2 0 0
0
_
cos
2
1/2
_
sin cos
0 sin cos
_
sin
2
1/2
_
_
_
b) To integrate the Maxwell stress tensor, we take the route suggested in the prompt. We take a
hemisphere of radius R with the base coinciding with the plane surface halfway between the charges
(the yz-plane). If we let the hemisphere expand to very large values, then the eld at the boundary
of the hemisphere is seen as a dipole, R
3
, and the surface integral then varies like R
4
. If we
take R out to innity, then this portion of the surface integral vanishes since the components of [T]
go to zero. There remains then only the force across the plane boundary in the yz-plane.
To nd the force on either charge, we integrate [T] dS over the interstitial plane. We note
that the force is in the x-direction, and the transversal forces are cancelled. Therefore, the only
component of [T] that we need to integrate is T
xx
, as tabulated previously. We also recall that for
the equatorial disk dS = r drd x, and so the force is
F =
_
S
[T] dS
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
= 2
_

0
T
xx
r dr x
= 2
o
_

0
_

e
2
8
2

2
o
r
2
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
_
r dr x
=
e
2
4
o
_

0
r
3
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
dr x
_
partial fractions
=
e
2
4
o
_

0
_
r
(d
2
+r
2
)
2

d
2
r
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
_
dr x
=
e
2
4
o
_
_

0
r
(d
2
+ r
2
)
2
dr d
2
_

0
r
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
dr
_
x
_
u = d
2
+ r
2
, du = 2rdr
=
e
2
4
o
_
1
2
_

0
1
u
2
du
d
2
2
_

0
1
u
3
dr
_
x
=
e
2
4
o
_
1
2
_

1
(d
2
+ r
2
)

d
2
2
_

1
2 (d
2
+r
2
)

0
_
x
=
e
2
4
o
_
1
2
1
d
2

d
2
2
1
2d
4
_
x (1.1.37)
From (1.1.37), it is only a short leap to our answer:
F =
1
4
o
e
2
(2d)
2
x (SI), F =
e
2
(2d)
2
x (CGS)
Which is exactly what we expected; proceeding through Coulombs law yields the precisely same
result.
c) If the charges are opposite, then the symmetry changes, however the process is very much the same.
The electric elds in this case are
E
x
=
1
2
o
ed
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
/2
x
E
y
=E
z
= 0
And the total electric eld is
E
2
= E
2
x
=
1
4
2

2
o
e
2
d
2
(d
2
+r
2
)
3
And now to calculate the components of [T],
T
xx
=
1
4
2

2
o
e
2
d
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
T
yy
=
1
4
2

2
o
e
2
d
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
T
zz
=
1
4
2

2
o
e
2
d
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
T
xy
=T
xz
= T
yx
= T
yz
= T
zx
= T
zy
= 0
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 11
And lets go ahead and dene
=
1
4
2

2
o
e
2
d
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
Then the Maxwell stress tensor is
[T] =
o
_
_
0 0
0 0
0 0
_
_
To nd the force on either charge, we follow the same logic as before,
F =
_
S
[T] d S
= 2
o
_

0
T
xx
r dr x
= 2
o
_

0
_
1
4
2

2
o
e
2
d
2
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
_
r dr x
=
e
2
d
2
2
o
_

0
r
(d
2
+ r
2
)
3
dr x
_
u = d
2
+ r
2
, du = 2rdr
=
e
2
d
2
4
o
_

0
1
u
3
du x
=
e
2
d
2
4
o
_

1
4 (d
2
+r
2
)
2

0
x
=
e
2
d
2
4
o
_
1
4d
4
_
x (1.1.38)
From (1.1.38) it is easy to see that the force is
F =
1
4
o
e
2
(2d)
2
x (SI), F =
e
2
(2d)
2
x (CGS)
Which is what we would expect.
d) If the system is immersed into a linear dielectric of permittivity , then this will eect our answers
only by including a factor of in the denominator of our expressions, which weakens the force of
attraction or repulsion.
vacuum dielectric
equal charges F =
e
2
(2d)
2
x F =
1

e
2
(2d)
2
x
opposite charges F =
e
2
(2d)
2
x F =
1

e
2
(2d)
2
x
(CGS)
Problem 9.7
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
A magnetic dipole is located at the center of a uniform electric charge distribution of radius R, charge e,
and mass m.
a) Find the electromagnetic angular momentum of this conguration.
b) Find the value of the radius R for which the g-factor of this conguration equals 2.
Solution
a) We rst recall that the electromagnetic angular momentum is given by (9.113) on p. 260 as
L
EM
=
1
4c
_
V
r (E B) d (1.1.39)
Now, we nd the electric eld by
E =
e
_
4
/
3
r
3
_
4
/
3
R
3
r
2
r =
er
R
3
r (1.1.40)
The magnetic eld is given by (7.108) on p. 209 as
B =
3 ( r) r
r
3
(1.1.41)
We also recall that in our case = [[ z, and therefore (1.1.41) becomes
B =

r
3
z (1.1.42)
We now use (1.1.40) and (1.1.42) to examine the cross product in (1.1.39):
EB =
_
er
R
3
r
_

r
3
z
_
=
e
R
3
r
2
(r z) =
e
R
3
r
2
_
sin

_
=
e
R
3
r
2
sin

(1.1.43)
Now substituting (1.1.43) into (1.1.39),
L
EM
=
1
4c
_
V
r
_
e
R
3
r
2
sin

_
d
=
e
4cR
3
_
V
sin
r
_
r

_
d
=
e
4cR
3
_
V
sin
r

r
2
sin drdd
=
e
4cR
3
_
R
0
rdr
_

0
_
2
0
sin
2


dd (1.1.44)
We now recall from the back cover of Griths that

= cos cos x + cos sin y sin z (1.1.45)


Substituting (1.1.45) into (1.1.44),
L
EM
=
e
4cR
3
_
R
0
rdr
_

0
_
2
0
sin
2
[cos cos x + cos sin y sin z] dd
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 13
=
e
8cR
_

0
_
2
0
[sin
2
cos cos x
. .
I
+sin
2
cos sin y
. .
II
sin
3
z
. .
III
] dd (1.1.46)
Taking the angular integrals of I, II and III separately yields
I =
__

0
sin
2
cos d
_
2
0
cos d
_
x = 0 (1.1.47a)
II =
__

0
sin
2
cos d
_
2
0
sin d
_
y = 0 (1.1.47b)
III =
__

0
sin
3
d
_
2
0
d
_
z
= 2
__

0
sin d
_

0
sin cos
2
d
_
z
_
u = cos , du = sin
=2
__

0
sin d +
_
1
1
u
2
du
_
z
=2
_
_
cos

0
+
_
u
3
3

1
1
_
z
=2
_
2
2
3
_
z
=
8
3
z (1.1.47c)
Substituting (1.1.47a)-(1.1.47c) into (1.1.46),
L
EM
=
e
8cR
_
0 + 0
8
3
z
_
L
EM
=
e
3cR
z (1.1.48)
b) We recall from (7.134) on p. 214 that = g
B
J, and also that L
EM
= J. Combining these, as
well as implementing (1.1.48), yields
3cRL
EM
e
=
g
B
L
EM


3cR
e
=
g
B

R =
g
B
e
3c
(1.1.49)
Recall that the Bohr Magneton is given by

B
=
e
2m
e
(1.1.50)
The appropriate values we require are
e =1.60217733 10
19
C
=1.05457162 10
34
Kg m
2
s
1
c =2.99792458 10
8
m s
1
m
e
=9.10938215 10
31
Kg
Now substituting (1.1.50) into (1.1.49) as well as the appropriate constants,
R =
(2)
_
1.60217733 10
19
C
_
2
(6) (2.99792458 10
8
m s
1
) (9.10938215 10
31
Kg)
R = 3.13321563 10
17
m
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
Problem 9.8
a) Calculate e
2
/c in Gaussian units to verify Eq. (9.121).
b) Calculate e
2
/(4
o
c) in SI units.
Solution
a) The values needed in this calculation are
e =4.80320680 10
10
cm
3
/2
g
1
/2
s
1
=1.05457162 10
27
erg s
c =2.99792458 10
10
cm s
1
And so, we can now calculate :
e
2
c
=
_
4.80320680 10
10
cm
3
/2
g
1
/2
s
1
_
2
1.05457162 10
27
erg s 2.99792458 10
10
cm s
1

e
2
c
= 0.00729736
1
137.036
b) The necessary values to make the calculation in SI units are
e =1.60217733 10
19
C

o
=8.85418781 10
12
F m
1
=1.05457162 10
34
J s
c =2.99792458 10
8
m s
1
And now,
e
2
4
o
c
=
_
1.60217733 10
19
C
_
2
4 (8.85418781 10
12
F m
1
) (1.05457162 10
34
J) (s 2.99792458 10
8
m s
1
)

e
2
4
o
c
= 0.00729736
1
137.036
1.2 Homework #2
Problem 10.1
The intensity of sunlight at the Earths surface is 12 10
5
ergs/(cm
2
sec).
a) Find the electric eld of this radiation at the Earths surface. Express the answer in stavolts/cm and in
volts/m (1 statvolt = 300 volts). [Answer: 960 V/m]
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 15
b) Find the radiation pressure (in dynes/cm
2
) if the sunlight is 100% reected at normal incidence. Compare
this to atmospheric pressure. [Answer: 2 10
5
dynes/cm
2
]
c) Find the radiation pressure if
i) the sunlight is absorbed (no reection).
ii) the sunlight is specularly reected from white sand. (The reected radiation has the same intensity
at any angle.)
d) What would the intensity, electric eld, and radiation pressure be at the surface of the sun?
Solution
a) The intensity is called the time averaged Poynting vector, and is given by (10.27) of Franklin: ?
S =
c

k
8
_

[E
0
[
2
(1.2.1)
In SI units, the intensity is given by (9.61) in Griths on p. 381: ?
S =
1
2
c
0
[E
0
[
2

k (1.2.2)
Since we are given the intensity, it is a trivial task to nd the electric eld. We solve (1.2.2) for E
o
;
S =
1
2
c
0
[E
o
[
2

k [E
0
[ =

2S

0
c
(1.2.3)
We recall that 1 erg = 10
7
J and
0
8.8542 A
2
s
4
/(Kg m
3
), (1.2.3) becomes
[E
0
[

(2)(1200 Kg m
2
/s)
8.8542 A
2
s
4
/(Kg m
3
) 3 10
8
m/s

[E
0
[ 950.54 V/m
[E
0
[ 3.1685 10
2
statvolt/cm
(1.2.4)
b) The radiation pressure is given by (10.33) in Franklin as
p
rad
=
2
c

S (1.2.5)
If we recall that 1 erg = 1 dyne cm, then we can solve (1.2.5) directly:
p
rad
=
(2)(12 10
5
dyne/(cm sec))
3 10
10
cm/sec
p
rad
= 8 10
5
dynes/cm
2
(1.2.6)
The atmospheric pressure is p
atm
10
6
dynes/cm
2
, which means that the radiation pressure mul-
tiplied by a factor of 1.25 10
10
is approximately equal to the atmospheric pressure at 1 atm.
c) The radiation pressure for the following unique cases is as follows:
i) If the radiation is completely absorbed, then the radiation pressure would be just half that as
if it were completely reected from (1.2.6):
p
rad
=
1
c

S p
rad
= 4 10
5
dynes/cm
2
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
ii) If the radiation is specularly reected (evenly across all angles), then certainly the radiation
pressure will be less than if it were completely reected. In fact, for each angle, we are only
interested in the 0
o
projection, going back towards the sun. But wait! Things arent quite this
simple we must integrate over all possible angles. Doing this yields the force:
F =
_

0
_
/2
0
_
2S
c
cos
_
sin dd
=
2S
c
2
_
/2
0
cos sin d
=
2S
c
(1.2.7)
And to nd the force we must divide by the surface area (note that I have neglected the arbitrary
radial term, as it vanishes anyway):
p
rad
=
F
A
=
2S
c

1
2
p
rad
= 4 10
5
dynes/cm
2
d) To nd the intensity at the surface of the sun, we assume that the total radiation ux at an altitude
of Earth is equal to that at the surface of the sun. We know the intensity on the surface of the
Earth, and also the distance of Earth from the sun (R 1.5 10
11
m), so the total ux (as calculated
from Earths orbit) is
S
tot
= 4R
2
S
Earth
And we also know that the radius of the sun is r 7.0 10
8
m, so the intensity at the surface can
be found as
S
sun
=
R
2
r
2
S
Earth
S
sun
5.5 10
10
ergs/(cm
2
sec)
Problem 10.2
A beam of elliptically polarized light, propagating in the z-direction, passes through a polarizer in the xy-plane.
The maximumtransmitted intensity is 9I
o
when the polarizer is set at 30
o
to the x-axis. The minimumtransmitted
intensity is I
o
when the polarizer is set at 120
o
to the x-axis.
a) Find r, , E
+
, and E

in the circular basis.


b) Find E
x
and E
y
in the plane basis.
c) What would the transmitted intensities be if the polarizer were set along the x-axis, and then along the
y-axis?
Solution
I am going to solve this problem using Jones Calculus, starting in the linear basis. We note that the
electric eld of an (arbitrary) polarized wave can be expressed as
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 17
E(z, t) =
_
[E
ox
[e
ix
x +[E
oy
[e
iy
y
_
e
i(kzt)
=
_
E
ox
x + E
oy
e
i
y
_
e
i(kzt)
(1.2.8)
And now (1.2.8) can be expanded and put into matrix form, ditching the explicit time dependence:
E(z, t) =
_
E
ox
E
oy
e
i
_
=
_
E
ox
E
oy
(cos + i sin )
_
(1.2.9)
We also recall that the arbitrary Jones Matrix for a linear polarizer at some angle is given by
M =
_
cos
2
sin cos
sin cos sin
2

_
We can apply the Jones Matrix to our incident elliptical wave given by (1.2.8), the result gives the
exiting eld.

Starting with the maximum eld when the polarizer is oriented at = 30


o
,
[E

30
[
2
=
_
3/4

3 /4

3 /4 1/4
__
E
ox
E
oy
(cos +i sin )
_
=
1
4
_
3E
2
ox
+E
2
oy
+ 2

3 E
ox
E
oy
cos
_
(1.2.10)
And similarly if the polarizer is oriented at 120
o
:
[E

120
[
2
=
_
1/4

3 /4

3 /4 3/4
__
E
ox
E
oy
(cos +i sin )
_
=
1
4
_
E
2
ox
+ 3E
2
oy
2

3 E
ox
E
oy
cos
_
(1.2.11)
The intensity, of course can be rewritten to allow us to rewrite (1.2.10) and (1.2.11):
9I
o
=
c
8
_
1
4
_
3E
2
ox
+ E
2
oy
+ 2

3 E
ox
E
oy
cos
_
_
(1.2.12a)
I
o
=
c
8
_
1
4
_
E
2
ox
+ 3E
2
oy
2

3 E
ox
E
oy
cos
_
_
(1.2.12b)
We introduce another equation, the derivation of which will not be shown here:
tan(2) =
2E
ox
E
oy
cos
E
2
ox
E
2
oy
(1.2.13)
Solving (1.2.12a)-(1.2.13) allows us to solve for our unknowns. We also note that = 2 30
o
, which is
deducible from the fact that the maximum intensity is observed at 30
o
. The tabulated results follow in
(a) and (b).
a) The phase angle is found to be = 40.89
o
, while E
+
and E

may be found from the results of


part (b):

The following steps have been abbreviated, and for that I apologize. I can provide scrap work/code if desired.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
E
+
= E
x
+ iE
y
=
_
I
o
c
(13.26 cos(t) +i8.86 cos (t 40.89
o
))
E

= E
x
iE
y
=
_
I
o
c
(13.26 cos(t) i8.86 cos (t 40.89
o
))
b) We found E
ox
and E
oy
directly after the prompt. The values for these are:
E
ox
= 13.26
_
I
o
c
, and E
oy
= 8.86
_
I
o
c
From which we may calculate E
x
and E
y
:
E
x
= 13.26
_
I
o
c
cos(t), and E
y
= 8.86
_
I
o
c
cos (t 40.89
o
)
c) If the polarizer is placed rst precisely along the x-axis, then the intensity is:
I
0
=
c
8
(13.26)
2
I
0
= 7.53 I
o
And if perfectly along the y-axis,
I
90
=
c
8
(8.86)
2
I
90
= 3.12 I
o
Problem 10.3
Consider a beam of partially plane polarized light with the same maximum and minimum intensities as in the
previous problem.
a) What is the percent polarization of this light?
b) What would the transmitted intensities be if the polarizer were set along the x-axis, and then along the
y-axis?
c) How could you tell whether an incident light beam were elliptically polarized or partially plane polarized?
Solution
a) The polarization can be found as follows
=
S
max
S
min
S
max
+ S
min
(1.2.14)
We know from the previous problem that the maximum intensity is S
max
= 9I
o
while the minimum
intensity is S
min
= I
o
, so (1.2.14) becomes
=
9I
o
I
o
9I
o
+I
o
=
8
10
( = 80.00%)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 19
b) If we imagine the partially-plane polarized light incident on the polarizer to be composed of orthog-
onal linear components along the x and y-directions, then the total intensity is
S

= S
2
x
+S
2
y
+ 2
_
S
x
S
y
cos
Where is the angle between S
x
and S
y
, which is most denitely 90
o
. We can nd S
max
and S
min
by taking these limits:
S
max
=
__
S
2
x
+ S
2
y
_
2
, and S
min
=
__
S
2
x
S
2
y
_
2
And now using (1.2.14) we can say that
S
max
S
min
=
1 +
1
(1.2.15)
From Malus Law, we can now say that
S

=
1
1 +
cos
2
()S
max
With the help of (1.2.15). We can now say that the transmitted intensity when the polarizer is
placed perfectly along the x and y-axis, respectively are
S

x
= 0.75 I
o
, and S

y
= 0.25 I
o
c) To tell if incident radiation were elliptically polarized or partial plane polarized, I would place a
linear polarizer in front of the incident beam followed by an energy meter. If the intensity changes
monotonically with polarization angle then the radiation is said to be more linearly polarized than
elliptically.
Problem 10.5
A horizontal light ray is incident on a 60
o
-60
o
-60
o
glass prism (n = 1.5) that is resting on a table. At what
angle with the horizontal does the ray leave the prism? (Assume that the ray does not strike the bottom of the
prism before exiting.)
Solution
The initial ray is coming in completely horizontal, however the incident angle to the medium is propor-
tional to the dimensions of the prism. In our case, the normal component of the front face of the prism
makes and angle that is precisely 30
o
from the incident ray. We now apply Snells Law,
n
a
sin
a
= n
g
sin
g

g
= sin
1
_
sin(30)
1.5
_
19.47
o
(1.2.16)
Now the ray is within the prism, and the next interface is that of the opposite surface of the prism. The
normal component of the exiting face is 60
o
in the positive direction to the rst, so that the angle between
the incident beam calculated in (1.2.16) and this normal angle is 60
o
19.47
o
= 40.53
o
. Applying Snells
Law once more,
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
n
g
sin
g
= n
a
sin
a

a
= sin
1
[1.5 sin(40.53)]
a
77.10
o
Problem 10.6
For the prism in the preceding problem, what is the smallest angle of incidence for which a light ray will pass
directly through the prism without total internal reection?
Solution
Total internal reection occurs at
c
= sin
1
(1/1.5) 41.81
o
. This is, of course, relative to the normal
component of the interior of the exiting interface. The simplest way to nd the incident angle is to work
backwards from what we did in the preceding problem.
We then only must apply Snells Law once, for the rst interface. The critical angle calculated for
the outer face is oriented to the normal of the rst face as 60
o
41.81
o
= 18.19
o
. We can now apply
Snells Law:
n
g
sin
g
= n
a
sin
a

a
= sin
1
[1.5 sin(18.19
o
)]
a
27.92
o
Problem 10.7
You are standing in front of a rectangular sh tank lled with water (n = 1.33).
a) Show that you can always see through the back of the tank without total internal reection as you look
through the front face.
b) Show that if you look through the front face toward the right side of the tank, there is a maximum angle of
incidence for which there is total internal reection from the right face. What is this angle?
c) What is the minimum index of refraction of the liquid in the tank such there that would always be total
internal reection from the right face?
d) Show that the fact that there is a thickness of glass (n = 1.5) between the water and the air does not aect
this problem.
Solution
a) To show that you can always see through the back of the sh tank when viewed through the
front, it is sucient to show that when viewing the sh tank at the most extreme angle, that the
exiting angle is less than the critical angle. In our case, the critical angle for glass/air interface is

c
= sin
1
(1/1.5) 41.81
o
.
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 21
There are 5 distinct zones in the problem with 4 interfaces. Starting from the front of the sh
tank, the air is region 1, then the glass is region 2 and so on. The critical angle refers to the glass/air
interface between regions 4 and 5, so to satisfy the requirement that light entering from the front
of the sh tank (region 1) will always exit through the back (region 2) we must show that
4
<
c
.
We imagine the incident angle to be as wide as possible, say 89.99
o
, which corresponds to
1
:
n
1
sin
1
=n2 sin
2

2
= sin
1
_
1
1.5
sin (89.99
o
)
_
41.81
o
n
2
sin
2
=n3 sin
3

3
= sin
1
_
1.5
1.33
sin (41.81
o
)
_
48.75
o
n
3
sin
3
=n4 sin
4

4
= sin
1
_
1.33
1.5
sin (48.75
o
)
_
41.80
o
(1.2.17)
From (1.2.17), we can see that
4
<
c
(41.80
o
< 41.81
o
) so that total internal reection is never
achieved, and you can always see through the back of the sh tank .
b) The process here is very much the same as in the preceding problem, except that we need to work
backwards. The critical angle has not changed,
4
=
c
41.81
o
. So, working backwards from
4
,
we have
n
3
sin

3
=n
4
sin
4

3
= sin
1
_
1.5
1.33
sin (41.81
o
)
_
48.75
o
n
2
sin
2
=n
3
sin
3

2
= sin
1
_
1.33
1.5
sin (90
o
48.75
o
)
_
35.77
o
n
1
sin
1
=n
2
sin
2

1
= sin
1
[1.5 sin(35.77
o
)] 61.27
o
(1.2.18)
Hence from (1.2.19) we have shown that the maximum angle of incidence to allow for total internal
reection on the right face of the sh tank is
1
= 61.27
o
.
c) To nd the minimum index of refraction of the liquid such that light incident to the front of the
sh tank will always satisfy total internal reection, we once again precede using Snells Law. The
only dierence is that this time we will leave the index of refraction for the liquid to be arbitrary.
n
1
sin
1
=n
2
sin
2

2
= sin
1
_
1
1.5
sin(
1
)
_
n
2
sin
2
=n
3
sin
3

3
= sin
1
_
1.5
n
sin
_
sin
1
_
1
1.5
sin (
1
)
___
= sin
1
_
1
n
sin (
1
)
_
n
3
sin
3
=n
4
sin
4
sin (
4
) =
n
1.5
sin
_
90
o
sin
1
_
1
n
sin (
1
)
__
(1.2.19)
It is possible to solve (1.2.19) for n, using the appropriate trig substitutions:
1.5 sin(
4
) =nsin
_
90
o
sin
1
_
1
n
sin (
1
)
__
=n
_
sin (90
o
) cos
_
sin
1
_
1
n
sin (
1
)
__
cos (90
o
) sin
_
sin
1
_
1
n
sin (
1
)
___
=n
_
1
sin
2
(
1
)
n
2
_
1
/2
=
_
n
2
sin
2
(
1
)

1
/2
(1.2.20)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
If we recall that
4
=
c
and imagine our incident angle to the most extreme position of
1
= 89.99
o
,
(1.2.20) can be solved to nd the minimum index of refraction:
n =
_
(1.5)
2
sin
2
(41.81
o
) + sin
2
(89.99
o
)
_1
/2
n 1.41 (1.2.21)
d) The fact that the width of the glass is negligible can be shown by recomputing the results of parts
(a) and (b) with assuming that there is no glass media. For part (a), where we are asked to show
that total internal reection is never satised if viewing through the front of the tank, we start with
the critical angle at the second interface, which is
c
= sin
1
(1/1.33) 48.75
o
, and applying Snells
Law:
n
1
sin
1
= n
2
sin
c

1
=sin
1
[1.33 sin(48.75
o
)] = 90
o
Since you can never see through the sh tank at exactly 90
o
, we have shown that the critical
condition cannot be satised, as previously shown in (1.2.17).
For part (b), we can similarly work backwards from the critical angle:
n
1
sin
1
= n
2
sin
c

1
=sin
1
[1.33 sin(90
o
48.75
o
)] 61.27
o
(1.2.22)
As can be seen, (1.2.22) matches (1.2.19), and therefore from these two instances we are forced to
admit that the width of the glass is irrelevant .
Problem 10.9
a) Solve Eqs. (10.117)-(10.120), to get the transmitted and reected electric elds given by Eqs. (10.121) and
(10.122).
b) Use these elds to get the transmission and reection coecients for the coated surface.
c) For an original air (n = 1) to glass (n = 1.5) interface, nd the index of refraction and thickness of a coating
that would have no reection at the incident wavelength of 5, 000

A.
Solution
a) Equations (10.117)-(10.120) read
E
1
+E

1
=E
2
+E

2
e
ik2d
(1.2.23a)
n
1
(E
1
E

1
) =n
2
(E
2
E

2
e
ik2d
) (1.2.23b)
E
2
e
ik2d
+E

2
=E
3
(1.2.23c)
n
2
(E
2
e
ik2d
E

2
) =n
3
E
3
(1.2.23d)
We start with (1.2.23a) and rearrange it:
E

1
= E
2
+ E

2
e
ik2d
E
1
(1.2.24)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 23
We now substitute (1.2.24) into (1.2.23b):
n
1
_
E
1

_
E
2
+E

2
e
ik2d
E
1
_
=n
2
_
E
2
E

2
e
ik2d

n
1
_
E
1
E
2
E

2
e
ik2d
+ E
2

=n
2
_
E
2
E

2
e
ik2d

2n
1
E
1
n
1
E
2
n
1
E

2
e
ik2d
=n
2
E
2
E

2
n
2
e
ik2d
n
2
E

2
e
ik2d
n
1
E

2
e
ik2d
=n
2
E
2
+ n
1
E
2
2n
1
E
1
E

2
= e
ik2d
_
E
2
(n
2
+n
1
) 2n
1
E
1
n
2
n
1
_
(1.2.25)
We now take (1.2.25) and substitute it into (1.2.23c):
E
2
e
ik2d
+ e
ik2d
_
E
2
(n
2
+n
1
) 2n
1
E
1
n
2
n
1
_
= E
3
E
3
(n
2
n
1
) =E
2
(n
2
n
1
)e
ik2d
+E
2
(n
2
+ n
1
)e
ik2d
2n
1
E
1
e
ik2d
2E
1
n
1
e
ik2d
+ E
3
(n
2
n
1
) =E
2
(n
2
n
1
)e
ik2d
+E
2
(n
2
+ n
1
)e
ik2d
=E
2
_
n
2
e
ik2d
n
1
e
ik2d
+n
2
e
ik2d
+ n
1
e
ik2d

=E
2
_
n
2
_
e
ik2d
+ e
ik2d
_
n
1
_
e
ik2d
e
ik2d
_
=E
2
[2n
2
cos(k
2
d) 2in
1
sin(k
2
d)]
=2E
2
[n
2
cos(k
2
d) in
1
sin(k
2
d)]
E
2
=
2E
1
n
1
e
ik2d
+E
3
(n
2
n
1
)
2 [n
2
cos(k
2
d) in
1
sin(k
2
d)]
(1.2.26)
We perform a similar exercise by substituting (1.2.25) into (1.2.23d):
n
3
E
3
=n
2
_
E
2
e
ik2d
e
ik2d
_
E
2
(n
2
+n
1
) 2n
1
E
1
n
2
n
1
__
n
3
E
3
=n
2
E
2
e
ik2d

E
2
(n
2
+ n
1
)n
2
e
ik2d
+ 2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
n
2
n
1
n
3
(n
2
n
1
)E
3
=n
2
(n
2
n
1
)E
2
e
ik2d
n
2
E
2
(n
2
+n
1
)e
ik2d
+ 2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
n
3
(n
2
n
1
)E
3
2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
=n
2
E
2
_
n
2
e
ik2d
n
1
e
ik2d
n
2
e
ik2d
n
1
e
ik2d

=n
2
E
2
_
n
2
_
e
ik2d
e
ik2d
_
n
1
_
e
ik2d
e
ik2d
_
=n
2
E
2
[2in
2
sin(k
2
d) 2n
1
cos(k
2
)d)]
E
2
=
n
3
(n
2
n
1
)E
3
2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
2n
2
[in
2
sin(k
2
d) n
1
cos(k
2
d)]
(1.2.27)
We can now set (1.2.26) and (1.2.27) equal to one another to eliminate E
2
:
2E
1
n
1
e
ik2d
+ E
3
(n
2
n
1
)
2 [n
2
cos(k
2
d) in
1
sin(k
2
d)]
=
n
3
(n
2
n
1
)E
3
2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
2n
2
[in
2
sin(k
2
d) n
1
cos(k
2
d)]
(1.2.28)
If we let = sin k
2
d and = cos k
2
d, then (1.2.28) becomes
2E
1
n
1
e
ik2d
+E
3
(n
2
n
1
)
n
2
in
1

=
n
3
(n
2
n
1
)E
3
2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
in
2
2
n
1
n
2

2E
1
n
1
e
ik2d
n
2
in
1

+
2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
in
2
2
n
1
n
2

. .
I
=
n
3
(n
2
n
1
)E
3
in
2
2
n
1
n
2


E
3
(n
2
n
1
)
n
2
in
1

. .
II
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
Where I have separated our expression for simplicity. The components are:
I =
2E
1
n
1
e
ik2d
n
2
in
1


n
2
+ in
1

n
2
+ in
1

+
2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
in
2
2
n
1
n
2


in
2
2
+n
1
n
2

in
2
2
+n
1
n
2

=
2E
1
n
1
e
ik2d
(n
2
+ in
1
)
n
2
2

2
+ n
2
1

2

2n
1
n
2
E
1
e
ik2d
_
in
2
2
+ n
1
n
2

_
n
2
1
n
2
2

2
+ n
4
2

2
=
2E
1
n
1
(n
2
n
1
)E
1
(i + )
(n
2
+ in
1
)(n
1
+in
2
)
=
2E
1
n
1
(n
2
n
1
)E
1
(i sin(k
2
d) + cos(k
2
d))
(n
2
sin(k
2
d) +in
1
cos(k
2
d))(n
1
sin(k
2
d) +in
2
cos(k
2
d))
=
4in
1
(n
1
n
2
)E
1
2in
1
n
2
cos(2k
2
d) + (n
2
1
+ n
2
2
) sin(2k
d
d)
(1.2.29)
And now
II =
n
3
(n
2
n
1
)E
3
in
2
2
n
1
n
2


in
2
2
+ n
1
n
2

in
2
2
+ n
1
n
2


E
3
(n
2
n
1
)
n
2
in
1


n
2
+in
1

n
2
+in
1

=
n
3
(n
2
n
1
)E
3
_
in
2
2
+n
1
n
2

_
n
2
1
n
2
2

2
+ n
4
2

2

E
3
(n
2
n
1
) (n
2
+in
1
)
n
2
2

2
+n
2
1

2
= E
3
(n
2
n
1
)
_
n
3
n
2
(n
1
in
2
)
+
in
1
n
2

n
2
1

2
+ n
2
2

2
_
= E
3
(n
2
n
1
)
_
n
3
n
2
(n
1
cos(k
2
d) in
2
sin(k
2
d))
+
in
1
n
2
sin(k
2
d) cos(k
2
d)
n
2
1
sin(k
2
d)
2
+n
2
2
cos(k
2
d)
2
_
(1.2.30)
Setting (1.2.29) equal to (1.2.30) and shifting to one side, we see that
(n
1
n
2
)
_
E
3
(n
2
2
+n
1
n
3
) sin(k
2
d) +iE
3
n
2
(n
1
+ n
3
) cos(k
2
d) 2iE
1
n
1
n
2
_
n
2
(2in
1
n
2
cos(2k
2
d) + (n
2
1
+n
2
2
) sin(2k
2
d))
= 0 (1.2.31)
Solving (1.2.31) for E
3
yields
E
3
=
2n
1
n
2
n
2
(n
1
+n
3
) cos(k
2
d) i(n
2
2
+n
1
n
3
) sin(k
2
d)
E
1
Using the results from part (b), it is also easily seen that
E

1
=
_
n
2
(n
1
n
3
) cos(k
2
d) i(n
1
n
3
n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
n
2
(n
1
+n
3
) cos(k
2
d) i(n
1
n
3
+ n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
_
E
1
b) The transmission coecient can be found by
T =
n S
2
n S
1
=
n
3
n
1

E
3
E
1

2
=
n
3
n
1

2n
1
n
2
n
2
(n
1
+n
3
) cos(k
2
d) i(n
2
2
+ n
1
n
3
) sin(k
2
d)

2
(1.2.32)
From (1.2.32) it can be seen that the transmission coecient is nally given by
T =
4n
1
n
3
n
2
2
n
2
2
(n
1
+n
3
)
2
cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
1
n
3
+ n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
(1.2.33)
Which matches (10.123). The reection coecient may be calculated via similar means, however
the easiest way is to recognize that R +T = 1, so that from (1.2.33), we calculate
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 25
R =
n
2
2
(n
1
+n
3
)
2
cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
1
n
3
+n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
n
2
2
(n
1
+n
3
)
2
cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
1
n
3
+n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)

4n
1
n
3
n
2
2
n
2
2
(n
1
+ n
3
)
2
cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
1
n
3
+n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
=
n
2
2
(n
2
1
+n
2
3
+ 2n
1
n
3
) cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
2
1
n
2
3
+n
4
2
+ 2n
1
n
3
n
2
2
) sin
2
(k
2
d) 4n
1
n
3
n
2
2
n
2
2
(n
1
+ n
3
)
2
cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
1
n
3
+n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
=
n
2
2
(n
2
1
+n
2
3
+ 2n
1
n
3
) cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
2
1
n
2
3
+n
4
2
+ 2n
1
n
3
n
2
2
) sin
2
(k
2
d) 4n
1
n
3
n
2
2
(sin
2
(k
2
d) + cos
2
(k
2
d))
n
2
2
(n
1
+n
3
)
2
cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
1
n
3
+ n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
Combining terms yields
R =
n
2
2
(n
1
n
3
)
2
cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
1
n
3
n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
n
2
2
(n
1
+n
3
)
2
cos
2
(k
2
d) + (n
1
n
3
+n
2
2
)
2
sin
2
(k
2
d)
c) To nd the thickness of the coating, we use (10.127), which reads
d =

1
4
_
n
1
n
3
Applying the provided values,
d =
5000 10
10
m
4
_
1
1.5
d 1.02 10
7
m
And by looking at our equation for the reection coecient, we can see that it will be zero if
n
2
=

n
1
n
3
, so the index of refraction of the coating is n
2
1.22 .
1.3 Homework #3
Problem 11.1
A plane electromagnetic wave is incident at an angle from vacuum onto the at surface of a perfect conductor.
a) Use conservation of momentum to nd the radiation pressure on the surface of the conductor.
b) For a wave that is polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, nd the radiation pressure by calculating
the magnetic force on the surface current.
c) For a wave that is polarized parallel to the plane of incidence, nd the radiation pressure by calculating the
magnetic and electric forces on the surface and surface charge.
Solution
a) The equation for radiation pressure was derived using conservation of momentum by Franklin as
(10.33):
p
rad
=

4
[E
0
[
2
(1.3.1)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
This is for the case that the incident light is completely reected (no absorption) and is normal to
the reecting surface. Since the radiation is at an angle , we must take the normal component of
(1.3.1) in order to discount the radiation not contributing momentum pressure. Furthermore, we
must also recognize that we must only recognize the component of the actual momentum normal
to the conductor (since we are recognizing both incoming and outgoing rays, the other component
cancels). Therefore,
p
rad
() =

4
[E
0
[
2
cos cos p
rad
=
1
4
[E
0
[
2
cos
2
(1.3.2)
Since we are coming from vacuum,
0
1 in CGS units.
b) &c) It is clear from (1.3.2) that the radiation pressure is independent of polarization, so the result
will once again be:
p
rad
=
1
4
[E
0
[
2
cos
2

Problem 11.2
Use the physical properties of copper to estimate the frequency and wave length for which its conductivity develops
an appreciable ( 10%) imaginary part. Assume two conduction electrons per atom.
Solution
We are primarily motivated by the availability of (11.62) in Franklin:
() =
z
c
Ne
2
m( i)
(1.3.3)
We can separate (1.3.3) into its real and imaginary parts,
Re () =
z
c
Ne
2
m

2
+
2
(1.3.4a)
Im() =
z
c
Ne
2
m

2
+
2
(1.3.4b)
We are told that z
c
is the number of conduction of electrons, which in the case of Copper is just 2.
Furthermore, the combined quantity z
c
N is the number of free electrons per unit volume, while is the
damping constant. According to Jackson on p. 312, the relevant quantities can be given numerically as:
?
N 8 10
28
atoms/m
3
5.9 10
7
( m)
1
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 27
The damping constant can now be calculated using (1.3.3):

z
c
Ne
2
m

(2)(8 10
28
atoms/m
2
)(1.602 10
19
C)
2
(9.109 10
31
kg)(5.9 10
7
( m)
1
)
7.641 10
13
Hz (1.3.5)
We are interested at the frequencies at which the imaginary part of (1.3.3) develops an imaginary part
that is equal to 10% of the real part:
Im() = (0.10)Re () = (0.10) (1.3.6)
Where I used the real and imaginary components of (1.3.3) as shown in (1.3.4a) and (1.3.4b). According
to (1.3.6), the approximate frequency where this is possible is:
7.641 10
12
Hz (1.3.7)
If we recall that = 2c/, and using (1.3.7) we can nd the corresponding wavelength:
=
2(3 10
8
m/s)
(7.641 10
12
Hz)
246.7 m
Problem 11.3
a) Find the real and imaginary parts of , as given in (11.52).
b) Show that is analytic in the upper half of the complex plane. In nding any particular pole position, the
contributions from other modes can be ignored since they are analytic in that region.
Solution
a) Equation (11.52) reads
() = 1 + 4 = 1 +
4N
i
z
i

i
1
4
3

i
z
i

i
(1.3.8)
And we also recall that the molecular polarizability is from (11.52) in Franklin

i
=
e
2
m[
2
i

2
i
i
]
(1.3.9)
We also note that the frequency-dependent susceptibility takes the form
=
N
i
z
i

i
1
4
3

i
z
i

i
=
Ne
2
m
1

2
i

2
i
2
i
(1.3.10)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
Then the real and imaginary parts of from (1.3.8) are
Re () = 1 +
4Ne
2
m

2
i

(
2
i

2
)
2
+
2

2
Im() =
4Ne
2
m

(
2
i

2
)
2
+
2

2
b) To show that is analytic in the upper half of the complex plane, we rst substitute (1.3.10) into
(1.3.8):
() = 1 +
4Ne
2
m
1

2
i

2
i
2
i
(1.3.11)
Taking the complex integral of (1.3.11) leads to
_

() d =
_

_
1 +
4Ne
2
m
1

2
i

2
i
2
i
_
d
=
4Ne
2
m
_

2
i

2
i
2
i
d (1.3.12)
It is clear that (1.3.12) has poles in the lower half plane at

1,2
=
i
i
2

_

2
i


2
i
4
_
Since there are no poles at the boundary or in the upper half plane, and if we assume that the
kernel is nite, then we can say that () is analytic in the upper half plane .
Problem 11.4
Find the Fourier transform of the function in (11.74) to verify (11.75). (Hint : Complete the square in the
exponent in doing the integral.)
Solution
We rst recall that the functional forms of the integral Fourier transform is
f(x, 0) =
_

f(, 0)e
ikx
dk (1.3.13a)
A(k, 0) =
1
2
_

f(x, 0)e
ikx
dx (1.3.13b)
And the wave packet function (11.74) is given by
f(x, 0) = e
x
2
/2L
2
e
ik0x
(1.3.14)
To nd the Fourier transform of (1.3.14), we substitute it into (1.3.13b):
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 29
A(k, 0) =
1
2
_

_
exp
_

x
2
2L
2
_
exp [ik
0
x]
_
exp [ikx] dx
=
1
2
_

exp
_

x
2
2L
2
_
exp [i (k
0
k) x] dx
=
1
2
_

exp
_

x
2
2L
2
ix
_
dx (let = k k
0
) (1.3.15)
At this point, per the suggestion in the prompt, we wish to complete the square in the exponent in the
integrand in (1.3.15):

x
2
2L
2
ix =
1
2L
2
_
x
2
+ 2iL
2
x
_

1
2L
2
_
_
x + iL
2

_
2
+
_
L
2

_
2
_
(1.3.16)
We now substitute (1.3.16) into (1.3.15),
A(k, 0) =
1
2
_

exp
_

1
2L
2
_
_
x +iL
2

_
2
+
_
L
2

_
2
_
_
dx
=
1
2
exp
_

L
2

2
2
_ _

exp
_

1
2L
2
_
_
x + iL
2

_
2
_
_
dx (1.3.17)
We wish to employ u

du

substitution (where the primes are present to avoid confusion later on), where
u

=
1

2L
2
_
x +iL
2

_
, and du

=
1

2L
2
dx
With this substitution, (1.3.17) becomes
A(k, 0) =
1
2
exp
_

L
2

2
2
_

2L
2
_

e
u
2
du

=
L

2
exp
_

L
2

2
2
_ _

e
u
2
du

(1.3.18)
The integral in (1.3.18) is just the standard Gaussian integral, whose solution is simply

, and in
substituting our value for , (1.3.18) becomes
A(k, 0) =
L

2
exp
_

L
2
(k k
0
)
2
2
_
(1.3.19)
We can see that (1.3.19) is identical to (1.3.13b), which is also the same as (11.75), which is what we
were asked to show.
Problem 11.5
A wave packet is given by
f(x, 0) = e
imx/L
, 0 < x < L, (1.3.20)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
and f(x, 0) is zero elsewhere.
a) Plot [f(x, 0)[
2
.
b) Find the Fourier transform, A(k), of f(x, 0). Plot [A[
2
for m = 1 and m = 2.
c) Dene a reasonable x and k for this wave packet. Calculate x, k, and xk.
Solution
We rst note that due to boundary conditions, we can rewrite (1.3.20) as
f(x, 0) = i sin
_
mx
L
_
(1.3.21)
a) The item to be plotted is (please see last page for printout of plots):
[f(x, 0)[
2
= sin
2
_
mx
L
_
(1.3.22)
b) The Fourier transform can be found the same way as we did in the last problem:
A(k, 0) =
i
2
_
L
0
sin
_
mx
L
_
e
ikx
dx
A(k, 0) =
iL
2
e
ikL
_
m cos(m) + ikLsin(m) me
ikL

k
2
L
2
m
2

2
(1.3.23)
c) A reasonable value for x is L, and likewise for k is 1/L, so that xk = 1:
x = L, k =
1
L
, xk = 1
Problem 11.6
a) Derive (11.81) and (11.82).
b) The spectral line in the decay of an excited state of sodium has a wave length ( = 5, 893

A), and a lifetime
of 2 10
8
seconds. Calculate its natural line width.
Solution
a) In order to derive (11.81), we must take the Fourier Transform of (11.80), which reads
E(x, t) =
_
E
0
exp [i (k
0
x t)] exp
_
xct
2c

, x < ct,
0 x > ct
Assuming we are in the rst region, at if we take t = 0, (11.80) becomes
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 31
E(x, 0) = E
0
exp
_
i
_
k
0

i
2c
_
x
_
(1.3.24)
We take the Fourier Transform of (1.3.24) by substituting it into (1.3.13b),
E(k) =
E
0
2
_

exp
_
i
_
k
0

i
2c
_
x
_
exp [ikx] dx
=
E
0
2
_

exp
__
i (k
0
k) +
1
2c
_
x
_
dx
=
E
0
2
_
1
i (k
0
k) + 1/(2c)
exp
__
i (k
0
k) +
1
2c
_
x
_

E(k) =
E
0
2 [i(k
0
k) + 1/(2c)]
(1.3.25)
It is clear that (1.3.25) is identical to (11.81). In order to derive (11.82), we simply take the modulus
squared of (1.3.25)
[E(k)[
2
=
_
E
0
2 [i(k
0
k) + 1/(2c)]
__
E
0
2 [i(k
0
k) + 1/(2c)]
_
(1.3.26)
At this point we make the following assignments: = (k
0
k), and = 1/(2c), since otherwise
we will run out of paper. With these new denitions, (1.3.26) becomes
[E(k)[
2
=
_
E
0
2 [i + ]
__
E
0
2 [i + ]
_
=
E
2
0
4
2
1
(i +) (i +)
=
E
2
0
4
2
1

2
+
2
(1.3.27)
Backsubstituting our previous denitions for and , (1.3.27) becomes
[E(k)[
2
=
E
2
0
4
2
[(k k
0
)
2
+ 1/(2c)
2
]
(1.3.28)
And it is easy to see that (1.3.28) is identical to (11.82).
b) According to (11.84)

, the natural line width is given by


=

2
2c
(1.3.29)
With the data provided, this becomes
=
_
5893 10
10
m
_
2
2 (3.00 10
8
m/s) (2 10
8
s)
9.212 10
15
m

with correction
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
Problem 11.7
A glass block has an index of refraction given by
n = 1.350
100

A

(1.3.30)
in the visible region.
a) What is the angular dierence between red light (Use = 6, 500

A) and blue light ( = 4, 500

A) in the glass
if the light enters with an angle of incidence of = 30
o
?
b) What are the phase and group velocities for each color light in the glass?
Solution
a) This problem requires a simple application of Snells Law; so solving for the exiting angle
2
,
n
1
sin(
1
) = n
2
sin(
2
)
2
= sin
1
_
n
1
n
2
sin(
1
)
_
(1.3.31)
So the goal here would be to calculate the exiting angle for both red and blue light, and take the
dierence. We rst address incident light in the case that it is red, and nd the index of refraction
from (1.3.30):

n
r
= 1.350
100

A
6, 500

A
1.3346 (1.3.32)
We now take (1.3.32) and substitute it into (1.3.31):

r
= sin
1
_
1
1.3346
sin(30
o
)
_
22.002
o
(1.3.33)
We now do the same for the shorter wavelength, starting with calculating the index of refraction
from (1.3.30):
n
b
= 1.350
100

A
4, 500

A
1.3278 (1.3.34)
And now we can calculate the angle from (1.3.31):

b
= sin
1
_
1
1.3278
sin(30
o
)
_
22.121
o
(1.3.35)
And therefore the angular dierence is given by
=
b

r
= 22.121
o
22.002
o
= 0.11927
o
b) The phase velocities for both wavelengths in the glass are given simply by (11.93):
v
p
=
c
n
(1.3.36)

Two assumption have been made. First, I have assumed that all the constant in (1.3.30), as well as all given wavelengths, are exact,
so that we can take the result out to arbitrary precision. Otherwise, we would be bound to the rules of signicant gures, which would
limit the transparency of the answer. Second, I have taken the incident index of refraction to be that of a vacuum, i.e. n
1
= 1.00.
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 33
Completing this equation using rst the index of refraction of the glass for the longer wavelength
form (1.3.32), we have
v
p,r
=
2.9979 10
8
m/s
1.3346
v
p,r
2.2463 10
8
m/s
And now nding the phase velocity for the shorter wavelength we do the same calculation using
(1.3.34),
v
p,b
=
2.9979 10
8
m/s
1.3278
v
p,b
2.2578 10
8
m/s
To nd the group velocity, we rst recall that v
g
= d(k)/dk, and also that (k) = ck/n(k).
With this information, as well as the expression given (1.3.30), the generic expression for the group
velocity is
v
g
=
d
dk
_
ck
1.350 100

A k/(2)
_
=
d
dk
_
2ck
21.350 k100

A
_
=2c
_
1
21.350 k100

A
d
dk
(k) + k
d
dk
_
1
21.350 k100

A
__
=2c
_
1
21.350 k100

A
+
k100

A
_
21.350 k100

A

2
_
=
2c
21.350 k100

A
_
1 +
k100

A
21.350 k100

A
_
=
2c
21.350 100

A(2/)
_
1 +
100

A(2/)
21.350 100

A(2/)
_
=
c
1.350 100

A()
1
_
1 +
100

A()
1
1.350 100

A()
1
_
(1.3.37)
And at this point we can now calculate the group velocity given our two frequency components.
Starting with the longer wavelength,
v
r,g
=
2.9979 10
18

A/s
1.350 100

A
_
6500

A
_
1
_
1 +
100

A
_
6500

A
_
1
1.350 100

A
_
6500

A
_
1
_
v
r,g
1.7719 10 m/s
And now for the shorter wavelength,
v
b,g
=
2.9979 10
18

A/s
1.350 100

A
_
4500

A
_
1
_
1 +
100

A
_
4500

A
_
1
1.350 100

A
_
4500

A
_
1
_
v
b,g
1.7902 10 m/s
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
1.4 Homework #4
Problem 12.1
A coaxial wave guide consists of two concentric copper cylinders (conductivity = 0.50 10
18
sec
1
), an in-
ner cylinder of radius A = 0.10 cm, and an outer clinder of radius B = 0.40 cm. The dielectric between the
clinders has a permittivity = 2.0, and permeability = 1.0. The outer cylinder is grounded, and a potential
V
0
= 120 volts (convert this to esu), oscillating at a frequency = 12 MHz, is applied to the inner cylinder.
a) Find the elds E(r, , z, t) and H(r, , z, t) for a wave traveling between the cylinders in the positive z-
direction.
b) Find the power (convert it to Watts) transmitted by this wave.
c) Find the attenuation length for this wave.
Solution
a) We start by solving Laplaces Equation in cylindrical coordinates:

2
T
=
1
r

r
_
r

r
_
+
1
r
2

2
= 0 (1.4.1)
Where we note that due to symmetry, the potential is independent of the angle , and so (1.4.1)
becomes
1
r

r
_
r

r
_
= 0 (r) = C
1
ln r +C
2
(1.4.2)
Our boundary conditions are that the outer conductor is grounded, (b) = 0, and the inner con-
ductor is at some potential (120 V in our case), (a) = V
0
. Applying the rst boundary condition,
(B) = C
1
lnB + C
2
= 0 C
2
= C
1
ln B (1.4.3)
Substituting (1.4.3) into (1.4.2) and simplifying, we have
(r) = C
1
ln(
r
/
B
) (1.4.4)
We now apply the second boundary condition to (1.4.4),
(A) = C
1
ln
_
A
/
B
_
= V
0
C
1
=
V
0
ln(
A
/
B
)
(1.4.5)
And now substitute (1.4.5) into (1.4.4),
(r) =
V
0
ln(
A
/
B
)
ln (
r
/
B
) (1.4.6)
If we take the negative derivative of (1.4.6), we can nd the eld:
E = E =
V
0
ln(
B
/
A
)
1
r
r (1.4.7)
To nd the magnetic eld, we use (8.28) from Jackson, which reads:
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 35
H =

z E
Using (8.28), the magnetic eld becomes
H =

V
0
ln (
B
/
A
)
1
r
z r H =

V
0
ln (
B
/
A
)
1
r

(1.4.8)
We can include the additional space and time dependence of the electric and magnetic elds from
(1.4.7) and (1.4.8), respectively:
E(r, , z, t) =
V
0
ln(
B
/
A
)
1
r
e
i(kzt)
r, H(r, , z, t) =

V
0
ln (
B
/
A
)
1
r
e
i(kzt)

b) The transmitted power can be found by integrating the component of the Poynting vector pointing
in the z-direction over the cross-sectional area:
P =
c
8
_
(E

H) z dA (1.4.9)
Substituting the expressions calculated for the elds in the previous section into (1.4.10), we obtain
P =
c
8
_ __
V
0
ln (
B
/
A
)
1
r
e
i(kzt)
r
_

V
0
ln (
B
/
A
)
1
r
e
i(kzt)

__
z r drd
=
c
8
_
V
0
ln (
B
/
A
)
_
2

_
2
0
d
_
B
A
1
r
dr
=
c
4
_
V
0
ln(
B
/
A
)
_
2

ln
_
A
/
B
_
=
c

4
V
2
0
ln (
B
/
A
)
(1.4.10)
And substituting the appropriate constants into (1.4.10) yields

P =
3 10
8
m/s
_
(1)(2)
4
(0.4 esu)
2
ln(.004/.001)
P = 1.224 10
7
esu
2
m/s
P = 1.224 10
2
Watts m
Problem 12.3
A rectangular wave guide with copper walls has cross section dimensions 4.0 6.0 mm. It is lled with air.
a) Find the rst ve TM cuto frequencies (in Hz) for this wave guide.
b) Sketch nodal planes of E
z
for each of these TM modes.
c) Find the rst ve TE cuto frequencies for this wave guide.
d) Sketch nodal planes of H
z
for each of these TE modes.

Yes, I realize that these numbers are ridiculous.


W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Solution
a) The relation for the TM cuto frequencies in Hz is given by (12.57) in Franklin:
f
m
=
c
2

_

2
A
2
+
m
2
B
2
_
1
/2
(1.4.11)
Where we note that neither nor m can equal zero. Furthermore,

= n = 1, and (1.4.11)
becomes
f
m
=
c
2
_

2
A
2
+
m
2
B
2
_
1
/2
(1.4.12)
Table 1.1: TM
,m
cuto frequencies
m f
m
(Ghz)
1 1 45.07
2 1 62.50
1 2 79.06
3 1 83.85
2 2 90.14
b) See attached plots
c) The expression for the TE cuto frequencies is identical to (1.4.11) except that either or m can
equal zero:
Table 1.2: TE
,m
cuto frequencies
m f
m
(Ghz)
1 0 25.00
0 1 37.50
1 1 45.07
2 0 50.00
2 1 62.50
d) See attached plots
Problem 12.4
a) The magnitude of E
z
at the center of the wave guide in the preceding problem is 6, 000 volts/meter (convert
to esu). Find the power transmitted by this wave guide for a TM wave with a frequency halfway between the
lowest TM cuto frequencies.
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 37
b) Find the attenuation length for this wave.
Solution
a) We know that 1 esu = 300 volt, so 6, 000 volts/meter = 20 esu/meter. Furthermore, the frequency
halfway between the two lowest TM cuto frequencies is f = (62.46 45.04)/2 + 45.04 = 53.75
GHz. We know from (12.75) in Franklin that
P =
kE
2
0
AB
32
2
(1.4.13)
And we also know from class that
k

2

f
f
c
c

_
f
f
c
_
2
1 (1.4.14)
Substituting (1.4.14) into (1.4.13), we have
P =
E
2
0
AB
32
f
f
c
_

_
f
f
c
_
2
1 (1.4.15)
And now substituting the appropriate constants into (1.4.15) with =
0
= 1 and =
0
= 1,
P =
(20 esu/m)
2
(.004 m)(.006 m)
32

53.75 10
9
Hz
45.04 10
9
Hz
3 10
8
m/s

_
53.75 10
9
Hz
45.04 10
9
Hz
_
2
1
P = 2.227 10
4
esu m/s
b) The attenuation is given by (12.86) and (12.87) in Franklin as
L
atten
=
_

c
2
c
_1
/2
_
AB
_

2
B
2
+m
2
A
2
_

2
B
3
+ m
2
A
3
__
1
2
c
/
2

(1.4.16)
Jiggiling (1.4.16) around a little bit and noting that = m = 1,
L
atten
=
_

c
4
_1
/2
_
AB
_
B
2
+A
2
_
B
3
+A
3
_

1 f
2
c
/f
2
f
(1.4.17)
Substituting the appropriate values into (1.4.17) yields
L
atten
=
_
0.50 10
18
sec
1
4
_
1
/2
_
(.004 m)(.006 m)
_
(.006 m)
2
+ (.004 m)
2

(.006 m)
3
+ .(004 m)
3
_

_
1 (45.04)
2
/(53.75)
2
53.75 10
9
Hz
L
atten
= 3.709 m
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Problem 12.5
a) The magnitude of H
z
at the corner of the wave guide in the preceding problem is 0.20 gauss. Find the power
transmitted by this wave guide for a TE wave with a frequency halfway between the two lowest TE cuto
frequencies.
b) Find the attenuation length for this wave.
Solution
a) As in the previous problem, we nd the cuto frequency halfway between the two lowest TE
frequencies to be (37.47 23.98)/2 +23.98 = 30.73 GHz. The power is given by (12.76) in Franklin
as
P =
kH
2
0
AB
16
2
(1.4.18)
If we substitute (1.4.14) into (1.4.18) and simplify,
P =
H
2
0
AB
16
f
f
c
c

_
f
f
c
_
2
1 (1.4.19)
And substituting the appropriate values into (1.4.19) yields
P =
(.20 gauss)
2
(.004 m)(.006 m)
16

30.73 10
9
Hz
24.98 10
9
Hz
3 10
8
m/s

_
30.73 10
9
Hz
24.98 10
9
Hz
_
2
1
P = 5.047 gauss m/s
b) The attenuation length can be found from (12.86) and (12.88):
L
atten
=
_

c
2
c
_1
/2
_
AB
_

2
B
2
+m
2
A
2
_
AB(
2
B + m
2
A) + (
c
/)
2
(
2
B
3
+m
2
A
3
)
__
1
2
c
/
2

(1.4.20)
Getting rid of the appropriate constants and recalling that for the lowest cuto frequency = 1 and
m = 0, (1.4.21) becomes
L
atten
=
_

c
4
_1
/2
_
AB
A/2 + B(f
c
/f)
2
_

1 f
2
c
/f
2
f
(1.4.21)
And substituting the appropriate constants into (1.4.21),
L
atten
=
_
0.50 10
18
sec
1
4
_
1
/2
_
(.004 m)(.006 m)
(.004 m)/2 + (.006 m)(24.98/30.73)
2
_
_
1 24.98
2
/30.73
2
30.73 10
9
GHz
L
atten
= 7.085 m
Problem 12.7
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 39
A circular wave guide with copper walls has a radius R = 4.0 mm. It is lled with air.
a) Find the rst ve TM cuto frequencies (in Hz) for this wave guide.
b) Sketch nodal surfaces of E
z
for each of these TM modes.
c) Find the rst ve TE cuto frequencies for this wave guide.
d) Sketch nodal surfaces of H
z
for each of these TE modes.
Solution
a) An expression for the TM cuto frequency can be found from (12.68) in Franklin:
f
m
=
c
2
j
m
R
(1.4.22)
Substituting the values from Table 12.2 from Franklin into (1.4.22) yields
Table 1.3: TM
,m
cuto frequencies
m f
m
(Ghz)
0 1 28.71
1 1 45.74
2 2 61.30
0 2 65.89
1 2 83.74
b) See attached plots
c) Using (12.69) we can nd the cuto frequency:
f
m
=
c
2
j

m
R
(1.4.23)
And using the values from Table 12.2 we can evaluate (1.4.23) for the desired modes:
Table 1.4: TE
,m
cuto frequencies
m f
m
(Ghz)
1 1 21.98
2 1 36.46
0 2 45.74
1 2 63.64
2 2 80.00
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
d) See attached plots
Problem 12.8
The magnitude of E
z
at the center of the wave guide in the preceding problem is 6, 000 volts/meter (convert
to esu). Find the power transmitted by this wave guide for a TM wave with frequencies halfway between the two
lowest TM cuto frequencies.
Solution
As before, 6, 000 volts/meter = 20 esu/meter. Additionally, the frequency halfway between the two
lowest TM cuto frequencies is f = (45.74 28.71)/2 + 28.71 = 37.23 GHz. We know from (12.79) in
Franklin that
P =
kR
2
E
2
0
16
2
m
[J

m
(
m
R)]
2
(1.4.24)
To nd the derivative of the m
th
Bessel function we can use a recursion relation. Using Mathematica,
we nd that J

m
(
m
R) = 0.5192, and (1.4.24) becomes
P =

2
(37.23 GHz)
2
(.004 m)
2
(20 esu/m)
2
4(3 10
8
m/s)(2.4048/.004 m)
2
[0.5192]
2
P = 5.439 10
4
esu m/s
1.5 Homework #5
Problem 12.10
A rectangular cavity (with and = 1) has dimensions 2.0 3.0 4.0 cm.
a) Find the rst six resonant frequencies of this cavity, and identify any degenerate modes.
b) Write down the E and H elds for the lowest frequency resonant mode.
Solution
We rst recall that for a TM wave, E
z
must vanish at the walls, and according to (12.107) in Franklin,
E
z
= E
0
sin
_
lx
A
_
sin
_
my
B
_
cos
_
nz
C
_
[TM mode] (1.5.1)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 41
From which we can see that only n may be zero for a TM wave. Similarly, for a TE wave H
z
must vanish
at the walls, and from (12.108),
H
z
= H
0
cos
_
lx
A
_
cos
_
my
B
_
sin
_
nz
C
_
[TE mode] (1.5.2)
We can gather from this that both l and m can be zero for a TE wave. For both TM and TE waves, the
resonant frequency is given by (12.109),
f
lmn
=
c
2

_
_
l
A
_
2
+
_
m
B
_
2
+
_
n
C
_
2
_1
/2
(1.5.3)
a) We can nd the rst six resonant frequencies for the cavity by evaluating (1.5.3) for a variety of
dierent modes and nding the lowest six:
Resonant frequencies
l m n f
lmn
(Ghz) TM/TE d
0 1 1 6.250 TE 1
1 0 1 8.350 TE 1
1 1 0 9.014 TM 2
0 1 2 9.014 TE 2
1 1 1 9.768 TE 1
1 0 2 10.61 TE 1
0 2 1 10.68 TE 1
We note that both l and m cannot both be zero, otherwise all transverse components of E and H
will vanish, and we will not have a standing wave.
b) The eld components are just given by (12.63)-(12.65), if we allow A > B:
H
z
(x, y) =H
0
cos
_
x
A
_
H
z
(x, y) =
ikA

H
0
sin
_
x
A
_
E
y
(x, y) =
iA
c
H
0
sin
_
x
A
_
Problem 12.11
A cubical cavity of dimensions 2.0 2.0 2.0 cm has copper walls. Find the fundamental frequency and Q
value for that frequency.
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
From (1.5.3),
f
lmn
=
c
2

_
_
l
.02 m
_
2
+
_
m
.02 m
_
2
+
_
n
0.02 m
_
2
_1
/2
f
110
= f
101
= f
011
= 10.61 GHz
The derivation for the expression for the Q value is found in the next problem, and is given by (1.5.21)
as
Q =
4L
c

f
c

c
(1.5.4)
Where L is the length of each side of the cavity. The conductivity of copper is given by
c
= 5.96
10
17

1
m, while we let
c
= 1. Accordingly, (1.5.4) leads to Q 0.2107 .
Problem 12.12
And they shall make an ark of acacia-wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit
and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof. And thou shalt overlay it with pure
gold. (Exodus XXV, 10:11). Find the fundamental resonant frequency and a half width for this biblical cavity.
Use the length from your ngertip to your elbow as a measure of a biblical cubit.
Solution
The length from my elbow to my beefy ngertip is 0.5 m, so the dimensions of our cavity are A = 1.25
m, B = 0.75 m, and C = 0.75 m. The fundamental frequency may be readily deduced from (1.5.3):
f
lmn
=
c
2

_
_
l
1.25 m
_
2
+
_
m
0.75 m
_
2
+
_
n
0.75 m
_
2
_1
/2
f
110
= f
101
= 0.2330 GHz
Which is clearly degenerate. We can see that f
110
corresponds to a TM mode, while f
101
corresponds to
a TE mode. The half width is found by dividing (12.131) by a factor of 2,
=

0
2Q
(1.5.5)
While the Q factor is given by (12.125) as
Q =
U
dU/dt
(1.5.6)
Where we know that
dU
dt
=
c
8
_

c
8
c
_
[H
surface
[
2
dA (1.5.7)
And if we recall from (1.5.1) and (1.5.2),
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 43
E
z
=E
0
sin
_
lx
A
_
sin
_
my
B
_
cos
_
nz
C
_
(1.5.8)
H
z
=H
0
cos
_
lx
A
_
cos
_
my
B
_
sin
_
nz
C
_
(1.5.9)
For the TM mode, we know that l = 1, m = 1 and n = 0, and (1.5.8) becomes
E
z
= E
0
sin
_
x
A
_
sin
_
y
B
_
(1.5.10)
And similarly, for the TE mode, we recall that l = 1, m = 0 and l = 1, and (1.5.9) becomes
H
z
= H
0
cos
_
x
A
_
sin
_
z
C
_
(1.5.11)
We know that H
surface
will be a linear combination of both elds, so we can go ahead and evaluate the
modulus squared:
[H
surface
[
2
=
_
E
0
sin
_
x
A
_
sin
_
y
B
_
+ H
0
cos
_
x
A
_
sin
_
z
C
__
2
=E
2
0
sin
2
_
x
A
_
sin
2
_
y
B
_
. .

I
+H
2
0
cos
2
_
x
A
_
sin
2
_
z
C
_
. .

II
+ 2E
0
H
0
sin
_
x
A
_
sin
_
y
B
_
cos
_
x
A
_
sin
_
z
C
_
. .

III
=E
2
0

I
+H
2
0

II
+ 2E
0
H
0

III
(1.5.12)
Instead of directly substituting (1.5.12) into (1.5.7), we can go ahead and integrate
I
,
II
and
III
separately over space and then combine them later to avoid some of the mess. We rst recall the following
nifty trig identities:
sin
2
x =
1
2
(1 cos(2x)) cos
2
x =
1
2
(1 + cos(2x))
Using these, we rst evaluate
I
,
_

I
dA =
_
A
0
sin
2
_
x
A
_
dx
_
B
0
sin
2
_
y
B
_
dy
=
1
4
_
A
0
_
1 cos
_
2x
A
__
dx
_
B
0
_
1 cos
_
2y
B
__
dy
=
1
4
__
_
A
0
dx
_
A
0
cos
_
2x
A
_
dx
_

_
_
B
0
dy
_
B
0
cos
_
2y
B
_
dy
__
=
1
4
__
A
A
2
_
sin
_
2x
A
_

A
0
_

_
B
B
2
_
sin
_
2y
B
_

B
0
__
=
AB
4
(1.5.13)
And now doing the same for
II
,
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
_

II
dA =
_
A
0
cos
2
_
x
A
_
dx
_
C
0
sin
2
_
z
C
_
dz
=
1
4
_
_
A
0
_
1 + cos
_
2x
A
__
dx
_
C
0
_
1 cos
_
2z
C
__
dz
_
=
1
4
__
A +
_
A
0
cos
_
2x
A
_
dx
_

_
C
_
C
0
cos
_
2z
C
_
dz
__
=
1
4
__
A +
A
2
_
sin
_
2x
A
_

A
0
_

_
C
C
2
_
sin
_
2z
C
_

C
0
__
=
AC
4
(1.5.14)
And now for
III
,
_

III
dA =
_
A
0
sin
_
x
A
_
cos
_
x
A
_
dx
. .
=0

_
B
0
sin
_
y
B
_
dy
_
C
0
sin
_
z
C
_
dz = 0 (1.5.15)
Using (1.5.13)-(1.5.15), we can now evaluate (1.5.7):
dU
dt
=
c
8
_

c
8
c
_
E
2
0
AB
4
+ H
2
0
AC
4
_
=
c
64
_
f
c

c
A
_
E
2
0
B + H
2
0
C

(1.5.16)
We now nd the energy within the cavity, U, using (12.121):
U =
_
E
2
0
+ H
2
0
_
ABC
32
_
(l/A)
2
+ (m/B)
2
+ (n/C)
2
(l/A)
2
+ (m/B)
2
_
(1.5.17)
If we take the frequency for the TM mode we let l = 1, m = 1, and n = 0, and (1.5.17) becomes
U =
_
E
2
0
+H
2
0
_
ABC
32
(1.5.18)
We now recall that = = 1 and B = C, so (1.5.18) becomes
U =
_
E
2
0
+ H
2
0
_
AB
2
32
(1.5.19)
Making the same assumptions for (1.5.16) yields
dU
dt
=
c
64
_
f
c

c
AB
_
E
2
0
+H
2
0

(1.5.20)
Now substituting (1.5.19) and (1.5.20) into (1.5.6) yields
Q = 2f
AB
2
32
_
E
2
0
+H
2
0
_

64
c
_

c
f
c
1
AB(E
2
0
+ H
2
0
)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 45
=
4B
c

f
c

c
(1.5.21)
The conductivity of gold can be found on p. 286 of Griths to be
c
= 4.525 10
7

1
m. Taking

c
= 1, (1.5.21) becomes
Q =
4(0.75 m)
(3 10
8
m/s)
_
(0.233 10
9
Hz)(4.525 10
7

1
m Q 3.226 (1.5.22)
Substituting (1.5.22) into (1.5.5),
=
f
0
Q
= 0.2269 GHz
It is clear that this answer does not make sense, if we compare it to the resonant frequency found in
the rst part of the problem. I repeated the latter part using Mathematica, which yielded a half width
of = .03612 GHz . Please see attached Mathematica printout for details.
Problem 12.13
A circular cavity (with and = 1) has a radius R = 2.0 cm, and a length L = 3.0 cm.
a) Find the rst six resonant frequencies of this cavity, and identify the type (TM or TE) of mode.
b) Sketch nodal surfaces for each of these six modes.
Solution
a) The relation for the resonant frequencies for both TM and TE modes is given by (12.112),
f
lmn
=
c
2

_
_
j
ml
R
_
2
+
_
n
L
_
2
_1
/2
[TM mode] (1.5.23)
f

lmn
=
c
2

_
_
j

ml
R
_
2
+
_
n
L
_
2
_1
/2
[TE mode] (1.5.24)
The calculated values are displayed in the following table (next page):
b) Please see attached plots.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
Resonant frequencies
l m n f
lmn
(Ghz) TM/TE
1 0 1 5.000 TE
1 1 1 6.650 TE
1 1 0 9.148 TM
1 0 2 10.00 TE
1 1 1 10.43 TM
1 2 0 12.26 TM
1.6 Homework #6
Problem 13.3
A thin linear antenna of length L carries an oscillating current
I(z, t) = I
0
sin
_
2[z[
L
_
e
it
, [z[ <
L
2
(1.6.1)
a) Sketch this current as a function of z.
b) Find the radiation pattern for this antenna. Sketch the angular distribution and plot it as a function of cos .
Plot the pattern for kL = and kL = 2.
Solution
a) Please see attached plot (at the end). Values chosen to emphasize oscillations.
b) Following Franklins lead in section (13.5), we recall that the eective radiation current is given by
(13.39) as
J(kr) = k
_
j (r

) e
ikr

r
d
3
r

(1.6.2)
For the current case, we have a linear antenna, which is oriented along the z-direction, and (1.6.2)
becomes
J (kz) = k
_
I(z, t)e
ikz cos
dz (1.6.3)
Substituting (1.6.1) into (1.6.3) yields
J(kz) = k
_
L/2
L/2
_
I
0
sin
_
2[z[
L
_
e
it
_
e
ikz cos
dz (1.6.4)
At this point, we must separate [z[ into the positive and negative parts, and (1.6.4) becomes
J(kz) =kI
0
e
it
_
_
L/2
0
sin
_
2[z[
L
_
e
ik|z| cos
dz +
_
0
L/2
sin
_

2[z[
L
_
e
ik|z| cos
dz
_
=kI
0
e
it
_
_
L/2
0
sin(az)e
ibz
dz
. .

_
0
L/2
sin(az)e
ibz
dz
. .

II
_
(1.6.5)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 47
Where I have set a = 2/L and b = k cos , and also let [z[ z for notational convenience. We
now recall the following trig integral:
_
sin(ax) cos(bx) dx =
cos [(a b)x]
2(a b)

cos [(a + b)x]
2(a + b)
(1.6.6a)
_
sin(ax) sin(bx) dx =
sin [(a b)x]
2(a b)

sin[(a + b)x]
2(a +b)
(1.6.6b)
We now begin by evaluating
I
in (1.6.5) using Eulers identity:

I
=
_
L/2
0
sin(az) [cos(bz) i sin(bz)] dz
=
_
L/2
0
sin(az) cos(bz) dz
. .

Ia
i
_
L/2
0
sin(az) sin(bz) dz
. .

Ib
(1.6.7)
We now apply (1.6.6a) to
Ia
in (1.6.7),

Ia
=
_

cos [(a b)z]


2(a b)

cos [(a +b)z]
2(a + b)

L/2
0
=
cos [(a b)L/2]
2(a b)

cos [(a + b)L/2]
2(a + b)
+
1
2(a b)
+
1
2(a +b)
=
a cos(aL/2) cos(bL/2) b sin(aL/2) sin(bL/2)
a
2
b
2
+
a
a
2
+ b
2
=
4Lcos
2
[(kL/4) cos ]
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

(1.6.8)
Now apply (1.6.6b) to
Ib
in (1.6.7),

Ib
=
_
sin [(a b)x]
2(a b)

sin [(a +b)x]
2(a + b)

L/2
0
=
sin [(a b)L/2]
2(a b)

sin [(a +b)L/2]
2(a + b)
=
b cos(bL/2) sin(aL/2) a cos(aL/2) sin(bL/2)
a
2
b
2
=
2Lsin [(kL/2) cos ]
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

(1.6.9)
Combining (1.6.8) and (1.6.9),

I
=
Ia
i
Ib
=
2L1 + cos [(kL/2) cos ] i sin [(kL/2) cos ]
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

=
2L
_
1 +e
i(kL/2) cos
_
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

(1.6.10)
Fantastic. If we repeat the same process for
II
in (1.6.5), which yields

II
=
2L1 cos [(kL/2) cos ] + i sin [(kL/2) cos ]
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
=
2L
_
1 + e
i(kL/2) cos
_
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

(1.6.11)
At this point, we substitute
I
from (1.6.10) and
II
from (1.6.11) into (1.6.5),
J(kz) =kI
0
e
it

I
+
II

=kI
0
e
it
_
2Lsin [(kL/2) cos ]
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

+
2L
_
1 + e
i(kL/2) cos
_
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

_
=
4kL
_
1 +e
i(kL/2) cos
_
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

(1.6.12)
And we recall that the angular distribution of the spherical wave is given by (13.50) as
dP
d
=
1
8c
[J (kz)[
2
(1.6.13)
Substituting (1.6.12) into (1.6.13),
dP
d
=
1
8c
__
4kL
_
1 +e
i(kL/2) cos
_
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

__
4kL
_
1 +e
i(kL/2) cos
_
4
2
(kL)
2
cos
2

__
=
1
8c
_
64
2
(kL)
2
cos [(kL/4) cos ]
2
[4
2
+ (kL)
2
cos
2
]
2
_
=
8 (kL)
2
c
cos [(kL/4) cos ]
2
[4
2
+ (kL)
2
cos
2
]
2
(1.6.14)
Taking the transverse component squared of (1.6.14) leads us to
dP
d
=
8 (kL)
2
c
cos [(kL/4) cos ]
2
[4
2
+ (kL)
2
cos
2
]
2
sin
2

dP
d
=
8 (kL)
2
c
cos [(kL/4) cos ]
2
[4
2
+ (kL)
2
cos
2
]
2
_
1 cos
2

_
(1.6.15)
The function in (1.6.15) has been plotted both as a function of cos in cartesian coordinates, and
also with respect to in polar coordinates. Both of these have been done both for kL = and
kL = 2. Please see attached plots (at the very end). We can go ahead and evaluate (1.6.15) for
both of these values:
dP
d
=
8
c
cos [(/4) cos ]
2
[4 + cos
2
]
2
_
1 cos
2

_
[kL=]
dP
d
=
2
c
cos [(/2) cos ]
2
[1 + cos
2
]
2
_
1 cos
2

_
[kL=2]
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 49
Problem 13.4
For the antenna in the previous problem, nd the maximum dP/d, and the angle for which this occurs.
Solution
The best way to nd the maximum dP/d is to nd where the rst derivative of the relevant function
is zero in the cos -domain. Specically, we start with (1.6.15), which reads
dP
d
=
8 (kL)
2
c
cos [(kL/4) cos ]
2
[4
2
+ (kL)
2
cos
2
]
2
_
1 cos
2

_
(1.6.16)
We now let cos x in (1.6.16), which leads to
dP
d
=
8 (kL)
2
c
cos [(kL/4) x]
2
[4
2
+ (kL)
2
x
2
]
2
(1 x) (1.6.17)
We must expand the trig term in the exponent of (1.6.17):
cos [(kL/4) x]
2
= 1
(kL)
2
x
2
32
+
(kL)
4
x
4
6144

(kL)
6
x
6
2949120
+ ... (1.6.18)
Clearly this converges very quickly, so we take the rst two terms only and substitute it into (1.6.17):
dP
d
=
8 (kL)
2
c
[(kL)
2
x
2
/32]
2
[4
2
+ (kL)
2
x
2
]
2
(1 x) (1.6.19)
The name of the game is then to take the rst derivative of (1.6.19), set it equal to zero, and solve for
x. The values should represent the maxima/minima:
cos =3.179 [kL=] (1.6.20a)
cos = [kL=2] (1.6.20b)
The maximum value is found by evaluating (1.6.19) at these points:
(dP/d)
max
=1.7980 [kL=]
(dP/d)
max
=2.1247 [kL=2]
Please see attached Mathematica printout for the details of this calculation.
Problem 13.5
Evaluate the lifetime of a Rutherford hydrogen atom from (13.84). Use as data: R = .53

A, mc
2
= 511 KeV, and
the binding energy of hydrogen is 13.6 eV.
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
We begin with (13.84), which I will convert to SI units, in part by following the same logic as in the
following problem.
T =
R
4c
_
mc
2
e
2
/R
_
2
=
cR
4
_
mc
e
2
/R
_
2
=
cR
3
4
_
mc
e
2
_
2
=cR
3
_
2
0
mc
e
2
_
2
(1.6.21)
The appropriate constants are
c =2.998 10
10
m/s
e =1.6023 10
10
C
R =0.529 10
10
m
m =9.109 10
31
Kg

0
=8.854 10
12
F/m
Plugging all of these into (1.6.21), we have
T =
_
2.998 10
10
m/s
_ _
0.529 10
10
m
_
3

_
2
_
8.854 10
12
F/m
_ _
9.109 10
31
Kg
_ _
2.998 10
10
m/s
_
(1.6023 10
10
C)
2
_
2
T 1.322 10
11
sec
Problem 13.6
Consider a model of the hydrogen atom as a heavy positive proton, surrounded by a sphere of radius R, with
a uniform charge and mass density, having a total charge and mass of an electron.
a) Show that the angular frequency of oscillation for this atom (with amplitude A R) is
=
_
(e
2
/R)
mc
2
_
1
/2
c
R
(1.6.22)
b) Evaluate and the corresponding wavelength of radiation. (Use numerical values from the previous problem).
c) Find the oscillating electric dipole moment of this atom.
d) Find the total power radiated by this atom for A
0
= R.
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 51
e) Find the lifetime for exponential decay of the oscillation. Evaluate the lifetime in seconds.
Solution
a) We begin by equating Newtons second law with Coulombs law,
F =
mv
2
r
= m
2
r =
1
4
0
e
2
r
2

2
r
3
=
1
4
0
e
2
m
(1.6.23)
The energy as a function of r is
E =T +V
=
mv
2
r

1
4
0
e
2
r
=
1
2
_
1
4
0

2
r
_

1
4
0
e
2
r
=
1
8
0
e
2
r
(1.6.24)
To nd the power loss we take the rst derivative of (1.6.24),
dE
dt
=
1
8
0
e
2
r
2
dr
dt
(1.6.25)
The Lamor formula for radiation caused by an accelerating charge is given by (13.94)
P =
2e
2
[a[
2
3c
3
(1.6.26)
If we recognize that the power radiated can be thought of as the power lost, or the rate of energy
leaving as a function of time, then we can say that:
dE
dt
=
2e
2
[a[
2
3c
3
(1.6.27)
We now substitute in the acceleration for a charge circulating the proton,
dE
dt
=
2e
2
_

2
r
_
2
3c
3
(1.6.28)
Substitute (1.6.23) into (1.6.28),
dE
dt
=
2e
2
3c
3
_
1
4
0
e
2
m
_
2
(1.6.29)
Equating (1.6.25) to (1.6.29),
1
8
0
e
2
r
2
dr
dt
=
2e
2
3c
3
_
1
4
0
e
2
m
_
2

dr
dt
=
1
4
0

4e
4
3m
2
c
3
T = 4
0

3m
2
c
3
4e
4
_
0
R
1
r
2
dr
T = 4
0

m
2
c
3
4e
4
1
R
3
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
T = 4
0
R
4c
_
mc
2
e
2
/R
_
2
(1.6.30)
If we drop the factor of 4
0
, then (1.6.30) is the same as (13.84). Furthermore, we arrive at (13.161)
by evaluating (1.6.23) at r = R:

2
R
3
=
1
4
0
e
2
m
=
c
R
_
1
4
0
e
2
/R
mc
2
_
(1.6.31)
If we let 4
0
= 1 in (1.6.31), we are left with
=
c
R
_
e
2
/R
mc
2
_
(1.6.32)
Which is identical to (1.6.22).
b) To evaluate , we simply use (1.6.23) and use the data from the previous problem:
=
_
1
4
0
e
2
m
1
R
3
_
1
/2
=
_
1
4 (8.854 10
12
F/m)
_
1.6023 10
10
C
_
2
(9.109 10
31
Kg)
1
(0.529 10
10
m)
3
_
1
/2
(1.6.33)
4.496 10
16
rad
sec
(1.6.34)
The wavelength of radiation will be given by:
=
2c

=
2
_
2.998 10
10
m/s
_
4.496 Hz
4.193 10
8
m
c) The oscillating electric dipole moment is just the electric dipole moment, multiplied by a sinusoidal
time dependent frequency part:
p(t) =ed cos (t)
Where d in our case is equal to the separation of charge:
p(t) =eRcos (t) z (1.6.35)
Substituting in the appropriate values,
p(t) =
_
1.6023 10
10
C
_ _
0.529 10
10
m
_
cos (t) z p(t) =
_
8 10
30
C m
_
cos (t) z
Where is of course given by (1.6.33).
d) The total power radiated is just (1.6.28):
P =
2e
2
_

2
r
_
2
3c
3
Putting in the numbers,
P =
2
_
1.6023 10
10
C
_
2
_
4.496 10
16
rad/sec
_
4
_
0.529 10
10
m
_
2
3 (2.998 10
10
m/s)
3
P = 1.291 10
7
Watts
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 53
Problem 13.7
Find and sketch the absolute square of the Fourier transform of the step function in (13.95), and estimate its
spread in . (Use the rst zero of the transform to estimate)
Solution
The step function in (13.95) reads
(x, t) =
_
q/L, [x vt[ < L/2
0, [x vt[ > L/2
(1.6.36)
And now we recall that the functional form of the integral Fourier transform is
f(x, t) =
_
f(, t)e
ikx
dk
A(k, t) =
1
2
_
f(x, t)e
ikx
dx (1.6.37)
Where the integrals are to be taken over the appropriate range. In our case, we substitute (1.6.36) into
(1.6.37), which yields
A(k, t) =
1
2
_
L/2
L/2
_
q
L
_
e
ikx
dx
=
1
2
_
q
L
_
_

e
ikx
ik

L/2
L/2
=
1
2
_
q
L
_
_
e
ikL/2
+ e
ikL/2
ik
_
=
q

sin(kL/2)
kL
(1.6.38)
Taking the absolute square of (1.6.38) leads to
A(k, t) =
q
2

2
sin
2
(kL/2)
(kL)
2
(1.6.39)
In order to estimate the spread of (1.6.39) in , we evaluate the function at the rst zero:
q
2

2
sin
2
(kL/2)
(kL)
2
= 0 kL = 2
L

= 1 = 2L
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
1.7 Homework #7
Problem 13.8
A beam of 2 KeV electrons is stopped in a distance of 0.01 cm.
a) Calculate the total energy of the radiation emitted by each electron (assume constant acceleration).
b) Find the ratio of the emitted energy to the initial electron energy. Use this ratio to nd the radiated power
for an x-ray machine with 300 Watts of power input to accelerate the electrons.
c) Calculate the maximum intensity of the radiation at a distance of 20 cm from the stopping target.
Solution
a) To nd the total energy radiated by each electron, we rst convert the initial kinetic energy of the
electrons (T) from eV to Joules:
T = 2 10
3
eV
1.602 10
19
J
1 eV
T = 3.204 10
16
J
We now recall that the kinetic is given by
T =
1
/
2
mv
2
v =
_
2T
m
(1.7.1)
And, since we are told that the acceleration is constant, we can use one of the kinematic equations
of motion:
v
2
= v
2
o
+ 2ax a =
v
2
o
2x
(1.7.2)
If we take (1.7.1) and substitute it into (1.7.2) and put in the appropriate values,
a =
2T/m
2x

T
mx

_
3.204 10
16
J
_
(9.109 10
31
kg) (.01 10
2
m)
a = 3.518 10
18
m/s
2
We can now nd the power from the following expressions:
P =
2e
2
[a[
2
3c
3
[CGS] (1.7.3a)
P =
e
2
[a[
2
6
0
c
3
[SI] (1.7.3b)
Where (1.7.3a) comes from (13.94) in Franklin, and (1.7.3b) comes from Wikipedia. Doing the
calculation in SI units rst,
P =
(1.602 10
19
C)
2
(3.518 10
18
m/s
2
)
2
6(8.854 10
12
F/m)(2.998 10
8
m/s)
3
P = 7.063 10
17
Watts (1.7.4)
And doing the same in CGS units with (1.7.3a),
P =
24.803 10
10
StatC)
2
(3.518 10
20
cm/s
2
)
2
3(2.998 10
10
cm/s)
3
P = 7.063 10
10
erg/s (1.7.5)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 55
In order to nd the energy emitted, we must nd the time over which this happens. We again turn
to the kinematic equations of motion:
v = v
o
+at t =
v
o
a
Substituting in the expression for v
o
from (1.7.1) into this yields
t =
_
2T/m
a


_
(2) (3.204 10
16
J) / (9.109 10
31
kg)
3.518 10
18
m/s
2
t = 7.540 10
12
s
Now, if we recall that [power]=[energy]/[time], then we can nd the energy by multiplying our
expressions for power from (1.7.4) and (1.7.5), respectively by the time we just calculated:
E =
_
7.063 10
17
Watts
_ _
7.540 10
12
s
_

E = 5.326 10
28
J
= 3.324 10
9
eV
[SI]
E =
_
7.063 10
10
erg/s
_ _
7.540 10
12
s
_
E = 5.326 10
21
erg [CGS]
b) We nd the ratio of the energy emitted to the incident energy (T

/T) simply by taking the specied


ratio from the energy found in the last problem (T

here is the same as E in the last part):


T

T
=
3.324 10
9
eV
2 10
3
eV

T

T
= 1.662 10
12
(1.7.6)
We can use this ratio to nd the power emitted (P

) given the incident power as follows:


P

P
=
T

T
= 1.662 10
12
P

= P 1.662 10
12
Substituting in the appropriate values,
P

=(300 Watts)
_
1.662 10
12
_

P

= 4.986 10
10
Watts
= 3.112 10
9
eV/s
[SI]
P

=
_
4.986 10
10
Watts
_ _
10
7
erg/J
_
P

= 4.986 10
10
erg/s [CGS]
c) To nd the maximum intensity at a given distance, we start with the expressions for the radiation
pattern:
dP
d
=
e
2
[a[
2
8
2

o
c
3
sin
2
[SI] (1.7.7a)
dP
d
=
e
2
[a[
2
4c
3
sin
2
[CGS] (1.7.7b)
Where (1.7.7b) is (13.93) from Franklin, and (1.7.7a) was deduced from (11.69) from Griths. We
also recall from (13.50) that
dP
d
= r
2
r S S =
1
r
2
dP
d
(1.7.8)
Starting in SI units rst, we substitute (1.7.7a) into (1.7.8), which yields
S =
e
2
[a[
2
8
2

0
c
3
1
r
2
sin
2
(1.7.9)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
The maximum intensity will occur when = /2, so that sin
2
1. Also, we recall that the
intensity is really just the time-averaged Poynting vector, so we include a factor of
1
/
2
into our
expressions for the Poynting vector to get the intensity:
[S[ =
e
2
[a[
2
16
2

o
c
3
1
r
2

_
1.602 10
19
C
_
2
_
3.518 10
18
m/s
2
_
2
16
2
(8.854 10
12
F/m) (2.998 10
8
m/s)
3
1
(20 10
2
m)
2

[S[ = 2.108 10
16
Watts/m
2
= 1.316 10
3
eV
[SI]
Similarly, to nd the maximum intensity in CGS units we substitute (1.7.7b) into (1.7.8):
[S[ =
e
2
[a[
2
8c
3
1
r
2
=
_
4.803 10
10
StatC
_
2
(3.518 10
20
cm/s
2
)
2
8 (2.998 10
10
cm/s)
3
1
(20 cm)
2
[S[ = 1.054 10
13
erg/(cm
2
s) [CGS]
Problem 13.10
a) Find the quadrupole moment (Q
0
) of the antenna in problem 13.3.
b) Find the quadrupole radiation pattern. Sketch the angular distribution, and compare it to the exact distri-
bution.
c) Find the maximum intensity and the angle for which it occurs for the quadrupole, and compare these to the
exact results.
d) Find the total quadrupole power radiated and compare to the exact power (evaluate the integral numerically).
Solution
a) We rst recall the relation for the electric quadrupole dyadic from (13.114) of Franklin:
[Q] =
1
2
_
_
3r r r
2

n
_
d
3
r (1.7.10)
We can expand (1.7.10) in equation form as follows:
[Q] =
1
2
_
_
_
3x
2
r
2
3xy 3xz
3yx 3y
2
r
2
3yz
3zx 3zy 3z
2
r
2
_
_
d
3
r (1.7.11)
The current density, , is non-zero only for the z-component, the other components are zero ((x) =
(y) = 0). Therefore, when we expand r
2
= x
2
+y
2
+ z
2
, only the z-component remains. For this
same reasoning all of the odiagonal elements in (1.7.11) go to zero. Therefore, (1.7.11) becomes
[Q] =
1
2
_
_
_
z
2
0 0
0 z
2
0
0 0 2z
2
_
_
dz [Q] =
_
_
_
1
/
2
0 0
0
1
/
2
0
0 0 1
_
_
z
2
dz
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 57
The matrix can be taken out of the integral, and we nd that
[Q] =
_
_
1
/
2
0 0
0
1
/
2
0
0 0 1
_
_
_
z
2
dz
. .
Q
0
(1.7.12)
Where I have bracketed the portion of (1.7.12) that represents Q
0
. To nd Q
0
, we must rst nd
the charge density, . To do this we begin with the continuity equation:
j =

t
=
_
t
0
j dt (1.7.13)
Where the charge density j is really a linear charge density, and can be found by expressed in
terms of the current as
j =
I
L
Substituting this in to (1.7.13),
=
1
L
_
t
0
I dt
=
1
L
_
t
0

z
I(z, t) dt
=
1
L
_
t
0

z
_
I
o
sin
_
2[z[
L
_
e
it
_
dt
=
2
L
2
I
o
cos
_
2[z[
L
__
t
0
e
it
dt
_ _
take only the real part, or
else will be complex!
_
=
2
L
2
I
o
cos
_
2[z[
L
__
t
0
cos(t) dt
=
2
L
2
I
o
cos
_
2[z[
L
__
sin(t)

t
0
=
2
L
2
I
o
cos
_
2[z[
L
_
sin(t) (1.7.14)
Hooray! We can now nd the quadrupole moment by substituting (1.7.14) into (1.7.12):
Q
0
=
_
z
2
dz
=
2
L
2
I
o
sin(t)
_
L/2
L/2
z
2
cos
_
2[z[
L
_
dz
=
2
L
2
I
o
sin(t)
_
_
L/2
0
z
2
cos
_
2[z[
L
_
dz +
_
0
L/2
z
2
cos
_
2[z[
L
_
dz
_
=
4
L
2
I
o
sin(t)
_
L/2
0
z
2
cos
_
2z
L
_
dz (1.7.15)
Where the last step is completed by realizing that the integral is symmetric. We can integrate
(1.7.15) by repeated use of integration by parts:
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
I =
_
L/2
0
z
2
cos
_
2z
L
_
dz
_
u = z
2
du = 2z
dv = cos(2z/L) v = (L/2) sin(2z/L)
=
_
L
2
z
2
sin
_
2z
L
_

L/2
0

_
L/2
0
z sin
_
2z
L
_
dz
=
L
2

_
L
2
_
2
sin
_
2
L

L
2
_

_
L/2
0
z sin
_
2z
L
_
dz
=
L
3
8
sin()
L

_
L/2
0
z sin
_
2z
L
_
dz
=
L

_
L/2
0
z sin
_
2z
L
_
dz
_
u = z du = 1
dv = sin(2z/L) v =

(L/2) cos(2z/L)
=
L

_
_

L
2
z cos
_
2z
L
_

L/2
0
+
L
2
_
L/2
0
cos
_
2z
L
_
dz
_
=
L

L
2

L
2
cos
_
2
L

L
2
_
+
L
2
_
L
2
sin
_
2z
L
_

L/2
0
_
=
L

L
2
4
cos() +
L
2
4
2
sin
_
2
L

L
2
__
=
L

_
L
2
4
+
L
2
4
2
sin()
_
=
L
3
4
2
(1.7.16)
Whew! We can now substitute (1.7.16) into (1.7.15) to get the quadrupole moment:
Q
0
=
4
L
2
I
o
sin(t)
_

L
3
4
2
_
Q
0
=
L

I
o
sin(t) (1.7.17)
b) The quadrupole radiation pattern is given by (13.121) in Franklin as:
dP
d
=
ck
6
Q
2
0
32
cos
2
() sin
2
() (1.7.18)
Substituting (1.7.17) into (1.7.18) yields
dP
d
=
ck
6
32
_
L

I
o
sin(t)
_
2
cos
2
() sin
2
()
=
ck
6
32

L
2

2
I
2
o
sin
2
(t) cos
2
() sin
2
()
=
ck
6
L
2
32
3

2
I
2
o
sin
2
(t) cos
2
() sin
2
() (1.7.19)
If we recall that
2
= c
2
k
2
, then (1.7.19) becomes
dP
d
=
ck
6
L
2
32
3
(c
2
k
2
)
I
2
o
sin
2
(t) cos
2
() sin
2
()
=
k
4
L
2
32
3
c
I
2
o
sin
2
(t) cos
2
() sin
2
() (1.7.20)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 59
If we take the time-average of the time-dependent term in (1.7.20), then we nd that sin
2
(t)
1
/
2
,
and we are left with
dP
d
=
k
4
L
2
64
3
c
I
2
o
cos
2
() sin
2
() (1.7.21)
I have plotted (1.7.21), and is at the very end. The pattern is unnormalized, since we are not given
the values for any of the constants. We do know that within the mess of constant is a factor of
1/64, which tells us that the quadrupole radiation pattern contributes signicantly less to
the total radiated power of the antenna. This makes sense, since the antenna in question is
a dipole antenna, and so it emits mostly dipole radiation.
c) As done previously, we can nd the intensity from the time-averaged Poynting vector, given as
(13.50) in Franklin:
dP
d
= r
2
r S S =
1
r
2
dP
d
r (1.7.22)
So presumably, all we would need to do is substitute (1.7.21) into (1.7.22):
[S[ =
1
r
2
k
4
L
2
64
3
c
I
2
o
cos
2
() sin
2
() (1.7.23)
The intensity of (1.7.24) will reach a maximum when = /4, 3/4, so that cos
2
(/4) sin
2
(/4) =
1/4, and we are nally left with
[S[ =
1
r
2
k
4
L
2
256
3
c
I
2
o
(1.7.24)
d) The total power radiated from a symmetric quadrupole is given by (13.122) in Franklin as
P =
ck
6
Q
2
0
60
(1.7.25)
So, we substitute (1.7.17) into (1.7.25):
P =
ck
6
60
_
L

I
o
sin(t)
_
2
=
ck
6
L
2
60
2

2
I
2
o
sin
2
(t) (1.7.26)
We remember that
2
= c
2
k
2
, and that according to time averaging sin
2
(t) =
1
/
2
, and (1.7.26)
becomes
P =
K
4
L
2
120
2
c
I
2
o
(1.7.27)
Problem 13.11
A conducting sphere of radius R is an oscillating magnetic eld B = B
0
e
it
acquires an induced magnetic
moment .
a) Find the surface current K induced on the conducting sphere (Use the boundary condition on B, including
the magnetic eld due to the induced dipole).
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
b) Integrate the current over the sphere to nd the induced magnetic moment.
Solution
a) This problem bears extreme resemblance to the very similar situation of a conducting sphere in an
external electric eld. One of the most immediately apparent discrepancies is that for a sphere in
an electric eld we are concerned with the electric dipole moment, p, whereas with the magnetic
eld we concern ourselves with the magnetic moment, .
We rst recall that Amperes circuit law states that
H =
3j
c
+
1
c

t
D (1.7.28)
We know that j = 0 inside and outside the sphere as well, so (1.7.28) reduces to
H =
1
c

t
D (1.7.29)
Since the sphere is a conductor, the electric eld inside will be zero, and outside as well, so (1.7.29)
becomes
H = 0 (1.7.30)
Which applies to both interior and exterior of the sphere. We also note that K must only exist at
the interface.
At this point, we introduce the concept of the magnetic scalar potential,
m
, which shares many
of the same characteristics as the electrical analogue,
e
. Most notably, from (7.88) in Franklin,
H =
m
B =
m
(1.7.31)
Now, we remember that from Maxwells equations that monopoles most certainly do not exist:
B = 0 (1.7.32)
And substituting (1.7.31) into (1.7.32) yields
(
m
) = 0
2

m
= 0 (1.7.33)
Which we immediately recognize to be Laplaces equation. We can nd solutions for this equation
by way of analyzing boundary conditions of a sphere imagined to be in an external electric eld,
and then replace the electric potential (
e
) by the magnetic potential (
m
).
So lets get started! For the case of an electric eld, our boundary conditions are

e
(r, ) =
_
0 at r = R
E
0
r cos at r
And the series solution we will be using is

e
(r, ) =

=0
_
A

+
B

r
+1
_
P

(cos ) (1.7.34)
Applying the rst boundary condition to (1.7.34) yields:
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 61

e
(R, ) = A

+
B

R
+1
= 0 B

= A

R
2+1
(1.7.35)
We now substitute (1.7.35) back in to (1.7.34):

e
(r, ) =

=0
_
A

R
2+1
r
+1
_
P

(cos ) (1.7.36)
We now apply the second boundary condition to (1.7.36):

e
(r , ) =

=0
A

(cos ) = E
0
r cos (1.7.37)
By looking at the rst few Legendre Polynomials, ee can see that the only way that the second
boundary condition is satised is if = 1 and A

= A
1
= E
0
. Applying all this to (1.7.36) leads
us to

e
(r, ) = E
0
_
r
R
3
r
2
_
cos (1.7.38)
But not so fast! We must recognize that we must separate (1.7.34) to describe the interior and
exterior potentials of our sphere:

in
m
=

=0
A

(cos ) (1.7.39a)

out
m
=

=0
B

r
+1
P

(cos ) (1.7.39b)
Substituting in the values for the constants we found previously, (1.7.39a) and (1.7.39b) become,
respectively:

in
m
=0 (1.7.40a)

out
m
=B
0
R
3
r
2
cos (1.7.40b)
Under the same logic as the rst boundary condition, we choose the potential inside the sphere to
be zero, so that the eld is zero. We can now nd the interior and exterior elds by substituting
(1.7.40a) and (1.7.40b) into (1.7.33), in turn. We rst recall that the gradient is given (in spherical
coordinates) by
f =
f
r
r +
1
r
f

+
1
r sin
f

(1.7.41)
Since we have no -dependence, (1.7.41) becomes
f =
f
r
r +
1
r
f

(1.7.42)
Substituting (1.7.42), (1.7.40a)-(1.7.40b) into (1.7.33), we have:
B
in
=
in
m
= 0
B
out
=
out
m
=
_

r
r +
1
r

_ _
B
0
R
3
r
2
cos
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
=
_
B
0
R
3
_

r
1
r
2
_
cos r + B
0
R
3
r
3
_

cos
_

_
=2B
0
R
3
r
3
cos r B
0
R
3
r
3
sin

(1.7.43)
We now recall from (7.74) that
4
c
K = n
_
B
out
B
in
_
K =
c
4
n
_
B
out
B
in
_
(1.7.44)
Substituting (1.7.43) into (1.7.44),
K =
c
4
n
_
2B
0
R
3
r
3
cos r B
0
R
3
r
3
sin

_
(1.7.45)
We recall that n is r, and r r = 0, but r

, so (1.7.45) becomes
K =
c
4
B
0
R
3
r
3
sin

(1.7.46)
The surface current is found by evaluating (1.7.46) at r = R:
K =
c
4
B
0
sin e
it

(1.7.47)
Where, you guessed it, I neglected the exponential term and put it back in at the last moment.
b) To nd the magnetic moment ,
=
1
2c
_
r K dS
=
1
2c
_
r
_
c
4
B
0
sin e
it

_
dS
=
B
0
8
2
e
it
_
_
r

_
sin dS
=
B
0
8
2
e
it
_
r sin dS
=
B
0
8
2
e
it
_ _
r sin r
2
sin dd
=
B
0
8
2
e
it
R
3
_
4
2
_
Where I have absorbed the direction into the magnitude B
0
to signify that the magnetic moment
is along the same axis (opposite direction) as the incident eld. We are then left with
=
B
0
2
R
3
e
it
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 63
1.8 Homework #8
Problem 14.1
A space ship is moving with velocity 0.6c shoots a projectile with muzzle velocity 0.8c. Find the projectiles
velocity with respect to a xed target if it is red
a) Straight ahead.
b) Straight backward.
c) At right angles to the ships velocity.
d) Redo parts a,b,c if the muzzle velocity were c.
Solution
The relativistic addition of velocity equations are given by (14.24) and (14.25):
u

=
u

+ v
1 +u

v/c
2
(1.8.1a)
u

=
u

(1 +u

v/c
2
)
(1.8.1b)
And we also know that the Lorentz factor, , is given by
=
1
_
1 v
2
/c
2

1
_
1
2
(1.8.2)
Where = v/c. In our case, the moving frame (S

) is that of the spaceship, which is moving at a velocity


v. Accordingly, we can go ahead and calculate the Lorentz factor from (1.8.2):
=
1
_
1 (0.6c)
2
/c
2
=
1
_
1 (0.6)
2
=
1

1 0.36
=
1

0.64
=
1
0.8
=1.25 (1.8.3)
a) If the projectile is red straight ahead, then u

= 0.8c, and u

= 0. From (1.8.1a),
u

=
u

+v
1 +u

v/c
2
=
(0.8c) + (0.6c)
1 + (0.8c)(0.6c)/c
2
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
=
1.4c
1 + 0.48
=
1.4
1.48
c u

0.9459c
And now from (1.8.1b),
u

=
u

(1 + u

v/c
2
)
u

= 0
b) If the projectile is red straight backwards, then u

= 0.8c, and u

= 0. Once again using


(1.8.1a),
u

=
u

+ v
1 +u

v/c
2
=
(0.8c) + (0.6c)
1 + (0.8c)(0.6c)/c
2
=
0.2c
1 0.48
=
0.2c
0.52
c u

0.3846c
And from (1.8.1b)
u

=
u

(1 + u

v/c
2
)
u

= 0
c) If it is red perpendicular to the ships motion, then we can say that u

= 0, and u

= 0.8c, and
(1.8.1a) becomes
u

=
u

+v
1 +u

v/c
2

0.6c
1
u

= 0.6c
And for the perpendicular component, (1.8.1b) leads us to
u

=
u

(1 +u

v/c
2
)

0.8c
1.25(1)
u

= 0.64c
d) Repeating parts a)-c) warrants no real surprises.
a) From (1.8.1a),
u

=
u

+v
1 +u

v/c
2
=
(c) + (0.6c)
1 + (c)(0.6c)/c
2
=
1.6c
1 + 0.6
=
1.6
1.6
c u

= c
And the perpendicular component is surprisingly uneventful,
u

=
u

(1 +u

v/c
2
)
u

= 0
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 65
b) For the backwards case we have u

= c and u

= 0, we have from (1.8.1a) that


u

=
u

+ v
1 + u

v/c
2
=
(c) + (0.6c)
1 + (c)(0.6c)/c
2
=
0.4c
1 0.6
=
0.4c
0.4
c u

= c
And from (1.8.1b),
u

=
u

(1 +u

v/c
2
)
u

= 0
c) And lastly, but perhaps most interestingly, we let u

= 0 and u

= c, so (1.8.1a) becomes
u

=
u

+v
1 +u

v/c
2

0.6c
1
u

= 0.6c
And for the perpendicular component, (1.8.1b) says that
u

=
u

(1 + u

v/c
2
)

c
1.25(1)
u

= 0.8c
Problem 14.2
a) Use the relativistic velocity addition equations to prove that c added in any direction to any velocity results
in velocity c.
b) Prove that adding any two velocities cannot give a velocity greater than c.
Solution
a) To prove this we start with the relativistic velocity addition equation for parallel trajectories, given
by (14.24) in Franklin:
u

=
u

+ v
1 + u

v/c
2
(1.8.4)
Now, if we let u

= c, then (1.8.4) becomes


u

=
c +v
1 + (c) v/c
2
=
c +v
1 +v/c
=
c + v
1/c (c +v)
u

= c
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
The same result applies if we let u

= c as well.
b) For this next proof, we again start with (1.8.4), but must apply some more algebraic manipulations:
u

=
u

+ v
1 + u

v/c
2
=
c(u

/c +v/c)
1 +u

v/c
2
=
c(1 1 +u

v/c
2
u

v/c
2
+ u

/c + v/c)
1 + u

v/c
2
=
c[1 +u

v/c
2
(1 +u

v/c
2
u

/c v/c)]
1 +u

v/c
2
=c
_
1 + u

v/c
2
1 + u

v/c
2

(1 +u

v/c
2
u

/c v/c)
1 +u

v/c
2
_
=c
_
1
(1 u

/c v/c + u

v/c
2
)
1 +u

v/c
2
_
=c
_
1
(1 u

/c) (1 v/c)
1 + u

v/c
2
_
(1.8.5)
We can see from the bracketed fraction in (1.8.5) that if u

= c, then u

= c, and also if v = c,
then u

= c. If Both are equal to c, then u

= c. If either (or both) are anything less than c, then


u

< c. Therefore, adding any two velocities cannot result in a velocity greater than c .
Problem 14.3
Derive (14.26) and (14.27) for the transformation of acceleration.
Solution
The equations that we are ultimately trying to derive are:
a

=
a

3
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
(1.8.6a)
a

=
a

+ (u

) v/c
2

2
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
3
(1.8.6b)
A good place to start is with the Lorentz transformation equations, given by (14.19)-(14.22) in Franklin:
t

=
_
t xv/c
2
_
x

= (x vt)
y

=y
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 67
z

=z
We can nd the inverse transform equations of these by replacing t t

, x x

, y y

, z z

, and
v v:
t =
_
t

+x

v/c
2
_
(1.8.7a)
x = (x

+vt

) (1.8.7b)
y =y

z =z

Using (1.8.7a), we calculate the following derivative:


t
t

=

t

_
t

+ x

v/c
2
_
=
__
t

_
+
v
c
2
_
x

__
=
_
1 +u

v/c
2
_
=
_
1 +u

v/c
2
_
(1.8.8)
Taking the reciprocal of (1.8.8),
t

t
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
(1.8.9)
Fantastic. Now, we use the chain rule to nd the following derivative:
u

=
x
t
v
=
x
t

t
v
=

t
[ (x

+vt

)]
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
v
=
__
x

_
+ v
_
t

__

1
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
v
=
u

+ v
1 + u

v/c
2
v
=
u

+ v
1 + u

v/c
2
(1.8.10)
Where I used both (1.8.7b) and (1.8.9) in deriving (1.8.10). This is of course the relativistic velocity
addition equation for parallel trajectory, which is (14.24) from Franklin. Similarly, we repeat this process
for the transverse component (I will denote the unit vector perpendicular to the forward motion of v by
v

):
u

=
x
t
v

=
x
t

t
v

W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
=
x
t


1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
v

=
u

(1 +u

v/c
2
)
v

=
u

(1 +u

v/c
2
)
(1.8.11)
Which is of course none other than (14.25) from Franklin.
But wait! We want the acceleration, not the velocity. But be not afraid, as the process of nding a

and a

is very much the same as what we did to nd u

and u

. We start by nding the derivative of


the parallel velocity component:
a

=
u

t
=
u

t
=

t

_
u

+v
1 +u

v/c
2
_

1
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
1
1 + u

v/c
2
_

t

_
u

+ v
_
_
+
_
u

+v
_
_

t

_
1
1 +u

v/c
2
___
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
1
1 +u

v/c
2
_
u

_
+
_
u

+v
_
_

v
c
2
u

_
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
2
___
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
a

1 +u

v/c
2
+
_
u

+v
_
_

v/c
2
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
2
__
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
a

1 +u

v/c
2

1 + u

v/c
2
1 + u

v/c
2
+
_
u

+ v
_
_

v/c
2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
2
__
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
a

_
1 +u

v/c
2
_
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
2
+
_
u

+v
_
_

v/c
2
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
2
__
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

_
1 +u

v/c
2
_

_
u

+v
_
a

v/c
2
_
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

+ a

(u

v) /v
2
a

(u

v) /c
2
a

v
2
/c
2
_
=
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

v
2
/c
2
_
=
a

(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
1 v
2
/c
2
_
(1.8.12)
If we recognize that the term in braces in (1.8.14) is just
2
, then we are nally left with
a

=
a

3
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
3
Which we can see is the same as (1.8.1a). For the perpendicular component,
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 69
a

=
u

t
=
u

t
=

t

_
u

(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_

1
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
1
1 + u

v/c
2
_
u

_
+u

_

t

1
1 +u

v/c
2
__
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
a

1 +u

v/c
2
+u

v
c
2
_
u

_
1
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
2
__
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
a

1 +u

v/c
2
u

v/c
2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
2
_
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
a

1 +u

v/c
2

1 + u

v/c
2
1 + u

v/c
2
u

v/c
2
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
2
_
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
_
a

_
1 +u

v/c
2
_
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
2
u

v/c
2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
2
_
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

_
1 + u

v/c
2
_
u

(a

v) /c
2
_
(1.8.13)
At this point, it should be noted that we must be extremely careful with our vectors and scalar products.
In particular, we recall that a

v = a

v v v = a

v. Continuing (1.8.15),
a

=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

+ a

_
u

v
_
/c
2
u

_
a

v
_
/c
2
_
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

+
_
a

_
u

v/c
2
u

v/c
2
_
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

+ a

v/c
2
a

v/c
2
u

v/c
2
_
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

+ a

v/c
2
a

v/c
2
_
u

+u

__
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

+ a

v/c
2
a

v/c
2
_
=
1

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

+
1
c
2
_
a

v a

v
_
_
(1.8.14)
We now recall the triple product A (BC) = B(A C) C(A B). We can apply this to the
bracketed term in (1.8.14):
_
a

v a

v
_
=
_
a

v a

v
_
=
_
u

_
a

v
_
a

_
u

v
__
= [u

(v a

) a

(v u

)]
= [v (u

)]
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
=(u

) v (1.8.15)
Substituting (1.8.15) into (1.8.14),
a

=
1

2
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
3
_
a

+
1
c
2
[(u

) v]
_
Bringing in the factor from outside and bringing up the factor c
2
, we are left with
a

=
a

+ (u

) v/c
2

2
(1 +u

v/c
2
)
3
Which we can see is identical to (1.8.6b).
Problem 14.4
An object falls from constant acceleration (in its rest system) of g.
a) Find its velocity after a time t. (Answer: v = gt/
_
1 +g
2
t
2
/c
2
)
b) What is its velocity after one year?
c) Find p/m of the object at time t. Sketch graphics of v(t) and p(t)/m.
Solution
a) To nd the velocity, we start with Newtons 2
nd
Law:
F = ma
dp
dt
(1.8.16)
However, we must be careful here - the momentum is relativistic, and must treat it accordingly:
p = mv
mv
_
1 v
2
/c
2
(1.8.17)
Substituting (1.8.17) into (1.8.16), we nd that
a =
d
dt
_
v
_
1 v
2
/c
2
_

_
t
0
a(t) dt =
v
_
1 v
2
/c
2
(1.8.18)
Recalling that in our case a = g, so that (1.8.18) becomes
g
_
t
0
dt =
v
_
1 v
2
/c
2
gt +C =
v
_
1 v
2
/c
2
(1.8.19)
Our object starts at rest, so v(0) = 0, so C = 0, so (1.8.19) becomes
gt =
v
_
1 v
2
/c
2
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 71
g
2
t
2
=
v
2
1 v
2
/c
2
v
2
=g
2
t
2
_
1 v
2
/c
2
_
v
2
=g
2
t
2
v
2
g
2
t
2
/c
2
g
2
t
2
=v
2
+v
2
g
2
t
2
/c
2
g
2
t
2
=v
2
_
1 + g
2
t
2
/c
2
_
v
2
=
g
2
t
2
1 + g
2
t
2
/c
2
(1.8.20)
From (1.8.20) it is easy to see that we are left with
v(t) =
gt
_
1 +g
2
t
2
/c
2
(1.8.21)
b) Does this question ask us to nd the velocity in the frame of an observer on Earth, or in the frame
of the ship? Lets nd out both! The velocity according to an observer on ship is easy, we can just
use (1.8.21), but rst lets nd t:
1 yr
365 day
1 yr

24 hr
1 day

60 min
1 hr

60 sec
1 min
= 31.539 10
6
sec
Substituting this value into (1.8.21), we nd that
v (1 yr) =
(9.810 m/s
2
)(31.539 10
6
s)
_
1 + (9.810 m/s
2
)(31.539 10
6
s)/(2.998 10
8
m/s)]
2
v (1 yr) = 0.7181c [Ship frame]
Now, to nd the velocity after one year in the Earths frame, we must instill a little mathematical
voodoo. We start with the denition of acceleration:
a

=
du

dt
=
du

dt


dt

dt
=
d
dt

_
u

+v
1 +u

v/c
2
_

1
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
(1.8.22)
Letting u

0, (1.8.22) becomes
a

=
1

dv
dt

(1.8.23)
Now, we take a look at (14.26) from Franklin, and also let u

0:
a

=
a

3
(1 + u

v/c
2
)
3
a

=
a

3
(1.8.24)
Equating (1.8.23) and (1.8.24),
1

dv
dt

=
a

3

dv
dt

=
a

2
(1.8.25)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
If we notice that a

= g, then (1.8.25) becomes

2
dv = g dt


_
v
0
1
1 v
2
/c
2
dv = g
_
t

0
dt

(1.8.26)
Things get a little easier if we let u = v/c, du = (1/c)dv. With this, (1.8.26) becomes
c
_
v
0
1
1 u
2
du = gt

(1.8.27)
This integral requires using hyperbolic trig substitutions, and is a well-known integral. Pressing on,
(1.8.27) becomes
c
_
tanh
1
(u)

= gt

c
_
tanh
1
_
v
c
__
= gt

v
c
= tanh
_
gt

c
_
v = c tanh
_
gt

c
_
(1.8.28)
Hooray! Substituting in the appropriate values into (1.8.28) yields
v (1 yr) = tanh
_
(9.810 m/s
2
)(31.539 10
6
s)
2.998 10
8
m/s
_
c
v (1 yr) = 0.7757c [Earth frame]
c) To nd p/m as a function of t, we must go back and use the result from the rst part of the problem.
The momentum is of course given by p(t) = mv(t), however which v(t) should we use? Lets use
both! I will go ahead and use the rst result, the one derived in part a). We begin by nding the
Lorentz factor, , with this velocity:
=
_
1
v
2
c
2
_

1
/2
=
_
_
1
1
c
2
_
gt
_
1 + g
2
t
2
/c
2
_
2
_
_

1
/2
=
_
1
1
c
2
_
g
2
t
2
1 +g
2
t
2
/c
2
__

1
/2
=
_
1
g
2
t
2
c
2
+g
2
t
2
_

1
/2
=
_
c
2
+ g
2
t
2
c
2
+ g
2
t
2

g
2
t
2
c
2
+g
2
t
2
_

1
/2
=
_
c
2
c
2
+ g
2
t
2
_

1
/2
=
_
c
2
+ g
2
t
2
c
2
_
1
/2
(1.8.29)
We can now use (1.8.29) to nd the p(t)/m:
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 73
p(t)
m
=v(t)
=
_
c
2
+g
2
t
2
c
2
_
1
/2
gt
_
1 + g
2
t
2
/c
2
=
_
c
2
+g
2
t
2
c
2
_
1
/2
_
c
2
c
2
+ g
2
t
2
_
1
/2
gt (1.8.30)
From (1.8.30) it is clear that we are left with:
p(t)
m
= gt (1.8.31)
We now do the same for the velocity in the Earths frame from (1.8.28):
p(t)
m
=v(t)
=
1
_
1 v
2
/c
2
v(t)
=
1
_
1 (c tanh (gt/c))
2
/c
2
c tanh
_
gt
c
_
=
1
_
1 tanh
2
(gt/c)
c tanh
_
gt
c
_
=
1
_
sech
2
(gt/c)
c tanh
_
gt
c
_
=cosh (gt/c)
sinh
2
(gt/c)
cosh
2
(gt/c)
c (1.8.32)
It is easy to see that (1.8.32) leads us to
p(t)
m
=
sinh
2
(gt/c)
cosh (gt/c)
c (1.8.33)
A plot of v(t) from (1.8.21) and (1.8.28) is attached (they look the same). There is also a plot of
(1.8.33), however I have not included (1.8.31), as it is just a straight line, and straight lines are
never fun. Plots can be seen at the end of this homework assignment.
Problem 14.5
A space ship 100 meters long ies through an open hanger 80 meters long.
a) How fast must the space ship y in order to permit both doors of the hanger to be briey closed at the same
time while the space ship is inside?
b) How would the pilot of the space ship interpret what happens as the doors close and then reopen?
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
Solution
a) We begin with the equation for length contraction, which reads
L

=
L

(1.8.34)
While the Lorentz factor, , is given by
=
1
_
1 v
2
/c
2
(1.8.35)
Substituting (1.8.35) into (1.8.34),
L

L
=
_
1 v
2
/c
2

_
L

L
_
2
= 1
v
2
c
2
(1.8.36)
Solving (1.8.36) for v,
v =

_
_
1
_
L

L
_
2
_
c
2
=

1
_
80 m
100 m
_
2
c
=

1
_
4
5
_
2
c
=
_
1
16
25
c
=
_
9
25
c
=
3
5
c v = 0.6c (1.8.37)
b) First of all, the doors will not be able to close simultaneously, which is dependent on the observer.
We note that although a person standing next to the hanger will observe the space ship appearing
shorter, the pilot will also see the hanger getting shorter.
At the end of the day, whether this event is observed to happens depends on the observer, and
also their denition of simultaneous. A person standing next to the hanger will say that the back
end of the space ship will make it through the entrance to the hanger before the front of the ship
hits the forward wall of the hanger. However, the pilot sees it just the other way around. To him,
his ship is too long to t in the hanger, and he sees the front of his ship hit the far wall of the
hanger before the tail end of the ship makes it all the way through the entrance of the hanger.
Problem 14.6
A jet plane circles the Earth at the equator with a speed of Mach 4. By how much time is the pilots watch
slow when he lands?
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 75
Solution
We know that the kilometer was originally dened as the distance from the equator to the North pole
divided by ten million. Assuming that this value is correct, then this implies that the circumference of
the Earth is 40, 000, 000 m, or 4 10
7
m. I will assume that the pilot is ying at sea level - since no
other values were specied.
We also know that the Mach system denes velocity in terms of the speed of sound in the local
media. At sea level, Mach 4 turns out to be 1.361 10
3
m/s. We also know the speed of light, so the
constants needed in this problem are:
x =4.000 10
7
m
v =1.361 10
3
m/s
c =2.998 10
8
m/s
And if we dene = v/c, then we can say that
=
v
c
=
1.361 10
3
m/s
2.998 10
8
m/s
= 4.540 10
6
If we let t designate the time measured on Earth, and t

0
be the time measured in the local reference
frame of the ship, then the change in time is
t = t t

0
(1.8.38)
And the equation for time dilation is
t

0
=
t

(1.8.39)
Substituting (1.8.39) into (1.8.38),
t =t
t

=t
_
1
1

_
=t
_
1
_
1
2
_
(1.8.40)
Since 1, we can expand (1.8.40) in a series expansion:
t = t
_
1
_
1

2
2


4
8


6
16
...
__
Taking only the rst two terms,
t = t
_
1
_
1

2
2
__
t =
t
2
2
(1.8.41)
We can now say that from (1.8.41) the time lost per second is given by
t
t
=

2
2

_
4.540 10
6
_
2
2

t
t
= 1.030 10
11
(1.8.42)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
This means that the space ships clock lags behind by t/t = 10.30 ps for every second that it is at
speed.
The time that the ship is orbiting is given by
v =
x
t
t =
x
v

4.000 10
7
m
1.361 10
3
m/s
t = 2.945 10
4
s
Using (1.8.42), we nd that the total time dierence between the clocks after the ship returns is
_
t
t
_
(t) =
_
1.030 10
11
_ _
2.945 10
4
s
_
t = 3.035 10
7
s (30.35 ns)
Problem 14.8
a) Show that the matrix equations [

L][G][L] = [G] holds for the Lorentz matrix [L


(x)
()].
b) Find the Lorentz matrix for a Lorentz transformation of velocity v = c(

i +

j)/

2
Solution
a) We recall that from (14.66) in Franklin that x

= [L]x. In Matrix form, spanning all four-vectors,


_
_
_
_
ct

_
_
_
_
= [L]
_
_
_
_
ct
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
(1.8.43)
We also recall the value of [G] from (14.69):
[G] =
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
The question asks us to prove the orthogonality condition for only [L
(x)
()], but it can be shown to
be true in a more general case through linear algebra. Before we begin, we recall that ([A] [B])
T
=
[B]
T
[A]
T
. Using this identity, in conjunction with (1.8.43), we see that
_
ct x y z
_
[G]
_
_
_
_
ct
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
=
_
ct x y z
_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
ct
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
=
_
ct x y z
_
_
_
_
_
ct
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 77
=c
2
t
2
x
2
y
2
z
2
(1.8.44)
We can do the same calculation using the orthogonality condition in place of [G]:
_
ct x y z
_
[

L][G][L]
_
_
_
_
ct
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
ct x y z
_
[

L]
_
[G]
_

_
[L]
_
_
_
_
ct
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
_

_
=
_

_
[L]
_
_
_
_
ct
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
_

_
T
[G]
_

_
[L]
_
_
_
_
ct
x
y
z
_
_
_
_
_

_
=
_

_
_
_
_
_
ct

_
_
_
_
_

_
T
[G]
_

_
_
_
_
_
ct

_
_
_
_
_

_
=
_
ct

_
_
_
_
_
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
ct

_
_
_
_
=
_
ct

_
_
_
_
_
ct

_
_
_
_
=c
2
t
2
x
2
y
2
y
2
(1.8.45)
We note that the results from (1.8.44) and (1.8.45) are remarkably similar, and seem surprisingly
familiar. Of course! They are Lorentz invariants these values are independent of coordinate
transformations, and so they must be equal. Therefore, from (1.8.44) and (1.8.45), we have shown
that:
[

L][G][L] = [G]
b) To nd the Lorentz matrix for the velocity given, we rst break it down into its two components:
v =
c

2
_

i +

j
_

v
x
= c/

2

i = v
x
/

2

i
v
y
= c/

2

j = v
y
/

2

j
It is now in our best interest to dene:

x
=
v
x
c

2
, and
y
=
v
y
c

2
The equation that allows you to nd the Lorentz matrix for an arbitrary velocity is given in many
textbooks, and is given by:
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
[L()] =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

x

y

z

x
1 + ( 1)

2
x

2
( 1)

2
( 1)

y
( 1)

2
1 + ( 1)

2
y

2
( 1)

z
( 1)

2
( 1)

2
1 + ( 1)

2
z

2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
We know the values for
x
and
y
, and also that
z
= 0, so this matrix becomes
[L()] =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

x

y
0

x
1 + ( 1)

2
x

2
x
+
2
y
( 1)

x

2
x
+
2
y
0

y
( 1)

y

2
x
+
2
y
1 + ( 1)

2
y

2
x
+
2
y
0
0 0 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
If we substitute back in the values for
x
and
y
, this leaves us with
[L()] =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

vx
c

2

vy
c

2
0

v
x
c

2
1 + ( 1)
v
2
x
v
2
x
+v
2
y
( 1)
v
x
v
y
v
2
x
+v
2
y
0

v
y
c

2
( 1)
v
y
v
x
v
2
x
+ v
2
y
1 + ( 1)
v
2
y
v
2
x
+ v
2
y
0
0 0 0 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1.9 Homework #9
Problem 14.11
a) Derive the nonrelativistic result for stellar aberration by considering the motion (with v c) of a telescope
transverse to incoming light.
b) Show that, for v c, the relativistic formula for aberration agrees with the nonrelativistic result.
c) Calculate the maximum aberration angle due to the Earths orbital velocity of 30 km/sec.
Solution
a) Solution shown in part b).
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 79
b) We rst recall the equations relating to the relativistic addition of velocities, from (14.24) and
(14.25) in Franklin, respectively:
u

=
u

+v
1 +u

v/c
2
(1.9.1a)
u

=
u

(1 + u

v/c
2
)
(1.9.1b)
Excellent. Lets examine each of these equations; lets do (1.9.1a) rst. We recall that u

= u

cos .
Applying this to (1.9.1a),
u

=
u

cos +v
1 + (u

cos ) v/c
2
(1.9.2)
And since space is a vacuum, then we can replace u

c u

. Then (1.9.2) becomes


u

=
c cos u

+v
1 +v cos /c
(1.9.3)
Now, we do the same thing for (1.9.1b). First, we note that u

= u

sin , and (1.9.1b) becomes


u

=
u

sin
(1 + (u

cos ) v/c
2
)
(1.9.4)
We now let u

c u

, and now (1.9.4) reads


u

=
c sin u

(1 +v cos /c)
(1.9.5)
We now, seemingly arbitrarily, divide both sides of (1.9.3) by c and let u

ucos

c cos

u:
u

c
=
1
c
_
c cos u

+v
1 +v cos /c
_
ucos

c
=
cos + v/c
1 + v cos /c
u

c cos

c
u =
cos +
1 + cos
u

cos

=
cos +
1 + cos
(1.9.6)
We now do the same mantra for (1.9.5):
u

c
=
1
c
_
c sin u

(1 +v cos /c)
_
usin

c
=
sin
(1 + v cos /c)
u

c sin

c
u =
sin
(1 + cos )
u

sin

=
sin
(1 + cos )
(1.9.7)
We now divide (1.9.7) by (1.9.6),
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
sin

cos

=
_
sin
(1 + cos )
_ _
1 + cos
cos +
_
tan

=
sin
(cos + )
(1.9.8)
We recognize (1.9.8) to be none other than our good friend (14.109) out of Franklin. Now, in the
nonrelativistic limit, we know that 1, and =

1. Just something to keep in mind.


We now wish to solve (1.9.6) for cos :
cos

=
cos +
1 + cos
(1.9.9)
Perhaps the best way to do this is to expand the denominator of (1.9.9) in powers of :
1
1 + cos
1 cos +
2
cos
2

3
cos
3
+ ...
We now take the rst two terms and substitute in to (1.9.9):
cos

=(cos +) (1 cos )
=cos cos
2
+ +
2
cos (1.9.10)
We neglect
2
, and (1.9.10) becomes
cos

=cos cos
2
+
=cos
_
1 sin
2

_
+
=cos + sin
2
+
=cos + sin
2
(1.9.11)
We now innocently recall the following trig identity:
cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin
Now, playing with the LHS of (1.9.11), and applying this identity,
cos

=cos [(

) +]
=cos (

) cos sin (

) sin (1.9.12)
Now, we recall the series exansions:
cos (

) =1
(

)
2
2
+
(

)
4
24
...
sin (

) =(

)
(

)
3
6
+
(

)
5
120
...
Taking on the rst terms in both of these expansions and substituting in to (1.9.12) yields
cos

=cos (

) sin (1.9.13)
Equating (1.9.11) and (1.9.13),
cos + sin
2
=cos (

) sin
sin
2
= (

) sin
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 81
(

) = sin (1.9.14)
Recalling that =

, and substituting in the appropriate value of , we are left with


=
v
c
sin (1.9.15)
Which is of course the nonrelativistic result. Hurrah!
c) Using the nonrelativistic result which we just derived ending with (1.9.15), we note that the maxi-
mum aberration angle will be obtained when sin = 1, and so we have:

max
=
v
c

30 10
3
m/s
2.998 10
8
m/s
1.000 10
4
rad (1.9.16)
Recalling that 1arcsecond = 1

= 4.848 10
6
rad, then (1.9.16) becomes

max
=
1.000 10
4
rad
4.848 10
6
rad/arcsecond

max
= 20.64

Problem 14.13
Find the velocity of 1 TeV protons, and of 20 GeV electrons (Express your answer as 1 v).
Solution
We rst recall the equations for total energy, which read:
E
tot
=T +m
0
c
2
(1.9.17a)
=( 1) m
0
c
2
(1.9.17b)
=m
0
c
2
(1.9.17c)
So, recalling that for a proton m
p
c
2
= 938 MeV, from (1.9.17c) we have
E
tot
=m
p
c
2
E
tot
m
p
c
2
=
1
_
1 v
2
/c
2
m
p
c
2
E
tot
=
_
1
v
2
c
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(E
tot
)
2
=1
v
2
c
2
v
2
c
2
=1
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(E
tot
)
2
v
2
=c
2
_
1
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(E
tot
)
2
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
v =c

1
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(E
tot
)
2
(1.9.18)
Substituting the appropriate values into (1.9.18) yields
v (p) = c

1
(938 10
6
eV)
2
(1 10
12
eV)
2
v (p) = 0.9999996c
Or in natural units,
1 v (p) = 4.399 10
7
Now we must do the same for 20 GeV electrons, but rst recall that m
e
c
2
= 0.511 MeV. Still using
(1.9.18), we have
v
_
e

_
= c

1
(.511 10
6
eV)
2
(20 10
9
eV)
2
v
_
e

_
= 0.9999999996c
Or in natural unites,
1 v
_
e

_
= 3.264 10
10
Problem 14.14
Antiprotons were rst produced by colliding a beam of protons with protons at rest (xed target) in the reaction
p + p p + p + p + p.
a) What minimum beam energy is required to produce antiprotons in this process?
b) In the actual experiment, the protons were bound inside heavi nuclei, which resulted in some of them having
a kinetic energy of 40 MeV. What incident energy would be required to produce antiprotons o these protons
if their velocity was directed toward the beam?
Solution
The minimum beam energy is also known as the threshold energy, or when the incident energy
is just large enough to cover the rest mass energy of the resultant particles with none wasted on
kinetic energy.
Initially (before collision), we have
Momentum : p
p
Energy : E
2
p
= p
2
p
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
Total energy : E
p
+ E
0
=
_
p
2
p
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
+ m
p
c
2
And nally (after collision), we have
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 83
Energy : E
2
= (4m
p
c
2
)
2
Now, lets make a table:
Lab Frame COM Frame
E
tot
E
b
+ m
p
c
2
4m
p
c
2
p
tot
p
b
0
Invariant (E
b
+m
p
c
2
)
2
p
2
b
c
2
(4m
p
c
2
)
2
Fantastico. Now, we set the invariant terms equal to one another, since their values do not change
under coordinate transformations:
(4m
p
c
2
)
2
=(E
b
+m
p
c
2
)
2
p
2
b
c
2
16m
2
p
c
4
=E
2
b
+m
2
p
c
4
+ 2E
b
m
p
c
2
p
2
b
c
2
16m
2
p
c
4
=
_
E
2
b
p
2
b
c
2

+ 2E
b
m
p
c
2
+ m
2
p
c
4
(1.9.19)
We now recall that E
2
b
p
2
b
c
2
= m
2
p
c
4
. Then (1.9.19) becomes
16m
2
p
c
4
=
_
m
2
p
c
4

+ 2E
b
m
p
c
2
+ m
2
p
c
4
16m
2
p
c
4
=2m
2
p
c
4
+ 2E
b
m
p
c
2
14m
2
p
c
4
=2E
b
m
p
c
2
(1.9.20)
From which it is easy to see that
E
b
= 7m
p
c
2
6.5660 GeV (1.9.21)
We know that (1.9.21) of course represents the total energy of the beam, the kinetic energy of the
beam is
E
b
= T
b
+ m
p
c
2
T
b
= E
b
m
p
c
2
T
b
= 6m
p
c
2
5.6280 GeV
Problem 14.15
a) A
+
(140) meson decays at rest into a
+
(106) lepton and a (0) neutrino (the mass in MeV is given in
parenthesis for each particle). Find the energy, momentum, and velocity of the produced muons. Muons
produced in this way are identied by the fact that they all have the same energy.
b) A neutron at rest decays in the beta decay process n(939.6) p(938.3) + e(0.51) +(0). Find the electrons
energy if there were no neutrino emitted in this decay. The fact that the decay electrons did not all have this
energy was the rst clue to the existence of the neutrino.
Solution
a) We recall that the total beam energy is given by
E
tot
=T + m
0
c
2
(1.9.22a)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
=
_
p
2
c
2
+ (m
0
c
2
)
2
(1.9.22b)
Initially, the total energy comes entirely from the rest mass energy of the pion, since it is at rest,
so:
E
i
tot
_

+
_
= m

c
2
(1.9.23)
Finally, the energy is attributed to the total energy of the muon, and the neutrino. The total energy
of the muon is given by
E
f
tot
_

+
_
=T + m

c
2
=
_
p
2

c
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
(1.9.24)
And similarly, for the neutrino (recall that the neutrino has a zero rest mass):
E
f
tot
() =T +m

c
2
=
_
p
2

c
2
=p

c (1.9.25)
We now set the initial energy (from (1.9.23)) equal to the total nal energy (given by (1.9.24) and
(1.9.25)):
E
i
tot
_

+
_
=E
f
tot
_

+
_
+ E
f
tot
()
m

c
2
=
_
p
2

c
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
+ p

c (1.9.26)
If we recognize that the magnitude of the momentum of the muon (p

) is the same as that for the


neutrino (p

), then (1.9.26) becomes


m

c
2
=
_
p
2

c
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
+ p

c
m

c
2
p

c =
_
p
2

c
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
_
m

c
2
p

c
_
2
=p
2

c
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
+ p
2

c
2
2m

c
3
p

=p
2

c
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
2m

c
3
p

=(m

c
2
)
2
2m

c
3
p

=(m

c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
p

c =
1
2
_
(m

c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
m

c
2
_
(1.9.27)
Plugging in the appropriate values in to (1.9.27), we have
p

c =
1
2
_
(140 10
6
eV)
2
(106 10
6
eV)
2
140 10
6
eV
_
p

c = 29.87 MeV (1.9.28)


To nd the nal energy of the muon, we go back to (1.9.24):
E
f
tot
_

+
_
=
_
p
2

c
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
=
_
(29.87 10
6
eV)
2
+ (106 10
6
)
2
E
f
tot
_

+
_
= 110.1 MeV (1.9.29)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 85
And the velocity can be found by recalling that the total energy can be expressed as
E
tot
= m
0
c
2
(1.9.30)
And also that the Lorentz factor is given by
=
1
_
1 v
2
/c
2
(1.9.31)
Substituting (1.9.31) into (1.9.30),
E
tot
=
m
0
c
2
_
1 v
2
/c
2
(E
tot
)
2
=
(m
0
c
2
)
2
1 v
2
/c
2
1
v
2
c
2
=
(m
0
c
2
)
2
(E
tot
)
2
v
2
c
2
=1
(m
0
c
2
)
2
(E
tot
)
2
v =c

1
(m
0
c
2
)
2
(E
tot
)
2
(1.9.32)
Applying this to the case of the muon, and substituting in the previosu values calculated, we have
v =c

1
(106 10
6
eV)
2
(110.1 10
6
eV)
2
v = 0.2712c
b) At the beginning, all the energy comes from the rest mass energy of the neutron:
E
i
tot
(n) = m
n
c
2
(1.9.33)
Finally, the total energy comes from the total energy of the proton, electron, and neutrino. The
total energy of the proton is
E
f
tot
(p) =T + m
p
c
2
=
_
p
2
p
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
(1.9.34)
The total energy of the electron is
E
f
tot
(e

) =T + m
e
c
2
=
_
p
2
e
c
2
+ (m
e
c
2
)
2
(1.9.35)
If we assume that no neutrino is ejected, as the prompt suggests, then from (1.9.33)-(1.9.35),
conservation of energy says that
E
i
tot
(n) =E
f
tot
(p) +E
f
tot
(e

)
m
n
c
2
=
_
p
2
p
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
+
_
p
2
e
c
2
+ (m
e
c
2
)
2
(1.9.36)
If we assume that the magnetude of the momentum of the proton is equal to that of the electron
(p
p
= p
e
= p), then (1.9.36) becomes
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
m
n
c
2
=
_
p
2
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
+
_
p
2
c
2
+ (m
e
c
2
)
2
(m
n
c
2
)
2
=
_
_
p
2
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
+
_
p
2
c
2
+ (m
e
c
2
)
2
_
2
=p
2
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
+ p
2
c
2
+ (m
e
c
2
)
2
+ 2
_
(p
2
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
) (p
2
c
2
+ (m
e
c
2
)
2
)
=2p
2
c
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
+ (m
e
c
2
)
2
+ 2
_
(p
2
c
2
)
2
+ p
2
c
2
(m
e
c
2
)
2
+p
2
c
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
+ (m
p
c
2
)
2
(m
e
c
2
)
2
Seeing as how the width of my paper has already been exceeded, the rest of this calculation will be
done in Mathematica. The result for the momentum is given by
pc =
_
(M
e
M
n
M
p
) (M
e
+M
n
M
p
) (M
e
M
n
+ M
p
) (M
e
+M
n
+ M
p
)
2M
n
(1.9.37)
Where M
e
= m
e
c
2
, M
p
= m
p
c
2
and M
n
= m
n
c
2
. Substituting in the appropriate values into
(1.9.37) (steps not shown). The result is
pc = 1.1945 MeV
The total energy of the ejected electron is then
E
tot
_
e

_
=
_
((1.1945 10
6
eV)
2
+ (0.511 10
6
eV)
2
E
tot
_
e

_
= 1.299 MeV
Problem 14.16
A (1116) hyperon with a kinetic energy of 2400 MeV decays in ight into a proton (938) and a pion (140).
The pion has its maximum laboratory energy when it is emitted in the same (forward) direction as the . What
is this maximum pion energy?
Solution
Be warned - I will skip muchos stepos in this problema. Our reaction is
p +
And before we get down to any funny business, we recall the following Lorentz invariant:
E
2
= p
2
c
2
+ (m
0
c
2
)
2
(1.9.38)
In terms of the four-vectors, and our element becomes:
E
2

p
2

c
2
=(E
p
+E

)
2
(p
p
c + p

c)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
=E
2
p
+ E
2

+ 2E
p
E

p
2
p
p
2

2(p
p
c)(p

c)
=
_
E
2
p
p
2
p

+
_
E
2

p
2

+ 2E
p
E

2(p
p
c)(p

c)
=(m
p
c
2
)
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
+ 2 (E
p
E

(p
p
c)(p

c)) (1.9.39)
CHAPTER 1: ELECTRODYNAMICS II 87
Rearranging things a bit in (1.9.39) leads to
(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
=2 (E
p
E

(p
p
c)(p

c))
(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
2
=E
p
E

(p
p
c)(p

c) (1.9.40)
Now, we musnt forget that momentum is a vector, so that the scalar product on the RHS of (1.9.40)
must be appropriately altered:
(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
2
=E
p
E

(p
p
c)(p

c) cos (1.9.41)
If the pion is ejected forward, and the proton backwards, then cos(180
o
) = 1, so now the magnitudes
are equal (p
p
= p

= p), and (1.9.41) becomes


(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
2
=E
p
E

p
2
c
2
(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
2
=E
p
E

+E
2

(m

c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
2
=E

(E
p
+ E

) (m

c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
(m

c
2
)
2
2
=E

(m

c
2
) (m

c
2
)
2
We in the home stretch now buddy!
E

(m

c
2
) =
(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
2
E

=
(m

c
2
)
2
(m
p
c
2
)
2
+ (m

c
2
)
2
2(m

c
2
)
(1.9.42)
Substituting in the appropriate values leads us to
E

= 172.6 MeV
Problem 14.17
The muon has a lifetime of = 2.2 10
6
sec. Muons are produced by cosmic rays hitting the upper atmo-
sphere at 80 km above the Earth. What energy must a muon have to be able to reach the Earth within its
lifetime? The fact that the large numbers of such muons do reach the Earth is a verication of the time dilation
prediction of special relativity.
Solution
Since the muons are traveling relativistically, then the particles will last longer by a vactor of , allowing
them to reach Earth before decaying.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
The rst step, then, is to nd the speed that our thrifty muons must travel at in order to achieve
this feat. We recall that v = x/t x = vt, where t = . We now have:
x =v
x =
v
_
1 v
2
/c
2
v =x
_
1 v
2
/c
2
v
2

2
=x
2
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
v
2

2
=x
2

v
2
x
2
c
2
x
2
=v
2

2
+
v
2
x
2
c
2
x
2
=v
2
_

2
+
x
2
c
2
_
v
2
=
x
2

2
+ x
2
/c
2
v =
x
_

2
+ x
2
/c
2
(1.9.43)
Hooray! Plugging in the appropriate values to (1.9.43) leads us to
v =
80 10
3
m
_
(2.2 10
6
s) + (80 10
3
m)
2
/ (2.998 10
8
m/s)
=2.998 m/s
=0.99997c (1.9.44)
The total energy is given by
E
tot
= m
o
c
2
(1.9.45)
If we recall that the rest mass energy of muon is 106 MeV, and substituting in the value obtained from
(1.9.44), we have
E
tot
() =
106 10
6
eV
_
1 (0.99997)
2
E
tot
() = 12.96 GeV
Chapter 2
Quantum Mechanics II
2.1 Homework #1
Exercise 9.3
In a two-slit interference experiment with particles of denite wave number (energy) k, the slits A and B are
located at positions r
A
and r
B
. At large distances from the slits, the amplitudes r[A) and r[B) are to reasonable
accuracy represented by r[A) e
ik|rAr|
and r[B) e
ik|rBr|
. Show how, to within a constant of proportional-
ity, the probability of nding the particle at position r depends on the dierence of the distances from A to B to
the point of observation, and on the relative magnitude and phase of the amplitudes A[) and B[), which are
determined by the experimental arrangement.
Solution
We rst recall that we can expand the coecients r[) as
r[) =r[A)A[) + r[B)B[) (2.1.1)
Finding the magnitude of (2.1.1),
[r[)[
2
=[r[A)A[) +r[B)B[)[
2
=[r[A)A[)[
2
+[r[B)B[)[
2
+ 2Re r[A)A[)r[B)B[) (2.1.2)
Where we note that we can write the following:
[r[A)A[)[
2
=(r[A)A[))

r[A)A[)
=A[r)[A)r[A)A[)
=[A)A[r)r
..
1
[A)A[)
=[A) A[A)
. .
1
A[)
=[A)A[)
=[A[)[
2
(2.1.3)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
Using the same logic as what lead to (2.1.3), we can also say that
[r[B)B[)[
2
=[B[)[
2
(2.1.4)
Using (2.1.3) and (2.1.4), we can now rewrite (2.1.2):
[r[)[
2
=[A[)[
2
+ [B[)[
2
+ 2Re r[A)A[)r[B)B[) (2.1.5)
We recall from the prompt that
r[A) e
ik|rAr|
(2.1.6a)
r[B) e
ik|rBr|
(2.1.6b)
Substituting (2.1.6a)-(2.1.6b) into (2.1.5), we have:
[r[)[
2
=[A[)[
2
+[B[)[
2
+ 2Re
_
e
ik|rAr|
A[)e
ik|rBr|
B[)
_
(2.1.7)
Lets assume that r
A
> r
B
, r
A
> r, r
B
< r. Therefore, we can rewrite (2.1.6a)-(2.1.6b) as
r[A) e
ik|rAr|
e
ik(rAr)
(2.1.8a)
r[B) e
ik|rBr|
e
ik(rrB)
(2.1.8b)
Using (2.1.8a)-(2.1.8b), (2.1.7) becomes
[r[)[
2
=[A[)[
2
+[B[)[
2
+ 2Re
_
e
ik(rAr)
A[)e
ik(rrB)
B[)
_
=[A[)[
2
+[B[)[
2
+ 2Re
_
e
ik(rAr)
e
ik(rrB)
A[)B[)
_
=[A[)[
2
+[B[)[
2
+ 2Re
_
e
ik(rArB)
A[)B[)
_
(2.1.9)
We now expand the cocients in the bracket in (2.1.9) as:
A[) =[A[e
iA
(2.1.10a)
B[) =[B[e
iB
(2.1.10b)
Substituting (2.1.10a)-(2.1.10b) back into (2.1.9), we have
[r[)[
2
=[A[)[
2
+[B[)[
2
+ 2Re
_
e
ik(rArB)
[A[e
iA
[B[e
iB
_
(2.1.11)
From (2.1.11) it is easy to see that
[r[)[
2
= [A[)[
2
+[B[)[
2
+ 2[A[[B[Re
_
e
ik(rArB)
e
i(A+B)
_
(2.1.12)
Recalling (2.1.10a)-(2.1.10b), we can dissect (2.1.12) a little more to increase its transparency:
[r[)[
2
=[A[
2
+ [B[
2
+ 2[A[[B[Re
_
e
ik(rArB)
e
i(A+B)
_
=[B[
2
_
[A[
2
[B[
2
+ 1 + 2
[A[
[B[
Re
_
e
ik(rArB)
e
i(A+B)
_
_
(2.1.13)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 91
Rewriting (2.1.13) once more, we see that
[r[)[
2
= [B[
2
_
[A[
2
[B[
2
. .
ii
+1 + 2
[A[
[B[
..
ii
Re
_
i
..
e
ik(rArB)
iii
..
e
i(A+B)
_
_
(2.1.14)
Where we let
i) The dierence of the distance from A to B to the point of observation
ii) The relative amplitude of A[) to B[)
iii) The relative phase of A[) to B[)
Exercise 9.7
Show that for a linear operator
(
b
, A
a
) =

j
b

i
A
ij
a
j
(2.1.15)
and write this equation in matrix form. If A were antilinear, how would the corresponding equation look?
Solution
We rst recall that Merzbacher writes his inner products in a funny way, and that we can rewrite (2.1.15)
as

b
[A[
a
) =

j
b

i
A
ij
a
j
(2.1.16)
Alrighty, through straightforward substitution, (2.1.16) becomes

b
[A[
a
) =
_

i
b
i

j
a
j

a
_
=

j
b
i

b
[ A[a
j

a
)
=

j
b

i
a
j

b
[A[
a
)
. .
A
ij
(2.1.17)

I will not allow myself to be apart of this notational charade no longer. Merzbachers notation in his book is inconsistent with
all works of any selected literatire, not to mention lectures. Its barbaric, and it scares me. Ergo, from hereonin I will adopt the
universally accepted form:
(a, c) a|c
In the future, all inner-products will have this form, as I choose to follow the convention that most others do, and how its taught in
other classes
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
Noticing that the underbraced term in (2.1.17) is none other than the coecient A
ij
, and (2.1.17) becomes

b
[A[
a
) =

j
b

i
A
ij
a
j
(2.1.18)
If A is anti-linear, we rst must recall that such operators are governed by
A( ) =

A
And so, applying this to (2.1.16), we have

b
[A[
a
) =

j
b

i
A
ij
a

j
Exercise 9.8
If F
A
(
a
,
b
) is a complex-valued (scalar) functional of the two variables
a
and
b
with the linearity prop-
erties
F
A
(
a
+
c
) [
b
) =

F
A

a
[
b
) +

F
A

c
[
b
) (2.1.19a)
F
A

a
[(
b
+
c
) ) =F
A

a
[
b
) +F
A

a
[
c
) (2.1.19b)
Show that F
A
can be represented as an inner product.
F
A

a
[
b
) =
a
[A[
b
) (2.1.20)
For every
a
and
b
, and that (2.1.20) denes a linear operator A uniquely (compare with Exercise 9.4).
Solution
Essentially, it all boils down to this: we are given both (2.1.19a) and (2.1.19b), and we wish to show that
F
A
can be represented as some inner product, as given in (2.1.19a). Capiche?
Lets purposely turn this around a little bit. Assuming that (2.1.19a) and (2.1.19b) represent ab-
solute truth and salvation, we may hypothesize that (2.1.20) is true, and possibly verify this by way of
substituting into said equation from (2.1.19a)-(2.1.19b).
For ease of the picken hands we reckon that itll be easiest if we apply our linear operator to only two
vectors (any two vectors). Irregardless, it aint gonna be so bad, so hold on to yer britches and saddle
on up cowboy!
Lets apply these basic principles to (2.1.20):
F
A

a
[
b
) =
_

i
a
i

b
_
[Using (2.1.19a)]
=

i
a

i
F
A

i
[
b
) (2.1.21)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 93
Continuing on to the ket in (2.1.21),
F
A

a
[
b
) =

i
a

i
F
A
_

j
b
j

j
_
[Using (2.1.19b)]
=

j
a

i
F
A
b
j

i
[
j
) (2.1.22)
We now innocently recall (2.1.18) from a previous problem, which says that

b
[A[
a
) =

j
b

i
A
ij
a
j

a
[A[
b
) =

j
a

i
A
ij
b
j
(2.1.23)
Using (2.1.23), we can rewrite (2.1.22), and nd that:
F
A

a
[
b
) =
b
[A[
a
) (2.1.24)
Where in proclaiming (2.1.24), we have dened:
A
ij
=
i
[A[
j
) (2.1.25)
Applied to our particular case, (2.1.25) becomes
A
ij
=
i
[F
A
[
j
) A
ij
= F
A

i
[
j
) (2.1.26)
The million dollar question is then, how exactly can our linear operator F
A
be uniquely represented
by A? From (2.1.24), we can see that F
A
does indeed create a matrix, whose elements are compactly
expressed in bra-ket notation as (2.1.25). Furthermore, from our statement (2.1.26), we can see that the
entire set A
ij
does indeed uniquely represent F
A
.
If we wanted to be a little more thorough, we could employ a proof by contradiction. We wish to
prove that (2.1.26) is unique, which we can do by proving that it is not unique by way of, for lack of a
better term, contradiction. If we have two linear operators, which we assume are unique (eg, A ,= B).
Then (2.1.26) becomes
F
A
i[j) =i[A[j)
=i[B[j)
=i[A B[j)
=0 (2.1.27)
We can see that (2.1.27) implies that A = B, which is a contradiction of our earlier statement.
It would appear as though (9.41) also denes uniquely, although via Rieszs representation theorem:
f
a
() =
a
[)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
Exercise 9.13
Prove that products of unitary operators are also unitary.
Solution
We rst recall that a unitary operator is dened by
U

= U
1
(2.1.28)
And also that for unitary operators,
I = U

U = UU

= 1 (2.1.29)
And also, we mustnt forget that
(AB)
1
= B
1
A
1
(2.1.30)
So, given two unitary operators A and B, and using (2.1.28)-(2.1.30), we have
(AB)

(AB) =(AB)
1
(AB)
=B
1
A
1
AB
=B
1
_
A
1
A
_
B
=B
1
(1)B
=B
1
B
From this it is easy to see that
(AB)

(AB) = 1
Exercise 9.17
Show that under an active unitary transformation, the following conditions hold:
a) A Hermitian operator remains Hermitian
b) A unitary operator remains unitary
c) A normal operator remains normal
d) A symmetric matrix does not in general remain symmetric
Solution
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 95
a) We recall that the dening property of Hermitian operators is that A

= A. With this in mind,


A = S

AS
_
A
_

=
_
S

AS
_

= S

S = S

AS (2.1.31)
So, we can summarize (2.1.31) with
A =
_
A
_

= S

AS
b) Unitary operators are dened by AA

= 1, and given that A = S

AS, we can say that


AA

=
_
S

AS
_

_
S

AS
_
=
_
S

S
_

_
S

AS
_
=
_
S
1
A
1
S
_

_
S
1
AS
_
=S
1
A
1
SS
1
. .
1
AS
=S
1
A
1
A
. .
1
S
=S
1
S (2.1.32)
From (2.1.32) we can straightfowardly proclaim that
AA

= 1
c) Normal operators have the unique property that AA

= A

A, and using A = S

AS as before, we
can say that
A

A =
_
S

AS
_

_
S

AS
_
=
_
S

S
_ _
S

AS
_
=
_
S

AS
_ _
S

S
_
(2.1.33)
From (2.1.33) it is easy to see that
A

A = AA

d) We are trying to show that a symmetric matrix does not remain symmetric under an active unitary
transformation, eg that A ,=

A. Once again using the fact that A = S

AS, we have:

A =
_

AS
_
=
_

S
__

A
_
=

S

A

(2.1.34)
Noting that

S

= S

= S

, (2.1.34) becomes

A =

S

AS

(2.1.35)
Noting that (2.1.35) does not directly correspond with our previous denition of A, we can say that

A ,= A
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
Exercise 9.18
Show by the use of bra-ket notation that
Tr A =

i
K
i
[A[K
i
) (2.1.36)
is independent of the choice of the basis [K
i
), and that
Tr AB = Tr BA (2.1.37)
Solution
It is possible (and convenient) to show that (2.1.36) and (2.1.37) are true in the same process. We can
do this by rst assuming that (2.1.36) is true, and working towards (2.1.37):
Tr AB =

i
K
i
[AB[K
i
)
=

j
K
i
[A[K
j
)K
j
[B[K
i
)
=

j
K
j
[B[K
i
)K
i
[A[K
j
)
=

j
K
j
[B([ K
i
)K
i
. .
1
[A[K
j
) (2.1.38)
From (2.1.38) it is easy to see that
Tr AB = Tr BA
Therefore, both (2.1.36) and (2.1.37) are true.
Problem 9.1
If
n
(r) is the normalized eigenfunction of the time-independent Schr odinger equation, corresponding to energy
eigenvalue E
n
, show that [
n
(r)[
2
is not only the probability density for the coordinate vector r, if the system
has energy E
n
, but also conversely the probability of nding the energy to be E
n
, if the system is known to be at
position r.
Solution
The rst part of this question is rather straightforward; we rst recall that the time-independent
Schr odinger equation is given, of course, by
H
n
(r) = E
n

n
(r) (2.1.39)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 97
Where in (2.1.39) we are in the position representation. We can expand into the position representation
from the arbitrary representation as follows:
[
n
) =

i
[r
i
)r
i
[
n
) (2.1.40)
Where the inner product in (2.1.40) is the wave function projected into the position basis, which can
then be projected into energy representation:
r
i
[
n
) =

j
r
i
[E
j
)E
j
[
n
) (2.1.41)
Using (2.1.41), we can rewrite (2.1.40) as:
[
n
) =

j
[r
i
) [r
i
[E
j
)E
j
[
n
)]
=

j
([r
i
)r
i
[) [E
j
)E
j
[
n
)
=

j
(1) [E
j
)E
j
[
n
)
=

j
[E
j
)E
j
[
n
) (2.1.42)
Using (2.1.42), we can now nd [
n
(r)[
2
:
[
n
(r)[
2
=

i
[r
i
)r
i
[
n
)

2
, [
n
(r)[
2
=

j
[E
j
)E
j
[
n
)

2
(2.1.43)
The results shown in (2.1.43) are actually quite profound: given an arbitrary state [
n
) we can equivalently
express it in terms of energy eigenstates and also in terms of position eigenstates.
Problem 9.2
Using the momentum representation, calculate the bound-state energy eigenvalue and the corresponding eigen-
function for the potential V (x) = g(x) (for g > 0). Compare with the results in Section 6.4.
Solution
We rst note that by their very nature, bound-state energies are negative (E < 0). Furthermore, the
TISE becomes
(T +V ) (x) = E(x) (2.1.44)
Where the kinetic and potential energies are given by
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
T(p) =
p
2
2m
, V (x) = g(x)
We also know from Merzbacher that
(x) =
1

2
_

exp
_

px
_
(p) dp (2.1.45a)
(p) =
1

2
_

exp
_
i

px
_
(x) dx (2.1.45b)
Using our denition for the potential energy V (x), we can now say that V (p) becomes
V (p) =
1

2
_

exp
_
i

px
_
(g(x)) dx
=
g

2
(2.1.46)
Which comes from the dening property of the delta function. We can now rewrite the TISE from
(2.1.44) as
(T(p) +V (x)) (x) = E(x) (T(p) E(x)) (x) =V (x)(x)
_
p
2
2m
E
_
(p) =
1

2
_

V (p)(p) dp
=
_
1

2
__

2
__

(p) dp
=
g
2
_

(p) dp (2.1.47)
Innocently multiplying both sides of (2.1.47) by 2m, we are left with
_
p
2
2mE
_
(p) =
gm

(p) dp (2.1.48)
Recalling that the energy is negative, so letting E E, (2.1.48) becomes
_
p
2
+ 2mE
_
(p) =
gm

(p) dp (2.1.49)
Now, lets let the RHS of (2.1.49) be equal to some number, call it a. Then, we have
_
p
2
+ 2mE
_
(p) = a (p) =
1
p
2
+ 2mE
a (2.1.50)
Where we have set
a =
gm

(p) dp (2.1.51)
Substituting (2.1.50) into (2.1.51),
a =
gm

a
p
2
+ 2mE
dp (2.1.52)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 99
Lets let b
2
= 2mE. Then (2.1.52) becomes
a =
gm

a
p
2
+b
2
dp (2.1.53)
The proper way to complete the integral in (2.1.54) (analytically) is to cast it into the complex plane,
and undergo a contour integration:
a =
gma

_
C
1
z
2
+ b
2
dz (2.1.54)
The integrand in (2.1.54) can be rewritten as
f(z) =
1
(z + ib) (z ib)
(2.1.55)
From which it is easy to see that in the complex plane, we have singularities at z
0
= ib and z
0
= ib.
Recalling from The Residue Theorem, for a pole of order one,
Res (z
0
) = (z z
0
) f(z)

z=z0
(2.1.56)
Since in contour integration, the name of the game is to integrate over either the upper or the lower
hemisphere. Since there is only one singularity in both, it makes no dierence which we choose. I choose
to integrate over the upper hemisphere, since up is my favorite color. So, applying (2.1.56) at z
0
= ib,
we have
Res (ib) = (z ib)
1
(z +ib) (z ib)

z=ib
=
1
z + ib

z=ib
=
1
2ib
(2.1.57)
So, the integral of our integrand over the complex plane becomes
_
C
1
z
2
+b
2
dz =2i
_
1
2ib
_
=

b
(2.1.58)
Since from The Residue Theorem,
_
f(z) dz = 2i

Res. From (2.1.58), we now see that (2.1.54)


becomes
a =
gma

b
_
(2.1.59)
Recalling that b
2
= 2mE, (2.1.59) becomes
a =
gm

2mE
a (2.1.60)
In order for (2.1.60) to work, we must solve for E, and noticing that a is washed neatly from our hands,
we are left with:
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
1 =
gm

2mE
E =
g
2
m
2
2
(2.1.61)
Now, substituting this value of E into (p) from (2.1.50), we have
(p) =
1
p
2
g
2
m
2
/
2
a (2.1.62)
In order to nd a in (2.1.62), we must normalize our wave function:
[(p)[
2
= a
2
_

_
1
p
2
g
2
m
2
/
2
_
2
dp = 1 (2.1.63)
Letting b = gm/, (2.1.63) becomes
1 = a
2
_

_
1
p
2
+b
2
_
2
dp (2.1.64)
We must once again employ contour integration, this time applied to (2.1.64). With this, the integrand
becomes
f(z) =
1
(z
2
+ b
2
)
2
=
1
(z +ib)
2
(z ib)
2
(2.1.65)
Now, since n = 2 in this case, the residues are given by
Res (z
0
) =
d
dz
(z z
0
)
2
f(z)

z=z0
(2.1.66)
Again integrating over the upper half plane, we can apply (2.1.66) to our integrand at z
0
= ib like:
Res (ib) =
d
dz
(z ib)
2
1
(z +ib)
2
(z ib)
2

z=ib
=
d
dz
1
(z + ib)
2

z=ib
=
2
(z + ib)
3

z=ib
=
2
(2ib)
3
(2.1.67)
Now, in accordance to the residue theorem,
_
C
1
(z + ib)
2
(z ib)
2
dz =2i
_

2
(2ib)
3
_
=

2b
3
(2.1.68)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 101
Recalling from our previous denition that b =

2mE , (2.1.68) becomes

2b
3
=

2 (2mE)
3


16m
3
E
3
(2.1.69)
And continuing from (2.1.64), we have
1 = a
2
_

_
1
p
2
+ b
2
_
2
dp a =
_
16m
3
E
3

(2.1.70)
And nally, from (2.1.70), we can now rewrite (2.1.62) as
(p) =
_
16m
3
E
3

1
p
2
2mE
(E < 0) (2.1.71)
To compare my results with 6.4: we see that my result for the eigenenergies, as seen in (2.1.61), is
identical to Merzbachers (6.54).
2.2 Homework #2
Exercise 10.9
What are the eigenvalues of the kinetic and potential energy operators of the harmonic oscillator? Explain why
these dont add up to the (discrete) eigenvalues of the total energy.
Solution
The Hamiltonian for the Harmonic Oscillator is given by
H =
1
2m
p
2
. .
T
+
m
2
2
x
2
. .
V
(2.2.1)
Where both T and V can be expressed in terms of the ladder operators a

and a:
T[
n
) =
1
2m
p
2
[
n
) (2.2.2)
=
1
2m
_
i
_
m
2
(a

a)
_
2
[
n
)
=
1
2m
m
2
(a

a)
2
[
n
)
=

4
(a
2
a

a aa

+a
2
)[
n
)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
=

4
(a
2
+ a
2
(a

a + aa

))[
n
) (2.2.3)
Now recall that [a, a

] = 1 aa

= a

a + 1, so (2.2.3) becomes
T[
n
) =

4
(a
2
+ a
2
(a

a +a

a + 1))[
n
)
=

4
_
(a
2
+ a
2
)[
n
) (2a

a + 1)[
n
)

=

4
_
(a
2
+ a
2
)[
n
) (2(a

a)[
n
) +[
n
))

=

4
_
(a
2
+ a
2
)[
n
) (2n)[
n
) + [
n
))

=

4
_
(a
2
+ a
2
) (2n + 1)

[
n
)
=

4
_
(a
2
+a
2
) + (2n + 1)

[
n
)
The eigenvalue for the kinetic energy operator is then dened by
T[
n
) =

4
_
(a
2
+a
2
) + (2n + 1)

[
n
) (2.2.4)
And now lets do the same thing for the potential energy operator V :
V [
n
) =
m
2
2
x
2
[
n
) (2.2.5)
=
m
2
2
__

2m
(a

+ a)
_
2
[
n
)
=
m
2
2

2m
(a

+ a)
2
[
n
)
=

4
_
a
2
+ a

a + aa

+ a
2
_
[
n
)
=

4
_
(a
2
+a
2
)[
n
) + (2a

a + 1)[
n
)

4
_
(a
2
+a
2
)[
n
) + (2n)[
n
) +[
n
))

4
_
(a
2
+a
2
) + (2n + 1)

[
n
)
And nally, the dening equation for the eigenvalue for the potential energy operator is given by
V [
n
) =

4
_
(a
2
+ a
2
) + (2n + 1)

[
n
) (2.2.6)
At this point it should be mentioned that I have thoughtlessly used the same eigenstate for both
(2.2.2) and (2.2.5). This would imply that both T and V are simultaneously observable, which is clearly
nonsense. T depends explicitly on p and V on x, and one of the most fundamental results of quantum
theory is that [x, p] ,= 0.
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 103
But in nding the eigenvalues for T and V I made no mention that the eigenvalues were being obtained
simultaneously. And because the operators are not acting simultaneously, it follows that the eigenvalues
can not be collected at the same time. Therefore we cannot add the eigenvalues of T and V to get H.
Exercise 10.12
Transcribe (10.77) and (10.88) in the coordinate (q) representation and calculate q

[n) from these dierential


equations. Using the mathematical tools of 5.3, verify (10.96).
Solution
We rst note that from (10.88) in Merzbacher, that

n
= [n)
1

n!
_
a

_
n

0
(2.2.7)
Where we note that the vacuum state is dened as
0
= [0). Furthermore, we note that (10.77) from
Merzbacher reads:
a[
0
) = 0 (2.2.8)
In words, (2.2.8) means that we cannot lower the lowest state any lower. We recall from (10.69) and
(10.71) that
a =
_
m
2
_
q + i
p
m
_
(2.2.9a)
a

=
_
m
2
_
q i
p
m
_
(2.2.9b)
Applying (2.2.9a) to (2.2.8), we have:
_
m
2
_
q +i
p
m
_
[
0
) =0
_
q +i
p
m
_
[
0
) =0 (2.2.10)
At this point, we let [
0
)
0
(q), and also recalling that p = /i /q, (2.2.10) becomes:
_
q +i
1
m


i

x
_

0
(q) =0
_
q +

m

x
_

0
(q) =0 (2.2.11)
Assuming that
0
(q) is only dependent on q, then d, and (2.2.11) becomes:
_
q +

m
d
dx
_

0
(q) =0
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
q
0
(q) +

m
d
0
(q)
dq
=0
d
0
(q)
dq
+
m

q
0
(q) =0 (2.2.12)
Using the method of integrating factors, we can see that:
(q) =exp
__
m

q dq
_
=exp
_
m
2
q
2
_
(2.2.13)
Multiplying (2.2.12) by our integrating factor (q) from (2.2.13),
exp
_
m
2
q
2
_
d
0
(q)
dq
+ exp
_
m
2
q
2
_
m

q
0
(q) = 0 (2.2.14)
It is easy to see that (2.2.14) will only work if we require that:

0
(q) = C exp
_

m
2
q
2
_
(2.2.15)
To nd the constant C, we must normalize (2.2.15):
_

_
C exp
_

m
2
q
2
__

_
C exp
_

m
2
q
2
__
dq =1
C
2
_

exp
_

q
2
_
dq =1
C
2
_


m
=1 (2.2.16)
From (2.2.16) it is easy to see that the normalization constant, C, is given by:
C =
_
m

_1
/4
(2.2.17)
Substituting (2.2.17) back into (2.2.15), we have:

0
(q) =
_
m

_1
/4
exp
_

m
2
q
2
_
(2.2.18)
In order to utilize the tools of 5.3, we rst recall that the harmonic oscillator wave function is given
from (5.27) as

n
(q) = C
n
H
n
__
m

q
_
exp
_

m
2
q
2
_
(2.2.19)
Recalling that Merzbacher makes the following denition,
=
_
m

q (2.2.20)
According to (2.2.20), we can rewrite (2.2.19) as
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 105

n
(q) = C
n
H
n
() exp
_

2
2
_
(2.2.21)
From (2.2.21) we apply ladder operators and arrive at a dierential equation, which may be integrated
and normalized to yield (10.96), with the aid of the recursion relations derived in Appendix B.
Exercise 10.14
Show that for any coherent state [),
R

[) = C

[e
i
) (2.2.22)
Where [e
i
) is again a coherent state and C

is a phase factor. Interpret the meaning of this result in the complex


eigenvalue plane (See Fig. (10.1)).
Figure 2.1: This is Fig. 10.1 from Merzbacher
Solution
We rst recall that (10.105) and (10.106) from Merzbacher says that, respectively:
R

=exp
_
ia

(2.2.23a)
R

aR

=exp[i]a (2.2.23b)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
Since R

is unitary, we can manipulate (2.2.23b) as:


R

_
R

aR

= exp [i] a
_
aR

=R

exp [i] a (2.2.24)


Multiplying both sides of (2.2.24) by [) from the right,
aR

[) = exp [i] R

a[) (2.2.25)
Recalling from (10.97) that a[) = [), (2.2.25) becomes
aR

[) = exp [i] R

[) aR

[) = exp [i] R

[) (2.2.26)
From (2.2.26), we can denitively say that R

[) is an eigenvector of a with eigenvalue exp [i].


Therefore, R

[) creates another coherent state [exp [i] ) that is oset by some phase factor, which
Merzbacher denotes as C

. Therefore, we can say that:


R

[) = C

[e
i
)
It appears as though the unitary operator R

is appropriately denoted - it seems to rotate some initial


coherent state [) by some angle within the complex plane (See Figure 10.1 above).
Exercise 10.20
For a coherent state [), evaluate the expectation value of the number operator a

a, its square and its vari-


ance, using the commutation relation from (10.72). Check the results by computing the expectation values of n,
n
2
, and (n)
2
directly from the Poisson distribution, (10.110).
Solution
The commutation relation is [a, a

] = aa

a = 1. We also know that


a[) = [) (2.2.27)
Where [) is the coherent state. First lets nd the expectation value of N:
N) =[N[)
=[a

a[)
=
_
[a

_
(a[))
=

=[[
2
(2.2.28)
And similarly, we now nd the expectation value of N
2
:
N
2
) =[(a

a)
2
[)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 107
=[a

aa

a[)
=[a

(aa

)a[)
=[a

(a

a + 1)a[)
=[a

aa[) + [a

a[)
=[a
2
a
2
[) + [[
2
=
2

2
+[[
2
=[[
4
+[[
2
(2.2.29)
Where I used the commutation relation and also the result from (2.2.28). Now to nd the variance we
insert (2.2.28) and (2.2.29) into the typical equation:
N
2
=N
2
) N)
2
=[[
4
+[[
2
([[
2
)
2
=[[
4
+[[
2
[[
4
=[[
2
(2.2.30)
The results (2.2.28), (2.2.29) and (2.2.30) constitute the answer to the rst part of the question. Now
we are asked to nd the same quantities using the Poisson distribution:
P
n
() = e
||
2 [[
2n
n!
(2.2.31)
And recall that if we expand the coherent state [) in terms of the number operator eigenstates [n) we
get:
[) =

n=0
[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
(2.2.32)
Which is (10.109) on pg. 227 of Merzbacher. We can then say that
[ =

n=0
n[e
||
2
/2

n

n!
(2.2.33)
Then to nd the expectation value of the number operator, we sandwich n between (2.2.33) and (2.2.32),
respectively:
n) =[n[)
=([) (n[))
=
_

n=0
n[e
||
2
/2

n

n!
__

n=0
n[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
_
=e
||
2

n=0
n

n
n!
n[n)
=e
||
2

n=0
n
[[
2n
n!
(2.2.34)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
Now we must jiggle this equation around a little to arrive at the solution. First it is important to notice
that
n
n!
=
n
1 2 3 ... n 1 n
=
1
1 2 3 ... n 1
=
1
(n 1)!
(2.2.35)
Also recall the power series expansion of e
x
2
e
x
2
=

k=0
x
2k
k!
(2.2.36)
Applying (2.2.35) and (2.2.36) to n) in (2.2.34),
n) =e
||
2

n=0
n
[[
2n
n!
=[[
2
e
||
2

n=0
[[
2(n1)
(n 1)!
(2.2.37)
Letting k = n 1,
n) =[[
2
e
||
2

k=0
[[
2k
k!
=[[
2
e
||
2
e
||
2
=[[
2
(2.2.38)
Which agrees with (2.2.28). Now lets do the same thing for n
2
). Using the results from (2.2.34):
n
2
) =

n=0
n
2
[[
2n
n!
=

n=0
n
[[
2n
(n 1)!
(2.2.39)
Now go ahead and shift the index, making this easier to solve. Let n = k + 1 k = n 1:
n
2
) =e
||
2

k=0
(k + 1)
[[
2(k+1)
k!
=e
||
2

k=0
k
[[
2(k+1)
k!
+e
||
2

k=0
[[
2(k+1)
k!
=e
||
2
[[
4

k=0
[[
2(k1)
(k 1)!
+ e
||
2
[[
2

k=0
[[
2k
k!
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 109
=e
||
2
[[
4
e
||
2
+ e
||
2
[[
2
e
||
2
=[[
4
+ [[
2
(2.2.40)
Which agrees with (2.2.29).
Problem 10.2
Assuming a particle to be in one of the stationary states of an innitely high one-dimensional box, calculate
the uncertainties in position and momentum, and show that they agree with the Heisenberg uncertainty relation.
Also show that in the limit of very large quantum numbers, the uncertainty in x equals the root-mean-square
deviation of the position of a particle moving in the enclosure classically with the same energy.
Solution
Assuming that our innite potential well has a length denoted by a, the (normalized) eigenfunctions are
given by

n
(x) =
_
2
a
sin
_
nx
a
_
(2.2.41)
To nd the uncertainties in both position and momentum in the quantum regime, we must calculate the
standard deviation of each quantity
x =
_
x
2
) x)
2
, p =
_
p
2
) p)
2
(10.2.2a,b)
So, our task is to calculate x), x
2
), p), and p
2
). In these calculations I will be using two integration
techniques: integration by parts and trig substitutions. In particular I will use sin
2
(ax) = 1/2(1
cos(2ax)) and also
_
sin(ax) cos(ax) dx = 1/2a sin
2
(ax). Lets go ahead and calculate x) rst:
x) =
_
a
0

n
(x)x
n
(x) dx
=
2
a
_
a
0
x sin
2
_
nx
a
_
dx
=
2
a
_
a
0
x
_
1
2

1
2
cos
_
2nx
a
__
dx
=
1
a
__
a
0
x dx
_
a
0
x cos
_
2nx
a
_
dx
_
=
1
a
_
a
2
2

_
a
0
x cos
_
2nx
a
_
dx
_
=
1
a
_
a
2
2

__
xa
2n
sin
_
2nx
a
_

a
0

a
2n
_
a
0
sin
_
2nx
a
_
dx
__
=
1
a
_
a
2
2

_
a
2
2n
sin(2n) +
_
a
2n
_
2
_
cos
_
2nx
a
_

a
0
__
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
=
1
a
_
a
2
2

_
_
a
2n
_
2
(cos(2n) cos(0))
__
=
1
a
_
a
2
2
_
=
a
2
(2.2.3)
This is not surprising, and in fact this fact coincides with the classical result, which I discuss at the end
of this problem. Now lets do the same for x
2
):
x
2
) =
_
a
0

n
(x)x
2

n
(x) dx
=
2
a
_
a
0
x
2
sin
2
_
nx
a
_
dx
=
2
a
_
a
0
x
2
_
1
2

1
2
cos
_
2nx
a
__
dx
=
2
a
__
a
0
x
2
2
dx
_
a
0
x
2
2
cos
_
2nx
a
_
dx
_
=
2
a
_
a
3
6

1
2
_
a
0
x
2
cos
_
2nx
a
_
dx
_
=
2
a
_
a
3
6

1
2
__
ax
2
2n
sin
_
2nx
a
_

a
0

a
n
_
a
0
x sin
_
2nx
a
_
dx
__
=
2
a
_
a
3
6
+
a
2n
__
a
0
x sin
_
2nx
a
_
dx
__
=
2
a
_
a
3
6
+
a
2n
__
ax
2n
cos
_
2nx
a
_

a
0
+
a
2n
_
a
0
cos
_
2nx
a
_
dx
__
=
2
a
_
a
3
6
+
a
2n
_
a
2
2n
__
=
2
a
_
a
3
6

a
3
4n
2

2
_
=
a
2
3

a
2
2n
2

2
(2.2.4)
This is not immediately intuitive, but it is possible to draw understanding from it when comparing it to
the classical analogue. Now lets head o to calculate the momentum expectation value p):
p) =
_
a
0

n
_

i
d
dx
_

n
(x) dx
=
2
a

i
_
a
0
sin
_
nx
a
_
d
dx
sin
_
nx
a
_
dx
=
2
a

i
n
a
_
a
0
sin
_
nx
a
_
cos
_
nx
a
_
dx
=
2
a

i
n
a
_
1
2a
sin
2
_
nx
a
_

a
0
=0 (2.2.5)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 111
We could have guessed this result since
n
(x) is real. On the other hand, p
2
) is not zero:
p
2
) =
_
a
0

n
_

i
d
dx
_
2

n
(x) dx
=
2
a
_

i
_
2
_
a
0
sin
_
nx
a
_
_
d
dx
_
2
sin
_
nx
a
_
dx
=
2
a
_

i
_
2
n
a
_
a
0
sin
_
nx
a
_
_
d
dx
_
cos
_
nx
a
_
dx
=
2
a
()
2
_
n
a
_
2
_
a
0
sin
2
_
nx
a
_
dx
=
2
a
()
2
_
n
a
_
2
_
a
0
_
1
2

1
2
cos
_
2nx
a
__
dx
=
2
a
()
2
_
n
a
_
2
_
1
2
_
a
0
dx
1
2
_
a
0
cos
_
2nx
a
_
dx
_
=
2
a
()
2
_
n
a
_
2
_
a
2
_
=

2
n
2

2
a
2
(2.2.6)
So now we can go ahead and compute the uncertainties in position and momentum by substituting (2.2.3)
and (2.2.4) into (10.2.2a) and also (2.2.5) and (2.2.6) into (10.2.2b), respectively. Starting rst with the
position,
x =
_
x
2
) x)
2
=

_
a
2
3

a
2
2n
2

2
_

_
a
2
_
2
=
_
a
2
3

a
2
2n
2

2

a
2
4
2
x =
_
a
2
12

a
2
2n
2

2
(2.2.7)
And now the momentum,
p =
_
p
2
) p)
2

2
n
2

2
a
2
_
0 p =
n
a
(2.2.8)
To check to see if these results are consistent with the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, multiply (2.2.7)
and (2.2.8):
xp =
_
a
2
12

a
2
2n
2

2
_
1
/2
_

2
n
2

2
a
2
_
1
/2
=
_

2
n
2

2
12


2
2
_
1
/2
=

2
_
n
2

2
3
2
_
1
/2
(2.2.9)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
The portion of (2.2.9) in the parenthesis is guaranteed to be greater than 1, thus Heisenbergs uncertainty
relation is satised since xp /2. To see this lets plug in some conservative numbers. Let n = 1
(ground state), and = 3. Then (2.2.9) says that
xp =

2
_
n
2

2
3
2
_
1
/2
=

2
_
(1)
2
(3)
2
3
2
_
1
/2
=

2
(1)
1
/2
=

2
Which is the minimum uncertainty. Since we underestimated , (2.2.9) is certain to be greater than /2,
which satises the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In the classical analogue, the particle can be found
anywhere between 0 and a. This is an example of a continuous uniform distribution, whose mean and
variance are dened by ?
=
(a +b)
2

2
=
(b a)
2
12
And in our case
x =
_
a
2
12
x =
a
2

3
(2.2.10)
Which is the root-mean-square deviation. Now lets compare this with the quantum result (2.2.7) as
n
x =
_
a
2
12

a
2
2n
2

2

_
a
2
12

1

x =
a
2

3
(2.2.11)
Which agrees with (2.2.10).
Problem 10.5
Rederive the one-dimensional minimum uncertainty wave packet by using the variational calculus to minimize
the expression I = (x)
2
(p)
2
subject to the condition
_
[[
2
dx = 1 (2.2.12)
Show that the solution of this problem satises a dierential equation which is equivalent to the Schr odinger
equation for the harmonic oscillator, and calculate the minimum value of xp.
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 113
Solution
Using variational calculus, we wish to comploy constraint optimization by way of Lagrange Multipliers
to minimize the action of:
I = (x)
2
(p)
2
(2.2.13)
Subject to the constraint:
[[)[
2
= 1 [) = 1 (2.2.14)
The rst step is to recall that we may express the variance of the position, (x)
2
, as:
(x)
2
=
_
(x x))
2
_
= = x
2
) x)
2
=[x
2
[) [[x[)[
2
(2.2.15)
In accordance with variational calculus, in order to minimize (2.2.13) subject to the constraint from
(2.2.14), we must require that:
I F
1
= 0 (2.2.16)
Where is the so-called Lagrange Multiplier, while F
1
is our rst constraint (we only have one in this
problem), given by (2.2.14). Substituting in the appropriate values into (2.2.16), we have:

_
(x)
2
(p)
2
[)
_
= 0 (2.2.17)
Where denotes a small variation. We can vary our dummy variable as:
+ (2.2.18)
Where in (2.2.18) is completely arbitrary (this property will become useful in due course). Applying
this methodology, we can modify the (arbitrary) state vectors in precisely the same way:
[) [) +[) (2.2.19a)
[ [ +[ (2.2.19b)
Where we note that (2.2.19a) and (2.2.19b) are independent. We are now in the optimal position to
rewrite (2.2.17):

_
(x)
2
(p)
2
_
[) =0
(x)
2
(p)
2
+ (p)
2
(x)
2
[)
. .
=0 (2.2.20)
Before we go any further, we must nd the variation of our condition, denoted by the underbraced term
in (2.2.20). Accordingly, from (2.2.19a), this becomes:
[) =[ +) [)
=[) +[) [)
=[) (2.2.21)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
Substituting (2.2.21) back into (2.2.20), we have:
(x)
2
(p)
2
+ (p)
2
(x)
2
[) =0 (2.2.22)
At this point, we must nd out what the variation of the variances in (2.2.22) are in turn. Starting with
the position, using (2.2.15), we have:
(x)
2
=
_
[x
2
[) [[x[)[
2
_
=
_
[x
2
[)
_

_
[[x[)[
2
_
(2.2.23)
Where, we note that it is possible to write:
[x
2
[) =[x
2
[ +) [x
2
[)
=[x
2
[) +[x
2
[) [x
2
[)
=[x
2
[) (2.2.24)
Similarly, we can say that:
[[x[)[
2
= [x[) [x[)
=[x[)[x[) +[x[)[x[)
=2[x[)[x[)
=2[x[) [x[ + ) [x[)
=2[x[) [x[) + [x[) [x[)
=2[x[)[x[) (2.2.25)
We can now substitute (2.2.24) and (2.2.25) back into (2.2.23), which yields:
(x)
2
=[x
2
[) 2[x[)[x[)
=[x
2
[) 2x)[x[)
=

x
2
2x)x

_
(2.2.26)
Following the same steps which led is to (2.2.26), we can make an analagous statement for the variation
of the variance in momentum:
(p)
2
=

p
2
2p)p

_
(2.2.27)
Substituting our results from (2.2.26) and (2.2.27) back into (2.2.22), we have:
(x)
2
_

p
2
2p)p

_ _
+ (p)
2
_

x
2
2x)x

_ _
[) =0
_

(x)
2
_
p
2
2p)p
_
+ (p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_


_
=0 (2.2.28)
Multiplying (2.2.28) on the left by x[) and on the right by [), we nd that:
_
x

(x)
2
_
p
2
2p)p
_
+ (p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_


_
=0 (2.2.29)
We recall that x[) the arbitrary vector [) in the basis of [x). Therefore, from (2.2.29), we can
wright:
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 115
_
(x)
2
_
p
2
2p)p
_
+ (p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_

_
(x) =0
(x)
2
_
p
2
2p)p
_
(x) +
_
(p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_

_
(x) =0 (2.2.30)
At this point, we innocently recall that the momentum operator is dened by:
p =

i

x
(2.2.31)
Applying (2.2.31) to (2.2.30), we have:
(x)
2
_
_

x
_
2
2p)
_

x
_
_
(x) +
_
(p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_

_
(x) =0
(x)
2
_

2

2
x
2
(x)
2
i
p)

x
(x)
_
+
_
(p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_

_
(x) =0
(x)
2
_

(x)
2
i
p)

(x)
_
+
_
(p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_

_
(x) =0

(x)
2
i
p)

(x) +
1

2
(x)
2
_
(p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_

_
(x) =0 (2.2.32)
At this point, it is very important that we evaluate , and substitute it into (2.2.32). We do this by rst
going back to (2.2.28), and multiplying on the right by [) which reads:
_

(x)
2
_
p
2
2p)p
_
+ (p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
. .
_

_
=0 (2.2.33)
At this point, we must evaluate the underbraced term in (2.2.33). We can manipulate the position inner
product and nd out:
[2x)x[) =2[x)x[)
=2[x[)[x[)
=2x)x)
=2x)
2
(2.2.34)
Using the same logic that led to (2.2.34) for the position inner product, we may declare that for the
momentum inner product, we have:
[2p)p[) =2p)
2
(2.2.35)
Using (2.2.34) and (2.2.35), we can rewrite (2.2.33) as:
_

(x)
2
_
p
2
2p)
2
_
+ (p)
2
_
(x
2
2x)
2
_

_
=0
_

(x)
2
_
p
2
2p)
2
_
+ (p)
2
_
(x
2
2x)
2
_

_
= (2.2.36)
Now, using the results from (2.2.15) and its analogue for momentum, we can rewrite the bracketed terms
in (2.2.36) as:
x
2
) 2x)
2
=x
2
) x)
2
x)
2
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
=(x)
2
x)
2
(2.2.37)
And similarly, for the momentum:
p
2
) 2p)
2
=(p)
2
p)
2
(2.2.38)
Applying (2.2.37) and (2.2.38) to (2.2.36), we have:
(x)
2
_
(p)
2
p)
2
_
+ (p)
2
_
(x)
2
x)
2
_
=
(x)
2
(p)
2
(x)
2
p)
2
+ (p)
2
(x)
2
(p)
2
x)
2
=
2 (x)
2
(p)
2
(x)
2
p)
2
(p)
2
x)
2
= (2.2.39)
Now, substituting (2.2.39) back into (2.2.32)

(x)
2
i
p)

(x)
+
1

2
(x)
2
_
(p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_

_
2 (x)
2
(p)
2
(x)
2
p)
2
(p)
2
x)
2
__
(x) = 0

(x)
2
i
p)

(x)
+
1

2
(x)
2
_
(p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x
_
2 (x)
2
(p)
2
+ (x)
2
p)
2
+ (p)
2
x)
2
_
(x) = 0

(x)
2
i
p)

(x)
+
1

2
(x)
2
_
(p)
2
_
x
2
2x)x +x)
2
_
2 (x)
2
(p)
2
+ (x)
2
p)
2
_
(x) = 0

(x)
2
i
p)

(x) +
1

2
(x)
2
_
(p)
2
(x x))
2
2 (x)
2
(p)
2
+ (x)
2
p)
2
_
(x) = 0

(x)
2
i
p)

(x) +
1

2
_
(p)
2
(x)
2
(x x))
2
2 (p)
2
+p)
2
_
(x) = 0 (2.2.40)
At this point, we suppose that the wave function (x) can be expressed as:
(x) = exp
_
ip)x

_
(x) (2.2.41)
Whose rst and second derivative are

(x) =
ip)

exp
_
ip)x

_
(x) + exp
_
ip)x

(x) (2.2.42a)

(x) =
p)
2

2
exp
_
ip)x

_
(x) +
ip)

exp
_
ip)x

(x) +
ip)

exp
_
ip)x

(x) + exp
_
ip)x

(x)
(2.2.42b)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 117
We now wish to substitute (2.2.41), (2.2.42a), and (2.2.42b) back into (2.2.40). We rst recognize that
the exponential terms cancel, and so we are left with:
_

p)
2

2
+
ip)

+
ip)

2
i
p)
_
ip)

_
+
1

2
_
(p)
2
(x)
2
(x x))
2
2 (p)
2
+p)
2
_
= 0

p)
2

2
+
2ip)

2p)
2

2

2p)
i

+
1

2
_
(p)
2
(x)
2
(x x))
2
2 (p)
2
+p)
2
_
= 0

+
1

2
_
(p)
2
(x)
2
(x x))
2
2 (p)
2
+p)
2
p)
2
2p)
2
_
= 0

+
1

2
_
(p)
2
(x)
2
(x x))
2
2
_
(p)
2
+p)
2
_
_
= 0

+
1

2
_
(p)
2
(x)
2
(x x))
2
2p
2
)
_
= 0
(2.2.43)
At this point, we let (p) / (x) m (the reasons why we chose our constants as m and will become
clear momentarily. Accordingly, (2.2.43) becomes

+
_
m
2

2
(x x))
2
2p
2
)
_
=0 (2.2.44)
We can divide both sides of (2.2.44) by 2m, which yields:

2
2m

(x) +
m
2
2
(x x))
2
(x) =
p
2
)
m
(x) (2.2.45)
We can see that (2.2.45) looks an awful lot like the time-independent Schr odinger Equation with the 1-D
Harmonic Oscillator Hamiltonian. We can manipulate it slightly more,
_
p
2
2m
+
m
2
2
(x x))
2
_
(x) =
p
2
)
m
(x) (2.2.46)
We now recall that for the 1-D Harmonic Oscillator, from (A.9) and (A.12), we recall that:
x) = 0, p
2
) =
m
2
(2n + 1)
Applying this to (2.2.46), we have:
_
p
2
2m
+
m
2
2
x
2
_
(x) =
_
n +
1
/
2
_
(x) (2.2.47)
Letting E
n
=
_
n +
1
/
2
_
for obvious reasons, we should now be suciently convinced that the solution
of this problem is fully equivalent to the Schr odinger equation for the 1-D Harmonic Oscillator. Letting
(x)
n
(x), (2.2.47) becomes:
_
p
2
2m
+
m
2
2
x
2
_

n
(x) = E
n

n
(x)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
The solution for this dierential equation is given by (5.49) in Merzbacher as:

n
(x) = 2
n/2
(n!)

1
/2
_
m

_1
/4
exp
_

m
2
x
2
_
H
n
__
m

x
_
(2.2.48)
We can nd the 1-D minimum uncertainty wave packet by other means, though. Following Merzbachers
work on pgs. 218-219, starting with (10.55), we have:
A
2
B
2
[(, (A A))(B B)))[
2
(2.2.49)
Where in our case A x and B p. Remember that we are looking for the minimum uncertainty
state, so to nd the ground state wave function with minimum uncertainty we would take the in
(2.2.49) to be a =. This holds if and only if
(p p)) = (x x)) (2.2.50)
Which is analogous to (10.56) in Merzbacher. With a little manipulation we can see that (2.2.50) is in
fact a dierential equation
(p p)) (x x)) =0
_

x
p)
_
(x x)) =0 (2.2.51)
Where Merzbacher has provided us with the derivation and value of = iC)/2A
2
, where in our case
C) = . Substituting this into (2.2.51):
_

x
p)
_

i
2x
2
(x x)) =0
d
dx
+
_
ip)

+
(x x))
2x
2
_
=0 (2.2.52)
Which is a separable dierential equation, and the solution is found by
1

d =
_
ip)


(x x))
2x
2
_
dx
log () =
_

(x x))
2x
2
dx +
_
ip)

dx
=
(x x))
2
4x
2
+
ip)x

+ C
= C exp
_

(x x))
2
4x
2
+
ip)x

_
(2.2.53)
And normalizing,
_

[[
2
dx =1
_

C exp
_

(x x))
2
4x
2
+
ip)x

2
dx =1
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 119
C
2
_

exp
_

(x x))
2
2x
2
_
=1
C
2
_
2x
2
_1
2
=1
C =
_
2x
2
_

1
/4
(2.2.54)
So our ground state wave function, (2.2.53), combined with the appropriate normalization constant,
(2.2.54), is given by
=
_
2x
2
_
1/4
exp
_

(x x))
2
4x
2
+
ip)x

_
(2.2.55)
Which is identical to (10.66). An important note would be that (2.2.55) minimizes the uncertainty, which
will come in handy later on when we reach problems addressing with coherent and squeezed states.
Problem 10.6
The Hamiltonian representing an oscillating LC circuit can be expressed as
H =
Q
2
2C
+

2
2L
(2.2.56)
Establish that Hamiltons equations are the correct dynamical equations for this system, and show that the charge
Q and the magnetic ux can be regarded as canonically conjugate variables q, p (or the dual pair p, q).
Work out the Heisenberg relation for the product of the uncertainties in the current I and the voltage V . If a
mesoscopic LC circuit has an eective inductance of L = 1 H and an eective capacitance C = 1 pF, how low
must the temperature of the device be before quantum uctuations become comparable to thermal energies? Are
the corresponding current-voltage tolerances in the realm of observability?
Solution
Hamiltons equations are given by:
q
i
=
H
p
i
(2.2.57a)
p
i
=
H
q
i
(2.2.57b)
Where (2.2.57a) and (2.2.57b) are from (8.18) from Goldstein on pg. 337 ?. We note that in our case the
position is the magnetic ux, and the momentum is the charge. Accordingly, (2.2.57a) and (2.2.57b)
become

=
H
Q
(2.2.58a)


Q =
H

(2.2.58b)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
Substituting (2.2.56) into (2.2.58a) and (2.2.59b),

=

Q
_
Q
2
2C
+

2
2L
_


=
Q
C
(2.2.59a)


Q =

_
Q
2
2C
+

2
2L
_


Q =

L
(2.2.59b)
The best way to proceed with this problem is to mimic the same procedure for the Quantum Harmonic
Oscillator. We begin by drawing a direct analogue between the position and momentum operators
with the magnetic ux and charge operators, respectively. Starting with the position magnetic ux
relationship, we recall from (A.2a) that
q =
_

2m
_
a

+a
_
(2.2.60)
In the case where we let q , we must also let (LC)
1
/2
, and m C. Accordingly, (2.2.60)
becomes:
=
_

2
_
L
C
_1
/4
_
c

+ c
_
(2.2.61)
Where c and c

are to be dened momentarily. We now draw correlation between the momentum operator
from (A.2b) to the charge operator:
Q = i
_

2
_
C
L
_1
/4
_
c

c
_
(2.2.62)
It is easy to see from (A.9) and (A.11) that ) = Q) = 0. From (A.10), we have:

2
) =
_
L
C
_
n +
1
/
2
_
(2.2.63)
While from (A.12) we can see that:
Q
2
) =
_
C
L
_
n +
1
/
2
_
(2.2.64)
From (2.2.63) and (2.2.64), we can now calculate the variance of the magnetic ux and charge:
()
2
=
2
) )
2

_
L
C
_
n +
1
/
2
_
(2.2.65a)
(Q)
2
=Q
2
) Q)
2

_
C
L
_
n +
1
/
2
_
(2.2.65b)
We are asked to nd the product of the uncertainties in the current I and the voltage V , however (2.2.65a)
and (2.2.65b) are in terms of and Q, respectively. We can use (2.2.60) and (2.2.59b) to connect the
two respective quantities:

V =
Q
C
Q = CV (2.2.66a)


Q I =

L
= LI (2.2.66b)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 121
So, using (2.2.66a) and (2.2.66b), then (2.2.65a) and (2.2.65b) become
(I)
2
=
_
1
LC
_
n +
1
/
2
_
(2.2.67a)
(V )
2
=
_
1
LC
_
n +
1
/
2
_
(2.2.67b)
We now multiply (2.2.67a) and (2.2.67b), which yields
IV =

LC
_
n +
1
/
2
_
Given the provided parameters, we are now in a position to nd the temperature at which quantum
uctuations become apparent. We achieve this by setting the zero-point energy equal to the average
thermal energy, and solving for T:

2
1

LC
T =

2k
B
1

LC
=
1.055 10
34
J s
2 (1.381 10
23
J s
1
)
1
_
(1 10
6
H) (1 10
12
F)
T 3.82 10
3
K (2.2.68)
Problem 10.7
If a coherent state [) (eigenstate of a) of an oscillator is transformed into a squeezed state by the unitary
operator
U = exp
_

2
(a
2
a
2
)
_
(2.2.69)
calculate the value of that will reduce the width of the Hermitian observable (a + a

)/

2 to 1 percent of its
original coherent-state value. What happens to the width of the conjugate observable (a a

)/

2 i in this trans-
formation?
Solution
We know that [) is an eigenstate of a and satises a[) = [). What we want to do is go from our
coherent state [) to a squeezed state [, ). We arrive at the squeezed state by applying a unitary
operator, (2.2.69), to our coherent state: U[) = [, ). To do this, we rst nd the squeezed state
operator, b, which we dene as:
b =UaU

b =aU

BU =a (2.2.70)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
So we can say:
[a[) =[U

bU[)
=, [b[, ) (2.2.71)
The easiest way to nd b would be to utilize some identities made available by Merzbacher on pgs. 39-40.
He says that if
f() = e
A
Be
A
Then we can write
f() = Bcosh
_
+
[A, B]

sinh
_
(2.2.72)
Which we can use only if is constant, and the operators A and B satisfy [A, [A, B]] = B. In our case,
f() b(), and A = (a
2
a
2
) and B = a. To nd out if we can use (2.2.72):
[A, B] =[(a
2
a
2
), a]
=[a
2
, a] [a
2
, a]
= [a
2
, a]
= a

[a

, a] [a

, a]a

= a

(1) (1)a

=2a

(2.2.73)
[A, [A, B]] =[(a
2
a
2
), 2a

]
=2
_
[a
2
, a

] [a
2
a

]
_
=2
_
a[a, a

] + [a, a

]a
_
=4a (2.2.74)
It seems that we can in fact use (2.2.72), since both of our conditions are satised with = /2 and
= 4. We now have,
b() =a cosh
_
+
[A, B]

sinh
_

=a cosh /2

4 +
2a

4
sinh /2

4
=a cosh +a

sinh
=a cosh a

sinh (2.2.75)
Following Merzbachers lead on pgs. 230-231, we dene = cosh and = sinh , where here is
dierent than the one used before. We can now rewrite (2.2.75):
b = a +a

(2.2.76)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 123
And taking the Hermitian conjugate,
b

= a

+a (2.2.77)
Since both and are real. Inverting these two equations
a = b b

(2.2.78)
a

= b

b (2.2.79)
And we can now write
1

2
[a[) =
1

2
, [b[, )
=
1

2
, [a + a

[, ) (2.2.80)
1

2
[a

[) =
1

2
, [b

[, )
=
1

2
, [a

+ a[, ) (2.2.81)
Now that we have the framework laid down, we can now attack our problem head on and directly
investigate the Hermitian conjugate we are to minimize, (a + a

)/

2 :
1

2
[a + a

[) =
1

2
_
[a[) + [a

[)

=
1

2
_
, [a +a

[, ) + , [a

+ a[, )

=
1

2
, [a +a

+a

+a[, )
=
1

2
, [a( +) +a

( + )[, )
=
1

2
( +), [a +a

[, )
=
1

2
(cosh sinh ), [a + a

[, )
=
1

2
e

, [a +a

[, ) (2.2.82)
And we are asked to calculate the value of that squeezes (a +a

)/

2 to 1% of its original coherent


state value. So take the appropriate fraction, and solve for the squeezing parameter :
1/

2 e

, [a +a

[, )
1/

2 [a + a

[)(100)
=
e

100
(2.2.83)
And nally
e

= 100 = log 100 4.60517 . . .


W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
Figure 2.2: Graph of p = /2x.
Do note that the last part of the question where we are asked what happens to the width of the conjugate
observable (a a

)/

2 i yields the same result.


As a side comment, I found it most informative to investigate squeezed states graphically. Most notably,
by solving the uncertainty relation for p in terms of x and graphing it (See Figure 2 on next page).
The product of the coordinates at any point along the curve is equal to exactly /2; as an example, in
the gure x
1
p
1
= x
2
p
2
= /2. States where this is satised are referred to as squeezed states,
since the uncertainty relation is saturated. If there exists a point above the curve (shaded region), then
this implies that xp /2 and that it is not minimized. Points below the curve cannot exist, for
obvious reasons.
2.3 Homework #3
Exercise 14.3
Show that in the Heisenberg picture the density operator for the state [),
= [(0))(0)[ = [

[ (2.3.1)
Satises the equations
i

t
= iT

(t, 0)

t
T(t, 0) =
_

H,

and
d
dt
= 0 (2.3.2)
and that the expectation value of is constant as in (14.21).
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 125
Solution
First recall that the Schr odinger equation in the Heisenberg representation takes the form
i
d
dt
[
H
) = H
H
[
H
) (2.3.3)
And similarly,
i
d
dt

H
[ =
H
[H
H
(2.3.4)
We begin by rewriting the rst part of (2.3.2):
i

H
t
=i
__
d
dt
[
H
)
_

H
[ + [
H
)
_
d
dt

H
[
__
=i
__
1
i
H
H
[
H
)
_

H
[ [
H
)
_
1
i

H
[H
H
__
=[H
H
([
H
)
H
[) ([
H
)
H
[) H
H
]
=[H
H
(
H
) (
H
) H
H
]
=[H
H
,
H
] (2.3.5)
Now lets do the same for the middle part. We know that

t
= T(t, 0)

H
t
T

(t, 0) (2.3.6)
We can manipulate this further by multiplying (2.3.6) on the left by T

(t, 0) and on the right by T(t, 0).


This gives
T

(t, 0)

t
T(t, 0) =

H
t
(2.3.7)
Which is (14.31) in Merzbacher and also is the same as the left side of (2.3.2), which we have already
shown to be equal to the right side. We can quantify this by inserting the result from (2.3.5) into (2.3.7),
which yields

H
t
= T

(t, 0)

t
T(t, 0) =
1
i
[H
H
,
H
] i

H
t
= iT

(t, 0)

t
T(t, 0) = [H
H
,
H
] (2.3.8)
Where (2.3.8) is identical to (2.3.2).
Exercise 14.4
Show that the expression

, t
2
[

T (t
2
, t
1
)[

, t
1
) (2.3.9)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
for the transition amplitude is quite general and gives the correct answer if the Schr odinger (H
0
= 0) or Heisenberg
(H
0
= H) pictures are employed.
Solution
First, we recall that

T(t
2
, t
1
) represents the time evolution operator in the interaction picture. Its eect
is the same as we would expect, from (14.48):
[

(t)) =

T(t
2
, t
1
)[

(0)) (2.3.10)
And it can be expressed in terms of unitary transformations from (14.49) as

T(t
2
, t
1
) = U(t
2
)T(t
2
, t
1
)U

(t
1
) (2.3.11)
Where we recall from (14.46) that
U(t) = exp
_
i

H
0
t
_
(2.3.12)
Merzbacher states in (14.50) that
[

, t) = U(t)[A

) (2.3.13a)

, t[ = B

[U

(t) (2.3.13b)
Multiplying (2.3.13a) on the left by U

, and (2.3.13b) on the right by U,


U

(t)[

, t) = [A

) (2.3.14a)

, t[U(t) = B

[ (2.3.14b)
Substituting (2.3.14a) and (2.3.14b) into (2.3.9),

, t
2
[

T (t
2
, t
1
)[

, t
1
) = B

[T(t
2
, t
1
)[A

) (2.3.15)
The equivalence has thus been shown. We can further quantify this by recalling (14.17), which reads
T(t, t
0
) = exp
_

(t t
0
)H
0
_
(2.3.16)
Substituting (2.3.16) into (2.3.15),
B

[T(t
2
, t
1
)[A

) =B

[e

(tt0)H0
[A

) (2.3.17)
If we let H
0
0, as in the Schr oginer picture, then (2.3.17) becomes
B

[T(t
2
, t
1
)[A

) = B

[A

)
Which is what we would expect in the Schr odinger picture. Similarly, if we let H
0
H, as in the
Heisenberg picture, then (2.3.17) becomes
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 127
B

[e

(tt0)H0
[A

) = B

[e

(tt0)H
[A

)
Which is, according to Merzbacher, also what we would expect for the Heisenberg picture.
Exercise 14.6
Illustrate the validity of (14.60) by letting G = x
2
and F = p
2
x
, and evaluating both the operator expression
on the left, in the limit 0, and the corresponding Poisson bracket on the right.
Solution
Equation (14.60) reads,
lim
0
GF FG)
i
=
G
x
F
p
x

F
x
G
p
x
+
G
y
F
p
y

F
y
G
p
y
+
G
z
F
p
z

F
z
G
p
z
(2.3.18)
Lets start by evaluating the numerator of the limit on the LHS of (2.3.18):
GF FG) =x
2
p
2
x
p
2
x
x
2
)
=[x
2
, p
2
x
])
=x[x, p
2
x
] + [x, p
2
x
]x)
=x([x, p
x
]
. .
i
p
x
+ p
x
[x, p
x
]
. .
i
) + ([x, p
x
]
. .
i
p
x
+ p
x
[x, p
x
]
. .
i
)x)
=2ixp
x
+p
x
x)
=2i[xp
x
) + p
x
x)]
=2i
__

(x)xp
x
(x) dx +
_

(x)p
x
x(x) dx
_
=2i
_

i
_

(x)x
_

x
_
(x) dx +

i
_

(x)
_
d
dx
_
x(x) dx
_
=2i
_

i
_

(x)x
_

x
_
(x) dx +

i
__

(x)x
_

x
_
(x) dx +
_

(x)(x) dx
__
=2i
_
2
i
_

(x)x
_

x
_
(x) dx +

i
_

(x)(x) dx
_
=2i
_
2xp
x
) +

i
(x) [ (x))
_
=2i
_
2xp
x
) +

i
_
(2.3.19)
Where I assumed that (x) is normalized, and I also liberally used the fact that [x, p
x
] = i and also
the following identities from (3.50): [AB, C] = A[B, C] + [A, C]B and [A, BC] = [A, B]C +B[A, C]. We
now plug (2.3.19) into the left side of (2.3.18):
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
lim
0
GF FG)
i
= lim
0
2i
_
2xp
x
) +

i
_
i
= lim
0
2
_
2xp
x
) +

i
_
=4xp
x
) (2.3.20)
To solve the Poisson bracket on the right, you should rst notice that all partial derivatives on the right
are zero except the rst:
G
x
F
p
x
=
(x
2
)
x
(p
2
x
)
p
x
4xp
x
(2.3.21)
So, the left side of (2.3.18) is given by (2.3.20) as 4xp
x
) and the right side is given by (2.3.21) as 4xp
x
:
4xp
x
) = 4xp
x
xp
x
) = xp
x
This makes sense; the Poisson Bracket is dened as the classical analogue of the quantum-mechanical
commutator and the expectation value is an average. This therefore demonstrates how classical me-
chanics is a limiting case of quantum mechanics.
Exercise 14.7
Show that the transformation
UaxU

=ax cos +bp


x
sin (2.3.22a)
Ubp
x
U

= ax sin +bp
x
cos (2.3.22b)
is canonical, if a and b are real-valued constants, and is a real-valued angle parameter. Construct the unitary
operator U that eects this transformation. For the special case of = /2, calculate the matrix elements of U in
the coordinate representation. Noting that this transformation leaves the operator a
2
x
2
+b
2
p
2
x
invariant, rederive
the result of Exercises 3.8 and 3.21.
Solution
In the spirit of 14.4, we recall that in order to verify canonically conjugate transformations,
qp pq = i1 (2.3.23)
Which is of course (14.63). We also note that q represents the canonically conjugate position, while p is
the canonically conjugate momentum. Claiming that q corresponds to (2.3.22a), while p corresponds to
(2.3.22b), we can compute the commutator in (2.3.23) straightforwardly,
qp pq = (ax cos +bp
x
sin) (ax sin + bp
x
cos ) (ax sin + bp
x
cos ) (ax cos +bp
x
sin )
(2.3.24)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 129
To reduce the cumbersomeness of evaluating this, we evaluate qp and pq separately, and then combine
them. Computing the product qp rst,
qp =(ax cos + bp
x
sin) (ax sin + bp
x
cos )
= a
2
x
2
cos sin + axbp
x
cos
2
bp
x
ax sin
2
+b
2
p
2
x
sin cos (2.3.25)
And now doing the same thing for the product pq,
pq =(ax sin + bp
x
cos ) (ax cos +bp
x
sin )
= a
2
x
2
sin cos axbp
x
sin
2
+ bp
x
ax cos
2
+b
2
p
2
x
cos sin (2.3.26)
Simply by visual inspection, we can see that in subtracting (2.3.26) from (2.3.25), the rst and last terms
in both equations cancel. We are left with,
qp pq =axbp
x
cos
2
bp
x
ax sin
2
+axbp
x
sin
2
bp
x
ax cos
2

=(axbp
x
bp
x
ax) cos
2
+ (axbp
x
bp
x
ax) sin
2

=[ax, bp
x
]
_
cos
2
+ sin
2

_
=[ax, bp
x
] (2.3.27)
Recalling that a and b are constants, (2.3.27) becomes
qp pq =ab [x, p
x
] qp pq = abi (2.3.28)
According to (2.3.23), the transformation in (2.3.22a) and (2.3.22b) are canonically conjugate . Now,
following closely Merzbachers work on pgs. 327-328, we dene the innitesimal unitary operator U

from (14.72) as
U

= 1 +
i

G (2.3.29)
Where G is the generator of this innitesimal transformation. We now recall that according to (14.68),
F(q, p) = F(x, p
x
) +

i
[F, G] (2.3.30)
While we also note that from (14.71),
F(q, p) = U

F(x, p
x
)U

(2.3.31)
Comparing (2.3.31) to (2.3.22a) and (2.3.22b), and applying the results to (2.3.30), we have
UaxU

=ax +
a
i
[x, G] (2.3.32a)
Ubp
x
U

=bp
x
+
b
i
[p
x
, G] (2.3.32b)
Applying the RHS of (2.3.22a) and (2.3.22b) to (2.3.32a) and (2.3.32b), respectively,
ax cos +bp
x
sin =ax +
a
i
[x, G] (2.3.33a)
ax sin + bp
x
cos =bp
x
+
b
i
[p
x
, G] (2.3.33b)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
Now recalling (14.70) from Merzbacher,
F(q, p) =
_
1 +
i

G
_
F(x, p
x
)
_
1
i

G
_
(2.3.34)
Applying (2.3.34) to (2.3.33a) rst,
ax cos +bp
x
sin =
_
1 +
i

G
_
ax
_
1
i

G
_
=
_
1 +
i

G
__
ax
iax

G
_
=ax
i

Gax + ax
i

G+
ax
2

2
G
2
(2.3.35)
First order approximation in allows us to rewrite (2.3.35) as
ax +bp
x
= ax
i

[G, ax] bp
x
=
ia

[x, G] (2.3.36)
And we can analogously apply (2.3.34) to (2.3.33b),
ax =
ib

[p
x
, G] (2.3.37)
Now recalling (14.64) from Merzbacher,
q = x +
G
p
x
, p = p
x

G
x
(2.3.38)
Applying (2.3.38) to (2.3.22a) and (2.3.22b),
UaxU

=ax + a
G
p
x
(2.3.39a)
Ubp
x
U

=bp
x
b
G
x
(2.3.39b)
Using (2.3.22a), (2.3.32a) and (2.3.39a), we now have
ax
b
=
G
x
(2.3.40)
And similarly, using (2.3.22b), (2.3.32b), and (2.3.39b),
bp
x
a
=
G
p
x
(2.3.41)
We can solve the dierential equations in (2.3.40) and (2.3.41) as
ax
b
=
G
x
G =
a
b
x
2
2
(2.3.42a)
bp
x
a
=
G
p
x
G =
b
a
p
2
x
2
(2.3.42b)
Having established that , and combining (2.3.42a) and (2.3.42b), we have
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 131
G =
a
2b
x
2
+
b
2b
p
2
x
(2.3.43)
We now recall (14.75) from Merzbacher, which reads
U = exp
_
i

G
_
(2.3.44)
Substituting (2.3.43), and recognizing the fact that ,
U = exp
_
i

_
a
2b
x
2
+
b
ab
p
2
x
__
(2.3.45)
For the special case of = /2, (2.3.45) becomes
U = exp
_
i
2
_
a
2b
x
2
+
b
2a
p
2
x
__
(2.3.46)
And in order to calculate the matrix elements of U in the coordinate representation (letting q x),
x

[U[x) =
_
x

exp
_
i
2
_
a
2b
x
2
+
b
2b
p
2
x
__

x
_
(2.3.47)
Substituting the series expansion of the exponential function into (2.3.47),
x

[U[x) =
_
x

N=0
1
N!
_
i
2
_
a
2b
x
2
+
b
2b
p
2
x
__
N

x
_
(2.3.48)
Expanding to the rst few terms of (2.3.48),
x

[U[x) =x

[x) +
_
x

i
2
_
a
2b
x
2
+
b
2b
p
2
x
_

x
_
+
_
x

1
2
_
i
2
_
a
2b
x
2
+
b
2b
p
2
x
__
2

x
_
+ ... (2.3.49)
Rewriting the last element in (2.3.48),
_
x

1
2
_
i
2
_
a
2b
x
2
+
b
2b
p
2
x
__
2

x
_
=
i
32
_
x

_
a
b
x
2
+
b
a
p
2
x
_
2

x
_
(2.3.50)
To make our lives easier, lets examine the main part of (2.3.50) without the constants:
x

[(x
2
+p
2
x
)
2
[x) =x

[(x
2
+p
2
x
+ 2xp
x
)[x) x

[x
2
[x) + x

[p
2
x
[x) + 2x

[p
x
[x) (2.3.51)
Taking inspiration from the harmonic oscillator, we know that for x ,= x

, then (2.3.51) goes to zero.


The same can be seen for the rst two matrix elements as well, and therefore we only allow for diagonal
entries.
We now recall that for a linear harmonic oscillator, the Schr odinger Equation can be expressed in
momentum representation with (3.84) as
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
1
2m
p
2
x

E
(x)
1
2
m
2
d
2

E
(x)
dp
2
x
= E
E
(x) (2.3.52)
We now recall that the Hamiltonian for the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator reads
H =
p
2
x
2m
+
1
2
m
2
x
2
(2.3.53)
We may also rewrite the unitary transformation in (2.3.45) as
U = exp
_
i
2
_
a
2
x
2
+ b
2
p
2
x

_
(2.3.54)
To show that the operator inside the brackets of (2.3.54) remains invariant,
U
_
a
2
x
2
+b
2
p
2
x
_
U

=exp
_
i
2
_
a
2
x
2
+ b
2
p
2
x

_
_
a
2
x
2
+ b
2
p
2
x
_
exp
_

i
2
_
a
2
x
2
+ b
2
p
2
x

_
=
_
1 +
_
i
2
_
a
2
x
2
+b
2
p
2
x

__
_
a
2
x
2
+ b
2
p
2
x
_
_
1
_
i
2
_
a
2
x
2
+b
2
p
2
x

__
=a
2
x
2
+ b
2
p
2
x
Therefore, the transformation leaves a
2
x
2
+ b
2
p
2
x
invariant . We also note ,

, given in (2.3.45) rep-


resents the time evolution operator for the quantum harmonic oscillator, then it lends itself that the
position-space wave function can be found by taking the position-space function projected onto momentum-
space from (2.3.48) and solving the position-space Schr odinger equation from (2.3.52). The result is:
(p
x
, t) =
e
i

m

_
p
x
m
, t
_
Exercise 14.11
For a free particle in one dimension and an arbitrary initial wave packet, calculate the time development of
(q)
2
t
and show (as in Problem 2 in Chapter 3) that
(q)
2
t
= (q)
2
0
+
t
m
[qp + pq)
0
2q)
0
p)] +
(p)
2
t
2
m
2
(2.3.55)
Verify that for the minimum uncertainty wave packet this result agrees with (14.97). Also compare with the value
of the variance (q)
2
as a function of time for a beam of freely moving classical particles whose initial positions
and momenta have distributions like variances (q)
2
0
and (p)
2
.
Solution
To nd the time development of (q)
2
t
, it is rst helpful to take care of some denitions. First, recall
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 133
that the time derivative of the expectation value of an operator is given by
i
d
dt
A) = [A, H]) +
_
A
t
_
(2.3.56)
The operators we will be dealing with in this problem are time-independent, so the last part of (2.3.56)
will go to zero. Furthermore, we can go ahead and nd p)
t
and p
2
)
t
since they will be needed later on
in the problem:
i

t
p) =[p, T])
=
1
2m
[p, p
2
]) = 0 (2.3.57)
Integrating (2.3.57) we nd that we are only left with a constant: p)
t
= p)
0
. With the same logic we
can arrive at p
2
)
t
= p
2
)
0
, and the variance of p) is therefore p
2
) = p
2
)
0
p)
2
0
. It will also be
convenient to nd the following commutators,
[q, p
2
] = [q, p]p +p[q, p] = 2ip (2.3.58)
Where I liberally used the fact that [q, p] = i and also the following identities from (3.50): [AB, C] =
A[B, C] +[A, C]B and [A, BC] = [A, B]C+B[A, C]. Armed with these tools, we can go ahead and start
nding (q)
2
t
= q
2
)
t
q)
2
t
. Start by nding q):
i

t
q) =[q, T])
=
1
2m
[q, p
2
])
=
1
m
ip)
t
q)
t
=
p)
0
t
m
+ q)
0
(2.3.59)
Doing the same for q
2
),
i

t
q
2
) =
1
2m
[q
2
, p
2
])
=
1
2m
q [q, p
2
]
. .
2ip
+[q, p
2
]
. .
2ip
p)
=
i
m
qp +pq)
q
2
)
t
=
qp + pq)
t
t
m
+ q
2
)
0
(2.3.60)
And we must now nd qp + pq)
t
:
i

t
qp +pq) =
1
2m
[(qp + pq), p
2
])
=
1
2m

[qp, p
2
] + [pq, p
2
]
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
=
1
2m
q [p, p
2
]
. .
0
+[q, p
2
]
. .
2ip
p + p [q, p
2
]
. .
2ip
+[p, p
2
]
. .
0
q)
=
i
m
p
2
)
qp + pq)
t
=
p
2
)
0
t
m
+qp + pq)
0
(2.3.61)
Substituting (2.3.61) into (2.3.60)
q
2
)
t
=
1
m
_
p
2
)
0
t
m
+qp + pq)
0
_
t + q
2
)
0
=
p
2
)
0
t
2
m
2
+
qp + pq)
0
t
m
+q
2
)
0
(2.3.62)
And now we nd (q)
2
t
. Using (2.3.59) and (2.3.62),
(q)
2
t
=q
2
)
t
q)
2
t
=
_
p
2
)
0
t
2
m
2
+
qp +pq)
0
t
m
+q
2
)
0
_

_
p)
0
t
m
+q)
0
_
2
=
p
2
)
0
t
2
m
2
+
qp + pq)
0
t
m
+ q
2
)
0

p)
2
0
t
2
m
2
2
p)
0
q)
0
t
m
q)
2
0
=q
2
)
0
q)
2
0
+
qp + pq)
0
t
m

2q)
0
p)
0
t
m
+
p
2
)
0
t
2
m
2

p)
2
0
t
2
m
2
=(q)
2
0
+
t
m
[qp + pq)
0
2q)
0
p)
0
] +
(p)
2
0
t
2
m
2
(2.3.63)
Which answers the rst part of the question

. For a beam of freely moving classical particles, nding


(q)
2
t
is simply a matter of realizing that there is no dierence between qp and pq, and (2.3.63) becomes:
(q)
2
t
=(q)
2
0
+
t
m
[2qp 2qp] +
(p)
2
0
t
2
m
2
(q)
2
t
= (q)
2
0
+
(p)
2
0
t
2
m
2
(2.3.64)
Which is identical to (14.97).
Exercise 14.13
In either the Heisenberg or Schr odinger picture, show that if at t = 0 a linear harmonic oscillator is in a co-
herent state, with eigenvalue , it will remain in a coherent state, with eigenvalue e
it
, at time t.
Solution

You will notice that my answer (2.3.63) diers ever so slightly from Merzbachers (2.3.107). I do believe that Merzbacher made a
mistake; the last term in the square brackets should be p
0
, as opposed to p.
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 135
Recall from (14.7) that the time development operator T(t, t
0
) can relate the initial state [(t
0
)) to the
nal state [(t)). Applying this principle to our system where t
0
= 0,
[(t)) = T(t, t
0
)[(t
0
))
t0=0
[(t)) = T(t, 0)[(0)) (2.3.65)
Where the state in our case is a coherent state, [). Using (10.110), we can say that
[) =

n=0
[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
(2.3.66)
And according to (14.17) that the time development operator T(t, t
0
) at t
0
= 0 is given by
T(t, t
0
) = e

(tt0)H
t0=0
T(t, 0) = e

Ht
(2.3.67)
And the series expansion of the exponential function e
x
is given by:
e
x
=

n=0
x
n
n!
(2.3.68)
So, using (2.3.66), (2.3.67) and (2.3.68), we can now rewrite (2.3.65):
[(t)) =e

Ht
[(0))
=e

Ht

n=0
[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
=

n=0
(iHt/)
n
n!
[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
=

n=0
(it(n + 1/2))
n
n!
[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
=

n=0
(itn it/2)
n
n!
[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
=

n=0
e
itn
e
it/2
[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
=e
it/2

n=0
_
e
it
_
n
[n)e
||
2
/2

n

n!
=e
it/2

n=0
[n)e
||
2
/2
_
e
it
_
n

n!
=e
it/2

e
it
_
(2.3.69)
Where I used (2.3.66), by using the fact that [[
2
is independent of phase, since it refers to a magnitude.
Since

e
it
_
is an eigenstate of the energy operator, it satises a[) = [), and
a[(t)) =ae
it/2

e
it
_
=e
it/2
a

e
it
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
=e
it/2
_
e
it
_

e
it
_
=e
it
_
e
it/2

e
it
_
_
=e
it
[(t)) (2.3.70)
So, according to , if a linear harmonic is in a coherent state at t
0
= 0, it will remain in a coherent state
with eigenvalue e
it
:
a[(t)) = e
it
[(t))
Problem 10.1
A particle of charge q moves in a uniform magnetic eld B which is directed along the z axis. Using a gauge
in which A
z
= 0, show that q = (cp
x
qA
x
)/qB and p = (cp
y
qA
y
)/c may be used as suitable canonically conju-
gate coordinate and momentum together with the pair z, p
z
. Derive the energy spectrum and the eigenfunctions
in the q-representation. Discuss the remaining degeneracy. Propose alternative methods for solving this eigenvalue
problem.
Solution
To show that q and p are canonically conjugate, we must test to see if they satisfy the fundamental
Poisson bracket relations: q
i
, q
j
= 0, p
i
, p
j
= 0 and q
i
, p
j
=
ij
. The Poisson bracket is dened by
the right hand side of (14.60):
lim
0
[G, F])
i
=
G
x
F
p
x

F
x
G
p
x
+
G
y
F
p
y

F
y
G
p
y
+
G
z
F
p
z

F
z
G
p
z
(2.3.71)
The easiest way to nd out of Poissons conditions are satised would be to evaluate the commutator on
the left of (2.3.71). First we must choose our gauge; and I convienently choose to work in the Landau
Gauge since it has only one term (the symmetric gauge should also work): A(x, y, z) = (yB
0
, 0, 0).
Rewriting our given values of q and p,
q =
cp
x
qA
x
qB
=
cp
x
qB
0
+ y (2.3.72)
And,
p =
cp
y
qA
y
c
= p
y
(2.3.73)
Just by visual inspection it is possible to tell that x, y = x, z = y, z = 0, and also that p
x
, p
y
=
p
x
, p
x
= p
y
, p
z
= 0. For the same reasons, we can see that q
x
, p
x
= q
z
, p
z
= 0. To nd q
y
, p
y
,
q
y
, p
y
= lim
0
[q
y
, p
y
])
i
= lim
0
[y, p
y
])
i
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 137
= lim
0
i)
i
=1 (2.3.74)
Which indicates that q and p may be used as canonically conjugate coordinates. To nd the energy spec-
trum and eigenfunctions, start o by remembering the denition of a Hamiltonian in an electromagnetic
eld (4.93)
H =
1
2m
_
p
q
c
A
_
2
+ q (2.3.75)
Where in our case = 0. Still working in the Landau gauge, (2.3.75) becomes
H =
1
2m
_
_
p
x

q
c
A
x
_
2
+
_
p
y

q
c
A
y
_
2
+
_
p
z

q
c
A
z
_
2
_
=
1
2m
_
p
x
+
q
c
yB
0
_
2
+
1
2m
_
p
2
y
+ p
2
z
_
=
1
2m
_
p
2
x
+
2q
c
B
0
yp
x
+
q
2
c
2
y
2
B
2
0
_
+
1
2m
_
p
2
y
+ p
2
z
_
=
1
2m
_
p
2
x
+ p
2
y
+p
2
z
+
2q
c
B
0
yp
x
+
q
2
c
2
y
2
B
2
0
_
=
1
2m
_
p
2
x
+ p
2
y
+p
2
z
+
2q
c
yp
x
B
0
+
q
2
c
2
y
2
B
2
0
_
=
x
2
+p
2
y
+ p
2
z
2m
+
_
qB
0
mc
_
yp
x
+
m
2
_
qB
0
mc
_
2
y
2
=
p
2
x
+ p
2
y
+p
2
z
2m
+
c
yp
x
+
m
2

2
c
y
2
(2.3.76)
Where I used the fact that the cyclotron resonance frequency is dened by
c
= qB
0
/mc. At this point we
should notice that our Hamiltonian commutes with both p
x
and p
z
but not with p
y
: [H, p
x
] = [H, p
z
] = 0.
This implies that it is possible to nd a common eigenstate between both p
x
, p
z
and H. Lets nd an
eigenfunction for p
x
:
p
x
(x) =p
x
(x)

i
d
dx
(x) =p
x
(x)
1
(x)
d(x) =
i

p
x
dx
(x) =e
ipxx

(2.3.77)
And WLOG we can assume this holds for p
z
as well. At this point we still need to nd an eigenstate for
H; one way to nd it is to deploy separation of variables:
(x, y, z) =(x)(y)(z)
=e
ipxx/
(y)e
ipz z/
=e
i(pxx+pzz)/
(y) (2.3.78)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
Using our Hamiltonian (2.3.76) and our eigenstate (2.3.78), we can construct the Schr odinger equation,
keeping the eigenfunction arbitrary (for now):
_
1
2m
_
p
2
x
+p
2
y
+p
2
z
_
+
c
yp
x
+
m
2

2
c
y
2
_
(x, y, z) =E(x, y, z) (2.3.79)
Where the x, z, p
x
and p
z
are now numbers instead of operators, so:
_
p
2
y
2m
+
c
yp
x
+
m
2

2
c
y
2
_
(x, y, z) =
_
E
(p
2
x
+ p
2
z
)
2m
_
(x, y, z) (2.3.80)
At this point we want to undergo a change of variables with the denitions of q and p given in the
prompt:
y

y +
p
z
m
And
p

y
p
y
While
E

E
p
2
z
2m
Solving and substituting into (2.3.80):
_
p
2
y
2m
+
c
p
x
_
y

p
x
m
_
+
m
2

2
c
_
y

p
x
m
_
2
_
(x, y, z) =E

(x, y, z)
_
p
2
y
2m
+
c
p
x
y

p
2
x
m
+
m
2
c
2
_
y
2

2y

p
x
m
c
+
p
2
x
m
c
_
_
(x, y, z) =E

(x, y, z)
_
p
2
y
2m
+
c
p
x
y

p
2
x
m
+
m
2
c
y
2
2

c
p
x
y

+
p
2
x
2m
_
(x, y, z) =E

(x, y, z)
_
p
2
y
2m

p
2
x
2m
+
m
2
c
y
2
2
_
(x, y, z) =E

(x, y, z)
_
p
2
y
2m
+
m
2
c
y
2
2
_
(x, y, z) =E

(x, y, z) (2.3.81)
The operator acting on (x, y, z) on the left of (2.3.81) is none other than the Hamiltonian for the
harmonic oscillator. This implies that it is a straightforward matter to nd both the eigenenergies and
the eigenfunctions. From (2.3.81) it is clear that E =
c
(n +
1
/
2
), as it would be for the harmonic
oscillator. Therefore, the eigenvalues for the energy operator in our case is given by:
E =
c
_
n +
1
2
_
+
p
2
z
2m
(2.3.82)
To nd the eigenfunctions make our separation of variables substitution from (2.3.78),
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 139
_
p
2
y
2m
+
m
2
c
y
2
2
_
exp
_
i(p
x
x + p
z
z)

_
(y) =E

exp
_
i(p
x
x + p
z
z)

_
(y) (2.3.83)
So that the eigenfunctions are just those of the harmonic oscillator from (5.39) multiplied by (2.3.78):
(x, y, z) = 2
n/2
(n!)
1/2
_
m
c

_
1/4
exp
_

m
c
2
+
i(p
x
x +p
z
z)

_
x
2
H
n
__
m
c

x
_
(2.3.84)
These results agree with the literature; the energy spectrum is referred to as Landau Levels. In
fact, the whole of the problem alludes to Landau Quantization, or the quantization cyclotron orbits
of charged particles subjected to an external magnetic eld. The fact that the system boils down to the
harmonic oscillator problem is no surprise; when we think of a classical particle in a static magnetic eld,
the particle follows a helical path, moving in the direction of the eld and oscillating in a plane normal
to the direction of propagation. The quantum case, however is more interesting.
The momentum components in the x and y plane do not commute: [p
x
, p
y
] ,= 0. Therefore it is impossible
for us to precisely dene the momentum in these two directions, which causes degeneracy. This is made
more obvious when we notice that neither of these terms are present in (2.3.82). We also note that the
degeneracy is directly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic eld B
0
. ?
Problem 10.2
A linear harmonic oscillator is subjected to a spatially uniform external force F(t) = C(t)e
t
where is a
positive constant and (t) the Heaviside step function (A.23). If the oscillator is in the ground state at t < 0,
calculate the probability of nding it at time t in an oscillator eigenstate with quantum number n. Assuming
C = (m
3
)
1
/2
, examine the variation of the transition probabilities with n and with the ratio /, being the
natural frequency of the harmonic oscillator.
Solution
This is an instance of a forced linear harmonic oscillator, whose Hamiltonian is given by (14.105):
H =
p
2
2m
+
1
2
m
2
x
2
qQ(t) pP(t) (2.3.85)
Where Q(t) is a real-valued function of t and corresponds to an external time-dependent force (F(t) in our
case). P(t) is a velocity dependent term and neednt be considered for this problem. The Hamiltonian
can also be written in terms of the raising and lowering operators:
H =
_
a

a +
1
2
_
+f(t)a +f

(t)a

(2.3.86)
Which is (14.106). The function f(t) is given by
f(t) =
_

2m
Q(t) +i
_
m
2
P(t)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
=
_

2m
C(t)e
t
=
_

2m

m
3
(t)e
t
=
_

3
2
(t)e
t
(2.3.87)
Since the oscillator is initially in the ground state at t < 0 and we are asked to nd the probability at
some time t, we should use the time evolution operator, [(t)) = T(t, 0)[(0)), where T(t, 0) can be
found from (14.148), letting t
2
= t, t
1
= 0 and H
0
= (a

a +
1
/
2
) from (14.121):
T(t, 0) =e
i(t,0)
exp
_

(t, 0)ae
it
+(t, 0)a

e
it
_
e
i(a

a+1/2)t
(2.3.88)
And to nd the probability at some later time t of nding the oscillator in an eigenstate with quantum
number n would be given by
P
n
(t) =[n[(t)) [
2
=[n[T(t, 0) [ (0))[
2
=

n[ e
i(t,0)
exp
_

(t, 0)ae
it
+(t, 0)a

e
it
_
e
i(a

a+1/2)t
[(0))

2
(2.3.89)
At this point we should note that
e
i(a

a+1/2)t
[(0)) =

k=0
_
i(a

a + 1/2)t
_
k
k!
[(0))
=

k=0
(ia

a it/2)
k
k!
[(0))
=e
it/2

k=0
(ia

a)
k
k!
[(0))
=e
it/2

k=0
(i)
k
k!
(a

a)
k
[(0))
=e
it/2
_
[(0)) +

k=1
(i)
k
k!
(a

a)
k
[(0))
_
=e
it/2
[(0)) (2.3.90)
Because the number operator acting on the ground state (any number of times) has an eigenvalue of zero
since you cant go any lower than the ground state: a

a[(0)) a

(a[(0))) = 0. We also know that


(t, 0) is given by (14.140):
(t, 0) =
i
2
2
_
t
0
dt

_
t
0
dt

_
f(t

)f

(t

)e
i(t

)
f

(t

)f(t

)e
i(t

)
_
(2.3.91)
Luckily, we dont have to evaluate (2.3.91) since is real, such that e
i(t,0)
is itself a phase and whose
magnitude is 1, and it therefore doesnt matter. The same argument can be applied to (2.3.90). Therefore,
(2.3.89) becomes
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 141
P
n
(t) =

exp
_

(t, 0)ae
it
+(t, 0)a

e
it
_

(0)
_

2
(2.3.92)
Where (t, 0) can be found from (14.138):
(t, 0) =
i

_
t
0
e
it

(t

) dt

=i
_

3
2
_
t
0
e
it

(t

)e
t

dt

(2.3.93)
And recall that from (A.23), the Heaviside step function is
(x) =
_
x

(u) du =
_
1 x > 0
0 x < 0
(2.3.94)
Since t > 0, then (t

) = 1 in (2.3.93), according to (2.3.94). So, (t, 0) becomes:


(t, 0) =i
_

3
2
_
t
0
e
i(+i)t

dt

=i
_

3
2
1
i( + i)
_
e
i(+i)t

=t
t

=0
=
_

3
2
1
+ i
e
i(+i)t
(2.3.95)
Using this, we can now rewrite (2.3.92):
P
n
(t) =

_
n

exp
___

3
2
1
+i
e
i(+i)t
_
a

e
it

__

3
2
1
i
e
i(+i)t
_
ae
it
_

(0)
_

2
=

_
n

exp
___

3
2
1
+i
e
t
_
a

__

3
2
1
i
e
i
_
a
_

(0)
_

2
(2.3.96)
Dene a new complex number (t):
(t) =
_

3
2
1
+i
e
t
(2.3.97)
For reasons to become clear momentarily. Then (2.3.96) becomes
P
n
(t) =

exp
_
(t)a

(t)a
_

(0)
_

2
(2.3.98)
Which reminds us of the displacement operator (10.98):
D

=e
a

a
(2.3.99)
Which has the property
[) =D

[0) (2.3.100)
Which is (10.101). Using (2.3.99) and (2.3.100) we can now rewrite (2.3.98):
P
n
(t) =[n[D

[ (0))[
2
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
=[n[)[
2
(2.3.101)
Recall that we can dene [) in terms of eigenstates of the number operator with the Poisson distribution,
(10.109), such that (2.3.101) becomes (10.110)
P
n
(t) =e
||
2 [[
2n
n!
(2.3.102)
Where we can nd from (2.3.97):
[[
2
=

3
2
1
+ i
e
t

2
=
__

3
2
1
i
e
t
___

3
2
1
+ i
e
t
_
=

3
2
e
2t
1
( i)( +i)
=

3
2(
2
+
2
)
e
2t
(2.3.103)
So that (2.3.102) becomes
P
n
(t) =exp
_

3
2(
2
+
2
)
e
2t
_
1
n!

3
2(
2
+
2
)
e
2t

n
=exp
_

3
2(
2
+
2
)
e
2t
_
1
n!
__

3
2(
2
+
2
)
_
n
e
2nt
_
(2.3.104)
We see that (2.3.104) can be easily rewritten as
P
n
(t) = exp
_

3
2(
2
+
2
)
_ _

3
2(
2
+
2
)
_
n
1
n!
e
2t(n+1)
(2.3.105)
Which answers the rst part of the question. To see how the transition probability P
n
(t) varies with
n and /, it will be most instructive to create a graph. For the rst graph we seek to see how P
n
(t)
varies with n, so we set = = 1 in (2.3.105) and construct a 3-D graph (Fig. (1)).
Similarly, to see how P
n
(t) varies with (which I have dened as = /), simply plot (2.3.105)
with for various values of n and see how it looks (Figs. (2)-(4)).
From Fig. (1) it is clear that as n increases the probability that the system will remain in the
lowest state subjected to the time-dependent force F(t) decreases with higher n. Similarly, from Figs.
(2)-(4) we can see that as increases the probability that the system will remain in the ground state
decreases with respect to lower .
Problem 10.3
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 143
Figure 2.3: P
n
(t) vs Figure 2.4: P
n
(t) vs n for n = 0
Figure 2.5: P
n
(t) vs n for n = 1 Figure 2.6: P
n
(t) vs n for n = 2
If the term V (t) in the Hamiltonian changes suddenly (impulsively) between time t and t + t, in a time
t short compared with all relevant periods, and assuming only that [V (t

), V (t

)] = 0 during the impulse, show


that the time development operator is given by
T(t + t, t) = exp
_

_
t+t
t
V (t

) dt

_
(2.3.106)
Note especially that the state vector remains unchanged during a sudden change of V by a nite amount.
Solution
Recall that (14.11) reads
i
dT(t, t
0
)
dt
= H(t)T(t, t
0
) (2.3.107)
Where in our case we recognize that t
0
t and t t + t. We also note that H(t) = H
0
+ V (t). So,
lets solve (2.3.107) for T(t + t, t):
1
T(t + t, t)
dt(t + t, t) =
1
i
H(t

) dt

W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
T(t + t, t) =exp
_

_
t+t
t
H
0
+V (t

) dt

_
=exp
_

_
H
0
_
t+t
t
dt

+
_
t0+t
t
V (t

) dt

__
(2.3.108)
Where we recognize that since the Hamiltonian changes suddenly, the rst integral is approximately zero:
_
t+t
t
dt

0, and (2.3.108) becomes


T(t + t, t) = exp
_

_
t+t
t
V (t

) dt

_
(2.3.109)
Which agrees with (2.3.106). To see that the state vector remains unchanged during a sudden change of
V by a nite amount, recall that
[(x, t)) =T(t, 0)[(x, 0)) [(x, t + t)) = T(t + t, t)[(x, t)) (2.3.110)
And with a sudden change t 0, such that the right side of (2.3.110) becomes
T(t, t)[(x, t)) = [(x, t))
2.4 Homework #4
Problem 14.4
A linear harmonic oscillator in its ground state is exposed to a spatially constant force which at t = 0 is suddenly
removed. Compute the transition probabilities to the excited states of the oscillator. Use the generating function
for Hermite polynomials to obtain a general formula. How much energy is transferred?
Solution
The Hamiltonian for a forced harmonic oscillator is given by (15.65) in Merzbacher as
H = H
0
+H


p
2
2m
+
1
2
m
2
x
2
xF(t) (2.4.1)
Where the perturbing term, H

= xF(t) in this case. We now wish to employ perturbation theory to


see how the energy changes when this force is added. Due to parity, the rst order shift is zero:
E
(1)
n
=
(0)
n
[H

[
(0)
n
) 0
The reason for this is because the perturbation is odd and we are integrating over the entire universe.
The second order shift is not zero, though. The easiest way to solve this problem is to follow the work
done by Merzbacher on Pgs. 84-88. From (5.42),
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 145
n[x[k) =
_

n
(x) x
k
(x) dx
=
_

m
_
_
n
2

k,n1
+
_
n + 1
2

k,n+1
_
(2.4.2)
And all the other terms vanish. So, we have
E
(2)
n
=

n=k
[n[H

[k)[
2
E
(0)
k
E
(0)
n
=

n=k
[n[Fx[k)[
2
E
(0)
n
E
(0)
k
=
F
2

2m
[

n
n,k1
+

n + 1
n,k+1
[
2
E
(0)
k
E
(0)
n
=
F
2

2m
_
[

n
n,k1
[
2
E
(0)
k
E
(0)
n
+
[

n + 1
n,k+1
[
2
E
(0)
k
E
(0)
n
_
=
F
2

2m
_
[

n
n,k1
[
2
(n +
3
/
2
) (n +
1
/
2
)
+
[

n + 1
n,k+1
[
2
(n
1
/
2
) (n +
1
/
2
)
_
=
F
2

2m
_
n


n + 1

_
=
F
2

2m
_

_
=
F
2
2m
2
(2.4.3)
We know that (2.4.3) is, of course, approximate. We can nd the exact value in a few dierent ways.
The method I am choosing to employ entails substituting the perturbing Hamiltonian into the TISE. We
start by dening the following quantity:
x

= x
F
m
2
(2.4.4)
And we recall that the TISE is
_


2
2m

2
x
2
+V (x)
_
(x) = E(x) (2.4.5)
We now recall from (2.4.1), that our potential in this problem is given by
V (x) =
1
2
m
2
x
2
Fx (2.4.6)
Substituting (2.4.4) into (2.4.48),
V (x) =
1
2
m
2
_
x

+
F
m
2
_
2
F
_
x

+
F
m
2
_
=
1
2
m
2
_
x
2
+
F
2
m
2

4
+
2Fx

m
2
_
F
_
x

+
F
m
2
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
=
1
2
m
2
x
2
+
m
2
2

F
2
m
2

2
+
m
2
2

2Fx

m
2
Fx

F
2
m
2
=
1
2
m
2
x
2
+
F
2
2m
2
+ Fx

Fx

F
2
m
2
=
1
2
m
2
x
2

F
2
2m
2
(2.4.7)
Substituting (2.4.48) back into the TISE from (2.4.5),
_


2
2m

2
x
2
+
1
2
m
2
x
2

F
2
2m
2
_
(x

) = E(x

)
_

2
2m

2
x
2
+
1
2
m
2
x
2
_
(x

) =
_
E +
F
2
2m
2
_
(x

) (2.4.8)
If we allow for the following substitution, we see that our old harmonic oscillator dierential equation
and can jump to the solution:
E

= E +
F
2
2m
2
(2.4.9)
Then we can rewrite (2.4.8) as
_


2
2m

2
x
2
+
1
2
m
2
x
2
_
(x

) = E

(x

) (2.4.10)
The solution of (2.4.10) is as we would expect,
E

n
=
_
n +
1
/
2
_
(2.4.11)
Substituting (2.4.11) back into (2.4.9),
_
n +
1
/
2
_
= E
n
+
F
2
2m
2
E
n
=
_
n +
1
/
2
_

F
2
2m
2
(2.4.12)
The solution for the eigenfunctios of (2.4.10) have been solved exhaustively, and the solution is given by
(5.39) in Merzbacher (with a few modications) as

n
(x

) =
1

2
n
n!
_

_1
/4
exp
_

2
2
_
H
n
(

) (2.4.13)
Where

may be deduced from the original denition and our denition of x

from (2.4.4),

=
_
m

=
_
m

_
x
F
m
2
_
=
_
m

x
_
m

F
m
2
=
F

m
3
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 147
= a (2.4.14)
Where a is constant. From (2.4.13), we may deduce that our ground state wave function is

0
(x

) =
_

_1
/4
exp
_

2
2
_
(2.4.15)
Our new goal is to nd the transition probability, which is dened as P
n
= [
n
(x)[
0
(x))[
2
. Using our
previous denitions for
n
(x) and
0
(x

), we see that
P
n
=[
n
(x)[
0
(x))[
2
=
_

n
(x)
0
(x) dx
=
_

_
1

2
n
n!
_

_1
/4
exp
_

2
2
_
H
n
()
__
_

_1
/4
exp
_

2
2
_
_
d (2.4.16)
Substituting in our value for

from (2.4.14) into (2.4.16),


P
n
=

_
1

2
n
n!
_

_1
/4
exp
_

2
2
_
H
n
()
__
_
( a)

_1
/4
exp
_

( a)
2
2
__
d

2
(2.4.17)
We now note that (2.4.17) strikes an uncanny resemblance to integral which led to the result obtained
in Problem 6 in Chapter 5, where we are asked to nd the transitional probability of a forced harmonic
oscillator. In this problem, we found that
P
n
=

2n
2
n
n!
exp
_

1
2

2
_
(2.4.18)
Where we dened to be
=
_
m

a
Where, uncoincidentally, I have chosen a in my problem to coincide with a from Problem 5.6. Therefore,
using our previous denition of a, we can use (2.4.18) to say
P
n
=
1
2
n
n!
_
F
2
m
3
_
n
exp
_

1
2
F
2
m
3
_
Problem 14.5
In the nuclear beta decay of a tritium atom (
3
H) in its ground state, an electron is emitted and the nucleus
changes into an
3
He nucleus. Assume that the change is sudden, and compute the probability that the atom is
found in the ground state of the helium atom after the emission. Compute the probability of atomic excitation to
the 2S and 2P states of the helium ion. How probable is excitation to higher levels, including the continuum?
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Solution
In decay, we know that a neutron decays into a proton, electron, and electron anti-neutrino. For
Tritium,
3
H
3
He + e

+ , where is an anti-neutrino. To nd the probability that the atom is in


the ground state of helium after the emission, we must nd P = [
H
1,0,0
(r, , )[
He
1,0,0
(r, , ))[
2
, which
is the overlap integral between the two states particular to the transition in question. The superscript
H signies the state of Tritium where Z = 1, and similarly He is the Helium ion with Z = 2.
Since both
3
H and
3
He
+
have only one electron, they are Hydrogenic, and we can therefore use
(12.98) from Merzbacher:

1,0,0
(r, , ) =
_
Z
3
a
3
_
1
/2
exp
_

Zr
a
_
(2.4.19)
Additionally, we must know the functional dependence of the radius (a) on Z, which is given by (4.72)
in Griths: ?
a =
4
0

2
me
2
(2.4.20)
And m in our case will translate to the reduced mass , which will most certainly be dierent. The
reduced mass of Tritium is
(
3
H) =
m
e
3m
p
m
e
+ 3m
p
m
e
(2.4.21)
And similarly for (
3
He
+
), which just says that a(
3
H) = a(
3
He
+
) = a
0
. Now we must determine (2.4.19)
for both Tritium and the
3
He nucleus. For Tritium Z = 1, so that (2.4.19) is just

H
1,0,0
(r, , ) =
_
1
3
a
3
_
1
/2
exp
_

r
a
_
(2.4.22)
And for
3
He
+
Z = 2, so:

He
1,0,0
(r, , ) =
_
8
a
3
_1
/2
exp
_

2r
a
_
(2.4.23)
Taking the square of the overlap integral between (2.4.22) and (2.4.23),
P =[
H
1,0,0
(r, , )[
He
1,0,0
(r, , ))[
2
=

__
_
1
a
3
_1
/2
exp
_

r
a
_
_

_
_
8
a
3
_1
/2
exp
_

2r
a
_
__

2
=
_

8
a
3
_
2
0
d
_

0
sin d
_

0
r
2
exp
_

3r
a
_
dr
_
2
=
8

2
a
6
_
4
_

0
r
2
exp
_

3r
a
_
dr
_
2
=
8

2
a
6
16
2
__

0
r
2
exp [r] dr
_
2
_
= 3/a
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 149
=
128
a
6
_
2

3
_
2
=
128
a
6
_
2a
3
27
_
2
=
128
a
6

4a
6
729
=
512
729
P 0.702332 (2.4.24)
To nd the probability of excitation into the 2S and 2P states, the process is very much the same.
However instead of blindly implementing (12.98) we must manually nd the excited eigenfunctions. This
is not so bad, since we know that
n,l,m
(r, , ) = R
n,l
(r)Y
m
l
(, ). The respective radial wave functions
and spherical harmonics can be looked up in any QM textbook, such as chapter 4 in Griths. The wave
function for 2S ends up being,

He
2,0,0
(r, , ) =R
2,0
(r)Y
0
0
(, )
=
1
2

2
_
8
a
3
_1
/2
_
2
2r
a
_
exp
_

r
a
_

1
2
_
1

=
_
1
a
3
_1
/2 _
1
r
a
_
exp
_

r
a
_
(2.4.25)
Taking the inner product with (2.4.19) and squaring the result,
P =[
H
1,0,0
(r, , )[
He
2,0,0
(r, , ))[
2
=

__
_
1
a
3
_1
/2
exp
_

r
a
_
_

_
1
a
3
_1
/2 _
1
r
a
_
exp
_

r
a
_
_

2
=
1

2
a
6

__
exp
_

r
a
__

_
1
r
a
_
exp
_

r
a
__

2
=
1

2
a
6
__
2
0
d
_

0
sin d
_

0
r
2
_
1
r
a
_
exp
_

2r
a
_
dr
_2
=
16
a
6
__

0
r
2
exp
_

2r
a
_
dr
1
a
_

0
r
3
exp
_

2r
a
_
dr
_
2
=
16
a
6
__

0
r
2
exp [r] dr
1
a
_

0
r
3
exp [r] dr
_
2
_
= 2/a
=
16
a
6
_
2

3

1
a
6

4
_
2
=
16
a
6
_
2
8
a
3

3
8
a
3
_
2
=
16
64
P = 0.25 (2.4.26)
To nd the wave function corresponding to the 2P state we repeat the same process that we did in
(2.4.25):
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4

He
2,1,0
(r, , ) =R
2,1
(r)Y
0
1
(, )
=
_
4
3a
3
_1
/2
r
a
exp
_

r
a
_

1
2
_
3

cos
=
_
1
a
3
_1
/2
1
a
r exp
_

r
a
_
cos (2.4.27)
And now,
P =[
H
1,0,0
(r, , )[
He
2,1,0
(r, , ))[
2
=

__
_
1
a
3
_1
/2
exp
_

r
a
_
_

_
1
a
3
_1
/2
1
a
r exp
_

r
a
_
cos
_

2
=

1
a
4
__
exp
_

r
a
__

r exp
_

r
a
_
cos
_

2
=
_
1
a
4
_
2
0
d
_

0
sin cos d
_

0
r
3
exp
_

2r
a
_
dr
_
P = 0 (2.4.28)
Because of the integral. The probability of excitation to higher states is just the probability that is left
over from the previous states, eg 1.00 0.70 0.25 = 0.05. Sadly Tritium is not available to the public,
and this is unfortunate for restless high-schoolers who wish to make a low-power inertial connement
fusion device, as Tritium is the ideal source ?, ?.
Problem 14.7
At t < 0 a system is in a coherent state [) (eigenstate of a) of an oscillator and subjected to an impulsive
interaction
V (t) =
i
2

_
a
2
a
2
_
(t) (2.4.29)
Where is a real-valued parameter. Show that the sudden change generates a squeezed state. If the oscillator
frequency is , derive the time dependence of the variances
_

_
a +a

2
__
2
, and
_

_
a a

2
__
2
(2.4.30)
Solution
We know that [) is an eigenstate of a and satises a[) = [). What we want to do is go from our
coherent state [) to a squeezed state [, ). We see that we arrive at a squeezed state by rst nding
the squeezed state operator, b, where we can say
[a[) =[U

bU[)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 151
=, [b[, ) (2.4.31)
The easiest way to nd b would be to utilize some identities made available by Merzbacher on pgs. 39-40.
He says that if
f() = e
A
Be
A
Then we can write
f() = Bcosh
_
+
[A, B]

sinh
_
(2.4.32)
Which we can use only if is constant, and the operators A and B satisfy [A, [A, B]] = B. In our case,
f() b(), and A = (a
2
a
2
) and B = a. To nd out if we can use (2.4.32):
[A, B] =[(a
2
a
2
), a]
=[a
2
, a] [a
2
, a]
= [a
2
, a]
= a

[a

, a] [a

, a]a

= a

(1) (1)a

=2a

(2.4.33)
[A, [A, B]] =[(a
2
a
2
), 2a

]
=2
_
[a
2
, a

] [a
2
a

]
_
=2
_
a[a, a

] + [a, a

]a
_
=4a (2.4.34)
It seems that we can in fact use (2.4.32), since both of our conditions are satised with = /2 and
= 4. We now have,
b() =a cosh
_
+
[A, B]

sinh
_

=a cosh /2

4 +
2a

4
sinh /2

4
=a cosh +a

sinh
=a cosh a

sinh (2.4.35)
Following Merzbachers lead on pgs. 230-231, we dene = cosh and = sinh , where here is
dierent than the one used before. We can now rewrite (2.4.35):
b = a +a

(2.4.36)
And taking the Hermitian conjugate,
b

= a

+a (2.4.37)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Since both and are real. Inverting these two equations
a = b b

(2.4.38)
a

= b

b (2.4.39)
And we can now write
1

2
[a[) =
1

2
, [b[, )
=
1

2
, [a + a

[, ) (2.4.40)
1

2
[a

[) =
1

2
, [b

[, )
=
1

2
, [a

+ a[, ) (2.4.41)
So, we can say that the impulsive action of (2.4.29) generates a squeezed state . We can nd the vari-
ances from (2.4.30) by recalling that we can write
_

_
a + a

2
__
2
=
1
2
_
, [
_
a +a

_
2
[, ) , [
_
a + a

_
[, )
2
_
(2.4.42a)
_

_
a a

2
__
2
=
1
2
_
, [
_
a a

_
2
[, ) , [
_
a a

_
[, )
2
_
(2.4.42b)
We can evaluate (2.4.42a) and (2.4.42b) according to the previous formulas laid out in this problem.
Unfortunately, I did not have time as I have been preparing a presentation for WildCorn. The framework
has been laid out, the rest of this problem is very straightforward.
Exercise 15.5
From the denition (15.31) of the propagator and the Hermitian character of the Hamiltonian, show that
K(r

, r; t

, t) = K

(r, r

; t, t

) (2.4.43)
linking the transition amplitude that reverses the dynamical development between spacetime points (r, t) and
(r

, t

) to the original propagator.


Solution
We rst recall (15.31), which states
K(r, r

; t, t

) = r[T(t, t

)[r

) (2.4.44)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 153
Where the time evolution operator is given by (14.41) as
T(t, t

) = exp
_

H(t t

)
_
(2.4.45)
Substituting (2.4.45) into (2.4.44) (letting 1 for convenience),
K(r, r

; t, t

) =r[e
iH(tt

)
[r

)
_
r[e
iHt
__
e
iHt

[r

)
_
(2.4.46)
We now take the complex conjugate of both sides of (2.4.46),
K

(r, r

; t, t

) =
__
r[e
iHt
__
e
iHt

[r

)
__

_
e
iHt

[r

)
_

_
r[e
iHt
_

(2.4.47)
Recalling the Hermitian property of the Hamiltonian H

= H

, we can rewrite (2.4.47) as


K

(r, r

; t, t

) =
_
r

[e
iHt

__
e
iHt
[r)
_
r

[e
iH(t

t)
[r) (2.4.48)
Going back to (2.4.46), if we interchange r and r

and also t and t

, then (2.4.46) becomes


K(r

, r; t

, t) =
_
r

[e
iHt

__
e
iHt
[r)
_
r

[e
iH(t

t)
[r) (2.4.49)
We now see that (2.4.49) is equal to (2.4.48), and we can now say
K(r

, r; t

, t) = K

(r, r

; t, t

)
Exercise 15.8
Verify that (15.48) solves the time-dependent Schr odinger equation and agrees with the initial contition (15.32). If
the initial (t

= 0) state of a free particle is represented by (x, 0) = e


ik0x
, verify that (15.35) produces the usual
plane wave.
Solution
Equation (15.48) reads
K(x; x

; t t

) =
_
m
2i(t t

)
exp
_
m(x x

)
2
2i(t t

)
_
(2.4.50)
We want to use this in the time-dependent Schr odinger equation (15.33):
i

t
K(r, r

; t, t

) =
_


2
2m
_

iq
c
A
_
2
+ V
_
K(r, r

; t, t

) (2.4.51)
The LHS of (2.4.51) is
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
i

t
K(r, r

; t, t

) =i

t
__
m
2i(t t

)
exp
_
m(x x

)
2
2i(t t

)
__
=
m(x x

)
2
+i(t t

)
2(t t

)
2

_

im
2t 2t

_1
/2
exp
_

im(x x

)
2
2(t t

)
_
(2.4.52)
While the RHS of (2.4.51) is
_


2
2m
_

iq
c
A
_
2
+V
_
K(r, r

; t, t

) =
_


2
2m
_

iq
c
A
_
2
+ V
_
_
m
2i(t t

)
exp
_
m(x x

)
2
2i(t t

)
_
=

2
2m

2
_
m
2i(t t

)
exp
_
m(x x

)
2
2i(t t

)
_
=
m(x x

)
2
+i(t t

)
2(t t

)
2

_

im
2t 2t

_1
/2
exp
_

im(x x

)
2
2(t t

)
_
(2.4.53)
Since we have a free particle and A = 0 and V = 0. All derivatives were computed with Mathematica.
We do notice, however that the left side of (2.4.51), (2.4.52) is equal to the right side, (2.4.53), therefore
(2.4.50) solves the time-dependent Schr odinger equation.
We are now asked to verify that this agrees with the initial condition given by (15.32), which says:
K(r, r

; t, t) = (r r

) (2.4.54)
Which clearly satises the TDSE for tt

tt = 0 because of the completeness of the eigenfunctions:


K(r, r

; t, t

) =

n=0

n
(r

)
n
(r)e
iEnt/
(2.4.55)
And in our case,
K(r, r

; t, t) =

n=0

n
(r

)
n
(r) = (r r

) (2.4.56)
For the last part of the question, (15.35) reads
(r, t) =
_
K(r, r

; t, t

)(r

, t

)d
3
r

(2.4.57)
Where in our case t

= 0, (x, 0) = e
ik0x
and K(r, r

; t, t

) is given by (2.4.50). So, (2.4.57) becomes:


(r, t) =
_

K(r, r

; t, 0)(r

, 0)d
3
r

=
_

_
m
2it
exp
_
m(x x

)
2
2it
_
e
ik0x

dx

=
_

_
m
2it
exp
_
m(x x

)
2
2it
+ ik
0
x

_
dx

CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 155


=
_
m
2it
_

exp
_
m(x
2
2xx

x
2
)
2it
+ ik
0
x

_
dx

=
_
m
2it
_

exp
_
mx
2
2it

mxx

it

mx
2
2it
+ ik
0
x

_
dx

=
_
m
2it
_

exp
_

mx
2
2it

mxx

it
+
mx
2
2it
+ ik
0
x

_
dx

=
_
m
2it
_

exp
_
_

m
2it
_
x
2
+
_
ik
0

mx
it
_
x

+
_
mx
2
2it
__
dx

=
_
m
2it
_

exp
_
ax
2
+ bx

+c
_
dx

=
_
m
2it
_

a
exp
_
b
2
4a
+c
_
(2.4.58)
Where I have set
a =
m
2it
(2.4.59a)
b =ik
0

mx
it
(2.4.59b)
c =
mx
2
2it
(2.4.59c)
We now wish to evaluate (2.4.58) one bit at a time. The rst factor is
_

a
=
_

2it
m

_
2it
m
(2.4.60)
The exponential term becomes
exp
_
b
2
4a
+ c
_
=exp
_

_
ik
0

mx
it
_
2
4
_

m
2it
_ +
mx
2
2it
_
=exp
_
1
4

2it
m
_
k
2
0

2mxk
0
t
+
m
2
x
2

2
t
2
_
+
mx
2
2it
_
=exp
_

ik
2
0
t
2m
ixk
0
+
imx
2
2t

imx
2
2t
_
=exp
_

ik
0
2m
(k
0
t + 2mx)
_
(2.4.61)
Substituting (2.4.60) and (2.4.61) back into (2.4.58),
(r, t) =
_
m
2it

_
2it
m
exp
_

ik
0
2m
(k
0
t + 2mx)
_
(r, t) = exp
_

ik
0
2m
(k
0
t + 2mx)
_
(2.4.62)
Which is indeed a plane wave.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Exercise 15.9
Calculate [(x, t)[
2
from (15.50) and show that the wave packet moves uniformly and at the same time spreads so
that
(x)
2
t
= (x)
2
0
_
1 +

2
t
2
4m
2
(x)
4
0
_
(2.4.63)
Solution
Equation (15.50) reads:
(x, t) = [2(x)
2
0
]

1
/4

_
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_

1
/2
exp
_
_

x
2
4(x)
2
0
+ ik
0
x ik
2
0
t
2m
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_
_
(2.4.64)
To make calculating [(x, t)[
2
from (2.4.64) easier recall that if we have (a +ib)/(c +id), then
a +ib
c +id

c id
c id

(a +ib)(c id)
c
2
+d
2
(2.4.65)
Furthermore we remember that if f(x) = exp (e + if) then [f(x)[ = exp (e if) exp (e +if) = exp (2e),
so in further calculations I will recognize that the imaginary phase cancels out ahead of time to simplify
the calculations. So, we have:
[(x, t)[
2
=

[2(x)
2
0
]

1
/4

_
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_

1
/2
exp
_
_

x
2
4(x)
2
0
+ ik
0
x ik
2
0
t
2m
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_
_

2
=

[2(x)
2
0
]

1
/4

_
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_

1
/2

2
. .
[
I
[
2

exp
_
_

x
2
4(x)
2
0
+ik
0
x ik
2
0
t
2m
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_
_

2
. .
[
II
[
2
(2.4.66)
Such that
[
I
[
2
=

[2(x)
2
0
]

1
/4

_
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_

1
/2

2
[2(x)
2
0
]

1
/2

_
1 +

2
t
2
4m
2
(x)
4
0
_

1
/2
(2.4.67)
And also
[
II
[
2
=

exp
_
_

x
2
4(x)
2
0
+ ik
0
x ik
2
0
t
2m
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_
_

2
=exp
_
_

x
2
4(x)
2
0
ik
0
x + ik
2
0
t
2m
1
it
2m(x)
2
0
+

x
2
4(x)
2
0
+ ik
0
x ik
2
0
t
2m
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
_
_
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 157
=exp
_
_

x
2
4(x)
2
0
ik
0
x + ik
2
0
t
2m
1
it
2m(x)
2
0

1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0
+

x
2
4(x)
2
0
+ ik
0
x ik
2
0
t
2m
1 +
it
2m(x)
2
0

1
it
2m(x)
2
0
1
it
2m(x)
2
0
_
_
=exp
_
_

x
2
4(x)
2
0
+
k0xt
2m(x)
2
0

k
2
0

2
t
2
4m
2
(x)
2
0

x
2
4(x)
2
0
+
k0xt
2m(x)
2
0

k
2
0

2
t
2
4m
2
(x)
2
0
1 +

2
t
2
4m(x)
4
0
_
_
=exp
_
_

x
2
2(x)
2
0
+
k0xt
m(x)
2
0

k
2
0

2
t
2
2m
2
(x)
2
0
1 +

2
t
2
4m(x)
4
0
_
_
=exp
_
_

x
2
2
+
k0xt
m

k
2
0

2
t
2
2m
2
(x)
2
0
_
1 +

2
t
2
4m(x)
4
0
_
_
_
(2.4.68)
Combining (2.4.67) and (2.4.68),
[(x, t)[
2
=[
I
[
2
[
II
[
2
=[2(x)
2
0
]

1
/2

_
1 +

2
t
2
4m
2
(x)
4
0
_

1
/2
exp
_
_
_
k0t
m
x
_ _

k0t
2m
+
x
2
_
(x)
2
0
_
1 +

2
t
2
4m(x)
4
0
_
_
_
(2.4.69)
Which is the answer. By graphing this we can see that this does indeed move uniformly and spreads in
time. If we substitute (2.4.63) into (2.4.69),
[(x, t)[
2
= [2(x)
2
t
]

1
/2
exp
_
(k
0
t/mx) (k
0
t/(2m) + x/2)
(x)
2
t
_
(2.4.70)
With the denition of (x)
t
provided by (2.4.63), (2.4.70) is very clearly Gaussian (not that it didnt
look that way before). Please see attached Mathematica printout for plots.
Exercise 15.13
For the harmonic oscillator, derive (x, t) directly from (x, 0) by expanding the initial wave function, which
represents a displaced ground state as in (15.60), in terms of stationary states. Use the generating function (5.33)
to obtain the expansion coecients and again to sum the expansion. Rederive (15.61).
Solution
Using the denition of the propagator from (15.59),
K(x, x

; t) =

..
_
m
2isin(t)
_1
/2
exp
_

m
2isin(t)
(x
2
cos(t) 2xx

+ x
2
cos(t))
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
=exp
_

m
2isin(t)
(x
2
cos(t) 2xx

+x
2
cos(t))
_
(2.4.71)
We can nd (x, t) using
(x, t) =
_

K(x, x

; t)(x

, 0) dx

=N
_

exp
_

m
2isin(t)
(x
2
cos(t) 2xx

+ x
2
cos(t))
_
exp
_

m
2
(x

x
0
)
2
_
dx

=N
_

exp
_

m
2isin(t)
(x
2
cos(t) 2xx

+ x
2
cos(t))
m
2
(x

x
0
)
2
_
dx

=N
_

exp
_
m
2
_

x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+
2xx

i sin(t)

x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
(x

x
0
)
2
__
dx

=N
_

exp
_
m
2
_

x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+
2xx

i sin(t)

x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
x
2
+ 2x

x
0
x
2
0
__
dx

=N
_

exp
_

mx
2
cos(t)
2isin(t)
+
2mxx

2isin(t)

mx
2
cos(t)
2isin(t)

mx
2
2
+
2mx

x
0
2

mx
2
0
2
_
dx

=N
_

exp
_

mx
2
2

mx
2
cos(t)
2isin(t)
+
mxx

isin(t)
+
mx

x
0

mx
2
cos(t)
2isin(t)

mx
2
0
2
_
dx

=N
_

exp
__

m
2

m cos(t)
2isin(t)
_
x
2
+
_
mx
isin(t)
+
mx
0

_
x

+
_

mx
2
cos(t)
2isin(t)

mx
2
0
2
__
dx

(2.4.72)
Where we set
a =
m
2

m cos(t)
2isin(t)
=
m
2
_
1 +
cos(t)
i sin(t)
_
(2.4.73)
b =
mx
isin(t)
+
mx
0

=
m

_
x
i sin(t)
+ x
0
_
(2.4.74)
c =
mx
2
cos(t)
2isin(t)

mx
2
0
2
=
m
2
_
x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+ x
2
0
_
(2.4.75)
Such that (2.4.72) becomes
(x, t) =N
_

exp
_
ax
2
+ bx

+ c
_
dx

=N
__

a
exp
_

b
2
4a
+c
__
(2.4.76)
Where we have
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 159
_

a
=
_

_
m
2
_
1 +
cos(t)
i sin(t)
__
1
_1
/2
=
_

_
m
2
_
i sin(t) + cos(t)
i sin(t)
__
1
_1
/2
=
_
2
m
_
i sin(t)
i sin(t) + cos(t)
__1
/2
(2.4.77)
And also, we can say that
exp
_

b
2
4a
+c
_
=exp
_
_
m

_
x
i sin(t)
+x
0
__
2

1
4
_
m
2
_
1 +
cos(t)
i sin(t)
__
1

m
2
_
x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+ x
2
0
_
_
We can simplify this further,
exp % =exp
_
m
2

2
_
x
i sin(t)
+x
0
_
2

1
4
_
m
2
_
i sin(t) + cos(t)
i sin(t)
__
1

m
2
_
x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+x
2
0
_
_
=exp
_
m
2
_

x
2
sin(
2
t)
+
2xx
0
i sin(t)
+ x
2
0
__
i sin(t)
i sin(t) + cos(t)
_

m
2
_
x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+x
2
0
__
=exp
_
m
2
__

x
2
sin(
2
t)
+
2xx
0
i sin(t)
+ x
2
0
__
i sin(t)
i sin(t) + cos(t)
_

_
x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+ x
2
0
___
=exp
_
m
2
__

ix
2
sin(t)
+ 2xx
0
+ix
2
0
sin(t)
__
1
i sin(t) + cos(t)
_

_
x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+ x
2
0
___
=exp
_
_
_
m
2
_
_

ix
2
sin(t)
+ 2xx
0
+ ix
2
0
sin(t)
cos(t) +i sin(t)

(cos(t) i sin(t))
(cos(t) i sin(t))

_
x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
+x
2
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
=exp
_
_
_
m
2
_
_

ix
2
cos(t)
sin(t)
+ 2xx
0
cos(t) + ix
2
0
sin(t) cos(t) x
2
2ixx
0
sin(t) +x
2
0
sin(
2
t)
cos(
2
t) + sin(
2
t)

x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
x
2
0
__
=exp
_
m
2
_

ix
2
cos(t)
sin(t)
+ 2xx
0
cos(t) + ix
2
0
sin(t) cos(t) x
2
2ixx
0
sin(t) +x
2
0
sin(
2
t)

x
2
cos(t)
i sin(t)
x
2
0
__
=exp
_
m
2
_
2xx
0
cos(t) + ix
2
0
sin(t) cos(t) x
2
2ixx
0
sin(t) +x
2
0
sin(
2
t) x
2
0

_
=exp
_
m
2
_
2xx
0
cos(t) +
ix
2
0
sin(2t)
2
x
2
2ixx
0
sin(t) +x
2
0
_
1 cos(
2
t)
_
x
2
0
__
=exp
_
m
2
_
2xx
0
cos(t) +
ix
2
0
sin(2t)
2
x
2
2ixx
0
sin(t) x
2
0
cos(
2
t)
__
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
=exp
_
m
2
_
x
2
+ 2xx
0
cos(t) x
2
0
cos(
2
t) 2ixx
0
sin(t) +
ix
2
0
sin(2t)
2
__
=exp
_

m
2
_
x
2
2xx
0
cos(t) + x
2
0
cos(
2
t)

mixx
0
sin(t)

+
imx
2
0
sin(2t)
4
_
=exp
_

m
2
(x x
0
cos(t))
2

mixx
0
sin(t)

+
imx
2
0
sin(2t)
4
_
=exp
_

m
2
(x x
0
cos(t))
2
i
_
mxx
0
sin(t)


mx
2
0
sin(2t)
4
__
(2.4.78)
Going back to (2.4.76), implementing (2.4.77) (keeping (2.4.78) arbitrary for the time being), and sub-
stituting back in our value for ,
(x, t) =N
_
m
2isin(t)
_1
/2
_

a
exp
_

b
2
4a
+ c
_
=N
_
m
2isin(t)
_1
/2

_
2
m
_
i sin(t)
cos(t) +i sin(t)
__1
/2
exp
_

b
2
4a
+c
_
=N
_
m
2isin(t)

2
m
_
i sin(t)
cos(t) +i sin(t)
__1
/2
exp
_

b
2
4a
+c
_
=N
_
1
i sin(t)
_
i sin(t)
cos(t) + i sin(t)
__1
/2
exp
_

b
2
4a
+ c
_
=N
_
1
cos(t) + i sin(t)
_1
/2
exp
_

b
2
4a
+c
_
=N
_
1
(e
it)
+ e
it)
)/2
_
+i
_
e
it)
e
it)
)/(2i)
_1
/2
exp
_

b
2
4a
+ c
_
=N
_
1
e
it)
/2 + e
it)
/2 + e
it)
/2 e
it)
/2
_1
/2
exp
_

b
2
4a
+c
_
=N
_
1
e
it)
_1
/2
exp
_

b
2
4a
+c
_
=Ne
it)/2
exp
_

b
2
4a
+ c
_
(2.4.79)
Now substituting (2.4.78) into (2.4.79),
(x, t) =Ne

it)
2
exp
_

m
2
(x x
0
cos(t))
2
i
_
m

xx
0
sin(t)
m
4
x
2
0
sin(2t)
__
=N exp
_

m
2
(x x
0
cos(t))
2
i
_
m

xx
0
sin(t)
m
4
x
2
0
sin(2t)
_

i
2
t
_
=N exp
_

m
2
(x x
0
cos(t))
2
i
_

2
t +
m

xx
0
sin(t)
m
4
x
2
0
sin(2t)
__
(2.4.80)
Such that we nally arrive at
(x, t) = N exp
_

m
2
(x x
0
cos(t))
2
i
_

2
t +
m

xx
0
sin(t)
m
4
x
2
0
sin(2t)
__
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 161
Which is identical to (15.61).
20 10 10 20
x
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
x,t
Figure 2.7: Graph of [(x, t)[ vs. x for various values of t.
We can also show that [(x, t)[ oscillates without any change in shape, we proceed with the usual mantra
of complex analysis, recognizing that for a complex number z = [z[e
i
, and in our case:
[(x, t)[ =N exp
_

m
2
(x x
0
cos(t))
2
_
(2.4.81)
As can be seen in Fig. (2.4), plotting [(x, t)[ for various times (30 in this case) clearly shows that
[(x, t)[ does not change shape, eg it does not broaden, or otherwise distort. We also note that [(x, t)[
is normalized.
2.5 Homework #5
Part I
Problem 1
Consider the canonical ensemble, dened by the statistical operator
=
_
Tr
_
e
H/kBT
__
1
e
H/kBT
(2.5.1)
for the 1-D harmonic oscillator (with n-degenerate eigenvalues E
n
=
_
n +
1
/
2
_
with n = 0, 1, 2, ...)
a) Show that Tr
_

2
_
< 1. What happens for T 0?
b) Calculate the occupation probability of level n).
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
c) Calculate the averaged energy E) and specic heat /TE).
d) Evaluate and discuss the limits of very large and very small temperatures in part c).
Solution
As is the case most of the time in world of statistical mechanics, we must rst nd the partition function
(the single-particle variety, in our case)
Q
1
=

n=0
exp
_

_
n +
1
/
2
_
=exp
_

1
/
2

n=0
exp [n]
=exp
_

1
/
2

n=0
exp []
n
=exp
_

1
/
2

n=0
1
1 exp []
=
1
exp [
1
/
2
] exp [
1
/
2
]
=
1
2 sinh [
1
/
2
]
(2.5.2)
a) We rst note that the density operator, , is given in the coordinate representation by
= q[ [q) =
_
m

tanh
_

2k
B
T
__1
/2
exp
_

mq
2

tanh
_

2k
B
T
__
(2.5.3)
Which is (5.4.25) from Pathria. To show that Tr
_

2

< 1, we evaluate
2
by squaring (2.5.3):

2
=
m

tanh
_

2k
B
T
_
exp
_

2mq
2

tanh
_

2k
B
T
__
(2.5.4)
Taking the trace of (2.5.4), we nd that
Tr
_

2

=
_


2
dq
=
_

_
m

tanh
_

2k
B
T
_
exp
_

2mq
2

tanh
_

2k
B
T
___
dq
=
m

tanh
_

2k
B
T
_ _

exp
_

2mq
2

tanh
_

2k
B
T
__
dq (2.5.5)
Lets dene:
=
m

tanh
_

2k
B
T
_
Then (2.5.5) becomes
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 163
Tr
_

2

exp
_
2q
2

dq
=

_

2
=
_

2
=

1
2

m

tanh
_

2k
B
T
_
(2.5.6)
We can qualitatively show that Tr
_

2

< 1 by plotting (2.5.6) as a function of temperature (see


Fig. (1)). We see that Tr
_

2

approaches 0.4, which by most accounts is less than 1.


0 5 10 15 20 25
T 0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Tr^2
Figure 2.8: Graph of Tr
_

2

vs T for Problem 1.
b) In general, the way to nd the average number of things in statistical mechanics is
n) =
1
Q
1

n=0
n exp [nE
n
] (2.5.7)
In our case, (2.5.7) can be written
n) =
1
Q
1

n=0
n exp
_

_
n +
1
/
2
_
=
1
Q
1

n=0
n exp [n] exp
_

1
/
2

=
exp
_

1
/
2

Q
1

n=0
n exp [n] (2.5.8)
We now, seemingly arbitrarily, take the following derivative:

exp [n] = n exp [n] (2.5.9)


Manipulating this a bit more, (2.5.9) becomes
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
nexp [n] =
1

exp [n] (2.5.10)


Substituting (2.5.10) back into (2.5.8),
n) =
exp
_

1
/
2

Q
1

n=0
_

exp [n]
_
=
1

exp
_

1
/
2

Q
1

n=0
exp [n]
_
=
1

exp
_

1
/
2

Q
1

_
1
1 exp []
_
=
1

exp
_

1
/
2

Q
1
_

exp []
(1 exp [])
2
_
=
1
Q
1
_
exp
_

3
/
2

(1 exp [])
2
_
(2.5.11)
Substituting in to (2.5.11) our partition function from (2.5.2), we are left with
n) = 2 sinh
_
1
/
2

_
exp
_

3
/
2

(1 exp [])
2
_
c) The average energy, E), can be found from the partition function from (2.5.2) as
E) =

log [Q
1
]
=

log
_
1
2 sinh[
1
/
2
]
_
=

log
_
2 sinh
_
1
/
2

(2.5.12)
Taking the simple derivative in (2.5.12), we arrive at for the average energy
E) =
1
/
2
coth
_
1
/
2

(2.5.13)
The specic heat is dened as
C
V
=
E)
T
(2.5.14)
Substituting (2.5.13) into (2.5.14),
C
V
=

T
_

2
coth
_

2k
B
T
__


2


2k
B
T
2
csch
2
_

2k
B
T
_
(2.5.15)
We see that (2.5.15) may be readily reduced to
C
V
=

2

2
4k
B
T
2
csch
2
_

2k
B
T
_
(2.5.16)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 165
d) By plotting (2.5.16) as a function of T (where we let = = k
B
= 1, we can clearly see the trend
at high and low temperatures (see Fig. (2)). As T 0, C
V
0 , and as T , C
V
1 .
For the low-temperature limit, we approach the quantum zero-point energy of E =
1
/
2
, which
is independent of temperature. Therefore, in the low-temperature limit, the specic heat at constant
volume approaches zero.
For the high-temperature limit, C
V
approaches 1, which is what we would expect classically.
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
T 0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
CV
Figure 2.9: Graph of C
V
vs T for Problem 1.
Problem 2
An electron is in the spin state [)
z
with respect to the z-axis and you measure the electrons spin with re-
spect to a new quantization axis, given by the vector e = (0.6, 0, 0.8). Find the probability for measuring the
electrons spin in the +e direction.
Solution
We rst recall that S = /2 , where the pauli spin matrices are given by

x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
,
y
=
_
0 i
i 0
_
,
z
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
Our electron is originally spin up in the z-direction, and our goal is to nd the probability that it is spin
up in the +e direction, where e = (0.6, 0, 0.8). To nd this probability, we must calculate:
P =

(e)
+
_

(z)
+

2
(2.5.17)
Where it is known that
(z)
+
is given simply by

(z)
+
=
_
1
0
_
(2.5.18)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
In order to nd
(e)
+
, we must diagonalize the spin matrix S
e
. We do that by taking the normal component
with S:
S
e
=e S
=0.6S
x
+ 0.8S
z
=

2
_
0.6
_
0 1
1 0
_
+ 0.8
_
1 0
0 1
__
=

2
__
0 0.6
0.6 0
_
+
_
0.8 0
0 0.8
__
=

2
_
0.8 0.6
0.6 0.8
_
(2.5.19)
To nd the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of (2.5.19), we take the determinate of the matrix and set it to
zero:

0.8 0.6
0.6 0.8

= 0 (0.8 ) (0.8 ) (0.6) (0.6) = 0


0.64 0.8 + 0.8 +
2
0.36 = 0
= 1
To nd the eigenvector corresponding to = +1,

2
_
0.8 1 0.6
0.6 0.8 1
_


2
_
0.2 0.6
0.6 1.8
_
(2.5.20)
To nd the eigenvectors,

2
_
0.2 0.6
0.6 1.8
__

_
=
_
0
0
_

0.2 + 0.6 = 0
0.6 1.8 = 0
For the rst line, we can let = 0.6, and = 0.2. Accordingly, our eigenspinor becomes

(e)
+
=
_
0.3
0.1
_
(2.5.21)
We can now substitute (2.5.21) and (2.5.18) back into (2.5.17) to nd the probability,
P =

_
0.3
0.1
_

_
1
0
_

_
0.3 0.1
_
_
1
0
_

2
[0.3[
2
P = 0.09 (2.5.22)
Part II
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 167
Exercise 15.25
If an ensemble E consists of an equal-probability mixture of two nonorthogonal (but normalized) states [
1
)
and [
2
) with overlap C =
1
[
2
), evaluate the Shannon mixing entropy H(E ) and the von Neumann entropy,
S(). Compare the latter with the former as [C[ varies between 0 and 1. What happens as C 0?
Solution
The Shannon mixing entropy is given by (15.126):
H(E ) =
N

i=1
p
i
log [p
i
] (2.5.23)
And the density operator is given by
=
N

i=1
p
i

i

N

i=1
p
i
[
i
)
i
[
And since the states have equal probabilities,
p
1
= p
2
=
1
2
Substituting this into (2.5.23) we have
H(E ) =
2

i=1
p
i
log [p
i
] =
2

i=1
log
_
1
/
2

2
= log [2] = 0.693147... (2.5.24)
The Von Neumann entropy is dened by (15.128):
S() =
n

i=1
p
i
log [p
i
]
n

i=1
p
i
[ log [] [p
i
) Tr( log []) (2.5.25)
Where p
1,2
is given in Exercise 15.24. So,
p
1,2
=
1
_
[
1
[
2
)[
2
2

1 C
2
p
1
=
1 +C
2
, p
2
=
1 C
2
Putting this back into (2.5.25), we have
S() =
_
1 + C
2
_
log
_
1 + C
2
_

_
1 C
2
_
log
_
1 C
2
_
(2.5.26)
For the functional dependence of S() on C please see Fig. (3). As we can see, when C = 0 then
S() = log [2] = H(E ), however as C is increased S() decreases. Explicitly, as C 0, we have
S() = log [2]
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0
C
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
S
Figure 2.10: Graph of S() for Problem 15.25.
Problem 15.1
For a system that is characterized by the coordinate r and the conjugate momentum p, show that the expec-
tation value of an operator F can be expressed in terms of the Wigner distribution W(r

, p

) as
F) = [F[) =
__
F
W
(r

, p

)W(r

, p

) d
3
r

d
3
p

(2.5.27)
where
F
W
(r

, p

) =
_
e
ip

/
r

/2[F[r

+ r

/2) d
3
r

(2.5.28)
and where the function W(r

, p

) is dened in Problem 5 in Chapter 3. Show that for the special cases F = f(r)
and F = g(p) these formulas reduce to those obtained in Problem 5 and 6 in Chapter 3, that is, F
W
(r

) = f(r

)
and F
W
(p

) = g(p

).
Solution
The Wigner distribution function dened in Problem 5 in Chapter 3 is:
W(r

, p

) =
1
(2)
3
_
e
ip

_
r

2
_

_
r

+
r

2
_
d
3
r

(2.5.29)
So, putting (2.5.28) and (2.5.29) into (2.5.27),
F) =
__
F
W
(r

, p

)W(r

, p

) d
3
r

d
3
p

=
_ _ __
e
ip

/
r

/2[F[r

+r

/2) d
3
r

_
1
(2)
3
_
e
ip

(r

/2) (r

+ r

/2) d
3
r

_
d
3
r

d
3
p

CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 169


=
1
(2)
3
__ ___
e
ip

(r

)/
r

/2[F[r

+ r

/2)

(r

/2) (r

+ r

/2) d
3
r

d
3
r

_
d
3
r

d
3
p

(2.5.30)
We recognize that r

integral collapses when looking at the exponent, which reduces to the delta function
(r

). So, (2.5.30) becomes


F) =
1
(2)
3
__
r

/2[F[r

+r

/2)

(r

/2) (r

+ r

2) d
3
r

d
3
r

(2.5.31)
We also recall from Chapter 17 that the Wigner Exckart Theorem holds if the determinate of J = 1,
where J is
J =
_
_
_
_
_

_
r

2
_

r

_
r

2
_

_
r

+
r

2
_

r

_
r

+
r

2
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
1
1
/
2
1
1
/
2
_
Taking the determinate of J,
Det J =

1
1
/
2
1
1
/
2

(1)(
1
/
2
) (
1
/
2
)(1) 1 (2.5.32)
We can dene two quantities r
1
and r
2
as
r
1
=r

2
r
2
=r

+
r

2
Using these, we can then rewrite (2.5.31) as
F) =
__
r
1
[F[r
2
)

(r
1
) (r
2
) d
3
r
1
d
3
r
2
=
__
r
1
[F[r
2
)r
1
[r
2
) d
3
r
1
d
3
r
2
=
__
r
1
[F[r
2
) (r
1
r
2
) d
3
r
1
d
3
r
2
=F) (2.5.33)
Using the results from (2.5.32) and also the results from (2.5.33), we can therefore safely make the
conclusion that F) can be expressed in terms of W(r

, p

) as in (2.5.27).
The next parts of this problem ask us to show that F
W
(r

) = f(r

) and F
W
(p

) = g(p

). Starting
with F
W
(r

), we rewrite (2.5.28) as
F
W
(r

, p

) =
_
e
ip

/
r

/2[f(r)[r

+r

/2) d
3
r

=
_
e
ip

/
f(r)r

/2[r

+ r

/2) d
3
r

W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
=
_
e
ip

/
f(r) (r

/2 (r

+ r

/2)) d
3
r

=
_
e
ip

/
f(r) (r

) d
3
r

(2.5.34)
From (2.5.34) we can safely conclude that F
W
(r

, p

) = f(r

). To do the same for F


W
(p

), we proceed
in very much the same way, except we expand g(p

) in p eigenstates:
F
W
(r

, p

) =
_
e
ip

/
r

/2[g(p

)
__
[p)p[ d
3
p
_
[r

+ r

/2) d
3
r

=
__
e
ip

/
g(p

)r

/2[p)p[r

+r

/2) d
3
r

d
3
p (2.5.35)
Recalling from a previous homework set that
r[p) =
1
(2)
3
/2
e
irp/
(2.5.36)
Rewriting (2.5.35), and applying (2.5.36),
F
W
(r

, p

) =
__
e
ip

/
g(p

)r

/2[p) (r

+r

/2[p))

d
3
r

d
3
p
=
__
e
ip

/
g(p

)
_
1
(2)
3
/2
e
i(r

/2)p/
__
1
(2)
3
/2
e
i(r

+r

/2)p/
_
d
3
r

d
3
p
=
__
e
ip

/
g(p

)
_
1
(2)
3
/2
e
i(r

/2)p/
__
1
(2)
3
/2
e
i(r

+r

/2)p/
_
d
3
r

d
3
p
=
1
(2)
3
__
e
ip

/
g(p

)e
i(r

/2)p/
e
i(r

+r

/2)p/
d
3
r

d
3
p
=
1
(2)
3
__
g(p

)e
i(p

p)r

/
d
3
r

d
3
p (2.5.37)
It is easy to see that the exponential term in (2.5.37) collapses to a -function, and we are left with
nothing other than F
W
(r

, p

) = g(p

).
Exercise 16.8
Prove that the only matrix which commutes with all three Pauli matrices is a multiple of the identity. Also
show that no matrix exists which anti-commutes with all three Pauli matrices.
Solution
Imagining some matrix A:
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 171
A =
_
a b
c d
_
To answer the rst part of the question, we look to evaluate:
[A, ] = [A,
x
] + [A,
y
] + [A,
z
] = 0 (2.5.38)
The rst commutator is given by
[A,
x
] =A
x

x
A
=
_
a b
c d
__
0 1
1 0
_

_
a b
c d
__
0 1
1 0
_
=
_
b a
d c
_

_
c d
a b
_
(2.5.39)
While the second is
[A,
y
] =i
_
b a
d c
_
i
_
c d
a b
_
(2.5.40)
And nally, the third commutator is
[A,
z
] =
_
a b
c d
_

_
a b
c d
_
(2.5.41)
Plugging (2.5.39)-(2.5.41) back into (2.5.38),
[A, ] =
_
b a
d c
_

_
c d
a b
_
+ i
_
b a
d c
_
i
_
c d
a b
_
+
_
a b
c d
_

_
a b
c d
_
=
_
b a
d c
_
+ i
_
b a
d c
_

_
c d
a b
_
+i
_
c d
a b
_
+
_
a b
c d
_

_
a b
c d
_
=
_
b + ib +c ic a d 2b
d + id (a +ia) + 2c c ic (b + ib)
_
(2.5.42)
This leaves us with four equations and four unknowns:
b(1 +i) +c(1 i) = 0 (2.5.43a)
a 2b d = 0 (2.5.43b)
d(1 + i) a(1 + i) + 2c = 0 (2.5.43c)
c(1 i) b(1 +i) = 0 (2.5.43d)
Solving (2.5.43a) for b(1 +i), our four equations become
b(1 +i) = c(1 i) (2.5.44a)
a + 2c
(1 i)
(1 + i)
d = 0 (2.5.44b)
d(1 +i) a(1 + i) + 2c = 0 (2.5.44c)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
c(1 i) + c(1 i) = 0 c = 0 (2.5.44d)
Now that we know that we require that c = 0, (2.5.44a)-(2.5.44c) become
b(1 +i) = 0 b = 0 (2.5.45a)
a d = 0 a = d (2.5.45b)
d(1 + i) a(1 + i) = 0 (2.5.45c)
From (2.5.44d), (2.5.45a) and (2.5.45b), it is clear that b = c = 0 and a = d. Therefore, we can now say
that the only matrix which commutes with all three Pauli matrices is a multiple of the identity. We note
that multiplying the commutator by a constant will not change this.
The next part of the question asks us to show that no matrix exists which anti-commutes with all
three Pauli matrices. To show this, we proceed in the same way we did in the last problem:
[A,
x
] =
_
b a
d c
_

_
c d
a b
_
,= 0 (2.5.46)
[A,
y
] =i
_
b a
d c
_
i
_
c d
a b
_
,= 0 (2.5.47)
[A,
z
] =
_
a b
c d
_

_
a b
c d
_
,= 0 (2.5.48)
Following the same logic as before, we can see that the anti-commutation condition will only exist if
a = b = c = d = 0, so therefore no matrix exists which anti-commutes with all three Pauli matrices.
Exercise 16.15
In many applications, conservation laws and selection rules cause a decaying two-level system to be prepared
in an eigenstate of
z
, say
_
1
0
_
, and governed by the simple normal Hamiltonian matrix
H = a1 +b
x
(2.5.49)
where a and b are generally complex constants. In terms of the energy dierence E = E
02
E
01
and the decay
rates
1
and
2
, calculate the probabilities of nding the system at time t in state or state , respectively.
Solution
We rst recall that from the prompt, we have =
_
1
0
_
, and according to (2.5.49),
H =a
_
1 0
0 1
_
+ b
_
0 1
1 0
_
=
_
a 0
0 a
_
+
_
0 b
b 0
_
=
_
a b
b a
_
(2.5.50)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 173
We also note that from the prompt that E = E
02
E
01
, and we recall from (16.81) from Merzbacher,
E
1
=E
01
i

1
2
(2.5.51a)
E
2
=E
02
i

2
2
(2.5.51b)
Taking the dierence of (2.5.51a) and (2.5.51b),
E
2
E
1
=E
02
i

2
2
E
01
i

1
2
=E i

2
(2.5.52)
Where =
2

1
. We also recall from (16.83),
[T(t, 0)[) =
[H[)
E
2
E
1
_
exp
_

iE
2
t

_
exp
_

iE
1
t

__
(2.5.53)
We already know what [H[) is:
[H[) =

_
a b
b a
_

=
_
0 1
_
_
a b
b a
__
1
0
_
=b (2.5.54)
Substituting (2.5.52) and (2.5.54) into (2.5.53),
[T(t, 0)[) =
b
E
i
/
2

_
exp
_

i
_
E
02

i
/
2

2
_
t

_
exp
_

i
_
E
01

i
/
2

1
_
t

__
(2.5.55)
Taking the modulus squared of (2.5.56),
P

=[[T(t, 0)[)[
2
=
[b[
2
[E
i
/
2
[
2
_
_
_

exp
_

i
_
E
02

i
/
2

2
_
t

_
exp
_

i
_
E
01

i
/
2

1
_
t

2
_
_
_
=
[b[
2
(E)
2

1
/
4
()
2
_
_
_

exp
_

i
_
E
02

i
/
2

2
_
t

_
exp
_

i
_
E
01

i
/
2

1
_
t

2
_
_
_
(2.5.56)
The bracketed term in (2.5.56) can be reduced to
... =
_
exp
_
i
_
E
02
+
i
/
2

2
_
t

_
exp
_
i
_
E
01
+
i
/
2

1
_
t

___
exp
_

i
_
E
02

i
/
2

2
_
t

_
exp
_

i
_
E
01

i
/
2

1
_
t

__
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
=exp
_

_
exp
_

(2iE (
1
+
2
)) t
2
_
exp
_
(2iE (
1
+
2
)) t
2
_
+ exp
_

_
(2.5.57)
Substituting (2.5.57) into (2.5.56),
P

=
[b[
2
(E)
2

1
/
4
()
2
_
exp
_

_
exp
_

(2iE (
1
+
2
)) t
2
_
exp
_
(2iE (
1
+
2
)) t
2
_
+ exp
_

__
To nd P

, the only dierence is that [H[) = a, and so we have


P

=
[a[
2
(E)
2

1
/
4
()
2
_
exp
_

_
exp
_

(2iE (
1
+
2
)) t
2
_
exp
_
(2iE (
1
+
2
)) t
2
_
+ exp
_

__
2.6 Homework #6
Exercise 16.23
If a constant magnetic eld B
0
, pointing along the z-axis, and a eld B
1
, rotating with angular velocity in
the xy-plane, act in concert on a spin system (gyromagnetic ratio ), calculate the polarization vector P as a
function of time. Assume P to point in the z-direction at t = 0. Calculate the Rabi oscillations in the rotating
frame, and plot the average probability that the particle has spin down as a function of /
0
for a value of
B
1
/B
0
= 0.1. Show that a resonance occurs when = B
0
. (This arrangement is a model for all magnetic
resonance experiments.)
Solution
The processing magnetic eld, B
1
, can be expressed in terms of its angular frequency and the time t
as
B
1
= B
1
cos (t)

i B
1
sin(t)

j (2.6.1)
The sign in (2.6.1) determines the direction of rotation. Lets let it be rotating clockwise, so that .
Furthermore, we are told that the static eld points purely in the z-direction, so that B
0
= (0, 0, B
0
).
The total magnetic eld is of course
B = B
1
+B
0
B = B
1
cos (t)

i B
1
sin (t)

j + B
0

k (2.6.2)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 175
We now set our minds to nding the Hamiltonian matrix, H, which describes our system. We now recall
that in general, the Hamiltonian for a particle with magnetic moment in some magnetic eld B is
given by H = B, where H is a matrix. For the case of a spin in a magnetic eld, the magnetic
moment becomes = /2, where denotes the respective Pauli spin matrix.
Accordingly, the Hamiltonian matrix becomes
H =

2
_
B
1
cos (t)
x

i B
1
sin (t)
y

j +B
0

z

k
_
(2.6.3)
We can rewrite (2.6.3) by replacing our trig functions with exponentials:
H =

2
_
B
1
2
_
e
it
+ e
it
_

i
B
1
2i
_
e
it
e
it
_

j +B
0

z

k
_
=

2
_
B
1
2
_
_
e
it
+e
it
_

i
1
i
_
e
it
e
it
_

y

j
_
+B
0

z

k
_
(2.6.4)
We also recall that the Pauli spin matrices are

x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
,
y
= i
_
0 1
1 0
_
,
z
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
Substituting in
x
,
y
and
z
into (2.6.4),
H =

2
_
B
1
2
_
_
e
it
+ e
it
_
_
0 1
1 0
_

1
i
_
e
it
e
it
_
i
_
0 1
1 0
__
+B
0
_
1 0
0 1
__
=

2
_
B
1
2
_
_
e
it
+ e
it
_
_
0 1
1 0
_

_
e
it
e
it
_
_
0 1
1 0
__
+B
0
_
1 0
0 1
__
(2.6.5)
We can combine the rst two terms in (2.6.5) as
_
0 e
it
+ e
it
e
it
+ e
it
0
_

_
0
_
e
it
e
it
_
e
it
e
it
0
_
= 2
_
0 e
it
e
it
0
_
Using this, (2.6.5) becomes
H =

2
_
B
1
_
0 e
it
e
it
0
_
+B
0
_
1 0
0 1
__
(2.6.6)
We now dene the following quantities

0
=
B
0
2
,
1
=
B
1
2
Accordingly, (2.6.6) becomes
H =
1
_
0 e
it
e
it
0
_

0
_
1 0
0 1
_
(2.6.7)
At this point, we dene the following time-dependent wave function
(t) =
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
(2.6.8)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
Whose rst derivative with respect to time is of course
d
dt
(t) =
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
(2.6.9)
We now require that our Hamiltonian and associated wave functions satisfy the TDSE as
i
d
dt
(t) = H(t) (2.6.10)
Substituting (2.6.7)-(2.6.9) into (2.6.10) yields
i
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
=
_

1
_
0 e
it
e
it
0
_

0
_
1 0
0 1
__

_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
i
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
=
1
_
c
2
(t)e
it
c
1
(t)e
it
_

0
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
=i
1
_
c
2
(t)e
it
c
1
(t)e
it
_
+i
0
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
(2.6.11)
It is easy to see that (2.6.11) yields two coupled dierential equations,
c
1
(t) =i
1
c
2
(t)e
it
+ i
0
c
1
(t) (2.6.12a)
c
2
(t) =i
1
c
1
(t)e
it
i
0
c
2
(t) (2.6.12b)
The two equations (2.6.12a) and (2.6.12b) constitute a set of coupled dierential equations. The most
straightforward way to solve these coupled equations is to evaluate the derivative of one of the equations
and then plug in the other one. This was done via Mathematica, including the initial conditions. The
result is
c
1
(t) =
_
cos (

t/2) +
i
/

1
/
2

_
sin (

t/2)

e
it/2
(2.6.13a)
c
2
(t) =
_
i
/

_
(

)
2
(
1
/
2

0
)
2
sin (

t/2)
_
e
it/2
(2.6.13b)
Where I have dened

=
_
(
1
/
2

0
)
2
+
2
1
. We can further simplify (2.6.13a) and (2.6.13b) by
letting
=
_
(

)
2
(
1
/
2

0
)
2

, =

t
2
, =

0

, =
t
2
(2.6.14)
Using , and , we can now rewrite (2.6.13a) and (2.6.13b) as
c
1
(t) =[cos () + i sin ()] e
i
(2.6.15a)
c
2
(t) =isin () e
i
(2.6.15b)
We recall that the Pauli spin matrices from before, and to nd the polarization vector P as a function
of time, we must nd each component by taking the inner product of the respective spin matrix. For
instance, we can nd P
x
as follows:
P
x
=(t)[
x
[(t))
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 177
=

(t)
x
(t)
=
_
c

1
(t) c

2
(t)
_
_
0 1
1 0
__
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
=
_
c

2
(t) c

1
(t)
_
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
=c

2
(t)c
1
(t) +c

1
(t)c
2
(t) (2.6.16)
Substituting in to (2.6.16) the results from (2.6.15a) and (2.6.15b),
P
x
=
_
isin () e
i
_

_
(cos () + i sin ()) e
i

+
_
(cos () + i sin ()) e
i

_
isin () e
i
_
= isin () e
i
(cos () +i sin ()) e
i
+i(cos () i sin()) e
i
sin() e
i
=i
_
sin () cos () e
2i
i sin
2
() e
2i
+ sin () cos () e
2i
i sin
2
() e
2i
_
=i
_
sin () cos ()
_
e
2i
e
2i

i sin
2
()
_
e
2i
+ e
2i
_
=i
_
sin () cos () [2i sin (2)] i sin
2
() [2 cos (2)]
_
=2sin () cos () sin (2) + 2 sin
2
() cos (2)
=2sin () [cos () sin (2) + sin () cos (2)] (2.6.17)
Similarly, we can nd P
y
in the following way:
P
y
=(t)[
y
[(t))
=

(t)
y
(t)
=
_
c

1
(t) c

2
(t)
_
_
0 i
i 0
__
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
=
_
ic

2
(t) ic

1
(t)
_
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
=ic

2
(t)c
1
(t) ic

1
(t)c
2
(t) (2.6.18)
Substituting in the appropriate values,
P
y
=i
_
isin () e
i
_

__
cos () + i sin () e
i
_
i
_
(cos () + i sin ()) e
i

_
isin () e
i
_
= sin() e
i
(cos () + i sin ()) e
i
+ (cos () i sin ()) e
i
sin () e
i
=sin ()
_
(cos () +i sin ()) e
2i
+ (cos () i sin ()) e
2i
_
=sin ()
_
cos () e
2i
+ i sin () e
2i
+ cos () e
2i
i sin () e
2i
_
=sin ()
_
cos ()
_
e
2i
+e
2i

+ i sin ()
_
e
2i
e
2i
_
=sin () cos () [2 cos (2)] + i sin () [2i sin (2)]
=2sin() cos () cos (2) sin () sin (2) (2.6.19)
And nally, for P
z
we have
P
z
=(t)[
z
[(t))
=

(t)
z
(t)
=
_
c

1
(t) c

2
(t)
_
_
1 0
0 1
__
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
=
_
c

1
(t) c

2
(t)
_
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_
=c

1
(t)c
1
(t) c

2
(t)c
2
(t) (2.6.20)
With the coecients, (2.6.20) turns in to
P
z
=
_
(cos () + i sin ()) e
i

_
(cos () +i sin ()) e
i

_
isin () e
i
_

_
isin () e
i
_
=(cos () i sin ()) (cos () + i sin ()) +
2
sin
2
()
=cos
2
() +
2
sin
2
() +
2
sin
2
()
=cos
2
() + sin
2
()
_

2
+
2
_
(2.6.21)
So, the polarization vector, P, is given by (2.6.17), (2.6.19) and (2.6.21) as
P
x
= 2sin () [cos () sin (2) + sin () cos (2)]
P
y
= 2sin () cos () cos (2) sin () sin (2)
P
z
= cos
2
() + sin
2
()
_

2
+
2
_
Where , , and are dened by (2.6.14). To nd the probability that the spin polarization is up as
a function of time, we evaluate
P

(t) =

(z)
+
[(t))

_
1 0
_
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_

2
[c
1
(t)[
2
c

1
(t)c
1
(t) (2.6.22)
And now we have
P

(t) =[cos () + i sin ()]

[cos () + i sin ()] P

(t) = cos
2
() +
2
sin
2
() (2.6.23)
And similarly,
P

(t) =

(z)

[(t))

_
0 1
_
_
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
_

2
[c
2
(t)[
2
c

2
(t)c
2
(t) (2.6.24)
And now
P

(t) =(isin ())

(isin ()) P

(t) =
2
sin
2
() (2.6.25)
Resonance occurs when the probability from (2.6.25) equals 1. To evaluate the condition, we rewrite
(2.6.25) by substituting back in the values of and from (2.6.14):
P

(t) =
(
1
)
2
(
1
/
2

0
)
2
+ (
1
)
2
sin
2
_
_
_
(
1
/
2

0
)
2
+ (
1
)
2
2
t
_
_
(2.6.26)
The maximum value of the sin
2
(...) term is 1, so we are left with:
(
1
)
2
(
1
/
2

0
)
2
+ (
1
)
2
= 1
_
1
/
2

0
_
2
= 0 = 2
0
(2.6.27)
Using (2.6.27) and our previous denition of
0
, we nd that
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 179
= 2
_
B
0
2
_
= B
0
We can rewrite (2.6.26) once again by expressing it in terms of /
0
as suggested in the prompt,
P

(t) =
(
1
/
0
)
2
(
1
/
2
/
0
1)
2
+ (
1
/
0
)
2
sin
2
_
1
/
2
_

2
0
_
(
1
/
2
/
0
)
2
+ (
1
/
0
)
2
_
t
_
(2.6.28)
The time-averaged version of (2.6.28) is (recalling that sin
2
(...)) =
1
/
2
)
P

) =
(
1
/
0
)
2
2
_
(
1
/
2
/
0
1)
2
+ (
1
/
0
)
2
_ (2.6.29)
Please see Fig. (2.11) for a plot of (2.6.29). We can clearly see that resonance occurs at /
0
= 2.
1 0 1 2 3 4

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
P
Figure 2.11: Resonance plot of P

) for Exercise 16.23.


Exercise 16.26
Show that if the incident spin state is a pure transverse polarization state, the scattering amplitudes for the
initial polarizations P
0
= n are g = ih and the scattering leaves the polarization unchanged, P = P
0
.
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
We rst recall from (16.130) from Merzbacher that
P =
_
[g[
2
[h[
2
_
P
0
+ i (g

h gh

) n + 2[h[
2
P
0
n n + (g

h +gh

) P
0
n
[g[
2
+ [h[
2
+i (g

h gh

) P
0
n
(2.6.30)
If the initial beam has transverse polarization with the scattering plane perpendicular to P
0
where
P
0
= P
0
n, (2.6.30) becomes
P =
_
[g[
2
+ [h[
2
_
P
0
+i (g

h gh

)
[g[
2
+ [h[
2
+i (g

h gh

) P
0
n (2.6.31)
Which is of course (16.131) from Merzbacher. We now recall (16.129), which states
P =
Tr
_
S
inc
S

d/d
(2.6.32)
We now recall (16.127) and (16.125) from the book, which are (respectively):

inc
=
1
/
2
(1 +P
0
) ,
d
d
= Tr
_

inc
S

(2.6.33)
Substituting these equations from (2.6.33) into (2.6.32), we have
P =
Tr
_
S
1
/
2
(1 +P
0
) S

Tr [
1
/
2
(1 + P
0
) S

S]
(2.6.34)
With the scattering matrix S dened by (16.120) as
S =
_
S
11
S
12
S
21
S
22
_
(2.6.35)
While the Pauli spin matrices are
=
x

i +
y

j +
z

k (2.6.36)
Where the individual spin matrices that constitute (2.6.36) are

x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
,
y
=
_
0 i
i 0
_
,
z
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
(2.6.37)
We now have the tools to nish the problem, unfortunately I have run out of time. Using (2.6.31)-(2.6.37),
the scattering amplitudes turn out to be g = i and the polarization vector unchanged, P = P
0
.
Exercise 16.28
Assuming that P
0
is perpendicular to the scattering plane, evaluate the asymmetry parameter A, dened as
a measure of the right-left asymmetry by
A =
(d/d)
+
(d/d)

(d/d)
+
+ (d/d)

(2.6.38)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 181
where the subscripts + and refer to the sign of the product P
0
n. Show that if P
0
= n, the asymmetry
A equals the degree of polarization P dened in (16.132). In particle polarization experiments, this quantity is
referred to as the analyzing power.
Solution
We rst note that (16.132) reads
P = P n = i
g

h gh

[g[
2
+ [h[
2
n (2.6.39)
We now recall that (16.128) from Merzbacher is
d
d
= [g[
2
+[h[
2
+i(g

h gh

)P
0
n (2.6.40)
Using (2.6.40) we can rewrite (2.6.38) as
A =
_
[g[
2
+[h[
2
+ i(g

h gh

)
_

_
[g[
2
+[h[
2
i(g

h gh

)
_
([g[
2
+[h[
2
+ i(g

h gh

)) + ([g[
2
+[h[
2
i(g

h gh

))
(2.6.41)
We note that (2.6.41) may be trivially reduced to
A = i
g

h gh

[g[
2
+ [h[
2
n (2.6.42)
Where we see that (2.6.42) is identical to (2.6.39).
Exercise 16.33
For a mixed state given by the density matrix
=
1
75
_
41 7 + 7i
7 7i 34
_
(2.6.43)
Check the inequalities (15.120), and calculate the eigenvalues and eigenstates. Evaluate the von Neumann entropy,
and compare this with the outcome entropy for a measurement of
z
.
Solution
We rst wish to evaluate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of . We nd the eigenvectors in the usual
way,

41/75 (7 + 7i) /75


(7 7i) /75 34/75

= 0
_
41
75

__
34
75

_

1
75
2
(7 + 7i) (7 7i) = 0

(41)(34)
75
2

41
75

34
75
+
2

(49 49i + 49i + 49)


75
2
= 0
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6

2

_
36
75
_
2
= 0 (2.6.44)
Evaluating the quadratic equation from (2.6.44),

1,2
=
1
_
1 4 (36/75)
2
1

1
=
16
25
,
2
=
9
25
(2.6.45)
Lets nd the eigenvectors. Starting with
1
rst,
_
41/75 16/25 (7 + 7i) /75
(7 7i) /75 34/75 16/25
__

_
=
_
0
0
_
_
7/75 (7 + 7i) /75
(7 7i) /75 14/75
__

_
=
_
0
0
_
_
1 1 + i
1 i 2
__

_
=
_
0
0
_
(2.6.46)
The corresponding eigenvector for (2.6.46) is:

1
=
_
1 +i
1
_
(2.6.47)
Normalizing according to the usual prescription N = [
1
[
1
)]
1
/2
, (2.6.47) becomes

1
=
1

3
_
1 +i
1
_
(2.6.48)
Using
2
from (2.6.45) and following the same prescription, we nd that

2
=
_
1 +i
1
_
(2.6.49)
The normalization factor is, of course, the same. Therefore, our eigenvectors are
=
1
=
2
=
1

3
_
1 + i
1
_
(2.6.50)
The inequalities from (15.120) read
0 Tr
_

2
_
[Tr ]
2
= 1 (2.6.51a)

ii

jj
[
ij
[
2
(2.6.51b)
Lets tackle showing (2.6.51a) rst. We rst note that from (2.6.43), we can easily nd the trace:
Tr =
1
75
(41 + 34) 1 (2.6.52)
Now, we need to nd
2
:

2
=
1
(75)
2
_
41 7 + 7i
7 7i 34
_

_
41 7 + 7i
7 7i 34
_
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 183
=
1
(75)
2
_
41 7 + 7i
7 7i 34
__
41 7 + 7i
7 7i 34
_
=
1
(75)
2
_
(41)
2
+ (7 7i)
2
41 (7 + 7i) + 34 (7 7i)
41 (7 + 7i) + 34 (7 7i) (7 + 7i)
2
+ (34)
2
_
(2.6.53)
The trace of (2.6.53) is
Tr
_

2
_
=(41)
2
+ (7 7i)
2
+ (7 + 7i)
2
+ (34)
2
0.50 (2.6.54)
Therefore, from (2.6.52) and (2.6.54), we can now say that
0 Tr
_

2
_
[Tr ]
2
= 1 (2.6.55)
Furthermore, from (2.6.43) we can now say that

ii

jj
=(41) (34) 1394 (2.6.56)
While we also see that
[
ij
[
2
= (7 + 7i) (7 7i) 98 (2.6.57)
Therefore, from (2.6.56) and (2.6.57) we can say that

ii

jj
[
ij
[
2
The von Neumann entropy is dened by (15.129) as
S() =
N

i=1
p
i
log [p
i
] (2.6.58)
Substituting in our eigenvalues to (2.6.58), we nd that
S() =
16
25
log
_
16
25
_

9
25
log
_
9
25
_
S() = 0.653
The outcome entropy is dened by (15.131) in Merzbacher as
H(K) =
n

j=1
p(K
j
) log [p(K
j
)] (2.6.59)
But we mustnt forget (15.132), which reads
p(K
j
) = Tr [K
j
)K
j
[
Which can be applied to our previous work as
Tr [K
1
)K
1
[ =
41
75
, Tr [K
2
)K
2
[ =
34
75
(2.6.60)
Therefore, applying (2.6.60) to (2.6.59), we nd that
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
H(K) =
41
75
log
_
41
75
_

34
75
log
_
34
75
_
H(K) = 0.688 (2.6.61)
To nd the probability of measuring
(z)
+
, we rst must evaluate

(z)
+
[
z
[
(z)
+
) =
1
3
_
1 i 1
_
_
1 0
0 1
__
1 +i
1
_
=
1
3
_
1 i
1
__
1 + i
1
_
=
1
3
(1 i) (1 +i) 1
=
1
3
We see here that the outcome entropy is larger than the result from a measurement of
z
. Realizing
now that I may have misinterpreted this last part of the problem, we can also say that
H(K) > S()
Problem 16.1a
The spin-zero neutral kaon is a system with two basis states, the eigenstates of
z
, representing a particle K
0
and its antiparticle

K
0
: The operator
x
= CP represents the combined parity (P) and charge conjugation (C),
or particle-anti-particle, transformation and takes = [K
0
) into = [

K
0
). The dynamics is governed by the
Hamiltonian matrix
H = M i

2
(2.6.62)
Where M and are Hermitian 2 2 matrices, representing the mass-energy and decay properties of the system,
respectively. The matrix is positive denite. A fundamental symmetry (under combined CP and time reversal
transformations) requires that
x
M

= M
x
and
x

=
x
.
Show that in the expansion of H in terms of the Pauli matrices, the matrix
z
is absent. Derive the eigenvalues
and eigenstates of H in terms of the matrix elements of M and . Are the eigenstates orthogonal?

Solution
Charge-parity reversal requires that
x
[K
0
) = 1[

K
0
). Furthermore, we recall that the four matrices 1,

x
,
y
and
z
are linearally dependent, and any 2 2 matrix can be represented as
A =
0
1 +
1

x
+
2

y
+
3

z
Which is (16.57) from Merzbacher. Applying this principle to our matrix M,

Whats your favorite color?


CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 185
M =a
1
1 + b
1

x
+c
1

y
+d
1

z
=a
1
_
1 0
0 1
_
+b
1
_
0 1
1 0
_
+ c
1
_
0 i
i 0
_
+ d
1
_
1 0
0 1
_
=
_
a
1
+d
1
b
1
ic
1
b
1
+ ic
1
a
1
d
1
_
(2.6.63)
We recall from the prompt that
x
M

= M
x
, which is a requirement. Applying the LHS of this
statement to our matrix M from (2.6.63),

x
M

=
_
0 1
1 0
__
a
1
+ d
1
b
1
ic
1
b
1
+ ic
1
a
1
d
1
_

_
0 1
1 0
__
a
1
+d
1
b
1
+ ic
1
b
1
ic
1
a
1
d
1
_
(2.6.64)
We now compute the RHS of our statement:
M
x
=
_
a
1
+d
1
b
1
ic
1
b
1
+ic
1
a
1
d
1
__
0 1
1 0
_

_
b
1
ic
1
a
1
+d
1
a
1
d
1
b
1
+ic
1
_
(2.6.65)
So, equating (2.6.64) and (2.6.65),

x
M

= M
x

_
b
1
ic
1
a
1
d
1
a
1
+ d
1
b
1
+ ic
1
_
=
_
b
1
ic
1
a
1
+ d
1
a
1
d
1
b
1
+ic
1
_
(2.6.66)
This yields two equations,
b
1
ic
1
+a
1
d
1
= b
1
ic
1
+a
1
+d
1
d
1
= d
1
(2.6.67a)
a
1
+ d
1
+ b
1
+ ic
1
= a
1
d
1
+ b
1
+ ic
1
d
1
= d
1
(2.6.67b)
We see that in order for M to meet the requirement that
x
M

= M
x
, we must have d
1
= 0. We can
rewrite M from (2.6.63) with this change,
M =
_
a
1
b
1
ic
1
b
1
+ ic
1
a
1
_
(2.6.68)
We can equally well apply this principle to the matrix :
=
_
a
2
+d
2
b
2
ic
2
b
2
+ ic
2
a
2
d
2
_
(2.6.69)
Following the logic which led us to (2.6.68), we may use (2.6.69) to deduce that d
2
= 0 according to the
requirement that
x

=
x
, and we can now write
=
_
a
2
b
2
ic
2
b
2
+ ic
2
a
2
_
(2.6.70)
We now substitute (2.6.68) and (2.6.70) into (2.6.62),
H =
_
a
1
b
1
ic
1
b
1
+ ic
1
a
1
_

i
2
_
a
2
b
2
ic
2
b
2
+ ic
2
a
2
_
=
_
a
1
b
1
ic
1
b
1
+ ic
1
a
1
_

_
i
/
2
a
2
i
/
2
(b
2
ic
2
)
i
/
2
(b
2
+ ic
2
)
i
/
2
a
2
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
=
_
a
1
b
1
ic
1
b
1
+ ic
1
a
1
_

_
ia
2
/2 (ib
2
+ c
2
) /2
(ib
2
c
2
) /2 ia
2
/2
_
=
_
a
1
ia
2
/2 b
1
ic
1
(ib
2
+ c
2
) /2
b
1
+ ic
1
(ib
2
c
2
) /2 a
1
ia
2
/2
_
(2.6.71)
We must now nd the eigenvalues of H, in the usual way

a
1
ia
2
/2 b
1
ic
1
(ib
2
+ c
2
) /2
b
1
+ ic
1
(ib
2
c
2
) /2 a
1
ia
2
/2

=0
_
a
1

i
/
2
a
2

_
2

_
b
1
ic
1

1
/
2
(ib
2
+ c
2
)
_ _
b
1
+ic
1

1
/
2
(ib
2
c
2
)
_
=0 (2.6.72)
We can just go ahead and solve for ,
= a
1

i
/
2
a
2

_
(b
1
ic
1

1
/
2
(ib
2
+c
2
)) (b
1
+ic
1

1
/
2
(ib
2
c
2
)) (2.6.73)
We can simplify (2.6.73) ever so slightly, giving eigenvalues

1,2
= a
1

i
/
2
a
2

_
(2b
1
ib
2
)
2
+ (2c
1
ic
2
)
2
(2.6.74)
To nd the eigenvectors, we substitute
1
and
2
from (2.6.74) into our Hamiltonian from (2.6.72) as
_
a
1
ia
2
/2
1,2
b
1
ic
1
(ib
2
+c
2
) /2
b
1
+ ic
1
(ib
2
c
2
) /2 a
1
ia
2
/2
1,2
__
c
1
c
2
_
=
_
0
0
_
(2.6.75)
The eigenvectors were found using Mathematica. The result is

1,2
= N
_

(2b1ib2)
2
+(2c1ic2)
2
2b1ib2+2ic1+c2
1
_
(2.6.76)
The normalization in (2.6.76) is obtained as we usually do:

1
[
1
) = 1 N
2

1

1
= 1 N
2
_
c
1
c
2
_

_
c
1
c
2
_
= 1 N =
1
_
c

1
c
1
+ c

2
c
2
(2.6.77)
This normalization constant was determined from (2.6.77) using Mathematica, the result is
N =
_
_
_
(2b
1
+ib
2
)
2
+ (2c
1
+ ic
2
)
2
2b
1
+ ib
2
2ic
1
+ c
2
+
_
(2b
1
ib
2
)
2
+ (2c
1
ic
2
)
2
2b
1
ib
2
+ 2ic
1
+ c
2
_
_
1
/2
(2.6.78)
Combining (2.6.76) and (2.6.78), the normalized eigenvectors are

1,2
=
_
_
_
(2b
1
+ ib
2
)
2
+ (2c
1
+ic
2
)
2
2b
1
+ ib
2
2ic
1
+ c
2
+
_
(2b
1
ib
2
)
2
+ (2c
1
ic
2
)
2
2b
1
ib
2
+ 2ic
1
+ c
2
_
_
1
/2
_

(2b1ib2)
2
+(2c1ic2)
2
2b1ib2+2ic1+c2
1
_
(2.6.79)
To see if the eigenstates from (2.6.79) are orthogonal, we apply the following test:
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 187

1
[
2
) = 0 (if orthogonal) (2.6.80)
Using Mathematica, it is easy to show that (2.6.80) is not satised, and therefore
1
and
2
are not orthogonal .
2.7 Homework #7
Exercise 17.12
Derive the recursion relation (17.54), as indicated.
Solution
We rst recall three three relations dening various quantities specifying the behavior of the total angular
momentum:
J =J
1
+J
2
J
z
=J
z1
+J
z2
J
+
=J
1+
+J
2+
(2.7.1a)
We now recall the three equations from (17.27) of Merzbacher:
J
z
[j m) =m[j m) (2.7.2a)
J
+
[j m) =
_
(j m)(j +m + 1) [j
1
j
2
j m+ 1) (2.7.2b)
J

[j m) =
_
(j +m)(j m + 1) [j
1
j
2
j m 1) (2.7.2c)
We also recall (17.52), which reads
[j
1
j
2
j m) =

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m) (2.7.3)
Which is the link between the direct product basis and the total angular momentum basis. According
to Merzbacher, in order to obtain the recursion relations from (17.54), all we have to do is apply J
+
and J

to (2.7.3). The behavior of J


+
and J

is dened by (2.7.2b) and (2.7.2c), which may be more


compactly redened as
J

[j m) =
_
(j m)(j m + 1) [j
1
j
2
j m 1) (2.7.4)
Similarly, we may generalize (2.7.1a) as
J

= J
1
+J
2
(2.7.5)
We can apply (2.7.5) to (2.7.3), which yields
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
J

[j
1
j
2
j m) = J

_

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m)
_
(2.7.6)
We must now evaluate the LHS and the RHS of (2.7.6) in turn. Starting with the LHS, we have
J

[j
1
j
2
j m) =
_
(j m)(j m+ 1) [j
1
j
2
j m 1) (2.7.7)
Which comes as no surprise. Evaluating the RHS of (2.7.6) poses a more arduous problem, which we
shall see momentarily:
J

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m) =(J
1
+ J
2
)

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m)
=J
1

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m)
+J
2

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m) (2.7.8)
We express the rst term on the RHS of (2.7.8) as I and the second as II, and we can rewrite it as
J

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m) = I +II (2.7.9)
So, now we must evaluate I and II in turn. In doing this, we must recognize that J
1
and J
2
only work
on particle 1 and 2, respectively. Accordingly,
I =J
1

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m)
=

m1,m2
_
(j
1
m
1
)(j
1
m
1
+ 1) [j
1
j
2
m
1
1 m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m) (2.7.10)
And similarly, we can also evaluate II as
II =J
2

m1,m2
[j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m)
=

m1,m2
_
(j
1
m
1
)(j
1
m
1
+ 1) [j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
1)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
j m) (2.7.11)
Substituting (2.7.10) and (2.7.11) into (2.7.9) and combining the result with (2.7.7),
_
(j m)(j m + 1) j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j m 1) =
_
(j
1
m
1
)(j
1
m
1
+ 1) [j
1
j
2
m
1
1 m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
1
[j m)
+
_
(j
2
m
2
)(j
1
m
2
+ 1) [j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
1)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j m)
Where I have suppressed the presence of j
1
j
2
in the ket to save room. We note that this is identical to
(12.54), and is what we were trying to show.
Exercise 17.13
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 189
Show that a symmetry exists along the three quantum numbers j
1
, j
2
and j, and that in addition to (17.57)
they satisfy the equivalent relations
[j j
2
[ j
1
j +j
2
and [j j
1
[ j
2
j + j
1
(2.7.12)
Solution
We rst recall (17.57) from Merzbacher, which reads
[j
1
j
2
[ j j
1
+ j
2
(2.7.13)
We note that the magnitude on the LHS of (2.7.18) can in fact be two dierent things:
[j
1
j
2
[ = j
1
j
2
or [j
1
j
2
[ = j
2
j
1
With these possibilities, in addition to the RHS of (2.7.18), we have three inequalities to play with:
j j
1
+ j
2
(2.7.14a)
j
1
j +j
2
(2.7.14b)
j
2
j +j
1
(2.7.14c)
Using (2.7.19) and (2.7.21), we can write
j
1
j j
2
j
1
j
2
j
_
j
1
[j j
2
[ (2.7.15)
Using (2.7.22) and (2.7.20), we can now say
[j j
2
[ j
1
j + j
2
Similarly, using (2.7.19) and (2.7.20), we can declare that
j
2
j j
1
j
2
j
1
j
_
j
2
[j j
1
[ (2.7.16)
And now combining (2.7.16) with (2.7.21),
[j j
1
[ j
2
j + j
1
Exercise 17.15
Verify the values of two special C-G coecients:
j 1 j 0[j 1 j j) =

j
j + 1
(2.7.17a)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
j 2 j 0[j 2 j j) =

j(2j 1)
(j + 1)(2j + 3)
(2.7.17b)
Determine the value of the trivial C-G coecient j 0 m 0[j 0 j m). How does it depend on the value of m?
Solution
As was done in class, we start our journey by calculating the C-G coecients by starting with the largest
magnetic quantum number m = j
1
+j
2
and repeatedly applying the lowering operator J

= J
1+
+J
2
.
So,
[j
1
, j
2
, j = j
1
+j
2
, m = j
1
+j
2
) =

_
2(j
1
+ j
2
)
[j
1
, j
2
, m
1
= j
1
, m
2
= j
2
) (2.7.18)
Applying J

to the LHS of (2.7.18) rst,


J

[j
1
, j
2
, j = j
1
+j
2
, m = j
1
+j
2
) =[j
1
, j
2
, j = j
1
+j
2
, m = j
1
+j
2
1) (2.7.19)
And now applying J

to the RHS of (2.7.18),


J

N[j
1
, j
2
, m
1
= j
1
, m
2
= j
2
) =(J
1+
+ J
2
) N[j
1
, j
2
, m
1
= j
1
, m
2
= j
2
)
=N [j
1
, j
2
, m
1
= j
1
1, m
2
= j
2
) + [j
1
, j
2
, m
1
= j
1
, m
2
= j
2
1)
(2.7.20)
Using these results, and substituting back in the normalization factor N, we nd that
[j = j
1
+ j
2
, m = j
1
+ j
2
1) =

j
1
j
1
+j
2
[m
1
= j
1
1, m
2
= j
2
) +

j
2
j
1
+ j
2
[m
1
= j
1
, m
2
= j
2
1)
(2.7.21)
In our special case, (2.7.21) becomes
m
1
= j, m
2
= 0[j, m = j) =

j
j + 1
We continue along the same lines, and using Mathematica to take care of the matrix algebra we nd that
m
1
= j
1
2, m
2
= j
2
[j = j
1
+j
2
2, m = j
1
+ j
2
2) =

j
2
(2j
2
1)
(j
1
+ j
2
1) (2j
1
+ 2j
2
1)
(2.7.22)
Applying the appropriate constants, (2.7.22) becomes
m
1
= j, m
2
= 2[j = j, m = j) =

j (2j 1)
(j + 1) (2j + 3)
We evaluate the last part of the question by simply using (2.7.18). The result is
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 191
m
1
= m, m
2
= 0[j = j, m = m) =
1

_
2 (j
1
+j
2
)
m
1
= m, m
2
= 0[j = j, m = m) =
1

2j
Exercise 17.16
Work out the results (17.63) from the recursion relations for C-G coecients and the normalization and stan-
dard phase conditions.
Solution
The results from (17.63) read

j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[ j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m
_
=

j
1
m+
1
/
2
2j
1
+ 1
(2.7.23a)

j
1
,
1
/
2
, m +
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[ j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m
_
=

j
1
m +
1
/
2
2j
1
+ 1
(2.7.23b)
While the recursion relation from (17.54) reads
_
(j m)(j m + 1) j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j m 1) =
_
(j
1
m
1
)(j
1
m
1
+ 1) [j
1
j
2
m
1
1 m
2
)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
1
[j m)
+
_
(j
2
m
2
)(j
1
m
2
+ 1) [j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
1)j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j m)
(2.7.24)
Where it is important to recognize that the j
1
j
2
terms in the ket are still suppressed. We also notice that
(2.7.23a) and (2.7.23b) are C-G coecients, and must take the form of j
1
, j
2
, m
1
, m
2
[j
1
, j
2
, j, m).
Therefore, comparing this to the LHS of (2.7.23a), we may deduce that
j
2
=
1
/
2
, m
1
= m
1
/
2
, m
2
=
1
/
2
, j = j
1

1
/
2
(2.7.25)
We substitute these values into the recursion relation from (2.7.24). We denote the LHS of (2.7.24) as
LHS, while the rst and second terms of the RHS are RHS
1
and RHS
2
, respectively. Accordingly,
have:
LHS =
_
(j m)(j m + 1) j
1
, j
2
, m
1
, m
2
[j
1
, j
2
, j, m 1)
=
_
(j
1

1
/
2
m)(j
1

1
/
2
m + 1) j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m1)
RHS
1
=
_
(j
1
(m
1
/
2
))(j
1
(m
1
/
2
) + 1) [j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
1,
1
/
2
)j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m)
=
_
(j
1
m
1
/
2
)(j
1
m
1
/
2
+ 1) [j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
1,
1
/
2
)j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m)
RHS
2
=
_
(j
2
m
2
)(j
1
m
2
+ 1) [j
1
, j
2
, m
1
, m
2
1)j
1
, j
2
, m
1
, m
2
[j
1
, j
2
, j, m)
=
_
(
1
/
2

1
/
2
)(j
1

1
/
2
+ 1) [j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
1)j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
Seemingly arbitrarily, we choose the top sign in the above equations:
LHS =
_
(j
1
+m +
1
/
2
) (j
1
m+
3
/
2
) j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
+
1
/
2
, m
1
)
RHS
1
=
_
(j
1
+m
1
/
2
) (j
1
+ m+
1
/
2
) [j
1
,
1
/
2
, m +
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
)j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
+
1
/
2
, m)
RHS
2
=0
Combining these equations and rearranging,
m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
+
1
/
2
, m) =

j
1
+ m +
1
/
2
j
1
+ m +
3
/
2
m +
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
+
1
/
2
, m + 1) (2.7.26)
Shifting the index according to m m + 1, we now have
m +
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
+
1
/
2
, m + 1) =

j
1
+m +
3
/
2
j
1
+m +
5
/
2
m +
3
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
+
1
/
2
, m+ 2) (2.7.27)
Going back to (2.7.23a) and applying m = j
1
+
1
/
2
to (2.7.26) and (2.7.27), we nd that
j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m) =

j
1
+m +
1
/
2
2j
1
+ 1
(2.7.28)
Substituting back in the appropriate signs into (2.7.28),

j
1
,
1
/
2
, m
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[ j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m
_
=

j
1
m +
1
/
2
2j
1
+ 1
(2.7.29)
Which we note is identical to (2.7.23a). To derive (2.7.23b), we repeat the same process. Evaluating the
LHS and RHS of our recursion relation yields
LHS =
_
(j
1

1
/
2
m)(j
1

1
/
2
m + 1) j
1
,
1
/
2
, m +
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1

1
/
2
, m1)
RHS
1
=
_
(j
1
(m+
1
/
2
))(j
1
(m +
1
/
2
) + 1) [j
1
,
1
/
2
, m +
1
/
2
1,
1
/
2
)j
1
,
1
/
2
, m+
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1

1
/
2
, m)
RHS
2
=
_
(
1
/
2
(
1
/
2
))(j
1
(
1
/
2
) + 1) [j
1
,
1
/
2
, m +
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
1)j
1
,
1
/
2
, m+
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[j
1

1
/
2
, m)
The steps taken to arrive at (2.7.23b) are from henceforth identical to that which was done to derive
(2.7.23a), and accordingly they will not be shown. From the above equations, we choose an arbitrary
sign (which will be stuck back in at the end) in order to simplify the equation. We then shift the index
of m, nagle the equations and evaluating the coecient in terms of j
1
and m, we get

j
1
,
1
/
2
, m+
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[ j
1
,
1
/
2
, j
1

1
/
2
, m
_
=

j
1
m +
1
/
2
2j
1
+ 1
Which is of course (2.7.23b).
Exercise 17.18
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 193
Starting with the uncoupled basis (17.67), work out the 4 4 matrices S
z
and S
2
, and show by explicit diag-
onalzation that the singlet and triplet states are the eigenvectors with the appropriate eigenvalues.
Solution
We recall that (17.67) from Merzbacher reads

2
=
1

2
,
1

2
=
1

2
,
1

2
=
1

2
,
1

2
=
1

2
(2.7.30)
We introduce the following shorthand notation, as indicated in lecture, which constitutes the product
basis:
[++), [+), [+), [)
Where the rst term in each ket acts on particle 1, while the second acts on particle 2. We also recall
that we can write the total spin operator S in terms of the single particle spin operators S
1
and S
2
as
S = S
1
1
(2)
+ 1
(1)
S
2
(2.7.31)
We also note that when referring to the individual components of the spin operators, it will be most
convenient to work in terms of the raising and lowering spin operators (S
+
and S

, respectively). The
raising and lowering operators are described in terms of the cartesian components by
S

= S
z
iS
y
So that S(S
x
, S
y
, S
z
) S(S

, S
z
). We now recognize that the S acts on the individual spin kets
according to
S
z
[+) =

/
2
[+), S
z
[) =

/
2
[)
S
+
[+) = 0, S
+
[) = [+)
S

[+) = [), S

[) = 0
We also musnt forget how the total components act on each particle, following the convention of (2.7.31),
S
z
=S
1z
1
(2)
+ 1
(1)
S
2z
S
+
=S
1+
1
(2)
+1
(1)
S
2+
S

=S
1
1
(2)
+ 1
(1)
S
2
Accordingly, we can now write
S
z
[++) =

/
2
[++) +

/
2
[++) [++) (2.7.32a)
S
z
[+) =0 (2.7.32b)
S
z
[+) =0 (2.7.32c)
S
z
[) =

/
2
[)

/
2
[) [) (2.7.32d)
We can express (2.7.32a)-(2.7.32d) in matrix form as
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
(S
z
)
m1,m2
=
_
_
_
_
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
(2.7.33)
The value of the eigenvalues from (2.7.34) are transparent,

1
= ,
2
=
We now wish to nd S
2
, rst representing it in the product basis:
S
2
=S
2
1
+S
2
2
+ 2S
1z
S
2z
+ S
1+
S
2
+S
1
S
2+
(2.7.34)
In order to evaluate all the matrix elements for S
2
, lets make a table:
S
2
1
S
2
2
S
1z
S
2z
S
1+
S
2
S
1
S
2+
[++)
3
/
4

2
[++)
3
/
4

2
[++)
1
/
2
[++)
1
/
2
[++) 0 [+) [+) 0
[+)
3
/
4

2
[+)
3
/
4

2
[+)
1
/
2
[+)
1
/
2
[+) 0 0 [) [+)
[+)
3
/
4

2
[+)
3
/
4

2
[+)
1
/
2
[+)
1
/
2
[+) [+) [) 0 0
[)
3
/
4

2
[)
3
/
4

2
[)
1
/
2
[)
1
/
2
[) [+) 0 0 [)
Substituting the values of the tabulated matrix elements into (2.7.34), we nd that:
S
2
[++) =
3
/
4

2
[++) +
3
/
4

2
[++) + 2
_
1
/
2
[++)
_ _
1
/
2
[++)
_
2
2
[++) (2.7.35a)
S
2
[+) =
3
/
4

2
[+) +
3
/
4

2
[+) + 2
_
1
/
2
[+)
_ _

1
/
2
[+)
_
+
2
[+)
2
([+) +[+) (2.7.35b)
S
2
[+) =
3
/
4

2
[+) +
3
/
4

2
[+) + 2
_

1
/
2
[+)
_ _
1
/
2
[+)
_
+
2
[+)
2
([+) +[+)) (2.7.35c)
S
2
[) =
3
/
4

2
[) +
3
/
4

2
[) + 2
_

1
/
2
[)
_ _

1
/
2
[)
_
2
2
[) (2.7.35d)
We can nd the expectation values of S
2
(i.e. the matrix elements) easily, and the non-zero elements are
+ + [S
2
[++) =2
2
+ [S
2
[+) =
2
+ [S
2
[+) =
2
+ [S
2
[+) =
2
+ [S
2
[+) =
2
+ + [S
2
[++) =2
2
While all the other elements are of course zero. We are now in a place to write down the matrix S
2
:
_
S
2
_
m1,m2
=
2
_
_
_
_
2 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 2
_
_
_
_
(2.7.36)
Which is not diagonal. We can remedy this by diagonalizing the central matrix, allowing us to nd the
eigenvalues and eigenvectors of S
2
.
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 195
(S

)
2
=
_

2
_
Finding the eigenvalues,

2

2

= 0
_

_ _

4
= 0

_
2
2
_
= 0

1
= 0,
2
= 2
2
Whose corresponding eigenvectors are
V
1
=
1

2
([+) [+)) , V
2
=
1

2
([+) + [+))
The eigenvectors which we did not include here are found from the rst and fourth column of the matrix
S
2
. Combining the results, we arrive at a series of states whose total angular momentum is either 0 or
1, i.e. either singlet or triplet. The states are
[0 0) =
1

2
([+) [+))
[1 m) =[++)
[1 m) =
1

2
([+) + [+))
[1 m) =[)
Problem 17.1
In the notation of (17.64) the state of a spin one-half particle with sharp total angular momentum j, m is
aY
jm
j
1
/2
+ bY
jm
j+
1
/2
(2.7.37)
Assume this state to be an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian with no degeneracy other than that demanded by
rotational invariance.
a) If H conserves parity, how are the coecients a and b restricted?
b) If H is invariant under time reversal, show that a/b must be imaginary.
c) Verify explicitly that the expectation value of the electric dipole moment e r vanishes if either parity is
conserved or time reversal invariance holds (or both).
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
We rst note that (17.64) reads
Y
jm

= Y

1
/2, m

=
1

2 + 1
_

_
m +
1
/
2
Y
m
1
/2

_
m +
1
/
2
Y
m+
1
/2

_
(2.7.38)
Where Y
jm

denotes the common eigenstates of J


z
and J
2
. Furthermore, if parity is conserved, then we
require that

P
_
aY
jm
j
1
/2
+ bY
jm
1+
1
/2
_
=(1)
j
1
/2
aY
jm
j
1
/2
+ (1)
j+
1
/2
bY
jm
j+
1
/2
(2.7.39)
Problem 17.4
The Hamiltonain of the positronium atom in the 1S state in a magnetic eld B along the z-axis is to good
approximation
H = AS
1
S
2
+
eB
0
mc
(S
1z
S
2z
) (2.7.40)
if all higher energy states are neglected. The electron is labeled as particle 1 and the positron as particle 2. Using
the coupled representation in which S
2
= (S
1
+S
2
)
2
and S
z
= S
1z
+S
2z
are diagonal, obtain the energy eigenvalues
and eigenvectors and classify them according to the quantum numbers associated with constants of the motion.
Empirically, it is known that for B = 0 the frequency of the 1
3
S 1
1
S transition is 2.0338 10
5
MHz and
that the mean lifetime for annihilation are 10
10
s for the singlet state (two photon decay) and 10
7
s for the
triplet state (three-photon decay). Estimate the magnetic eld strength B
0
which will cause the lifetime of the
longer lived m = 0 state to be reduced (quenched) to 10
8
s.
Solution
We start by nding the constants of motion of the problem, which is found by evaluating the commutator
of the Hamiltonian from (2.7.40) with various quantities and noting which equals zero. To do this, we
recall the following commutation relations for S
2
:
_
S
2
, S
z

=0
_
S
2
, S
z1

,=0,
_
S
2
, S
z2

,= 0
_
S
2
, S
1

=
_
S
2
, S
2

= 0
_
S
2
, S
2
1

=
_
S
2
, S
2
2

= 0
And similarly, some relations for S
z
are
[S
z
, S
z1
] =[S
z
, S
z2
] = 0
_
S
z
, S
2
1

=
_
S
z
, S
2
2

= 0
From the prompt, we are told to use the coupled representation, where S
2
= (S
1
+S
2
)
2
and S
z
= S
z1
+S
z2
are diagonal. We can evaluate the dot product in (2.7.40) by expanding the given denition of S
2
:
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 197
S
2
=(S
1
+ S
2
)
2
S
2
1
+S
2
2
+ 2S
1
S
2
S
1
S
2
=
1
/
2
_
S
2
S
2
1
S
2
2
_
(2.7.41)
Substituting (2.7.41) into (2.7.40), the Hamiltonian becomes
H =
1
/
2
A
_
S
2
S
2
1
S
2
2
_
+
eB
0
mc
(S
1z
S
2z
) (2.7.42)
Lets not evaluate some commutators to nd the constants of motion:
_
H, S
2

=
__
1
/
2
A
_
S
2
S
2
1
S
2
2
_
+ (S
z1
S
z2
)
_
, S
2

=
1
/
2
A
__
S
2
, S
2

. .
=0

_
S
2
1
, S
2

. .
=0

_
S
2
2
, S
2

. .
=0
_
+
_ _
S
z1
, S
2

. .
=0

_
S
z2
, S
2

. .
=0
_
,= 0 (2.7.43)
[H, S
z
] =
__
1
/
2
A
_
S
2
S
2
1
S
2
2
_
+ (S
z1
S
z2
)
_
, S
z

=
1
/
2
A
__
S
2
, S
z

. .
=0

_
S
2
1
, S
z

. .
=0

_
S
2
2
, S
z

. .
=0
_
+
_
[S
z1
, S
z
]
. .
=0
[S
z2
, S
z
]
. .
=0
_
= 0 (2.7.44)
[H, S
1
] =
__
1
/
2
A
_
S
2
S
2
1
S
2
2
_
+ (S
z1
S
z2
)
_
, S
1

=
1
/
2
A
__
S
2
, S
1

. .
=0

_
S
2
1
, S
1

. .
=0

_
S
2
2
, S
1

. .
=0
_
+
_
[S
z1
, S
1
]
. .
=0
[S
z2
, S
1
]
. .
=0
_
= 0 (2.7.45)
[H, S
2
] =
__
1
/
2
A
_
S
2
S
2
1
S
2
2
_
+ (S
z1
S
z2
)
_
, S
2

=
1
/
2
A
__
S
2
, S
2

. .
=0

_
S
2
1
, S
2

. .
=0

_
S
2
2
, S
2

. .
=0
_
+
_
[S
z1
, S
2
]
. .
=0
[S
z2
, S
2
]
. .
=0
_
= 0 (2.7.46)
So, S
2
is not a constant of motion according to (2.7.43), while S
z
, S
1
, and S
2
are constants of motion
from (2.7.44)-(2.7.46). We now wish to switch to the following basis notation,
[++), [+), [+), [)
We now wish to evaluate the diagonal matrix elements for H, rst recalling that
H =
1
/
2
A
_
S
2
S
2
1
S
2
2
_
+ (S
1z
S
2z
)
S
2
S
2
1
S
2
1
S
1z
S
2z
[++) 2
2
[++)
3
/
4

2
[++)
3
/
4

2
[++)
1
/
2
[++)
1
/
2
[++)
[+) 0
3
/
4

2
[+)
3
/
4

2
[+)
1
/
2
[+)
1
/
2
[+)
[+) 0
3
/
4

2
[+)
3
/
4

2
[+)
1
/
2
[+)
1
/
2
[+)
[) 2
2
[)
3
/
4

2
[)
3
/
4

2
[)
1
/
2
[)
1
/
2
[)
Substituting the tabulated elements into our Hamiltonian,
H[++) =
1
/
2
A
_
2
2

3
/
4

3
/
4

2
_
[++)
1
/
4
A
2
[++)
H[+) =
1
/
2
A
_

3
/
4

3
/
4

2
_
[+) +
_
1
/
2
+
1
/
2

_
[+)
_

3
/
4
A
2
+
_
[+)
H[+) =
1
/
2
A
_

3
/
4

3
/
4

2
_
[+) +
_

1
/
2

1
/
2

_
[+)
_

3
/
4
A
2

_
[+)
H[) =
1
/
2
A
_
2
2

3
/
4

3
/
4

2
_
[)
1
/
4
A
2
[)
These calculations were clearly done in the direct product basis, whereas it could just as easily be done
in the total angular momentum basis.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
2.8 Homework #9
Problem 17.6
The magnetic moment operator for a nucleon of mass m
n
is = e (g

L +g
S
S) /2m
n
c, where g

= 1 and g
S
= 5.587
for a proton, g

= 0 and g
S
= 3.826 for a neutron. In a central eld with an additional spin-orbit interaction, the
nucleons move in shells characterized by the quantum numbers and j =
1
/
2
. Calculate the magnetic moment
of a single nucleon as a function of j for the two kinds of nucleons, distinguishing the two cases j = +
1
/
2
and
j =
1
/
2
. Plot j times the eective gyromagnetic ratio versus j, connected in each case the points by straight-line
segments (Schmidt lines).
Solution
We start by rewriting the magnetic moment operator :
=
e
2m
n
c
(g

L + g
s
S) (2.8.1)
Where m
n
is the mass of the nucleon. If we choose the quantization axis of the interaction to be along
the z-direction, the expectation value of the magnetic moment operator is given by

z
) = sjm
j
[
z
[sjm
j
) (2.8.2)
We can rewrite (2.8.1) according to our chosen quantization axis as

z
=
e
2m
n
c
(g

L
z
+ g
s
S
z
) (2.8.3)
Substituting (2.8.3) into (2.8.2), we have

z
) =
e
2m
n
c
sjm
j
[(g

L
z
+g
s
S
z
)[sjm
j
) (2.8.4)
At this point, we recall that J
z
= L
z
+S
z
L
z
= J
z
S
z
. Substituting this into (2.8.4),

z
) =
e
2m
n
c
sjm
j
[(g

(J
z
S
z
) + g
s
S
z
)[sjm
j
)
=
e
2m
n
c
sjm
j
[(g

J
z
+ (g
s
g

) S
z
)[sjm
j
)
=
e
2m
n
c
g

sjm
j
[J
z
[sjm
j
) + (g
s
g

) sjm
j
[S
z
[sjm
j
) (2.8.5)
Our task is now to evaluate the expectation values J
z
) and S
z
) on the RHS of (2.8.5). The tool that
allows us to do this is the Wigner Eckart Theorem (W.E.T.). Applying this to S
z
) rst,
sjm
j
[S
z
[sjm
j
) = j1m
j
0[j1jm
j
)j|S|j) (2.8.6)
We can apply the W.E.T. along the same lines to the expectation value of J
z
):
sjm
j
[J
z
[sjm
j
) = j1m
j
0[j1jm
j
)j|J|j) (2.8.7)
We now notice that the conveniently uncalculated C-G coecients in (2.8.6) and (2.8.7) are in fact equal.
We can therefore take the ratio of these two equations, thus ridding them from our lives:
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 199
sjm
j
[S
z
[sjm
j
)
sjm
j
[J
z
[sjm
j
)
=
j1m
j
0[j1jm
j
)j|S|j)
j1m
j
0[j1jm
j
)j|J|j)
sjm
j
[S
z
[sjm
j
)
sjm
j
[J
z
[sjm
j
)
=
j|S|j)
j|J|j)
sjm
j
[S
z
[sjm
j
) =
j|S|j)
j|J|j)
sjm
j
[J
z
[sjm
j
) (2.8.8)
At this point, we make a small deviation to evaluate the reduced matrix elements. In order to do this,
we must evaluate J S) and J J):
sjm
j
[J S[sjm
j
) =j1m
j
0[j1jm
j
)j|J|j)j|S|j) (2.8.9a)
sjm
j
[J J[sjm
j
) =j1m
j
0[j1jm
j
)j|J|j)j|J|j) (2.8.9b)
Not surprisingly, we notice once again that the C-G coecients are again the same in (2.8.9a) and
(2.8.9b). Taking the ratio of these two equations,
sjm
j
[J S[sjm
j
)
sjm
j
[J J[sjm
j
)
=
j1m
j
0[j1jm
j
)j|J|j)j|S|j)
j1m
j
0[j1jm
j
)j|J|j)j|J|j)
sjm
j
[J S[sjm
j
)
sjm
j
[J J[sjm
j
)
=
j|S|j)
j|J|j)
(2.8.10)
Switching the LHS and RHS in (2.8.10), and substituting in the appropriate eigenvalues, (2.8.10) becomes
j|S|j)
j|J|j)
=
1
/
2
_
j(j + 1)
2
+s(s + 1)
2
( + 1)
2

j(j + 1)
2
=
j(j + 1) + s(s + 1) ( + 1)
2j(j + 1)
(2.8.11)
Substituting (2.8.11) back into (2.8.4),
sjm
j
[S
z
[sjm
j
) =
j(j + 1) + s(s + 1) ( + 1)
2j(j + 1)
sjm
j
[J
z
[sjm
j
) (2.8.12)
And nally, substituting (2.8.12) into (2.8.5):

z
) =
e
2m
n
c
_
g

sjm
j
[J
z
[sjm
j
) + (g
s
g

)
_
j(j + 1) +s(s + 1) ( + 1)
2j(j + 1)
_
sjm
j
[J
z
[sjm
j
)
_
(2.8.13)
Substituting in the appropriate eigenvalues for J
z
), (2.8.13) simplies to

z
) =
ej
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_
j(j + 1) + s(s + 1) ( + 1)
2j(j + 1)
__
(2.8.14)
Now, in our particular case, each of the nucleons has s =
1
/
2
, and so (2.8.14) becomes

z
) =
ej
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_
j(j + 1) ( + 1) +
3
/
4
2j(j + 1)
__
(2.8.15)
Now, we mustnt forget that we are interested when we do not have an empty sub-shell, since a lled
sub-shell must have a zero (total) angular momentum. Because j is always equal to an integer plus
1
/
2
,
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
the occupancy of the sub-shell is always even.
Since the nuclear spin is non-zero in our case, we have a contribution from the nuclei towards a
magnetic dipole moment. This is justied since both the neutrons and the protons have an intrinsic
magnetic moment. Additionally, we must consider that the proton is charged, meaning that it can
produce an additional magnetic moment due to its orbital motion.
We therefore look at two unique cases of the total angular momentum: when j = +
1
/
2
, and also
when j =
1
/
2
. Lets look at j = +
1
/
2
rst. To do this, we substitute the value back into (2.8.15):

z
) =
e( +
1
/
2
)
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_
( +
1
/
2
)(( +
1
/
2
) + 1) ( + 1) +
3
/
4
2( +
1
/
2
)(( +
1
/
2
) + 1)
__
=
e( +
1
/
2
)
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_
( +
1
/
2
)( +
3
/
2
) ( + 1) +
3
/
4
2( +
1
/
2
)( +
3
/
2
))
__
=
e( +
1
/
2
)
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_

2
+
3
/
2
+
1
/
2
+
3
/
4

2
+
3
/
4
2( +
1
/
2
)( +
3
/
2
))
__
=
e( +
1
/
2
)
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_
+
3
/
2
2( +
1
/
2
)( +
3
/
2
))
__
=
e( +
1
/
2
)
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
1
2( +
1
/
2
)
_
=
e
2m
n
c
_
g

( +
1
/
2
) +
g
s
2

g

2
_
=
e
2m
n
c
_
g

+
g
s
2
_
(2.8.16)
We now wish to do the same thing for j =
1
/
2
:

z
) =
e(
1
/
2
)
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_
(
1
/
2
)((
1
/
2
) + 1) ( + 1) +
3
/
4
2(
1
/
2
)((
1
/
2
) + 1)
__
=
e(
1
/
2
)
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_
(
1
/
2
)( +
1
/
2
) ( + 1) +
3
/
4
2(
1
/
2
)( +
1
/
2
)
__
=
e(
1
/
2
)
2m
n
c
_
g

+ (g
s
g

)
_
1
2

( + 1) +
3
/
4
2(
1
/
2
)( +
1
/
2
)
__
=
e
2m
n
c
_
g

+
g

2g
s
( + 1)
2(2 + 1)
_
=
e
2m
n
c
_
g

_
+
1
2(2 + 1)
_
g
s
_
+ 1
2 + 1
__
=
e
2m
n
c
_

1
/
2
+
1
/
2
_
( + 1)g

g
s
2
_
_
(2.8.17)
So, in summary, we have from (2.8.16) and (2.8.17) that

z
) =
_

_
e
2m
n
c
_
g

+
g
s
2
_
, j = +
1
/
2
e
2m
n
c
_

1
/
2
+
1
/
2
_
( + 1)g

g
s
2
_
_
, j =
1
/
2
(2.8.18)
We can rewrite (2.8.18) slightly as
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 201

z
) =
_

_
e
2m
n
c
_
g

+
g
s
2
_
, j = +
1
/
2
e
2m
n
c
_
j
j + 1
_
( + 1)g

g
s
2
_
_
, j =
1
/
2
A plot of jg

is plotted vs. j on attached printout.


Problem 17.9
A system that is invariant under rotation is perturbed by a quadrupole interaction
V =
2

q=2
C
q
T
q
2
(2.8.19)
where the C
q
are constant coecients and T
q
2
are the components of an irreducible spherical tensor operator,
dened by one of its components:
T
2
2
= (J
x
+iJ
y
)
2
(2.8.20)
a) Deduce the conditions for the coecients C
q
if V is to be Hermitian.
b) Consider the eect of the quandrupole perturbation on the manifold of a degenerate energy eigenstate of the
unperturbed system with angular momentum quantum j, neglecting all other unperturbed energy eigenstates.
What is the eect of the perturbation on the manifold of an unperturbed j =
1
/
2
state?
c) If C
2
= C
0
and C
1
= 0, calculate the perturbed energies for a j = 1 state, and plot the energy splittings
as a function of the interaction strength C
0
. Derive the corresponding unperturbed energy eigenstates.
Solution
a) In order for V to be Hermitian, we require that it be self-adjoint. From (4.5) in Merzbacher,
V

= V
Where self-adjoint implies that the matrix is its own conjugate transpose, e.g.
V

= V (2.8.21)
We must also recall that applying the self-adjoint condition to an operator with two elements, we
have:
(A B)

=
_
B A
_

B

A

In order to evaluate the specic conditions we must require for each of the components, we must
expand (2.8.19) and apply the Hermitian requirement from (2.8.21):
V =C
2
T
2
2
+ C
1
T
1
2
+C
0
T
0
2
+ C
1
T
1
2
+ C
2
T
2
2
(2.8.22)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
Applying the self-adjoint condition from (2.8.21) to (2.8.22),
V

=
_
C
2
T
2
2
_
+
_
C
1
T
1
2
_
+ (C
0
T
0
2
)

+(C
1
T
1
2
)

+ (C
2
T
2
2
)

=T
2
2
C

2
+ T
1
2
C

1
+ T
0
2
C

0
+ T
1
2
C

1
+ T
2
2
C

2
(2.8.23)
The coecients C
q
in (2.8.23) are non-conjugatable, as coecients tend not to be. Therefore,
(2.8.23) can be rewritten as
V

=T
2
2
C

2
+ T
1
2
C

1
+T
0
2
C

0
+T
1
2
C

1
+T
2
2
C

2
=T
2
2
C

2
+T
1
2
C

1
+T
0
2
C

0
+ T
1
2
C

1
+ T
2
2
C

2
(2.8.24)
Where I have rewritten the tensor operators as T
q
k
= T
q
k
, for reasons that will become clear
momentarily. In the last homework, we showed that T
q
k
= (1)
q
T
q
k
, which applied to (2.8.24)
yields
V

=
_
T
2
2
_

C

2
+
_
T
1
2
_

C

1
+
_
T
0
2
_

C

0
+
_
T
1
2
_

C

1
+
_
T
2
2
_

C

2
=T
2
2
C

2
T
1
2
C

1
+T
0
2
C

0
T
1
2
C

1
+T
2
2
C

2
(2.8.25)
Equating (2.8.22) and (2.8.25),
C
2
T
2
2
+C
1
T
1
2
+ C
0
T
0
2
+C
1
T
1
2
+ C
2
T
2
2
=T
2
2
C

2
T
1
2
C

1
+ T
0
2
C

0
T
1
2
C

1
+ T
2
2
C

2
(2.8.26)
We note that (2.8.26) can only be satised if:
C
0
R
C
1
= C

1
C
2
= C

2
b) In order to study the eect of the quadrupole perturbation on the manifold of a degenerate energy
eigenstate of the unperturbed system with generic total angular momentum quantum number j, we
must investigate the selection rules for an arbitrary irreducible 2
nd
rank tensor operator.
We rst recall the two main stipulations on q and k, dened by (17.88) and (17.89), respectively
as:
q = m

m (2.8.27a)
[j j

[ k j + j

(2.8.27b)
We also recollect the Wigner Eckart Theorem from (17.87):

[T
q
k
[jm) = jkmq[jkj

|T
k
|j) (2.8.28)
Where we require that the bounds on T
q
k
are limited by q. For a second rank irreducible tensor
operator, we have q = 2, and therefore:
q = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2
Now, applying the possible values of q to (2.8.27a) rst, we nd that
m = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2 m = 0, 1, 2 (2.8.29)
And similarly for (2.8.27b),
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 203
[j[ 2, 1, 0, 1, 2 j j = 0, 1, 2 (2.8.30)
It is easy to see that (2.8.29) and (2.8.30) express the relevant selection rules for an irreducible
second-rank tensor operator T
2
q
. Another important result worth noting is that when both of these
conditions are satised, we require that

[T
q
k
[jm) , = 0 (2.8.31)
We now must nd a connection between j and k. Starting with arbitrary j, we recognize that the
condition where we are most likely to nd a limiting relationship between j and k is if we let j = j

:
0 k 2j k 2j j
k
2
(2.8.32)
This gives us a condition in which the expectation value from (2.8.31) is non-zero. We can extend
(2.8.32) to give us a condition in which T
q
k
is zero:
j <
k
2
(2.8.33)
In order to apply this result to our specic case where j =
1
/
2
we note that:
1
/
2
< 1 T
q
2
) = 0 for j =
1
/
2
(2.8.34)
We can verify this more quantitatively by considering the worst case, where we are most likely to
fail (my reasoning for believing that this is the case will be apparent in due course), is when j = 0
and m = 0. Therefore, the Wigner Eckart Theorem from (2.8.28),

[T
q
2
[jm) = 0200[0200)

|T
2
|j) (2.8.35)
The Clebsch-Gordon coecient in (2.8.35) can be found in Merzbacher from (17.62):
j2j0[j2jj) =

j(2j 1)
(j + 1)(2j + 3)
0200[0200) = 0 (2.8.36)
Substituting (2.8.36) into (2.8.35), we nd that
T
q
2
) = 0 (2.8.37)
Where (2.8.37) is the same as (2.8.34). In summary, it is clear from these result indicate that
the eect of the quadrupole perturbation on our system is null .
c) Using the fact that C
2
= C
0
and C
1
= 0, we can rewrite (2.8.22) as
V =C
0
T
2
2
+C
0
T
0
2
+C
0
T
2
2
V = C
0
_
T
2
2
+ T
0
2
+ T
2
2

(2.8.38)
We are also given one of the components of the irreducible spherical tensor operator from (2.8.20).
Even though it was not mentioned earlier, it is quite apparent that this component can be rewritten
in terms of J
+
:
T
2
2
= (J
x
+iJ
y
)
2
J
2
+
(2.8.39)
Using (2.8.39), we can now write

T
2
2
[jm) =

[J
2
+
[jm)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
=
_
(j m)(j + m+ 1)
_
(j m1)(j + m+ 2)
2

,m+2

jj

(2.8.40)
Now, from the W.E.T. , we have

[T
2
2
[jm) =j, 2, m, 2[j, 2, j

, m

|T|j) (2.8.41)
Rewriting the reduced matrix element on the RHS of (2.8.41),
j

|T|j) =
_
(j m)(j +m + 1)(j m 1)(j + m + 2)
2
j2m2[j2jm + 2)

jj
(2.8.42)
Since the reduced matrix element is independent of the choice of m, we arbitrary choose m = 1,
and (2.8.42) becomes
j

|T|j) =
_
j
2
(j + 1)
2

2
j, 2, 1, 2[j, 2, j, 1)

jj
(2.8.43)
Using (2.8.41) and (2.8.43), we can now express the matrix elements for all tensor components:
j

[T
q
2
[jm) =
j(j + 1)
2
j, 2, 2, 2[j, 2, j, 1)

jj
j, 2, m, q[j, 2, j

, m

) (2.8.44)
Where we recall that selection rules dictate that q = m

m. Dropping the in (2.8.44) for


convenience (since =

) and applying j = j

= 1,
1, m

[T
q
2
[1, m) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, m, q[1, 2, 1, m

) (2.8.45)
From (2.8.38), we can see that the only components we require are for T
2
2
, T
0
2
and T
2
2
, which we
will evaluate separately. Starting with T
2
2
, we evaluate (2.8.45) with q = 2, which yields
1, m

[T
2
2
[1, m) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, m, 2[1, 2, 1, m

) (2.8.46)
In order for (2.8.46) to be nonzero, the selection rules (derived previously) require that q = m

m,
or in our case m

= m 2. The only nonzero element comes from m = 1 m

= 1, and so
(2.8.46) becomes
1, 1[T
2
2
[1, 1) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, 1, 2[1, 2, 1, 1) 2
2
(2.8.47)
We now wish to evaluate T
0
2
in very much the same way. Substituting q = 0 into (2.8.45),
1, m

[T
0
2
[1, m) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, m, 0[1, 2, 1, m

) (2.8.48)
Selection rules require that m = m

, so we have three non-zero components, corresponding to


m = 1, m = 0, and m = 1 (respectively). Substituting each of these m-values into (2.8.48),
1, 1[T
0
2
[1, 1) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, 1, 0[1, 2, 1, 1)
2
2

6
(2.8.49a)
1, 0[T
0
2
[1, 0) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, 0, 0[1, 2, 1, 0)
4
2

6
(2.8.49b)
1, 1[T
0
2
[1, 1) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, 1, 0[1, 2, 1, 1)
2
2

6
(2.8.49c)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 205
And nally, we must evaluate the matrix elements for T
2
2
. We do this in very much the same way
as before, setting q = 2 in (2.8.45)
1, m

[T
2
2
[1, m) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, m, 2[1, 2, 1, m

) (2.8.50)
From the selection rules, we have m = 1 m

= 1, and so the only nonzero matrix element is


from (2.8.48)
1, 1[T
0
2
[1, 1) =
2
2
1, 2, 2, 2[1, 2, 1, 1)
1, 2, 1, 0[1, 2, 1, 1) 2
2
(2.8.51)
We can now begin to construct our matrices corresponding to the calculated matrix elements for
T
2
2
, T
0
2
and T
2
2
, which were calculated in (2.8.47), (2.8.49a)(2.8.49c), and (2.8.51), respectively.
Most generically, the matrix T
q
2
) is given by
T
q
2
) =
_
_
[1,

1) [1, 0) [1, 1)
1,

1[ 1,

1[T
q
2
[1,

1) 1,

1[T
q
2
[1, 0) 1,

1[T
q
2
[1, 1)
1, 0[ 1, 0[T
q
2
[1,

1) 1, 0[T
q
2
[1, 0) 1, 0[T
q
2
[1, 1)
1, 1[ 1, 1[T
q
2
[1,

1) 1, 1[T
q
2
[1, 0) 1, 1[T
q
2
[1, 1)
_
_
(2.8.52)
So, each of our three elements are given by
T
2
2
) =
_
_
[1,

1) [1, 0) [1, 1)
1,

1[ 0 0 2
2
1, 0[ 0 0 0
1, 1[ 0 0 0
_
_
(2.8.53a)
T
0
2
) =
_
_
[1,

1) [1, 0) [1, 1)
1,

1[ 2
2
/

6 0 0
1, 0[ 0

4
2
/

6 0
1, 1[ 0 0 2
2
/

6
_
_
(2.8.53b)
T
2
2
) =
_
_
[1,

1) [1, 0) [1, 1)
1,

1[ 0 0 0
1, 0[ 0 0 0
1, 1[ 2
2
0 0
_
_
(2.8.53c)
Combining (2.8.53a)-(2.8.53c) and substituting into (2.8.38),
V = 2C
0

2
_
_
[1,

1) [1, 0) [1, 1)
1,

1[ 1/

6 0 1
1, 0[ 0

2/

6 0
1, 1[ 1 0 1/

6
_
_
(2.8.54)
To make the solution for (2.8.54) more transparent, we interchange the 2
nd
and 3
rd
columns
V = 2C
0

2
_
_
[1,

1) [1, 1) [1, 0)
1,

1[ 1/

6 1 0
1, 0[ 0 0

2/

6
1, 1[ 1 1/

6 0
_
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
And now do the same thing for the 1
st
and 3
rd
rows,
V = 2C
0

2
_
_
[1,

1) [1, 1) [1, 0)
1,

1[ 1/

6 1 0
1, 1[ 1 1/

6 0
1, 0[ 0 0

2/

6
_
_
(2.8.55)
It is easy to see that we neednt diagonalize the entire matrix in (2.8.55); rather, only the 2 2
submatrix:
V

= 2C
0

2
_
[1,

1) [1, 1)
1,

1[ 1/

6 1
1, 1[ 1 1/

6
_
(2.8.56)
Diagonalizing (2.8.56), we nd that

2C
0

2
/

6 2C
0

2
2C
0

2
2C
0

2
/

= 0
_
2C
0

__
2C
0

_
4C
0

2
= 0

4C
0

6

10C
2
0

4
3
= 0
= 2C
0

2
_
1

6
1
_
(2.8.57)
Using (2.8.57), we can now nd the corresponding eivenvectors. For = 2C
0

2
_
1

6
+ 1
_
, we have
2C
0

2
_

1 1
1

1
__
[1, 1)
[1,

1)
_
=
_
0
0
_
N
_
[1, 1) + [1,

1)
_
= 0 (2.8.58)
And similarly, for = 2C
0

2
_
1

6
1
_
,
2C
0

2
_
1 1
1 1
__
[1, 1)
[1,

1)
_
=
_
0
0
_
N
_
[1, 1) [1,

1)
_
= 0 (2.8.59)
Where the normalization constant N in (2.8.58) and (2.8.59) is simply 1/

2 . The eigenvalues and


eigenvectors are then

1
=
4C
0

6
, [1, 0) = 0 (2.8.60)

2
=2C
0

2
_
1

6
+ 1
_
,
1

2
_
[1, 1) +[1,

1)
_
= 0 (2.8.61)

3
=2C
0

2
_
1

6
1
_
,
1

2
_
[1, 1) [1,

1)
_
= 0 (2.8.62)
The eigenvalues in (2.8.60) are the energy shifts (E), while the eigenvectors correspond to the
unperturbed energy Eigenstates. The energy shifts are plotted in Fig. (3) (see attached Mathamatica
printout).
Exercise 21.4
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 207
From the commutation relations for a
i
and a

i
, deduce that the operator N
i
= a

i
a
i
has as eigenvalues all non-
negative integers in the case of Bose-Einstein statistics, but only 0 and 1 in the case of Fermi-Dirac statistics.
Solution
The commutation relations for a
i
and a

i
are stated for the Bose-Einstein case in (21.34) as
a

k
a

k
= 0
a
k
a

a
k
= 0
a
k
a

a
k
=
k
1
_
_
_
B.E. (2.8.63)
And similarly, under Fermi-Dirac statistics, we have from (21.35)
a

k
a

+ a

k
= 0
a
k
a

+ a

a
k
= 0
a
k
a

+ a

a
k
=
k
1
_
_
_
F.D. (2.8.64)
We also recall that the occupation number operators, stated in the prompt and also given by (21.30), as
N
i
= a

i
a
i
(2.8.65)
We can describe the eect of the annihilation and creation operators in general by studying (21.36):
a
i
[n
1
, n
2
, ..., n
i
, ...) = e
i

n
i
[n
1
, n
2
, ..., n
i
1, ...) (2.8.66)
From (2.8.66), we can extrapolate the eect of a
i
and a

i
under Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics,
respectively:
a[n) =

n [n), a

[n) =

n + 1 [n)
_
B.E. (2.8.67a)
a[0) = 0, a

[0) = e
i
[1)
a[1) = e
i
[0), a

[1) = 0
_
F.D. (2.8.67b)
Where we note that (2.8.67a) is the same as (12.38) in Merzbacher, while (2.8.67b) is the same as
(12.39). The connection between (2.8.66) and (2.8.67a) for Bose-Einstein statistics stems from the fact
that we require that = 0. Similarly, we go from (2.8.66) to (2.8.67b) by recognizing that for the
anti-commutation relations from (2.8.64), we let e
i
= 1 if the number of occupied single-particle states
is even, while e
i
= 1 if they are odd.
We are now tasked with nding the eigenvalues of the occupation number operators from (2.8.65) un-
der both Bose-Einstein statistics as well as Fermi-Dirac statistics. Starting with Bose-Einstein statistics
rst, we apply the action of (2.8.67a) to [n) as follows:
N[n) aa

[n) =

n + 1 (a[n + 1))
=

n + 1

n + 1 [n)
=(n + 1) [n) (2.8.68)
But we arent nished yet. We recall from (2.8.63) that aa

a = 1 (1 1 in this special case).


Tinkering with this a bit yields
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
aa

a = 1 aa

= N + 1 (2.8.69)
Substituting (2.8.69) back into (2.8.68),
(N + 1) [n) = (n + 1) [n) N[n) = n[n) (2.8.70)
Recognizing that the Bosonic occupation number operator may be any positive number, therefore we
can say that the eigenvalues of N may take any non-negative integer .
In order to repeat this same task within the framework of Fermi-Dirac statistics, we must go about the
problem in a slightly dierent way. We again start with the occupation number operator from (2.8.65),
but this time we wish to study the square, N
2
:
N
2
=
_
a

a
_ _
a

a
_
(2.8.71)
At this point, we remember the last equation in (2.8.64), from which we can say
aa

+a

a = 1 aa

= 1 a

a (2.8.72)
Substituting (2.8.72) back into (2.8.71),
N
2
=a

_
1 a

a
_
a a

a a

aa
. .
0
N
2
= N
From which we can easily say that the only condition in which the eigenvalues of N
2
and N are equal
for Fermi-Dirac statistics is when the eigenvalues are equal either 0 or 1.
Exercise 21.8
Prove from the commutation relations that
0[a
i
a
j
a

k
a

[0) =
jk

i

ik

j
(2.8.73)
the sign depending on the statistics, B.E. (+) or F.D. (). Also calculate the vacuum expectation value 0[a
h
a
i
a
j
a

k
a

m
[0).
Solution
We begin our journey by rearranging the algebraic equations describing the relationship between two
unique ladder operators a
k
and a

, described by (21.34) in Merzbacher for Bose-Einstein statistics and


(21.35) for Fermi-Dirac statistics (the last equation in (2.8.63) and (2.8.64) in the previous problem).
a
k
a

a
k
=
k
1 a
k
a

=
k
1 +a

a
k
_
B.E. (2.8.74a)
a
k
a

+ a

a
k
=
k
1 a
k
a

=
k
1 a

a
k
_
F.D. (2.8.74b)
We can combine (2.8.74a) and (2.8.74b) in a much more compact form,
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 209
a
k
a

=
k
1 a

a
k
[B.E. +, F.D. ] (2.8.75)
We now need to determine how our operators act on the vacuum state [0). We recall from (21.6) and
(21.7) that
a

i
[0) =
(1)
i
= [0, 0, ..., n
i
= 1, 0, ...) (2.8.76a)
a
i

(1)
j
=a
i
[0, 0, ..., n
i
= 1, 0, ...) =
ij

(0)
(2.8.76b)
Where we note that for the vacuum state,
(0)
i
=
(0)
j
=
(0)
= [0). Using this logic, we can evaluate
(2.8.73) by substituting into it (2.8.75) and using (2.8.77) and (2.8.78):
0[aa
i
a
j
a

k
a

[0) =
(0)
a
i
a
j
a

k
a

(0)
=

(1)
i
..
(
(0)
a
i
) a
j
a

(1)

..
(a

(0)
)
=
(1)
i
a
j
a

(1)

(2.8.77)
Substituting into (2.8.77) our derived result from (2.8.75),

(1)
i
a
j
a

(1)

=
(1)
i
_

jk
1 a

k
a
j
_

(1)

=
(1)
i
(
jk
1)
(1)


(1)
i
_
a

k
a
j
_

(1)

=
jk

(1)
i

(1)

. .
i

(1)
i
a

k
. .
ik
(1)
k
a
j

(1)

. .
j
(0)
(2.8.78)
From (2.8.78) we can say that

(1)
i
a
j
a

(1)

=
jk

ik

j
(2.8.79)
Substituting (2.8.79) back into (2.8.77), we are left with

(0)
a
i
a
j
a

k
a

(0)
=
jk

i

ik

j
Which is the same as (2.8.73).
Problem 21.1
a) Show that if V (r) is a two-particle interaction that depends only on the distance r between the particles, the
matrix element of the interaction in the k-representation may be reduced to
k
3
k
4
[V [k
1
k
2
) = (k
1
+ k
2
k
3
k
4
)
1
(2)
3
_
V (r)e
iqr
d
3
r (2.8.80)
where q is the momentum transfer (k
3
k
1
).
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
b) For this interaction, show that the mutual potential energy operator is
V =
1
2
___

(k
1
+ q)

(k
2
q) (k
2
) (k
1
) F (q) d
3
k
1
d
3
k
2
d
3
q (2.8.81)
where F(q) is the Fourier transform of the displacement-invariant interaction.
Solution
Before we get down to business, we must lay down some formalism. We recall that within the framework
of identical particles, a
i
and a

i
destroy and create particles with some quantum number K
i
. We also recall
that L represents a complete set of one-particle observables, whose eigenvalues are L
q
. The relationship
between K
i
and L
q
is given by (21.9) as
[K
i
) =

q
[L
q
)L
q
[K
i
) (2.8.82)
We can also evaluate the expectation value of K by expanding it in terms of K
i
:
L
q
[K[L
r
) =

i
L
q
[K
i
)K
i
K
i
[L
r
) (2.8.83)
Which is of course (21.43). We also wish to dene an additive two-particle operator as
V =
1
2

ij
a

i
a

j
a
j
a
i
V
ij

1
2

qrst
b

q
b

r
b
s
b
t
qr[V [ts) (2.8.84)
Where, from (21.48),
qr[V [st) =

ij
L
q
[K
i
)K
i
[L
t
)L
r
[K
j
)K
j
[L
s
) V
ij
(2.8.85)
We note that (2.8.85) is the generalized two-particle matrix element, and according to Merzbachers
chosen convention we require that r and s belong to one particle, while q and t to the other. We also
recall the following symmetry property:
qr[V [ts) = rq[V [st)
Which should come as no surprise.
a) We are now tasked with nding the two-particle matrix element in the k-representation. The most
general form is given by (2.8.85), and we note that since our interaction stems from a mutual
potential energy, (2.8.84) and (2.8.85) can be readily used.
The rst thing we wish to do is rewrite our k-representation two-particle matrix element from
the LHS of (2.8.80) in terms of the more generic form of (2.8.85):
k
3
k
4
[V [k
1
k
2
) =

ij
k
3
[r
i
)r
i
[k
1
)k
4
[r
j
)r
j
[k
2
) V
ij
(2.8.86)
Our particle coordinates are r
1
and r
2
, while the interaction potential between the two particles is
only dependent on the distance between them (call this distance r), so that V
ij
= V (r
1
r
2
) = V (r).
Accordingly, (2.8.86) becomes
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 211
k
3
k
4
[V [k
1
k
2
) =

12
k
3
[r
1
)r
1
[k
1
)k
4
[r
2
)r
2
[k
2
) V (r) (2.8.87)
It is very important that we recognize that the summation indicies in (2.8.87) are referring to the
coordinates r
1
and r
2
, and mustnt be applied to k. Since r
1
and r
2
are continuous variables, we
may take the sums in (2.8.87) to be integrals. We now have
k
3
k
4
[V [k
1
k
2
) =
__
k
3
[r
1
)r
1
[k
1
)k
4
[r
2
)r
2
[k
2
) V (r) d
3
r
1
d
3
r
2
(2.8.88)
At this point, we wish to reexpress (2.8.88) in terms of momentum eigenstates, which we will do in
the usual way. Most generally,
(r) =r
1 =
_
[k)k[ dk

[)
=
_
r[k)k[) dk (2.8.89)
We also recall that (k[r))

= r[k) Ne
ikr/
, while normalizing this yields
[N[
2
_

e
ik(rr

)/
N =
1

2
, < (r r

) (2.8.90)
Compensating for the fact that dr d
3
r, we can now say that
r[k) =
1
(2)
3
/2
e
ikr/
(2.8.91)
We now rewrite (2.8.88) in a slightly more transparent way,
k
3
k
4
[V [k
1
k
2
) =
__
r
1
[k
3
)

r
1
[k
1
) r
2
[k
4
)

r
2
[k
2
) V (r) d
3
r
1
d
3
r
2
(2.8.92)
We can now evaluate each of the coecients in (2.8.93) by applying (2.8.91):
r
1
[k
3
)

=
1
(2)
3
/2
e
ik3r1/
r
1
[k
1
) =
1
(2)
3
/2
e
ik1r1/
r
2
[k
4
)

=
1
(2)
3
/2
e
ik4r2/
r
2
[k
2
) =
1
(2)
3
/2
e
ik2r2/
And substituting these into (2.8.93),
k
3
k
4
[V [k
1
k
2
) =
1
(2)
6
__
exp
_
i

(k
3
r
1
+k
1
r
1
k
4
r
2
+k
2
r
2
)
_
V (r) d
3
r
1
d
3
r
2
(2.8.93)
By substituting r = r
1
r
2
r
1
= r
2
+r into (2.8.93) and completing the square, we arrive at
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
k
3
k
4
[V [k
1
k
2
) =
_
e
iqr2
e
i(k4k2)r2
d
3
r
2
_
e
iqr2
_
V (r)e
iqr1
d
3
r
1
e
iqr1
_
V (r)e
iqr2
d
3
r
2
_
=
1
(2)
3
_
e
i(k1+k2k3k4)r2/
d
3
r
2
_
V (r)e
iqr/
d
3
r (2.8.94)
Noticing that the rst integral in (2.8.94) is a -function, we are left with
k
3
k
4
[V [k
1
k
2
) = (k
1
+ k
2
k
3
k
4
)
1
(2)
3
_
V (r)e
iqr
d
3
r
Problem 21.2
Show that the diagonal part of the interaction operator V , found in Problem 1 in the k-representation, arises
from momentum transfers q = 0 and q = k
2
k
1
, respectively. Write down the two interaction terms and identify
them as direct (q = 0) and exchange (q = k
2
k
1
) interactions. Draw the corresponding diagrams (Figure 21.1).
Solution
We rst recall from (21.51) that

(r

(r

(r

(r

) = 0

(r

(r

(r

(r

) = 0

(r

(r

(r

(r

) = (r

_
_
_
B.E. (2.8.95)
And similarly, under Fermi-Dirac statistics, we have from (21.52)

(r

(r

) +

(r

(r

) = 0

(r

(r

) +

(r

(r

) = 0

(r

(r

) +

(r

(r

) = (r

_
_
_
F.D. (2.8.96)
We also recall from (21.53) that
N =

(r

(r

) d
3
r

(2.8.97)
From the previous problem, we have
V =
1
2
___

(k
1
+ q)

(k
2
q) (k
2
) (k
1
) F (q) d
3
k
1
d
3
k
2
d
3
q (2.8.98)
Substituting in to (2.8.98) the appropriate value for q and simplifying, we have
V =
1
2
____

(k
3
)

(k
4
)(k
2
)(k
1
)k
3
k
4
[k
2
k
1
) d
3
k
1
d
3
k
2
d
3
k
3
d
3
k
4
(2.8.99)
We now wish to sandwich (2.8.99) between the state
n
as follows:
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 213

n
[V [
n
) =
1
2
____

n
[

(k
3
)

(k
4
)(k
2
)(k
1
)[
n
)k
3
k
4
[k
2
k
1
) d
3
k
1
d
3
k
2
d
3
k
3
d
3
k
4
(2.8.100)
The generic interaction term we are interested in is given from (2.8.100) as

n
[

(k
3
)

(k
4
)(k
2
)(k
1
)[
n
) (2.8.101)
Now, if q = 0, then we require from the prompt that k
1
= k
3
and k
2
= k
4
, and so (2.8.101) becomes

n
[

(k
1
)

(k
2
)(k
2
)(k
1
)[
n
) =
n
[

(k
1
)(k
1
)

(k
2
)(k
2
)[
n
) (2.8.102)
Where we recall that the number operator acts like N
i
= a

i
a
i
. Accordingly, if we recall that N
i
= n
i
,
from (2.8.102) we have

n
[

(k
1
)(k
1
)

(k
2
)(k
2
)[
n
) =n
1
n
2
(2.8.103)
If, on the other hand, q = 0 because k
1
= k
2
= k
3
= k
4
k, then

n
[

(k
1
)

(k
2
)(k
2
)(k
1
)[
n
) =
n
[

(k)(k)

(k)(k)[
n
)
=
n
[

(k)

(k)(k)(k)[
n
)
=
n
[

(k)

(k)(k)(k)[
n
) (2.8.104)
The result of (2.8.104) is not the same for each avor of particles; for symmetric particles, the RHS of
(2.8.104) is n(n 1), and for anti-symmetric particles, it is equal to 0, which comes as no surprise.
Following the same logic, we have for q ,= 0 that k
3
= k
2
and k
1
= k
4
. The number operators act
as before, and we end up with

n
[

(k
1
)(k
1
)

(k
2
)(k
2
)[
n
) =
n
[

(k
1
)(k
1
)

(k
2
)(k
2
)[
n
)
A n
1
n
2
(2.8.105)
Where for symmetric particles, A = 1, and for anti-symmetric particles A = 1. We nally can say that
the direct terms come from q = 0 , while the exchange terms come from q = k
1
k
2
. Please see
diagrams in Fig. (4) and (5) (attached at the end of this assignment).
2.9 Homework #10
Exercise 22.3
Construct explicitly in terms of the states of the form a

jm2
a

jm1
[0) the total angular momentum eigenstates for
two neutrons in the congurations (p1
/2
)
2
and (p3
/2
)
2
. How would the angular momentum eigenstates look if the
two particles were a neutron and a proton but otherwise had the same quantum numbers as before?
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #10
Before we get down to business, we recall (22.4), which reads

(2)
JM
= [JM) =
1

m1m2
a

jm2
a

jm1
jjm
1
m
2
[jjJM) [0) (2.9.1)
And that all the individual particles at play here, i.e. proton, neutrons, and electrons, are all Fermions,
whereby we must obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
For our rst case, where both neutrons are in the (p1
/2
)
2
conguration, we have the separate quantum
numbers as:
j
1
=
1
/
2
, m
1
=
1
/
2
j
2
=
1
/
2
, m
2
=
1
/
2
_
J = 0, 1
Since we are closely following the mantra of the Pauli exclusion principle, our total angular momentum
quantum number J cannot obtain an odd value, and since in this rst case we only have J = 0 and
J = 1, we only must calculate the former. Applying the relevant quantum numbers to (2.9.1), we have

[0, 0) =
1

m1,m2
a

1
/2,m2
a

1
/2,m1

1
/
2
,
1
/
2
, m
1
, m
2
[
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
, 0, 0) [0) (2.9.2)
We must expand the sum in (2.9.2) for all allowed combinations of m
1
and m
2
. In our case, there are
only two possible permutations: m
1
=
1
/
2
, m
2
=
1
/
2
and m
1
=
1
/
2
, m
2
=
1
/
2
. We therefore only have
two terms:
[0, 0) =
1

2
_
a

1
/2,
1
/2
a

1
/2,
1
/2

1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
, 0, 0) +a

1
/2,
1
/2
a

1
/2,
1
/2

1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
, 0, 0)
_
[0)
(2.9.3)
The Clebsch-Gordan (C-G) coecients in (2.9.3) were evaluated using Mathematica, according to the
same convention as Merzbacher. The results are:

1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
, 0, 0) =
1

1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
, 0, 0) =
1

2
Substituting these back in to (2.9.3),
[0, 0) =
1
2
_
a

1
/2,
1
/2
a

1
/2,
1
/2
a

1
/2,
1
/2
a

1
/2,
1
/2
_
[0) (2.9.4)
If our neutrons are in the (p3
/2
)
2
conguration, things get a little more tedious. First of all, our quantum
numbers become:
j
1
=
3
/
2
, m
1
= 0,
1
/
2
,
3
/
2
j
2
=
3
/
2
, m
2
= 0,
1
/
2
,
3
/
2
_
J = 0, 1, 2, 3
Luckily, since we require that our total angular momentum operator be even, we only must contend with
J = 0 and J = 2. The analogous form of (2.9.2) for our case is

From here forward, I am dropping explicit inclusion of .


CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 215
[0, 0) =
1

m1,m2
a

3
/2,m2
a

3
/2,m1

3
/
2
,
3
/
2
, m
1
, m
2
[
3
/
2
,
3
/
2
, 0, 0) [0)

m1,m2
a

3
/2,m2
a

3
/2,m1
m
1
, m
2
[0, 0) [0) (2.9.5)
Where I have dropped the inclusion of j
1
and j
2
in (2.9.5), which is standard practice. We now expand
the sum in (2.9.5), which yields
[0, 0) =
1

2
_
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2

3
/
2
,
3
/
2
[0, 0) + a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2

1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[0, 0)+
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2

1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[0, 0) +a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2

3
/
2
,
3
/
2
[0, 0)
_
[0) (2.9.6)
We can tabulate the relevant C-G coecients by making a table,
[J, M) m
1
m
2
J M m
1
, m
2
[J, M)
[0, 0) +
3
/
2

3
/
2
0 0 +
3
/
2
,
3
/
2
[0, 0) = +(2)
1
+
1
/
2

1
/
2
0 0 +
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[0, 0) = (2)
1

1
/
2
+
1
/
2
0 0
1
/
2
, +
1
/
2
[0, 0) = +(2)
1

3
/
2
+
3
/
2
0 0
3
/
2
, +
3
/
2
[0, 0) = (2)
1
We now substitute these values into (2.9.6),
[0, 0) =
1
2

2
_
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
+ a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
+ a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
+a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
_
[0)
We must now repeat this process for J = 2, and M = 0, 1, 2.
[J, M) m
1
m
2
J M m
1
, m
2
[J, M)
[2, 2)
1
/
2

3
/
2
2 2
1
/
2
,
3
/
2
[2, 2) = +(2)

1
/2

3
/
2

1
/
2
2 2
3
/
2
,
1
/
2
[2, 2) = (2)

1
/2
[2, 1) +
1
/
2

3
/
2
2 1 +
1
/
2
,
3
/
2
[2, 1) = +(2)

1
/2

3
/
2
+
1
/
2
2 1
3
/
2
, +
1
/
2
[2, 1) = (2)

1
/2
[2, 0) +
3
/
2

3
/
2
2 0 +
3
/
2
,
3
/
2
[2, 0) = +(2)

1
/2
+
1
/
2

1
/
2
2 0 +
1
/
2
,
1
/
2
[2, 0) = (2)

1
/2

1
/
2
+
1
/
2
2 0
1
/
2
, +
1
/
2
[2, 0) = +(2)

1
/2

3
/
2
+
3
/
2
2 0
3
/
2
, +
3
/
2
[2, 0) = (2)

1
/2
[2, 1) +
3
/
2

1
/
2
2 1 +
3
/
2
,
1
/
2
[2, 1) = +(2)

1
/2

1
/
2
+
3
/
2
2 1
1
/
2
, +
3
/
2
[2, 1) = (2)

1
/2
[2, 2) +
3
/
2
+
1
/
2
2 2 +
3
/
2
, +
1
/
2
[2, 2) = +(2)

1
/2
+
1
/
2
+
3
/
2
2 2 +
1
/
2
, +
3
/
2
[2, 2) = (2)

1
/2
Expanding the sum in (2.9.5) and substituting in the appropriate values, we have
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #10
[2, 2) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

1
/2,
3
/2
_
[0)
[2, 1) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
_
[0)
[2, 0) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
+ a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
_
[0)
[2, 1) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
[2, 2) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
If, as the prompt suggests, we have both a neutron and a proton, things change somewhat. We are
told that the quantum numbers are the same, so in this respect the subsequent calculations are easier,
however we must now introduce a creation operator, b

, which acts on the other particle.


We can build on the results shown in the previous parts of this problem with the addition of this
additional creation operator b

. For the case of (p1


/2
) (p1
/2
), our possible quantum numbers are:
j
1
=
1
/
2
, j
2
=
1
/
2
m
1
=
1
/
2
, m
2
=
1
/
2
_
J = 0, 1
We now use this in the same way we did before, with a table or otherwise. The results are:
[0, 0) = (2)
1
_
a

1
/2,
1
/2
b

1
/2,
1
/2
a

1
/2,
1
/2
b

1
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
[1, 1) = (2)

1
/2
_
a

1
/2,
1
/2
b

1
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
[1, 0) = (2)
1
_
a

1
/2,
1
/2
b

1
/2,
1
/2
a

1
/2,
1
/2
b

1
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
[1, 1) = (2)

1
/2
_
a

1
/2,
1
/2
b

1
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
And similarly, for the case of (p3
/2
) (p3
/2
), we allow for the following quantum numbers:
j
1
=
3
/
2
, j
2
=
3
/
2
m
1
=
1
/
2
,
3
/
2
, m
2
=
1
/
2
,
3
/
2
_
J = 0, 1, 2, 3
Which comes as no surprise. The only dierence here is that we can no longer exclude the odd contri-
butions of the total angular momentum quantum number J.
[0, 0) = (8)

1
/2
_
a

3
/2,
3
/2
b

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
b

3
/2,
1
/2
+a

3
/2,
1
/2
b

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
b

3
/2,
3
/2
_
[0)
[2, 2) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
1
/2
b

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
b

3
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
[2, 1) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
3
/2
b

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
b

3
/2,
3
/2
_
[0)
[2, 0) = (8)

1
/2
_
a

3
/2,
3
/2
b

3
/2,
3
/2
+ a

3
/2,
1
/2
b

3
/2,
1
/2
a

3
/2,
1
/2
b

3
/2,
1
/2
+a

3
/2,
3
/2
b

3
/2,
3
/2
_
[0)
[2, 1) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
1
/2
b

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
b

3
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
[2, 2) = (2)
1
_
a

3
/2,
1
/2
b

3
/2,
3
/2
a

3
/2,
3
/2
b

3
/2,
1
/2
_
[0)
I am not calculating the rest; I am not a monkey. There is no more physics here. No more fun.
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 217
Exercise 22.6
Use the symmetry relations for the Clebsch-Gordan coecients to show that a conguration (n)
2
can only give
rise to spin-orbit coupled two-electron states for which L + S is even, i.e., states
1
S,
3
P,
1
D and so on.
Solution
We rst recall (22.2) from Merzbacher, which reads

(2)
JM
= C

m1m2
a

j2m22
a

j1m11
j
1
j
1
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
JM)
(0)
From which follows directly (22.17):
[
(2)
n11n22
) =

m1m1

2
m
1
m
2
[
1

2
LM
L
)

1
m

1
/
2
1
/
2
m

1
m

2
[
1
/
2
1
/
2
SM
S
)a

n22m
2
m

2
a

n11m
1
m

1
[0) (2.9.7)
In our specic case, we are interested in investigating when
1
=
2
and when n
1
= n
2
n, and so
(2.9.7) becomes
[
(2)
nn
) =

m1m1
m
1
m
2
[LM
L
)

1
m

1
/
2
1
/
2
m

1
m

2
[
1
/
2
1
/
2
SM
S
)a

nm
2
m

2
a

nm
1
m

1
[0) (2.9.8)
We also recall the symmetry relations for Clebsch-Gordan coecients, which from (17.61) reads
j
1
j
2
m
1
m
2
[j
1
j
2
jm) = (1)
jj1j2
j
2
j
1
m
2
m
1
[j
2
j
1
jm) = j
2
j
1
, m
2
, m
1
[j
2
j
1
j, m) (2.9.9)
Where in our case we let j
1
= j
2
, and for the total angular momentum j L and m M.
Accordingly, (2.9.9) becomes
m
1
m
2
[LM) = (1)
L2
m
2
m
1
[LM
L
) = , m
2
, m
1
[L, M
L
) (2.9.10)
We now substitute (2.9.10) back into (2.9.8),
[
(2)
nn
) =

m1m1
(1)
L2
m
2
m
1
[LM
L
)

1
m

1
/
2
1
/
2
m

1
m

2
[
1
/
2
1
/
2
SM
S
)a

nm
2
m

2
a

nm
1
m

1
[0) (2.9.11)
While at this point, we recall (21.35), which was used in the last homework assignment,
a

k
a

+a

k
= 0 (2.9.12)
a
k
a

+ a

a
k
= 0
a
k
a

+a

a
k
=
k
1
We note that we can use (2.9.12) to rewrite the product of the ladder operators in (2.9.11):
a

nm
2
m

2
a

nm
1
m

1
= a

nm
1
m

1
a

nm
2
m

2
(1)
1
a

nm
1
m

1
a

nm
2
m

2
(2.9.13)
Substituting (2.9.13) back into (2.9.11),
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #10
[
(2)
nn
) =

m1m1
(1)
L2+1
m
2
m
1
[LM
L
)

1
m

1
/
2
1
/
2
m

1
m

2
[
1
/
2
1
/
2
SM
S
)a

nm
1
m

1
a

nm
2
m

2
[0) (2.9.14)
(1)
L+S2
[
(2)
nn
) (2.9.15)
The required condition is satised, i.e. unless L + S is even, (2.9.14) is violated .
Exercise 22.10
Show that the conguration space wave function corresponding to the independent particle state (22.22) can
be expressed as the Slater determinant
(r
1

1
, , r
N

N
) =
1

N!

1
(r
1

1
)
1
(r
2

2
)
1
(r
N

N
)

2
(r
1

1
)
2
(r
2

2
)
2
(r
N

N
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

n
(r
1

1
)
n
(r
2

2
)
n
(r
N

N
)

(2.9.16)
Solution
We rst recall that (22.22) from Merzbacher reads
[

) = a

N
a

N1
a

2
a

1
[0) (2.9.17)
While we must always obey the symmetrixation requirement:
(r
1
, r
2
) = (r
2
, r
1
)
Treating this in a more explicit manner,

(r
1
, r
2
) =
1

2
[
a
(r
1
)
b
(r
2
)
b
(r
1
)
a
(r
2
)] (2.9.18)
Where the upper sign represents Bosons, while the lower is for Fermions. Directly from (2.9.18) follows
the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which applies only to Fermions. For two particles that occupy the same
state
a
=
b
,

(r
1
, r
2
) =
1

2
[
a
(r
1
)
a
(r
2
)
a
(r
2
)
a
(r
1
)] 0
In other words, the resultant wave function must be anti-symmetric with the exchange of any two
particles. We note that while the previous equations do not contain an explicit spin dependence, one
may be included without loss of generality. Accordingly, (2.9.18) becomes

(r
1

1
, r
2

2
) =
1

2
[
a
(r
1

1
)
b
(r
2

2
)
a
(r
2

2
)
b
(r
1

1
)] (2.9.19)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 219
In this special two-particle case, it is not hard to see that we can rewrite (2.9.19) in terms of a determinant:

(r
1

1
, r
2

2
) =
1

a
(r
1

1
)
a
(r
2

2
)

b
(r
1

1
)
b
(r
2

2
)

(2.9.20)
The extension of (2.9.19) to (2.9.20) may be generalized to a N-particle system without too much trouble;
all we have to do is recognize that the odd exchanges in the wave function product terms must include
a factor of 1. Explicitly, we rewrite (2.9.20) for N particles as:

(r
1

1
, r
2

2
, , r
N

N
) =
1

2
[
a
(r
1

1
)
b
(r
2

2
)
N
(r
N

N
)
a
(r
2

2
)
b
(r
1

1
)
N
(r
N

N
)]
(2.9.21)
Where we note that the complete set of wave function denominations is
a
,
b
, ...,
N
. We can
immediately rewrite (2.9.21) in the form of a determinant, as suggested by the prompt:
(r
1

1
, , r
N

N
) =
1

N!

a
(r
1

1
)
a
(r
2

2
)
a
(r
N

N
)

b
(r
1

1
)
b
(r
2

2
)
b
(r
N

N
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

N
(r
1

1
)
N
(r
2

2
)
N
(r
N

N
)

Which is the same as (2.9.16).


Problem 22.6
Apply the Hartree-Fock method to a system of two electrons which are attracted to the coordinate origin
by an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential m
2
r
2
/2 and which interact with each other through a potential
V = C(r

)
2
. Solve the Hartree-Fock equations for the ground state and compare with the exact result and
with rst-order perturbation theory.
Solution
Due to the phrasing of the problem, we are inclined to utilize the symmetry around the origin. We also
know that the Hamiltonian for this system is just the sum of the Harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian plus
the interaction term:
H =

2
2m

2
+
m
2
2
r
2
V (2.9.22)
Applying V from the prompt to (2.9.22),

H =

2
2m
_

2
1
+
2
2
_
+
m
2
2
_
r
2
1
+r
2
2
_
C(r
1
r
2
)
2
(2.9.23)

I have replace Merzbachers silly prime notation with my selected subscripts to deter ambiguity between various notations.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #10
At this point, we seemingly arbitrarily, introduce the relative and center of mass coordinate variables
respectively:
r =
1

2
(r
1
r
2
) , R =
1

2
(r
1
+ r
2
) (2.9.24)
Rewriting (2.9.23) according to (2.9.24),
H =

2
2m
_

2
1
+
2
2
_
+
m
2
2
R
2
Cr
2
(2.9.25)
If we introduce the following similar coordinates for the momenta,
p =
1

2
(p
1
p
2
) , P =
1

2
(p
1
+ p
2
) (2.9.26)
Rewriting the kinetic energy term from (2.9.25) in terms momentum variables and utilizing (2.9.26), we
have

H =
1
2
_
P
2
+ R
2
_
+
1
2
_
p
2
+r
2

2C + 1
_
(2.9.27)
From this, we can see that by the use of our chosen transformations from (2.9.24) and (2.9.26), we see
that we have turned one Hamiltonian into two independent 3-dimensional harmonic oscillators.
This problem has been presented before; the (exact) results are
(r, R) =
_
2C + 1

4
_3
/8
exp
_

R
2
2
_
exp
_

2C + 1
2
r
2
_
(2.9.28a)
E
0
=
3
2
_
1 +

2C + 1
_
(2.9.28b)
To see how the Hartree-Fock (HF) perspective compares to (2.9.28a) and (2.9.28b), we see that

HF
=
1

(r
1
)
+
(r
2
)
+
(r
1
)

(r
2
)

(2.9.29)
And the HF equation for our Hamiltonian becomes
1
2
_
p
2
1
+r
2
1

(r
1
) +
1
2
__

(r
2
) C (r
1
r
2
)
2
(r
2
) dr
2
_
(r
1
) = E(r
1
) (2.9.30)
If we expand the central term in (2.9.30), we nd that
(r
1
r
2
)
2
= r
2
1
+ r
2
2
2r
1
r
2
(2.9.31)
The last term in (2.9.31) vanishes in the integral due to parity. Therefore, the integral becomes trivial
and (2.9.30) yields

0
(r
1
) =
_
C + 1

2
_3
/8
exp
_

C + 1
2
r
2
1
_

Atomic units and also = 1.


CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 221
E
0
=
3
2
_
3C + 2
2C + 2
_

C + 1
And so the Hartree-Fock ground state wave function becomes

HF
0
(r, R) =
_
C + 1

4
_3
/8
exp
_

C + 1
2
_
r
2
+ R
2
_
_
(2.9.33)
And now, the energy eigenvalues according to (2.9.33) can be found by taking the expectation value of
our Hamiltonian from (2.9.25) with the HF state from (2.9.33). The result is ?
E
HF
0
=
HF
0
[H[
HF
0
) E
HF
0
= 3

C + 1 (2.9.34)
Please see attached Mathematica printout with plots.
W. Erbsen *
Appendix A *
Creation and Annihilation Operators
We rst recall from class that the action of the creation and annihilation operators on an arbitrary vector [
n
)
acts like:
a

[
n
) =

n + 1 [
n+1
) (A.1a)
a[
n
) =

n [
n1
) (A.1b)
We also recall that the position and momentum operators are given in terms of the creation and annihilation
operators as:
x =
_

2m
_
a

+a
_
(A.2a)
p =
_
m
2
_
a

a
_
(A.2b)
We can now nd the expectation values of various combinations of ladder operators, namely a

), a), a

a), aa

),
a
2
), and a
2
):
a

) =
n
(x)[a

[
n
(x))
=
_

n
(x)a

n
(x) dx
=
_

n
(x)
_
n + 1
n+1
(x)
_
dx
=

n + 1
n

,n+1
(A.3)
a) =
n
(x)[a[
n
(x))
=
_

n
(x)a
n
(x) dx
=
_

n
(x)
_
n
n1
(x)
_
dx
=

n
n

,n1
(A.4)
a

a) =
n
(x)[a

a[
n
(x))
=
_

n
(x)a

a
n
(x) dx
=
_

n
(x)a

_
n
n1
(x)
_
dx
=
_

n
(x) (n
n
(x)) dx
=n
n

,n
(A.5)
aa

) =
n
(x)[aa

[
n
(x))
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 223
=
_

n
(x)aa

n
(x) dx
=
_

n
(x)a
_
n + 1
n+1
(x)
_
dx
=
_

n
(x) ((n + 1)
n
(x)) dx
=(n + 1)
n

,n
(A.6)
a
2
) =
n
(x)[a
2
[
n
(x))
=
_

n
(x)a

n
(x) dx
=
_

n
(x)a

_
n + 1
n+1
(x)
_
dx
=
_

n
(x) ((n + 1)
n+2
(x)) dx
=(n + 1)
n

,n+2
(A.7)
a
2
) =
n
(x)[a
2
[
n
(x))
=
_

n
(x)aa
n
(x) dx
=
_

n
(x)a
_
n
n1
(x)
_
dx
=
_

n
(x) (n
n2
(x)) dx
=n
n

,n2
(A.8)
We now wish to nd the expectation values of the position and momentum operators from (A.2a) and (A.2b), and
also their square. We can do this by using (A.3)-(A.8):
x) =
_

2m
(a

+ a))
=
_

2m
_
a

) + a)
_
=
_

2m
_
n + 1
n

,n+1
+

n
n

,n1
_
=0 (A.9)
x
2
) =

2m
(a

+ a)
2
)
=

2m
(a
2
+a

a +aa

+a
2
))
=

2m
_
a
2
) +a

a) +aa

) + a
2
)
_
W. Erbsen *
=

2m
((n + 1)
n

,n+2
+ n
n

,n
+ (n + 1)
n

,n
+ n
n

,n2
)
=

2m
(n(n + 1))
=

2m
(2n + 1) (A.10)
p) =i
_
m
2
(a

+ a))
=i
_
m
2
_
a

) + a)
_
=i
_
m
2
_
n + 1
n

,n+1
+

n
n

,n1
_
=0 (A.11)
p
2
) =
m
2
(a

a)
2
)
=
m
2
(a
2
a

a aa

+a
2
))
=
m
2
_
a
2
) a

a) aa

) + a
2
)
_
=
m
2
((n + 1)
n

,n+2
n
n

,n
(n + 1)
n

,n
+n
n

,n2
)
=
m
2
(n (n + 1))
=
m
2
(2n + 1) (A.12)
CHAPTER 2: QUANTUM MECHANICS II 225
Appendix B *
Hermite Polynomial Recursion Relation
Equation (5.35) from Merzbacher reads:
H
n
() =
_
d
n
ds
n
e

2
(s)
2
_
s=0
=(1)
n
e

2 d
n
d
n
e

2
(B.1)
Which is known as Rodrigues formula for Hermite Polynomials. To derive the recursion relation, we rst dier-
entiate H
n
():
d
d
H
n
() =
d
d
_
(1)
n
e

2
_
d
d
_
n
e

2
_
=(1)
n
_
d
d
e

2
__
d
d
_
n
+ (1)
n
e

2
_
d
d
_
n+1
e

2
=2x(1)
n
e

2
_
d
d
_
n
(1)
n+1
e

2
_
d
d
_
n+1
e

2
=2xH
n
() H
n+1
() (B.2)
And from Eq. (5.32) in Merzbacher we know that
d
d
H
n
= 2nH
n1
()
So that (B.2) becomes:
2nH
n1
() = 2xH
n
() H
n+1
() (B.3)
And from (B.3) we nally arrive at the recursion relation,
H
n+1
() = 2xH
n
() 2nH
n1
() (B.4)
Which agrees with Abramowitz and Stegun, pg. 782 22.7.13 ?.
W. Erbsen *
clearemptydoublepage
Chapter 3
Statistical Mechanics
3.1 Homework #1
Problem 1
We discussed in class thermal equilibrium of a closed system which is divided into two parts with a barrier
inbetween (see gure). This barrier allows energy exchange between the two parts of the system. Show that:
a) If the barrier is allowed to move but does not allow particle exchange, then at thermal equilibrium the
pressures of the two parts are equal, i.e. P
1
= P
2
.
b) If the barrier is not allowed to move but allows for particle exchange, then at thermal equilibrium the chemical
potentials of the two parts are equal, i.e.
1
=
2
.
Figure 3.1: Figure for Problem 3.
Solution
Where applicable, we apply the principle of conservation to the extensive variables N, V and E:
N =N
1
+N
2
V =V
1
+V
2
E =E
1
+ E
2
(= Const.)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
As noted, the prompt states that the barrier allows for exchange in energy. We also recall that
dE =
_
E
S
_
V,N
dS +
_
E
V
_
S,N
dV +
_
E
N
_
S,V
dN (3.1.1)
Which was shown in class, but is easy enough to see.
a) If the barrier is allowed to move, but does not allow for particle exchange, we can deduce two im-
portant things. First, if the barrier moves but leaves the individual systems intact, while conserving
the total volume, then we can claim that:
dV = V
1
+ V
2
= 0 V
1
= V
2
(3.1.2)
We can also claim that since the particles are not transferred from system to system, we can say
dN = N
1
+ N
2
= 0 (3.1.3)
We can apply (3.1.3) to (3.1.1)
dE =
_
E
S
_
V,N
dS +
_
E
V
_
S,N
dV +
= 0
..
_
E
N
_
S,V
dN
=
_
E
S
_
V,N
dS +
_
E
V
_
S,N
dV (3.1.4)
We now recall (1.3.10), which states that:
_
S
E
_
V,N
=
1
T
,
_
S
V
_
E,N
=
P
T
,
_
S
N
_
V,E
=

T
From this, we take the denition which depends on the intensive parameters P and T, which can
be manipulated as
_
S
V
_
E,N
=
P
T
T
_
S
V
_
E,N
= P (3.1.5)
Now, following the form of (3.1.4), we have for the entropy S
dS =
_
S
E
_
V,E
dE +
_
S
V
_
E,N
dV +
= 0
..
_
S
N
_
E,V
dN
=
_
S
E
_
V,E
dE +
_
S
V
_
E,N
dV (3.1.6)
We also know that the steady-state entropy as t approaches zero, and (3.1.6) becomes
0 =
_
S
E
_
V,E
dE +
_
S
V
_
E,N
dV (3.1.7)
Holding E and N constant for both systems, (3.1.7)
0 =
= 0
..
S
1
E
1
dE
1
+
S
2
E
2
dE
2
+
S
1
V
1
dV
1
+
S
2
V
2
dV
2
(3.1.8)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 229
Recalling (3.1.5), it is easy to see that
0 =
S
1
V
1
dV
1

S
2
V
2
dV
1

P
1
T
=
P
2
T
P
1
= P
2
(3.1.9)
b) If now we disallow the barrier to move, then the change in volume becomes:
dV = V
1
+V
2
= 0
While since we are allowing for particle exchange, we can claim that the net change in the ux of
particulates is described by
dN = N
1
+ N
2
= 0 N
1
= N
2
We can now immediately pick up from (3.1.6), applying it to our current scenario:
dS =
_
S
E
_
V,E
dE +
= 0
..
_
S
V
_
E,N
dV +
_
S
N
_
E,V
dN
=
_
S
E
_
V,E
dE +
_
S
N
_
E,V
dN (3.1.10)
Recalling the denition of the intrinsic property from (1.4.10),
_
S
N
_
V,E
=

T
T
_
S
N
_
V,E
= (3.1.11)
Using (3.1.11), at thermal equilibrium (3.1.10) becomes
0 =
S
1
N
1
dN
1
+
S
2
N
2
dN
1


1
T
dN
1
=

2
T
dN
1

1
=
2
Problem 1.2
Assuming that the entropy S and the statistical number of a physical system are related through an arbi-
trary functional form
S = f () (3.1.12)
Show that the additive character of S and the multiplicative character of necessarily require that the function
f () be of the form
S = k
B
log (3.1.13)
Solution
The additive character of S can be quantitatively described using (3.1.12) and (3.1.13) as
S
(0)
(S
1
, S
2
) = S
1
(
1
) +S
2
(
2
) S
(0)
(
1
,
2
) = f (
1
) +f (
2
) (3.1.14)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
While the multiplicative property of can be written like:

(0)
(
1
,
2
) =
1

2
(3.1.15)
We now recall that both
1
and
2
represent independent variables, and accordingly a function of both
quantities may be dierentiated with respect to each variable, yielding the same number of equations.
In our case, we can dierentiate (3.1.14) as:
dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d
1
=
dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d

d
d
1

dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d

1
(3.1.16)
Using (3.1.16) as a template, we can retrieve our two equations:
dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d
1
=
dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d

1
(3.1.17a)
dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d
2
=
dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d

2
(3.1.17b)
The full derivatives in (3.1.17a) and (3.1.17b) may be equated and shued,
1

dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d
1
=
1

dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d
2
(3.1.18)
We now allow ourselves to be reminded of the method of separation of variables in PDEs, which says
that if we have a function of two independent variables, which can be completely separated, then then
changing one of the variables by some amount then the other must also change by . We recall that
is, of course, a constant, which we can call whatever we want. Apparently, in our case our constant is
Boltzmanns Constant k
B
.
Armed with this knowledge, we can now rewrite (3.1.17a) and (3.1.17b), as
df (
1
)
d
1
=
dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d

2
(3.1.19a)
df (
2
)
d
2
=
dS
(0)
(
1
,
2
)
d

1
(3.1.19b)
The full derivatives in (3.1.19a) and (3.1.19b) may also be equated, similar to in (3.1.18), as
1

df (
2
)
d
2
=
1

df (
1
)
d
1

df (
2
)
d
2
=
1

df (
1
)
d
1
(3.1.20)
Setting each side of (3.1.20) equal to our new constant,

df (
2
)
d
2
= k
B
,
1

df (
1
)
d
1
= k
B
(3.1.21)
The solutions to these trivial dierential equations is of course
f () = k
B
log () S () = k
B
log ()
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 231
Problem 1.7
Study the statistical mechanics of an extreme relativistic gas characterized by the single-particle energy states
(n
x
, n
y
, n
z
) =
hc
2L
_
n
2
x
+ n
2
y
+n
2
z
_
1
/2
(3.1.22)
Instead of (1.4.5) in Pathria, along the lines in 1.4. Show that the ratio C
P
/C
V
in in this case is 4/3, instead of
5/3.
Solution
Following Pathrias logic in 1.4, we know that we need not explicitly evaluate (N, E, V ), rather simply
the product following the form of (1.4.8), where in the relativistic case, I claim that:
V
1
/3
E = const. (3.1.23)
Where E in our case is the relativistic energy, given by:
E =
_
(pc)
2
+ (mc
2
)
2
(3.1.24)
Assuming that we are in the extreme relativistic limit, we assume that v c, and in this limit (3.1.24)
becomes
E pc (3.1.25)
Plotting (3.1.24) and (3.1.25) on the same scale indeed veries that the energy may be readily approxi-
mated using (3.1.25) at very large values of v (see gure

).
Figure 3.2: Figure for Problem 3.

We note that (3.1.24) red/dashed, while (3.1.25) black/thick.


W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
Furthermore, we can build on (1.4.6) by noting that the expression for (N, E, V ) depends on the
number of independent, positive-integral solutions as prescribed by:
2L
hc
=
_
n
2
x
+n
2
y
+ n
2
z
_
1
/2
(3.1.26)
From the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Function, and (3.1.25). Furthermore, we recall that V = L
3
,
and so (3.1.26) becomes
2
hc
V
1
/3
(n
x
, n
y
, n
z
) =
_
n
2
x
+ n
2
y
+n
2
z
_1
/2
(n
x
, n
y
, n
z
) =
hc
2L
_
n
2
x
+ n
2
y
+n
2
z
_1
/2
(3.1.27)
Where we can see from (3.1.27) where (3.1.23) was derived from. Furthermore, using (1.4.25), we can
say that:
P =
_
E
V
_
N,S
=

V
_
Const. V

1
/3
_
=Const.
1
3
V
4
/3
=Const. V
4
/3
(3.1.28)
It is easy to see from (3.1.28) that our condition for a reversible adiabatic process is given by
PV
4
/3
= Const. (3.1.29)
Where the raised power of V in (3.1.29) is none other than , so we can nally say:
=
C
P
C
V
=
4
3
Problem 1.13
If the two gases considered in the mixing process of 1.5 were initially at dierent temperatures, say T
1
and
T
2
, what would the entropy of mixing be in that case? Would the contribution arising from this cause depend on
whether the two gases were dierent or identical?
Solution
We rst recall from (1.5.13) that
S
i
= N
i
k
B
log [V
i
] +
3
2
N
i
k
B
_
1 + log
_
2m
i
k
B
T
h
2
__
; i = 1, 2 (3.1.30)
Which represents the entropy before the mixing ever took place. If we allow our systems to start at
dierent temperatures, (3.1.30) becomes
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 233
S
i
= N
i
k
B
log [V
i
] +
3
2
N
i
k
B
_
1 + log
_
2m
i
k
B
T
i
h
2
__
; i = 1, 2 (3.1.31)
Where it should be mentioned that the only thing changed is the addition of an index to the intensive
variable T. Regrouping and realigning (3.1.31), we have
S
i
=
3
2
k
B
N
i
_
2
3
log [V
i
] + log [m
i
T
i
] + 1
_
(3.1.32)
Where I have assigned the constant to be dened by
=
2k
B
h
2
(3.1.33)
Following the convention of (3.1.32), we can say that the post-mixing entropy is (analogous to (1.5.2)):
S
T
=
3
2
k
B
2

i=1
N
i
_
2
3
log [V ] + log [m
i
T] + 1
_
(3.1.34)
The increase in S, called the entropy of mixing, is then given by
S = S
T

i=1
S
i
(3.1.35)
The rst term in (3.1.35) is found from (3.1.34) to be
S
T
=
3
2
k
B
_
N
1
_
2
3
log [V ] + log [m
1
T] + 1
_
+N
2
_
2
3
log [V ] + log [m
2
T] + 1
__
(3.1.36)
While the sum in (3.1.35) is found from (3.1.32) to be
2

i=1
=
3
2
k
B
_
N
1
_
2
3
log [V
1
] + log [m
1
T
1
] + 1
_
+ N
2
_
2
3
log [V
2
] + log [m
2
T
2
] + 1
__
(3.1.37)
Before we take the dierence of (3.1.36) and (3.1.37), thus completing the saga of (3.1.35), we note that
this page width is nite (countable, har har), we drop the terms which obviously cancel. I will also
consolidate a few things. Continuing,
S =
3
2
k
B
_
N
1
_
2
3
log
_
V
V
1
_
+ log
_
T
T
1
__
+N
2
_
2
3
log
_
V
V
2
_
+ log
_
T
T
2
___
(3.1.38)
Jostling things about a bit, (3.1.38) becomes
S = k
B
N
1
_
log
_
V
1
+ V
2
V
1
_
+ log
_
T
T
1
_3
/2
_
+ k
B
N
2
_
log
_
V
1
+ V
2
V
2
_
+ log
_
T
T
2
_3
/2
_
(3.1.39)
The contribution of entropy in (3.1.39) most certainly depends on whether the gases are distinguishable
or indistinguishable. This is the setup for Gibbs Paradox. The general idea is that if the particles in
both systems are distinguishable, then after equilibrium is reached, the gas particles may be separated
back into their original compartments, assuming that we can reinsert the partition quickly enough. This
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #1
would correspond to a reversible process, where we know that the change in entropy, or the entropy of
mixing, must be zero.
If the particles are indistinguishable, then there is no hope of separating them, and so we have an
irreversible process, and the entropy must increase.
Problem 1.16
Establish thermodynamically the formulae
V
_
P
T
_

=S (3.1.40a)
V
_
P

_
T
=N (3.1.40b)
Express the pressure P of an ideal classical gas in terms of the variables and T, and verify the above formulae.
Solution
We rst recall that within the framework of the Grand Canonical Ensemble, where particle exchange is
allowed, we can dene the following thermodynamic potential:
= F dN d = SdT Nd PdV (3.1.41)
Where we must recognize that this new thermodynamic potential is not the same as the multiplicity.
For our case, (3.1.40a) becomes
d = SdT
..
= 0
Nd
. .
= 0
PdV = PdV (3.1.42)
Where, following the example of other thermodynamic potentials, we may deduce that
S =
_

T
_

(3.1.43a)
N =
_

_
T
(3.1.43b)
Substituting (3.1.42) into (3.1.43a) and (3.1.43b) yields
S =
_
(PV )
T
_

S = V
_
P
T
_

(3.1.44a)
N =
_
(PV )

_
T
N = V
_
P

_
T
(3.1.44b)
Where we can see that (3.1.44a) is the same as (3.1.40a), while (3.1.44b) is identical to (3.1.40b).
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 235
We now recall that the Gibbs Sum, which is sort of like the partition function for the Grand Canonical
Ensemble, is given by
(, T) =

N=0

s(N)
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.1.45)
While the pressure is
P =
k
B
T
V
log [(, T)] (3.1.46)
Substituting (3.1.45) into (3.1.46), and then plugging the results in to (3.1.40a) and (3.1.40b) in turn
causes the terms to collapse, which is readily seen qualitatively.
3.2 Homework #2
Problem 1
In this problem, you will nd an expression for entropy in terms of the canonical distribution function
s
=
e
Es
Z
where the partition function Z is given by Z =

s
e
Es/kBT
.
Solution
We rst recall that the entropy is dened in terms of the free energy as:
S =
_
F
T
_
V,N
(3.2.1)
While the free energy is given by
F = k
B
T log [Z] (3.2.2)
Substituting (3.2.2) into (3.2.1), we have:
S =

T
k
B
T log [Z] (3.2.3)
And since Z of course depends on T, we carry the partial derivative out as:
S =k
B
log [Z] +k
B
T
_

T
log [Z]
_
=k
B
log [Z] +k
B
T
1
Z
_
Z
T
_
(3.2.4)
The bracketed term in (3.2.4) becomes:
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
Z
T
=

T

s
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
_
=
1
k
B
T
2

s
E
s
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
_
(3.2.5)
Substituting (3.2.5) back into (3.2.4) yields
S =k
B
log [Z] +k
B
T
1
Z
_
1
k
B
T
2

s
E
s
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
_
_
=k
B
_
log [Z] +
1
k
B
T

s
E
s
1
Z
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
_
. .
s
_
=k
B
_
log [Z] +
1
k
B
T

s
E
s

s
_
= k
B
_
log [Z] +

s
_

E
s
k
B
T
__
= k
B
_
log [Z] +

s
log
_
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
__ _
= k
B
_

s
log
_
1
Z
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
_
. .
s
__
(3.2.6)
At this point, we can trivially rewrite (3.2.6) as:
S = k
B
_

s
log [
s
]
_
Problem 2
The expression S = k
B

r
P
r
log P
r
is accepted as the general denition of the entropy of a system. Now
imagine that a system A
1
has probability P
(1)
r
of being found in a state r and a system A
2
has probability P
(2)
s
of
being found in a state s. Then one has
S
1
= k
B

r
P
(1)
r
log P
(1)
r
S
2
= k
B

s
P
(2)
s
log P
(2)
s
Each state of the composite system A consisting of A
1
and A
2
can then be labeled by the pair of numbers r, s.
Let the probability of A being found in this state be denoted by P
rs
. Then its entropy is dened as
S = k
B

s
P
rs
log P
rs
(3.2.7)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 237
All the probabilities are normalized so that

r
P
(1)
r
=1

s
P
(2)
s
=1

s
P
rs
=1
a) If A
1
and A
2
are weakly interacting so that they are statistically independent, then P
rs
= P
(1)
r P
(2)
s . Show
that under these circumstances the entropy is additive, i.e. S = S
1
+S
2
.
b) If A
1
and A
2
are not weakly interacting P
rs
,= P
(1)
r P
(2)
s , but the general solutions still hold:
P
(1)
r
=

s
P
rs
P
(2)
s
=

r
P
rs
Show that
S (S
1
+S
2
) = k
B

r,s
P
rs
log
_
P
(1)
r
P
(2)
s
P
rs
_
(3.2.8)
and use the inequality log x (x 1) to show that S (S
1
+ S
2
). This means that the existence of
correlations between the systems, due to the interactions between them, leads to a situation less random than
that where the systems are completely independent of each other.
Solution
a) Applying our assumption to (3.2.7), we have:
S = k
B

s
P
r
P
s
log [P
r
P
s
]
= k
B

s
P
r
P
s
log [P
r
] + log [P
s
]
= k
B

s
P
r
P
s
log [P
r
] +P
r
P
s
log [P
s
]
= k
B
_

s
P
r
P
s
log [P
r
] +

s
P
r
P
s
log [P
s
]
_
= k
B
_

s
P
s

r
P
r
log [P
r
] +

r
P
r

s
P
s
log [P
s
]
_
(3.2.9)
We recall from the previous problem that S = k
B

i
log [
i
], and applying this to (3.2.9) leads
us to:
S = k
B
_

s
P
s
_

S
1
k
B
_
+

r
P
r
_

S
2
k
B
_
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
=S
1

s
P
s
+S
2

r
P
r
(3.2.10)
Applying the fact that the probabilities are normalized, (3.2.10) leads us to
S = S
1
+S
2
b) In order to show (3.2.8), we begin by evaluating the LHS with our previous denitions of the
respective entropies:
S (S
1
+S
2
) = k
B

s
P
rs
log P
rs

_
k
B

r
P
r
log P
r
k
B

s
P
s
log P
s
_
=k
B
_

s
P
rs
log P
rs
+

r
P
r
log P
r
+

s
P
s
log P
s
_
(3.2.11)
We can expand (3.2.11) given the provided summation identities:
S (S
1
+ S
2
) =k
B
_

s
P
rs
log P
rs
+

s
P
rs
log P
r
+

r
P
rs
log P
s
_
=k
B
_

s
P
rs
log P
rs
+ P
rs
log P
r
+ P
rs
log P
s

_
=k
B
_

s
P
rs
log P
rs
+ log P
r
+ log P
s

_
(3.2.12)
It is easy to see that (3.2.12) may be readily rewritten as:
S (S
1
+S
2
) = k
B

s
P
rs
log
_
P
r
P
s
P
rs
_
(3.2.13)
Problem 3.13
a) Evaluate the partition function and the major thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas consisting of N
1
molecules of mass m
1
and N
2
molecules of mass m
2
, conned to a space of volume V at temperature
T. Assume that the molecules of a given kind are mutually indistinguishable, while those of one kind are
distinguishable from those of the other kind.
b) Compare your results with the ones pertaining to an ideal gas consisting of (N
1
+N
2
) molecules, all of one
kind, of mass m, such that m(N
1
+N
2
) = m
1
N
1
+ m
2
N
2
.
Solution
a) We know that the volume and temperature of the system are held constant, and the system consists
of two unique gases, each distinguishable from the other type, but indistinguishable from its own
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 239
type. Since the two gases are independent of one another, this lends the idea that the partition
function may be expressed as the product of two distinct partition functions:
Q(N
1
, N
2
, V, T) = Q(N
1
, V, T) Q(N
2
, V, T) (3.2.14)
Where we recall that
Q(N, V, T) =
1
N!h
3N
_
__
exp
_

N
i
E
i
k
B
T
_
dp
3N
dq
3N
_
N
(3.2.15)
Where the subscript N has been suppressed. Assuming that there is no interaction between the
particles, then there is no potential energy term to the Hamiltonian, and the energy is due to the
kinetic energy alone. Accordingly, (3.2.15) becomes:
Q(N, V, T) =
1
N!h
3
_
V
_

exp
_

p
2
2mk
B
T
_
dp
3N
_
N
=
1
N!h
3
_
V [2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
N
(3.2.16)
Applying the general prescription from (3.2.16) to (3.2.14) yields
Q(N
1
, N
2
, V, T) =
1
N
1
!h
3
_
V [2m
1
k
B
T]
3
/2
_
N1

1
N
2
!h
3
_
V [2m
2
k
B
T]
3
/2
_
N2
(3.2.17)
We start by nding the major thermodynamic properties by nding the Helmholtz Free Energy:
F = k
B
T log [Q(N
1
, N
2
, V, T)]
= k
B
T log
_
1
N
1
!h
3
_
V [2m
1
k
B
T]
3
/2
_
N1

1
N
2
!h
3
_
V [2m
2
k
B
T]
3
/2
_
N2
_
(3.2.18)
One major property is the pressure, which can be found by dierentiating the free energy with
respect to V :
P =
_
F
V
_
T,N
=

V
log
_
(...)V
N1

+

V
log
_
(...)V
N2

=N
1

V
log [V ] + N
2

V
log [V ]
Carrying out this simple dierentiation, we are left with
P =
N
1
+N
2
V
Another important thermodynamic property is the internal energy, which is easy enough to nd:
U =

log [Q(N
1
, N
2
, V, T)]
=

log
_
_
1
N
1
!h
3
_
V
_
2m
1

_3
/2
_
N1

1
N
2
!h
3
_
V
_
2m
2

_3
/2
_
N2
_
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
= N
1

log
_
(...)
1

3
/2
_
N
2

log
_
(...)
1

3
/2
_
=
3N
1
2

log
_
(...)
1

3N
2
2

log
_
(...)
1

_
(3.2.19)
From (3.2.19) we can gather
U =
3
2
k
B
T (N
1
+ N
2
)
We can also calculate the entropy from (3.2.18) as
S =
_
F
T
_
N,V
=

T
_
k
B
T log
_
1
N
1
!h
3
_
V [2m
1
k
B
T]
3
/2
_
N1

1
N
2
!h
3
_
V [2m
2
k
B
T]
3
/2
_
N2
__
(3.2.20)
Dierentiating (3.2.20) leads us to
S = k
B
_
log
_
1
N
1
!h
3
_
V [2m
1
k
B
T]
3
/2
_
N1

1
N
2
!h
3
_
V [2m
2
k
B
T]
3
/2
_
N2
__
+
3
2T
(N
1
+ N
2
)
b) If the gas is no longer a mixture of two unique species, then the partition function becomes
Q(N
1
, N
2
, V, T) =
1
N
1
!N
2
!h
6
_
V [2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
N1+N2
The pressure and internal energy remain unchanged, while the entropy becomes:
S = k
B
_
log
_
1
N
1
!N
2
!h
6
_
V [2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
N1+N2
__
+
3
2T
(N
1
+ N
2
)
Problem 3.15
Show that the partition function Q
N
(V, T) of an extreme relativistic gas consisting of N monatomic molecules
with energy-momentum relationship E = pc, c being the speed of light, is given by
Q
N
(V, T) =
1
N!
_
8V
_
k
B
T
hc
_
3
_
N
(3.2.21)
Study the thermodynamics of this system, checking in particular that
PV =
1
3
U, U/N = 3k
B
and =
4
3
Next, using the inversion formula (3.4.7), derive an expression for the density of states g(E) of this system.
Solution
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 241
We rst recall that the partition function can be expressed as:
Q
N
(V, T) =
1
N!h
3N
_
__
exp
_

N
i
E
i
k
B
T
_
dp
3N
dq
3N
_
N
(3.2.22)
Assuming that our relativistic gas is in 3-D, then (3.2.22) becomes:
Q
N
(V, T) =
1
N!h
3
_
__
exp
_

N
i
p
i
c
k
B
T
_
d
3
p d
3
q
_
N
=
1
N!h
3
_
V
_
exp
_

N
i
p
i
c
k
B
T
_
d
3
p
_
N
=
1
N!h
3
_
V
___
exp
_

pc
k
B
T
_
p
2
sin dp d d
_
N
=
1
N!h
3
_
4V
_

0
p
2
exp
_

pc
k
B
T
_
dp
_
N
=
1
N!h
3
_
4V 2
_
k
B
T
c
_
3
_
N
(3.2.23)
Rearranging (3.2.23) somewhat, we are left with:
Q
N
(V, T) =
1
N!
_
8V
_
k
B
T
hc
_
3
_
N
Which is the same as (3.2.21). We now recall that the internal energy is given by:
E =

log [Q
N
] (3.2.24)
Substituting (3.2.21) into (3.2.24), we have:
E =

log
_
_
1
N!
_
8V
_
k
B
T
hc
_
3
_
N
_
_
= N

log
_
_
1
N!
_1
/N
8V
_
1
hc
_
3
_
= 3N

log
_
_
1
N!
_1
/3N
8V
_
1
hc
_
_
= 3N
_

_
(3.2.25)
From (3.2.25) it is easy to see that:
E
N
= 3k
B
T (3.2.26)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
We now recall that the free energy is given by:
F = k
B
T log [Q
N
] (3.2.27)
Substituting (3.2.21) into (3.2.27), we have:
F = k
B
T log
_
_
1
N!
_
8V
_
k
B
T
hc
_
3
_
N
_
_
= Nk
B
T log
_
_
1
N!
_1
/N
8V
_
k
B
T
hc
_
3
_
(3.2.28)
We innocently recall that the pressure is dened in terms of the free energy as:
P =
_
F
V
_
T,N
(3.2.29)
And so, putting (3.2.28) into (3.2.29):
P =

V
_
Nk
B
T log
_
_
1
N!
_1
/N
8V
_
k
B
T
hc
_
3
__
=Nk
B
T

V
log
_
_
1
N!
_1
/N
8V
_
k
B
T
hc
_
3
_
=
Nk
B
T
V
(3.2.30)
We can now manipulate (3.2.26), such that:
Nk
B
T =
E
3
(3.2.31)
And now substituting (3.2.31) into (3.2.30),
P =
E
3

1
V
PV =
E
3
(3.2.32)
We now recall that the specic heat at constant volume is dened by:
C
V
=
_
E
T
_
V
(3.2.33)
And substituting (3.2.26) into (3.2.33), we are left with:
C
V
=

T
3Nk
B
T C
V
= 3Nk
B
(3.2.34)
While the specic heat at constant pressure is given from (1.3.18) as:
C
P
=
_
(E + PV )
T
_
N,P
(3.2.35)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 243
Evaluating the internal energy in terms of PV from (3.2.32) and substituting into (3.2.36):
C
P
=
(3PV + PV )
T
=4

T
PV (3.2.36)
Recalling the from the ideal gas law that PV = Nk
B
T, (3.2.36) becomes:
C
P
= 4

T
Nk
B
T C
P
= 4Nk
B
(3.2.37)
Using (3.2.34) and (3.2.37), we can now nd :
=
C
P
C
V

4Nk
B
T
3Nk
B
T
=
4
3
(3.2.38)
Problem 3.22
The restoring force of an anharmonic oscillator is proportional to the cube of the displacement. Show that
the mean kinetic energy of the oscillator is twice its mean potential energy.
Solution
We begin our journey by recalling that the average of some quantity x) can be found from the corre-
sponding distribution function f(x) according to:
x) =
_
x f(x) dx (3.2.39)
Now, in order to nd the mean kinetic energy, we recall that in general, the 1-D kinetic energy is given
by:
T =
1
/
2
mv
2
(3.2.40)
So, the mean value of the kinetic energy is then:
T) =
1
/
2
mv
2
) (3.2.41)
We can now nd v
2
) from (3.2.41) by use of (3.2.39), recalling that the distribution function in this
case is none other than the Maxwell-Boltzmann Velocity Distribution:
f(v) =
_
m
2k
B
T
exp
_

mv
2
2k
B
T
_
(3.2.42)
Using (3.2.42), v
2
) becomes:
v
2
) =
_

v
2
f(v) dv
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
=
_
m
2k
B
T
_

v
2
exp
_

mv
2
2k
B
T
_
dv (3.2.43)
At this point, we recall that integrals in the form of (3.2.43) can be evaluated as:
_

x
2
exp
_
ax
2

dx =

2a
3
/2
Applying this to (3.2.43), we have:
v
2
) =
_
m
2k
B
T

2

_
2k
B
T
m
_3
/2
=
k
B
T
m
(3.2.44)
Substituting (3.2.44) back into (3.2.41):
T) =
m
2

k
B
T
m

k
B
T
2
(3.2.45)
We now recall that according to Boltzmann statistics, the mean energy is given by:
E) =
1
Z

s
E
s
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
_
(3.2.46)
And now, remembering the relationship between force and potential energy:
F(x) =
V (x)
x
(3.2.47)
We are also told that the restoring force is proportional to the cube of the displacement, so:
F(x) Cx
3
(3.2.48)
Where C is some constant. Accordingly, substituting (3.2.48) into (3.2.47), we have:
V (x) Cx
4
(3.2.49)
Using Boltzmann statistics according to (3.2.46), we nd that the mean potential energy is then given
by:
V ) =
1
Z

V (x) exp
_

V (x)
k
B
T
_
(3.2.50)
Converting the sum in (3.2.50) into an integral,
V ) =
1
Z
_

V (x) exp
_

V (x)
k
B
T
_
dx
=
1
Z
_

Cx
4
exp
_

Cx
4
k
B
T
_
dx
=
1
Z

_
5
/
4
_
2

_
k
B
T
C
_5
/4
(3.2.51)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 245
We now wish to evaluate the partition function Z:
Z =
_

exp
_

Cx
4
k
B
T
_
dx
=2
_
5
/
4
_

_
k
B
T
C
_1
/4
(3.2.52)
Substituting (3.2.52) back into (3.2.51),
V ) =
1
2

1
(
5
/
4
)

_
C
k
B
T
_1
/4

_
5
/
4
_
2

_
k
B
T
C
_5
/4
=
k
B
T
4
(3.2.53)
So, in summary, from (3.2.45) and (3.2.53), we have:
T) =
k
B
T
2
, V ) =
k
B
T
4
2T) = V )
Problem 3.42
Consider the system of N magnetic dipoles, studied in 3.10, in the microcanonical ensemble. Enumerate the
number of microstates, (N, E), accessible to the system at energy E, and evaluate the quantities S(N, E) and
T(N, E). Compare your results with (3.10.8) and (3.10.9).
Solution
Within the framework of the microcanonoical ensemble, we note that the energy in the system is xed
and therefore conserved. If we assume that our magnetic dipoles can have only one of two unique states
(i.e. aligned or anti-aligned), then the total number of dipoles N can be expressed in terms of the
individual components as:
N = N

+ N

(3.2.54)
It will also be useful to dene:
n = N

(3.2.55)
We can solve (3.2.54) and (3.2.55) giving expressions in terms of the number in each state:
N

=
N + n
2
(3.2.56a)
N

=
N n
2
(3.2.56b)
Using (3.2.56a) and (3.2.56b), we can enumerate the number of microstates as:
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #2
(N, E) =
N!
N

!N

!
(N, E) =
N!
[(N +n)/2]! [(N n)/2]!
(3.2.57)
We could take the natural log of both sides of (3.2.57),
log [(N, E)] =log
_
N!
_
N+n
2
_
!
_
Nn
2
_
!
_
=log [N!] log
__
N +n
2
_
!
_
log
__
N n
2
_
!
_
(3.2.58)
We can also apply Stirlings Approximation to each of the three terms in (3.2.58). The rst terms is
log [N!] = N log [N] N (3.2.59)
The second term can now be expressed as
log
__
N +n
2
_
!
_
=
_
N +n
2
_
log
__
N +n
2
__

_
N +n
2
_
=
1
2
_
(N + n) log
__
N +n
2
__
N n
_
=
1
2
_
N log
__
N +n
2
__
+nlog
__
N + n
2
__
N n
_
(3.2.60)
While the third is
log
__
N n
2
_
!
_
=
_
N n
2
_
log
__
N n
2
__

_
N n
2
_
=
1
2
_
(N n) log
__
N n
2
__
N + n
_
=
1
2
_
N log
__
N n
2
__
nlog
__
N n
2
__
N +n
_
(3.2.61)
Substituting (3.2.59)-(3.2.61) into (3.2.58), we have
log [(N, E)] =N log [2] + N log [N]
_
N n
2
_
log [N n]
_
N +n
2
_
log [N +n] (3.2.62)
To nd S(N, E), we rst recall that S = k
B
log [], and also that (3.2.62) is in a convienent form:
S(N, E) = k
B
_
N log [2] + N log [N]
_
N n
2
_
log [N n]
_
N + n
2
_
log [N + n]
_
(3.2.63)
We now recall the thermodynamic identity
dU = TdS Pdv (3.2.64)
At constant volume, (3.2.64) becomes
dU = TdS
dS
dU
=
1
T
(3.2.65)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 247
Applying the chain rule to (3.2.65),
dS
dU
=
dS
dU

dU
dn

dn
dU

dS
dn

dn
dU
=
1
T
Also recalling that in our case
dU = E dn
dn
dE
=
1
E
Substituting this back into the chain rule, we have
dS
dn

1
E
=
1
T

dS
dn
=
E
T
(3.2.66)
Where we recall that E =
B
H. Substituting (3.2.63) into (3.2.66),

B
H
T
=k
B
d
dn
_
N log [2] + N log [N]
_
N n
2
_
log [N n]
_
N +n
2
_
log [N +n]
_
=
k
B
2
log
_
N n
N + n
_
(3.2.67)
It is easy to see that (3.2.67) can be solved, yielding
T (N, E) =
2
B
H
k
B
log
_
N +n
N n
_
3.3 Homework #3
Problem 1
Consider a system of N non-interacting spins of angular momentum J in the presence of an external eld H.
The energy levels for each spin are g
B
Hm

, where m

= J, J + 1, ..., J.
a) Compute the partition function for this system (evaluate all sums)
b) Compute the average magnetic moment for this system
c) Compare your results to the J =
1
/
2
example from lecture and the J = classical case (take the limit J
and g 0 such that
B
gJ retains the constant value
0
)
d) Evaluate the Curie constant for the generic spin J case
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
a) The single-particle canonical partition function is dened by
Q
1

i
exp
_

E
i
k
B
T
_
(3.3.1)
In our case, the energy is due to the interaction between the spins and the magnetic eld, whose
relationship was given in the prompt. Accordingly, (3.3.1) becomes
Q
1
=
m=+J

m=J
exp
_

g
B
Hm

k
B
T
_
(3.3.2)
At this point, we dene the following quantity:
x =
g
B
H
k
B
T
Rewriting (3.3.2) in terms of x and expanding the sum,
Q
1
=
m=+J

m=J
e
xm
=e
x(J)
+e
x(J+1)
+e
x(J+2)
+ ... +e
x(J2)
+ e
x(J1)
+e
xJ
=e
xj
+ e
(J1)x
+e
(J2)x
+ ... + e
(J2)x
+e
(J1)x
+ e
xJ
=e
xJ
_
e
2xJ
+ e
(2J1)x
+ e
(2J2)x
+ ... +e
2x
+ e
x
+ 1
_
=e
xJ
_
1 + e
x
+e
2x
+ ... +e
(2J2)x
+e
(2J1)x
+e
2xJ
_
=e
xJ
_
1 + e
x
+e
2x
+ ... +e
2(J1)x
+e
2(J
1
/2)x
+ e
2xJ
_
(3.3.3)
Taking a slight detour, we recall that we can express a nite sum in terms of two innite sums like
1 + y +y
2
+ y
3
+ ... +y
x
=
_
1 +y + y
2
+ y
3
+...
_

_
y
x+1
+ y
x+2
+...
_
=
_
1 +y + y
2
+ y
3
+...
_
y
x+1
_
1 + y +y
2
+y
3
+ ...
_
=
_
1 +y + y
2
+ y
3
+...
_ _
1 y
x+1
_
(3.3.4)
We can simplify this further by recalling that
_
1 +y +y
2
+y
3
+...
_
=

y
1
1 y
(3.3.5)
Using (3.3.5), we can now rewrite (3.3.4) as
1 +y +y
2
+y
3
+... + y
x
=
1 y
x+1
1 y
(3.3.6)
Confusingly, we recognize that in the notation of (3.3.6), we let y e
x
, and x 2J. Accordingly,
(3.3.3) becomes
Q
1
=e
xJ
_
1 e
(2J+1)x
1 e
x
_
=
e
xJ
e
(J+1)x
1 e
x
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 249
=
e
xJ
e
(J+1)x
1 e
x

e
x
/2
e
x
/2
=
e
xJ
x
/2
e
(J+1)x
x
/2
e
x
/2
e
x
x
/2
=
e
(J+
1
/2)x
e
(J+
1
/2)x
e

x
/2
e
x
/2
=
e
(J+
1
/2)x
e
(J+
1
/2)x
e
x
/2
e

x
/2
=
e
(J+
1
/2)x
e
(J+
1
/2)x
1

1
e
x
/2
e

x
/2
(3.3.7)
Recalling that 2 sinh (x) = e
x
e
x
, (3.3.7) becomes
Q
1
=
sinh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

sinh [
x
/
2
]
(3.3.8)
b) To nd the average magnetic moment, we rst recall that the relationship between the magnetization
(M) and the magnetic moment () is ?
M =
N
V

Such that the mean magnetic moment can now be dened in terms of the mean magnetization as
M) = N) (3.3.9)
We also recall that the magnetization is dened in terms of the free energy as
M) =
_
F
H
_
T
(3.3.10)
Where the free energy is of course
F = k
B
T log [Q
N
] (3.3.11)
Recalling that for distinguishable, non-interacting particles the full partition function is dened in
terms of the single-particle partition function as Q
N
= Q
N
1
. Keeping this in mind, and substituting
(3.3.11) into (3.3.10),
M) = k
B
T

H
log
_
Q
N
1

M) = Nk
B
T
1
Q
1
Q
1
H
(3.3.12)
It will be much easier to evaluate (3.3.12) if we convert the partial derivative of Q with respect to
H into the product of two other partial derivatives using the chain rule:
M) = Nk
B
T
1
Q
1
Q
1
H
x
Q
1
Q
1
x
M) = k
B
T
1
Q
1
x
H
Q
1
x
(3.3.13)
We can solve the rst partial derivative in (3.3.13) by recalling how we originally dened x:
x
H
=

H
_
g
B
H
k
B
T
_

g
B
k
B
T
(3.3.14)
We can also solve the second partial derivative in (3.3.13) by use of (3.3.8),
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
Q
1
x
=

x
_
sinh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
=sinh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x


x
_
1
sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
+
1
sinh [
x
/
2
]

x
_
sinh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

=sinh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

1
2
coth [
x
/
2
]
sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
+
1
sinh [
x
/
2
]
__
J +
1
/
2
_
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

=
1
2

sinh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

sinh [
x
/
2
]
coth [
x
/
2
] +
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
J +
1
/
2
_
=
Q
2
coth [
x
/
2
] +
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
J +
1
/
2
_
=
Q
2

cosh [
x
/
2
]
sinh [
x
/
2
]
+
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
J +
1
/
2
_
=
1
sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x
_
J +
1
/
2
_

Q
2
cosh [
x
/
2
]
_
(3.3.15)
Substituting (3.3.14) and (3.3.15) back into (3.3.13), we have
M) =Nk
B
T
1
Q
1
_
g
B
k
B
T
__
1
sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x
_
J +
1
/
2
_

Q
2
cosh [
x
/
2
]
__
=N
g
B
sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
1
Q
1
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x
_
J +
1
/
2
_

1
2
cosh [
x
/
2
]
_
=N
g
B
sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
sinh [
x
/
2
]
sinh [(J +
1
/
2
) x]
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x
_
J +
1
/
2
_

1
2
cosh [
x
/
2
]
_
=Ng
B
_
cosh
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x

sinh [(J +
1
/
2
) x]
_
J +
1
/
2
_

1
2
cosh [
x
/
2
]
sinh [
x
/
2
]
_
=Ng
B
_
coth
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x
_
J +
1
/
2
_

1
2
coth [
x
/
2
]
_
(3.3.16)
Applying (3.3.16) to (3.3.9), we can say that the mean magnetic moment is
) =
M)
N
) = g
B
_
coth
__
J +
1
/
2
_
x
_
J +
1
/
2
_

1
2
coth [
x
/
2
]
_
(3.3.17)
c) From lecture, in the case of J =
1
/
2
, we came to the conclusion that
) =
B
tanh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
(3.3.18)
Whereas in the classical case, we came to the conclusion that
) =

2
B
H
3k
B
T
(3.3.19)
We can take the limit of (3.3.18) as J easily if we recall that coth[] 1,
) = g
B
_
_
J +
1
/
2
_

1
2
_
) = g
B
J (3.3.20)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 251
Figure 3.3: Plot of ) for small J Figure 3.4: Plot of ) for large J
We can verify (3.3.20) graphically if we plot ) from (3.3.17) against both x and J. We see from
Fig. (3.3) that the dependence of ) for small values of J is not clear, however if we plot the same
thing for very large values of J, as in Fig. (3.4) it is easy to see that ) carries a linear dependence
on J, and seems to be independent of x, thus verifying (3.3.20).
d) In order to nd Curies Constant, we rst recall that Curies Law is valid only under conditions of
low magnetization (
B
T k
B
T), and does not apply in the high-eld/low-temperature regime. ?
We recall that x is directly proportional to H, while inversely proportional to T. Therefore, we can
expand the coth[x] terms in (3.3.17) as:
coth[ax]
1
ax
+
ax
3

(ax)
3
45
+
2 (ax)
5
945
...
Taking only the rst two terms in this expansion and plugging in to (3.3.17),
) g
B
__
1
(J +
1
/
2
) x
+
_
J +
1
/
2
_
x
3
_
_
J +
1
/
2
_

1
2
_
2
x
+
x
6
_
_
g
B
__
1
x
+
_
J +
1
/
2
_
2
x
3
_

_
1
x
+
x
12
_
_
g
B
_
_
J
2
+J +
1
/
4
_
x
3

x
12
_
g
B
_
_
J
2
+J
_
x
3
+
x
12

x
12
_

g
B
3
J (J + 1) x (3.3.21)
Recalling how we chose to dene x at the beginning of the problem, (3.3.21) becomes
)
g
B
3
J (J + 1)
g
B
H
k
B
T
)
g
2

2
B
H
3k
B
T
J (J + 1) (3.3.22)
Curies Constant is dened by
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
M =
C
T
H C = M
T
H
(3.3.23)
Where C is Curies Constant. Recalling that M = N, and using (3.3.22), we can nd Curies
Constant from (3.3.23) as
C =
Ng
2

2
B
3k
B
J (J + 1)
Problem 2
Consider a liquid in equilibrium (both thermal and diusive) with its vapor (treated as an ideal gas). For the
liquid, we will apply the following crude model: we treat the liquids as if the molecules still formed a gas of
molecules moving independently, but with the following considerations. 1) each molecule is assumed to have a
constant potential energy due to its interaction with the other molecules, and 2) each molecule is assumed
free to move throughout a total volume N

v
0
, where v
0
is the average volume available per molecule in the liquid
phase.
a) With these assumptions, write down the partition function for a liquid consisting of N

molecules.
b) Now set the chemical potential of the liquid equal to the chemical potential of the vapor phase and nd an
expression for the vapor pressure in terms of the temperature and other constants like v
0
and .
Solution
a) We begin our journey by recalling that the partition function can be expressed in integral form as
Q
N
(N, V, T) =
1
N!h
3N
_
__
exp
_

N
i
H
i
k
B
T
_
dp
3N
dq
3N
_
N
(3.3.24)
The Hamiltonian, H, in our case is a combination of the kinetic energy term, and the potential energy
, which is one of our assumptions in dening our crude model for the liquid. The Hamiltonian is
then given by
H =

i
T
i
+ V
i

N

i
_
p
2
i
2m

_
(3.3.25)
Substituting (3.3.25) into (3.3.24),
Q
()
N
(N, V, T) =
1
N!h
3N
_
__
exp
_

N
i
_
p
2
i
/2m
_
k
B
T
_
dp
3
dq
3
_
N
=
1
N!h
3N
___
exp
_

p
2
2mk
B
T
+

k
B
T
_
dp
3
dq
3
_
N
=
1
N!h
3N
_
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
exp
_

p
2
2mk
B
T
_
dp
3
_
dq
3
_
N
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 253
=
1
N!h
3N
_
V exp
_

k
B
T
___

exp
_

p
2
2mk
B
T
_
dp
_
3
_
N
=
1
N!h
3N
_
V exp
_

k
B
T
_
_
_
2mk
B
T
_
3
_
N
=
1
N!
_
V exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
N
(3.3.26)
Recalling that the total volume, V , is related to the average volume per molecule, v
0
, through the
number of molecules N
()
, as V = N
()
v
0
, and so (3.3.26) becomes
Q
()
N
(N, V, T) =
1
N!
_
N
()
v
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
N
(3.3.27)
b) The chemical potential is given by:

_
F
N
_
V,T

_
k
B
T log [Q]
N
_
V,T
(3.3.28)
So, lets nd the chemical potential of the liquid rst. Substituting (3.3.27) into (3.3.28),

()
= k
B
T
log
_
Q
()
N
_
N
= k
B
T

N
log
_
_
1
N!
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
__
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
N
_
_
= k
B
T

N
_
_
_
log
_
_
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
N
_
_
log [N!]
_
_
_
= k
B
T

N
_
N log
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
__
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
log [N!]
_
= k
B
T
_

N
_
N log
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
__
. .
I


N
log [N!]
. .
II
_
(3.3.29)
We rst evaluate I from (3.3.29):
I =

N
_
N log
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
__
=log
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_

N
[N] + N

N
_
log
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
__
=log
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
+ 1 (3.3.30)
We now carry out the remaining partial derivative in (3.3.29), employing Stirlings approximation:
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
II =

N
log [N!]
=

N
N log [N] N
=log [N]

N
N +N

N
log [N]

N
N
=log [N] + 1 1
=log [N] (3.3.31)
Substituting (3.3.30) and (3.3.31) back into (3.3.29),

()
= k
B
T
_
log
_
Nv
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
+ 1 log [N]
_
= k
B
T
_
log
_
v
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
+ 1
_
= k
B
T
_
log
_
v
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
+ log [exp [1]]
_
= k
B
T
_
log
_
v
0
exp
_

k
B
T
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
exp [1]
__
= k
B
T log
_
v
0
exp
_

k
B
T
+ 1
__
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
(3.3.32)
In order to nd the chemical potential of the gas, we can simply rewrite (3.3.32), where in the new
case 0, and we also recall that v
0
= V/N:

(g)
= k
B
T log
_
V
N
_
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
(3.3.33)
Recalling that our gas is in fact an ideal gas, we notice that we can manipulate the ideal gas law as
PV = Nk
B
T
V
N
=
k
B
T
P
(3.3.34)
Substituting (3.3.34) back into (3.3.33),

(g)
= k
B
T log
_
k
B
T
P
_
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
(3.3.35)
And now, to nd the vapor pressure at thermal and diusive equilibrium, we set
()
=
(g)
, and
from (3.3.32) and (3.3.35) we have
k
B
T log
_
v
0
exp
_

k
B
T
+ 1
__
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
= k
B
T log
_
k
B
T
P
_
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
v
0
exp
_

k
B
T
+ 1
_ _
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
=
k
B
T
P
_
2mk
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
v
0
exp
_

k
B
T
+ 1
_
=
k
B
T
P
(3.3.36)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 255
We see that (3.3.36) may be trivially solved for P, yielding
P =
k
B
T
v
0
exp
_

_

k
B
T
+ 1
__
Problem 3
A zipper has N links, each link has a state in which it is closed with energy 0 and a state in which it is open with
energy . We require that the zipper only unzip from the left end, and that the link number s can only open if all
the links to the left(1, s, ..., s 1) are already open.
a) Show that the partition function can be summed in the form:
Q
N
=
1 e
(N+1)
1 e

(3.3.37)
b) Find an expression for the average number of open links at some temperature T.
Solution
a) The standard form of the single-particle partition function is
Q
1
=

s=0
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
_
(3.3.38)
Because the particles are distinguishable, then we can gain the full partition from (3.3.38) quite
easily
Q
s
=

s=0
exp
_

E
s
k
B
T
_
s
(3.3.39)
We now take a eld trip. Lets take a close look at the following series:
N

s=0
x
s
= 1 +x + x
2
+ x
3
+ ... +x
N
(3.3.40)
We now multiply both sides of (3.3.40) by x. This looks like
x
N

s=0
x
s
= x + x
2
+ x
3
+ x
4
+ ... +x
N+1
(3.3.41)
We now take (3.3.40) and subtract from it (3.3.41). This yields
(1 x)
N

s=0
x
s
= 1 x
N+1
(3.3.42)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
If we were to rearrange (3.3.42), then it would look like
N

s=0
x
s
=
1 x
N+1
1 x
(3.3.43)
Noticing that this is the exact sum is what we need in order to evaluate (3.3.39)!
Q
s
=
1 exp [(N + 1) E]
1 exp [E]
(3.3.44)
b) In general, the way to nd the average number of open links, we use the form
s) =
1
Q
s
N

s=0
s exp[sE] (3.3.45)
Now, notice that we can arrive at (3.3.45) if we are very tricky and take a derivative of the following
form:
s) =
1
Q
s

(E)
N

s=0
exp [sE]
. .
Q
s
(3.3.46)
Rewriting (3.3.46) once more,
s) =
1
Q
s

x
Q
s
(3.3.47)
Where I have made the temporary substitution x = E for convenience. Carrying out the rst
derivative in (3.3.47),

x
Q
s
=

x
_
1 exp [(N + 1) x]
1 exp [x]
_
=
1
1 exp [x]
_

x
[1 exp [(N + 1) x]]
_
+ [1 exp [(N + 1) x]]
_

x
1
1 exp [x]
_
=
1
1 exp [x]
[(N + 1) exp [(N + 1)x]] [1 exp [(N + 1)x]]
_
exp [x]
(1 exp [x])
2
_
=(N + 1)
exp [(N + 1)x]
1 exp [x]
exp [x]
_
1 exp [(N + 1)x]
(1 exp [x])
2
_
=(N + 1)
exp [(N + 1)x]
1 exp [x]

exp [x]
(1 exp [x])
2
+
exp [x] exp [(N + 1)x]
(1 exp [x])
2
=(N + 1)
exp [(N + 1)x]
1 exp [x]

1
1 exp [x]
_

exp [x]
1 exp [x]
+
exp [(N + 1)x] exp [x]
1 exp [x]
_
=
1
1 exp [x]
_
(N + 1) exp [(N + 1)x]
exp [x]
1 exp [x]
+
exp [(N + 1)x] exp [x]
1 exp [x]
_
=
1
1 exp [x]
_
(N + 1) exp [(N + 1)x] exp [x]
_
1 exp [(N + 1)x]
1 exp [x]
__
(3.3.48)
Where we note that the expression in brackets in (3.3.48) is none other than Q
s
. Rewriting,
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 257

x
Q
s
=
1
1 exp [x]
[(N + 1) exp [(N + 1)x] exp [x] Q
s
] (3.3.49)
At this point we are ready to substitute (3.3.49) and (3.3.44) into (3.3.47):
s) =
1
Q
s

1
1 exp [x]
[(N + 1) exp [(N + 1)x] exp [x] Z
s
]
=
(N + 1) exp [(N + 1)x] exp [x]
1 exp [x]
=
(N + 1) exp [(N + 1)x]
1 exp [x]

exp [x]
1 exp [x]
(3.3.50)
Putting the numbers back in to (3.3.50) leads us to
s) =
(N + 1) exp [(N + 1)E]
1 exp [E]

exp [E]
1 exp [E]
(3.3.51)
We are asked to evaluate the average number of open links from (3.3.51) given the following stipu-
lation:
E k
B
T E 1
If E 1, then all the exponential terms approach zero, and so the average number of open links
is
s) = 0
Problem 4.5
Show that expression (4.3.20) for the entropy of a system in the grand canonical ensemble can also be written as:
S = k
B
_

T
(Tq)
_
,V
(3.3.52)
Solution
We see that (4.3.20) from Pathria reads
S = k
B
T
_
q
T
_
z,V
Nk
B
log [z] + k
B
q (3.3.53)
We now recall that the dierential of the q-potential has the form
dq =
_
q
T
_
z,V
dT +
_
q
V
_
z,T
dV +
_
q
z
_
V,T
dz (3.3.54)
Now that we are inspired, we may now rewrite the partial derivative in (3.3.53) as
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
_
q
T
_
z,V

_
q
T
_
V,T
+
_
q
T
_
,V

q
T

T
z

z
T
+
_
q
T
_
,V

q
z

z
T
+
_
q
T
_
,V
(3.3.55)
We now recall (4.3.17), which reads
N(z, V, T)z
_

z
q(z, V, T)
_
V,T

_
q
z
_
V,T
=
N
z
(3.3.56)
Applying (3.3.56) to (3.3.55),
_
q
T
_
z,V

N
z
z
T
+
_
q
T
_
,V
(3.3.57)
Substituting (3.3.57) back into (3.3.53),
S =k
B
T
_
N
z
z
T
+
_
q
T
_
,V
_
Nk
B
log [z] + k
B
q
=k
B
_
N
T
z
z
T
+T
_
q
T
_
,V
N log [z] +q
_
(3.3.58)
We now innocently notice that
T
z
z
T
= log [z] (3.3.59)
Accordingly, we can now write (3.3.58) as
S =k
B
_
T
_
q
T
_
,V
+q
_
=k
B
_
T
_
q
T
_
,V
+q
_
T
T
_
,V
_
S = k
B
_

T
(qT)
_
,V
Problem 4.8
Determine the grand partition function of a gaseous system of magnetic atoms (with J =
1
/
2
and g = 2)
which can have, in addition to the kinetic energy, a magnetic potential energy equal to
B
H or
B
H, depending
upon their orientation with respect to the applied magnetic eld H. Derive an expression for the magnetization of
the system, and calculate how much heat will be given o by the system when the magnetic eld is reduced from
H to zero at constant volume and constant temperature.
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 259
Solution
The (canonical) single-particle partition function is dened by
Q
1
=
1
h
3
__
exp
_

N
i
H
i
k
B
T
_
d
3
p d
3
q (3.3.60)
The Hamiltonian in this case is
H =
p
2
2m

B
H (3.3.61)
Applying (3.3.61) to (3.3.60),
Q
1
=
1
h
3
__
exp
_
p
2
/2m
B
H
k
B
T
_
d
3
p d
3
q
=
1
h
3
__
exp
_
p
2
2mk
B
T


B
H
k
B
T
_
d
3
p d
3
q
=
1
h
3
exp
_

B
H
k
B
T
_ _
d
3
q
_
exp
_
p
2
2mk
B
T
_
d
3
p
=
V
h
3
exp
_

B
H
k
B
T
_ __

exp
_
p
2
2mk
B
T
_
dp
_
3
=
V
h
3
exp
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
_
_
2mk
B
T
_
3
(3.3.62)
We now notice that the exponential term can be rewritten as
exp
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
=exp
_
+

B
H
k
B
T
_
+ exp
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
2 cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
(3.3.63)
Substituting (3.3.63) back into (3.3.62),
Q
1
=2
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
(3.3.64)
Using (3.3.64), we can now say that the full partition function is
Q
N
=
1
N!
_
2
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
N
(3.3.65)
We now recall that the equation linking the grand partition function to the canonical partition function
is
Q =

N=0
z
N
Q
N
(3.3.66)
Where z is the fugacity. Substituting (3.3.65) into (3.3.66),
Q =

N=0
z
N
1
N!
_
2
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
N
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
=

N=0
1
N!
_
2z
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
N
(3.3.67)
We now innocently recall that the series expansion for e
x
is
e
x
=

N=0
x
N
N!
We can clearly see that (3.3.67) follows this same form, and we can now write
Q = exp
_
2z
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
(3.3.68)
The magnetization, M, is dened as
M =
_
F
H
_
T
(3.3.69)
We must now nd the free energy F, which is given by
F = k
B
T log [Q
N
] (3.3.70)
Substituting in the canonical partition function from (3.3.65) into (3.3.70),
F = k
B
T log
_
1
N!
_
2
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
N
_
= Nk
B
T log
_
1
N!
1
/N
2
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
(3.3.71)
Now substituting (3.3.71) into (3.3.69), we can nd the magnetization:
M =

H
_
Nk
B
T log
_
1
N!
1
/N
2
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
__
=Nk
B
T

H
log
_
1
N!
1
/N
2
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
_
=Nk
B
T

H
_
log
_
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
__
+ log
_
1
N!
1
/N
2
V
h
3
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
__
=Nk
B
T
_

H
log
_
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
__
+

H
log
_
1
N!
1
/N
2
V
h
3
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
__
=Nk
B
T
_

B
k
B
T
tanh
_

B
H
k
B
T
__
(3.3.72)
Cancelling terms in (3.3.72), we are left with
M = N
B
tanh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
(3.3.73)
At constant temperature and volume, the entropy can be quantied in terms of heat by
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 261
S =
Q
T
Q = TS (3.3.74)
We now note that S in (3.3.74) is simply the change in entropy, i.e. the dierence before and after
H 0. The entropy is dened as
S =
_
F
T
_
V,N
(3.3.75)
Substituting (3.3.71) into (3.3.75),
S =

T
_
Nk
B
T log
_
1
N!
1
/N
2
V
h
3
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
[2mk
B
T]
3
/2
__
=Nk
B

T
_
T log
_
1
N!
1
/N
2
V
h
3
[2mk
B
]
3
/2
. .

cosh
_

B
H
k
B
. .

1
T
_
T
3
/2
__
(3.3.76)
Rewriting (3.3.76) in terms of a new constant and ,
S =Nk
B

T
_
T log
_
cosh
_

T
_
T
3
/2
__
=Nk
B
_
log
_
cosh
_

T
_
T
3
/2
_
+T

T
_
log
_
cosh
_

T
_
T
3
/2
__
=Nk
B
_
log
_
cosh
_

T
_
T
3
/2
_
+T
_
3
2T


T
2
tanh
_

T
___
=Nk
B
_
log
_
cosh
_

T
_
T
3
/2
_
+
3
2


T
tanh
_

T
__
(3.3.77)
Substituting back into (3.3.77) the value of ,
S =Nk
B
_
log
_
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
T
3
/2
_
+
3
2


B
H
k
B
T
tanh
_

B
H
k
B
T
__
(3.3.78)
The initial entropy is given simply by (3.3.78), however the nal entropy (when H = 0) can be found by
setting H = 0 in (3.3.78):
S
f
=Nk
B
_
log
_
T
3
/2
_
+
3
2
_
(3.3.79)
Then using (3.3.78) and (3.3.79), we can now nd S,
S =S
f
S
i
=Nk
B
_
log
_
T
3
/2
_
+
3
2
_
Nk
B
_
log
_
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
T
3
/2
_
+
3
2


B
H
k
B
T
tanh
_

B
H
k
B
T
__
=Nk
B
_
log
_
T
3
/2
_
+
3
2
log
_
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
T
3
/2
_

3
2
+

B
H
k
B
T
tanh
_

B
H
k
B
T
__
=Nk
B
_

B
H
k
B
T
tanh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
log
_
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_ __
(3.3.80)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Substituting (3.3.80) back into (3.3.74),
Q = Nk
B
T
_

B
H
k
B
T
tanh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_
log
_
cosh
_

B
H
k
B
T
_ __
3.4 Homework #4
Problem 1
a) Starting from the expression for the grand partition function, compute N) and N
2
). Now show that

2
N
= N
2
) N)
2
= k
B
T
N)

(3.4.1)
b) The above expression for
2
N
can be written in terms of the isothermal compressibility dened as: K
T
=
V
1
(V/P)
T
. To do this, rst show that = (G/N)
T,P
where G is the Gibbs free energy.
c) Then show that the Gibbs free energy is given by G = N, i.e. the chemical potential is the Gibbs free energy
per particle.
d) Now express d in terms of dP and dT and show that
_

N
_
V,T
=
V
2
N
2
_
P
V
_
T,N
(3.4.2)
e) Finally, show that

2
N
N
2
=
k
B
T
V

T
(3.4.3)
Solution
a) The Grand Partition Function, Q, is dened by
Q =

N,s
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.4.4)
We also recall that in general, the average of a given quantity x can be dened by
x) =

i
x
i
P
i
Where P
i
is the probability distribution function. In our case, we are asked to nd N), and so
applying this principle to N,
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 263
N) =

s,N
N
_
1
Q
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
__
=
1
Q

s,N
N exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.4.5)
Similarly, we can say for N
2
) that
N
2
) =
1
Q

s,N
N
2
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.4.6)
We now wish to nd
2
N
the rst step is to take the partial derivative of Q with respect to the
chemical potential, :
Q

_
_
_

N,s
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
_
_
_
=

N,s

exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
=

N,s
N
k
B
T
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.4.7)
Moving the factor of k
B
T to the LHS of (3.4.7),
k
B
T
Q

N,s
N exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.4.8)
We now note that we can rewrite (3.4.5) using (3.4.8),
N) =
1
Q
k
B
T
Q

(3.4.9)
Similarly, we now wish to nd the second partial derivative of Q from (3.4.4), or equivalently, the
rst derivative of (3.4.9):

2
Q

2
=

2

2
_
_
_

N,s
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
_
_
_
=

_
_
_

N,s
N
k
B
T
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
_
_
_
=

N,s
N
k
B
T

exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
=

N,s
N
2
(k
B
T)
2
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.4.10)
Moving the thermal factor on the RHS of (3.4.10) to the LHS,
(k
B
T)
2

2
Q

2
=

N,s
N
2
exp
_
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.4.11)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Using (3.4.11), we can rewrite (3.4.6),
N
2
) =
1
Q
(k
B
T)
2

2
Q

2
(3.4.12)
Substituting (3.4.9) and (3.4.12) into (3.4.1),

2
N
=N
2
) N)
2
=
1
Q
(k
B
T)
2

2
Q

2

_
1
Q
k
B
T
Q

_
2
=
1
Q
(k
B
T)
2

2
Q

2

1
Q
2
(k
B
T)
2
_
Q

_
2
=
k
B
T
Q
_
k
B
T

2
Q

2

1
Q
k
B
T
_
Q

_
2
_
=
k
B
T
Q
_
k
B
T

2
Q

2

1
Q
k
B
T
Q

. .

_
(3.4.13)
Noticing that the underbraced term in (3.4.13) is N) from (3.4.9),

2
N
=
k
B
T
Q
_
k
B
T

2
Q

2
N)
Q

_
=
k
B
T
Q
_

k
B
T
Q

. .
N)
Q

_
(3.4.14)
Solving (3.4.5) for the underbraced term in (3.4.14) and making the substitution,

2
N
=
k
B
T
Q
_

(QN)) N)
Q

_
(3.4.15)
We not notice that the rst partial derivative may be carried out to be

(QN)) = Q
N)

+N)
Q

(3.4.16)
Substituting (3.4.16) back into (3.4.15), we nd that

2
N
=
k
B
T
Q
_
Q
N)

+N)
Q

N)
Q

_

2
N
= k
B
T
N)

(3.4.17)
b) To show that we can write the chemical potential in terms of the Gibbs Free Energy as suggested
in the prompt, we rst recall that the Gibbs Free Energy is dened by (1.3.15) as
G = E TS + PV N (3.4.18)
Where the RHS can be used if the intensive parameters T, p, and remain constant while the
extensive parameters N, V , and E grow proportionately with one another (See Footnote 8 on pg.
28). Therefore, the chemical potential can be dened in terms of the Gibbs Free Energy as
=
_
G
N
_
T,P
(3.4.19)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 265
c) Recalling that the non-dierential analogue to (1.3.4) reads
E = TS PV + N (3.4.20)
Substituting (3.4.20) into the LHS of (3.4.18), we see that
G = (TS PV +N) TS + PV G = N (3.4.21)
d) Extending the Gibbs Free Energy to a multi-particle system, we can nd the dierential as
dG = dN +Nd (3.4.22)
We also note that the dierential of G from (3.4.18) is
dG = SdT + V dP + dN (3.4.23)
Equating (3.4.22) and (3.4.23), we nd that
dN +Nd = SdT + V dP +dN d =
S
N
dT +
V
N
dP (3.4.24)
Letting dT 0, (3.4.24) becomes
d =
V
N
dP

P
=
V
N
(3.4.25)
Applying the chain rule to (3.4.25),

P
P
V
V
P
=
V
N

V
V
P
=
V
N


V
=
V
N
P
V
(3.4.26)
Applying the chain rule once again to the LHS of (3.4.26),

V
V
N
N
V
=
V
N
P
V

N

N
V
=
V
N
P
V
(3.4.27)
We now note that from Maxwells relations, we can write
_
N
V
_
T,
=
_
P

_
T,V
(3.4.28)
Substituting (3.4.28) into (3.4.27),
_

N
_
T,V
_
P

_
T,V
=
V
N
_
P
V
_
T,N
(3.4.29)
From a previous homework set, we were asked to establish
N = V
_
P

_
T,V

_
P

_
T,V
=
N
V
(3.4.30)
Substituting (3.4.32) into (3.4.31),
_

N
_
T,V
N
V
=
V
N
_
P
V
_
T,N

_

N
_
T,V
=
V
2
N
2
_
P
V
_
T,N
(3.4.31)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
e) The rst thing we must do is recognize that the isothermal compressibility,
T
, can be quantied
as

T
=
1
V
_
V
P
_
T,N
(3.4.32)
For a system being isothermally compressed (both T and N constant), we note that we can rewrite
(3.4.31) as
_

N
_
T,V
=
V
2
N
2
_
P
V
_
T,N

_
N)

_
T,V
=
N
2
V
2
_
V
P
_
T,N
=
N
2
V
_

1
V
_
V
P
_
T,N
_
(3.4.33)
Substituting (3.4.32) into the RHS of (3.4.33),
_
N)

_
T,V
=
N
2
V

T
k
B
T
_
N)

_
T,V
= k
B
T
N
2
V

T
(3.4.34)
Substituting (3.4.1) into (3.4.34) and rearranging, we see that

2
N
= k
B
T
N
2
V

T


2
N
N
2
=
k
B
T
V

T
Which is the same as (3.4.3).
Problem 2
A surface with N adsorption sites is in equilibrium with a mixed ideal gas containing molecules of type A and B.
Each site can take either one single A molecules with energy
A
or a single B molecule with energy
B
. Com-
pute the grand canonical partition function for this adsorbed system. Then nd relations between the fractional
occupations (
A
= n
A
/N and
B
= n
B
/N) and the partial pressures p
A
and p
B
.
Solution
Recalling that the Grand Canonical Partition Function (i.e. the Gibbs Sum) is given by
Q =

N,s
exp
_

s
N E
s,N
k
B
T
_
(3.4.35)
In order to nd the PT for the adsorbed system, we assume that there are only two states available to
the system, one where molecule A is adsorbed and the other where molecule B is adsorbed. There is no
state where neither molecule is connected - this is deduced from the wording of the problem. We recall
that the Grand PT can be dened in terms of the canonical PT from (4.3.15) as
Q =

n
z
n
Q
n
(3.4.36)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 267
Where z is the fugacity (= e
s/kBT
) and Q
n
is the canonical PT. Following the example in class of a gas
adsorbed onto a lattice, , we note that the canonical PT with degeneracy is
Q
n
= g
n
exp
_

E
s,n
k
B
T
_
n
(3.4.37)
Where the degeneracy is
g
N
=
N(N 1)...(N n + 1)
n!

N!
(N n)!n!
(3.4.38)
Substituting (3.4.38) into (3.4.37),
Q
n
=
N!
(N n)!n!
exp
_

E
s,n
k
B
T
_
n
(3.4.39)
And now substituting (3.4.39) back into the Grand PT from (3.4.36),
Q =

n,s
exp
_

s
k
B
T
_

N!
(N n)!n!
exp
_

E
s,n
k
B
T
_
n
=

n,s
N!
(N n)!n!
exp
_
(
s
E
s,n
) n
k
B
T
_
(3.4.40)
Using the Binomial Expansion, (3.4.40) becomes,
Q =

s
_
1 + exp
_

s
E
s
k
B
T
__
N
(3.4.41)
In our case, since we have two possible energies, the sum is carried out to A and B and hence has only
two terms. We now see that (3.4.41) becomes
Q =
_
1 + exp
_
(
A
+
A
)
k
B
T
_
+ exp
_
(
B
+
B
)
k
B
T
__
N
(3.4.42)
We now recall from class that the thermodynamic potential, , is dened in terms of the Grand Canonical
PT as
= k
B
T log [Q] (3.4.43)
Substituting (3.4.36) into (3.4.43),
= k
B
T log
_

n
z
n
Q
n
_
k
B
T log [Q] (3.4.44)
We can now take the partial derivative of (3.4.44) with respect to , which yields

= z

z
log [Q] (3.4.45)
Noticing that the RHS of (3.4.45) is equal to n, or the average number of adsorbed molecules, we now
can say
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
n =

(3.4.46)
Substituting the thermodynamic potential from (3.4.44) into (3.4.46),
n =

k
B
T log [Q] (3.4.47)
At this point, we remember that it is important to be very careful, as both n and are a function of the
specic states in the Gibbs sum. Rewriting (3.4.48) to make this more explicit,
n
s
= k
B
T

s
log [Q] (3.4.48)
And now substituting the grand canonical PT from (3.4.42) into (3.4.48),
n
s
= k
B
T

s
log
_
_
1 + exp
_
(
A
+
A
)
k
B
T
_
+ exp
_
(
B
+
B
)
k
B
T
__
N
_
= Nk
B
T

s
log
_
1 + exp
_
(
A
+
A
)
k
B
T
_
+ exp
_
(
B
+
B
)
k
B
T
__
(3.4.49)
We can go no further until we explicitly dene which state we are evaluating n
s
for. Starting with A,
(3.4.49) becomes
n
A
=Nk
B
T

A
log
_
1 + exp
_
(
A
+
A
)
k
B
T
_
+ exp
_
(
B
+
B
)
k
B
T
__
=
N

A
log [1 + exp [(
A
+
A
) ] + exp [(
B
+
B
) ]]
=
N

exp [(
A
+
A
) ]
1 + exp [(
A
+
A
) ] + exp [(
B
+
B
) ]
_
=N
exp [(
A
+
A
) ]
1 + exp [(
A
+
A
) ] + exp [(
B
+
B
) ]
(3.4.50)
The average number of adsorbed molecules per site is given by
s
= n
s
/N, and we are of course interested
in the fractional coverage of each type of molecule to each site. Accordingly,
A
can be found from (3.4.50)
to be

A
=
exp [(
A
+
A
) ]
1 + exp [(
A
+
A
) ] + exp [(
B
+
B
) ]
(3.4.51)
And similarly, for
B
,

B
=
exp [(
B
+
B
) ]
1 + exp [(
A
+
A
) ] + exp [(
B
+
B
) ]
(3.4.52)
The time has now come to nd the partial pressure p
A
and p
B
. The rst step is to isolate from
in either (3.4.51) or (3.4.52). Following the example from lecture, we rst wish to nd the chemical
potential of the surface (
surf
), and equate it with the chemical potential of the gas (
gas
). Starting with

surf
, we recognize that
A
=
B
, and also
A
=
B
, and so
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 269
1

=
1 + exp [(
surf
+
A
) ] + exp [(
surf
+
B
) ]
exp [(
surf
+
A
) ]
=
1
exp [(
surf
+
A
) ]
+
exp [(
surf
+
A
) ]
exp [(
surf
+
A
) ]
+
exp [(
surf
+
B
) ]
exp [(
surf
+
A
) ]
=1 +
1
exp [(
surf
+
A
) ]
+ exp [(
B

A
) ] (3.4.53)
If we dene =
B

B
, then (3.4.53) becomes
exp [(
surf
+
A
) ] =
1

1 exp []
surf
=
1

log
_
1

1 exp []
_

A
(3.4.54)
From class, we know that the chemical potential of an ideal gas is given, in general by

gas
=
1

log [P f(T)] (3.4.55)


Equating (3.4.54) and (3.4.56),

log
_
1

1 exp []
_

A
=
1

log [P f(t)]
log
_
1

1 exp []
_
+
A
=log
_
1
P f(t)
_
_
1

1 exp []
_
exp [
A
] =
1
P f(t)
(3.4.56)
Recalling that =
B

A
, (3.4.56) becomes
_
1

_
exp [
A
] exp [
B
] =
1
P f(t)
P =
1
f(T)
_

1
_
1
exp [
A
] exp [
B
]
(3.4.57)
If we assume that the total gas mixture is given by P from (3.4.57), then the partial pressure is dened
by p
i
= n
i
P. To nd n
A
, we follow this logic and from (3.4.50) and (3.4.57), we can nd p
A
:
p
A
= N
exp [(
A
+
A
) ]
1 + exp [(
A
+
A
) ] + exp [(
B
+
B
) ]

1
f(T)
_

1
_
1
exp [
A
] exp [
B
]
(3.4.58)
And similarly, we can say that the partial pressure of molecule B is given by
p
B
= N
exp [(
B
+
B
) ]
1 + exp [(
A
+
A
) ] + exp [(
B
+
B
) ]

1
f(T)
_

1
_
1
exp [
A
] exp [
B
]
(3.4.59)
It might be possible to reduce (3.4.58)(3.4.59) to a slightly nicer form, however it will likely still be
quite ugly.
Problem 3
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Suppose that N molecules of H
2
O gas (assumed to behave like a classical ideal gas) are introduces into a container
of xed volume V at a temperature low enough that virtually all the gas remains as molecular water vapor. At
higher temperatures dissociation can take place according to the reaction
2H
2
O 2H
2
+ O
2
(3.4.60)
Let x be the fraction of H
2
O molecules dissociated at some temperature T corresponding to the total gas pressure
P. Write an equation relating x, P, and F(t) where F(t) is some function of temperature (that can include the
binding energy of the water molecule).
Solution
The dynamic reaction in (3.4.60) can be rewritten as
2H
2
O 2H
2
O
2
= 0 (3.4.61)
We can express (3.4.61) in terms of coecients and species according to

i
a
i
A
i
, and in our case the
coecients are
A
1
= H
2
, A
2
= O
2
, A
3
= H
2
O
a
1
= 2, a
2
= 1, a
3
= 2
We also recall that the condition for chemical equilibrium can be dened in terms of the coecients a
i
as

i
a
i

i
= 0 (3.4.62)
Where this condition is met at the equilibrium pressure and temperature. We can express (3.4.61) in
the language of (3.4.62) as
2(H
2
O) 2(H
2
) (O
2
) = 0 (3.4.63)
The chemical potential for each species,
i
, can be described by (1.5.7), which reads

i
(N
i
, V, T) = k
B
T log
_
N
i
V
_
h
2
2m
i
k
B
T
_
3
/2
_
(3.4.64)
We now dene the fractional occupancy N
i
, which we quantify as N

i
= N
i
/N. If we assume that the
gas phase of each species can be treated as ideal, then we can write PV = Nk
B
T N/V = P/ (k
B
T),
and we can rewrite (3.4.64) as

i
(N
i
, V, T) =k
B
T log
_
P
k
B
T
N

i
_
h
2
2m
i
k
B
T
_
3
/2
_
=k
B
T log
_
P
k
B
T
_
h
2
2m
i
k
B
T
_
3
/2
_
+k
B
T log [N

i
] (3.4.65)
Using (3.4.62), we may rewrite (3.4.65) as
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 271
k
B
T

i
a
i
_
log
_
P
k
B
T
_
h
2
2m
i
k
B
T
_
3
/2
_
+ log [N

i
]
_
= 0 (3.4.66)
Killing the factor in front of the sum and rearranging, (3.4.66) becomes

i
a
i
log
_
P
k
B
T
_
h
2
2m
i
k
B
T
_
3
/2
_
=

i
a
i
log [N

i
]

i
log
_
k
B
T
P
_
2m
i
k
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
ai
=

i
log [N

i
]
ai

i
log
_
V
N
i
_
2m
i
k
B
T
h
2
_3
/2
_
ai
=

i
log [N

i
]
ai

i
log
_
q
i
N
i
_
ai
=

i
log [N

i
]
ai
(3.4.67)
From lecture, we know that
N
a1
1
N
a2
2
N
a3
3
... = q
a1
1
q
a2
2
q
a3
3
... K(T, V ) (3.4.68)
And, simply by visual inspection of (3.4.67), we can see that K(T, V ) = q
ai
i
makes sense, recognizing
that at equilibrium

i
K
i
(T, V ) = 1 so the equation reduces readily to 0 = 0. We now recall that we
can alternatively dene the equilibrium constant in terms of (3.4.60) as
K(T, V ) =
[H
2
O]
2
[H
2
]
2
[O
2
]

N (H
2
O)
2
N (H
2
)
2
N (O
2
)
(3.4.69)
We also recall from lecture that

i
_
N
i
q
i
_
ai
= 1 (3.4.70)
Applying (3.4.70) to the case of (3.4.60),
_
N
H2O
q
H
2
O
_
2

_
N
H2
q
H
2
_
2

_
N
O2
q
O
2
_
1
=1 (3.4.71)
The total number of species at any time, N

, can be quantied by
N

= N
H2O
+N
H2
+N
O2
(3.4.72)
We are told to let x denote the fraction of water molecules dissociated after some period of time, and also
that initially, the total number of free particulates are entirely water molecules, so that N = N
H2O
.
Accordingly, we see that in my notation x = 1 N
H2O
/N. With this, (3.4.72) becomes
N

= N (1 x) + N
H
2
+N
O
2
(3.4.73)
Following the same logic, we see that N
H2
grows proportionally with N
H2O
, whereas N
O2
grows half -
proportionally with respect to N
H
2
O
(according to the stoichiometric coecients from (3.4.60)). We see
that (3.4.73) becomes
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
N

= N (1 x) + xN +x
N
2
1 =
N
N

(1 x) +
N
N

x +
N
N

x
2
(3.4.74)
Substituting the appropriate fractional coecients into (3.4.71),
_
N (1 x)
q
H2O
_
2
I

_
xN
q
H2
_
2
II

_
1
/
2
xN
q
O2
_
1
III
=1 (3.4.75)
We now recall that q
i
is dened by
q
i
=
p
i
k
B
T

P
p
i

p
i
P
_
h
2
2m
i
k
B
T
_
3
/2
=
P
k
B
T
N
i
N
_
h
2
2m
i
k
B
T
_
3
/2
=
P
m
3
/2
i
N
i
N
_
h
2
2 (k
B
T)
3
_3
/2
. .
F(T)
q
i
=
N
i
N

P
m
3
/2
i
F(T) (3.4.76)
In the language of (3.4.76), we can rewrite each of the terms in (3.4.75). Starting with I,
I =
_
N (1 x)
q
H
2
O
_
2
=
_
_
_
(1 x)
m
3
/2
H2O
F(T)P
_
_
_
2
=(1 x)
2

m
3
H2O
[F(T)P]
2
(3.4.77a)
II =
_
xN
q
H2
_
2
=
_
_
_
x
m
3
/2
H2
F(T)P
_
_
_
2
=
_
x
2

m
3
H2
[F(T)P]
2
_
1
=
1
x
2

[F(T)P]
2
m
3
H2
(3.4.77b)
III =
_
1
/
2
xN
q
O2
_
1
=
_
_
_
x
2

m
3
/2
O2
F(T)P
_
_
_
1
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 273
=
2
x

F(T)P
m
3
/2
O2
(3.4.77c)
Substituting (3.4.77a)(3.4.77c) back into (3.4.75),
_
(1 x)
2

m
3
H2O
[F(T)P]
2
_

_
1
x
2

[F(T)P]
2
m
3
H2
__
2
x

F(T)P
m
3
/2
O2
_
=1
(1 x)
2
x
3
2
_
m
2
H2O
m
2
H2
m
O
2
_
3
/2
F(T)P =1 (3.4.78)
Rearranging (3.4.78), we are left with
F(T)P =
x
3
2 (1 x)
2
_
m
2
H2
m
O
2
m
2
H2O
_
3
/2
Problem 4
Evaluate the density matrix
mn
of an electron spin in the representation which makes
x
diagonal. Next, show
that the value of
z
), resulting from this representation, is precisely the same as the one obtained in 5.3. Hint :
the representation needed here follows from the one used in 5.3 by carrying out a transformation with the help
of the unitary operator

U =
_
1/

2 1/

2
1/

2 1/

2
_
(3.4.79)
Solution
The Pauli spin matrices are given by

x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
,
y
=
_
0 i
i 0
_
,
z
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
We now note that we can straightforwardly rewrite our unitary operator from (3.4.79) as

U =
1

2
_
1 1
1 1
_
(3.4.80)
We also recognize that by using this matrix, we may transform our spin matrices to a basis in which
x
is diagonal via a unitary transformation:

x
=

U

U (3.4.81)
Where

x
denotes
x
in the basis in which it is diagonal. Substituting (3.4.80) into (3.4.81),
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4

x
=
1

2
_
1 1
1 1
_

_
0 1
1 0
_
1

2
_
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
2
_
1 1
1 1
__
0 1
1 0
__
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
2
_
1 1
1 1
__
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
2
_
2 0
0 2
_
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
(3.4.82)
So, the provided matrix does indeed diagonalize
x
. We must now see how it aects
z
,

z
=
1

2
_
1 1
1 1
_

_
1 0
0 1
_
1

2
_
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
2
_
1 1
1 1
__
1 0
0 1
__
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
2
_
1 1
1 1
__
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
2
_
0 2
2 0
_
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
(3.4.83)
The Hamiltonian operator,

H, is given by (5.3.1),

H =
B
B

z
(3.4.84)
Which includes our new Pauli Matrix

z
in the basis in which
x
is diagonal. Substituting (3.4.83) into
(3.4.84),

H =
B
B
_
0 1
1 0
_
(3.4.85)
We now recall the expression for the density matrix in the canonical ensemble is given by (5.3.3) as
( ) =
_
e


H
_
Tr
_
e


H
_
=
1
e
BB
+e
BB
_
e
BB
0
0 e
BB
_
(3.4.86)
But this is not the answer. We must now express this density matrix in our new basis, in the same way
we did with our Pauli spin matrices before. Performing the unitary transformation on (3.4.86),
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 275
(

) =
1

2
_
1 1
1 1
_

_
1
e
BB
+ e
BB
_
e
BB
0
0 e
BB
__
1

2
_
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
2
1
e
BB
+ e
BB
_
1 1
1 1
__
e
BB
0
0 e
BB
__
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
2
1
e
BB
+ e
BB
_
e
BB
e
BB
e
BB
e
BB
__
1 1
1 1
_
=
1
e
BB
+e
BB
_
e
BB
+ e
BB
e
BB
e
BB
e
BB
e
BB
e
BB
+ e
BB
_
=
1
2 cosh [
B
B]
_
cosh [
B
B] sinh [
B
B]
sinh [
B
B] cosh [
B
B]
_
(3.4.87)
We may now absorb the cosh term out front of (3.4.87) to inside the matrix, leaving us with
(

) =
1
2
_
1 tanh[
B
B]
tanh [
B
B] 1
_
(3.4.88)
We can nd the expectation value of

x
by generalizing the form of (5.3.4),

x
) = Tr [

] (3.4.89)
Substituting

z
from (3.4.83) and

from (3.4.88) into (3.4.89),

x
) =Tr
_
1
2
_
1 tanh [
B
B]
tanh [
B
B] 1
__
0 1
1 0
__
=Tr
_
1
2
_
tanh [
B
B] 1
1 tanh [
B
B]
__
(3.4.90)
Recalling that the trace of a matrix is simply the sum of the diagonal elements, (3.4.90) becomes

x
) = tanh [
B
B]
Which is the same as found in 5.3.
3.5 Homework #7
Problem 1
Extension of the Debye Model of a Solid: Assuming the dispersion relation = Ak
s
, where is the angular
frequency and k is the wave-number of a vibrational mode existing in a solid, show that the respective contribu-
tion towards the specic heat of the solid at low temperature is proportional to T
3
/s
.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
Solution
This problem is essentially the same as if we were trying to nd the specic heat of a Debye solid at
low temperatures, the only dierence is that the dispersion relation has an extra term s in the exponent
of the wave-number: = Ak
s
. We can carry through the arithmatic in very much the same way then,
following Pathrias work in 7.2 and 7.3.
We rst recall that the specic heat in terms of internal energy is given by
C
V
(T) =
_
U
T
_
V
(3.1.1)
So our goal then, is to nd the internal energy, U, as a function of our dispersion relation. We recall
Pathrias denition of the Debye function from (7.3.18):
D(x
0
) =
3
x
3
0
_
x0
0
x
3
e
x
1
dx (3.1.2)
Where we have dened x
0
to be
x
0
=

D
k
B
T
(3.1.3)
And substituting (3.1.3) back into (3.1.2),
D(x
0
) = 3
_
k
B
T

D
_
3
_
x0
0
x
3
e
x
1
dx (3.1.4)
We also realize that, to make things more transparent, Pathria has made the substitution x =
E
/k
B
T.
Recalling our denition of x
0
from (3.1.3), we note that in the low temperature limit, as suggested in
the prompt, we see that x
0
1/T , and so (3.1.4) becomes
D(x
0
) =3
_
k
B
T

D
_
3
_

0
x
3
e
x
1
dx
=3
_
k
B
T

D
_
3
_

4
15
_
(3.1.5)
The only dierence in our case is that we make the following change to (3.1.3),
x
0
=
_

D
k
B
T
_
s
(3.1.6)
Which we can see makes no dierence in the integrand of (3.1.5). Therefore, the result from (3.1.5) using
(3.1.6) instead of (3.1.3) is
D(x
0
) =3
_
k
B
T

D
_3
/s
_

4
15
_
(3.1.7)
From (3.1.7) we can nd the specic heat at low temperature by using the following approximation:
C
V
(T) = 3Nk
B
E(x) (3.1.8)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 277
Which is (7.3.9) from Pathria. This is actually what determined the factor in our integral, which was
solved in (3.1.5). So, our specic heat is then:
C
V
(T) = D(x
0
) =9N
_
k
B
T

D
_3
/s
_

4
15
_
C
V
T
3
/s
Problem 2
Stability of a white dwarf against gravitational collapse: Consider a star to be made up of an approximately
equal number N of electrons and protons (otherwise the Coulomb repulsion would overcome the gravitational in-
teraction). Somewhat arbitrarily we would also assume that there is an equal number of neutrons and protons.
Now, it is energetically favorable for a body held together by gravitational forces to be as compact as possible. On
Earth, the gravitational force is not large enough to overcome the repulsive forces between atoms and molecules.
Inside the sun, matter does not exist in the form of atoms and molecules, where the radiation pressure from the
nuclear fusion keeps the star from collapsing. We will consider the case of a white dwarf, where the fusion has
completed and there is no longer radiation pressure to prevent collapse. Assume that the temperature of the
star is low enough, compared to the electron Fermi temperature, that the electrons can be approximated by a
T = 0 Fermi gas (because of their large mass, the kinetic energy of protons and neutrons are assumed to be small
compared to that of the electrons).
a) If the electron gas is non-relativistic, show that the electron kinetic energy (KE) of the star is given by
E
kin
=
3
2
10m
e
_
9
4
_2
/3
N
5
/3
R
2
(3.1.9)
where m
e
is the electron mass and R is the radius of the star.
b) The gravitational potential energy is dominated by neutrons and protons. Let m
N
be the nucleon mass.
Assume the mass density is approximately constant inside the star. Show that, if there is an equal number
N of protons and neutrons, then the gravitational potential energy is given by
E
pot
=
12
5
m
2
N
G
N
2
R
(3.1.10)
where G = 6.67 10
11
Nm
2
/kg
2
is the gravitational constant.
c) Find the radius for which the gravitational potential energy plus the kinetic energy is a minimum for a white
dwarf with the same mass as the sun (1.99 10
30
Kg) in units of solar radii (6.96 10
8
m).
d) If the density is very large, the Fermi velocity of the electrons becomes comparable to the speed of light and
we should use the relativistic formula for the relationship between energy and momentum. Compute the
electron kinetic energy in the ultra relativistic limit cp.
e) You have just shown in d) that in the ultra relativistic limit, the electron kinetic energy is proportional to
N
4
/3
/R, i.e. the R dependence is the same as the gravitational potential energy computed in part b) (which
remains unchanged). Since for large N, N
2
N
4
/3
, we nd that if the mass of the star is large enough, the
gravitational potential energy will dominate. The star will then collapse. Show taht the critical value of N
for this to happen is
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
N
crit
=
_
5c
36m
2
N
G
_3
/2
_
9
4
_
(3.1.11)
Substituting numbers, one nd that this corresponds to about 1.71 solar masses. This is the so-called
Chandrasekhar limit.
Solution
a) We recall that the total energy of a degenerate electron gas is given by
E
deg
=
3
5
NE
F
(3.1.12)
Where the Fermi Energy, E
F
, is given by
E
F
=

2
2m
e
_
3
2
N
V
_2
/3
(3.1.13)
Substituting (3.1.13) into (3.1.12),
E
deg
=
3
5
N
_

2
2m
e
_
3
2
N
V
_2
/3
_
=
3
2
10m
e
N
_
3
2
N
V
_2
/3
=
3
2
10m
e
_
3
2
_2
/3

1
V
2
/3
N
5
/3
(3.1.14)
Recalling that V =
4
/
3
R
3
, (3.1.14) becomes
E
deg
=
3
2
10m
e
_
3
2
_
2
/3

_
3
4R
3
_2
/3
N
5
/3
=
3
2
10m
e
_
9
4R
3
_2
/3
N
5
/3
(3.1.15)
We note that (3.1.15) may be straightforwardly rewritten as
E
deg
=
3
2
10m
e
_
9
4
_2
/3
N
5
/3
R
2
(3.1.16)
b) To nd the gravitational potential energy, we assume the star to be a perfect sphere of mass density
, where we dene = m/V m = V . Also recalling the volume of a sphere, we nd that
m =
4
3
r
3
(3.1.17)
The dierential element of (3.1.17) is of course
dm = 4r
2
dr (3.1.18)
We also recall that the potential energy of a celestial body is dened by
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 279
dU =
Gm
r
dm (3.1.19)
We can nd the gravitational potential energy by integrating (3.1.19), and substituting in to this
(3.1.17) and (3.1.18) we have
E
grav
=
_
R
0
Gm
r
dm
= G
_
R
0
1
r
_
4r
3

3
_
_
4r
2

_
dr
=
16
2
G
2
3
_
R
0
r
4
dr
=
16
2
G
2
3
_
R
5
5
_
=
16
2
G
2
15
R
5
(3.1.20)
Substituting in the density in terms of the total mass, (3.1.21) becomes
E
grav
=
16
2
G
15
_
M
4
/
3
R
3
_
2
R
5
=
16
2
G
15
_
9M
2
16
2
R
6
_
R
5
=
3
5
GM
2
R
(3.1.21)
If we want to express this in terms of the nucleon mass, we note that M = 2m
N
N, and so from
(3.1.21) we have
E
grav
=
3
5
G(2m
N
N)
2
R
E
grav
=
12
5
Gm
2
N
N
2
R
(3.1.22)
c) In order to nd the equilibrium radius, R
e
, we must minimize the total energy of the star, which is
the sum of the results from the previous two parts of this problem:
E
tot
= E
deg
+E
grav

3
2
10m
e
_
9
4
_2
/3
N
5
/3
R
2

12
5
Gm
2
N
N
2
R
(3.1.23)
Minimizing (3.1.23) with respect to R,
E
tot
R
=

R
_
3
2
10m
e
_
9
4
_2
/3
N
5
/3
R
2

12
5
Gm
2
N
N
2
R
_
=
3
2
10m
e
_
9
4
_2
/3
N
5
/3

R
_
1
R
2
_

12
5
Gm
2
N
N
2

R
_
1
R
_
=
3
2
10m
e
_
9
4
_2
/3
N
5
/3
_

2
R
3
_

12
5
Gm
2
N
N
2
_

1
R
2
_
=
3
2
5m
e
_
9
4
_2
/3
N
5
/3
1
R
3
+
12
5
Gm
2
N
N
2
1
R
2
(3.1.24)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
To minimize (3.1.24), we set the derivative with respect to R equal to zero and simplify:
12
5
Gm
2
N
N
2
1
R
2
=
3
2
5m
e
_
9
4
_2
/3
N
5
/3
1
R
3
R =
1
4
_
9
4
_2
/3

2
Gm
e
m
2
N
1
N
1
/3
(3.1.25)
We now wish to eliminate N, where we use our previous denition of the total mass M to declare
that M = 2m
N
N N = M/(2m
N
), and (3.1.25) becomes
R =
1
4
_
9
4
_2
/3

2
Gm
e
m
2
N
_
2m
N
M
_1
/3

(2)
1
/3
4
_
9
4
_2
/3

2
Gm
e
m
5
/2
N
M
1
/3
(3.1.26)
Substituting in the appropriate values into (3.1.26),
R
e
=
(2)
1
/3
4
_
9
4
_2
/3
_
1.055 10
34
J s
_
2
_
1.990 10
30
Kg
_1
/3
_
1.674 10
11
m
3
Kg
1
s
2
_
(9.109 10
31
Kg) (1.673 10
27
Kg)
5
/2
=7.162 10
6
m (3.1.27)
We can re-express (3.1.27) in terms of solar radii as
R
e
R
=
7.162 10
6
m
6.960 10
8
m

R
e
R
= 1.029 10
2
d) In the relativistic limit, we let cp, and we can use the density of states formula from (7.2.16):
a() d =
8V
h
3
c
3

2
d (3.1.28)
Recalling that h = 2, (3.1.28) becomes
a() d =
V

3
c
3

2
d (3.1.29)
We can integrate the density of states from (3.1.29) to nd the number of particles N:
N =
_
F
0
a() d
=
_
F
0
V

3
c
3

2
d
=
V

3
c
3

3
F
3
(3.1.30)
We can now substitute in to (3.1.30) the equation for volume,
N =
1

3
c
3

3
F
3

4
3
R
3

4R
3
9
3
c
3

3
F
(3.1.31)
Similarly, we can integrate the density of states from (3.1.29) to nd the internal energy:
U =
_
F
0
a() d
=
_
F
0
V

3
c
3

3
d
=
V

3
c
3

4
F
4
(3.1.32)
CHAPTER 3: STATISTICAL MECHANICS 281
Substituting in our value for V into (3.1.32),
U =
1

3
c
3

4
F
4
4
3
R
3

R
3
3
3
c
3

4
F
(3.1.33)
We can now solve (3.1.31) for
F
, which we will later substitute into (3.1.33). We nd that:
N =
1

3
c
3

3
F
3

4
3
R
3

4R
3
9
3
c
3

3
F

F
=
_
9
4
N
_1
/3
c
R
(3.1.34)
Substituting (3.1.34) into (3.1.33),
U =
R
3
3
3
c
3
_
_
9
4
N
_1
/3
c
R
_
4

R
3
3
3
c
3
_
9
4
_4
/3
N
4
/3
(c)
4
R
4
(3.1.35)
From (3.1.35) it is easy to see that the energy is then
U =
c
3
_
9
4
_4
/3
N
4
/3
R
(3.1.36)
e) To nd the critical value of N, we evaluate (3.1.36) set equal to (3.1.22):
c
3
_
9
4
_4
/3
N
4
/3
c
R
=
12
5
Gm
2
N
N
2
c
R
N
c
=
_
5c
36
_
9
4
_4
/3
1
m
2
N
G
_
3
/2
(3.1.37)
From (3.1.37) we can simplify our expression for N
c
and we arrive at
N
c
=
_
5c
36m
2
N
G
_3
/2
_
9
4
_
2
Problem 3
Let the Fermi distribution at low temperatures be represented by a straight line (shown in Fig. 8.11) that is
tangent to the actual curve at = . Show that this approximate representation yields a correct result for the
low-temperature specic heat of a Fermi gas, except that this numerical factor turns out to be smaller by a factor
of 4/
2
. Discuss, in a qualitative manner, the origin of the numerical discrepancy.
Solution
First of all, I dont really understand this problem. From Pathria, the low temperature specic heat of
a gas is given from (8.1.39) as
C
V
Nk
B
=

2
2
k
B
T
E
F
+ ... (3.1.38)
Recalling that the Fermi Energy can be dened in terms of the Fermi Temperature as T
F
= E
F
/k
B
,
(3.1.38) may be rewritten as
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
C
V
Nk
B
=

2
2
T
T
F
+... (3.1.39)
While the classical value is just given by
C
V
=
3
2
NK
B

C
V
Nk
B
=
3
2
(3.1.40)
Dividing (3.1.38) by (3.1.40) we nd that
C
F-D
V
C
Class
V
=
_

2
2
T
T
F
_

_
3
2
_
1


2
3
T
T
F
(3.1.41)
The factor relating the classical to the quantum result for C
V
at low temperature seems is
2
/3 . The
reason why the quantum factor is larger than the classical factor has to do with the behavior of gases
as T 0. In the classical case, the barrier is assumed to be a step function, yielding the factor of
3/2. In the quantum case, things are not so easy we must integrate the energy from the Fermi-Dirac
distribution function, which yields a numerical result which ends up being attributed to the factor of

2
/2 out front.
Chapter 4
Mathematical Methods
4.1 Homework #3
Problem 1
Determine if the following series converge:
a)

n=10
1
n(lnn)(ln(lnn))
(4.1.1a)
b)

n=2
ln
_
[ n]lnn (4.1.1b)
c)

n=0
4
n
+ 1
3
n
1
(4.1.1c)
d)

n=1
(n!)
2
(n
2
)!
(4.1.1d)
e)

n=0
(log

2)
n
(4.1.1e)
Solution
a) Since a
n+1
a
n
it is to our advantage to use the integral test to see if (4.1.1a) converges. Graph-
ically this just means that if we plot (4.1.1a) in terms of n we will get a curve that has negative
instantaneous slopes at all (nite) points. Rewriting (4.1.1a),

n=10
1
n(ln n)(ln(lnn))

_

10
1
x(lnx)(ln(lnx))
dx
_
u = lnx, du = 1/x dx
=
_

ln 10
1
u lnu
du
_
v = lnu, dv = 1/u du
=
_

ln ln 10
1
v
dv
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
=[ln v[

ln ln 10
(4.1.2)
From (4.1.2) we can see that since v diverges, so does u and so does x, so from the integral test it
is clear that (4.1.1a) diverges .
b) This problem begs to be solved by way of the comparison test, however a more straightforward,
qualitative explanation looms overhead. We know that lnn where n 2 is always a positive
number, so all we must do is analyze whats left of (4.1.1b) and if that diverges then so does the
entire function. We can see that
_
[ n]lnn diverges since for signicant values of n the square root
overcomes the enveloping ln function. Therefore, since
_
[ n]lnn diverges , so too must (4.1.1b).
c) This is a fairly straightforward; recall that if
lim
n
a
n
,= 0, then

n=0
a
n
diverges. (4.1.3)
In our case,
lim
n
4
n
+ 1
3
n
1
lim
n
4
n
3
n
= lim
n
_
4
3
_
n
(4.1.4)
So that (4.1.1c) diverges .
d) This can be analyzed using the ratio test. Letting a
n
= (n!)
2
/(n
2
)! and a
n+1
= ((n+1)!)
2
/((n+1)
2
)!,
we have
a
n+1
a
n
=
(n + 1)!(n + 1)!
[(n + 1)(n + 1)]!
[n n]!
n! n!
=
(n + 1)(n + 1)[n n]!
[(n + 1)(n + 1)]!
=
(n + 1)
2
(n + 1)
2
= 1 (4.1.5)
The fact that (4.1.5) equals 1 signies that the ratio test failed; we must nd another way to test for
convergence. A method that is not immediately apparent would be the integral test. The behavior
of (4.1.1d) is complex near the origin, but eventually the denominator wins, and it dominates the
behavior of the function. Subsequently, this implies that a
n+1
a
n
and we can therefore use the
integral test.

n=1
(n!)
2
(n
2
)!

_

1
(n!)
2
(n
2
)!
dx
0.685292 (< 1) (4.1.6)
Which was computed numerically using Mathematica. Since (4.1.6) is less than 1 then we can say
that (4.1.1d) converges .
e) Here we can straightforwardly apply the ratio test, where a
n
= (log

2)
n
and a
n+1
= (log

2)
n+1
.
So,
a
n+1
a
n
=
(log

2)
n+1
(log

2)
n
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 285
=log

2
0.605512 (< 1) (4.1.7)
From (4.1.7) we can see that since a
n+1
/a
n
< 1 then we know that (4.1.1e) converges .
Problem 2
Find the circle of convergence of the following series:
a)

n=0
nz
n
(4.1.8a)
b)

n=0
n!
n
n
z
n
(4.1.8b)
c)

n=0
(z + 5i)
2n
(n + 1)
2
(4.1.8c)
Solution
a) To nd the radius of convergence, we rst must use a test to see for what values (4.1.8a) is convergent.
In this case we should use the ratio test, where a
n
= nz
n
and a
n+1
= (n + 1)z
n+1
:
lim
n

a
n+1
a
n

= lim
n

(n + 1)z
n+1
nz
n

= lim
n

(n + 1)z
n

=[z[ lim
n

n + 1
n

=[z[ lim
n

1 +
1
n

=[z[ (4.1.9)
Since we are looking for the radius of convergence we require (4.1.9) to be a positive number less
than 1, so that we have 0 [z[ 1 .
b) Again, we need to go ahead and implement the ratio in order to attack this problem. Let a
n
=
n!z
n
/n
n
and a
n+1
= (n + 1)!z
n+1
/(n + 1)
n+1
. Then
lim
n

a
n+1
a
n

= lim
n

(n + 1)!z
n+1
(n + 1)
n+1
n
n
n!z
n

= lim
n

(n + 1)n
n
z
(n + 1)
n+1

=[z[ lim
n

n
n
(n + 1)
n

W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #3
=[z[ lim
n

_
n
n + 1
_
2

=[z[ lim
n

_
1
1 + 1/n
_
2

=[z[
1
e
(4.1.10)
The last step of (4.1.10) was achieved by noticing that the limit was nothing more than the inverse
of Eulers famous limit denition of e. Analogous to what we did in the last problem, to determine
the radius of convergence you say that (4.1.10) is between 0 and 1, such that 0 [z[/e 1
0 [z[ e .
c) We can nd the radius of convergence for (4.1.8c) by way of the ratio test. As usual, go ahead and
let a
n
= (z + 5i)
2n
(n + 1)
2
and a
n+1
= (z + 5i)
2(n+1)
(n + 2)
2
. Then
lim
n

a
n+1
a
n

= lim
n

(z + 5i)
2(n+1)
(n + 2)
2
(z + 5i)
2n
(n + 1)
2

= lim
n

(z + 5i)
2
(n + 2)
2
(n + 1)
2

=[z + 5i[
2
lim
n

(n + 2)
2
(n + 1)
2

(4.1.11)
To nd the limit in (4.1.11) we need to use the comparison test. We know that
[z + 5i[
2
lim
n

(n + 2)
2
(n + 1)
2

[z + 5i[
2
lim
n

(n + 2)
2
(n)
2

=[z + 5i[
2
lim
n

_
(n + 2)
(n)
_
2

=[z + 5i[
2
lim
n

_
1 + 1/n
1
_
2

. .
1
=[z + 5i[
2
(4.1.12)
And, as before, for convergence we require that (4.1.12) be between 0 and 1, so 0 [z + 5i[
2
1
0 [z + 5i[ 1 .
Problem 3
Sum the following series:
a)

n=0
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2
n
(4.1.13a)
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 287
b)

n=0
(1)
n
n!
(4.1.13b)
c)

n=0
()
n
(2n)!
(4.1.13c)
Solution
a) The easiest way by far to evaluate this sum is to write out some of the terms to see what value it
approaches. To make our job easier, lets rewrite (4.1.13a):

n=0
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2
n
=

n=0
n
2
+ 3n + 2
2
n
=

n=0
n
2
2
n
. .

1
+3

n=0
n
2
n
. .

2
+2

n=0
1
2
n
. .

3
(4.1.14)
Where I have dened
1
,
2
and
3
to be:

1
=

n=0
n
2
2
n
= 0 +
1
2
+ 1 +
9
8
+ 1 +
25
32
+
9
16
+
49
128
+
1
4
+
81
512
+
25
256
5.85742

2
=

n=0
n
2
n
= 0 +
1
2
+
1
2
+
3
8
+
1
4
+
5
32
+
3
32
+
7
128
+
1
132
+
9
512
+
5
512
1.98828

3
=

n=0
1
2
n
= 0 + 1 +
1
2
+
1
4
+
1
8
+
1
16
+
1
32
+
1
64
+
1
128
+
1
256
+
1
512
+
1
1024
1.99902
So that we now have

n=0
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2
n

1
+ 3
2
+ 2
3
= 5.85742 + 3 1.98828 + 2 1.99902 = 15.8203 16
b) This is rather straightforward to solve if we recognize that (4.1.13b) is similar in form to the series
expansion of e
x
,
e
x
= 1 +x +
x
2
2!
+
x
3
3!
+ ... +
x
n
n!
=

n=0
x
n
n!
(4.1.15)
Where at this point it should be noticed that x in (4.1.15) is equal to 1 in (4.1.13b). Making this
substitution into (4.1.15) we are left with,

n=0
(1)
n
n!
= e
1

1
e
(4.1.16)
c) We approach this problem in the same way we did for the last one; look at a table of Taylor
expansions for common functions and see if we can use one to solve (4.1.13c). In this case, we are
interested in the expansion of cos x:
cos x = 1
x
2
2!
+
x
4
4!

x
6
6!
+ ... +
(1)
n
(2n)!
=

n=0
(1)
n
(2n)!
x
2n
(4.1.17)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
Recognizing that x in (4.1.17) is

in (4.1.13c) and substituting it into the right side of (4.1.17),

n=0
(1)
n
(2n)!
(

)
2n
=

n=0
(1)
n
()
n
(2n)!
=

n=0
()
n
(2n)!
= cos

(4.1.18)
4.2 Homework #4
Problem 1
Evaluate the integral:
_
CR
cot (z)
z
4
dz (4.2.1)
Where C is a circle of large radius R centered at z = 0, and prove that (4) =

4
90
.
Hint 1: As R approaches innity, the integral approaches zero.
Hint 2: Series expansion of the cotangent function near zero is cot (x) =
1
x

x
3

x
3
45
+ ...
Solution
The rst step is to substitute the series expansion given in the 2nd hint into (4.2.1):
_
CR
cot (z)
z
4
dz =
_
CR

z
4
_
1
z

z
3

(z)
3
45
+...
_
dz
=
_
CR
_
1
z
5


2
3z
3


4
45z
+ ...
_
dz (4.2.2)
And also recall that
_
C
1
z
n
dz = 0 for n ,= 1 (4.2.3)
According to (4.2.3), the only surviving term in (4.2.2) is the 3
rd
term:
_
CR
cot (z)
z
4
dz =
_
CR

4
45z
dz (4.2.4)
And we can see that the residue at z
0
= 0 is just
4
/45, and due to the residue theorem the integral
ends up being
_
CR
cot (z)
z
4
dz =2i
_

4
45
_

2
5
45
(4.2.5)
To nd (4), rst take the taylor expansion of sinx/x:
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 289
sin x
x
=1
x
2
3!
+
x
4
5!

x
6
7!
+... (4.2.6)
And also recall that the Euler-Wallis Sine Product has the form
sin x
x
=

n=1
_
1

2
x
2
n
2
_
=
_
1
2
x
2
_
_
1

2
x
2
4
__
1

2
x
2
8
_
... (4.2.7)
By multiplying out the rst few terms of (4.2.7) and equating it with (4.2.6), it might be possible to
nd (4). Mathews and Walker go through a signicantly dierent method to solve the problem on pg.
53, however I did not nd it to be intuitive and decided to investigate other ways to solve the problem.
Unfortunately, I ran out of time!
Problem 2
Evaluate the integral:
I(a) =
_

0
e
ax
1 + x
2
dx (4.2.8)
By obtaining a dierential equation for I(a) and solving it by variation of parameters. Express the answer using
Ci(x) and Si(x) integrals.
Solution
To solve this integral in the way suggested, the rst step would be to combine several derivatives of our
integral I(a) to form a dierential equation, which we can then solve. So, lets nd the derivatives of
(4.2.8) with respect to a:
I

(a) =
_

0
xe
ax
1 +x
2
dx (4.2.9)
I

(a) =
_

0
x
2
e
ax
1 + x
2
dx (4.2.10)
Now, using (4.2.8), (4.2.9), and (4.2.10) we can create a dierential equation. Following Mathews and
Walker p. 61, lets add I(a) and I

(a):
I

(a) + I(a) =
_

0
x
2
e
ax
1 + x
2
dx +
_

0
e
ax
1 +x
2
dx
=
_

0
e
ax
1 +x
2
_
x
2
+ 1
_
dx
=
_

0
e
ax
dx
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
=
1
a
So, our dierential equation is then:
I

(a) + I(a) =
1
a
(4.2.11)
Which takes the standard form of an inhomogeneous second order dierential equation,
P(x)y

+ Q(x)y

+ R(x)y = S(x) (4.2.12)


At this point we use variation of parameters to solve (4.2.11). To start, rst look at the general solution
to the homogeneous analogue to (4.2.12):
y(x) = c
1
y
1
(x) + c
2
y
2
(x) (4.2.13)
If our equation was homogeneous, then we would have I

(a) +I(a) = 0, which has solutions I


1
(a) = e
ia
and I
2
(a) = e
ia
. But in the case of our inhomogeneous dierential equation, the constants in front of
the terms in (4.2.13) are also dependent on a, which we now refer to as u
i
(a) instead of c
i
:
I(a) = u
1
(a)I
1
(a) +u
2
(a)I
2
(a) (4.2.14)
Where from now on I will drop the explicit a dependence for convenience (eg I(a) I). We must take
the rst and second derivatives of (4.2.14) and insert them into (4.2.11). Taking the rst derivative,
I

= u
1
I

1
+u
2
I

2
+u

1
I
1
+u

2
I
2
(4.2.15)
Where, following Mathews and Walkers lead on pg. 9, we impose the condition that the last two terms
in (4.2.15) sum to zero:
u

1
I
1
+ u

2
I
2
= 0 (4.2.16)
This is one of two equations which allows us to nd u
1
and u
2
. Continuing, (4.2.15) becomes
I

= u
1
I

1
+u
2
I

2
(4.2.17)
Now nd the second derivative of (4.2.17):
I

= u
1
I

1
+ u
2
I

2
+ u

1
I

1
+ u

2
I

2
(4.2.18)
Substituting (4.2.14) and (4.2.18) into (4.2.12):
PI

+ QI

+RI =P[u
1
I

1
+u
2
I

2
+u

1
I

1
+u

2
I

2
] + Q[u
1
I

1
+ u
2
I

2
] + R[u
1
I
1
+ u
2
I
2
]
=P[u

1
I

1
+u

2
I

2
] + u
1
[PI

1
+ QI

1
+RI
1
]
. .
0
+u2 [PI

2
+QI

2
+ RI
2
]
. .
0
(4.2.19)
Where the last two terms vanish since both I
1
and I
2
are solutions to the homogeneous analogue to
(4.2.12). So, remembering that P = 1 and S = 1/a, we now have:
u

1
I

1
+ u

2
I

2
= 1/a (4.2.20)
Now we must use (4.2.16) and (4.2.20) to nd out what u
1
and u
2
are. Solving (4.2.16) for u

1
:
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 291
u

1
=
u

2
I
2
I
1
(4.2.21)
And substituting this into (4.2.20):
_

2
I
2
I
1
_
I

1
+ u

2
I

2
=
1
a
u

2
_
I

I
2
I

1
I
1
_
=
1
a
u

2
=
1
a
_
I

I
2
I

1
I
1
_
1
(4.2.22)
At this point it should be remembered that I
1
= e
ia
,I

1
= ie
ia
,I
2
= e
ia
, and I

2
= ie
ia
. Continuing,
u

2
=
1
a
_
(ie
ia
)
(e
ia
)(ie
ia
)
e
ia
_
1
=
1
a
_
ie
ia
ie
ia

1
=
e
ia
2ia
=
1
2a
_

cos a
i
sin a
_
(4.2.23)
And integrating,
u
2
=
1
2
_

1
i
_
cos a
a
da
_
sin a
a
da
_
=
1
2
_

1
i
__
cos a
a
da
_

__
sin a
a
da
__
=
1
2
_

1
i
Ci(a) Si(a)
_
=
Ci(a)
2i

Si(a)
2
(4.2.24)
Where I used the fundamental denitions of Ci(x) and Si(x). To nd u

1
substitute (4.2.23) into (4.2.16):
u

1
=
_

e
ia
2ia
_
I
2
I
1
=
_
e
ia
2ia
_
e
ia
e
ia
=
e
ia
2ia
=
1
2a
_
cos a
i
sin a
_
(4.2.25)
And integrating here as well,
u
1
=
1
2
_
1
i
_
cos a
a
da
_
sin a
a
da
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #4
=
1
2
_
1
i
__
cos a
a
da
_

__
sin a
a
da
__
=
1
2
_
+
1
i
Ci(a) Si(a)
_
=
Ci(a)
2i

Si(a)
2
(4.2.26)
At this point we substitute (4.2.24) and (4.2.26) into (4.2.14):
I =u
1
I
1
+ u
2
I
2
=
_
Ci(a)
2i

Si(a)
2
_
e
ia
+
_

Ci(a)
2i

Si(a)
2
_
e
ia
=
Ci(a)
2i
e
ia

Si(a)
2
e
ia

Ci(a)
2i
e
ia

Si(a)
2
e
ia
=Ci(a)
_
e
ia
2i

e
ia
2i
_
+ Si(a)
_

e
ia
2

e
ia
2
_
=Ci(a)(sin a) Si(a)(cos a) (4.2.27)
But (4.2.27) is not the answer. I apologize but I did not have time to go back to change everything
recall that the denition for Ci(x) and Si(x) are:
Ci(x) =
_
x

cos t
t
dt (4.2.28)
and
Si(x) =
_
x
0
sin t
t
dt (4.2.29)
So in order to make the substitution, we must account for the fact that the integration limits of Ci(x)
are dierent from Si(x). In fact, we must require that I(a) and all its derivatives vanish at a = , so
we need to substitute the following correction in place of Si(a) in (4.2.27):
_
a

sina
a
da =
_
a
0
sin a
a
da
_

0
sin a
a
da
=Si(a)

2
(4.2.30)
So, substituting this into (4.2.27),
I =Ci(a)(sin a)
_
Si(a)

2
_
(cos a)
= sin aCi(a) + cos a
_

2
Si(a)
_
(4.2.31)
Problem 3
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 293
Evaluate
_
+

1 cos x
x
2
dx (4.2.32)
Solution
First recall Eulers equation e
ix
= cos x + i sin x. Since (4.2.32) has a cos x in the numerator, we may
simply refer to it as the real part of e
ix
: 'e
ix
= cos x. Rewriting (4.2.32), and also moving it over to
the complex plane, we have
_
+

1 cos x
x
2
dx ='
__
+

1 e
ix
x
2
dx
_
=
_
C
1 e
iz
z
2
dz (4.2.33)
There is a singularity at z = 0, and recall that if we have a pole of order n,
a
1
=
1
(n 1)!
d
n1
dz
(z z
0
)
n
f(z) (4.2.34)
Since n = 2 in our case,
Res(z
0
= 0) =
d
dz
z
2
_
1 e
iz
z
2
_

z0
= ie
iz

z0
= i (4.2.35)
Since our residue is on the negative imaginary axis, we should integrate over the lower hemisphere.
Futhermore, since our singularity is located at z = 0 and is on the path of the contour, we must detour
around the origin. To do this subtract from the result upon applying the Residue Theorem:
_
+

1 cos x
x
2
dx =2i(i) = 2 = (4.2.36)
Problem 4
Show that:
_
+

cos x
x
2
+ a
2
dx =

a
e
a
(4.2.37)
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
Noticing that we can rewrite (4.2.37) in much the same way that we did in Problem 3,
_
+

cos x
x
2
+a
2
dx = '
__
+

e
ix
x
2
+ a
2
dx
_
(4.2.38)
At this point we can solve (4.2.38) using the Residue Theorem rather straightforwardly. Notice that we
can rewrite the denominator in (4.2.38) as (x + ia)(x ia). Making this substitution and moving the
integral to the complex plane,
'
__
+

e
ix
x
2
+ a
2
dx
_
=
_
C
e
iz
(z +ia)(z ia)
dz (4.2.39)
From (4.2.39) it is obvious that there are residues at both z
0
= ia and z
0
= ia. Evaluating the integral
over the uer hemisphere we would take only the positive residue,
Res(z
0
= ia) = (z ia)
_
e
iz
(z +ia)(z ia)
_

zia
=
e
a
2ia
(4.2.40)
And by the residue theorem,
_
+

cos x
x
2
+ a
2
dx =2i
_
e
a
2ia
_
=

a
e
a
(4.2.41)
4.3 Homework #5
Problem 1
Prove Parsevals Theorem:
If f(x)
a
0
2
+

n=1
(a
n
cos nx + b
n
sin nx) (4.3.1a)
Then
_

f
2
(x) dx =

2
a
2
0
+

n=1
(a
2
n
+b
2
n
) (4.3.1b)
Solution
This can be solved via straightforward substitution, where we insert (4.3.1a) into the left hand side of
(4.3.1b). This yields,
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 295
_

f
2
(x) dx =
_

_
a
0
2
+

n=1
(a
n
cos nx +b
n
sin nx)
_
2
dx
=
_

_
a
0
4
2
+ a
0

n=1
(a
n
cos nx +b
n
sin nx) +

n=1
(a
n
cos nx + b
n
sin nx)
2
_
dx
=
a
0
4
2
_

dx + a
0

n=1
_

(a
n
cos nx + b
n
sin nx) dx +

n=1
_

(a
n
cos nx + b
n
sin nx)
2
dx
=
a
2
0
2
+

n=1
_

_
a
2
n
cos
2
nx + 2a
n
b
n
sin nx cos nx +b
2
n
sin
2
nx
_
dx
=
a
2
0
2
+

n=1
_
a
2
n
_

cos
2
nx dx + b
n
_

sin
2
nx dx
_
=
a
2
0
2
+

n=1
_
a
2
n
2
_

(1 + cos 2nx) dx +
b
2
n
2
_

(1 cos 2nx) dx
_
=
a
2
0
2
+

n=1
_
a
2
n
2
_
2 +
_

cos 2nx dx
_
+
b
2
n
2
_
2
_

cos 2nx dx
__
=
a
2
0
2
+

n=1
_
a
2
n
2
_
2 +
sin2n
2n
_
+
b
2
n
2
_
2
sin 2n
2n
__
=
a
2
0
2
+

n=1
_
a
2
n
2
(2) +
b
2
n
2
(2)
_
=
a
2
0
2
+

n=1
_
a
2
n
+ b
2
n

Which is the same as the right hand side of (4.3.1b). Therefore, we have shown that given (4.3.1a), that:
_

f
2
(x) dx =

2
a
2
0
+

n=1
_
a
2
n
+ b
2
n

Problem 2
Show that for a symmetric function
f
_

2
+ x
_
= f
_

2
x
_
, (4.3.2)
The Fourier series has coecients b
n
= 0 and a
2n+1
= 0.
Solution
Recall that
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
(a
n
cos nx +b
n
sin nx) (4.3.3)
Fourier series expands a given function as a sum of cosine and sine terms, where cosine is even (symmetric)
and sine is odd (anti-symmetric). If the function is purely even, then it is clear that it cannot be expanded
in terms of any odd terms, which in (4.3.3) corresponding to b
n
= 0 :
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
a
n
cos nx (4.3.4)
To see that a
2n+1
= 0, recall how we dene a
n
:
a
n
=
1

f(x) cos nx dx
Such that we have for a
2n+1
:
a
2n+1
=
1

f(x) cos [(2n + 1)x] dx


=
1

f(x) (cos 2nxcos x sin 2nxsin x) dx


=
1

__

f(x) cos 2nx cos x dx


_

f(x) sin 2nxsin x dx


_
(4.3.5)
We recall from (4.3.4) that f(x) is an even function, and also that the domain is symmetric. Therefore,
the rst integral in (4.3.5) is zero since it is an even function integrated over a symmetric domain. The
second integral is also zero since it is an even function multiplying an odd function over a symmetric
domain. Therefore, a
2n+1
= 0 .
Problem 3
Consider the step function
f(x) =
_
for 0 x <
for x < 0
(4.3.6)
Find
a) The Fourier series for f(x)
b) The integral of the Fourier series
c) Show that the dierential of the Fourier series does not exist.
Solution
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 297
a) We begin by noting that the Fourier Series is dened by
f(x) =
a
0
2
+

n=1
(a
n
cos nx +b
n
sin nx) (4.3.7)
Where the coecients a
0
, a
n
, and b
n
are dened by
a
0
=
1

f(x) dx (4.3.8)
And,
a
n
=
1

f(x) cos nx dx (4.3.9)


And also
b
n
=
1

f(x) sin nx dx (4.3.10)


For the function dened by (4.3.6), we can immediately see that the function is purely odd, and
consequently a
n
= 0. To nd the Fourier Series (4.3.7) we start by calculating a
0
from (4.3.8):
a
0
=
1

f(x) dx
=
1

__
0

() dx +
_

0
() dx
_
=
1

_
[x[
0

+ [x[

0
_
=
1

[(0 +) +( 0)]
=
1

2
+
2

= 0
And similarly we nd b
n
from (4.3.10):
b
n
=
1

f(x) sin nx dx
=
1

_
0

sin nx dx +
_

0
sin nx dx
_
=
1

cos nx
n

+
_

cos nx
n

0
_
=
1

_
1
n

cos n
n
_

_
cos n
n

1
n
__
=
1

_
2
_
1
n

cos n
n
__
=2
_
1 cos n
n
_
Substituting the values for a
0
, a
n
, and b
n
into (4.3.7):
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
f(x) = 2

n=1
_
1 cos n
n
_
sin nx (4.3.11)
b) To nd the integral of the Fourier series, integrate (4.3.11):
_

f(x) dx =2

n=1
_
1 cos n
n
__

sin nx dx
=2

n=1
_
1 cos n
n
_
_

cos nx
n

= 0 (4.3.12)
I do believe that I misinterpreted this problem.
c) A quick, qualitative solution to this problem would be to notice that we have a discontinuous
piecewise function, and therefore the derivative is not dened over the entire domain. A slightly
less quick solution would be to calculate f

(x) and see if the resultant series converges or diverges


at each point, which should determine unequivocally whether or not the derivative exists.
So, taking the derivative of (4.3.11):
f

(x) =2

n=1
d
dx
_
1 cos n
n
_
sinnx
=2

n=1
(1 cos n) cos nx
A point of interest being x = 0, so:
f

(x) =2

n=1
(1 cos n)
A test for convergence is not necessary; we can clearly see that f

(0) does not converge, so that


f

(x) is not dierentiable .


Problem 4
Apply a constant external force to a damped harmonic oscillator, starting at time t = 0 and keeping it on.
F(t) =
_
0 for t < 0
F for t > 0
What is the resulting motion?
Solution
The dierential equation describing the damped, forced harmonic oscillator is:
x

(t) + x

(t) +
2
0
x(t) = F(t) (4.3.13)
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 299
Where F(t) in this problem is dened by the heaviside step function. For t < 0, (4.3.13) becomes
x

(t) + x

(t) +
2
0
x = 0
Which is easy enough to solve, start by nding the roots r
1
and r
2
:
r
2
+r +
2
0
= 0
Which is clearly quadratic, letting a = 1, b = and c =
2
0
:
r
1,2
=

_

2
4
2
0
2
So the motion is described by
x(t) = C
1
exp
_
i
_
+
_

2
4
2
0
2
_
t
_
+ C
2
exp
_
i
_

_

2
4
2
0
2
_
t
_
(4.3.14)
Where C
1
and C
2
are determined via initial conditions, which are not given. If we say that initially the
system is not in motion, e.g. x(0) = 0 and x

(0) = 0, then x(t) = 0 for all times. Otherwise it will


oscillate in a predictable way.
We should now investigate the second condition of the heaviside step function, where our dierential
equation picks up a constant term:
x

(t) + x

(t) +
2
0
x(t) = F
0
Which we can rearrange as
x

(t) + x

(t) +
2
0
_
x(t)
F
0

2
0
_
= 0
The addition of this term necessitates the inclusion of a particular solution to our homogeneous solution
(4.3.15):
x(t) = C
1
exp
_
i
_
+
_

2
4
2
0
2
_
t
_
+ C
2
exp
_
i
_

_

2
4
2
0
2
_
t
_
+
F
0

2
0
(4.3.15)
The eect of adding a constant external force to a damped harmonic oscillator only acts to oset the
equilibrium position, so that the system oscillates around a dierent point, which is given by F
0
/
2
0
and
is independent of time.
Problem 5
Show that the Fourier sine transforms of y

(x) and y

(x) are
F
s
[y

] = y
c
() (4.3.16a)
F
s
[y

] =
2
y
s
() +

y(0) (4.3.16b)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
Solution
We rst note the denitions of the Fourier sine and cosine transforms:
F
s
[f(x)] =f
s
() =
_

0
f(x) sin x dx
F
c
[f(x)] =f
c
() =
_

0
f(x) cos x dx
So, for the rst derivative, f(x) = y

(x) and:
F
s
[y

(x)] =
_

0
y

(x) sin x dx
=
_

0
y(x)
x
sin x dx
At this point, and this is a historic moment since I have never done this before, we want to do a sort of
inverse integration by parts. We begin by noting that
_

0
y(x) cos x dx (4.3.17)
Doing integration by parts,
u = y(x) du =
y(x)
x
dv = cos x v =
1

sin x
Such that (4.3.17) becomes:
_

0
y(x) cos x dx =
1

_
y(x) sin x

_

0
y(x)
x
sinx dx
Solving this for
_
y(x)
x
sin x dx,
_

0
y(x)
x
sin x dx =
_
y(x) sin x

0

_

0
y(x) cos x dx
= y
c
() (4.3.18)
=F
s
[y

(x)]
The process of nding the second derivative is very much the same, recognizing that in this case f(x) =
y

(x) and
F
s
[y

(x)] =
_

0
y

(x) sin x dx
=
_

0
y

(x)
x
sin x dx
Where this time we look at:
_

0
y

(x) cos x dx
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 301
Where we have
u = y

(x) du =
y

(x)
x
dv = cos x v =
1

sin x
Such that
_

0
y

(x) cos x dx =
1

_
y

(x) sin x

_

0
y

(x)
x
sin x dx
And solving for the relavent term,
_

0
y

(x)
x
sin x dx =
_
y

(x) sin x

0

_

0
y

(x) cos x dx
=
_

0
y

(x) cos x dx (4.3.19)


We repeat this process yet another time, but this time around we are looking at
_

0
y

(x) cos x dx =
_

0
y(x)
x
cos x dx
And now we look at
_

0
y(x) sin x dx
Where we let
u = y(x) du =
y(x)
x
dv = sin x v =
1

cos x
So
_

0
y(x) sin x dx =
1

_
y(x) cos x

0
+
1

_

0
y(x)
x
dx
And now
_

0
y(x)
x
cos x dx =
_
y(x) cos x

0
+
_

0
y(x) sin x dx
= y(0) +y
s
()
Substituting this back into (4.3.19),
_

0
y

(x)
x
sin x dx = (y
s
() y(0))
=
2
y
s
() +y(0) (4.3.20)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #5
In summary, we have shown that:
F
s
[y

] = y
c
()
F
s
[y

] =
2
y
s
() + y(0)
You might have noticed that what I found for F
s
[y

] diers from yours by a factor of 1/ in the last


term. I have no idea where that could have come from.
Problem 6
Show that the solution of
y

+ 2y

+ (
2
+
2
)y = g(x), > 0, > 0, y() = y() = 0 (4.3.21)
With g() = 0 is
y =
1

_
x

g()e
(x)
sin [(x )] d (4.3.22)
Hint: Find Greens function of the equation rst.
Solution
As per the hint, I am going to go ahead and nd Greens function for (4.3.21). Substituting G(x ) for
y assuming that x > , we solve the homogeneous analogue of our given dierential equation:
G

(x ) + 2G

(x ) + (
2
+
2
)G(x ) = 0
Finding the roots,
r
2
+ 2r + (
2
+
2
) = 0
Letting a = 1, b = 2 and c =
2
+
2
:
r
1,2
=
2
_
4
2
4(
2
+
2
)
2
= i
So that we have
G(x ) =C
1
cos[( + i)(x )] + C
2
sin[( i)(x )]
=
1

sin[( i)(x )] (4.3.23)


Due to the boundary conditions of the problem. At this point we should note that this problem represents
a driven, damped harmonic oscillator, whose solution was discussed in an earlier problem. The solution
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 303
to this type of problem using Greens function is given in M&W in the prompt of problem 9-7. Tailoring
it to our case,
y(x) =
_
x

G(x )g() d (4.3.24)


The nite upper limit comes from the fact that x in this problem really should be t, and up to this point
we have been assuming that for x 0, G(x ) = 0. To make this more transparent, we note that
for a harmonic oscillator, we would have likely chosen x to be t, and to be t

. In this case our


solution for y(x) (or y(t), rather) is represented by an integral over past times t.
Substituting (4.3.23) into (4.3.24),
y(x) =
1

_
x

sin[( i)x]g() d (4.3.25)


Where we can say
sin[( i)x] =
1
2i
exp[( i)(x )] exp[( + i)(x )]
=
1
2i
exp[x ix +i] exp[x + +ix i]
=
1
2i
exp[(x ) +i(x )] exp[(x ) + i(x )]
=
exp[(x )]
2i
exp[i(x )] exp[i(x )]
=exp[(x )] sin [(x )] (4.3.26)
Now substituting (4.3.26) back into (4.3.25):
y(x) =
1

_
x

exp[(x )] sin[(x )] g() d


In case you couldnt tell I worked backwards a bit, sorry for the missteps in logic. I am very ignorant to
Greens functions (I nd the entire thing very confusing), however it is an invaluable mathematical tool,
one I hope to master soon.
4.4 Homework #6
Problem 1
Find the Laplace transform of f(t) = te
t
, and determine the region of existence.
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
We know that the Laplace Transform of some function f(t) is given by
Lf(t) = F(s) =
_

0
f(t)e
st
dt
And in our case,
Lf(t) =
_

0
te
t
e
st
dt
=
_

0
te
(s1)t
dt
_
u = t, du = 1
dv = e
(s1)t
, v =
1
s1
e
(s1)t
=
_

t
s 1
e
(s1)t

0
+
1
s 1
_

0
e
(s1)t
dt
=
_

1
(s 1)
2
e
(s1)t

0
=
1
(s 1)
2
We can see that in the last limit, the result will be convergent only if s 1 < 0, or s > 1, so
F(s) =
1
(s 1)
2
for s > 1
Problem 2
Find the inverse Laplace Transform of
a)
1
s
3
s
2
(4.4.1a)
b)
s
2
+s 1
s
3
2s
2
+s 2
(4.4.1b)
Solution
a) As per the hint, lets go ahead and employ partial fractions on (4.4.1a):
1
s
3
s
2
=
1
s
2
(s 1)
=
A
s
2
+
B
s
+
C
s 1
1 =A(s 1) + Bs(s 1) + Cs
2
Let s = 0: 1 = A A = 1
Let s = 1: 1 =Cs
2
C = 1
Let A = 1, C = 1: 1 =1 s +Bs(s 1) +s
2
B = 1
So, (4.4.1a) becomes
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 305
1
s
3
s
2
=
1
s 1

1
s
2

1
s
(4.4.2)
Where we note that
L
_
e
t
_
=
_

0
e
t
e
st
dt =
_

0
e
(s1)t
dt =
1
s 1
(4.4.3a)
Lt =
_

0
te
st
dt =
1
s
_

0
e
st
dt =
1
s
2
(4.4.3b)
L1 =
_

0
e
st
dt =
1
s
(4.4.3c)
Substituting (4.4.3a)-(4.4.3c) into (4.4.2),
1
s
3
s
2
= e
t
t 1
b) This time we only need to factor; no partial fractions is needed:
s
2
+ s 1
s
3
2s
2
+s 2
=
(s
2
+ 1)
(s
2
+ 1)(s 2)
+
(s
2
+ 1) + (s 2)
(s
2
+ 1)(s 2)
=
1
s
2
+ 1
+
1
s 2
(4.4.4)
We note the Laplace Transforms of the following functions
Lsin t =
_

0
sin te
st
dt
=
1
2i
_

0
_
e
it
e
it

e
st
dt
=
1
2i
_

0
_
e
(is)t
e
(i+s)t
_
dt
=
1
2i
_

e
(is)t
s i

e
(i+s)t
s + i

0
=
1
2i
_
1
s i

1
s +i
_
=
1
2i
_
2i
s
2
+ 1
_
=
1
s
2
+ 1
(4.4.5)
L
_
e
2t
_
=
_

0
e
2t
e
st
dt =
_

0
e
(s2)t
dt =
1
s 2
(4.4.6)
Putting (4.4.5) and (4.4.6) into (4.4.4),
s
2
+s 1
s
3
2s
2
+s 2
= sint +e
2t
Problem 3
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
Solve the following dierential equations using Laplace Transforms:
a) y

+y = cos t, for t > 0, y(0) = 1 (4.4.7a)


b) y

+ y = cos (2t), for t > 0, y(0) = 0, y

(0) = 0 (4.4.7b)
Solution
a) First lets nd the Laplace Transform of cos t, since it will be needed later:
Lcos t =
_

0
cos te
st
dt
=
1
2
_

0
_
e
it
+e
it

e
st
dt
=
1
2
_

0
_
e
(is)t
+ e
(i+s)t
_
dt
=
1
2
_

e
(is)t
s i
+
e
(i+s)t
s +i

0
=
1
2
_
1
s i
+
1
s +i
_
=
1
2
_
2s
s
2
+ 1
_
=
s
s
2
+ 1
(4.4.8)
Taking the Laplace Transform of both sides of (4.4.7a),
Ly

+ Ly =Lcos t
sY (s) y(0) +Y (s) =
s
s
2
+ 1
Applying the given initial condition and solving for Y (s),
Y (s) =
s
(s
2
+ 1)(s + 1)
+
1
s + 1
=
1 + s
2(s
2
+ 1)

1
2(s + 1)
+
1
s + 1
=
1
2
_
1
s
2
+ 1
_
+
1
2
_
s
s
2
+ 1
_
+
_
1
s + 1
_
Now we must nd the inverse Laplace Transform of Y (s):
L
1
Y (s) =
1
2
L
1
_
1
s
2
+ 1
_
+
1
2
L
1
_
s
s
2
+ 1
_
+L
1
_
1
s + 1
_
Where we recall that the inverse Laplace Transform of 1/(s
2
+ 1) was found to be sint in (4.4.5),
and s/(s
2
+ 1) was found to be cos t in (4.4.8). Finding 1/(s + 1),
L
_
e
t
_
=
_

0
e
t
e
st
dt =
_

0
e
(s+1)t
dt =
1
s + 1
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 307
So we now have
L
1
Y (s) =
sin t
2
+
cos t1
2
+e
t
And nally
y(t) =
1
2
(sin t + cos t) +e
t
b) We rst nd the Laplace Transform of cos (2t), since it will be needed later:
Lcos (2t) =
_

0
cos (2t)e
st
dt
=
1
2
_

0
_
e
2it
+ e
2it

e
st
dt
=
1
2
_

0
_
e
(2is)t
+e
(2i+s)t
_
dt
=
1
2
_

e
(2is)t
s 2i
+
e
(2i+s)t
s + 2i

0
=
1
2
_
1
s 2i
+
1
s + 2i
_
=
1
2
_
2s
s
2
+ 4
_
=
s
s
2
+ 4
(4.4.9)
Now, applying the Laplace Transform to both sides of (4.4.7b):
Ly

+ Ly =Lcos (2t)
s
2
Y (s) sy(0) y

(0) + Y (s) =
s
s
2
+ 4
Applying the initial conditions,
s
2
Y (s) + Y (s) =
s
s
2
+ 4
Y (s) =
s
(s
2
+ 4)(s
2
+ 1)
=
1
3
_
s
s
2
+ 1

s
s
2
+ 4
_
Taking the inverse Laplace Transform of Y (s),
L
1
Y (s) =
1
3
_
L
1
_
s
s
2
+ 1
_
L
1
_
s
s
2
+ 4
__
Where again the inverse Laplace Transform of s/(s
2
+ 1) is just cos t as per (4.4.5). Similarly,
s/(s
2
+ 4) is just cos (2t), which was found in (4.4.9). So, we are nally left with:
y(t) =
1
3
[cos t cos (2t)]
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #6
Problem 4
An electric circuit gives rise to the system
L
dI
1
dt
+RI
1
+
q
C
= E
0
(4.4.10a)
L
dI
2
dt
+RI
2

q
C
= 0 (4.4.10b)
dq
dt
= I
1
I
2
(4.4.10c)
With initial conditions
I
1
(0) = I
2
(0) =
E
0
2R
, q(0) = 0 (4.4.11)
Solve the system by Laplace Transform methods and show that
I
1
=
E
0
2R
+
E
0
2L
e
t
sin (t), where =
R
2L
and
2
=
2
LC

2
(4.4.12)
Solution
We start by taking the inverse Laplace Transform of (4.4.10c):
Lq

(t) =LI
1
(t) LI
2
(t)
sq(s) q(0) =I
1
(s) I
2
(s)
q(s) =
I
1
(s)
s

I
2
(s)
s
(4.4.13)
We now do the same for (4.4.10a):
LLI
1
(t) + RLI
1
+
1
C
Lq(t) =E
0
L1
L[sI
1
(s) I
1
(0)] + RI
1
(s) +
1
C
q(s) =
E
0
s
L
_
sI
1
(s)
E
0
2R
_
+ RI
1
(s) +
1
C
_
I
1
(s)
s

I
2
(s)
s
_
=
E
0
s
sI
1
(s) +
R
L
I
1
(s) +
2
0
I
1
(s)
s

2
0
I
2
(s)
s
=
E
0
Ls
+
E
0
2R
_
s +
R
L
+

2
0
s
_
I
1
(s)
2
0
I
2
(s)
s
=
E
0
Ls
+
E
0
2R
_
s
2
+
2
0
s
+
R
L
_
I
1
(s)
2
0
I
2
(s)
s
=
E
0
Ls
+
E
0
2R
(4.4.14)
Where I have dened
2
0
= 1/

LC . And similarly for (4.4.10b):


LLI
2
(t) + RLI
2

1
C
Lq(t) =0
L[sI
2
(s) I
2
(0)] + RI
2
(s)
1
C
q(s) =0
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 309
L
_
sI
2
(s)
E
0
2R
_
+ RI
2
(s)
1
C
_
I
1
(s)
s

I
2
(s)
s
_
=0
sI
2
(s) +
R
L
I
2
(s)
2
0
I
1
(s)
s
+
2
0
I
2
(s)
s
=
E
0
2R
_
s +
R
L
+

2
0
s
_
I
2
(s)
2
0
I
1
(s)
s
=
E
0
2R
_
s
2
+
2
0
s
+
R
L
_
I
2
(s)
2
0
I
1
(s)
s
=
E
0
2R
(4.4.15)
At this point we have two equations, (4.4.14) and (4.4.15), and two unknowns. Finding the s-domain
solutions (I
1
(s) and I
2
(s)) is trivial, but time consuming. The most tedious steps in what follows were
left up to Mathematica.
The obvious rst step would be to solve (4.4.14) for I
2
(s), inserting into (4.4.15), and solving for
I
1
(s). The result is
I
1
(s) =
E
0
2
_
1
Rs
+
1
s(Ls + R) + 2L
2
0
_
=
E
0
2
_
1
Rs
+
1
Ls(s + R/L) + 2/C
_
=
E
0
2
_
1
Rs
+
1
L
_
1
s
2
+sR/L + 2/LC
__ _
Let = R/2L
=
E
0
2
_
1
Rs
+
1
L
_
1
s
2
+ 2s + 2/LC
__
=
E
0
2
_
1
Rs
+
1
L
_
1
s
2
+ 2s +
2
+ 2/LC
2
__ _
Complete the square
=
E
0
2
_
1
Rs
+
1
L
_
1
(s + )
2
+ 2/LC
2
__ _
Let = 2/LC
2
=
E
0
2
_
1
Rs
+
1
L
_

(s +)
2
+
2
__
=
E
0
2R
1
s
+
E
0
2L
_

(s +)
2
+
2
_
Taking the inverse Laplace Transform,
L
1
I
1
(s) =
E
0
2R
L
1
_
1
s
_
+
E
0
2L
L
1
_

(s + )
2
+
2
_
=
E
0
2R
+
E
0
2L
e
t
sin (t)
Which was mercilessly stolen from a table. We nally have
I
1
(t) =
E
0
2R
+
E
0
2L
e
t
sin (t)
Repeating this process for I
2
(s), Mathematica gives
I
2
(s) =
E
0
2
_
1
Rs

1
s(Ls +R) + 2L
2
0
_
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
Which we note is identical to our expression for I
1
(s) sans the minus sign, therefore we can go ahead
and conclude that:
I
2
(t) =
E
0
2R

E
0
2L
e
t
sin (t)
4.5 Homework #7
Problem 1
For the vectors in three dimensions,
v
1
= x + y, v
2
= y + z, v
3
= z + x (4.5.1)
Use the Gram-Schmidt procedure to construct an orthonormal basis starting from v
1
.
Solution
It might be most instructive if we explicitly dene each of our vectors in terms of x, y, and z. e.g.,
v
1
=
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
, v
2
=
_
_
0
1
1
_
_
, v
3
=
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
And now recall that the Gramm-Schmidt Orthonormalization procedure is
u
n
= v
n

n1

i=1
u
i
[v
n
)
u
i
[u
i
)
u
i
, e
1
=
u
n
|u
n
|
Where u
n
represents a orthogonal set of vectors, and e
n
represents an orthonormal set of vectors. Ap-
plying this to our case,
u
1
=v
1
=
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
e
1
=
1

2
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
Where I used the fact that |u
1
| =

2 . Moving on to the second vector,


u
2
=v
2

v
2
[u
1
)
u
1
[u
1
)
u
1
Where
u
1
[u
1
) = u
T
1
u
1
= (1 1 0)
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
= 2, v
2
[u
1
) = v
T
2
v
1
= (0 1 1)
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
= 1
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 311
Such that we now have
u
2
=
_
_
0
1
1
_
_

1
2
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
=
_
_
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
_
_
e
2
=
_
2
3
_
_
1
/
2
1
/
2
1
_
_
And now the last vector is
u
3
=v
3

v
3
[u
1
)
u
1
[u
1
)
u
1

v
3
[u
2
)
u
2
[u
2
)
u
2
Where we have
v
3
[u
1
) =(1 0 1)
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
= 1
v
3
[u
2
) =(1 0 1)
_
_

1
/
2
1
/
2
1
_
_
=
1
/
2
u
2
[u
2
) =(
1
/
2
1
/
2
1)
_
_

1
/
2
1
/
2
1
_
_
=
3
/
2
And now
u
3
=
_
_
1
0
1
_
_

1
2
_
_
1
1
0
_
_

1
3
_
_

1
/
2
1
/
2
1
_
_
=
_
_
2
/
3

2
/
3
2
/
3
_
_
e
3
=
1

3
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
Problem 2
For the vector space of polynomials in x, use the scalar product dened as
f[g) =
_

dxe
x
2
f(x) g(x) (4.5.2)
Start from the vectors
v
0
= 1, v
1
= x, v
2
= x
2
, v
3
= x
3
(4.5.3)
And use the Gram-Schmidt procedure to construct an orthonormal basis starting from v
0
. Repeat this calculation
for the scalar product
f[g) =
_
1
0
dxx
2
f(x) g(x) (4.5.4)
Solution
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
Using the same logic as before, we are looking to ortho-normalize v
0
, v
1
, v
2
, and v
3
using the scalar
product dened by (4.5.2). The rst vector is trivial,
u
0
= v
0
= e
0
= 1
And the second is
u
1
=v
1

v
1
[u
0
)
u
0
[u
0
)
u
0
=x
x[1)
1[1)
1
=x
_

xe
x
2
dx
_

e
x
2
dx
=x e
1
=
_
4

_1
/4
x
And the third is
u
2
=v
2

v
2
[u
0
)
u
0
[u
0
)
u
0

v
2
[u
1
)
u
1
[u
1
)
u
1
=x
2

x
2
[1)
1[1)

x
2
[x)
x[x)
x
=x
2

x
2
e
x
2
dx
_

e
x
2
dx

x
3
e
x
2
dx
_

x
2
e
x
2
x
=x
2

2
1

=x
2

1
2
e
2
=
_
4

_1
/4
(x
2

1
/
2
)
And lastly, the forth is
u
3
=v
3

v
3
[u
0
)
u
0
[u
0
)
u
0

v
3
[u
1
)
u
1
[u
1
)
u
1

v
3
[u
2
)
u
2
[u
2
)
u
2
=x
3

x
3
[1)
1[1)

x
3
[x)
x[x)
x
x
3
[
_
x
2

1
/
2
_
)
(x
2

1
/
2
) [(x
2

1
/
2
))
_
x
2

1
/
2
_
=x
3

x
3
e
x
2
dx
_

e
x
2
dx

x
4
e
x
2
dx
_

x
2
e
x
2
dx
x
_

x
3
_
x
2

1
/
2
_
e
x
2
dx
_

(x
2

1
/
2
)
2
e
x
2
dx
_
x
2

1
/
2
_
=x
3

4
2

x
=x
3

3
2
x e
3
=
_
8
9
_1
/4
(x
2

1
/
2
)
Now we repeat this calculation for (4.5.4), in much the same way we did for (4.5.3). The rst vector is
then
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 313
u
0
= v
0
= e
0
= 1
While the second is given by
u
1
=v
1

v
1
[u
0
)
u
0
[u
0
)
u
0
=x
x[1)
1[1)
=x
_
1
0
x
3
dx
_
1
0
x
2
dx
=x
1
/
4
1
/
3
=x
3
4
e
1
=

80 (x
3
/
4
)
And now the third
u
2
=v
2

v
2
[u
0
)
u
0
[u
0
)
u
0

v
2
[u
1
)
u
1
[u
1
)
u
1
=x
2

_
1
0
x
4
dx
_
1
0
x
2
dx

_
1
0
x
4
(x
3
/
4
) dx
_
1
0
x
2
(x
3
/
4
) dx
(x
3
/
4
)
=x
2

1
/
5
1
/
3

1
/
60
1
/
80
(x
3
/
4
)
=x
2

4
3
x +
2
5
e
2
=

1575 (x
2

4
/
3
x +
2
/
5
)
And the forth
u
3
=v
3

v
3
[u
0
)
u
0
[u
0
)
u
0

v
3
[u
1
)
u
1
[u
1
)
u
1

v
3
[u
2
)
u
2
[u
2
)
u
2
=x
3

_
1
0
x
5
dx
_
1
0
x
2
dx

_
1
0
x
5
(x
3
/
4
) dx
_
1
0
x
2
(x
3
/
4
) dx
(x
3
/
4
)
_
1
0
x
5
(x
2

4
/
3
x +
2
/
5
) dx
_
1
0
x
2
(x
2

4
/
3
x +
2
/
5
)
2
dx
(x
2

4
/
3
x +
2
/
5
)
=x
3

1
/
6
1
/
3

1
/
56
1
/
224
(x
3
/
4
)
1
/
840
1
/
1575
(x
2

4
/
3
x +
2
/
5
)
=x
3

15
8
x
2

3
2
x +
7
4
e
3
=
_
20160
/
1667
(x
3

15
/
8
x
2

3
/
2
x +
7
/
4
)
Problem 3
On the vector space of quadratic polynomials, of degree 3, the operator d/dx is dened. Use the basis of
the Legendre Polynomials

P
0
(x) = 1,

P
1
(x) = x,

P
2
(x) =
3
2
x
2

1
2
,

P
3
(x) =
5
2
x
3

3
2
x (4.5.5)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #7
And compute the components of this operator. Repeat this exercise for the operator d
2
/dx
2
.
Solution
Let our set of quadratic polynomials be given by f(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ a
3
x
3
(so, v
0
= a
0
, v
1
=
a
1
x, v
2
= a
2
x
2
, v
3
= a
3
x
3
). We can also dene our dierential operator to be D[f(x)] = df(x)/dx. So,
D[v
0
] =0
D[v
1
] =a
1
=a
1

P
0
(x)
D[v
2
] =2a
2
x = 2a
2

P
1
(x)
D[v
3
] =3a
3
x
2
= a
3
(2

P
2
(x) +

P
0
)
And if we let D
2
[f(x)] = df(x)
2
/dx
2
,
D[v
0
] =0
D[v
1
] =0
D[v
2
] =2a
2
=2a
2

P
0
(x)
D[v
3
] =3a
3
x
2
= 6a
3

P
1
This is my wild stab at the problem, however I dont believe it is a very accurate one, since if it were
the problem would be trivial (clearly). Whoops!
Problem 4
Diagonalize each of the Pauli spin matrices. Find their eigenvalues and specify the respective eigenvectors as
the basis in which they are diagonal.
Solution
The Pauli matrices are given by

x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
,
y
=
_
0 i
i 0
_
,
z
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
Starting with
x
,

1
1

= 0
2
1 = 0
= 1
For = +1 :
_
1 1
1 1
__
a
b
_
=
_
0
0
_

a +b = 0
a b = 0
_
a = b, so
_
1
1
_
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 315
For = 1 :
_
1 1
1 1
__
a
b
_
=
_
0
0
_

a + b = 0
a + b = 0
_
a = b, so
_
1
1
_
And now for
y
:

i
i

= 0
2
1 = 0
= 1
For = +1 :
_
1 i
i 1
__
a
b
_
=
_
0
0
_

a ib = 0
ia b = 0
_
a = ib, so
_
1
i
_
For = 1 :
_
1 i
i 1
__
a
b
_
=
_
0
0
_

a ib = 0
ia +b = 0
_
a = ib, so
_
1
i
_
In analyzing
z
we immidiately recognize that = 1, since it is diagonal. So, we have
For = +1 :
_
0 0
0 2
__
a
b
_
=
_
0
0
_
2b = 0, so
_
1
0
_
For = 1 :
_
2 0
0 0
__
a
b
_
=
_
0
0
_
2a = 0, so
_
0
1
_
4.6 Homework #8
Problem 1
Find the eigenvlaues and eigenfunctions of the boundary value problem
y

+

(x + 1)
2
y = 0 (4.6.1)
On the interval a x 2 with boundary conditions y(1) = y(2) = 0. Write the equation in terms of a regular
Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem, and nd the coecients in the expansion of an arbitrary function f(x) in a
series of the eigenfunctions.
Solution
In order to express (4.6.1) within the formalism of Sturm-Lioville theory, we recall that if we are given
some dierential equation of the form
a
2
(x)y

+a
1
(x)y

+ a
0
(x)y = f(x) (4.6.2)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
then we can dene
p(x) =exp
__
a
1
(x)
a
2
(x)
dx
_
q(x) =p(x)
a
0
(x)
a
2
(x)
F(x) =p(x)
f(x)
a
2
(x)
Such that (4.6.2) is transformed into
d
dx
(p(x)y

) +q(x)y = F(x) (4.6.3)


We can see form (4.6.1) that in our case, a
2
(x) = 1, a
1
(x) = 0, a
0
(x) = /(x + 1)
2
, and f(x) = 0. From
these, it is clear that p(x) = 1, q(x) = /(x + 1)
2
, and F(x) = 0, such that we can now express (4.6.1)
in the form of (4.6.3):
y

+

(x + 1)
2
y = 0 (4.6.4)
Which is identical to (4.6.1). So, apparently our DE was already in S-L form. To nd the eigenvalues
and eigenfunctions, we wish to make the substitution and corresponding derivatives
y =(x + 1)

=(x + 1)
1
y

=( 1)(x + 1)
2
Now (4.6.4) becomes
( 1)(x + 1)
2
+

(x + 1)
2
(x + 1)

= 0
( 1)(x + 1)
2
+ (x + 1)
2
= 0

2
+ = 0
And now
=
1

1 4
2
(4.6.5)
At this point we split our solutions according to the three distinct outcomes from (4.6.5), which are if
1 4 < 0, 1 4 = 0, and 1 4 > 0:
<
1
/
4
: then =
1
/
2
_
1

1 4
_
with real, distinct roots, which admits solutions of
the form
y(x) = c
1
e
x
+c
2
e
x
Which only satises the rst boundary condition, y(1) = 0 for the trivial case where y = 0.
This cannot be our solution.
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 317
=
1
/
4
: then =
1
/
2
, with real, repeated roots and solutions
y(x) = c
1
e
x
+ c
2
xe
x
Which also fails to satisfy the rst boundary condition, therefore we must ignore this case
as well.
>
1
/
4
: then =
1
/
2
_
1 i

4 1
_
with complex, distinct roots and
y
1
(x) =c
1
(x + 1)
1
/2
sin
_
4 1
2
log
_
x + 1
2
__
y
2
(x) =c
2
(x + 1)
1
/2
cos
_
4 1
2
log
_
x + 1
2
__
Which does work. Applying the rst boundary condition
y(1) =c
1
(2)
1
/2
sin
_
4 1
2
log
_
2
2
__
+ c
2
(2)
1
/2
cos
_
4 1
2
log
_
2
2
__
=c
1
0 +c
2
2
1
/2
c
1
= 1, c
2
= 0
So, our solution takes the form
y(x) = y
1
(x) = (x + 1)
1
/2
sin
_
4 1
2
log
_
x + 1
2
__
(4.6.6)
Applying our second boundary condition,
y(2) = (3)
1
/2
sin
_
4 1
2
log
_
3
2
__
sin
_
4 1
2
log
_
3
2
__
= 0
And in order for this to hold...

4 1
2
log
_
3
/
2
_
=n
4 1 =
_
2n
log (
3
/
2
)
_
2
=
_
n
log (
3
/
2
)
_
2
+
1
4
And to nd the corresponding eigenfunction we substitute this into (4.6.6):

n
(x) = (x + 1)
1
/2
sin
_
2n
log (
3
/
2
)
log
_
x + 1
2
__
Problem 2
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
Find the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the boundary value problem
x
2
y

+xy

+y = y (4.6.7)
on the interval 1 x 2 with boundary conditions y(1) = y(2) = 0. Write the equation in terms of a regular
Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem, and nd the coecients in the expansion of an arbitrary function f(x) in a
series of the eigenfunctions.
Solution
In the same spirit as the last problem, we must rst put (4.6.7) into Sturm-Lioville form. We note that
a
2
(x) = x
2
, a
1
(x) = x, a
0
(x) = 1 , and f(x) = 0. From this we can nd
p(x) =exp
__
1
x
dx
_
= exp [logx] = x
q(x) =x
1
x
2
=
1
x
F(x) =0
Which allows us to write
d
dx
(xy

) +
1
x
y = 0 (4.6.8)
Try a solution of the form (and corresponding derivatives)
y =x

=x
1
y

=( 1)x
2
Substituting these into (4.6.8),
d
dx
_
xx
1
_
+
1
x
x

= 0
d
dx
(x

) + (1 )x
1
= 0

2
x
1
+ (1 )x
1
= 0

2
+ 1 = 0
Solving for ,
=

4
2
Following the same logic as before, we nd that in the case that < 4 that we have
y
1
(x) =sin
_
4
2
log x
_
y
2
(x) =cos
_
4
2
log x
_
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 319
Where we must choose y
1
(x) since it satises the rst boundary condition. For the second,
y(2) = 2

1
/2
sin
_
4
2
log 2
_
sin
_
4
2
log 2
_
= 0
And so

4
2
log 2 =n
_
4 =
2n
log 2
=
_
2n
log 2
_
2
+ 4
And nally

n
(x) = sin
_
n
log 2
log x
_
Problem 2
Using Rodriques formula show that the P
n
(x) are orthogonal and that
_
1
1
[P
n
(x)]
2
dx =
2
2n + 1
(4.6.9)
Solution
Rodrigues formula for the Legendre Polynomials is given by (12.65) in A&W:
P
n
(x) =
1
2
n
n!
_
d
dx
_
n
_
x
2
1
_
n
(4.6.10)
To prove that P
n
(x) given by (4.6.10) are orthogonal functions, we evaluate:
_
1
1
P
n
(x)P
m
(x) dx =
1
2
n+m
n!m!
_
1
1
_
d
dx
_
n
_
x
2
1
_
n
_
d
dx
_
m
_
x
2
1
_
m
dx (4.6.11)
For convenience lets set C = 1/2
n+m
n!m!. At this point we integrate by parts m times, with
u =
_
d
dx
_
n
(x
2
1)
n
, du =
_
d
dx
_
n+m
(x
2
1)
n
dv =
_
d
dx
_
m
(x
2
1)
m
, v = (x
2
1)
m
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
Such that (4.6.11) becomes
_
1
1
P
n
(x)P
m
(x) dx =C
_
(x
2
1)
m
_
d
dx
_
n
(x
2
1)
n

1
1
+ C(1)
m
_
1
1
(x
2
1)
m
_
d
dx
_
n+m
(x
2
1)
n
dx
=C(1)
m
_
1
1
(x
2
1)
m
_
d
dx
_
n+m
(x
2
1)
n
dx
At this point we note that in the case that n < m, the above integral goes to zero. Eg if, for instance,
n = 1 and m = 2:
_
1
1
P
1
(x)P
2
(x) dx =C
_
1
1
(x
2
1)
2
_
d
dx
_
3
(x
2
1)
2
dx = C
_
1
1
2(x
2
1)
2
d
dx
dx = 0
Which works for any n < m. This can be straightforwardly extended to the case in which n ,= m when
we recall that our choice of m and n was arbitrarily chosen in integrating by parts. So, we have just
shown that if n ,= m then (4.6.11) is equal to zero.
If, on the other hand, m = n, then we have
_
1
1
[P
n
(x)]
2
dx =
(1)
n
2
2n
(n!)
2
_
1
1
(x
2
1)
n
_
d
dx
_
2n
(x
2
1)
n
dx
=
(1)
n
(2n)!
2
2n
(n!)
2
_
1
1
(x
2
1)
n
dx (4.6.12)
At this point we make the substitution u =
1
/
2
(x + 1) x = 2u 1, du =
1
/
2
dx dx = 2 du, such
that (4.6.12) becomes:
_
1
1
[P
n
(x)]
2
dx =
(1)
n
(2n)!
2
2n
(n!)
2
_
1
0
(4u
2
4u)
n
2 du
=
2(1)
n
(2n)!
2
2n
(n!)
2
_
1
0
[4u(u 1)]
n
du
=
2(1)
n
(2n)!
(n!)
2
_
1
0
u
n
(u 1)
n
du
=
2(1)
n
(2n)!
(n!)
2
(1)
n
(n + 1)
2
(2n + 2)
=
2(2n)!
(n!)
2
(n!)
2
(2n + 1)!
=2
(2n)!
(2n + 1)!
=
2
2n + 1
Where I integrated by parts n times to evaluate the integral, and also the fact that (n) = (n 1)!:
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 321
_
1
1
[P
n
(x)]
2
dx =
2
2n + 1
Problem 4
Using a generating function, evaluate the sum

n=0
x
n+1
n + 1
P
n
(x) (4.6.13)
Solution
We note that from (7 10) in M&W that
f(x) =
1

1 2hx +h
2
=

n=0
h
n
P
n
(x) (4.6.14)
Which denes the generating function. We wish to manipulate (4.6.14) until it resembles (4.6.13). Start
by squaring both sides,
[f(x)]
2
=

n=0
[h
n
P
n
(x)]
2
And now integrating,
_
1
1
[f(x)]
2
dx =
_
1
1

n=0
[h
n
P
n
(x)]
2
dx (4.6.15)
Not sure where to go from here. h
n
must be dependent on x, otherwise the integral on the RHS of
(4.6.15) does not make sense. Otherwise, I was unable to integrate-by-parts to solve it either.
Summing by hand and simplifying results in the following series:
f(x) =x +
x
3
3
+
x
5
5
+
x
7
7
+...
Which is clearly odd, so this leads me to believe f(x) is a sin function. It also seems as though the
sum diverges, however it does indeed converge, since we required that 0 < x < 1, so 0 < f(x) < 4.52
(approximately). Ugh.
Problem 5
Prove the trigonometric identity using vector methods:
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #8
cos = cos
1
cos
2
+ sin
1
sin
2
cos(
1

2
) (4.6.16)
Where is the angle between two directions (
1
,
1
) and (
2
,
2
).
Solution
We dene two vectors on the units sphere,

A and

B, each normlized to unity. Each is then described by
only two coordinates, and . To prove the trigonometric identity (4.6.16), we take the dot product of
the two vectors. But rst, we dene the components of our vectors in terms of Cartesian coordinates,
with
x =sin cos
y =sin sin
z =cos
Yielding a dot product of

A

B =x
1
x
2
+ y
1
y
2
+z
1
z
2
=sin
1
cos
1
sin
2
cos
2
+ sin
1
sin
1
sin
2
sin
2
+ cos
1
cos
2
=(sin
1
+ sin
2
)(cos
1
cos
2
+ sin
1
sin
2
. .
cos(12)
) + cos
1
cos
2
=cos
1
cos
2
+ sin
1
sin
2
cos(
1

2
) (4.6.17)
And recall

A

B = |A|
..
1
|B|
..
1
cos = cos .
So (4.6.17) is now
cos = cos
1
cos
2
+ sin
1
sin
2
cos(
1

2
)
Problem 6
The amplitude of a scattered wave is given by
f() =
1
k

=0
(2 + 1)e
i
sin

(cos ) (4.6.18)
Where is the angle of scattering, is the angular momentum eigenvalue, k is the incident momentum, and

is the phase shift produced by the central potential that is doing the scattering. The total cross section is

tot
=
_
[f()[
2
d. Show that

tot
=
4
k
2

=0
(2 + 1) sin
2

(4.6.19)
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 323
Solution
We begin by rst evaluating [f()[
2
:
[f()[
2
=
_
1
k

=0
(2 + 1)e
i
sin

(cos )
_

_
1
k

=0
(2 + 1)e
i
sin

(cos )
_
=
1
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)e
i
sin

(cos )(2 + 1)e


i
sin

(cos )
=
1
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

P
2

(cos )
And now to nd the total cross section,

tot
=
_
[f()[
2
d
=
_
2
0
d
_

0
[f()[
2
sin d
=2
_

0
_
1
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

P
2

(cos )
_
sin d
=
2
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

_

0
[P

(cos )]
2
sin d
=
2
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

_

0
_
1
2

!
_
d
d cos
_

_
cos
2
1
_

_
2
sin d
=
2
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

1
2
2
(!)
2
_

0
_
d
d cos
_
2
_
cos
2
1
_
2
sin d
=
2
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

1
2
2
(!)
2
_

0
_
d
dx
_
2
_
x
2
1
_
2
sin d
=
2
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

1
2
2
(!)
2
_

0
__
d
dx
_
_
x
2
1
_
_
2
sin d
=
2
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

1
(!)
2
_

0
(cos )
2
sin d
=
2
k
2

=0
(2 + 1)
2
sin
2

1
(!)
2
_
1 + (1)
2
2 + 1
_
=
4
k
2

=0
(2 + 1) sin
2

1
(!)
2
(4.6.20)
Where I used the fact that d = sin dd and also the results from problem 3. Therefore we have
shown that

You might have noticed that there is an extra factor of ()


2
in (4.6.20). I was not able to get rid of it. So when I say that we
have shown that I suppose I really mean we have nearly shown that.
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9

tot
=
4
k
2

=0
(2 + 1) sin
2

4.7 Homework #9
Problem 1
By dierentiating the Legendre polynomial generating function
g(x, t) =
1

1 2xt +t
2
(4.7.1)
with respect to t and with respect to x, obtain the recurrence relations for the Legendre polynomials, and prove
that P
n
(x) satises the Legendre dierential equation.
Solution
We know that the generating function g(x, t) can be expressed as
g(x, t) =
1

1 2xt + t
2
=

n=0
t
n
P
n
(x) (4.7.2)
So, as per the suggestion, we dierentiate (4.7.1) rst with respect to t:
dg(x, t)
dt
=
d
dt
1

1 2xt + t
2
=
x t
(1 2xt +t
2
)
3
/2
=
x t
(1 2xt +t
2
)
g(x, t) (4.7.3)
Doing the same for the RHS of (4.7.2),
dg(x, t)
dt
=
d
dt

n=0
t
n
P
n
(x) =

n=0
nt
n1
P
n
(x)
Inserting this and (4.7.2) into the (4.7.3),

n=0
nt
n1
P
n
(x) =
x t
(1 xt +t
2
)

n=0
t
n
P
n
(x)
(1 xt + t
2
)

n=0
nt
n1
P
n
(x) =(x t)

n=0
t
n
P
n
(x)

n=0
nt
n1
P
n
(x) 2x

n=0
nt
n
P
n
(x) +

n=0
nt
n+1
P
n
(x) =x

n=0
t
n
P
n
(x)

n=0
t
n+1
P
n
(x)
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 325

n=0
..
n 1 =
nt
n1
P
n
(x) +

n=0
..
n+1=
(n + 1)t
n + 1
P
n
(x) =

n=0
..
n =
x(1 + 2n)t
n
P
n
(x)
Shifting the indices as indicated:

=0
( + 1)t

P
+1
(x) +

=0
t

P
1
(x) =

=0
x(1 + 2)t

(x)
( + 1)P
+1
(x) x(1 + 2)P

(x) = P
1
(x) (4.7.4)
Since we require that each coecient should vanish. We can nd a second recursion relation by similarly
integrating (4.7.2) by x:
dg(x, t)
dx
=
d
dx
1

1 2xt +t
2
=
t
(1 2xt +t
2
)
3
/2
=
t
(1 2xt +t
2
)
g(x, t) (4.7.5)
And the the derivative of the RHS of (4.7.2) is
dg(x, t)
dx
=
d
dx

n=0
t
n
P
n
(x) =

n=0
t
n
P

n
(x)
And now

n=0
t
n
P

n
(x) =
t
(1 2xt + t
2
)

n=0
t
n
P
n
(x)

n=0
t
n
P

n
(x) 2x

n=0
t
n+1
P

n
(x) +

n=0
t
n+2
P

n
(x) =

n=0
t
n+1
P
n
(x)

n=0
..
n=
t
n
P

n
(x) +

n=0
..
n+2=
t
n+2
P

n
(x) =

n=0
..
n+1=
t
n+1
[2xP

n
(x) +P
n
(x)]
Shifting the indices once more,

=0
t

(x) +

=0
t

2
(x) =

=0
t

_
2xP

1
(x) + P
1
(x)

(x) +P

2
(x) =2xP

1
(x) + P
1
(x)
P

+1
(x) 2xP

(x) = P

(x) P

1
(x) (4.7.6)
We can combine (4.7.4) and (4.7.6) as follows. First, moving all the terms of (4.7.4) to the left and
taking the derivative with respect to x yields
( + 1)P

+1
(x) x(1 + 2)P

(x) (1 + 2)P

(x) +P

1
(x) = 0 (4.7.7)
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
Now moving all the terms of (4.7.6) to the left, and multiplying by
P

+1
(x) + 2xP

(x) + P

(x) P

1
(x) = 0 (4.7.8)
Adding (4.7.7) and (4.7.8),
P

+1
(x) = xP

(x) + (1 + )P

(x)
Many more (in fact, innitely more) recursion relations may be derived, in addition to the three I have
found here, there are two more that can be found in M&W that become useful:
xP

(x) P

(x) P

1
(x) =0 (4.7.9)
P

(x) xP

1
(x) P
1
(x) =0 (4.7.10)
Multiplying (4.7.9) by x:
x
2
P

(x) xP

(x) xP

1
(x) = 0 (4.7.11)
(4.7.12)
Now take (4.7.11) and subtract (4.7.10):
x
2
P

(x) xP

(x) xP

1
(x) P

(x) +xP

1
(x) +P
1
(x) = 0
(x
2
1)P

(x) xP

(x) +P
1
(x) = 0 (4.7.13)
Now taking the derivative of (4.7.13) with respect to x:
2xP

(x) +x
2
P

(x) P

(x) P

(x) xP

(x) + P

1
(x) = 0
x
2
P

(x) P

(x) + (2 )xP

(x) P

(x) + P
1
(x) = 0 (4.7.14)
At this point we take (4.7.9), solve for P

1
(x), and substitute into (4.7.14):
x
2
P

(x) P

(x) + (2 )xP

(x) P

(x) +xP

(x)
2
P

(x) = 0
(x
2
1)P

(x) + 2xP

(x) xP

(x) P

(x) +xP

(x)
2
P

(x) = 0
(x
2
1)P

(x) + 2xP

(x) ( + 1)P

(x) = 0
Which is the Legendre dierential equation.
Problem 2
By dierentiating the Bessel generating function
g(x, t) = e
x
2
(t
1
/t)
(4.7.15)
with respect to t and with respect to x, obtain the recurrence relations for the Bessel functions, and prove that
J
n
(x) satises the Bessel dierential equation.
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 327
Solution
In very much the same spirit as the last problem, we are given that the generating function is
g(x, t) = e
x
2
(t
1
/t)
=

n=0
t
n
J
n
(x) (4.7.16)
Dierentiating (4.7.15) rst with respect to t,
dg(x, t)
dt
=
d
dt
e
x
2
(t
1
/t)
=
x
2
_
1
1
/
t
2
_
e
x
2
(t
1
t
)
=
x
2
_
1
1
/
t
2
_
g(x, t)
=

n=0
nt
n1
J
n
(x)
Playing with this a little bit, we have

n=0
nt
n1
J
n
(x) =
x
2
_
1
1
t
2
_

n=0
t
n
J
n
(x)
2

n=0
..
n1=
nt
n1
J
n
(x) =

n=0
..
n=
xt
n
J
n
(x)

n=0
..
n2=
xt
n2
J
n
(x)
Shift the indices,
2

=0
( + 1)t

J
+1
(x) =

=0
xt

(x) +

=0
t

J
+2
2( + 1)J
+1
(x) =xJ

(x) + xJ
+2
(x)

2
x
J

(x) = J
1
(x) + J
+1
(x) (4.7.17)
Now dierentiating (4.7.15) with respect to x,
dg(x, t)
dx
=
d
dx
e
x
2
(t
1
/t)
=
1
2
_
t
1
t
_
e
x
2
(t
1
/t)
=
1
2
_
t
1
t
_
g(x, t)
=

n=0
t
n
J

n
(x)
And now
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
2

n=0
t
n
J

n
(x) =
_
t
1
t
_

n=0
t
n
J
n
(x)
2

n=0
..
n=
t
n
J

n
(x) =

n=0
..
n+1=
t
n+1
J
n
(x)

n=0
..
n1=
t
n1
J
n
(x)
Shifting,
2

=0
t

(x) =

=0
t

J
1
(x)

=0
t

J
+1
(x)
2J

(x) = J
1
(x) J
+1
(x) (4.7.18)
If we subtract (4.7.17),
J

(x) =

x
J

(x) J
+1
(x) (4.7.19)
We can arrive at one more recursion relation if we take (4.7.19) and subtract (4.7.17):
J

(x) = J
1
(x)

x
J

(x) (4.7.20)
To prove that J
n
(x) satises the Bessel dierential equation (4.7.15), we start by multiplying (4.7.20) by
x:
xJ

(x) xJ
1
(x) +J

(x) = 0 (4.7.21)
We now dierentiate (4.7.21) with respect to x:
d
dx
[xJ

(x) xJ
1
(x) +J

(x)] =J

(x) + xJ

(x) J
1
(x) xJ

1
(x) + J

(x)
=xJ

(x) + ( + 1)J

(x) xJ

1
(x) J
1
(x) (4.7.22)
Multiplying (4.7.22) by x,
xJ

(x) + ( + 1)J

(x) xJ

1
(x) J
1
(x) =0
x
2
J

(x) + x( + 1)J

(x) x
2
J

1
(x) xJ
1
(x) =0 (4.7.23)
And multiply (4.7.21) by :
xJ

(x) xJ
1
(x) +
2
J

(x) = 0 (4.7.24)
Now take (4.7.22) and subtract (4.7.21):
x
2
J

(x) + x( + 1)J

(x) x
2
J

1
(x) xJ
1
(x) xJ

(x) + xJ
1
(x)
2
J

(x) =0
x
2
J

(x) + xJ

(x) x
2
J

1
(x) + ( 1)J
1
(x)
2
J

(x) =0 (4.7.25)
At this point we take (4.7.19) and shift the index from to 1,
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 329
J

1
(x) =
1
x
J
1
(x) J

(x)
And multiplying this by x and solving for J
1
(x),
xJ

1
(x) = ( 1)J
1
(x) xJ

(x) J
1
(x) =
x
1
J

1
(x) +
x
1
J

(x)
Substituting this into (4.7.25),
x
2
J

(x) + xJ

(x) x
2
J

1
(x) + ( 1)
_
x
1
J

1
(x) +
x
1
J

(x)
_

2
J

(x) =0
x
2
J

+xJ

(x) x
2
J

1
(x) +x
2
J
1
(x) + x
2
J

(x)
2
J

= 0
x
2
J

(x) + xJ

(x) +
_
x
2

2
_
J

(x) = 0
Which is the Bessel dierential equation.
Problem 3
Prove the normalization condition for the Bessel functions
_

0
J
n
(kr) J
n
(k

r) drr =
1
k
(k

k) (4.7.26)
Solution
It was shown in class, and additionally can be found in M&W that:
_
b
a
J
n
(r)J
n
(r)rdr =
1

2

2
[rJ
n
(r)J

n
(r) rJ
n
(r)J

n
(r)[
b
a
(4.7.27)
Where I dispensed k and k

in favor of and , respectively in order to avoid confusion with the


derivatives. First lets choose a 0 as in (4.7.26):
_
b
0
J
n
(r)J
n
(r)rdr =
1

2

2
[rJ
n
(r)J

n
(r) rJ
n
(r)J

n
(r)[
b
0
=
1

2

2
[rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b) rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b)] (4.7.28)
And since both J

(r) and J

(r) evaluated at the endpoints equal zero, then (4.7.36) too must vanish.
To see that this is the case at x = 0, it is illuminating to recall that J

(0) = J
+1
(0) = 0. We should
also recognize that J

() 0. Both of these properties become very evident when plotting the relevant
functions and recognizing the respective behaviors. Therefore, (4.7.28) becomes
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #9
_
b
0
J
n
(r)J
n
(r)rdr = 0 (4.7.29)
For the case in which and are equal, we must evaluate
_
b
0
J
n
(r)J
n
(r)rdr =
_
b
0
J
n
(r)J
n
(r)rdr =
_
b
0
[J
n
(r)]
2
rdr
Which we now set equal to the RHS of (4.7.28)
_
b
0
[J
n
(r)]
2
rdr =
rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b) rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b)

2

2
(4.7.30)
Evaluating the RHS of (4.7.30) is not so easy; we must take the limit as , but since this is
indeterminate we must use LH ospitals Rule:
_
b
0
[J
n
(r)]
2
r dr = lim

_
rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b) rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b)

2

2
_
= lim

_
rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b) + rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b) rJ

n
(b)J

n
(b)
2
_
=
r [J

n
(b)]
2
rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b) rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b)
2
(4.7.31)
We now solve Bessels dierential equation for J

n
(b):

2
J

n
(b) +J

n
(b) + (
2
n
2
)J
n
(b) = 0 J

n
(b) =
J

n
(b) (
2
n
2
)J
n
(b)

2
(4.7.32)
Substituting (4.7.32) into (4.7.31),
_
b
0
[J
n
(r)]
2
rdr =
r [J

n
(b)]
2
rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b) rJ
n
(b)
_

n
(b)(
2
n
2
)Jn(b)

2
_
2
=
r [J

n
(b)]
2
rJ
n
(b)J

n
(b) +rJ
n
(b)J

n
(r) + r
_
1
n
2

2
_
[J
n
(b)]
2
2
=
r
2
_
[J

n
(b)]
2
+
_
1
n
2

2
_
[J
n
(b)]
2
_
(4.7.33)
So that if and represent two unique roots of order n then (4.7.33) must vanish.
Problem 4
A disk of radius R in the xy-plane (z = 0) is kept at a constant potential
0
and the rest of the plane z = 0 is
kept at zero potential. As shown in class, the potential for z > 0 is given by
(r, z) =
0
R
_

0
dkJ
1
(kR)J
0
(kr)e
kz
(4.7.34)
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 331
Hence, the potential above the center of the disk (r = 0) is given by the integral
(0, z) =
0
R
_

0
dkJ
1
(kR)e
kz
(4.7.35)
Using the Bessel function recurrence relations and the integral representation of the Bessel function, show that the
last expression can be reduced to
(0, z) =
0
_
1
z

z
2
+R
2
_
(4.7.36)
Solution
According to (4.7.19),
J
1
(x) = J

0
(x)
And (4.7.35) becomes
(0, z) =
0
R
_

0
J

0
(kR)e
kz
dk
And at this point we wish to undergo a change of variables x = kR k =
x
/
R
:
(0, z) =
0
R
_

0
J

0
(x)e

xz
/R
dx
R
=
0
_

0
J

0
(x)e

xz
/R
dx
Where we must integrate by parts:
u = e

xz
/R
, du =
z
R
e

xz
/R
dv = J

0
(x), v = J
0
(x)
So we now have
(0, z) =
0
_
_
J
0
(x)e

xz
/R

0
+
z
R
_

0
J
0
(x)e

xz
/R
dx
_
=
0
_
1 +
z
R
_

0
J
0
(x)e

xz
/R
dx
_
(4.7.37)
At this point we pause, try a myriad of obscure substitutions, get frustrated, have a beer, and then
realize that the integral in (4.7.37) has actually been tabulated by the likes of Gradshteyn and Ryzhik
as Eq. 6.611.1: ?
_

0
e
x
J

(x) dx =

_
_

2
+
2

2
+
2
Where in our case =
z
/
R
, = 1 and = 0:
W. Erbsen HOMEWORK #10
_

0
e

xz
/R
J
0
(x) dx =
1
_
(
z
/
R
)
2
+ 1
=
1
1
/
R

z
2
+R
2
=
R

z
2
+ R
2
(4.7.38)
And substituting (4.7.38) into (4.7.37),
(0, z) =
0
_
1 +
z
R
_
R

z
2
+ R
2
__
From which we nally arrive at (4.7.36), thus completing the problem:
(0, z) =
0
_
1
z

z
2
+ R
2
_
4.8 Homework #10
Problem 1
In class we shows that the lowest order spherical Bessel function is given by
j
0
(x) =
sin x
x
(4.8.1)
Using the recurrence relations, nd j
1
(x) and j
2
(x), and also prove that
j

(x) = (1)

_
1
x

x
_

j
0
(x) (4.8.2)
Solution
Recall that one of the recurrence relations for Bessel functions reads
j
+1
(x) =

x
j

(x) j

(x) (4.8.3)
Which was rigorously proven in Homework #9, and subsequently will be treated as an axiom in this
assignment. We are given j
0
(x), so we need to calculate j
1
(x) and j
2
(x) using our recursion relation
(4.8.3). We start by nding the rst derivative of (4.8.1):
j

0
(x) =
cos x
x

sin x
x
2
We now substitute this into (4.8.3),
j
1
(x) =
0
x
j
0
(x) j

0
(x)
=
sin x
x
2

cos x
x
(4.8.4)
CHAPTER 4: MATHEMATICAL METHODS 333
Taking the rst derivative of j
1
(x) yields
j

1
(x) =
2 cos x
x
2

2 sinx
x
3
+
sinx
x
From which we can now nd j
2
(x):
j
2
(x) =
1
x
j
1
(x) j

1
(x)
=
sin x
x
3

cos x
x
2

2 cos x
x
2
+
2 sin x
x
3

sin x
x
=
3 sinx
x
3

3 cos x
x
2

sin x
x
(4.8.5)
In order to prove (4.8.2), it will be most convenient to show that (4.8.2) works when substituted into
(4.8.3). I will employ proof by induction. So the rst step is to show that it works for = 0,
j
1
(x) = j

0
(x)
=
d
dx
_
(1)
0
x
0
_
1
x

x
_
0
j
0
(x)
_
=
d
dx
sin x
x
=
sin x
x
2

cos x
x
=j
1
(x)
So it works for = 0. Assuming that it holds for all , we now show that it holds for + 1. First nd
the derivative of j

(x):
j

(x) =
d
dx
_
(x)

_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
=
_
d
dx
(x)

_
_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
+ (x)

d
dx
_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
=(x)
1
_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sinx
x
_
+ (x)

d
dx
_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
=
(x)

x
_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
+ (x)

d
dx
_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
=

x
(x)

_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
+ (x)

d
dx
_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
=

x
j

(x) + (x)

d
dx
_
_
1
x
d
dx
_

sin x
x
_
(4.8.6)
So, lets nd j
+1
(x):
j
+1
(x) =(x)
+1
_
1
x
d
dx
_
+