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Technological Institute of the Philippines

Humanities and Social Sciences Department

INFERENCE
The process through which the mind
proceeds from one or more propositions
to formulate another proposition whose
relationship is derived from the former.
Technological Institute of the Philippines
Humanities and Social Sciences Department

TOPIC OVERVIEW

INFERENCE

FORMS of Inference KINDS of Inference

DEDUCTIVE INDUCTIVE IMMEDIATE MEDIATE


Forms of Inference TIP – QC
HSSD

Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning


- a process for - a process for
drawing drawing
conclusions from conclusions from
accepted accepted
premises by premises by
Back
to means of logical means of logical
OVERVIEW
reasoning from reasoning from
the universal the singular
(general) to (specific) to
singular (specific) universal
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres (general) 3
Deductive or Deduction TIP – QC
HSSD

All men are mortal.


But Socrates is a
man,
Ergo, Socrates is general
mortal.
specific
back
A dogs are animals.
But Bantay is a dog,
Therefore, Bantay is
an animal.
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 4
Inductive or Induction TIP – QC
HSSD

Socrates is mortal.
But Socrates is a man,
Thus, All men are mortal.

Bantay is an animal.
back
But Bantay is a dog,
Ergo, A dog is an animal.

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 5


Kinds of Inference TIP – QC
HSSD

Kinds of Inference

overview

Immediate Mediate

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 6


Immediate Inference TIP – QC
HSSD

Is a process of reasoning through


which the mind passes directly from
one proposition to new proposition
into reformulation of the very exact
meaning or truth expressed by the
kinds
of
original proposition.
inference
Is made up only of two (2)
propositions

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 7


Mediate Inference TIP – QC
HSSD

 Is the process of reasoning in which


from one proposition, with the aid of
another proposition (or a third term)
called medium, the mind infers not
only a new proposition, but also a
kinds
of
new truth
Mediate inference requires three
inference

propositions which is also called


syllogism
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 8
Kinds of
Immediate Inference
TIP – QC
HSSD
Eduction or
Opposition
Equivalence

Conversion Contradictories

Obversion Contraries

back
to
OVERVIEW
Contraposition Subcontraries

Inversion Subalterns

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 9


Eduction TIP – QC
HSSD

 Is a kind of immediate inference


where a new proposition is being
formulated either by
INTERCHANGING THE SUBJECT AND
PREDICATE or BY THE USE OF OR
REMOVAL OF NEGATIVES

back to immediate inference


Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 10
Opposition TIP – QC
HSSD

 Is a kind of immediate inference


relationship between opposite
propositions have towards one
another
 A relationship between proposition
when any of them have the same
SUBJECT/PREDICATE TERMS but
differ in either QUANTITY and
QUALITY
back to immediate inference notes about opposition
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 11
Conversion TIP – QC
HSSD

 This refers to the formulation of a new


proposition by way of interchanging
the SUBJECT and the PREDICATE of the
original proposition.
 However, the QUALITY of the
proposition is retained

 No fish is mouse. No mouse is


fish.
Log/Inf
S P Prep. By. SSAndres
S P 12
It has two components: TIP – QC
HSSD

 Convertend – is  Converse – the


the original derived new
proposition proposition
 No mouse is fish.
 No fish is mouse.
REMINDERS:
The QUALITY of the proposition must
be retained.
Only E and I propositions can be
converted.

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 13


Conversion Examples TIP – QC
HSSD

No men are mortals. (E)


.: No mortals are men. (E)

Some animals are dogs. (I)


.: Some dogs are animals. (I)

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 14


So, we cannot convert… TIP – QC
HSSD

All dogs are animals. (A)


.: All animals are dogs. (A)

Some birds are not animals. (O)


.: Some animals are not birds. (O)

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 15


TWO KINDS OF CONVERSION TIP – QC
HSSD

Conversion

Simple Conversion

Partial Conversion

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 16


1. SIMPLE CONVERSION TIP – QC
HSSD

 is a kind of conversion where the


quantity of the convertend is
retained in the converse.
convertend

Quantity
(Universal – Universal E – E
Particular – Particular) I – I

converse

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 17


Examples TIP – QC
HSSD

No men are mortals. (E) UNIVERSAL


.: No mortals are men. (E)
Su
Some animals are dogs. (I) PARTICULAR

.: Some dogs are animals. (I)


Su
back to kinds of conversion
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 18
2. PARTIAL CONVERSION TIP – QC
HSSD

 Is a kind of conversion where the


quantity of the convertend is
reduced from universal to particular.
 This is applicable only to A and E
proposition, since an A proposition
becomes I and E becomes O
FROM
UNIVERSAL
TO
PARTICULAR

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 19


EXAMPLES TIP – QC
HSSD

All computers are gadgets. (A) UNIVERSAL


TO
Su Pp PARTICULAR
.: Some gadgets are computers. (I)
Sp Pp

No men are mortal. (E)


UNIVERSAL
Su Pu TO
PARTICULAR
.: Some mortals are not men. (O)
Sp Pu
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 20
EXERCISES TIP – QC
HSSD
1. No x is y.
Simple: __________________________
Partial: __________________________
4. Some y are z.
Simple: __________________________
Partial: __________________________
7. All w are x.
Simple: __________________________
Partial: __________________________
10. Every whale is a mammal.
Simple: __________________________
Partial: __________________________
back to immediate inference
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 21
Obversion TIP – QC
HSSD

 Is a kind of eduction where a new


proposition is formulated by
retaining the subject term and the
quantity of the original proposition
 This is applicable to AEIO
Propositions
 The original proposition is called the
OBVERTEND and the new
proposition OBVERSE
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 22
Rules to follow: TIP – QC
HSSD

• Retain the subject


term and the
quantity of the
original proposition. SU SU + -
SP SP - +
• Change the quality
of the original
proposition.

• Replace the
predicate of the Predicate Contradictory
original proposition
to its contradictory.
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 23
OBVERTEND
OBVERSE TIP – QC
HSSD

n All men are mortal. (A) n No men are non-mortal.


(E)
Su C+ Pp Su C- Pu
n No men are mortal. (E) n All men are non-mortal.
Su Pu (A)
n Some men are mortal. Su Pp
(I) n Some men are not non-mortal.
(O)
Sp Pp
n Some men are not mortal.
Sp Pu
(O) n Some men are non-mortal.
Sp Pp (I)
Sp Pp
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 24
Exercises TIP – QC
HSSD

1. Every rocksinger is a youngster.


__________________________________
2. All architects are artists.
__________________________________
5. No engineer is a tricycle driver.
__________________________________
7. Some students are intelligent.
__________________________________
9. No priests are atheist.
__________________________________
back to immediate inference
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 25
CONTRAPOSITION TIP – QC
HSSD

 Is a kind of eduction which results


from a formulation of a new
proposition whose subject term is
contradictory of the predicate term
in the original proposition
 It is likewise applicable to AEIO
Propositions
 The original proposition is called the
CONTRAPONEND and the new
CONTRAPOSIT
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 26
Kinds of Contraposition TIP – QC
HSSD

Contraposition

Partial Contraposition

Complete Contraposition

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 27


PARTIAL CONTRAPOSITION
Rules to follow: TIP – QC
HSSD

n The subject of the contraposit is


the contradictory of the of the
predicate term of the
contraponend.
n The quality of the contraponend is
changed in the contraposit.
n The predicate term in the
contraposit is the subject term in
the contraponend
n The A is changed to E, while E to I
Log/Inf and O to I Prep. By. SSAndres 28
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES TIP – QC
HSSD

1. CONTRAPONEND All whales are mammals. (A)


Su C+ Pp
CONTRAPOSIT .: No non-mammals are whales.
(E)
5. CONTRAPONEND Su C- Pu
No fishes are dogs. (E)
CONTRAPOSIT Su C- Pu
. : Some non-dogs are non-fishes.
 CONTRAPONEND (I)
Sp C+ Pp
CONTRAPOSITSome students are not studious.
(O)
back to kinds of contraposition Sp C- Pu
Log/Inf
.: Prep.
Some non-studious are students
By. SSAndres 29
.
COMPLETE CONTRAPOSITION
Rules to Follow: TIP – QC
HSSD

 The subject term in the contraposit is


the contradictory of the predicate term
in the contraponend.
 The quality of the contraponend is not
changed in the contraposit.
 The predicate term in the contraposit is
the contradictory of the subject term in
the contraponend.
 The A is changed to A, then E to O, and
O to O

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 30


ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES TIP – QC
HSSD

CONTRAPONENDAll whales are mammals. (A)


Su C+ Pp
CONTRAPOSIT.: All non-mammals are non-whales. (A)
Su C+ Pp
CONTRAPONENDNo fishes are dogs. (E)
Su C- Pu
CONTRAPOSIT. : Some non-dogs are not non-fishes.
(O)
CONTRAPONEND Sp C- Pu
Some students are not studious. (O)
CONTRAPOSIT Sp C- Pu
.: Some non-studious are not non-
students. O
Log/Inf
Sp
Prep. By. SSAndres
C- Pu 31
EXERCISES. (Give the Partial and
Complete Contraposit) TIP – QC
HSSD

 All men are mortal.


Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
 No A is B.
Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
 Some C is D.
Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
 Every E is F.
Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
 Some pilots are soldiers.
Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
back to immediate inference
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 32
INVERSION TIP – QC
HSSD

 A kind of eduction whose subject and


predicate terms are contradictories of the
subject and predicate terms in the
original proposition
 The INVERTEND undergoes various stages
of eductions like OBVERSION, SIMPLE
CONVERSION, CONTRAPOSITION, PARTIAL
CONVERSION and finally, INVERSION.
 Only the A proposition is qualified of

inversion
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 33
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE TIP – QC
HSSD

Invertend All terrorists are criminals. (A) to

Obverse No terrorist are non-criminals. (E) to

Converse No non-criminals are terrorists. (E) to


(S)
All non-criminals are non-terrorists. (A)
Obverse to

Converse Some non-terrorist are non-criminals.(I)


(P) to

Inverse
Log/Inf
Some non-terrorist
Prep. By. SSAndres
are not non- 34
EXAMPLES TIP – QC
HSSD

All rooms are clean.


.: _______________________
Every student is enrolled.
.: _______________________
No computer is infected.
.: _______________________
Any dog is an animal.
.: _______________________
back to immediate inference
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 35
REQUIREMENT: TIP – QC
HSSD

 Propositions must have similar


SUBJECT or PREDICATE
 Their differences must either be in
QUANTITY or QUALITY

02/12/09 //SSA 36
EXAMPLE (without logical
opposition) TIP – QC
HSSD

All Filipinos are Asians.


.: No Germans are Romans.

* The propositions have nothing to


oppose as they have no logical
relationship.

02/12/09 //SSA 37
EXAMPLE (without logical
opposition) TIP – QC
HSSD

All Filipinos are Asians.


.: No Germans are Romans.

* The propositions have nothing to


oppose as they have no logical
relationship.

02/12/09 //SSA 38
EXAMPLE (with logical
opposition) TIP – QC
HSSD

All Filipinos are Asians.


.: No Filipinos are Asians.

* There is a logical relationship since


they have the same subject and
predicate term, and they have
different quantity as well as quality.

back to immediate inference


02/12/09 //SSA 39
* The Square of Opposition TIP – QC
HSSD

click here for larger view


02/12/09 //SSA 40
TIP – QC
HSSD

back to immediate inference


02/12/09 //SSA 41
CONTRADICTORIES TIP – QC
HSSD
 An opposition existing between a
pair of propositions having the
same subject and predicate but
differ in both quantity and
quality.
 A and O, E and I

02/12/09 //SSA 42
Rules on Contradictories
1. If one is true, the other is false TIP – QC
HSSD

and vice versa.


2. Contradictories cannot be
simultaneously true or false at
the same time.
• If A is true, O is false
• If E is true, I is false
• If I is true, E is false
• If O is true, A is false

back to immediate inference


02/12/09 //SSA 43
CONTRARIES TIP – QC

this is an opposition existing


HSSD

between a pair of universal


propositions having the same
subject and predicate but differ in
quality
 A and E are contraries

02/12/09 //SSA 44
Rules on Contrariety
TIP – QC
1. If one is true, the other is false. HSSD

2. If one is false, the other is


doubtful.
• If A is true, E is false.
• If E is true, A is false.
• If A is false, E is doubtful.
• If E is false, A is doubtful.

back to immediate inference


02/12/09 //SSA 45
SUBCONTRARIES
TIP – QC
 this is an opposition existing HSSD

between a pair of particular


propositions having the same
subject and predicate terms but
differing in quality
 I and O are
subcontraries

02/12/09 //SSA 46
Rules on Subcontrariety
TIP – QC

1. If one is true, the other is HSSD

doubtful.
2. If one is false, the other is true.
• If I is true, O is doubtful
• If O is true, I is doubtful
• If I is false, O is true
• If O is false, I is true

back to immediate inference


02/12/09 //SSA 47
SUBALTERNS
TIP – QC
 this is an opposition existing HSSD

between a pair of propositions


having the same subject and
predicate terms but differ in
quantity
 A and I (vice versa) and
E and O (vice versa)
 A and E – subalternant
I and O - subalternate

02/12/09 //SSA 48
Rules on Subalternation
1. If the universal is true, the particular is true.
TIP – QC
HSSD

2. If the universal is false, the particular is


doubtful.
3. If the particular is true, the universal is
doubtful
4. If the particular is false,
the universal is false.
• If A is true, I is true
• If A is false, I is doubtful
• If E is true, O is true
• If E is false, O is doubtful
• If I is true, A is doubtful
• If I is false, A is false

02/12/09If O is true, E is doubtful
//SSA 49
EXERCISES
Supply the opposition of the following. Then, write (T) for true, (F) for false, TIP – QC
and (?) for doubtful inside the parenthesis, assuming that all given are true. HSSD
3. No angels are mortals.
Contradictory .: _________________________ ( )
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )
7. No angels are men.
Contradictory .: _________________________ ( )
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )
11. Some birds are not black.
Contradictory .: _________________________ ( )
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )
15. All philosophers are deep thinkers.
Contradictory .: _________________________ ( )
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )
19. Some politicians are corrupt.
Contradictory .: _________________________ ( )
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )

02/12/09 //SSA 50