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# Technological Institute of the Philippines

## Humanities and Social Sciences Department

INFERENCE
The process through which the mind
proceeds from one or more propositions
to formulate another proposition whose
relationship is derived from the former.
Technological Institute of the Philippines
Humanities and Social Sciences Department

TOPIC OVERVIEW

INFERENCE

## DEDUCTIVE INDUCTIVE IMMEDIATE MEDIATE

Forms of Inference TIP – QC
HSSD

## Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning

- a process for - a process for
drawing drawing
conclusions from conclusions from
accepted accepted
premises by premises by
Back
to means of logical means of logical
OVERVIEW
reasoning from reasoning from
the universal the singular
(general) to (specific) to
singular (specific) universal
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres (general) 3
Deductive or Deduction TIP – QC
HSSD

## All men are mortal.

But Socrates is a
man,
Ergo, Socrates is general
mortal.
specific
back
A dogs are animals.
But Bantay is a dog,
Therefore, Bantay is
an animal.
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 4
Inductive or Induction TIP – QC
HSSD

Socrates is mortal.
But Socrates is a man,
Thus, All men are mortal.

Bantay is an animal.
back
But Bantay is a dog,
Ergo, A dog is an animal.

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 5

Kinds of Inference TIP – QC
HSSD

Kinds of Inference

overview

Immediate Mediate

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 6

Immediate Inference TIP – QC
HSSD

## Is a process of reasoning through

which the mind passes directly from
one proposition to new proposition
into reformulation of the very exact
meaning or truth expressed by the
kinds
of
original proposition.
inference
Is made up only of two (2)
propositions

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 7

Mediate Inference TIP – QC
HSSD

##  Is the process of reasoning in which

from one proposition, with the aid of
another proposition (or a third term)
called medium, the mind infers not
only a new proposition, but also a
kinds
of
new truth
Mediate inference requires three
inference

## propositions which is also called

syllogism
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 8
Kinds of
Immediate Inference
TIP – QC
HSSD
Eduction or
Opposition
Equivalence

Obversion Contraries

back
to
OVERVIEW
Contraposition Subcontraries

Inversion Subalterns

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 9

Eduction TIP – QC
HSSD

##  Is a kind of immediate inference

where a new proposition is being
formulated either by
INTERCHANGING THE SUBJECT AND
PREDICATE or BY THE USE OF OR
REMOVAL OF NEGATIVES

## back to immediate inference

Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 10
Opposition TIP – QC
HSSD

##  Is a kind of immediate inference

relationship between opposite
propositions have towards one
another
 A relationship between proposition
when any of them have the same
SUBJECT/PREDICATE TERMS but
differ in either QUANTITY and
QUALITY
back to immediate inference notes about opposition
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 11
Conversion TIP – QC
HSSD

##  This refers to the formulation of a new

proposition by way of interchanging
the SUBJECT and the PREDICATE of the
original proposition.
 However, the QUALITY of the
proposition is retained

##  No fish is mouse. No mouse is

fish.
Log/Inf
S P Prep. By. SSAndres
S P 12
It has two components: TIP – QC
HSSD

##  Convertend – is  Converse – the

the original derived new
proposition proposition
 No mouse is fish.
 No fish is mouse.
REMINDERS:
The QUALITY of the proposition must
be retained.
Only E and I propositions can be
converted.

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 13

Conversion Examples TIP – QC
HSSD

## No men are mortals. (E)

.: No mortals are men. (E)

## Some animals are dogs. (I)

.: Some dogs are animals. (I)

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 14

So, we cannot convert… TIP – QC
HSSD

## All dogs are animals. (A)

.: All animals are dogs. (A)

## Some birds are not animals. (O)

.: Some animals are not birds. (O)

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 15

TWO KINDS OF CONVERSION TIP – QC
HSSD

Conversion

Simple Conversion

Partial Conversion

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 16

1. SIMPLE CONVERSION TIP – QC
HSSD

##  is a kind of conversion where the

quantity of the convertend is
retained in the converse.
convertend

Quantity
(Universal – Universal E – E
Particular – Particular) I – I

converse

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 17

Examples TIP – QC
HSSD

## No men are mortals. (E) UNIVERSAL

.: No mortals are men. (E)
Su
Some animals are dogs. (I) PARTICULAR

## .: Some dogs are animals. (I)

Su
back to kinds of conversion
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 18
2. PARTIAL CONVERSION TIP – QC
HSSD

##  Is a kind of conversion where the

quantity of the convertend is
reduced from universal to particular.
 This is applicable only to A and E
proposition, since an A proposition
becomes I and E becomes O
FROM
UNIVERSAL
TO
PARTICULAR

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 19

EXAMPLES TIP – QC
HSSD

## All computers are gadgets. (A) UNIVERSAL

TO
Su Pp PARTICULAR
.: Some gadgets are computers. (I)
Sp Pp

## No men are mortal. (E)

UNIVERSAL
Su Pu TO
PARTICULAR
.: Some mortals are not men. (O)
Sp Pu
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 20
EXERCISES TIP – QC
HSSD
1. No x is y.
Simple: __________________________
Partial: __________________________
4. Some y are z.
Simple: __________________________
Partial: __________________________
7. All w are x.
Simple: __________________________
Partial: __________________________
10. Every whale is a mammal.
Simple: __________________________
Partial: __________________________
back to immediate inference
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 21
Obversion TIP – QC
HSSD

##  Is a kind of eduction where a new

proposition is formulated by
retaining the subject term and the
quantity of the original proposition
 This is applicable to AEIO
Propositions
 The original proposition is called the
OBVERTEND and the new
proposition OBVERSE
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 22
Rules to follow: TIP – QC
HSSD

## • Retain the subject

term and the
quantity of the
original proposition. SU SU + -
SP SP - +
• Change the quality
of the original
proposition.

• Replace the
original proposition
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 23
OBVERTEND
OBVERSE TIP – QC
HSSD

## n All men are mortal. (A) n No men are non-mortal.

(E)
Su C+ Pp Su C- Pu
n No men are mortal. (E) n All men are non-mortal.
Su Pu (A)
n Some men are mortal. Su Pp
(I) n Some men are not non-mortal.
(O)
Sp Pp
n Some men are not mortal.
Sp Pu
(O) n Some men are non-mortal.
Sp Pp (I)
Sp Pp
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 24
Exercises TIP – QC
HSSD

## 1. Every rocksinger is a youngster.

__________________________________
2. All architects are artists.
__________________________________
5. No engineer is a tricycle driver.
__________________________________
7. Some students are intelligent.
__________________________________
9. No priests are atheist.
__________________________________
back to immediate inference
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 25
CONTRAPOSITION TIP – QC
HSSD

##  Is a kind of eduction which results

from a formulation of a new
proposition whose subject term is
in the original proposition
 It is likewise applicable to AEIO
Propositions
 The original proposition is called the
CONTRAPONEND and the new
CONTRAPOSIT
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 26
Kinds of Contraposition TIP – QC
HSSD

Contraposition

Partial Contraposition

Complete Contraposition

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 27

PARTIAL CONTRAPOSITION
Rules to follow: TIP – QC
HSSD

## n The subject of the contraposit is

the contradictory of the of the
predicate term of the
contraponend.
n The quality of the contraponend is
changed in the contraposit.
n The predicate term in the
contraposit is the subject term in
the contraponend
n The A is changed to E, while E to I
Log/Inf and O to I Prep. By. SSAndres 28
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES TIP – QC
HSSD

## 1. CONTRAPONEND All whales are mammals. (A)

Su C+ Pp
CONTRAPOSIT .: No non-mammals are whales.
(E)
5. CONTRAPONEND Su C- Pu
No fishes are dogs. (E)
CONTRAPOSIT Su C- Pu
. : Some non-dogs are non-fishes.
 CONTRAPONEND (I)
Sp C+ Pp
CONTRAPOSITSome students are not studious.
(O)
back to kinds of contraposition Sp C- Pu
Log/Inf
.: Prep.
Some non-studious are students
By. SSAndres 29
.
COMPLETE CONTRAPOSITION
Rules to Follow: TIP – QC
HSSD

##  The subject term in the contraposit is

the contradictory of the predicate term
in the contraponend.
 The quality of the contraponend is not
changed in the contraposit.
 The predicate term in the contraposit is
the contradictory of the subject term in
the contraponend.
 The A is changed to A, then E to O, and
O to O

## Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 30

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES TIP – QC
HSSD

## CONTRAPONENDAll whales are mammals. (A)

Su C+ Pp
CONTRAPOSIT.: All non-mammals are non-whales. (A)
Su C+ Pp
CONTRAPONENDNo fishes are dogs. (E)
Su C- Pu
CONTRAPOSIT. : Some non-dogs are not non-fishes.
(O)
CONTRAPONEND Sp C- Pu
Some students are not studious. (O)
CONTRAPOSIT Sp C- Pu
.: Some non-studious are not non-
students. O
Log/Inf
Sp
Prep. By. SSAndres
C- Pu 31
EXERCISES. (Give the Partial and
Complete Contraposit) TIP – QC
HSSD

##  All men are mortal.

Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
 No A is B.
Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
 Some C is D.
Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
 Every E is F.
Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
 Some pilots are soldiers.
Partial .: ______________________________
Complete .: ______________________________
back to immediate inference
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 32
INVERSION TIP – QC
HSSD

##  A kind of eduction whose subject and

predicate terms are contradictories of the
subject and predicate terms in the
original proposition
 The INVERTEND undergoes various stages
of eductions like OBVERSION, SIMPLE
CONVERSION, CONTRAPOSITION, PARTIAL
CONVERSION and finally, INVERSION.
 Only the A proposition is qualified of

inversion
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 33
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE TIP – QC
HSSD

## Converse No non-criminals are terrorists. (E) to

(S)
All non-criminals are non-terrorists. (A)
Obverse to

## Converse Some non-terrorist are non-criminals.(I)

(P) to

Inverse
Log/Inf
Some non-terrorist
Prep. By. SSAndres
are not non- 34
EXAMPLES TIP – QC
HSSD

## All rooms are clean.

.: _______________________
Every student is enrolled.
.: _______________________
No computer is infected.
.: _______________________
Any dog is an animal.
.: _______________________
back to immediate inference
Log/Inf Prep. By. SSAndres 35
REQUIREMENT: TIP – QC
HSSD

##  Propositions must have similar

SUBJECT or PREDICATE
 Their differences must either be in
QUANTITY or QUALITY

02/12/09 //SSA 36
EXAMPLE (without logical
opposition) TIP – QC
HSSD

## All Filipinos are Asians.

.: No Germans are Romans.

## * The propositions have nothing to

oppose as they have no logical
relationship.

02/12/09 //SSA 37
EXAMPLE (without logical
opposition) TIP – QC
HSSD

## All Filipinos are Asians.

.: No Germans are Romans.

## * The propositions have nothing to

oppose as they have no logical
relationship.

02/12/09 //SSA 38
EXAMPLE (with logical
opposition) TIP – QC
HSSD

## All Filipinos are Asians.

.: No Filipinos are Asians.

## * There is a logical relationship since

they have the same subject and
predicate term, and they have
different quantity as well as quality.

## back to immediate inference

02/12/09 //SSA 39
* The Square of Opposition TIP – QC
HSSD

02/12/09 //SSA 40
TIP – QC
HSSD

## back to immediate inference

02/12/09 //SSA 41
HSSD
 An opposition existing between a
pair of propositions having the
same subject and predicate but
differ in both quantity and
quality.
 A and O, E and I

02/12/09 //SSA 42
1. If one is true, the other is false TIP – QC
HSSD

## and vice versa.

simultaneously true or false at
the same time.
• If A is true, O is false
• If E is true, I is false
• If I is true, E is false
• If O is true, A is false

## back to immediate inference

02/12/09 //SSA 43
CONTRARIES TIP – QC

HSSD

## between a pair of universal

propositions having the same
subject and predicate but differ in
quality
 A and E are contraries

02/12/09 //SSA 44
Rules on Contrariety
TIP – QC
1. If one is true, the other is false. HSSD

## 2. If one is false, the other is

doubtful.
• If A is true, E is false.
• If E is true, A is false.
• If A is false, E is doubtful.
• If E is false, A is doubtful.

## back to immediate inference

02/12/09 //SSA 45
SUBCONTRARIES
TIP – QC
 this is an opposition existing HSSD

## between a pair of particular

propositions having the same
subject and predicate terms but
differing in quality
 I and O are
subcontraries

02/12/09 //SSA 46
Rules on Subcontrariety
TIP – QC

## 1. If one is true, the other is HSSD

doubtful.
2. If one is false, the other is true.
• If I is true, O is doubtful
• If O is true, I is doubtful
• If I is false, O is true
• If O is false, I is true

## back to immediate inference

02/12/09 //SSA 47
SUBALTERNS
TIP – QC
 this is an opposition existing HSSD

## between a pair of propositions

having the same subject and
predicate terms but differ in
quantity
 A and I (vice versa) and
E and O (vice versa)
 A and E – subalternant
I and O - subalternate

02/12/09 //SSA 48
Rules on Subalternation
1. If the universal is true, the particular is true.
TIP – QC
HSSD

## 2. If the universal is false, the particular is

doubtful.
3. If the particular is true, the universal is
doubtful
4. If the particular is false,
the universal is false.
• If A is true, I is true
• If A is false, I is doubtful
• If E is true, O is true
• If E is false, O is doubtful
• If I is true, A is doubtful
• If I is false, A is false

02/12/09If O is true, E is doubtful
//SSA 49
EXERCISES
Supply the opposition of the following. Then, write (T) for true, (F) for false, TIP – QC
and (?) for doubtful inside the parenthesis, assuming that all given are true. HSSD
3. No angels are mortals.
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )
7. No angels are men.
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )
11. Some birds are not black.
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )
15. All philosophers are deep thinkers.
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )
19. Some politicians are corrupt.
Contrary .: _________________________ ( )
Subaltern .: _________________________ ( )

02/12/09 //SSA 50

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