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2008
11.02.2008 .

1.

1.1.

1.2. .
1.3. TE- T- -

1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8. (
)
1.9.

1.10. ,

1.11.
1.12. .

1.13.

2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6 .
2.7.

3
4

88

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62
62
65
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75
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83
86


,
.

, .
,
7- .

.

- , ,
, .
, ,
, .

- .

.
. ,


,
.
, ,

,
.

Equation Chapter 1 Section 1Equation Section 0 1.




.
[1,2].
.
,
:

, E H ,

D B . :

1 D
4
rot H =
+
j ,
c t
c

div D = 4
(0.1)

1 B
,
div B = 0 .
c t

j .
, .
:

rot E =

+ divj = 0,
t
W
+ divS = 0.
t

(0.2)

W - , S -
( - ). :

( E , D) + ( H , B) c
W=
, S=
[E, H ]
(0.3)
8
4

, ,
. :

D = E, B = H
(0.4)
-
.
, ,
,
.

:

1
(0.5)
E ( r , t ) = E (r ) exp ( it ) + E * (r ) exp it
2

H (r , t ), D(r , t ), B (r , t ) . E (r ), H (r ), D(r ), B(r )
, , ,
.
4

E (r ) .,
,
() .

exp ( it ) .

( , 0 , j 0 )
:

rot H = -ik E ,

div E = 0

(0.6)

rot E = ik H ,
div H = 0 .
k = / c . ,
0 : k = 2 / 0 .

( -
(0.3)), W t S , .
t

(0.5) :

1
( | E |2 + | H |2 )
W t=
16
(0.7)

c
c

{[ E , H ]+[ E , H ]}=
Re[ E , H ],
S =
t
16
8
, , .

.
- .
.
.
Equation Section 1 1.1.


.
[3,4].
s x1 , x2 , x3 ,
( s + ds ) - ( x1 + dx1 , x2 + dx2 , x3 + dx3 ) .
ds :
(1.1)
(ds ) 2 = h12 (dx1 ) 2 + h22 (dx2 ) 2 + h32 (dx3 ) 2
, (1.1)
, dxi dx j ( i j ). hi

.
, :
ds 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 + dz 2
(h1 = 1, h2 = r , h3 = 1)
(1.2)
(1.3)
ds 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 + (r sin ) 2 d 2
(h1 = 1, h2 = r , h3 = r sin )
.
A(r ) , r ,
, , ,
:
5

1
(1.4)
AndS
VS 0 V
s s
n - .
(.1):
Vs = h1h2 h3 dx1dx2 dx3
(1.4) .
x1 = const ( x1 + dx1 ) = const .
:

A1 ( x1 + dx1 , x2 , x3 )h2 dx2 h3 dx3 A1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 )h2 dx2 h3 dx3 =


(h2 h3 A1 )dx1dx2 dx3
x1
, :

s AndS = x1 (h2 h3 A1 )dx1dx2 dx3 + x2 (h3h1 A2 )dx1dx2 dx3 + x1 (h1h2 A3 )dx1dx2 dx3
:

divA =
(h2 h3 A1 ) +
(h3 h1 A2 ) +
(h1h2 A3 )
(1.5)

h1h2 h3 x1
x2
x3

divA = lim

.1. .

.
A B , A = rotB(r ) , , ,
B ,
, :
1
A1 = lim
Bdl
S23 0 S
23 C23
. S23
x1 . C23
( ). ,
,
(.1), , :
S 23 = h2 h3 dx2 dx3
6

Bdl

= B2 ( x2 , x3 )h2 dx2 + B3 ( x2 + dx2 , x3 )h3 dx3 B2 ( x2 + dx2 , x3 + dx3 )h2 dx2 B3 ( x2 , x3 + dx3 ) h3 dx3 =

C23

(h3 B3 )dx2 dx3


(h2 B2 )dx2 dx3
x2
x3

, A1 :

1
(1.6)
h3 B3
h2 B2

h2 h3 x2
x3


1231:

1
1
A2 =
h1 B1
h3 B3
A3 =
h2 B2
h1 B1

h3 h1 x3
x1
h1h2 x1
x2


.
, (1.5) (1.6)
, , .
(1.5) (1.6),
(0.6):

()
ik h2 h3 H1 =
h3 E3
h2 E2
x2
x3
A1 =

ik h2 h3 E1 =

h3 H 3
h2 H 2
x2
x3

( )

(1.7)

ik h3 h1 H 2 =
h1 E1
h3 E3
x3
x1

( )

h1 H1
h3 H 3
x3
x1

ik h1h2 H 3 =
h2 E2
h1 E1
x1
x2
ik h3 h1 E2 =

()

()

h2 H 2
h1 H1
x1
x2

(h2 h3 E1 ) +
(h3 h1 E2 ) +
(h1h2 E3 ) = 0
x1
x2
x3
ik h1h2 E3 =

()

()

(h2 h3 H1 ) +
(h3 h1 H 2 ) +
(h1h2 H 3 ) = 0
( )
x1
x2
x3

- .
. .
,
. , (a), () () x1 , x2
x3 , , ().
.

( , . [2,5]).

, [5-7].
7

,
:
h2
h3 1
( ) 0.
(1.8)
x3 h1
- ,
. , , (1.3),
.

(1.7).
(1.8), (1.7)
, E3 0 (TE-), H 3 0 (TM-).
TE-. E3 0 , h3 1,
(1.7)(), :

h2 E1 +
h1 E2 = 0
x1
x2
U ,
x2 h2 E1 , x1 h1 E2 .
, :
ik U
ik U
E1 =
, E2 =
h2 x2
h1 x1
(1.7)() . E1
E2 () (), :
1 h2 U
1 h1 U
H1 =
(
), H 2 =
(
)
h2 x3 h1 x1
h1 x3 h2 x2
() ,
:
h2 h1 U
h1 h2 U
[
(
)] =
[
(
)]
x1 h1 x3 h2 x2
x2 h2 x3 h1 x1
():

ik U 2 U
H 3 = ik h1
+
x1
h1 x1 x32 x1
, :
2
2
H 3 = k U + 2 U
x3
, (). :
2U
h2 U
h1 U
ik h1h2 (k 2U + 2 ) = ik
(
) ik
(
),
x3
x1 h1 x1
x2 h2 x1
(1.9). ,
( ) ,

U .
. U

2U
1 h2 U
h1 U
+
(1.9)
[ (
)+
(
)] + k 2U = 0
2
x3 h1h2 x1 h1 x1
x2 h2 x1
TE- U :
ik U
ik U
E1 =
E2 =
E3 = 0
h2 x2
h1 x1
8

1 2U
1 2U
2U
2
H1 =
H2 =
H 3 = k U + 2
(1.10)
h1 x1x3
h2 x2 x3
x3
, U (1.9)
,
.

,
TM-,

E H , ( ) .
, .
(1.9) V , ( H 3 0 ),
V :
1 2V
1 2V
2V
E1 =
E2 =
E3 = k 2V + 2
h1 x1x3
h2 x2 x3
x3
(1.11)
ik V
ik V
H1 =
H2 =
H3 = 0
h2 x2
h1 x1

E H
( (1.9), (1.10) (1.11)), -
.


U V .
TE TM-.
,
E3 0, H 3 0 ,
.
Equation Section 2Equation Chapter 1 Section 2 1.2. .


, .

,
.
. 2.

,
. :
1. .
2. .
3.
.
4. (, ,
).
5. , ,
.

.2. : 1 - , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6
, 7 , 8 , 9 , 10
, 11 , 12
, 13 , 14
,.
10


. , ,
(
), , .
, , .
,
, ,
. ,
x3 (
z ),
. -
(1.8), TE- TM-:
h2
h3 = 1 ,
= 0.
x3 h1
-
.
,
(U ,V ) = ( x1 , x2 ) ( z ) . (1.9) :
1 h2
h1 2
(2.1)
(
)+
(
) + = 0

h1h2 x1 h1 x1 x2 h2 x2
d 2
+ 2 = 0
(2.2)
2
dz

. ,
, :
k 2 = 2 + 2
(2.3)
(2.3) -
.
- :
TE-.
TM-.
ik
1
E1 =

E1 =

h2 x2
h1 x1

E2 =

ik

h1 x1

E2 =

h2 x2

E3 = Ez 0

E3 = Ez = 2

1
H1 =

h1 x1

ik
H1 =

h2 x2

H2 =

h2 x2

H2 =

(2.4),(2.5)

ik

h1 x1

d 2
) = 2 H 3 = H z = 0
dz 2
= d / dz . ,
, , ,
. (2.5), ,
( H z Ez )
H 3 = (k 2 +

11

( 0 ).
/ 2
( E1 , E2 i ). ,
(.(0.7)(0.7))
, z ,
. .
,
:
(E, H ) = 0
,
, , (2.5):
| E1 | | E2 |
=
(2.6)
| H 2 | | H1 |
,
(2.1) - (2.5), . -
( E

H ) .
( E = 0 ).
,
( ).
, , x2 = C
. TE- ( E3 0) E E1 , E = 0 (2.5) :

=0
x2

( x2 = C )

(2.7)

TM- E : E1 E3 .
E3 0 x2 = C , :
=0
( x2 = C )
(2.8)
, (2.8) , x2 = C
E1 0 , E1 x1
, ,
.
(2.1),
(2.7) (2.8),
.

(2.2), :
= Aei z + Be i z
(2.9)
exp(i t ) .
(2.9) : exp[i ( z t )]
exp[i ( z + t )] .
( z ), - .
,
. exp[i ( z , t )] , ( z , t ) -
,
. ( z, t ) = const , :
12

d = ( z )dz + ( t )dt = 0

dz
/ t
=
(2.10)
dt
/ z
(2.10)
v =

. : v =

- .

,
(2.3).
v =

(2.1) , (2.7) (2.8). ,



, .
( z ) = ei z ( z ) = i ei z ,
, (2.5) ,
. , 2 ,
: z = 2 , z = , :
= 2 /
(2.11)

. , z = 0
, ,
( ). (2.9) A = B .

E1 , E2 ( ), ( z )

z = l / ( ) , l = 1,2,3...
, , ,
.

.
Equation Section 3 1.3. TE- T- -

,
. -.
- (2.1) :
+ 2 = 0 ,
(3.1)
- ,
(2.7), (2.8).
TE, TM. ,
2 (. (2.3)).
2 ,
, 2 0 .
a2 (3.1)
a ( x1 , x2 ) , (.
(2.4)). , ,
.
13

,
- .
1.
. (2.3)
a , :
2
2 a
=

2 a =

c 2 a2

c 2 2

(3.2)

- a . ( )

(3.2)
(. 3). .

.3. .
.
, > a . < a ,

, (
,
). ,
, ,
z .

. , v =

, (3.2) :

1/ 2

2
c a
ck

=
v =
1


, v = d / d , :
2
c a
v =
1 2

1/ 2

c
k

(3.3)

(3.4)

14

v ( ) v ( ) .4.
(. 1.5). :
c2
(3.5)
v v =

.4.

2.
, Z =| Et | / | H t | . ,
(2.5). TE-:
ik
=
Z =
i

2 a
1 2

1/ 2

(3.6)

TM-:
1/ 2

2 a
(3.7)
1 2

Z .
. ,
/, - /, Z .
3. .
v .
i
Z =
=
ik

, ,
. , .
, ()
.
, , :


+ div j = 0

(We + Wm ) + div S = 0
t
dt
15

vq = I / Q


v = S / W

I = jnda

Q = qda

(3.8)

W = We + Wm

S = Snda

We = We da

Wm = Wm da

I ,
, Q
,
. ,

, W = We + Wm .
.
S W TE- [8].
(0.7) :

1 2
c
c
1 2
k c
S =
Re[ E , H ] =
k (
) +(
) da =
( ) 2 da ;

8
8
8
h3 x3
h2 x2

1
1 2 2
| E |2 =
k ( ) 2 da ;
16
16

1
1
Wm =
| H |2 =
a4 2 da + 2 ( ) 2 da .
16
16
:
div ( grad ) = ( ) 2 +
, :
2
( )da = ( ) da + da

We =


:
( )da = ( dl )

, TE-
TM-. , :
2
(3.9)
( ) da + da = 0
(3.1) :
+ a2 = 0
:

da =

2
a

da

(3.10)

(3.10) (3.9), :
2
2
2
( ) da = a da
:
1 2 2 2 2
1
We =
k a da ,
Wm =
A2 a2 ( a2 + 2 ) 2 da
16
16
(2.3), ,
:
W e = Wm
(3.11)
16

. , :
S =

k c 2 2
a da
8

, v , :
k c 2 2
1/ 2
2
a da
S
c
c a
8

(3.12)
= 2 2
=
=
v =
1 2
k 2 2
W + Wm
k

a da
8
, TE- ,
. TM- W
S :

S =

c 2 2
a da
8

1 2 2 2
k da
8
v = v
W =

.
4. -
, a
b :
(3.13)
Ea Eb da = 0 H a H b da = 0
.
, . [1, 2].
Equation Section 41.4.
1. -
,
, 02 = 0 .
, , .

(. (2.5)) - (),
- 0 = 0 . ,
(2.3):
c
v =
.
(4.1)
( )1/ 2
(3.1)

= 0
(4.2)
, ,
, ((2.4) (2.5)).
TEM- TE-, ,
- ,
z-.
(2.7). TEM-
T-, ,
E grad (. (2.5)).
(2.8),
. ,
17

- , ,
, = 0 ,
,
= = const
(4.3)
,
,
( ) .
,
[9]. ,
.
,
, , .
, ,
, ,
. , n
, () ,
(n 1) . ,
n- (n 1) .

,
, r1 , , r2 (.5) .

.5. .

:
1
1 2
=0
(r
)+ 2
r r r
r 2
,

1
= A ln + A0 .
(4.4)
r
(4.4) (r = r1 ) = 1
(r = r2 ) = 2 .
18

(4.4), = ei z ,
(2.5) :
i A i z
ik A i z
(4.5)
Er =
e , E = 0 , Ez = 0 , H r = 0 , H =
e , Hz = 0
r
r
,
, Er H .
2.
, .
,
, :
q( z, t ) , I ( z, t ) .
q, I E , H
:
4
4
(4.6)
S EdS = q ,
l Hdl = c I .
1
.
..
[10].
, [2]. ,
( )
, .
0 ( x, y ) ,


.
:
0
0
,
Ex0 =
E y0 =
.
(4.7)
x
y
- , ,
, . ,
:
E = q ( z , t ) E 0 ( x, y ) .
(4.8)
:
H = I ( z , t ) H 0 ( x, y ) .
(4.9)
E 0 - ,
, , H 0 - ,
. , E 0
0 (4.7), H 0
.
E 0 H 0 . (2.5),
,
Hy
H
= x = Y = Z 1 ,
.
(4.10)
Ex
Ey

Z = /
(4.11)
-
.

Y : Y = k / = / . ,
(4.10)
19

. , E = E 0 (4.10) ,
.
:
(4.12)
H x0 = aYE y0 ,
H y0 = aYEx0 .
rot H rot E (4.8) (4.9)
H y0 H x0
E y0 Ex0
=
=
,
,
:
x
y
x
y
i

rotH =

rotE =

x
qEx0

x
IH x0
j

y
qE y0

y
IH y0

I 0
I
I
I
= i
H y + j H x0 + k 0 = (iaYEx0 jaYE y0 ) = aYE 0
z
z
z
z
z
0

q
q
i
j 0 q 1 0 q
= i E y0 + j Ex0 + k 0 = ( H x0 +
Hy ) =
H
z
z
z
Ya
Ya
z Ya
z
0

(0.6) :
I
q
caYE 0
= E0
z
t
(4.13)
1 0 q
0 I
= H
c H
z
t
Ya
(4.13) :
q
I
(4.14)
=
t
z
= caY , , :
I
c 2 q
=
.
(4.15)
t
z
(4.14), (4.15) .
, , :
V = Edl ,
(4.16)
l

l ,
. V

:
q = CV ,
(4.17)
C :
1
.
(4.18)
C=
0
E dl
l

(4.17) (4.18) (4.14) (4.15) :


V
I
C
=
t
z
(4.19)
I
V
L =
t
z
20

, L .
,
.
0 ( x, y ) , ,
.
(4.14), (4.15)
(4.19) :
L=

E dl
0

(4.20)

(4.20) ,
, .
(4.18) (4.20) :
LC =

(4.21)
c2
(4.19) . ,
,
-
. ,
.
3. TEM
. TEM-
, ,
, v = c / , (4.1).
. ,
. (4.21):
1
v =
(4.22)
LC
Z
,
. V I :
V V0
= I exp[i ( z t )] ,
I 0
C (i )V0 = i I 0 ,
L(i ) I 0 = i V0 ,
:
:
L

1
Z =
= v L .
(4.23)
=
Z =

C vC
, :
L
.
(4.24)
Z =
C
Z
Z .
() . .
.
:
A
Er = .
r
A . , Er0
q = 1 . (4.6)
21

r dS =
A =

, dS = rd ,

. :
r2

0
E dl =
r1

2 2 dr 2 r2
= ln .
r1 r r1

:
C=

.
(4.25)
r2
2 ln
r1
,
, (4.21)
2 r
(4.26)
L = 2 ln 2
c
r1
(4.23) :
2 r2
.
(4.27)
ln
Z =
c
r1
(4.11) (4.27), ,
, .
, Z B Z x
. .
2 / c
60 . [2].



.

, 2 > 0 ( TEM, TE TM ). ,
- ,

. , ,

.
4. ,
TEM-, , ,
, . ( )
- .
? , ,

. ,
,
- .
.

, . ,
,
( z ).
, , /

, , (
22

) , - TEM. - ,
- z = const .
, ,
. ,
, TEM.
,
.
,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,
.
,
, ,
[11 - 14].
Equation Section (Next) 1.5.

, ()
,
. , TEM 0 ,
:
i i k 2 = 2 ,
i . k
.
, i i .
,
. ,
( )
, .
, ,
, .
, -, , (2.5). ,
, TM,
:
Ez 2

( x, y )

,
d
d - . ,
- | Ez | | Ex , y | , :
Ex , y

/d 2
(5.1)
2
2
(2.3) : < k . / d k 2 ,
- (5.1) . ,
k 2 = (2 / ) 2 , = 2 / , - ,
- . -
:
2
d


23

(5.2)

- ( > ).
- :
2 d
(5.3)
,
,
, (-).
, ,
(. 2, 7-9)
TEM. ,
, , , ,
-TEM. ,
,

.

.6. -:
.
-TEM
(.6),
2 ,
, 1 .
,
, .
r
, , C1 = / 2 ln 2
r1
r
, C0 = (1 ) / 2 ln 2 . ,
r1
(1 + ) ,
(1 + )1/ 2 .
, [2], .
, , 1.3.
, ,
,
: (1 , 1 ) ( 2 , 2 ) , .6.
24

v , (3.8), (3.11)
v = S / 2 We . We S :

112 2 2
2
k 1 I1 + 2 2 k 2 22 I 2
16
16
1k c 2
2 k c 2
1 I1 +
2 I2
S = S1 + S 2 =
8
8

We = W1 + W2 =

I1 = 2 da, I 2 = 2 da,

A1

A2

2 22 22 I 2 k 2
k2
2 2
We = W1 + W2 =
11 1 I1 1 +
11212 I1 (1 + rw )
=
2 2
16
11 1 I1 16
S = S1 + S2 = 1
rw =

k c 2 2 22 I 2
k c 2
1 I1 1 +
1 I1 (1 + rw rn2 )
= 1
2
11 I1
8
8

2 22 22 I 2
- ,
11212 I1

rn = 2 2 / 11 - .
:
v =

c 1 + rw rn2
k11 1 + rw

(5.4)

,
-TEM .


c 2 1 + rw rn2
v v =
11 1 + rw
,
, , :
1 + rw rn2
c
v ( 0) =
(5.5)
11 1 + rw

, (5.5)
.
,
rw = /(1 ) . rn = . ,

c
1 + /(1 )
1 +
=c
=
.
1 + /(1 )
1 +
1 +
.
, (5.4) (5.5) ,
,
.
, -
, ,
, ( , )
.
(. 1.8, 1.11).
v ( 0) = c

25

Equation Section 61.6.


1. ,
.

(. 7). , z
.

.7. : .
(2.1) :

2 2
+
+ 2 = 0
(6.1)
2
2
x y
,
x = 0 x = a ( ), y = 0 , y = b ( ). TM-
:
=0
x = 0 , x = a y = 0 , y = b
(6.2)
TE- :

= 0 x = 0 x = a ,
x

= 0 y = 0 y = b .
(6.3)
y
,
.
.

(6.1), (6.2) (6.3),
. TE- :
2
2
m x
n y
m n
2
mn =
(6.4)
= A cos
cos
,
+

a
b
a b
, TM-:
2
2
m x
n y
m n
2
mn =
(6.5)
= B sin
sin
,
+

a
b
a b
m n - .
26

2. , z ,
( z ) = ei z . TE- ,
(6.4) (2.4):
n
m x
n y i z
Ex = ik A
e
cos
sin
b
a
b
m
m x
n y i z
E y = ik A
e
sin
cos
a
a
b
Ez = 0
(6.6)
m
m x
n y i z ,
H x = i A
e
sin
cos
a
a
b
n
m x
n y i z
H y = i A
e
cos
sin
b
a
b
m x
n y i z
2
H z = A mn
e
cos
cos
a
b
, (6.5) (2.5), TM-:
m
m x
n y i z
Ex = i B
e
cos
sin
a
a
b
n
m x
n y i z
E y = i B
e
sin
cos
b
a
b
m x
n y i z
2
Ez = mn
B sin
e
sin
,
(6.7)
a
b
n
m x
n y i z
H x = ik B
e
sin
cos
b
a
b
m
m x
n y i z
H y = ik B
e
cos
sin
a
a
b
Hz = 0
m n ,
x y . ( )
m, n . TE11 , TM 24 ( , :
H11 , E24 ). , m, n
, . ,
(6.6). : n = 0
, E y , H x , H z . H l 0 H 0l
( ).
El 0 E0l : m = 0 n = 0
(6.7), , .
TE- TM-
x y . ,
, H10 , H11 E11 ,
( ) ,
x y ( m n ).

, [15].
1.3,
.
, z = const ,
(6.6) (6.7).
27

3. , . (6.4) (6.5),

2
2
c 2 m n
2
(6.8)
+
mn =

a b
m n ,
, . ,
( ). (6.8)
:
2
2
2
2
1 m n
=
+
(6.9)

a
b

mn

-,
.
,
( ) (3.2), v ( ) (3.3), v ( ) (3.4).
,

, , .
.
, Emn H mn , m > 0 n > 0 ,
.
,
, . ,
, ,
.
.
LE (longitudinal electric ) LM
(longitudinal magnetic )
[16].
,
. ,
,
Emn H mn ,
,
(
[17]). ,
, ,
,
.
H m 0 .
, ,
, ,
, (
). ,
,
. H10 . b < a / 2 ,
H 20 , 20 = 210 .
10 20 .

, ,
28


(. [8, 15]).
4. ,
(6.6) (6.7) , ,
:
A
A
m
n
exp(i r ) = exp(i z i
i )
(6.10)
4
4
a
b
.
2
: 2 = 2 + mn
= k 2 .
, -
,
c
v = v =
,

.
,
,
(
).
, ,
z . (6.10)
, = cos , cos = ( ez ) , :
cos =

= =

k

(6.11)

, sin = mn / .
H m 0 .

(. . 8). ,
z ,
. , :
c / ck
=
,
v =
cos

(3.3).
- ,
( ). z
:
c
c
,
v =
cos =
k

(3.4).

29

.8. .

.
, ,
, .

cos . ,
z . ,
. ,
, ,
.
c
, 0 , v v
,

.
Equation Section 7 1.7.
1.
.
a (.9).
(2.1) : x1 = , x2 = r ( h1 = r , h2 = 1 ) :
1

(
)+
(r
) + 2 r = 0
(7.1)
r r r
, (2.7) (2.8)
. (7.1) .
= ( ) R(r ) , :

R
+
(r
) + 2 r R = 0
2

r r
1 1 2 1
R
+
(r
) +2 = 0,
2
2
r
Rr r r

r 1 R


1 2
= m 2 = const , ,
,
2
30

d 2
+ m2 = 0
2
d
:
d 2 R 1 dR
m2
2
(
)R = 0
+
+

dr 2 r dr
r2

(7.2)

(7.3)

.9.
(7.2) (7.3) .
, (2.7) (2.8).
:
(7.4)
m = A cos m + B sin m = Ceim + De im
-
, (7.4): m = 0,1,2,... (7.3)
, . r = 0
, r = a ,
(2.7) (2.8)
dR
-
(7.5)
=0
dr
R=0
-
(7.6)
1- J m ( r ) .
( )
, , TE- (7.5)
:
J m ( a) = 0
(7.7)
TM- (7.6) :
J m ( a) = 0
(7.8)
2. = J m ( r ) m ( ) ,
( z ) = ei z , ,
(2.4) (2.5), :
TE-
TM-

31

E = ik m mn J m ( mn r )ei z
Er = ik m

E = im

1
J m ( mn r )ei z
r

1
J m ( mn r )ei z
r

Er = i m mn J m ( mn r )ei z

Ez = 0

2
Ez = mn
m J m ( mn r )ei z

1
H = im J m ( mn r )ei z
r

H = ik m mn J m ( mn r )e

H r = i m mn J m ( mn r )ei z

H r = ikm

2
m J m ( mn r )ei z
H z = mn

Hz = 0

(7.9)
i z

1
J m ( mn r )ei z
r

( mn r , mn r m ).
,
, Emn H mn . m
n : m m ( )
, n -
, (7.7) (7.8),
. , m = 0,1, 2,3,... n = 1, 2,3,...

[1,2,15].
3. ,
, . ,
. (3.2),
c mn
mn =
, mn = mn a mn = mn a (7.7), (7.8).
a
:

E01

mn , mn
/ 2a

2.405

3.74

4.50

1.31

0.84

0.61

E11

E21

H 21

3.74

1.841

2.99

0.84

1.71

1.05

H 01

H11

, H11 ,
= 3.413a . .
E01 , H 21 . H 01
E11 . ,
H 0n E1n ,
J 0 ( a) = J1 ( a) ,
1n 0 n .
,
.
, m ( ) . ,
(7.4), ,
A 0, B =0 A = 0, B 0 . m 0
(. .10), .4 1.3.
m 0 .

32

,
. , , ,

.

.10. H11
()

, m ( )
, C 0, D =0 , C =0, D 0 .
exp[i (t m )] .
C 0, D =0 , , z =const
,
, .
C =0, D 0 , ,
.
. ,
.
, .

,
,
.
.

. ,
, ,
. ,
.
.
4.
. ,

.
,
. ,
33


,
.
,
( ),
,
(. [18]). ,
,
:
(6.10)
.
5. ,
.
. ,
, ,
, E 0 ,
j , .
4
[n, H ] =
j .
c
[15].
, ,
, ,
.

. E0n H 0n .
, (1.5.5)
1 , 0 . E - Ez , Er ,
H , H -- H z , H r , E . , E - j
, H -- . H 0n
, ,
. ,
( z ) . ,
,
H z , .
E0n .
: Er , Ez H ,
. E0n
,
. , E01 ,

.

.
- H11 H10 ,

. ,
. ,
E0n .
34

Equation Section (Next) 1.8.


( )
1.

. ,

.
.

.
[19].
,
2a 1 , 1 .
2 , 2 (.11). ,
z , y . , ,
(), ,
,

, , .

. 11. :
TE TM -
- , (2.1)
(2.4), (2.5) .

( 0)
y
:
d 2
+ l2 = 0
(8.1)
2
dx
,
( l = 1 )
( l = 2 ). , (2.3):
11k 2 = 2 + 12
2 2 k 2 = 2 + 22
(8.2)
35

, | x |= a ,
, .
2. :
TE-
TM-
d
Ex = 0
Ex = i
dx
d
E y = ik l
Ey = 0
dx
Ez = l2

Ez = 0

(8.3)

d
H x = i
dx

Hx = 0

Hy = 0

H y = ik l

H z = l2

Hz = 0

d
dx

(8.3), H E y = E y , H z = H z ,
d
d
| x| a 0 = 2
dx
dx
- H y = H y , Ez = Ez ,

| x| a + 0

| x| a 0

| x| a + 0

(8.4)

d
d
(8.5)
| x| a 0 = | x| a + 0
| x| a 0 = 2
| x| a + 0
dx
dx
,
.
.
, x
. : 22 < 0 ,
(| x |> a) . ,
x
, , 12 > 0 .
:
2 = 22 a 2
2 = 12 a 2
(8.6)

(8.1). | x |< a , , , :
cos x
=1
(8.7)
sin a
, | x |> a :

= 2 exp(
= 2 exp(

| x |),

x>a

(8.8)

x < a
),
a

H-. (8.7) (8.8) (8.4), :

36

sin

( ) = 2 2 exp( )( )
a
a
cos

11

(8.9)
cos

12 1 ( ) = 22 2 exp( )
sin
1

2 . (8.9) ,
. 1 2 ,
:
12 -ctg
22

(
)
=

1 tg
2
(8.6) :
-ctg
1

(8.10)
( ) =
2
tg
,
. E-. , (8.7)
(8.8) (8.5), :
cos
12 1 ( ) = 22 2 exp( )
sin
sin
( ) = 2 2 exp( )( )
cos

1 1

12 -ctg
22
=

(
)

1 tg
2

-ctg
1
(8.11)
( ) =
2
tg
(8.10) (8.11) :
= f ( )
(8.12)
tg
f ( ) = 1
( ) , = 1 / 2 TM = 1 / 2 TE .
-ctg
.
, (8.2) (8.6):

11
2 2

2
c

a 2 = ( a) 2 + 2

(8.13)

a 2 = ( a ) 2 2
c2
, :
2 + 2 = R2
R - [19]:
2

(8.14)


R 2 = a 2 (11 2 2 )
(8.15)
c
R , 11 > 2 2 , ,
,
. , ( [20]),
37

R (
).
3. , (8.12), (8.14),
.
, (8.13) ,
( ) , .
,
( , ) . . 12
= f ( ) (8.12) , 0, 0 .
, / 2 .
(8.14) .
= f ( ) , ()
.
:
1)
= f ( )
R , . ,
.
, R n / 2 . ,
:
n c
1
n =
(8.16)
2 a 11 2 2
En 0 ,
H n 0 , n - . , ,
y .
E00 H 00 .
2) n ,
,
(8.8). ,
, ( Ex H y TM H x , E y - TE) x . ,
, - . , ,
, E10 H10 .
3) n
( ) n / 2
(n + 1) / 2 (. 13). , En 0 H n 0
, n , , (n + 1) .
, ,
, , . R
( R) :

38

.12. .
.13.
39

(n + 1)
(8.17)
+
= R2

2
, 0 ,
2

.
, . ,

( )
. ,
,
, (
).
4) En 0 H n 0 ,
n . , 1 = 2 , E-
, H-.
5) . 12, 13 (8.13),
( ) . , 0 ,

2 2 ,
c
v = v = c / 2 2 ,

. , , R

R n ,

(8.17). (8.13), :
2

(n + 1) 2

]
= 11 [
(8.18)
2
c
, ( )
v ( ) , v ( ) ,
2

(.14).
v ( ) = v ( ) = c / 11 .
.14, ,
, v ( )
. (8.12), (8.14), .
, ,
n ,
, , .
v ( ) , .
, .
,
, .
() .
4.

1
. = 1[ei x / a e i x / a ] , = ei z ,
2
U =
exp(i r ) = exp(i (k x x + k z z )) = exp [i ( x / a + z ) ] .
: 2 = 2 + ( / a) 2 = 11k 2 .
40

.14. ( ) , v ( ) v ( )
.
41

k z
(.15):
k
/a
sin = x =

/ .
z .
. ,
, / 2 .
( , = R ), :
R

(8.19)
= 1 1 2 2
11
a

, :

sin max =

sin( ) cos
2

2 2
11

(8.20)

, (8.20) = max . ,
,

.

,
, 0 ,
.
,
, (
, .15).
,
.

.15. .

42


,
, ,
. ,
,
.

.
Equation Chapter 1 Section 9 1.9.



. - ,
(3.1)
. - ,
,
. , , , ,
(
- , ).
, ,
.
. ,
, .
,
.
(8.12), (8.14),
F ( ) ,

. (
)
(. 16). R = R1 , R1 > R n ( 1
. 16) n = f ( ) .
n1
. , n 2 < 0 . .
,
.

( 2, R = R2 , R2 < R n ), R = R3 , R3 < R n
( 3). ,
? F ( ) , R < R3
, .
F ( ) ,
. F ( ) ,
(8.12), (8.14)
[21]. = f ( )
:
= n ( n )
(9.1)

43

.16. .

n = n

, n

1 | | | | . R ,

2 + 2 = R 2 , 2 = ( R + )( R ) ,
2 = 2 R( R )

(9.2) = n +
F ( ) = 0

. (9.2),
n
2 + 2 p 2 R( R n ) = 0

p =

(9.2)

(9.3)

R
.
n

(9.3):

1,2 = p p 2 + 2 R ( R n )
( = i ) :
p 2 + 2 R 2 2 R n < 0

(9.4)
(9.5)

= p , = 2 R( n R ) p .
2

: 2 = k 2 2 2 + 2 / a 2 (8.13), ,
(9.5) : = + i .
R , .
, , = 0 , :
<<
(9.6)
<< .
,
,
= exp[i ( + i ) z ] = exp(i z ) exp[ z ]
(9.7)
, .
( x > a ) :
44

i
| x |)
(9.8)
a
a
a
( 2 = i ),

x = 0 ( exp[i ( x t )] ).
a

, (.17).
1 = + i .

= 2 exp(

| x |) = 2 exp(

| x |) exp(

.17.
, , < 0 ,
.
.
, ,
.
.
,
, ( z ) .
z ,
. ,
x . ,
,

, .
,
, , ,

, ( 1 , 1
2 , 2 ).
, .
, ,
. ,

.
,
45

. ,
,
(. [2], 64).
,

,
.

.

( ) ,
, ,
(.18).

.18. ( ) : 1-
, 2- , 3- , 4- .
Equation Chapter 1 Section 10 1.10.
,
,
y , . ,


.
.
,
, y
(. .19).

x = a y = 0, h :
E = 0

(10.1)
, , H n 0 ,
(10.1), En 0 .
,
46

H n 0 ,
1.8,
.

.19. .

,
,
- ,
z .
, H z ,
yz z .
xyz (.19) (8.3).
xyz :
z = z cos y sin
= ei z

Az = Az cos + Ay sin
(10.2)
Ay = Ay cos Az sin
:
d
Ex = 0
H x = i
dx
d
(10.3)
cos
E y = ik l
H y = l sin
dx
d
sin
Ez = ik l
H z = l cos
dx
, ,
+ z ,
(10.1). 1 =| 1 | exp[i ( z cos y sin )]
2 =| 2 | exp[i ( z cos + y sin )] , | 1 |=| 2 | .
, :

47

cos
cos
cos( y sin )
+ 2 () = 2 exp(i z cos )

sin
sin
i sin( y sin )
, :
Ex = 0 ,
d
cos exp(i z cos ) cos( y sin )
E y = ik i
dx
d
sin exp(i z cos )i sin( y sin )
Ez = ik i
dx
d
exp(i z cos ) cos( y sin )
H x = i
dx
H y = i2 sin exp(i z cos )i sin( y sin )

(10.4)

H z = i2 cos exp(i z cos ) cos( y sin )


(10.5)
, (10.1)
,
h sin = pn
(p = 1,2,...)
(10.6)
(10.5) ,
:
= z cos
(10.7)
E. (8.3), (10.2) :
d
Ex = i
Hx = 0
dx
d
(10.8)
cos
E y = l2 sin H y = ik l
dx
d
sin
Ez = l2 cos H z = ik l
dx
,
1 2 . (10.4)
:
d
exp(i z cos ) cos( y sin )
Ex = i
dx
E y = i2 sin exp(i z cos )i sin( y sin )
E z = i2 cos exp(i z cos ) cos( y sin )
Hx = 0,
(10.9)
d
cos exp(i z cos ) cos( y sin )
H y = ik i
dx
d
sin exp(i z cos )i sin( y sin )
H z = ik i
dx
(10.9) , (10.6).
(10.7).
, (10.5)
-, LEnp , (10.9) -

- ( LHnp ). LHnp y
, p = 0, = 0 . Hn0
.
48

,
, .
, , .
LEnp LH np
. R

y .
(10.6) (10.7) :
p
p
(10.10)
= [1 ( )2 ]1/ 2 = [ ( )2 ]1/ 2
h
h
, ,
p
: >
. , ,
h
LH 00 . LH n 0 ,
LH 31 LH 41
. , ,
,
,
.


a(11 2 2 )1/ 2 / h . LE-
LH- , , LEn 0 -
.
.
:
, ,
,
,
.

.
. , x ,
,
x / a > (3 5) 1 , ,
.
Equation Chapter 1 Section 11 1.11.

1. .
,
, ,
, , .
,
( ), (
) (
).

(.20), ,
49

: U = (r , ) ( z ) .
(7.1):
1

(
)+
(r
) + l2 r = 0
(11.1)
r r r
,
l ( r < a, l = 1 )
( r > a, l = 2 ), :
11k 2 = 2 + 12
2 2 k 2 = 2 + 22
(11.2)

.20. :

, 1.7,
eim ,

, . ,
.
,
TE TM, ,
. ,
.
-,
U E .
U H .
(1.9) ,
.
,
. -, U E , U H
:
U ( E , H ) = ( E , H ) ( z ) ( E , H ) (r , )
(11.3)
E
e i z
H
h i z
e
h
: = e , = e , - .
z
:

i . , ,
z

1.7, :
50

( E , H ) = Z m ( l r )eim

(11.4)

Z m - m - . (11.4) ( E , H )
,
. (
1.7), ,
:

im .

(11.4) ,
r = 0 r .
r < a Z m ( l r ) = J m (1r ) ,
(. 1.7). ( r > a )
Z m ( l r ) = H m(1) ( 2 r ) , r
. H m(1) - .
,
22 < 0 , Z m ( 2 r )
K m ( z ) , z = i 2 r .
:
i
K m ( z ) = (i ) m H m(1) (iz )
2
K m ( z ) r . , ,
[2],
K m ( z ) , , [1],
. ,
, ,
Z m ( 2 r ) ,

22 = 22 ,
K m ( 2 r ) , 2 , 2 = 2 ,
H m(1) ( 2 r ) .
1 = 1 .
,

,
(11.3), (11.4) (11.1),
(11.2).
2.
. (2.4) (2.5),
, :
H m e E
m h H
E

E = ik l lh
l
H =
l ik le
r
r
r
r
E
H
k m
k m

Er = l lh H + i le
H r = i lh
(11.5)
l le E
r
r
r
r
Ez = l2 le E

H z = l2 lh H


( z ) . z
r = a

51

12 1e E (1a ) = 22 2e E ( 2 a )
12 1h H (1a ) = 22 2h H ( 2 a )
:
m e E
m e E
ik 1 1h1 H (1a)
1 (1a) = ik 2 2h 2 H ( 2 a)
2 ( 2 a)
a

(11.6)

(11.7)
m h H
e
E

(1a ) ik (1a) =
2 ( 2 a ) ik 2 2 2 ( 2 a)

a
a
l a .
(11.6) (11.7)
(e,h )
1,2
. .

h
1

e
1 1 1

(11.7) 2( e, h ) (11.6),
(11.4), (11.7) :
m e

12 Z m (1a )
12 Z m (1a )
h
1 Z m (1a ) 2
ik 1 11Z m (1a ) 2 2 2
Z m ( 2 a ) =
Z m ( 2 a )
2 Z m ( 2 a )
2 Z m ( 2 a )

2 Z ( a )
m h
2 Z ( a )
ik 1e 11Z m (1a ) 2 2 12 m 1 Z m ( 2 a ) =
1 Z m (1a ) 12 m 1 Z m ( 2 a )
2 Z m ( 2 a )
a
2 Z m ( 2 a )

2
1 aZ m (1a) ,
:
Z m (1a)
Z m ( 2 a)
,
.
f (1a) =
F ( 2 a) =
2 aZ m ( 2 a)
1aZ m (1a)

1( e,h ) :

m e 1 12
12 22
ik 1 f (1a) 2 2 2 F ( 2 a) =
1 2 1 2
2 1
1 a 2

a
(11.8)
2
2
2

1
m

ik 1e 1 f (1a ) 2 12 22 F ( 2 a) =
1h 2 12 1
2 1
1 a 2

a

h
1

(11.8):
2

m
1 12
f (1a ) (1) F ( 2 a ) f (1a) (1) F ( 2 a ) =
(11.9)
1

k (1a ) 4 22
2 2

= 1 / 2 , = 1 / 2 . = 1 , 2 = i 2 = 2 , 2 = 2 .
,
. (11.9) :

(1)
m 1


2
2
k (1a) ( 2 a)
, 1a 2 a , .
, 1.7, : 1a =
2 a = . (11.2) :

2 = 2 2 k 2 + 2 / a 2
2 = 11k 2 2 / a 2

(11.10)

R (. 1.6),
, ,
:
52

2 + 2 = R2

(11.11)

(11.10) k :
2

2 + 2
= 2
a ( 1)

2 + 2
k =
(11.12)
2 2 ( 1)
(11.9) ( / k ) 2 , (11.12)
:
2


2 + 2

=
k
2 + 2
2 2

= 1 , (11.9) :
2 + 2 ( 2 + 2 ) 2 1 1
1
m2 [ 2
]
= 2 + 2 2 + 2 m2
2
4 4
+

(11.9) ,
, , :

1 1
1
(11.13)
+ 2
2 2

(11.11) (11.13), ,
, (11.10), . ,
1e / 1h
(11.8).
.
3. , 1e 1h
, ,
TE TM . m = 0 ,
-,
. m = 0 , (11.13)
:
f ( ) + F ( ) = 0
(11.14)
f ( ) + F ( ) = 0
(11.15)
e
h
(11.14) (11.8) , 1 = 0 , 1 0 ,
TE. (11.15),
: 1h = 0 , 1e 0 - .. TM
.
, ( m 0 ),
, - H-
, 1 1 , ,
. ,
(11.13) ,
, (11.14) ( -)
(11.15) ( -) (11.11).

, EH mn .
, HEmn .

[ f ( ) + F ( )][ f ( ) + F ( )] = m2

m , n
(11.11), (11.13). , ,
.
53

:
(11.8) , m 0
1e 1h . ,
TM- TE- .
, - TE TM-.
(11.14), (11.15)
(11.10). ,

. , :
J ( )
J ( )
f ( ) = 0
= 1
J 0 ( )
J 0 ( )
J 0 J1 ,
. ,
:
1

f ( ) = tg ( ) .

4
, f ( )
.
:
K ( )
K ( )
F ( ) = 0
= 1
K 0 ( )
K 0 ( )
[ F ( )] .
1

F ( R2 2 ) .

H 0 n E0 n , n - .
, = 2.405.
EH11 ,
.
. [2],. 63 [19].

1910 .
,
. ,

[20].
Equation Chapter 1 Section 121.12.
. .


. 1.2 (
). ,

,
. .

.
,

.
54

. -
, -
.
,
.
,
,

.
, ,
,
,
x .
:
E ( x, t ) E ( x )
(12.1)

=
exp ( i ( z t ) )
H ( x, t ) H ( x )
E ( x) H ( x) :
ik H x = i E y
ik H y = i Ex
ik H z =

E
x y

ik x Ex = i H y

E
x z

ik y E y = i H x
ik z Ez =

H
x y

H
x z

(12.2)

1.1,
,
. - . ,
- , TE-,
Ez = 0 ( H y = 0 Ex = 0 ), TM-, H z = 0 (
E y = 0 H x = 0 ).
.
TE- (12.2)
H z :
d 2Hz
+ (k 2 y 2 ) H z = 0
(12.3)
2
dx
TM :
d 2 Ez
2
2
+
(

) E = 0
(12.4)
k

dx 2
x z z
Ez H z
(12.2).
-
. TE-,
E y , y .

TM-,
, Ex Ez , , , x z .
(12.3) (12.4) .
( x) ,
.
TE-
55

y = y 0 (1 x 2 / a 2 )

(12.5)

(12.3) ,
.
, - - .
[24]. , (12.5)
, x > a .
,
TM- , :

z = const,

x =

x0

1 + x2 / a2

(12.4)

d 2 Ez 2

+ k z 2 z (1 + x 2 / a 2 ) Ez = 0
2
dx
x0

(12.6)

(12.7)

Ez ( x) = U ( ) , = x(4 z 2 / x 0 a 2 )1/ 4 (12.7)


:
d 2U
1
(12.8)
+ (m + 1/ 2) 2 U = 0
2
d
4

1 ( )1/ 2 a 2
(12.9)
m + = z x0
( k 2 x 0 )
2
2| |
(12.8) . ,
| x | ,
(m = 0,1, 2,...) ,
:
U m = N m exp( 2 / 4) H m ( / 2)
(12.10)
H m - - , N m - . U m
,
, , z = 0
:
Ez ( x, 0) = AmU m ( m ( x))
m

,
( > 0 ),
:
Ez ( x, z ) = AmU m ( m ( x)) exp i m z
(12.11)
m

, m
. (12.9) :
m = e [(1 + ( p 2 / 4)(2m + 1) 2 )1/ 2 ( p / 2)(2m + 1)]
(12.12)
e = k x 0 - ,
p = 1/ ka z . p

, p << 1 . :
p(2m + 1) << 1 ,
(12.12) :

56

1 x0
m e (1 ( p / 2)(2m + 1) ) = e (2m + 1)

a z

(12.13)

.21.
.

,
,
m = e p . (12.13)
:
. ,
(12.11) z z + z ,
2
2
2 a
z =
=
=
(12.14)
e p ( x 0 / z )1/ 2
,
z . , z = 0
57

, Ez ( x) = ( x x0 ) ,
z ( z = nz )
( y ). ,

( ).
.
m ,
n
.
m = 0
:
U 0 = N 0 exp( x 2 / 2w02 )
(12.15)
w0 - , :
0 a
1
(12.16)
w02 =
2
1/ 2
2 z (1 + p / 4) p / 2
wm (2m + 1)1/ 2 w0 (. 22).
| x | wm , | x | wm
(12.15). ,

, ,
(12.6), .

,
.

-
.
,
, - .
-
, ()
.
, -
(
, ).
,

.
,
, .

.

.

1.13.
.

.
, ,
58

,
.

.22.
,
.

.22.
1) TEM-
, -
.
, ( ),
.

. TEM-
, (
),
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
,
TEM-.
TEM
- .
2) (
, )
TEM-. , TEM,
,

, .

(, , .).
59


.

, , . ,
, ,
.
,
-TEM .
3) .
. ,
.
(-
-), . ,

300 - 500 .

, TEM-:
,
, ,
. ,
, , 4 - 8 .

.

. ,
( )


. ,
,
,
.
-,

[25, 26].
(, .) .
,
.
4)
.
,
.
,
, .
,
. (
, ) ,
.
, .
(. .24),
,
.
60


.

( ). ,
, , 1970-

( /).
. -,

, ,
. , ,
,
. , , 0.1 /,
2.6 % 1 . 1.55
0.6 109 ,
4 1010 . ,
100 ( = 3 ) 3 104 .
5) ,
. ,
- - .
,
( ).
.22
.

. , ,
.
,
.
.
10 ,
,
, -
( ).

- ,

.

61

Equation Chapter 2 Section 1 2.

, ,
, .
.
,
, ,
.
.
().

2.1.
1. [27, 28]
().
, ,
, ,
: , , ,
.
(
) .
:
) , t0
, ..
- a ;
t :
r = r (t , a ) ,

a = r (t0 , a )
(1.1)
( ).
) , ,
, ..
, ;
(1.1)
a = a (t , r ), r = a (t0 , r ).
(1.2)
(, ).
. ,
,
d 2r
2 = F (r , a )
(1.3)
dt
, r - -
. :
, ,
F : F = F (r ) ;
()
: F = F (a ) . , ,
.
2. ,
, n .
n

T , ,
62

+ n , , .
:
n

T = T
(1.4)

, :
n

F = FdV + T dA
V

(1.5)

T
n .
.
i

T .
(.23):
i

T e j = T ji = Tij ,

( i, j = 1, 2,3)

(1.6)

:
i

T = Ti1e1 + Ti 2e2 + Ti 3e3 = Tij e j

(1.7)

: ,
. .

.23. .
.24.

Tij
. , , -
Tij . , (.24). ABC
S n .
:
Si = Snei = Sni
ni n . ,
. i :
1
( ) i = ShFi +
3
+ ( , F ),
63

( ) i = Ti S T1i S1 T2i S2 T3i S3 +


+ ( , T ) =
n

= (Ti T ji n j ) S + ...
, :
n
dv 1
1
(1.8)
Sh i = ShFi + S (Ti T ji n j )
3
dt 3
h 0 , S 0 ( S h 2 ) ,
, :
n

Ti = T ji n j

(1.9)

, , ,
Tij . .

(1.3).
:
n
dv
(1.10)
dt dV = V FdV + S T dA
V
, (1.9):
n

T dA = T ji n j dA
S

(1.11)

(
):
Fj
(1.12)
x j dV = S Fj n j dA
V
(1.11) (1.12) (1.10) :
T ji
dv
(1.13)
V ( dti Fi x j )dV = 0
, (1.13) ,
.
.
T
dv
i = Fi + ji
, i, j = 1, 2,3
(1.14)
dt
x j
3. , ,
[29].
,
[29].
:
dv
= rF
(1.15)
r m
dt
,
(1.15) . .
, ,
n

r F r T . ,
, .
, , .
64

G = [ P E ] , ,
. G
, ,

. ,
, .
n

M dA .
,
. ,
.
,
- (1.15),
, , .
S .
, ,
:
n
n
d

(
+

)
=
(
+

)
+
(
+

)dA
(1.16)
S
r
v
dV
G
r
F
dV
M
r
T

S
dt V
V

:
n

r vdV = r FdV + r T dA

(1.17)

:
n

( xi v j x j vi )dV = ( xi Fj x j Fi )dV + ( xi T j x j Ti )dA

(1.18)

(1.9) (1.12) :

(x T

i kj

( x T x jTki )dV =
xk i kj
V

x jTki )nk dA =

Tkj
T
V ( xi xk + Tkj ik x j xkik Tki jk )dV
(1.18):
Tkj

T
V xi ( Fj + xk v j ) x j ( Fi + xkik vi ) + (Tij T ji ) dV = 0
(1.14), ( Fi +
. (1.20) :
Tij = T ji

(1.19)

(1.20)

Tki
vi )
xk
(1.21)

,
, .
Equation Chapter 2 Section 22.2.
1. , .
:
u = r a
(2.1)
r = r (a ) , u ,
a . a = a (r )
, u = u (r ) .
65

u ,
. ,
, .
,
: ,
, .
,
.
,
,
. ,
:
1) ;
2) ( ) ;
3) , ,
.
a0
u (a0 ) .
. ,
a a + da ,
r r + dr . ds02 = dai dai (
), : ds 2 = dxi dxi .
:
ds 2 ds02 = dxi dxi dai dai = 2 jk dxi dxk
(2.2)
:
ds 2 ds02 = dxi dxi dai dai = 2 jk da j dak

(2.3)

dx j , dai
:
dai =

ai
dx j
x j

(2.4)

da j , dx j :
dxi =

xi
da j
a j

(2.5)

(2.4) (2.2), jk ,
:
1
2

jk = ( jk

ai ai
)
x j xk

(2.6)

jk , :
1 xi xi
jk )
2 a j ak
(2.1). (2.6) :
u
u 1 u u u
1
jk = jk ( ij i )( ik i ) = j + k i
xj
xk 2 xk x j x j
2
(2.7) :
1 u u
u
u
u
1
jk = ( ij + i )( ik + i ) jk = k + j + i
aj
ak
2
2 a j ak a j

jk = (

66

(2.7)

ui

xk

(2.8)

ui

ak

(2.9)

,
:
jk = kj ,
jk = kj
(2.10)
,
, .
ui / a j , ui / x j ,
u .
2.
, .
a :
u
(2.11)
u (a + a ) = u (a ) + a + ...
a
u / a , ,
(ui / ak ) .
. (ui / ak )
- ik
ik :
ui
1 u u 1 u u
(2.12)
= ik + ik = i + k + i k
2 ak ai 2 ak ai
ak

(2.9).
ik , 2- ,

ijk [30]:

i = ijk jk

1
2

(2.13)

jk = ijki

(2.14)

1
, (2.13) (2.14). : jk = ijk ilmlm .
2
, ijk ilm = ( jl km jm kl ) . ,
1
1
1
ijk ilmlm = ( jl km jm kl )lm = ( jk kj ) = jk .
2
2
2
, :
ui (a + a ) = ui (a ) + ik ak + ik ak
ik ak jik j ak = ijk j ak , [ a ]i .
, u (a + a ) = [ a ] .
- a . ,
(2.11) ,
, :
ui (a + a ) = ui (a ) + ik ak + [ a ]i
(2.15)
, -
- .
,
, .
. ,

67

. ,
a .
3.
[30]. V u .
A :
n

A = u T dA = ui Ti dA = uiT ji n j dA

(2.16)

(. (1.9)). (1.12)
, :
T
ui

T ji dV + ui ji dV = RdV + KdV (2.17)


( uiT ji )dV =
A =
x j
a j
a j
V
V
V
V
V
u j
ui
T ji +
Tij .
a j
ai
(
), T ji = Tij

1 ui u j
+

ai
2 a j

2T ji = 2ijTij . ,

(2.17) :

RdV = T dV
ij

ij

(2.18)

.
(1.14):
T
d2
d
d
1
K = ui ji = ui 2 ui = (a )ui t ui = (a ) (ui ui ) t
x j
dt
dt
dt
2

(2.17), KdV -
. ,
,
A = R + K
-
. R (2.18) :
(2.19)
R = Tijij
4. .
,
, (
):
1
1 (3)
R = cijklijkl + cijklmn
ij klmn + ...
(2.20)
2
3
(2.19): Tij = R / ij . , (2.20),
, ,
:
Tij = cijklke
(2.21)
- ,
(-, , .)
. cijkl -
.
(2.21). (2.20):
68


kl
1
)
Tmn = cijkl ( ij kl + ij
mn
mn
2
ij / mn = im jn .

1
1
Tmn = cijke ( im jn kl + ij km ln ) = (cmnkl kl + cijmnij ) .
2
2
, (2.20) cijmn = cmnij ,
(2.21).
,
(
).
, ( cijkl
). , ,
(2.21), (1.14) :
2ui

(2.22)
2 = cijke kl ,
t
a j
(2.22) (i = 1, 2,3) , ,
.
.
u
1u
. kl = k + l . ,
2 al ak

c

1 ui uk

ik =
. :
2 ak ai

u 1
u 1
u 1
u
1
cijklkl = cijkl k cijkl l = cijkl k cijlk k
al 2
ak 2
al 2
al
2
cijkl = cijlk , : cijklkl = 0 . ,
(2.22) :

(kl + kl )
2 uk

(cijklkl ) = cijkl
cijkl kl = cijkl kl +
= cijkl
a j
a j a j
a j
a j al
,

.
,
a j
x j
,
:
2u
2uk
2i = cijkl
(2.23)
t
x j xl

, ( = const)
, . ,
. ,

, .
,
. , ,
, (2.8) (2.9).
69

Equation Chapter 2 Section 32.3.


1. , (2.23)
. ,
(2.23)
, :
u = u 0 exp i ( r t )
(3.1)
n p ,
, u 0 ,
p j p j = 1) :
(n j n j = 1,

j = kn j ,

ui0 = u 0 pi ,

(3.2)

k , u 0 - .
(3.1) (2.23). (3.2) :
2ui = k 2 cijkl n j nl uk , (i, j, k , l = 1, 2,3)
(3.3)

ik

v 2 ik ) pk = 0

(3.4)

ik = cijkl n j nl - , v = / k -
.
(3.4) .
.
, ,
:
det ik v 2 ik = 0
(3.5)
,
, (3.5) , v 2
,
. (3.5) 3- , v 2 .
,
. ,
,
, .
, , ,
p . ,
p (3.4).
(,
, , p = n )
(,
, ( pn ) = 0 ).

. . ,
p n ,
( QL quasi-longitudinal),
( QS quasi- shear). ,
( QSF QSS ).
,
: .
,
70

. ,
, ,
cijkl , ,

ij .
2. (3.4)
. ,
(. [30, 31]). ,
, :
.
. , ,
(. (2.10)), :
ij = ji
(3.6)
.

, 1 6
:
i, j

1,1
1

2,2
2

3,3
3

2,3 = 3,2
4

1,3 = 3,1
5

1,2 = 2,1
6

, ,
=i= j
(i = j )
(3.7)
,
= 9 j i
(3.8)
(i j )
cijkl .
ij , - kl (.(2.20)).
:
cijkl = c jikl , cijkl = cijlk

(3.9)

( ij )
( kl ) , = 1...6 (3.7), (3.8). ( c )
. , 4- ,
34=81 , ( , =1,...,6 ) 36
. cijkl .
(2.19) cijklij kl cklijklij , ..:
cijkl = cklij

(3.10)

(3.10) , c : c = c ,
21.
,
, : () , (3.9); ()
(3.10). ,
() () .
, , , c1213 (c65 )
c1123 (c14 ) .
3.
, .
. ,
71


, .
-
,
(.26). 120,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
[111], x y , y - z , ,
z , x .
: {x, y, z} .
{ y, z, x} , {x, z, y} {x, y, z}
,
. ,
, 1 , 2 3
. ,
{x, y, z} 1 = u x / x
2 = u y / y , 2 3 , 3 - 1 . ,
{x, y, z} {1 , 2 ,3 } .
{ y, z , x} , 2 = u y / y

3 = u z / z , 3 1 = (u x ) / ( x) , 1 2 .
.
. {x, y, z}
:
u y u z u z u x u x u y
+
+
+
,
,

y x
z y
x
z
, { 4 ,5 ,6 } . { y, z, x}
:
u y
u y u z
u
u x
u z
+
+ x ,
+
,

y
( x) z
y ( x)
z
, { 4 , 5 , 6 } . ,
{x, z , y}
{ 4 , 5 ,6 } , {x, y, z} - { 4 ,5 , 6 } :
,
c , (2.20)

. c u u ,
:
1
1
R = c11 (12 + 22 + 32 ) + c12 [1 ( 2 + 3 ) + 2 (3 + 1 ) +
2
2
(3.11)
1
2
2
2
+3 (1 + 2 )] + c44 ( 4 + 5 + 6 )
2
4. ,
c11 , c12 c44 .
.

.
72

. 25.
: (), (),
().

) [100],
:
nx = 1, ny = nz = 0
(3.12)
:
c11 v 2
p1
0
0


2
0
c44 v
0
(3.13)

p2 = 0
2

0
0
c44 v p3

(3.13) :
vl2[100] = c11
(3.14)

(3.15)
vt2[100] = c44

( l t ) . (3.13)
, .
p1 = 1, p2 = p3 = 0
(3.16)
:
p1 = 0, p2 0, p3 0
(3.17)
: .
) [110].
, :
nx = n y = 1/ 2, nz = 0
(3.18)
:
1
1

2
(c12 + c44 )
0
2 (c11 + c44 ) v

p1
1
2
1 (c + c )
p = 0
(3.19)
(c11 + c44 ) v
0
2 12 44
2
2

p
0
0
c44 v 2 3


:
73

1
2

vl2[110] = (c11 + c12 + 2c44 ),


1
2
vt22[110] = c44 ,

vt21[110] = (c11 c12 ),

px = p y = 1/ 2,
px = p y = 1/ 2,
px = p y = 0,

pz = 1

pz = 0
pz = 0

(3.20)
(3.21)
(3.22)

, (3.20) , ( pn ) = 1 .
,
.
)
- [111], :
nx = ny = nz = 1/ 3
(3.23)
:
b
b p1
a x


ax
b p2 = 0
b
b

b
a x

p3

(3.24)

1
1
x = v 2 , a = (c11 + 2c44 ), b = (c12 + c44 ) .
3
3
(3.24) , .
, ,
, :
px = p y = pz 0 = 1/ 3
(3.25)
:

(3.24) : x = a + 2b , :
1
vl2[111] = (c11 + 2c12 + 4c44 )
(3.26)
3
, :
(a x)3 + 2b3 3b 2 (a x) = 0
, (3.26), : x = a b .
:
1
vt2[111] = (c11 + c44 c12 )
(3.27)
3
. ,
.
,
, , .
, :
,
.
.
( ) (
/ ) .
,
,
(. [30, 31]). , ,
,
,
.
Equation Chapter 2 Section 42.4.
74

1. ,

. , , ,
, .
. ( ,
, ,
.)
, , , ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
(3.14), (3.20) (3.26),
. ,
,
:
c11 c12 = 2c44
(4.1)
,
(. (3.15), (3.21), (3.22) (3.27)). ,
(4.1)
. ,
(3.11) (4.1).
:
= c12 , = c44
(4.2)
. ,
(3.11) :
1
1
R = Kll2 + (ik ikll ) 2
(4.3)
2
3
2
K = + , ll = 11 + 22 + 33 . ,
3
ll
. (4.3) , ,
:
1
1
ik = (ik ikll ) + ikll
(4.4)
3
3
(
), ( ) -
-. , (4.3) -
. K
, - . ,
: 0 .
, ,
c11 , c12 c44 .,
. (4.1) . 1820 .,
. ,
(
) ,
(4.1) .
, :
(4.1). ,
. ,
75

-- . ,
.
2.

, E . -
()
.
. (4.3)

:
Tij = ij kk + 2ij
(4.5)
, :

T11 = ( + 2 )11 + (22 + 33 )


T22 = ( + 2 ) 22 + (11 + 33 )

(4.6)

T33 = ( + 2 )33 + (11 + 22 )


, x , T22 = T33 = 0 ,
:

2
T11 = ( + 2 )

+ 11

T
, E = 11 , :
11

(3 + 2 )
E=
(4.7)
+
(4.6), ,
.
, (

22
):
11

2( + )

(4.8)

:
0 1/ 2
(4.9)
, .
, ( ,
(4.3))
:
1 1/ 2
(4.10)
(
)
.
3. .
Tij / x j (4.5)
(1.14).
2ui
2ui
2 uk
=
+
+

)
t 2
xk xk
xk xi
,
:

76

2u
2 = 2u + ( + )(u )
(4.11)
t
(4.11)
, , .
-
, ,
, grad ,

rot , - ,
:
div = 0
(4.12)
(4.11) :
u = grad + rot
(4.13)
, , ,
:
1 2
= 2
(4.14)
2
2
vl t
1 2
= 2
(4.15)
2
2
vt t
vl vt -
vl =

+ 2
,

vt =

(4.16)

,
,

,
. ,

,
,
. ,
z . ,
- zz ,
,
. ,
, yz zx ,
.
, , ,
.
.
2.5.
1.
2a . (.26) - (.
1.8. .11). (4.11)
.

77

.26. :

.
(1.9) :
Txx = Txy = Txz = 0
(5.1)
x = a .
, y . ,
:
= ( A cos x + B sin x) exp i( z t )
x = (C cos x + D sin x) exp i ( z t )
(5.2)
y = ( E cos x + F sin x) exp i( z t )

z = (G cos x + H sin x) exp i ( z t )


(5.2) (4.14) (4.15),

, :

2 + 2 =
2 +2 =

(5.3)

vl2

(5.4)
vt2
, (4.13),
:
ux =

,
x z

uy =

x z

,
z x

uz =

z x

(5.5)

, , .
, A, B, C , D, E , F , G, H ,
. ,
(4.6), Txx , Txy , Txz . x = a .
:

78

[( + 2 ) 2 + 2 ]( A cos a B sin a) + 2i ( E sin a + F cos a ) = 0

()

(G cos a H sin a) + i (C sin a + D cos a) = 0

( ) (5.6)

2i ( A sin a + B cos a) + ( )( E cos a F sin a ) = 0


( )
x = a , - x = a .
.
(4.12). x = a
:
(C sin a + D cos a) + i (G cos a H sin a) = 0
(5.7)
, (5.6), (5.7)
. ,
, , (5.3) (5.4),
.
8- .
. (5.6)
(5.7) . ,
C , D, G, H (5.6) (), (5.7), A, B, E , F -
(5.6) (), ().

. ,
, . ,
:
2G cos a + i cos a = 0
(5.8)
i G cos a + D cos a = 0

2 H sin a i C sin a = 0
(5.9)
i H sin a C sin a = 0
,
:
[( + 2 ) 2 + 2 ] A cos a + 2i F cos a = 0
(5.10)
2i A sin a + ( 2 2 ) F sin a = 0

[( + 2 ) 2 + 2 ]B sin a 2i E sin a = 0
(5.11)
2i B cos a + ( 2 2 ) E cos a = 0
,

A, B, C , D, E , F , G, H ,
.
, .

(5.8) -(5.11).
2. . (5.8).
:
2 cos a i cos a
= cos 2 a ( 2 + 2 )
i cos a
cos a
, (5.8) :
cos a = 0
(5.12)
, :
D, G 0, A = B = C = E = F = H = 0
(5.2) (5.5) :
2

79

ux = 0
u y = ( G + i D) sin x exp i ( z t )

(5.13)

uz = 0
, ,
y (.27).
(5.9):
2 sin a i sin a
= sin 2 a ( 2 + 2 ) = 0
i sin a
sin a

:
(5.14)
sin a = 0
:
C , H 0, A = B = D = E = F = G = 0
(5.2) (5.5) :
ux = 0
u y = ( H + i C ) cos x exp i ( z t )

(5.15)

uz = 0
,
y (.27).
: x ,
, x .

.27. : SS(0) 1, AS(1) 2


SS(2) 3.
:
a = n / 2
(5.16)
n = 0, 1, 2... . n ,
, , .
, (. [27]), .
SH ( ).
, SS ( (5.15)) , AS (5.13).
, SS(0)
80

- AS(1). (5.4),
:
2 n 2
2
(5.17)
= 2 ( )
2a
vt
, ,
, vt
. :

n
v = = 1 2


2

2
d n
v =
= 1 2

d
:

1/ 2

vt
1/ 2

vt

n vt
(5.18)
2a
SS(0) (n = 0)
.
(5.13) (5.15), ,
SH-
,
, ,
H n 0 .
, ,
.

n =

.28.
( ) ,
(. .28 .3). [27],
, , ,
. ,
, .
3. .
,
81

x z . ,
u y , ( xz ) .
(5.10), :
[( + 2 ) 2 + 2 ]( 2 2 )tg a = 4 2 tg a
(5.19)
, (5.11) :
[( + 2 ) 2 + 2 ]( 2 2 )tg a = 4 2 tg a
(5.20)
,
(5.3) (5.4),
( ) . (5.19) (5.20)
. (5.3) (5.4) :
2 + 2 vt 2
2 + 2

=
,
=

2
2
2
2
2
+
vl
+
+ 2
(5.19) (5.20):
[( + 2 ) 2 + 2 ] = ( + 2 )( 2 + 2 ) 2 2 =
= ( 2 + 2 ) 2 2 = ( 2 2 )
(5.19) (5.20) :
tg a
4( a ) 2 ( a )( a )
=
tg a
[( a ) 2 ( a) 2 ]2

(5.21)

tg a
[( a ) 2 ( a) 2 ]2
=
(5.22)
tg a
4( a ) 2 ( a )( a )
(5.21) (5.10),
: A, F 0, B = C = D = E = G = H = 0 ,
:
u x = ( A sin x i F sin x) exp i ( z t )

uy = 0

(5.23)

u z = ( F cos x + i A cos x) exp i ( z t )


,
x , - ,
(.29,).
L( p) , p .
, x, x << 1
. , , , .
(5.22)
(5.11). : B, E 0, A = C = D = F = G = H = 0 ,
:
u x = ( B cos x i E cos x) exp i ( z t )
uy = 0

(5.24)

u z = ( E sin x + i B sin x) exp i ( z t )


- , F (q ) .
(.29,) .

82

.29. () ()
.


.
, ( )
, .
SH,
, - (
, vl vt ).
( ) . (.30).
2.6 .

, , .30, ,
: ,
/ < vt ,

2 >

>

(6.1)
vt2 vl2
,
( ) .
(5.3) (5.4) + =
2

2
vl2

+ =
2

2
vt2

(6.1) , 2 < 0 2 < 0 -


. ,
x (5.2)
. ,
:

( ch x sh x ) .
,
, ,
, .
,
, x < a .

83

.30.
= 0.31 [27]. x y
a = x + iy ,
= 2 a / vt .

,
z = 0 . ,
xz , ,
, :
= ae x i z , y = be x i z , x = z = 0
(6.2)
,
(.(5.2)), , ,
2 = 2 2 = 2
(5.3) (5.4) :

2 2 =

2 2 =

(6.3)
vl2
vt2
(5.1)
:
Txx = 0, Txz = 0
(6.4)
, ,
,
84

. ,
, (6.2). ,
(6.4) :
( + 2 )( 2 ) + 2 ae a + 2i be a = 0,
(6.5)
2i ae a + ( 2 + 2 )be a = 0
(6.5) (5.6),
, .
(6.5) :
R = 0
(6.6)
:
R = ( + 2 )( 2 ) + ( 2 + 2 ) 4 2
vt2 2 2
(6.3) 2 = 2
. , (4.16)
vl 2
vt2

=
. :
2
vl + 2

2 2

=
2
2

+ 2
, R :
( + 2 )( 2 ) + 2 = ( + 2 )( 2 2 ) 2 2 = ( 2 2 ) 2 2 = ( 2 + 2 )
:
R = ( 2 + 2 ) 2 4 2
(6.7)
(6.7) (6.6), :
( 2 + 2 ) 2 = 16 2 2 4
(6.3).
4

2 2
2 2 2 2 4
(6.8)
2 2 = 16 2 2
vt
vl
vt

, , ,

.
vR = / vR / vt = ,
:
2

v 2
vt 2
6
4
(6.9)
8 + 8 3 2 16 1 t = 0
v
v

l
l


, , (6.9),

- (vt / vl ) . (. 2.4),
0 1/ 2 . ,
, 0.874 0.955.

. ,

() ().
, ,
.
85


, ,
. ,
2a , , , .
,
(6.2) (5.5)
u x = ( ae x i be x )e i z
(6.10)
u z = (i ae x + be x )e i z
a b (. (6.5)).
, ( )
,
. (6.3)
:
1 1
v2
2
2 = 2 2 = 2 2 2 = 2 1 R2
vl
vR vl
vl
vR2
1
2 1
2

1
=

= 2 (1 2 )
2

2
2
2
vt
vR vt
vt
vt < vl , < . , ,
, ,
. = 0.955 , > 0.296 (2 / R ) .
, , ,
, e1.862 6 . vt 105 /
1
1 , 1 1 .


. ,
.

, .
.
,
, ( U r 1/ 2 ,
U r 1 ).
.

2 =2

2.7.

, ,
, .
.
, ,
, . 1
1 . ,

, ,
.

86


.
[27].
,
.

. ,
,
(
).

, .
( )

.

, .
,
.
. ,
.
. .
,
.
? ,
, , ,
. , ,
. ?
, , .
.
,
( , ).
, ,
, ,
. .
,
: , .
:
.

87


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.

. . . .: , 1973, 607
. .. . .: , 1988, 440 . .., .. , .2. .: -
, 2000, 417 . .. ..: - ,
1961, 426 . .. . .-. . 1948, 540 .- . . .: , 1948,
107 . .., .., ..
. .: , 1970, 710 . .. . .:., 1952, 256 . .., .. . .: -
, 2004, 798 . .. . .: , 1972. 470 . .. . .: . 1968. 487 . .. . .: . 620 . .., ., ... , . 2 .
.: . 1971.
. . .: , 1963. 367 . .. . 2 . .: . 1970.
.. .
. . .: . 1981. 312 . ., ., . . , . . . .:
, 1977. 342 . .. . .:., 1970, 216 .Cronin N.J. Microwave and Optical Waveguides. Institute of Physics Publishing. Bristol
Philadelphia. 1995. 119 p. .. ,
. . 1969. .14. 10. .1768 1772.
. . ..1984. 512 . . . ..1974. 576 . ., ., .. . .: , 1990. 432 . .. . .: . , 1973. 255 . .., , .
. .: , 1976. 270 . . .1, .. .: , 1966. 592 .- (. ..
, . 13 - 139 ., ..
, . 140 203).
.., .. . .: , 1987. 248 . . . .: , 1978. 791 . .., .. . .: , 1979. 639 . .. . .: - ,
1991. 143 .
.., ... , .: , 1984. 400
. ., .. . .: ,1982. 424 .

88

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