Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

966

. .

- -1978

32.87
49
681.84.086.001.2
:

. ., . ., . ., . .,
. ., . ., . ., . .,
. ., . ., . ., .
., . .,

. .
49
. .:
,
1978.48
.,
.(
; . 966)

25 .


. ,
,
, .

32.87
61.

30403 - 256
136 78
051(01) 78



. .
. .
. .
. . . .

956
18.01.78. 08.08.78. -16005.
84X108'/32. 2. . .
. . . . 2,52. .-. . 3,28. 40 000 . .
443. 25 .
,
113114, . -114, .. 10

, .
600000, . . , . 7

, 1978

,
, , , .
, ,
,
.
,
.
-,
( ) ,
.

, ,
. ,


20 .

,

, , .


.

. ,
,

. ,
, .


.



, .
,
.


,

.
: 113114,
, -114, ., 10, - ,
.

.


,
. , , ,
. .
.
,
. ,
,
(, , . .).

,

.
, ,
,
.

,
,
.

.
,
: ,
, , , -.
(
)

.

,
.
, ,
. ,
40
, 4 .

4

.

.
,
( )
.

, .
-
, ,
, ,
.

,
(
)
, .
-
,
.

, , , .
-.
,

, .



. ,
,

. . . .

, . . .
,

. . .

U
Rar:
2

Pak = U Rar .

(1)


.
Rar ,
, , 5

.

Rar,

,
.

, . 1,
,

:
f 2
Rar =
,
(2 )
c
f; c ;
.
-
Uv
,
,
Ud,

(1) (2)
:

. 1.
-.

f 2
2
Pak =
Ud Uv .
(3 )
c

Eg
Rg,

P =

E g2

(Re + Rg )

Re ,

(4 )

Re, .

, . . (3)
(4), :

f 2 Re + R g

)2 U

(5)
cE g2 Re
,
. . ., . . ,
Ud Uv
.
, .
. .
6
=

Uv .




. ,
-
: , .
, ,
,
, .

,
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
,
.

,

. (
, ), ,
. ,

,
.
- Ze,
Zm Za
:
Zm=

B 2l 2
;
Ze

(6 )

,
(7 )
S d2

; l ;
Sd .

, , .
Sd
, .
,
(. 2).
, , . Za =

Zm

. 2. .
,
,

. . 2 ,
, Eg
Rg ,

pg =

E g Bl

(Rg + Re )Sd .

(8)

,

, (6) (7)
:
Za =

B 2l 2

(Rg + )

Re S d2

(9 )

, . 2,
: Mad
; Cas
; Ras ,
; Rar1
;
Ma1 ,
; Mab
, Rab
,
; Cab
; Rar2
; Ma2
; Rap
,
; Map
; Ral ,

.
8

Ud, Ub,
Uv
Ul.

, . 3.


.
,
.

,
.
, . 2
Cab Rab.
Rar1, Ma1, Mab.


. . 3 Mad, Ma1 Mab Mas.
, ,
Mas, ,
( ).
Rar1 Rar2 ,
. ,
, ,
,
, . . . 0,14%.
. . . Rar,
, ,
( 0,14%)
. ,

Rar1 = Rar2 = 0.

,
Rar1, Rar2 .
,
- (2).
Map Ma2 . 3
Mav.
, Ral, Rap, Rab ,
, , ,
Q , ,
Q .


9

:
Rat = Ras +

B 2l 2

(Rg + )

Re S d2

(10)

, . .
, (5),
. . . .
, :
B 2 l 2
=

4c Re M as S d2

2
4
6
fs
fs
fs
fs

1
+
y
+
y
+
y
+
y
1
2
3
4

f
f
f

fs , y1 , y2 , y3 , y4
:
1
(M as C as )1 2 ;
fs =
2
C
C
C M
2
2 2 as 2 as as ;
y1 = as Rat
M as
C ab
C ab M av
C
C
y 2 = 1 + 2 as + as
C ab C ab
C
+ as
C ab

M as

M
av

C
y 3 = as
C ab
C
2 as
C ab

C
2 as

ab

M as

M
av

M as

M
ab
2

C
C M
+ 4 as as + 2 as

C
C ab M av

ab

C as

M
as

C as
2
C
ab

C as

M
av

,
(11)
8



(12 )
(13 )
M as

M
av

2
Rat ;

(14)

2
C M
Rat 2 as as

C ab M av

M as

M
av

(15)

C M
(16 )
y4 = as as .
C
M
ab av
, . . .
,
,
, .

. . . ,

(11). 10

...
:
1
.
(17 )
0 ( f ) =
2
4
6
8
f
f
f
f
1 + y1 s + y 2 s + y 3 s + y4 s
f
f
f
f
. . .
|E(j)|2 4- ,

,
. ,
(13) (16),

. fs, fb
(
)
. fs (12), fb
:
1
(M av C ab )1 2 .
(18)
fb =
2
, fb ,
.
Qt Q
. Qt


(10):

(M as
=

C as )1 2
.
(19 )
Qt
Rat
,
:
C as Vas
=
,
(20 )
C ab
V
V -, Vas
, :
Vas = c 2C as .
(21)
(12)(16), (19)(21),
:
2

f
V
y1 = 2 2 2 as 2 b ;
V
Qt
fs
1

V
y 2 = 1 + as
V

2
2
2

Vas f b
fb
2
4+2

+
+
;

2
f
V
f
Qt
s
s

(22 )
(23 )
11

2
fb 1

y 3 =

2
f
s Qt

2
2
fb
fb
Vas


f 2 V 2 f ;
s
s

(24)

f
y4 = b .
(25 )
f
s
. . .
(17),
fs/f. ,
0, . . .
1, . . .
: y1=0, y2=0, y3=0, y4=0
, (22) (25)
: Qt, Vas/V fb/fs. Qt
Vas/V, fb/fs ,
. Qt

,
. Vas/V
fb/fs
-.
Qt, Vas/V, fb/fs
,
y1, y2, y3 y4
. ,
,
(17) , Qt, Vas/V
fb/fs , ,
fs/f 0. , fs/f>1,

fs/f. ,
fs/f<1, . . ,
y1.

,
, y1.



,
-
, .
, ,

0 ( f ) =

1
4

(26)

f
f
f
1 + y 2 s + y 3 s + y4 s
f
f
f
(17) y1.
12

, (fs/f)20.
, f>>fs. (22)
, y1=0
, Qt<0,707. ,
:
2

f
V
1
(27 )
= 1 + as + b .
2Qt
V fs
, ,

. fb/fs=0,
(27), (23)(25)
:
0 ( f ) =

1
4

(28 )

f
1 + y 2 s
f
,
... 3 ( 2 )
, (28)
:
12

V
(29 )
f 3 = f s 1 + as .
V

1
.
(30)
0 ( f ) =
6
8
f
f
1 + y 3 s + y 4 s
f
f

(17) ,
fs/f 0. ,
(22) (23) y1=0 y2=0 Qt<0,563.

Qt, Vas/V, fb/fs
y3 y4 , ,
.

,

.
,


1
.
(31)
0 ( f ) =
8
f
1 + y 4 s
f
13

...
(31) y1=0, y2=0, y3=0.
, (22) (24),

, :
Qt= 0,383; Vas/V=1,414; fb/fs =1.
(32)
, f3
fs
fb.
, - ,
1,414 , Vas,
,
fs
, Qt
0,383,
, ,
fs.

,
.
,

.


.

(17), y1 y3 -

.
4.

1 (Qt = 0,5;
Vas/V = 0,61; fb/fs = 0.78); 2
(Qt = 0,383; Vas/V = 1,41; fb/fs = 1); 3
- (Qt =
0,3; Vas/V = 3,02; fb/fs = 1,25); 4 ,
, (Qt = 0,353; Vas/V = 3,02; fb/fs = 0).
14

, y2 y4 . y
Qt>0,383, fb<fs, Vas/V<1,41.
. 4
.
( fs Vas)
,

Qt. 4

. 3, 2 1
- ,
-.
, ,
, ( 1)
- (Vas/V ).

(Vas/V
)


, ( 4 3).
,
,
,
.
(
) ,
.


. (11)
( )
1.
, , f >fs

B 2l 2
=
.
4 c Re M as S d2

(33)

,
. (10) (19),
Q :
Re
1
1
=
+
,
Qt Qa Qe Re + R g

Qa Q ,
:
2f s M as
Qa =
;
Ras

(34)

(35 )
15

Q Q ,
:
2f s M as Re S d2

.
(36 )
B2l 2
(36) B2l2/Re (33), :
f s

.
(37 )
2cQe M as

:
Qe =

M as =

(2f s )

c 2

(38 )

C as (2f s ) Vas
(38) (37) , Qt
, . . Qt Q Rg=0,
. . .:
2

2 2 f s3Vas

.
(39)
c 3Qt
, . . .

,
.
. . .
. Vas/V , f3/fs
, (39)

2 2 f 33V
c 3Qt 3

(40 )

= 34

Qt
. k,
:

2 2 f 33V
3

k.

(41)

c
, . . .
V f3.
.
. . .
9 ,
. ,

,
,
8 .
16

-
. . . 2 .
,
,

,
,
.

, ,
.
, , ,
,
,
(11) ...
.
, , ,

[
(17)]
: Qt Q
, ,
[. (19)];
Cas Vas
[. (21)]; fs
[. (12)].
,
. . . [. (39)].
, (17)
. . . ,
: V
fb -.
,
Qt , Vas /V fb /fs.
, . .
Qt , Vas /V fb /fs ,
.



,
-
V fb.
.

17

, .

(17), (22)(25)

Qt, Vas/V
fb/fs. ,
(22)(25)

y1, y2, y3 y4,


Qt, Vas/V,
fb/fs.


,

Vas ,
fs V fb .

Qt (34),


. 5. Q .



.

,
,
. ,
-
,

,
. 5.
Qt
,
, - Vas/V.
, Vas/V Qt=0,383
,
Vas/V.
Qt
-
18


fb/fs , f3/fs .
Qt ,
. Qt<0,383

- , ,

(f3/fs>1). Qt=0,383
( ),
f3=fs=fb. , Qt>0,383
,
(f3/fs<1).

Qt , , ,
2 .

, .
1 .
. ,
: Qa=3,2, Qe=0,33, Vas=0,1203, fs=40 .
(Rg=0) Qt
(. [34]) 0,3.
Qt=0,3,
: Vas/V=3, fb/fs=1,25,
f3/fs=1,47.
Vas=0,1203, fs=40 , : V=0,04 3, fb=50 ,
f3=59 . ,
Qt,
- 0,04 3 50 .
59 .
2 . Qa=3,2, Qe=0,33,
Vas=0,1203, fs=40 , 35
. f3/fs.
f3/fs=0,875. 0,875
f3/fs , ,
Vas/V fb/fs , .
. Qt=0,415, Vas/V=1.05, fb/fs =0.93.
Vas=0,123, fs=40 , V=0,114 3,
fb=37 .
, f3=35 , 0,114 3, - 37 .
, Q
(
Qt=0.3),

.
3 . (Qa=3,2, Qe=0,33,
Vas=0,123, fs=40 )
19

V=0,06 3. ,
.
Vas/V =2. 2
Vas/V , ,
fb/fs f3/fs : Qt=0,345; fb/fs=1,1;
f3/fs=1,2. ,
fb=44 , f3=48 .
,
,
- fb=44
Q
0,345.

Qt
,

Qt .
Qt .3
(10), (19), (34). , Q

Rg. Qt
,
( Rg<0), ( Rg>0)
Qt .
:

Q t Qa
(42 )
1 ,
R g = Re
(
)
Q

Q
Q
a
t
e

Qa Qe ; Qt Q
.
Qt 2 3 (. . 19)

,
0,445 0,17 Re.

Qe , Qt Rg=0
, .
Qt ,
.
Re,
Re+Rg>0.
Rg<0

( ,
).
Rg.
Qt

. ,
,
20


.
Qt .

R'.
(. . 3)

B 2l 2

,
2

Re + R g + R S d
(10), (19) (34) Rat Qt.
Qa Qe , ,
Qt,
:
Re + R g

Q t Qa

R = Re
(43)
.
Re
(Qa Qt )Qe

(42). Rg
, ,
Q . , 2 3 Qt , 0,445 Re, 0,17 Re,
.
Qt
, Qt
. Qt , [
(10)]. Qt
[
(10)].
Ras ,
, , ,
.
-
.

. , Qt
,
.
, Ras , , Qt
,
,
.
,
,
, .
.
,
,
. . ( 1- 3 ).
21

, ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
,
,
.

Qt. , -

Qt
.

(. . 3)
,
, , -,
,
.
, , Q Qb
Qa

Qe.
,

Qb Qe, , ,
(17) . 5
.
,
, .
, QbQe ,

.
, -
: ,
.
(.
. 2) Ral, Rab, Rap
Q: Ql, Qab Qp.
Qb Q :
1
1
1
1
=
+
+
.
Qb Ql Qab Q p

(44 )

, Qb
,
.
,
- , ,
.
22

. 6.
.
1 Ql = ( );
2 Ql = 10; 3 Ql = 5; 4
Ql = 3 ( : Qt
= 0,5; Vas/V = 0,61; fb/fs =
0,78).
. 7.

.
1 Qab = ( );
2 Qab = 10; 3 Qab = 5;
4 Qab = 3 (
:
Qt = 0,5; Vas/V = 0,61; fb/fs =
0,78).
. 8.
.
1 Qp = ( ); 2
Qp = 10; 3 Qp = 5; 4 Qp =
3 (
: Qt = 0,5;
Vas/V = 0,61; fb/fs = 0,78).


,
,
. ,

-.
Qb
330.
, , ,
, Qb 10.
23

-
Qab Qp Ql
: Qab >100, Qp >50.

,

, Qab ( 30).
( Qab
35)
.
Qp ,

, .
. 68
.
, Qb 10

(Qb = ),
. 5
.



.
2 , (11).
,
. ,
,
,
, Qb = Ql,
. . . (17) . y1, y2, y3, y4 (22)(25)
Qt, Vas/V, fb/fs Ql.

Ql
,
.
Ql y1, y2,
y3, y4 Qt, Vas/V, fb/fs,
, ,
. Ql = 10 Ql = 5
. 9 10 . ,
Ql >
10, Ql = 10 Ql = 5, -
. 5,9 10.
. 9 10
, .
24

. 9.
(Qb = Ql = 10).
, .

.
.
1 . - ,

: Qa = 4,2; Qe = 0,36; fs = 35 ; Vas = 0,08 3.

-,
Qb. ,
Qb .
,
Qb ,
-

.
25

. 10.
(Qb = Ql = 5).
, Qb = 6.
,
, Qb = , 10, 5.
f3 V, . .
, Qt .
1 (. . 19)
. Qa = 4,2 Qe = 0,36
, Rg = 0,
(34) Qt = 0,33. fs = 35 ,
Vas = 0,08 3, Qb = 6 .
(. . 5, 9 10)
0,33
Vas/V, fb/fs, f3/fs .
Qb = : Vas/V = 2,25, fb/fs = 1,15, f3/fs = 1,28; Qb = 10:
Vas/V = 2,15, fb/fs = 1,18, f3/fs = 1,34; Qb = 5: Vas/V = 2,1, fb/fs = 1,25, f3/fs
= 1,41.

Qb (. 11, , , ).
26

. 12. Qt Vas/V
1/Qb f3/fs = 1.
. 11. Vas/V, fb/fs , f3/fs 1/Qb
Qt
= 0,33.

,
Qb = 6, . . Vas/V =
2,11, fb/fs = 1,22, f3/fs = 1,39.

3
; Vas = 0,08 fs = 35 , V =
0,038 3, fb = 43 , f3 = 49 .
,
-,
. ,
-
. 5, V = 0,035 3, fb = 40 , f3 = 45

fb, . . , 2 3 . 6.
-

( 1 . 6).

-,
.
2 .

f3 = 35 .
, : Qa = 4,2; Qe = 0,36; fs = 35
; Vas = 0,08 3, Qb = 6.
f3
f3/fs = 1. 2
27

(. . 19) . 5, 9, 10
1 f3/fs
Vas/V fb/fs. Qb
= : Qt = 0,383, Vas/V = 1,41, fb/fs = 1; Qb = 10: Qt = 0,398, Vas/V = 1,17,
fb/fs = 1; Qb = 5: Qt = 0,414, Vas/V = 0,95, fb/fs = 1.
1/Qb (. 12, ),
Qb = 6: Qt = 0,408 Vas/V = 1. fb/fs
1 fb/fs, Qb = 6. ,
,
f3 = 35
: Qt = 0,408, Vas/V = 1, fb/fs
= 1. Vas = 0,08 3 fs = 35 ,
V = 0,08 3 fb = 35 -.
Qt ,
,
Rg = 0 (43). 0,26 Re .
-
(fs = fb = f3), , Qb
,
1,41 -
Qt .


,
.


: Qt , Vas/V , fb/fs , Qb.
(
)
.
. 68 ,
Qb.
. 68 Qb = .

, Qt , Vas/V fb/fs
(. 1315).
,
, : Qt = 0,5, Qb = ,
Vas/V = 0,61, fb/fs = 0,78.
4 . 13, 14 3 . 15

,
, 1,2; 1,5 2
.
. 13, Qt

. 28

. 13. Qt.
1 Qt = 0,25; 2 Qt = 0,33; 3 Qt = 0,416; 4 Qt = 0,5; 5 Qt = 0,6; 6
Qt = 0,75; 7 Qt = 1 ( : Qb = ,
Qt = 0,5, Vas/V = 0,61, fb/fs = 0,78).

. 14.
Vas/V.
1 Vas/V = 1.22; 2 Vas/V = 0.913; 3 Vas/V = 0.73; 4 Vas/V = 0.61; 5
Vas/V = 0.507; 6 Vas/V = 0.407; 7 Vas/V = 0.305 ( : Qb = , Qt = 0,5, Vas/V = 0,61, fb/fs = 0,78).


. ,
Qt, Qt ,
, Qt/Qt .
Qt/Qt = 2 6 , Qt/Qt = 4 12
. , 29

. 15.
fb/fs .
1 fb/fs = 0,52; 2 fb/fs = 0,65; 3 fb/fs = 0,78; 4 fb/fs = 0,935; 5 fb/fs =
1,17 ( : Qb = ; Qt = 0,5; Vas/V =
0,61; fb/fs = 0,78).
,
6 12 Qt/Qt =1/2 Qt/Qt = .
Vas/V

- fb (. .
14). ,
,

.
, f3 .


fb/fs (. . 15). ,
fb/fs f3.

-
, Qt , Qb Vas/V
.

,

Qt .
,
. Qt
0,6
30

,
,
.
,
,
(Qt, fs, Vas), .
,

,
.
, , . 5,
fs, , Vas ,
, -
V
f3 ( Qt).
. 5 fs Vas Qt

,

.

Qt, fs, Vas , Cms
Mms ,
l:
V
C ms = 2as 2 ;
(45)
c S d
M ms =

1
4 2 f s2 C ms

(46 )

;
12

M 2f s Re
,
Bl ms
(47 )

Q
t

Sd
D.
(Qt, f3, V,
Re, D)
(, -
Mms 1)

.
,

.
. 16 f3, Qt l,
,
fs , :

M = M ms

V 0,2

,
0,01 D
31

. 16. .
V -, 3; D
, ; Mms , , .
f3
, *
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
, , 1/f32.
M*
, , M* f3 0.
Qt ,
*
M* .
Qt , ,
100 .
1, ,
,

(Bl )

32

12V 0,2
= Bl

,
Re 0,01 D

Re, , ; V 3;
D . ,
, ,
, . ,
(Bl)*,
, .

,
.
13165 ,
20 100 . Qt ,
- ,
.
, ,
-
,
. fs, V, D, Re, Qt,

V 0, 2
12V 0, 2

,
R e 0,01 D
0,01 D
f3 Qt, . .
fs *.

Mms. (l)*,
l .

,
l. ,
,
, (l)*. f3
(l)* ,
(l)* ,
.
, ,
fs,
, fs
f3. (l)*, ,
2

12V 0,2
Bl
;

R e 0,01 D
*.
l , . (l)* = const,
V
D. (f3 == const, fs == const)
l ,
.
33

, ,
, ,
l,
, .

. . .
(39) (41). , ,
,
, (
),
-
.

,
. (1)*
,
, . . Qt
Qe.

-
.
. ,
D 0,74 .
,
, 1 Mms
(D = D) .
0,74,
1
(/0,74)4 (/0,74)2.


-
.
, . 3
, .
(17)
y3 = y4 = 0.
,
.

.
,
(27) fb/fs = 0.

, f3 (29)
fc .
(27) (29)
. . 17
Vas/V , f3/fs , fc/fs
34

Qt.



-.



(Qb = ),


Qb>10.
( 20%
)

. 17.

Qb.
,
,

( Vas/V).


.



.

.
Vas/V 3, 2

.
-

. ,
.

(12
18 -).

.
, , .
. . .
3 ,
.
. ,
. . .
35

- ,
. . . .
-

,
. ,
- .

Qa, Qe, fs , Vas Qb



,
.
(.
. 3)
,
.
(6) (7).
(. 18)
Re,
, .

- Z . 19.
,
,
. ,
-, . 18

(. 20). Z
. 21.

. 18. .

36

. 19. Z.

.. 20. .

. 21.
Z.

. 20 ,
Q :

(48)
(49)

Qa' = 2f s C es Res ;
Qe' = 2f s C es Re .


(. 21):
2
2

R1,2
R
s

'

R
R
fs
e
e

'
Qa =

f 2 f1 R 2

1, 2
1

Re

Qe'

Qa'
=
.
Rs
1
Re

12

(50 )
(51)

f`s, Q`a, Q`e ,


,
. fs,
Qa Qe, ,
Vas, (
-).
Z
, 21. ,
,
fc.
37

Z fc
Qac Qec.
fs, Qa Qe, :
'

' f c Qe
fs = fs
f 'Q
s ec

Qa = Qa'

12

(52 )

f s'
;
fs

(53)

f s'
.
fs
Vas /V :

(54 )

Qe = Qe'

Vas V = ( f c f s )2 1.
(55)
V ,
,
, Vas .

,
.

,
.


. fs ,
- .
|Z|,
,
fs . , fs
, ,
,
|Z|.

- , .

,
(Qb).

|Z| f`s, Q`a, Q`e
(50), (51), fs, Qa ,
Qe, Vas Qb |Z| -.
fl , fb , fh (. . 19) :
f f
fs = l h
(56)
fb

)(

Vas
f h2 f b2 f b2 f l2
=
.
2 2
V
fh fl
38

(57 )

Qa Qe (53) (54). Qb
Q ,
, :

f bV (Rs Rb )Re
(58)

,
f sVas Qe (Rs Re )(Rb Re )
Rb |Z| fb.
Qb ,
Qb (, Qb 1),

fs fb .
Qb =


, . ,
, . .
,
.
.

Re
Rk , ,
Re. (. 22),
|Z|
. R
, .
R/Re > 200. , ,
|Z| .

Rk, I (
) Uk Rk.
.
,
:
U e = (U k Rk )Re .
(59 )
Uk/Rk ,
I , . , -

.
22.


.
; ;
R ; A
; ;
.

39

,
,
.

.
,
,
, .

.
,
, |Z|
. 21, . . .

, .
, ,
, |Z|
.
f`s , ,
. f`s,
Us
.
|Z|,
, .
f`s Us
.
Q`a Q`e ,
f1 f2 (. . 21)
f`s ,
U1,2 , Us. , U1,2 = 0,7 Us .
|Z| , U1,2
,
|Z|. f1 f2
.
.
|Z|
, .
f1
f2 ,
f s' =

f1 f 2 .

(60)

f`s
(60) 11,5 ,
.
|Z|, U1,2,
|Z|, f1 f2.
(50) (51) 40

, :
2
2

U
1
,
2
s

'
f s U e U e
'
Qa =

f 2 f1 U 2

1, 2
1

U e

12

(61)

Qa'
.
(62 )
=
Us
1
Ue
,
( ) ,
.
,
-.

, , -
.

|Z|
, .
,
, .
- , . ,
|Z| ( . 19).

|Z|
,
,
.
|Z|
, : fl, fb, fh (. . 19).
Ub
fb. ,
.

- fs, Vas /V
Qa Qe (53), (54), (56), (57),
Q (34).

, (58) Qb,
:
Qe'

Qb =

f bV
(U s U b )U e .

f sVas Qe (U s U e )(U b U e )

(63)
41



Re = 6,2
Rk = 7,52 . Rk (. .
22) , I = 0,03
Uk = 0,222 .
,

U k 0,222
=
= 0,029A.
Rk
7,52
, ,
, ( ) .
, , ,
,
. (59)
,
:
I=

Ue =

Uk
0,222
Re =
6,2 = 0,183B.
Rk
7,52

, .
. ,
f`s
,
Us. ,
(. 1). 5 1

f`s,

32,5

33.1

31,8

33,6

32,4

32,7

Us ,

1.796

1.810

1,782

. 1,823

1,816

1,805

f1 ,

27,8

27,9

28,1

27,7

27,9

27,9

f2,

38,7

38.6

38,9

38,3

38,6

38.6

42

f`s Us. U1,2 = 0,7Us; U1,2 = 0,71,805 =1,264 .


f1 f2 ,
1,264 .
5 , . 2
.
. (60)
f s' =

f1 f 2 = 27,9 38,6 = 32,8 .


f`s = 32,7 . (61) (62) Q` a Q`e :
2
2

U
1
,
2
s

'

f s U e U e
'
Qa =

f 2 f1 U 2

1, 2
1

U e

12

1,805 2 1, 264 2



0,183 0,183
32,7
=

2
38,6 27 ,9
1,264

0,183

Qe'

12

= 3,15;

Qa'
3,15
=
=
= 0,36.
1,805
Us
1
1
0,183
Ue

-,
V = 0,034 3.
,
, , ,
.
,
,
|Z|, . 19.
fl, fb fh,
. Ub
fb (. 3). 5
.
(56)
:
fs =

f l f h 19,8 78,3
=
= 31 .
fb
50

,
43

fl ,

19.8

19,6

20,5

19.5

19.6

19,8

fb ,

50,2

49.9

49,8

50,5

49.6

50,0

fh ,

78,1

78,2

78,8

78,3

78,0

78,3

Ub ,

0,204

0,206

0.212

0,210

0.208

0,208


0,95f`s. fs f`s
.
510%.
Vas /V . (57):

)(

) (

)(

Vas
f h2 f b2 f b2 f l2
78,3 2 50 2 50 2 19,8 2
= 3,2.
=
=
V
19,8 2 78,3 2
f l2 f h2
V = 0,034 3,
,
, Vas = 3,20,034 =0,1088 3. Qa Qe
(53) (54):
Qa' f s' 3,15 32,7
=
= 3,32;
Qa =
31
fs
Qe' f s' 0,36 32,7
=
= 0,38.
Qe =
fs
31
(Rg =
0) Qt (34) :
Qa Qe
3,32 0,38
=
= 0, 34.
Qt =
Qa + Qe 3,32 + 0,38
- , Qb (63):

f bV (U s U b )U e

=
f sVas Qe (U s U e )(U b U e )

(1,805 0,208) 0,183 = 9,6.


50 0,034
=

31 0,1088 0,38 (1,805 0,183)(0,208 0,183)

Qb =

, ,
. . . -

44

. (39) ;

2 2 f s3Vas
c 3Qt

100%

2 3,14 2 31 3 0,1088
340 3 0,34

100 0,5%,

= - 23 .

. . . 1,52 . ,
. . . 25 , 0,3%.


fs, Vas, Qa, Qe, Qt
Qb,
.

0,25 , .


, f3 = 35 .
Qb =
9,6, Qb = 10,
, . 9.
f3/fs = 35/31 = 1,13, f3/fs
1,13 , .
Vas/V fb/fs
: Qt = 0,37, Vas/V = 1,5, fb/fs = 1,07.

(Vas = 0,1088 3, fs = 31 ),
-: V = 0,0725 3, fb = 33,2 .
Qt
(43).
(Rg = 0) Qa = 3,32 Qe = 0,38
:
Re + R g

Q t Qa
R ' = Re

=
(
)
Q
Q
Q
R

t
e
e
a

0,37 3,32
= 6, 2
1 = 0,6 Om.
(3,32 0,37 ) 0,38

-,
V
= 0,0725 3, fb = 33,2 .
, 10% ,
.
0,08 3. 1 : 0,8 : 0,5,
, (): 0,596; 0,478; 0,298.
1510-3
45

1210-3 -
0,623 0,502 0,322 .

,
fb.
Lv
Sv :
Lv 3097
(64 )
= 2 ,
Sv
fb V
3
-1
fb ; V ; Lv/Sv .

, :
Lv
3097
=
= 38,8 -1 .
2
S v 33, 2 0,0725
, Lv ,
,
.
Sv Lv
.
,

. Sv 1/41
. Sv
. , ,
, Lv/Sv
.
.

. ,
, .

0,3 .
D = 0,74D D =
0,25 :
2

0,74 0,25
S = 0,3 3,14
= 7 ,85 10 3 2 .
v
2

-1
Lv/Sv = 38,8 Lv = 0,305 .
,
: __
Sv
.
(65)

, , ,
:
L = 1 ,7

7 ,85 10 3
L = 0,305 1,7
= 0,22 .
3,14
46

, ,
.
, .

, , ,
.

-
. ,
, . ,

. -
,

. ,

.
, , -,
( ) , ,
.
,
. .
,

. Qb
,
.
, , . .

Qb, Qt, Vas/V fb/fs.
,
. fl, fb,
fh, Ub

.

,

. Qt
.


Qb, Qt, Vas/V fb/fs
.
5%, .
,
. Qb
( ),
, ,
,
. Qt fb/fs , ,
47

. , , Qt
.
, ,
fb/fs,
.
Vas/V,
, a Vas, . ,
Vas/V ( ),
, ,
.
, 1015% Vas/V,
.
,
.
, Vas/V ,

(. 3, . 19).
,
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. .


. . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

4
5
7
10
12
15
17

17


. . . . . . . . . . . .
Qt
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17
20
22


. . . . . .
Qa, Qe, fs, Vas Qb
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24
28
30
34

36
36
39
42
45