Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 54

. .

=1+2+3+=

a
n =1

: .
:

1+

1 1 1
+ + + ... .
2 3 4

( ) = 1 +

1
1
1
+ + + ... .

2
3
4

1-1+1-1+1-1+1-1+
n=1+2+3++n .
{An} .
: , lim A n = A
n

/ lim A n , .
.
n
1+2+3+4+5+ ( )
:
1) .
2) .
.

lim A n = A

>0 n0 , , n>m n0: |An-Am|<.


, An .
An=a1+a2++an
Am=a1+a2++am, , An-Am=am+1++an

>0 n0, n>m n0 => | am+1++an |<.


:
1
1 1 1
1 + + + + ... =
2 3 4
n =1n

=0.5, m n0, n=2m


| am+1++an |=

1
1
1
1
1
+
+ .... +
> m*
= => .
m +1 m + 2
2m
2m 2
m

lim a n = 0 .

: n=m+1

an = 0
>0, n0 => n n0 => |an|< => nlim

= a n
n =1

= b n
n =1

n1: n n1 => an=bn, A~B ( )


: n0 n1 | am+1++an |=| bm+1++bn |
2

A= a n B=
n =1

b n , bn = kan, n 1, k 0, A~B.

n =1

n =1

n =1

| a n | , a n .
: :
| am+1++an ||am+1|+|am+2|++|an|<

.
.

n =1

n =1

1) A= an , B= bn

0 < a n b n

B
:
| am+1++an | = am+1+am+2++anbm+1+bm+2++bn<
2)

an
= k, k > 0 A ~ B
n b n
lim

an
= k :
n bn

: lim

k an
<
< 2k , n n 0
2 bn
kb n
< a n < 2b n (1) .
2

()=

, . =1

n =1

(). .
<1 =>

1
1
1
>

1.

n n
n

>1
n

dx
> 1

n 1 x

n dx
1
x1
<
=
n n 1 x 1

=
n 1

1
1
1

1 (n 1) 1 n 1

1
1
1
1

<

1
1

1
n
n
(n 1)

1
1

B =

1
n = 2 ( n 1)
n 1

1 1
1
1
1
1

= 1 1
B n = 1 1 + 1 1 + ... +

1
1
3
n
n
2 2
( n 1)

lim 1 1 = 1 , .. , () >1
n
n
.

1,
1
() = =
n 1 n
> 1,

a n +1
= ,
n a n

lim

<1 =>A
>1 =>A
=1 =>
:
an
< +
1) <1, <1,
a n 1

an
a n 1 < +
a n 1
< +

a
n2

a n 0 +1 < +
a n 0

, :

an
< ( + ) n n 0
a n0

an<c(+)n,n>n0
.. +<1 ( 1).

2) >1 => an+1>an=> an => , ..


.
().
=

a
n =1

, an>0

n
lim a n = <1 , >1 , =1
n

:
1)<1
: +<1 :
< n a n < + , n n0 , an<(+)n, n n0
q<1, , (q=+).
2)>1
n

an > 1, n n0

a n 0 , ,
an>1, n n0 , nlim

.
, , .
:
2n

n =1 n!
( )
a n +1
2
=
0 < 1
an
n + 1 n
3.
=

n =1

n =1

an , = bn , an>0, bn>0.

a n +1 b n +1

n n 0
an
bn
, B , A .
:
bn
an

a n 1 b n 1
a n 1 b n 1

a
n 2
b n 2

a
2
b
2

a 1 b1

:
a n bn

a 1 b1
a1/b1=const, B ,
a1
.
a n bn
b1

A = a n , an>0 ( n n0), {bn} - , b>0


n =1

1
an
b n +1 ) = , , >0, , <0,
, lim (b n
n
a n +1
n =1b n

, =0, .
:
1)>0, =/2 , ,
bn*an/an+1-bn+1>-=/2 n n0
cn=anbn-an+1bn+1>*an+1/2

c
n =1

, cn=anbn-an+1bn+1= *an+1/2>0,

a n bn , , {anbn} ,
anbn>an+1bn+1 nlim

.
Sn = c1+cn = (a1b1-a2b2)+(a2b2-a3b3)++(anbn-an+1bn+1) =
Sn
= a1b1-an+1bn+1 nlim

n =1

n =1

, c n , a n +1 / 2 (
1), .. /2=const, => A .
2) <0 ,
a n +1
b n a n +1
1
>
>
/(1 / b n ) n n0,
bn*an/an+1-bn+1<0 =>
,
an
b n +1 a n
b n +1
1/bn , 3
A.
1 ( ).
bn=1,
an
a n +1
1
lim (
1) =
lim
=
=
n a n +1
n a n
1+
>0~<1
<0~>1

an
= +1
n a n +1
lim

2 ( )
an
lim
n
(
1) = +1 ,

a n +1
n

> 0

< 0

bn=n
an
an
an
n
n = + 1 + (1) , lim (n (
1) 1) = , lim ( n
n 1) =
n
n
a n +1
a n +1
a n +1
an
= 1 + / n + (1 / n ) , >1 (>0) ,
=+1,
a n +1
<1 (<0) .
3.
an
1
c
= 1 + + n , n < 2 => A .
a n +1
n
n
(bn=n*ln(n) (
. )).
bnan/an+1bn+1=n*ln(n)*(1+1/n+n)(n+1)ln(n+1)=
(n+1)(ln(n)ln(n+1))+n*ln(n)*n= -n*ln(1+1/n)ln(1+1/n)+n*ln(n)*n -1, ..
( n ) -1, 0, 3
(..ln(n)/n-> 0).
, 3 :
. ( )

an

c
= + + n, n < 2
a n +1
n
n

,
1) <1 A .
2) >1 A .
3) =1 1 A .
>1 A . 1- 3.
:
( + 1)...( + n 1)

n!
n =1
an
n +1 n + +1
1
1
( 1)
=
=
= 1+
= 1+
+n,
n =
a n +1 n +
n +
n +
n
n (n + )
1->1 ~ <0, A .
1-<1 ~ >0, A .
= 0 , .

. (-)
f ( x ) - , , ,

n =1

x 1 ( x). f ( n ) ~ f ( x ) dx
:
. An=a1++an . ,
An<c c=const. ,
.
n

f ( 2) + ... + f (n ) f ( x ) dx f (1) + ... + f (n 1) , Sn f (1) f ( x ) dx Sn 1 .

f ( x ) dx ,
1

n +1

c : X f ( x ) dx C . n Sn +1 a 1 f ( x ) dx C Sn +1 C + a 1 ,
.
, , . C : n Sn C .
X

n +1

X , n , X n + 1. f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx Sn C .

, f ( x ) dx .
1

:
dx
1
p ~ p
n =1 n
1x

=> >1, 1.

n*ln(n)
dx
dt

1
~ t = ln x ~ = => .
~

n =2 n ln n
2 x ln x
2 t

A = a n
n =1

an

n =1

, ,

A .

A = a n ,
n =1

an

n =1

, .
.

A = (1) n a n , a n > 0, a n 0 ( 0), A .


n =1

:
n

A n = (1) k a k , A 2 n = (a 1 + a 2 ) + (a 3 + a 4 ) + ... + (a 2 n 1 + a 2 n ).
k =1

.. a 1 + a 2 < 0, a 3 + a 4 < 0 ... a 2 n 1 + a 2 n < 0


A 2 n +1 = a 1 + (a 2 a 3 ) + ... + (a 2 n a 2 n +1 )
.
>0
>0
A 2 n +1 = A 2 n a 2 n +1 < A 2 n , A 2 n , A 2 n +1 ,
A2n , A2n+1 .
A 2 n = a 1 + (a 2 a 2 ) + ... + (a 2 n 2 a 2 n 1 ) + a 2 n > a 1
>0
>0
lim A 2n = A.
n

A2n A2n+1
A 2 n +1 A 2 n = a 2 n +1 0.
An = A .
, nlim

A 2n
A 2 n +1

, :

A n A < A n +1 A n = a n +1 .
:
:

1 1 1
+ + ... = ln 2
2 3 4

(),

1 1 1
+ + ... .
2 3 4

1
(1) n 1
1
1
(1) n 1
ln 2 = 1 + ... +
+ ... ;
1
+
... +
2
n
ln 2 ln 3
ln n
a n +1.
( ):
a n 0 : 1 1 +

1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
+ + + ... = 2 .
2 4 3 9 4 16
n =1 n
n

, :
1) , .
2) , , .
.
:

1) a 1 + ... + a n < C, n

n =1

2)b n 0 ( b n 0)

a n bn :

a n b n .
n =1

: :

> 0 n 0 : m > n n 0 a k b k < .

A k = a 1 + a 2 + ... + a k , a k = A k A k 1 A k < C.
, :

k =m

a m b m + a m +1b m+1 + a m + 2 b m+ 2 + ... + a n 1b n 1 + a n b n =


= b m (A m A m1 ) + b m +1 (A m+1 A m ) + b m + 2 ( A m+ 2 A m +1 ) + ...
+ b n 1 (A n 1 A n 2 ) + b n ( A n A n 1 ) =

= b m A m1 + (b m b m +1 )A m + (b m+1 b m+ 2 ) A m+1 + ... + (b n 1 b n )A n 1 + b n A n <


< b m C + (b m b m 1 )C + ... + ( b n 1 b n )C + b n C = 2bmC < , m n 0 .
, , .
:

n
n
a n = (1) (1) b n .
n =1

.
a n

a n b n
n =1
n =1
{ b n }

a nbn ;

n =1

:
lim b n = b, b n b

a n b n = a n ( b n b) +
n =1
n
=1

b an
n=1

1:
sin nx
,
n =1 n

x ., x k :

a n = sin nx; b n =

1
0
n

sin x + sin 2 x + ... + sin nx =


=

2 sin x2 sin x + 2 sin x2 sin 2x + ... + 2 sin x2 sin nx


2 sin x2

cos x2 cos 32 x + cos 32 x cos 52 x + ... + cos( n 12 ) x ( n + 12 ) x


2 sin x2

cos x2 cos( n + 12 ) x
2 sin x2

sinnx
cosnx
1

sin x2
n =1 n
n =1 n

, :

sin nx
sin nx sin 2 nx
,
.
,

n
n
n
n =1

:
sin 2 nx 1 cos 2nx
1 1
1 cos 2nx
=
=
+

n
2
2 n
n .
n =1
n
=1
n =
1n
=1
n

sin nx

n =1

sin nx
.
n =1 n

2:

:
1 1 1
ln 2 = 1 + + ... ;
2 3 4
1
=

1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + ... = 1 + + + ... =
2 3 4
2 4 3 6 8 5 10 12

1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
1
+ + + ... = 1 + + + ... = ln 2 ln 2.
2 4 6 8 10 12
2 2 3 4 5 6
2

( ).

: a n . : C ( C = )
n =1

, ,

a nk

= C.

k =1

: a n ,
n =1

a nk

k =1

a n = A . ,

n =1

= A ' . , A

, A = A .
:
1) a n 0
A n = a 1 + ... + a n

n =1

k =1

A = a n ; A' = a n k

A' k = a n1 + ... + a nk
Ak
k ., n max(n 1 , ... , n k ) , A n A' k , A n C A' k C; lim
n
A n lim A ' k A A ' .
nlim

,
A' :
A A' A = A' .
.

2) an . :

a n , a n > 0
0 a +n =

0
,
a
n

0, a n 0
0 a n =
a n , a n < 0

a +n ,

n =1

n =1

n =1

n =1

a +n

a n

a n =

a n = a +n + a n

+ an + an
a n =
2

;
a
n

a
n
a n =

a n , A

n =1

a n = a +n a n .

+
a n
n =1

a n

n =1

1), .

f n (x ) = f (x ) , fn(x), f(x)

n =1

.
:

1) a n x
n =1

2) (a n cos nx + b n sin nx )
n =0

x D , D

1
, x < 0 D = (1;1)
1 x
n =0
( 1) n 1 x n
x2 x3
=x
+
... D = (1;1]

n
2
3
n =1

n
x =


.
( E D
):
E

Fn ( x )

F( x ) : > 0 n 0 : n n 0 : x E Fn ( x ) F( x ) <

{x }
n

E1

E1 = [0; 12 ] x n 0
E2

x n ( 12 ) = n log 12
n

E 2 = [0;1) x n 0 ()

xn <

n ., n n 0 , x [0;1), x n 1

( x 1)
:
E

Fn ( x ) F( x ) > 0 n 0 : n m n 0 : x E Fn ( x ) Fm ( x ) < .
E:

f n ( x ) f ( x ), E D.

n =1

> 0 n 0 : x E f ( x ) S( x ) < ~ R n ( x ) < R n ( x ) 0.

S( x ) = f1 ( x ) + f 2 ( x ) + ... + f n ( x ), R n ( x ) = f n ( x )
k = n +1

:
E

f n ( x ) f ( x ) > 0 n 0 : n m n 0 , x E f k ( x ) < .

n =1

k =m

/ 0 f n ( x ) .
. {x n }, x n E : f n ( x )
n =1

1) x
n =0

1 1
1
E = (1;1) x n = 1 ; 1 .
n n
e

2) E = [ ; ], 0 < < 1
x n +1 n +1
R n (x ) = x =
<
< .
1 x 1
k = n +1

nx
4 4
n =11 + n x

3)

E = [0; + ); x 0
n

1
n

nx
nx
1
1
1
<
=
,
x
n =
f
n (x ) =
=
0
n
2
1 + n 4 x 4 n 4x 4 n 3x 3
4 1
1+ n 4
n
.
.
1) ( )

n =1

n =1

f n ( x ), x E, f n ( x ) < a n , x E a n

, f n ( x ) E.
n =1

( ):

k =1

k =m

f k ( x ) a k < x E , a k 0 a n f n ( x )

n =1

x [ ; ], 0 < < 1;

x n < n , n
n =1

x n .
n =1

sin nx
2
n =1 n

sin nx
1
2 .
2
n
n

sin nx
.
n =1 n

2) .

a n ( x )b n ( x ) , xE D.
n =1

1) a n ( x ) a ( x )
n =1

2) b n ( x ) C
bn(x) n

1) a 1 + ... + a n C
2) b n ( x ) 0 ( 0)
n ,


x.

a n ( x )b n ( x ) E. ( )
n =1

:
1) E = [ ; 2 ] (sin x + ... + sin nx )

1
1

;
sin x2 sin 2

sin nx E
1
0

n
n =1 n

2) E = R
n 0 : n m n 0 : x E = [0; 2 ]

2
sin kx = sin k

.
4m
4m
2
sin kx
2 m
2

=
.

k
2 2m
4
k =n

n = 2 m, x =

y=

sin nx
x
= f(x) =
, x(0; 2) ( ).
n =1 n
2

.
:

f n ( x ) f ( x ); f n ( x ) C(E ) f ( x ) C(E).

n =1

:
x 0 E. , f ( x ) C( x 0 ) :


f ( x ) f ( x 0 ) 0

f ( x ) = Sn ( x ) + R n ( x )

Sn ( x ) = f1 ( x ) + ... + f n ( x ), R n ( x ) = f k ()

k =n +1
f ( x ) f ( x o ) = S n ( x ) S n ( x 0 ) + R n ( x ) R n ( x 0 ) < Sn ( x ) Sn ( x 0 ) + R n ( x ) + R n ( x 0 ) < .
<

<

<

.
E

f n ( x ) f ( x ), x E = [a; b]; f n ( x ) C[a; b] f ( x )dx = f n ( x ).


: n =1
n =1 a
a

:
S n ( x ) = f1 ( x ) + ... + f n ( x ); f ( x ) S n ( x ) = R n ( x ) [a , b],
b

f ( x )dx S n ( x )dx = R n ( x )dx,


a

R n ( x )dx < R n ( x )

( . . R n ( x )0 )

<

<
(b a ) = .
ba ba

fn(x) f(x), x O(a),

n =1

fn(x) C(O(a)),

'
fn
n =1

O( a )
( x ) g( x )

f(x) D(O(a)) f (x)=g(x), x


O(a)

(
):

n= 1

f (t)=g(t),

t [a,x]

, fn(t)
n= 1

O(a).
.
x
x
f n ( t ) dt = x f n' ( t ) dt = ( f n ( x ) f n ( a ) ) = f n ( x ) f n ( a ) = f ( x ) f ( a )
g
(
t
)
dt
=

n =1a
n =1
n =1
n =1
a
a n =1
x

g( t )dt = f ( x ) f ( a )


f ' ( x ) = g ( x ) , x O (a )
.

a ( x x0 )

n =0

, an, x0 , x

n
x0 = 0, .. a n x , a n R
n =0

1 . a n x 0 x0. h<
n =0

x 0

a
n =0

x n [-h;h]

n
n
n
: a n x 0 , a n x 0 0 a n x 0 < M , M>0
n =0

.
n
n
x
h
n
n
anx = anx0
< M
, x [ h; h ], n = 1,2,....
x0
x0
n

[ h ; h ]

M a n x n
f (x)
n =1 x 0

n =0
: 1) D
:

D= {{ 0} , [ R ; R ], ( R ; R ], [ R ; R ) , ( R ; R ) , ( ;+) } , R .
x=0.
x < R , R ( x,
)-. ,
R = - .
:

n
n! x , D = { 0} ;

n =1

xn
2 , D = [ 1;1];
n =1 n
n

n x
, D = ( 1;1];
(1)
n
n =1
xn
, D = [ 1;1) ;
n =1 n

n
x , D = ( 1;1)

n =0

xn
, D = ( ;+)
n =0 n!
,
, .
:

a n +1 x
a n +1 x n +1
n
= <1
<1
anx
lim
n
n
anx
an
=0

an
=R
n a n +1
an
R = lim
n a n +1
x < lim

n
: lim n a n x < 1
n

x < lim

n n

1
an

=R

R = lim

n n

1
an

. ,
( )
R.

(2 + ( 1) )

n n

3n

n =1

lim

(2 + ( 1) )

n n

n
n

= lim

xn =

k =03

x 2 k +1 + x 2 k
2 k +1
k =0

2 + ( 1)

(2 + ( 1) )

n n

3n

lim

3n

=1 => => R = 1
n

2 : a n x x=x0 . a n x
n =0

n =0

[0;x0] ( [x0;0] x0<0).


n
n
n x
: a n x = a n x 0
x0
a n x n [ 0,x o ]
0
n=1

n
x
x

0
1 n .

xo
xo

[ 0,x o ]

n =1

n
=> a n x f ( x )

:
1)

f ( x ) = a n x n , D
n =1

f ( x ) C( D )
2)

f ( t ) = a n t n , D
n =1

a n x n +1
F( x ) = f ( t )dt = a n t dt =
n =0
n =0 n + 1
0
0
a n ( n + 2)
an
R = lim
= lim
.
n ( n + 1) a n +1
n a n +1
2)
x

f ( x ) = a n nx n 1 , x ( R ; R )
n =1

f ( x ) C ( R ; R ) , .



, n- .

n
f ( x ) a n x , R > 0, R 0, R = , R .
n =0

f (0)
, n = 0,1,...
n!
:
x = 0 f (0) = a o
an =

f ( x ) = a n nx n 1
n =1

x = 0 f (0) = a 1

f ( x ) = a n n ( n 1) x n 2
n =1

x = 0 f (0) = 2!a 2 , a 2 =

f ( x )
2!

.
.
.
f ( n ) (0) = n!a n
f (n ) ( 0)
an =
n!

f ( x ) C (D),

f ( n ) ( 0) n
f ( x)
x
n!
n =0
.

, .. f(x)

:
0, x = 0

f ( x) = 1
e x 2 , x 0

f ( x ) C (R )

f ( n ) ( 0) = 0, n = 1,2,...

: f ( x ) C ( D), D = ( R ; R )

f n (0) n
x 0 f (x)
n =0 n!

=>

f ( n ) ( 0) n
x ,xD
n!
n =0

(n)
f ( x ) c, c > 0, x D ; f ( x ) =

: :
f ( k ) (0) x k
f ( n +1) ( ) n +1
f (x) =
+ rn , rn =
x , (0; x )
k!
(n + 1)!
k =0
n

C R n +1
rn <
0 (n )
(n + 1)!
.

.
1) e x , x < c

(e )(
x

n)

= e x ec ,

(e )(
x

n)
x =0

=1

xn
=> e = , x R
n =0 n!
( ln a ) n
x
x ln a
a =e
=
xn
n!
n =0
2) sin x :

( sin x ) ( n )
(sin x ) (xn=)0

n) 1
2
0, n
=
k
( 1) , n = 2k + 1

= sin( x +

x 2 k +1
sin x = ( 1)
,x R
(2k + 1)!
k =0

3) cos x :

= cos x + n 1
2

0, n
(cos x ) (xn=)0 =
k
( 1) , n = 2k

( cos x ) ( n )

x 2k
cos x = ( 1)
,xR
( 2k )!
k =0
4) ln(1 + x ) :

x2 x3
n 1 x
+
.... = ( 1)
, x (1;1]
2
3
n
n =1
1
f ( x ) = 1 x + x 2 x 3 + ... =
, x < 1(.)
1+ x
dx
f ( x) =
= ln(1 + x ) + c
1+ x
x2 x3
ln(1 + x ) + c = x
+
...
2
3
x = 0, ln1 = 0, c = 0

f (x) = x

ln(1 + x ) = ( 1)

n 1

n =1

xn
, x ( 1;1]
n

( 1) ... ( n + 1) n
x = f ( x)
n!
n =1
0 x [ 1;1]
1 < < 0 x ( 1;1]
1 x ( 1;1)

5) (1 + x ) = 1 +

(1 + x ) f ( x ) = f ( x )
f ( x )

f ( x )
dx
=
;
dx =
f ( x) 1 + x f ( x)
1+ x
ln f ( x ) = ln(1 + x ) f ( x ) = (1 + x )

e x e x x 2 n +1
6) shx =
=
2
n =0 ( 2n + 1)!
e x + e x x 2n
=
2
n =0 ( 2n )!

n 2n
2
4
8) ( arctgx ) =
=
1

x
+
x

...
=
( 1) x , x ( 1;1)
2
n =0
1+ x
7) chx =

0 x, :
2 n +1

x3 x5
n x
arctgx = x
+
.... = ( 1)
3
5
2n + 1
n =0

x ( 1;1] , :

1 1 1
= 1 + + ...
4
3 5 7

arcctgx = arctgx
2
1
arctgx = arcctg
x

9) ( arcsin x ) =

1
1 x

= 1

1
2 2
x

= 1 + ( 1)
n =1

1 1
1

1 ... n + 1
2 2
2
x 2n =
n!

( 2n 1)!!x 2n = 1 + ( 2n 1)!! x 2 n

n
n =1 2 n!
n =1 ( 2 n )!!

( 2n 1)!! x 2n +1
arcsin x = 1 +

=1+

n =1 ( 2n )!!( 2n

+ 1)


a0
+ ( a n cos nx + b n sin nx ) , x [ ; ] ,
2 n =1
2.
sin nx

x.
n =1 n
1
1
a n = f ( x ) cos nxdx b n = f ( x ) sin nxdx


f ( x) =

a0

( a n cos nx cos kx + b n sin nx cos kx ) dx


(
)
f
x
cos
kxdx
=
cos
kx
dx
+

2
n =1

0, n k
cos nk cos kxdx =

, n = k

f ( x ) b n = 0 a n =
f ( x ) a n = 0
x
f ( x) =
, x ( 0; )
2
f ( x ) = f ( x ) , x ( ;0)

2
f ( x ) cos nxdx
0

/2

, an=0

2 x
1
1
1
bn =
sin nxdx = ( x )d(cos nx ) = ( x ) cos nx 0 + cos nxdx =
0 2
n 0
n
0
n
sin nx
f ( x) =
n =1 n
(signx)
1,0 < x <
f ( x) =
1, < x < 0

a n = 0, b n =

2
2
2
n

sin nxdx = cos nx 0 = ( 1) 1


0
n
n

0, n

bn = 4
, n
4 sin(2k + 1) x
f ( x) =
k = 0 2k + 1


k
x = , sin(2k + 1) = ( 1) , f = 1
2
2
2

( 1)
4 ( 1)
1=
; =
k =0 2k + 1 4 k =0 2k + 1
k


:
F x, y, y,..., y ( n ) = 0 , F( t 0 , t 1 ,..., t n +1 ) - ,
D R n + 2 , x - , y - x , y ,..., y ( n ) -
.
: n
y , .
: f ( x )
( a; b ) , x ( a; b ) :
F ( x, f ( x ) , f ( x ) ,..., f ( n ) ( x ) ) = 0 .
,
.
:
, . , .
1: y = 0 . : f ( x ) = const
( ; ) . ,
, .

.1
y = f ( x ) y = f ( x)dx = F ( x) + C ,
.

.2
2:
, V
.
V1 = V cos
V2 = V sin
y ( 0) = x ( 0) = 0
x ( t ) = V1 t = V cos t
y( t ) = g
y( t ) = gt + C
y(0) = V2 V2 = gt + C C = V2
y( t ) = gt + V2
1
y( t ) = gt 2 + V2 t + C1
2
gt 2
+ V2t
y(0) = 0 C2 = 0 y(t ) =
2

2
: y(t ) = 0 t = g
2

: ymax =

V22 V2
V2
+
= 2
2g
g
2g

xmax ( y(t) = 0 )
t =0

xmax
2V2
y(t) = 0

t =

V2
= , xmax =
4
g

2V2
V
=V1
=
g

sin 2
g

3:
dy dx
y dy y
=
= ,
y = :
, ,
y
x
x dx x

d(lny) = d(lnx) ln y = ln x + ln C .
, y = Cx,
, (0,0).
(.3) , , (0,0),
().

.3
4:
x

dy

y = y : dx = y 2 ydy + 2 xdx = 0 d ( x 2 + y 2 ) = 0
, : x2 + y2 = C = R2 (.4)


.4
:
y = f ( x , y) F(x, y, C)=0, C.
:


.
5:

y = ( x C) 2
y = 2 y
. .5 (
y = 0
( ): ).

.5
,
: tg = f(x,y) (.6).
, .. ,

( ).

.6
.
(
y=f(x ,y)):
f ( x, y ) - (.7) D = { ( x, y; a < x < b; c < y < d) ,
f

y ( x, y ) - D .
y=y(x) y=f(x, y) y(x0)=y0,
(x0,y0) D. , ( x 0 , y 0 ) D

.
.7
( ).
7:
y = 2 y :
f ( x, y ) = 2 y

df
1
=
dy
y

f(y) = 0 (
), = 0 ().


1) .
y = f ( x ) g ( y ) , f ( x ) ( a; b ) , g ( y ) ( c; d ) , g ( y ) =/ 0 ( c; d ) .

dy
dy
= f ( x) g( y)
= f ( x ) dx ( ). ,
dx
g( y)
dy
1
g ( y ) = f ( x ) dx . G ( y ) g ( y ) , F ( x ) f ( x ) ,
G ( y ) = F ( x ) + C . .


1 y2
dy
=
dx
1 x2

dy
1 y2

dx
1 x2

, arcsin y = arcsin x + C .

2) .
y
y = f . y = tx ,
x

: y = t x + t
dt
= f (t ) t
dx
dt
dt
= .
f (t ) t
x

t x = f (t ) t

t x + t = f (t )

1: .
(.8). :
, ,
(
), .

.8

tg = ctg = y
x
2 tg
tg 2 = =

y 1 + tg 2
x
2 y
=
y 1 + ( y) 2

1 + ( y) 2 =

2y
y
x

2y
( y) +
y + 1 = 0
x

=>

y
y2
y =
1
x
x2
: y = zx y = xz + z ,
xz + z = z + z 2 1

z, x

dz
=
dx

z 2 1 :

ln( z + z 2 1) = ln x + ln C
z + z 2 1 = Cx
z 2 1 = Cx z
2

2 2

z 1 = C x 2Cxz + z

Cx
1
Cx 2
1
z=
+
y = zx =
+
2 2Cx
2
2C

, .
2 ( ):
dx
dx
= dt
= (a x )(b x )
1)
(a x )(b x )
dt
:
1
A
B
=
+
1 = A(b x ) + B(a x )
(a x )(b x ) a x b x
x =a 1=A(ba ) A=1/(ab)
x = b 1= B(ab) B=1/(ab)
dx
1
1
= dt
ln(a x )
ln(b x ) + C = t
(a x )(b x )
ab
ab
1
a
ln + C = 0
(0,0) :
ab b

1
b (a x )
1
1
1
a
ln
=t
ln(a x )
ln(b x )
ln = t
a b a (b x )
ab
ab
ab b

3:
(t)
(t=200) 400, 600 20 . ,
t.
dT
dT
= k (T 20)
= kdt
:
dt
T 20
ln(T 20) = kt + ln C
T 20 = Ce kt
T = 100 = 20 + Ce 0
C = 80
T( t ) = 20 + 80 2 0.05 t
20 k

k
0.05
T ( t ) = 40 t = 40
60 = 20 + 80e 20 k
e = 0.5 e = 2
4:
t, ,
10 100 , 20 ,
30 .
V-(t) = 100 + 30t 20t = 100 + 10t
x(0)=0, x(t)
x (t )
x
x
=
20t = x ;
;
V( t ) 100 + 10t
100 + 10t
2xdt
dx
2dt
= dx
=
10 + t
x
t + 10
C
x (t ) =
ln x = 2 ln(t + 10) + ln C;
; t = 0 x(0)=10 C = 1000
( t + 10) 2
1000
x (t ) =
( t + 10) 2
5:
, t0 .,
x0 . ,
.
dx
dx
= kx
= kdt
ln x = kt + ln C
x ( t ) = Ce kt
dt
x
1

x
0
kt
0
k
t
, (0)=0; x(t0)= 0/2 x 0 = C ;
= x 0e e = 2 0
2
t

, : x ( t ) = x o 2 t o
1- .
y + p( x ) y = q ( x )
:
y = UV, U, V , , :

U V + (V U + pUV) = q
U V + U( V + pV) = q
V(x) , :
dV
dV
V + pV = 0
= pV
= pdx
dx
V
ln V = p( x )dx , ,
, V = V(x)
q( x )
q(x )
U V( x ) = q( x ) U =
U=
+C
V( x )
V( x )
:
y
= e x : y = UV
x
UV
V
dV
V
dV
dx
U V + ( UV +
) = e x V + = 0
=
=
x
x
dx
x
V
x
,
1
: ln V = ln x V =
:
x
1
U = e x U = xe x dx = xd(e x ) = xe x e x dx = xe x e x + C
x
1
ex C
, y = ( xe x e x + C) = e x
+
x
x x
: y + p( x ) y = q ( x ) y k ,

y = UV, U, V ,
U V + ( V U + pUV) = qU k V k
y +

U V + U(V + pV) = qU k V k
V(x) , :
dV
dV
V + pV = 0
= pV
= pdx
dx
V
ln V = p( x )dx , ,
, V = V(x)
U
q( x )
U V( x ) = q( x ) U k V k k =
dx
U
(V( x ))1 k
U, V(x) .

:
,
, i(t).

L , R
di
+ Ri =
dt
= 0 cos t
: i = UV
LU V + (LV + RV ) U = cos t
dV
R
dV
LV + RV = 0
= V
= dt V = e t
dt
L
V
R
: =
L
t
LUe = 0 cos t
0
U = et cos t
L
0
U = et cos tdt
L
0 t
0 t cos t + sin t
U=
+C
e cos tdt = e
L
L
2 +2
0 cos t + sin t
i( t ) =
+ Ce t
2
2
L
+
L

0 ( ): cos 0 =
sin 0 =
i (t ) =

Ce t

2 +2
0 cos(t o )

2 +2

+ Ce t t

L 2 + 2
o cos(t o )
i( t )
L 2 2

: y = xy + ( y) . y = p , y = xp + ( p ) .
dy = pdx = xdp + pdx + ( p ) dp ( ( p ) + x ) dp = 0 . , dp = 0 , p = C
y = Cx + ( C ) ( ).
( p ) + x = 0 , p = ( x ) . y = x ( x ) + ( ( x ) ) (
) .
:
y = xy + ( y) 2 : y = Cx + C 2 ; :
0=x + 2C
x
x2
,
C= y=
2
4
x2
x
x
:
= x + ( ) 2
4
2
2

n-

F x , y ( k ) ,..., y ( n ) = 0
( n
): ( x, y, C1 ,..., C n ) = 0
: y = y( x , y, C1 ,..., C n )
:
y ( t ) = g
y ( t ) = gt + C
: y (0) = y0 , V(0)=V0 , V0=1
1 2
y( t ) = gt + C1 t + C 2
2
y0=2
1
y( t ) = gt 2 + V0 t + y 0
2
1- :
y = f ( x, y) , .. - ( ),
, 1 : y(0)= y0.
: f ( x, t 0 , t 1 ,..., t n 1 )
f
f
,...,
D . ,
D R n +1 .
t 0
t n 1
y ( n ) = f x, y, y,..., y ( n 1)

y( x 0 ) = y 0 , y ( x 0 ) = y (01) ,..., y ( n 1) ( x 0 ) = y (0n 1) ( x 0 , y 0 , y (01) ,..., y (0n 1)


D ) , y = y(x),
x=x0. ( ).


:
y ( n ) + p1 ( x ) y ( n 1) + p 2 ( x ) y n 2 + ... + p n ( x ) y = q( x ) (1)
q=0, , q 0 .
y +py=q .
(1) q(x)=0 L(y)=>L(y)=0.
L(y).
1) L(y1+y2)=L(y1)+L(y2)
2) L(Cy)=CL(y) =>
L(y) = 0 .

y1,,yn , 1,,n (|1|++|n| 0)
1 y1 + ... + m y m = 0
(1) (1 ,..., 2 ) (0,...,0) .
n- ,
.
.
y1 y n

y1 y n
W ( y1 ,...,.y n ) =
y1( n 1) y (nn 1)
1:
y1(x),,yn(x)(
n-1 ) , W ( y1 ,...,.y n ) =0.
:
, 1 y1 + ... + m y m = 0
:

1 y1 + ... + n y n 0
1 y1 + ... + n y n 0 ,
...

1 y1( n 1) + ... + n y (nn 1) 0
0.
.
W 0, .
1:
, ,
0, x 0
f1 f 2 = 0
x2, x 0
W (f1 , f 2 ) =
. f1 ( x ) =
, f 2 (x) = 2
f1 ' f 2 ' = 0
0, x < 0
x , x < 0
x0>0.
2: y1 ,..., y n y ( n ) + p1 ( x ) y ( n 1) + ... + p n ( x ) y = 0
p1 ( x ),..., p n ( x ) C(a , b) W ( y1 ( x 0 ),..., y n ( x 0 )) = 0, x 0 ( a; b )
W ( y1 ( x ),..., y n ( x )) = 0, x ( a; b )
: W ( y1 ( x 0 ),..., y n ( x 0 )) 0 (a,b) x (a,b)
W(x) 0 y1 ,..., y n .
:
y1 ( x 0 ) y n ( x 0 )

y1 ( x 0 ) y n ( x 0 )
W=0 x0,

= 0 =0

y1( n 1) ( x 0 ) y (nn 1) ( x 0 )
( 0).
1 y1 ( x 0 ) + ... + n y n ( x 0 ) = 0

1 y1 ( x 0 ) + ... + n y n ( x 0 ) = 0

...
1 y ( n 1) ( x 0 ) + ... + n y ( n 1) ( x 0 ) = 0
n
1

y= 1 y1 + ... + n y n = 0 L(y)=0, .. y-
y( x 0 ) = 0
y ( x 0 ) = 0

. :
...
y ( n 1) ( x 0 ) = 0

y 0 (1)
( ). y(x) 0
y1 ,..., y n => W = 0.
1:
y(n)=0 :y1=1, y2=x, y3=x2,,yn=xn-1
1 x x 2 x n 1
0 1 2x

n 2
( n 1) x

W (1, x , x 2 ,..., x n 1 ) =
0 0 0 ( n 1)!

, .
2:
sin( x ) cos( x )
W (sin x, cos x ) =
= 1 sinx cosx
cos( x ) sin( x )
.
3:
y1 = e1x ,..., yn = e n x , i j

e1x
1e1x

e n x
n e n x
0 = e (1 + ... + n ) x * ( i j ) 0

W=
(1 )

n 1 1x

( n )

n 1 n x

e1x ,..., e n x .

i> j



L( y) = y ( n ) + p1 y ( n 1) + ...p n y = 0
: n
n-
. :
: y1 ,..., y n
,
W ( x ) 0 x o (a , b) .
:
.
:
y1 ( x 0 ) = 1, y'1 ( x 0 ) = ... = y1( n 1) = 0
y 2 ( x 0 ) = 0, y' 2 ( x 0 ) = 1, y' ' 2 ( x 0 ) = ... = y (2n 1) = 0

y n ( x 0 ) = ... = y (nn 2) ( x 0 ) = 0, y (nn 1) = 1.


:
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
W ( y1 ( x 0 ) ... , y n ( x 0 )) =
=1 0

0 0 0 0 1
y1 ,..., y n

L(y) = 0 ,
:
y1(x), ... ,y n (x) .
y = C1 y1 ( x ) + ... + C n y n ( x ) .
: y(x) L(y) = 0
y1(x), ... ,y n (x) .
C1 , ... , C n : y( x ) = C1 y1 ( x ) + ... + C n y n ( x ) ( )
:
C1 , ... , Cn :
C1 y1 ( x 0 ) + ... + C n y n ( x 0 ) = y( x 0 )
C1 y'1 ( x 0 ) + ... + C n y' n ( x 0 ) = y' ( x 0 )

, W 0 ! (C1 , ... , C n ).

C1 y1( n 1) ( x 0 ) + ... + C n y (nn 1) ( x 0 ) = y ( n 1) ( x 0 )


: ~y ( x ) = C1 y1 ( x ) + ... + C n y n ( x ). :
~y ( x 0 ) = y( x 0 )
~y ' ( x 0 ) = y' ( x )

y( x ) ~y( x )

~y ( n 1) ( x 0 ) = y ( n 1) ( x 0 )
.

L( y) = y ( n ) + a 1 y ( n 1) + ... + a n y = 0; a 1 , ... , a n R
:
n = 2:
y' '+a 1 y'+a 2 y = 0 (1)
y = e x

y ' = e x

y' ' = 2 e x . (1)

2 e x + a 1e x + a 2 e x = 0 2 + a 1 + a 2 = 0 (2)
1) 1 2 . (2)
D = a 12 4a 2 > 0 (1) :

y1 ( x ) = e 1x
:

y 2 ( x ) = e 2 x

y = C1e 1x + C 2 e 2x

:
y' '3y'+2 y = 0 2 3 + 2 = 0 1 = 1; 2 = 2.
y = C1e x + C 2 e 2 x
2) 1 = 2

: D = a 12 4a 2 = 0 2 + a 1 + a 2 = 0

( 1 ) = 0

a 1 = 21
y' '+a 1 y'+a 2 y = 0
a 2 = 12

y1 ( x ) = e 1x

y 2 ( x ) = x e 1x y + a 1 y + a 2 y = 0

y'2 = e 1x + x1e 1x
:
y' '2 = x12 e 1x + 21e 1x

x12 e 1x + 21e 1x + a 1 e 1x + x1e 1x + a 2 xe 1x = e 1x x (12 + a 11 + a 2 ) + 2 1 + a = 0

=0

W ( y1 , y 2 ) =

e 1x
1e 1x

x
xe 1x
2 1x 1
=
e
= e 21x 0 y1 ( x ).c, y 2 ( x )
1x
1x
1 1 + x1
e + x1e


y = C1e 1x + C 2 xe 1x

a1
i D :
2
1 = + i
a1
= ; = D
2
2 = i
3) D = a 12 4a 2 < 0 1, 2 =

. . e ix = cos x + i sin x

e 1x = ex +ix = ex e ix = ex (cos x + i sin x )


:
e 2 x = ex ix = ex (cos x i sin x )

1
y1 ( x ) = (e 1x + e 2x ) = ex cos x
2

y 2 (x) =

1 1x
(e e 2 x ) = ex sin x
2i

ex cos x
ex sin x
W ( y1 , y 2 ) = x
=
e cos x ex sin x ex sin x ex cos x
= e x

cos x
sin x
= 1e x 0
cos x sin x sin x cos x

y = ex (C1 cos x + C 2 sin x )

:
L( y) = y ( n ) + a 1 y ( n 1) + ... + a n y = 0 y = e x :
y ( k ) = k e x :

n e x + a 1n 1e x + ... + a n e x = e x (
n+
a 1n 1 + ... + a n ) = 0 P( ) e x = 0.

P ( )

m1

P( ) = ( 1 )
( 2 ) m2 ... ( 3 ) ms
k = k + k i, = k k i, k = 1,..., s.
: m ( L(x))

y1 = e 1x ; y 2 = xe 1x ; ... ; y m = x m1 1e 1x , ..
C1e 1x + C 2 xe 1x + ... + C m1 x m1 1e 1x

P( )e 1x = ( 1 ) m g( )
( P( )) = m1 ( 1 ) m11 g( ) + ( 1 ) m1 g' ( )
P(1 ) = 0

( P(1 ) ) = 0
;

( P(1 ) ) ( m1 1) = 0

, x k e i x , i = 1,..., s; k = 0,1,..., m i 1

L(y) = 0.
:
s mi 1

y = C i k x k e i x
i =1 k =0

n-

L(y)= y ( n ) + p1 ( x ) y ( n 1) + ... + p n ( x ) y = q( x )
(1)
, ...
(L(y)=q(x)=0): y1 ,..., y n

.
*: y 0 ( x ) - L( y ) = q( x ) (1).
y( x )
y( x ) = y( x 0 ) + Y( x ) , Y( x ) - L( y ) = 0 , .. .
y ( n ) + p1 ( x ) y ( n 1) + ... + p n ( x ) y = q
(n )
y 0 + p1 ( x ) y 0 ( n 1) + ... + p n ( x ) y 0 = q
( y y 0 ) ( n ) + p1 ( x )( y y 0 ) ( n 1) + ... + p n ( x )( y y 0 ) = 0

Y
..
Y=yy0 = c1 y1 + ... + c n y n , .. y = y0 + c1 y1 + ... + c n y n (
).
.
, ...
.

L( y ) = q( x ) (1). ,
y1 ,..., y n
L( y ) = 0 (2). , Y
: Y = c1 y1 + ... + c n y n . ,
y0 (1). *, y
: y = y 0 + Y = y 0 + c1 y1 + ... + c n y n (3). ,
(1) - y 0 .
, ,
(1) y o = c1 ( x ) y1 ( x ) + ... + c n ( x ) y n ( x ) (4), y1 ,..., y n (2).
c1 y1 + ... + c n y n 0

c1 y1 + ... + c n y n 0

( n 2 )

+ ... + c n y (nn 2 ) 0
c1 y1
( n 1)
c1 y1 + ... + c n y (nn 1) q( x )
:
p n (x )
c1 ( x ) y1 + ... + c n ( x ) y n = y 0
p n 1 ( x )

c1 ( x ) y1 + ... + c n ( x ) y n + [c1 ( x ) y1 + ... + c n y n ] = y 0

( n 2)
( n 2)
( n 1) p1 ( x )
( n 1)
+ ... + c n ( x ) y (nn 1) + [c1 y1
+ ... + c n y n
] = y0
c1 ( x ) y1

c1 ( x ) y1( n ) + ... + c n ( x ) y (nn ) + [c1 y1( n 1) + ... + c n y n ( n 1) ] = y 0 ( n )


1
( .)

, ,
q. ( ) ,
q(x).
y 0 ( n ) + p1 ( x ) y 0 ( n 1) + ... + p n 1 ( x ) y 0 + p n y 0 = q ( x )
, ..
k (x), (*), y0
.
, , (*) ,
, , ..
. , c1 ,..., c n (*),

c1 ,..., c n W ( x ) 0 .
y1 y n

y1 y n
W=

0 (*) .

y1( n 1) y (nn 1)
c1 = d1 ( x )


C1,,Cn.

c n = d n ( x )
:
y 3y + 2 y = x

y 3y + 2 y = 0 2 3 + 2 = 0 1 = 1; 2 = 2

y1 = e x
y 2 = e 2 x Y = C1 e x + C 2 e 2 x

C1 e x + C 2 e 2 x = 0 : C 2 e 2 x = x C1 = xe x

C1 e x + 2C 2 e 2 x = x

C 2 = xe 2 x
C1 = xe x dx = xde x = xe x e x dx = ( x + 1)e x
1
1
1
C 2 = xe 2 x dx = xde 2 x = ( xe 2 x e 2 x dx ) = (2x + 1)e 2 x
2
2
4

1
1
3
y 0 = ( x + 1)e x e x (2 x + 1)e 2 x e 2 x = x +
4
2
4

1
3
y = C1 e x + C 2 e 2 x + x +
.
2
4


.
:
y ( n ) + a 1 y ( n 1) + ... + a n y = P( x ) ex cos x + Q( x ) ex sin x , (1)
P(x) Q(x) - , max( deg P( x ), deg Q( x ) ) = m .
(1) :

y 0 = R ( x ) e x cos x + S( x ) ex sin x x k , R(x) S(x) m, k


= + i n + a 1n 1 + ... + a n = 0
: y 3y + 2 y = x

1 = 1,
2 = 2

2 3 + 2 = 0

= 0, = 0 :
y 0 = ax + b ;

y 0 = a, y 0 = 0

y 0 , y 0 y 0 :
2 ( ax + b ) 3a = x;
2ax + 2b 3a = x;
:
1
3
y = C1e x + C 2 e 2 x + x +
2
4

1
a= ;
2

b=

3
4


x = ax + by
,

y = cx + dy

dx
;
dt
dy
y =
dt

x =

a , b, c, d -

x = x ( t , C1 , C 2 )

y = y ( t , C1 , C 2 )
x
x
a b
= A , A A =
.
y
y
c d
x
x1
B = B
y
y1
x
x 1
= B
y
y 1

x 1
x1
B = A B
y 1
y1

x 1
x1
= A1 , A1 = B 1AB
y 1
y1
1, 2 A.
B,
1 0

A1 A1 = 0 2 , 1 , 2

A ( ):
:
x 1 = 1x 1
=>

y 1 =1 2 y1
1
B =
2

1t

x1 = C1e

2 t

y1 = C 2 e

1
,
2

=>

C1e 1t
x

= B
2 t ;
y

C2e

1 1
- A.
2 2

C1e 1t
x
1t 1
2 t 1

= B


=
C
1e
+
C
2e
2
2 t
C
2
e
y

( 1 2 R )

:
x = 2x + y

y = 3x + 4 y

2 1

A =
3 4

A:
P( ) =

2
3

1
= 2 6 + 8 3 = 2 6 + 5
4

1 = 1
1 1 1 0

=
3 3 2 0

2 = 5
3 1 1 0

=
3

2 0

1 = 1,
2 = 1

1 = 1
2 = 3

x
1
1
= C1e t + C 2 e 5 t
y
1
3
x = C1e t + C 2 e 5 t

y = C1e t + 3C 2 e 5 t
2: ,
.
x = 2x + y
2 1

A =
(1)

y = x + 4 y
1 4
P ( ) = 2 6 + 9

1 1
.
1 = 2 = 3 , A 1E
1 1

x 1 1 3t
= e , :
y1 1

x 2 = ( a + bt ) e 3t
(1) , a,b,c,d .

y 2 = (c + dt )e 3t
, (1)
x , y (1)
( b + 3( a + bt ) ) e 3t = ( 2( a + bt ) + c + dt ) e 3t
x 2 = (b + 3(a + bt ))e 3t

( d + 3( c + dt ) ) e 3t = ( ( a + bt ) + 4( c + dt ) ) e 3t
y 2 = (d + 3(c + dt ))e 3t
e 3t , ,
:
3b = 2b + d
3a + b = 2a + c

, b = d, b = c a ( ).

3
d
=

b
+
4
d

3c + d = a + 4c
b = d = 1, c = 1, a = 0 .
x 2 t 3t
=
e .
y 2 1 + t
.
x1 x 2
1
t
= e 6t
= e 6t 0
y1 y 2
1 1+ t
, :
x
1 3 t
t 3t

y
= C1
1
e + C 2
1 + t
e

,
.
3:
, - .
x = x + y

y = 2x + 3y
P( ) =

1 1

A =
2 3

1
1
= 2 4 + 5 = 0
2 3

= 2i

1, 2 = 2 i

i 1 1 1 0

2
1
+
i

2 0

x
1 i
1 i
= e 2 t it
= e 2 t ( cos t i sin t )

y
1
1

x = e 2 t ( cos t sin t ) ie 2 t ( cos t + sin t )


y = e 2 t ( cos t i sin t )

x1
cos t sin t
= e 2 t

y1
cos t

x2
cos t + sin t
= e 2 t

y2
sin t

:
x
cos t sin t
cos t + sin t
= C1e 2 t
+ C 2 e 2 t

y
cos
t
sin
t

,
.
A B B C .
.
a b.
x,y,z A,B C .
:
x = ax

y = ax by
z = by

a 0 0

A = a b 0
0
b 0

P( ) = a
0

1 = 0

0
b
b

0 = ( a )( b )( )

a 0 0 0


a b 0 = 0
0
b 0 0

0

0 .
1

0
0 0
0


2 = a a b + a 0 = 0
0
b
a 0

a + (a b) = 0

.
b a = 0

b a

a
b

a + b 0 0 0


0 0 = 0
3 = b a
0
b b 0

0

1 .
1

x
0
b a
0

at
bt
y
=
C
1
0
+
C
2
e
a
+
C
3
e
1


z
1
b
1


x = C 2 (b a )e at

at
bt
y = C 2 ae + C 3e

at
bt
z = C1 + C 2 be C 3e
1,2 3 A,B C.