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a As.

GRAMMAR

JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE,

W. GrKS TON,
JAPANESE SECRETARY,

D. LIT.,

H. B. M.'s LEGATION, TOKIO, JAPAN.

FOURTH EDITION.

FOR SALE BY LANE, CRAWFORD & Co., PUBLISHERS. KELLY & WALSH, LIMITED.

THE HAKUBUNSHA.
lon&on
:

TRUBNER &

Co.,

LUDGATE HILL.

1888,

PREFACE
TO THE

FOURTH EDITION.
THIS Edition has been thoroughly rewritten. It is much enlarged, and is almost completely a new
exclusive attention has been paid in it to the dialect, which now bids fair to become the

also

work.

More
Tokio

language of the upper classes of Japan generally. At the suggestion of a friend, a literal interlinear
translation

No examples has been added. translation, however, has ordinarily been given of the Their meaning can be particles which occur in them.
of the

found in the chapter on particles. The author takes this opportunity of acknowledging the assistance which he has derived from the writings
of

He

MR. E. M. SATOW and MR. B. H. CHAMBERLAIN. is also indebted for some hints to DR. IMBRIE'S
TOKIO, NOVEMBER, 1888.

Japanese Etymology.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
I.

II.

Syllabary Pronunciation. Parts of speech

. .

. .

. .

. .

III.

Noun
. . . . . .
. .

7
. . . . . .
. .

IV. Pronoun.

11
. .

V. Numeral.

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

34
42
93 108

VI. Verb
VII. Adjective. VIII. Auxiliary words.
. . . . . . . . . .
.

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

'

IX. Particles

118
. .

X. Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions and Interjections. XI. English into Japanese. .. .. .. .. ..


XII. Honorific and
XIII. Syntax

157 ..161

Humble

forms.

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

166

182
. . . .

XIV. Time, money, weights and measures.

. .

. .

186
. .

XV.
XVI.

Errors in speaking Japanese. Extracts

. .

. .

. .

. .

191

192
..
..
.. ..

Index...

..

..

..

..207

A GRAMMAR
OF

THE

JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE,


CHAPTER

I.

THE SYLLABARY PRONUNCIATION.

i. IN Japanese, every syllable is supposed to end in a vowel, and generally does so, e.g. sa-yo de go-za-ri-ma-sii. The exceptions occur mostly in foreign words, or are owing

to

contractions.

There being no
is

final

consonants, the

number

of syllables

the Japanese at and by another,


of

necessarily small, and is reckoned by forty-seven according to one arrangement,


at fifty.

There

are,

however, modifications
is

some

of them,

by which the number

increased to

seventy-five. There are


letters

in

Japanese no means of writing separate


syllable
is

as

in

European languages, and each

therefore represented by a single character, n final, which has a character to itself, being an exception. But n is

supposed to represent an older mu.

The

language arranged according to what


or fifty sounds.

following table shows the syllables of the Japanese is called the Go-jiit-on,

JAPANESE SYLLABARY.

PRONUNCIATION.
It will

be seen that there are a


in the

and repetitions

above Table.

number of irregularities These are owing to the

circumstance that there are certain sounds which a Japanese For si, he says cannot, or at any rate, does not pronounce.
shi, for Int,fu; foryi, wi, wit

on.

These

irregularities play

and we, i, i, u and ye, and so an important part in the cona in fat, father. ay in say. ee in meet. o in more.
oo in fool.

jugation of verbs, and ought therefore to be carefully noted.


2.

a
e
i

is

pronounced
,,

like

,, ,, ,,

,, ,,

u
I and

jare

frequently almost inaudible.


i,

In such cases they

have been written

u.

Thus,

shita, 'below,' is

pronounced

very nearly shta ; tatsx, 'a dragon,' almost tats. Longer double vowels are distinguished by a line drawn above them
thus,
i,

o, u.

The
it.

distinction between

and
'

i,

6 and o,

and

n,

must be

carefully attended to, as the

meaning

often

depends upon
while koshi
soto, 'outside

Koshi

for instance

means
;'

'the loins.'

means an ambassador,' Soto means 'suitable,' but

kuki, 'the atmosphere,' kuki, 'the stem of a

plant.'

The consonants are pronounced as in English, 3. except r, h, f, n, d, t, and g, which differ somewhat from the corresponding English sounds. The true pronunof these letters must be learnt from a Japanese, but the following hints may be found useful. R before i is the most difficult of Japanese sounds for a
ciation

European

to reproduce correctly.

It

is

then pronounced

except that the tip of the tongue touches the roof of the mouth farther back. Some Japanese make it
nearly like d,
r

Before other vowels the Japanese nearly j in this position. more resembles the English sound. There is never any-

thing in Japanese like the rough pronunciation given this

4
letter in

PRONUNCIATION,

French and

Italian.

R is often omitted before

in the

words gozaiinasH, nusaimasu, for gozariinasu, nasariinasii. and / are considered the same letter in Japanese and The under lip their pronunciation is not very different.

does not touch the teeth in pronouncing /; ches them as in pronouncing n'h in which.

it

only approaIn the vulgar

Tokio

dialect the syllable hi

is

undistinguishable from ski.

is

In pronouncing the Japanese d and t the tip of the tongue pressed forward against the teeth instead of only touching
is

the o gum as in English. o

Little or no distinction most Japanese between dzu and zn. by G at the beginning of a word is pronounced

made

like the

English

^hard

in
'

any other position like the

German

(not

the English) ng in finger.' In the syllable yc the y is in


so,

most words

silent, or

nearly

and

is

often omitted in romanized Japanese.

In the case of double consonants, both

Thus

ainmci, 'a shampooer,'


'

must be sounded. must be pronounced differently


'

from aina, a fisherwoman


^4.

;'

katta,

bought,' from kata,

'

side.'

The

nigori.
t

The
soft

syllables ga, gi, 311, gc, go, za

j:,

zit, ze,

zo etc.,

begin with type the Japanese not as consonants and are considered by different syllables but simply as modifications of the syllables
printed in

small

italic

in the

above

table, all

beginning with hard consonants in the lines immediately above them. This distinction is indicated in writing by a small mark, which is often omitted. Ka for instance with
a diacritic mark
is

read ga,

shi,ji and so on.

The formation

of

compounds and
it

derivatives

is

often ac-

companied by the modification of a hard


this
is

into the correspond-

ing soft consonant, so that change, which, with the


called in

is

important to take note of


it is

mark by which
'

indicated,

Japanese nigori, or

impurity.'

CHAPTER

II.

PARTS OF SPEECH.

5.

The words Noun,'


'

'

Adjective' and

'

Verb' have two

meanings

in
'

The term
inflected

ordinary grammars of European languages. noun' is sometimes applied to a class of words


a
particular

in

way, with

cases

and number,

and

it

also

means anything capable


proposition.

of being
it

made

the

subject

of a

In other words

means, one

thing for etymological purposes and another in syntax, one thing in respect to changes within itself, another in its relations to other words.

significations of a similar kind.

'Verb' and 'Adjective' have double This mode of classifying

words according of inflection and

to

two

distinct principles viz. (i) the

form

(2) their syntactical relations, is not with-^ out inconvenience even in European grammars, where it has led to the introduction of the awkward term participle,'
'

word which is partly a verb and partly an But such forms are after all the exception in European languages, where it is the general rule that words which as regards their declension or conjugation

meaning

adjective or noun.

are nouns, adjectives or verbs are also nouns, adjectives or

verbs for purposes of syntax. In Japanese, however, this is by no means the case. Here it is rather the rule than
the exception that a word with or even without a change of inflection can be converted at pleasure into a verb, an adIku, to go,' for instance, looking to its jective or a noun.
'

conjugation sentences as sugu ni iku,

is

a verb, but

if
'

we

consider

its

position in such

he goes at once,' iku ga yoroshi,

O
'

PARTS OF
'

Si'KliCH.

'

the going is good,' i.e. he had better go,' iku hito ga ant, a going person is,' i.e. there is somebody going,' it is
'

only in the
sentence,
adjective.

first

case that

it
it

in

the second

plays the part of a verb in the is a noun, and in the third an

The Japanese grammarians have avoided


by classifying words as na or
'

this
;

ambiguity

uninflected names,' words,' kotoba or hataraki-kotoba, 'words' or 'inflected words,' including the verb and adjective, and tcnin>oha
i.e.

.or 'particles.'

But

this is not the place to attempt to intro-

duce a more

scientific

sufficient to retain the familiar

English terminology. It will be words, noun, verb and adjec-

tive, taking care to use them in such a way as to prevent confusion between these two significations.
j

6.

The noun

is

uninflected.

All

Chinese words

in the

Japanese language are uninflected, and are therefore strictly speaking nouns, but most of them, by the help of Japanese terminations are made to do duty as verbs, adjectives, or
adverbs.

Along with the noun or uninflected word are classed the pronoun and numeral adjective, which in Japanese have no inflection. They have some peculiarities however which

make

it

convenient to consider them separately.


is

Prepositions and conjunctions are included mainly under the head of particles. Adverbs do not form a separate class of words. A particular form of
article.

There

no

the adjective does duty as an adverb, and other words which must be rendered as adverbs in English are in Japanese

nouns, or parts of verbs. The verb and adjective have a substantially similar mode of inflection in Japanese and should be considered as really forming only one part of speech.

CHAPTER

III.

THE NOUN.

In Japanese nouns have no inflections to distinguish 7. masculine from feminine or neuter, singular from plural, or

one case from another, but they are preceded or followed by particles which serve these and other purposes.
8.

Gender.

With
'

the exception

of a few
'

common
'
;

words such as musuko,

son

'

mttsiime,

daughter
is

chichi,

'father;' haha, 'mother,' no distinction

ordinarily

made
either

between the masculine and feminine.


'
'

Thus
'

ushi

is

bull

or

'

cow

'

muma

is

either
is

'

horse

or

'

mare.'

When
on
o ushi
is

necessary, gender

for the masculine,


'

me

or
'

distinguished by prefixing o_ or Thus men for the feminine.


a cow;' on dori,' a cock;'

a bull

'

me

ushi,

men

dori, 'a hen.'

These are

really

compound nouns.
'

Such

phrases as otoko no ko, 'a male child;' onna no ko, 'a female
'

child
'

are

also in use,

otoko

meaning

man

'

and onna

woman.'

Number. As a general rule the plural is not dis9. tinguished from the singular, but a plural idea can be expressed whenever necessary by the addition of one of the
particles ra, gata,

domo,

tachi, or shin,

which

will be

found

more

particularly described in Chapter IX.

ft

NOUN.

Examples.
Yakunin gata. Xinsoku domo.
Officials.

Coolies.

Kodomo Kodomo

ra or
shin.

Children.
Cats.
'

Neko domo.

Some nouns have a kind of plural formed by reduplication. But these forms correspond rather to the noun preceded by every than to the Thus shina is an article,' shina jiiia, all sorts of ordinary plural. articles tokoro a place,' kuni, a country,' kunigitni, every country tokoro dokoro, 'different places.' The first letter of the second half of these forms almost invariably takes the nigori. (See 4.)
'
' '
' '

'

'

'

10. Case. j Properly speaking, Japanese nouns have: no cases, but a declension can be made out for them by the

help of certain particles, as follows

TORI, 'A BIRD.'

Nominative.
Genitive.

Tori or tori ga, a bird. Tori no_or tori gcL, of a bird or a


Tori ni or tori
yc,,

bird's.

Dative.

to a bird.

Accusative.
Vocative.
Ablative.

Tori or tori

700,

a bird.

Tori or

tori yOj

bird

Tori kara or toriyori, from a bird.


Tori
ni, at, to or in

Locative.

a bird.

Instrumental.

Tori dc, with or by means of a bird.

The

plural terminations
:

come between these


wo
showed

particles

and

the noun, as
Official

Yakmiin gata
miscmashita.

ni to

tnciijii

my

passport to the

passport

officials.

showed

The
particles.
j

student

is

referred

to

Chapter IX

for

an account of these

ii.

1st

Compound nonns. Compound nouns are formed From two nouns. Ex. Kazngnntimi a wind-mill,'
'

THE NOUN.
from kazc,
kobunc,
'
'

9
'

wind,' and kurunia,


'

a wheel

;'

hanazono,
'

'

flower-garden,' from liana,

a flower,' and

a boat,' from ko,

'

a child,'

'

func, 'a boat ;' ya, 'a house.'

Jioityn, 'a book-seller,'

a garden ;' soiio, something small,' and from lion, 'a book,' and

'From the stem of an adjective and a noun. Ex. Akagane, copper,' from aka, stem of akai, red,' and kane, metal ;' Nagasaki, long cape,' the name of a place, from

2nd

'

'

naga, stem ofnagai,

'

long,'

and saki

'

a cape.' verb.

yd
'

From

noun and the stem of a


from mono,
l
' '

Ex.

Mono'

shiri,

a learned man,'

stem of shiru, 'to know'; jibiki. character,' and hiki, stem of hiku,
ifth

a thing,' and shiri, a dictionary.' from/f, a


to draw.'

From
'

the

stem

of

verb

and

noun.
'

Ex.

Urimnno, a thing for sale,' from uri, stem of uru, and mono,' a thing.'
$th

to sell,'

From the stem of an adjective and the stem of a a man who swallows as Supensuni no maru-nomi, verb, Herbert Spencer whole,' where maru is the stem oimarni,
' 1

round,' and nomi, the stem ofnoDitt, 'to swallow.'


6th
'

From two

verbal stems, as hikidaslri, 'a drawer,'

a pull-out ') from hiki, stem of hiku, 'to pull,' and (lit., daslii,' stem of dasu, 'to bring out ;' kigaye, 'a change of to wear,' and kaye, stem of clothing,' from hi, stem of Mm,
' '

kciycru,

to change.'

letter of the second part of a compound noun takes the nigori. Thus the k of kane generally (See 4.) is changed into g in the compound akagane, the / of June
first

The

into b in kobnne.

The

final

vowel of the

first

part of a

compound

is

often
a.
is

most common change being from e to modified, Thus from sake, 'Japanese rice-beer' and te, 'hand,'
the

IO

THE NOUN.

formed sakate, 'drink money ;' from shiro, the stem of sJiiroi, white,' and kc, hair,' is formed shiraga, grey hairs.'
' l '

(for

prefixes denoting gender and the honorific prefixes o, nil and which see Chap. XII) must be considered as forming compounds with the nouns to which they belong.

The

12.

Derivative nouns.

Abstract nouns are formed from


' '

adjectives by adding sa to the stem, as takasa


tahai,
'

height

from

high.'

It is

occasionally added to words of Chinese


'

derivation asfubinsn,
'

pitiableness.'

The

adjective follow-

ed by koto, thing,' is also used in a nearly similar significaIt denotes however tion, as in the following examples. rather the degree of a quality than the abstract quality
itself.

Takasa
height

wa

Iku-kcn

desu ka ?
is
?

How many
in height
?

ken

is

it

how many ken

Takaikoto! do.no! high thing some how Ima no wakasa

What
ni.

a height!

At
of

your

young

time

present youthfulness at

life.

Many nouns
be
left

change of form, as nokori,


'

are simply the stems of verbs without any remainder,' stem of nokoru, to
' '

stem ofkakusu, 'to conceal ;' stem of watasu, to make to cross over.' watashi, ferry,' A few stems of adjectives are used in the same way, as
over;' kakushi, 'pocket,'
'
'

sJiiro,
is

white,' a dog's

name, stem of shiroi,

'

white.'

There

here however a slight change of meaning, nokori, kaknsJii, watashi, and shiro having a more concrete signification

than the verbs or adjective from which they are taken. It will be seen later that for purposes of syntax, certain parts of the verb and adjective must be considered
as nouns.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE PRONOUN.

WatakZshi, 1 (plural watakushi domo, 'we'), is the ordinary word for the pronoun of the first person. Ore is less respectful, and is the word (plural orera) mostly used
1

'

13.

by
'

coolies, etc., to

each other.

To

inferiors

it

is

a some-

what haughty word.


I
'

Students and soldiers say bokn for


'

ivaga hai for we '. Temaye is a humble word for


',

I,'

much used by

the lower
It is also

classes of Tokio in addressing their superiors.

used as a pronoun of the second person.


their

Some

people use
first

surname instead of the personal pronoun of the


'
'

person.

Other words for

women),

ivashi

(very

are ivatashi (familiar), waiai (by familiar), wattchi (rustic), sessha


'

(formal), oira (familiar), jibtin (properly

self).

Examples.
Watakushi
I

vaa

zeikan

no

am

a customhouse officer.

customhouse

yakunin de gozarimasu.
officer

am

Ore mo
I

ikv.

I'll

go

too.

too will go

O
(hon.)
hi tori.

yama

no taisho

ore
I

I'm the king of the castle,


the children's game.)

(in

mountain of general

alone

12
Xtinda
ore
I

THE PRONOUN.
a
vottcru

What
of
;

drunk

Not

bit

what

is

being drunk
?

ti

(for yotte iru)

mono ka.
thing

\Vntukiishi
I

wa

go
(hon.]

tiny

<

It is just

the

same with me.

same

Watakiishi
I

wa

sore

wo suku
like

like

them, but
fit

am

afraid

them
duino

they wont

me.

keredomo, although

watakiishi

somehow
annasit
(polite)

me
men. will not

m
to

wa

fit

Watakushi
I

wa
o

Tekurada
gozarimasu.
VIC

am Tekurada

Futoshi.

have

Fittoslu
ffajinifff for the first

dc

nl

the honour of meeting you for the first time.

time (hon.) eyes kakarimashtta,

on

have hung

Senncn
former year

iro-iro
all

go

In

former times

was much

kinds (hon.) ni adziikarimashita. ko-on great favours have experienced

indebted for your kindness.

lye! wafakushi koso I No, (emph.

On
part.)
I

the contrary,

it

was

who...

Okiku
big

nattara

too,

when

grow

big, intend

when
navy

have become
shikan ni
officer

to be a naval officer.

boku
I

mo kaigun no
too

mini

become
j

tsnmorl dcsu. intention is

14.

The

personal pronoun of the second person differs

according to the rank of the person addressed.

Anata, for ano kata 'that side,' (plur. anata gala) is properly a pronoun of the third person but like the German Sic has come to be used for the second. It is sometimes a noun

Anata is this gentleman.' used when speaking to superiors or equals, or in fact, to any one who has a claim to be addressed with civility. Omnyc
as in the phrase kono anata
'

THE PRONOUN.

13

(plural omaye gatd) is familiar and condescending, and is the word used in addressing servants, workmen, the members of one's own family, etc. Omaye san is almost the same as anata, but more familiar, and is used chiefly by women. Kisama and temaye are used in addressing coolies and other

persons of the lowest class in a familiar way. Kimi is much used among soldiers and students sensei in address;

ing men of learning a servant says danna (master), dannasan or danna-sama (rarely anata) in addressing his master.
;

are konata (for kono kata, ' this side'), sonata, (for sono kata, 'that side,' familiar) sono ho (by magistrates to prisoners or witnesses), sochi (to inferiors),
'

Other words for

'

you

nnshi

('

master', very contemptuous), o nushi (very familiar),

ware

(rustic), unit (abusive),

sokka (formal).
for

But_rtwo&Land
to trouble

pniaye< will be

found enough

most Europeans

themselves with.

Examples.
Anata you
tai

ni o

hanashi
talk

mfJshi-

There
te n

is

something

want

to

wish to
is

you

koto

ga gozarimasu.
there
ni

thing

Omaye koko
you
here

matte ore. waiting remain


ni

Do you What
coming

wait here,

Kisama wa
you
haifte,

ore no uchi

do
into

my
du

house into

sum ?
do

my

you mean, house ?

Sir,

by

entering

how

Danna
master

no o rnuma no shita's horse prepa-

Your horse

is

ready, Sir.

ku

wa

yoroshiu gozarimasu.

ration

good

is

Kimi
you

wa

doko

ye
to

iku ka.

Where

are you going

where

go

THE PRONOL'N.
Bokn wa gakka
I

yc kacru
to return

am
.

on

the

way back

to

college

co n ege

tokoro da.

place

am
sciiscl
(lit.

A
iiioto

you

ic a elder brother)

Mina-

Knn
Go

Ah are you Mr. Minamoto ? I have already heard of your high


!

df

gozaimasu
are

Mr. (predicate)

reputation.

ka
?

ku-mci

wa

kancprevi-

(hon.) high

name
I

tc

iikctamawatte

orimasu.

ously having heard nushi dachi.


Unit dorobo me.

remain

You You
t

fellows

thief!

Unit
xe.

ttso

sk u

You

are lying

falsehood

stick

(emph. particle)

! ii kokoromochi d'atta ah good sensation was

Ah how pleasant that was Kisaburo, will you have a turn ?


!

Kisabiiru kisama iva du

da

you
j

how

(Master, leaving bath, to servant.)

is ?

The pronoun of the third person is arc (plural Arc has no gender. It is often replaced for persons arerd). by the more polite form ano Jilto, 'that man' or 'that ano o kata, that gentleman or lady or ano woman
15.
'

'

'

'

'

onna, 'that woman.'


plural.

These words add gata

to

form the

Kare

Aitsu,aitsura are contemptuous equivalents for arc, arcra. (plural karcra) is sometimes used instead of arc by
'

educated people, but it belongs rather to the book language than to the colloquial. To-nin the person in question' is sometimes used for he.' Ikken is used when there is a sly
'

emphasis on the pronoun, as


come.'

lkkcn ga kita,

'He has

THE PRONOUN. Examples.


Arc wa
m<~>

15

Kobe

ni tsitki-

He

(she or

it)

has

probably

already mashltaru.

has

arrived in

Kobe by

this time.

probably arrived

Ano
rimasu.
is

hlto

wa junsa

dc goza-

He

is

a policeman.

policeman

Ano

o kata Hifigo

no akindo

Isn't

he a Hiogo merchant

merchant
ja nai ka ?
is

not

pionouns

are by no means the only personal they will be found sufficient for most Europeans to know, and few persons will have occasion to use more than watakZshi, watakiishidomo, for the first
16.

The above

in use, but

person, anata, anatagata or omaye, omayegata for the second and are, qvnhito or ano kata for the third. The grammar of

same as that of nouns and they affix the IX. in the same way as nouns. With Chap. the pronouns of the first and second person however the use of the plural particles when two or more persons are inthe pronouns
particles in
is

the

tended

is

the rule, instead of being the exception as

it is

in

the case of nouns.


sJiidonio,

A Japanese
for
'

often says

'we' (wataku-

waga

hai~)

I.'

The use
in cases

of personal pronouns
in

is

much more

limited in

Japanese than

English.

They

are not employed except

where
is

their omission

would cause ambiguity, or

an emphasis upon them. Thus, 'I am going to Tokio to-morrow,' will be Mionichi Tokio ye mairimasii, except where it is doubtful whether the speaker refers to

where there

there

himself or to another person, when ivatakiishi is added. If is an emphasis on the pronoun, as in the phrase, I don't know what you may do, but / shall go to Tokio to'

l6

THE PRONOUN.
it

morrow,'
to

indicate

must not be omitted. Japanese generally prefer person by some of the honorific or humble

modes

of expression described in Chap. XII.

indiscriminate use of pronouns is a very common committed by Europeans in speaking Japanese, and even disfigures some manuals of conversation which have

The

fault

been published.

Not one personal pronoun


in

is

used

in

Japanese where there are ten

English.

Possessive Pronouns are in Japanese nothing more j 17. than personal pronouns, with the addition of the possessive
particle no or ga.

Examples.
Ano
that
hito

no
tui.

iyc

rcvi

His house

is

a long

way

off.

man's
is far

house

yohodo
very

much

Watakushl ga ynbi

u-a itamlc

have a pain

in

my

finger.

my
int.
is

finger

painful

Omayc no
your

klnkin x-n ikitra

?
?

What

are your

wages

wages how much


'yours,'

'Mine,'

'his,'

'hers,'

'theirs,'

are

in

Japanese also 'i'atakushi no.nnata no, arc no etc.. but thc-v can easily be distinguished from 'my' 'your' etc. by the
particles

which accompany them or by the context.

Examples.
Korc
this
tie
ti'a

annta no tsuyc stick your

Is not this

your stick

wa

gozaimais

(sign of pred.)

scnu ka? not ?

THE PRONOUN.
Hei! Watakushi no Yes mine
Watakushi no da mine is
to
dcsii.
is

Yes,

it is

mine.

(for

de aru)

mistook

it

for

mine.

that thinking

omotte machigaimashita. -mistook

Watakushi no wa atarashiu mine new


gozaimasu
is
;

Mine

is

new; yours

is

old.

anata no your

wa furu
old

gozaimasu.

Ano

kilo no dc

his

wa ikemasenu: with can go not wa


ki ni

His won't do
but

don't like any

my

own.

jibun no de nakute own without


irimascnu. enter not

mind

kashi Watakushi no wo o mine (hon.) lend

will lend

you mine, so please


it.)

don't hesitate (to use

mushimcisU

kara,

go

(humble word) became (hon.) nakn ycnr'io ceremony without

Anata gata no wa
your (plural)

hitotsu

ka
or

There were one or two of yours.

one

futatsu ga arimashita.

two

there were

Arc no wo itadaite mo his having accepted even yoroshiu gozarimasu ka ? is it ? good


Taihcn Great change
tamatta
collected

May

accept his

What
been

a tremendous
!

lot

have
of

collected

How many
?

na

Kono

nchi

omaye no
yours aru ?

(exclam.) This wa ikntsu

among
bakari

these are yours a few.

Mine

are only

how many amount are Tcmayc no wa sukoshi hoka


I

little

other

goznrtjiiasei:u.

are

not

and
words

of = C
>.
er
eaning

=
O u u
-c

cr o

^ ~

.=

# 5

i
= c

W
O O w

o
cL T3

as

2^2
o

ri

c3

1>

-T

t/2

>

~ C C O rt

eu

u
a

C. -C

(72

O E a
Q

c C O o o
tr.

o
"rt

w
-5

T^

-~

r^
o:

2 4-

r3

rt

^
IS
.-

abovi

CO

;3 ^
'i

j
O
"S
'<

k k

THE PRONOUN.
i

19

19.

Ko, ka,
root
is

'

this.'

The
table,

only found in the compounds shown in the


'

in

ko-toshi,

this

year,'

and perhaps one or two


a noun

other words.

Kore
French

(plural korera), kono.

Kore

is

meaning
'

'this

thing,' or
'

more

'

rarely

this person,'

and corresponds
' '
'

to the
'

kono an adjective equal to ce cette ces.' Kore no is also in use but with a different meaning from kono. Kore no liako for example would mean 'the box of
ceci,'
this,'
'

the box to which this belongs,' kono liako simply this box.' Similar distinctions are to be made between
'

sore, sono, sore no, etc.

Kore wa, sore wa, are wa, are often pronounced korya, sorya, arya, or even kord, sord, ard, but
it is

better not to imitate these contractions.


for

Konata

kono kata,
first

'

this side,'

ought properly to be a
'

person and it is sometimes used for I,' but it is more common as a pronoun of the second person. It is The second ko means Koko, here.' place.' found in a few other combinations as for instance miyako

pronoun of the
'

'

the

capital,'

lit.

'

honourable-house-place.'

The

plural

added to koko, kochi, gives them a vaguer Thus kokora means 'hereabouts,' kochira signification.
particle

ra

hitherabouts,'

'

sochira etc., ra has the

somewhere same
'

in this direction.'

In sokora

force.
'

Konna, konnani,

this kind of,'


'

in this

kind of way.'

Konna
'

is

for kore naru,

being

this,'

konnani for kore naru

ni,

being this.' Koitsu this fellow,'


'

in

is

also used for inanimate things.

It is for

ko-yatsu, yatsn

meaning

'fellow,'

and

is

a very

contemptuous word.
kono yd na, 'this kind of have nearly the same meaning as kayo, kayo na, and are
ni,

Kono yd

'in this manner,'

more common.

2O

THE PRONOUN.

Kahodo

'

this

much.'

Korc hodo
is

is

also in

use in

nearly identical sense. Kaku, ko 'thus.' Kakii


is
still

the older and book form but

use in certain phrases, such as to mo kaku 'even so, even thus,' i.e. 'howsoever,' 'at all events.'
in

mo

Examples
Korc
Korc
ic<i

of korc, kouo, etc.

nanl da ?
tcppo dc gozaimasii.

What
This
is is

is

this?

wa
ic a

a gun.
is

gun
Korc
iknra ?

How much
This
tree.

this?

Kouo Kono Kono


'

ki.

tokci.

This watch.
1

kata.

Korc wa Nikon o dc nan' to this Japanese in, what


call

What

This gentleman. do you


?

call

this

in

Japanese

mdshiinasu ?

Annta you
kakctc
sen a.

ni

kr>

in

shimpai
to

It

is

really inexcusable in

me

to thus called anxiety

have caused you such anxiety.

irajitsu ni sitminiatruly

having hung
not finish

does

Baku
I

u'a korc dc
this

mo gakumon
da.

am
gone

after

all

man who

even learning

has

through a course of

wo

shifn

niiigcn

done human being

am
go-

learning.
Is

Danna
master

iva

kochira dc here abouts

the master anywhere here?

abouts

zarimasii kn ?
;

KO
da kara.
is

in

thus called

ba-ai posture of affairs

Because
o f a ffa i rs>

this

is

the

posture

because

Korchodo osoroshikatta koto


this

I
j

never

was

so

frightened

much

afraid

was

thing

mv

j[fe<

wa

gozarimasenii. is not

THE PRONOUN.
j

21

20.

Sa

or 50

'

that.'
is

Sore, sono.

There
is is

the

same

distinction between sore

and sono that there


alone,

between kore and kono.


to

Sore stands
the

sono

joined

nouns.

The remarks on

words

in the first

corresponding
repeated here.

column of the table also apply to the words in this column and need not be

Examples
Sore
that

of sore, sono etc.


That
is

wa

kinodoku na koto de sad thing

a sad thing,

gozaitnasu.
is

Doko de
where
nasatta ? did

sono kura that saddle

wo

o kal

Where
sa ddle
?

did

you

buy

that

buy

Sonnara(foisorenara)yoroshi. if it be that it is good


Sore ja
(for sore

In that case

it is all

right,

de wa)

ikiJ.

Well then,

let

us go!

in that case

will

go

Sayo
thus

if it

nara ikimasho. be will go

Well then
I

let us go (more polite than last).


!

Sore ya kore ya de
moshita
no

o ukagai that or this or for (hon.) call


desu.

called

on you partly

for that,

partly for this<

(humble word, pasttense)is


Sii

to

mo

St~>

to

mo

Yes Yes
!

so that even
If that is your object the best naru) mokuteki object plan is to give it up> nara ho ga ii. yoshita if it is have given up side is better
(for sore

Sonna

that kind of

Sore
that

wa

so to.

thus
'

Let that be so the subject.


is

i.e.

to

change

Shite,

having made,'

understood at the end of the

last sentence.

22
Sh<~>

THE PRONOUN.
shO sokora (or sokolra) dc thereabouts

Wait

little

thereabouts.

little

matte lire. waiting remain

Yo no naka no koto
\vorld interior

u-a

mina
all

Such

is

the

wav

of the world.

thing

sonna mono sa. such thing (emph. part.)

So da
that
is

so yo.

So
toki

it

would appear.
I

appearance
sono
linjimcte
first

Sore nl
that to
true

In addition to that,

then for

that time
learnt

the

first

time learnt the truth.

hontu no koto ico shitta. thing


tea
s<>

Anata you
kcrcdomo
but

osshahnasu
say

You

say so. Sir, but-

so

Sonnani
so
koto

much

o nnji nasarn (hon.) anxious do


is

There

is

no reason

for

your

being so anxious.

u-a gozaimasciiii.

thing

there

not
ira

Sahodo no koto dc

aru-

thought

it

would not so very

somuch of thing
mai
not be
to

(pred.) will

much

signify.

omotta.

thought
If that
is

Sa mo nakcrcba
so even
if is

not even so

not

Soshitc (or so shite) tstiule thus having done opportunity


inikan U'O sukoshi at orange a little
iii

And

won't

you

take

the a

katte

opportunity of few oranges?

buying

me

bought
?

kite

kndasaiiiiascnit

ka
?

come

give (neg.)

Ai wa itasanakatta did not meet so


s<~>

d,-su.
is

It

seems they did not meet.


does not seem likely to rain.

Ame ga
rain

furl
fall

s<~>

mo
even

nai.
is

It

not
It

Fiifn nl

initte

seems they have become man


wife.

husband and wife having become and

im
remain

s<J

mi.
is

THE PRONOUN.
Sora
there
dertt.
is
!
!

23
the train
is

(for sore iva)

kisha ga the train

There

starting,

starting

Sore
that
dil

hodo
quantity'
?

arimashlte iva

What

will

you do with

all

that

being

quantity?

sum how do who

Dare ga
Soko
that

s<~/

iimaslnta?
said
da. kanjin important is

Who
That

said so

so

ga
place

is

the important point,

21.

'that.'

Are and
criminately.

sore,

ano and sono must not be used

indis-

Just as kore

may

be called the demonstrative

pronoun of the first person, sore is the demonstrative pronoun of the second and are of the third person. Sore, sono
refer to

his

mind

something present before the speaker's eyes or to are, ano to something a little way off or not in
;

Sore, sono refer to the immediate subject of conversation are, ano are used when a fresh subject is started.
sight.
;

Sono
you

muma

for instance
'

means
'

'

that horse

'

i.e.

'

the horse
'

are riding,' or
;'

we
etc.

are speaking

which you have bought,' or of which ano muma, the horse you rode yesterday,'

Ano yo
'

'that world'

means
'

'

the other world.'

The

phrase

this that

and the other

is

a fair translation of kore,

sore, arc.

Kore, kono are the Italian questo and ano, are are quello.

sore, sono are cotesto

A Japanese often begins a sentence with an ano which has no meaning whatever and which merely serves to
draw the attention
of the person addressed.
(for

The three'words konata


(for

side

sono kata] 'that side,' should when used as ')

kono kata] this side,' sonata and anata (for ano kata 'that
'

pronouns mean respectively

24
'I,'

THE PRONOUN.

'you' and 'he,' 'she' or 'it,' but curiously enough they are all used in the second person, though konnta may sometimes stand for 'I.' Anata for 'you' resembles
the

German use
is

of sic

'

'

they

as a pronoun of the second

person.

Asiiko

irregularly formed.

The

regular form ako

is

in

use

in the

western dialect.
aliodo are not found
;

Ayo and
used instead.

ano yd, are

liodo

are

Examples
Are wa
that

of are, ano, etc.

nan'

da
is

What
Has

is

that

what
daiku

Ano
Aral
there

wa

kita ka ?

that carpenter

come

that carpenter
(tot

come
)

are

mata

hajimatta.

Anna

again (for are naru)


.

have begun such kttchi no warm koto mouth bad thing

There you are at it again. (Did any one ever hear) such bad ano ua g e ?
!
-

Omaye
wi

a-a

dr>

shite

you i> ka
are
?

how having done


?
I

koko here
?

Ano-vatakusJn ka

is it you are here ? Eh I? (the use of ano ideates embarrassment.)

How
it

Ah

Is

here

Ano

Ikcda san.
'i'

say

Mr. Ikeda.
fall

Bakufu
Shogunate
natte

ano
that

y<~>

in

Since the

of the Shogunate.

manner

kara.
after

having become

A
that

in

hanasJii

It

is

seldom we hear a story

way

called

story

of that kind.

mcttani kikimasaiii. hear seldom

in

fuzctsn
report

ate

ni

One cannot depend on


of that sort>

reports

dependence

i;ara>ini.

do not become

THE PRONOUN.
22.

Ka,

'

that.'

The words

in this

column have the same meaning as the

corresponding words in the previous one but they are much less commonly used and only by educated people. They belong properly to the book language. Kano has some-

times the meaning


In

'

a certain.'
is still in

some phrases kare

common

use.

Examples.
Kare kore him noon
desu.
is

It

is

just

about noon.

Kare kore iwazu


not saying

to ike.

go
makebe beaten

None of your objections, but be off with you.

Nanno
(for

(for

nani no} kanno


to

kare

MO)

He went on talking as much as to say that he was not going to be beaten.

oshimi wo itta. reluctance said

Hito

wa

kare kore to
this

wa

Though people do not make


any remarks.

that people iwanai keredomo. not say although

Nani ya ka ya.
23.
'

Anything whatever.

Da, 'who'.

Dare, who,' is the only word in this column, the places of the others being supplied by the derivatives of do 'which.'
Dare da
?

Who
?

is it ?

who

goes there

Dare no mosen

Whose
money ?

blanket
did

Dare

ni kane wo yatta ? to money gave


so iimashita ?

To whom

he

give

the

Dare ga

Who
omotwhile
I

said so

who
Dare ka

so
*

said

who
tara.
I

to /sign of indi-\
\rect clause.
/

wondered who

it

was.

thought

26
24.

THE PRONOUN.
Do, 'which.'
is
is
' '

still

Dore, 'which.' An old form of dore is idzure which in use in the sense at all events,' at any rate.' It
lit.
'

here put short for idzure ni mo,

in

whichever

(ca'se).'

Donata,
is

(for

dono knta,

'

which

side'), is

used as a polite

substitute for dare, 'who.'

still

more
'

respectful phrase

donata sama.

From
doka,
of our
' '

do,

'how,' are formed dozo,

somehow

or other,'

somehow,' both of which words have nearly the force


please.'

Examples
Dore which masu?
iv a

of dore, etc.

yoroshiu

gozariis

Which do you

prefer

good

Dono func ? Dono gurai yoroshiu


what quantity good masu ?

Which
gozariis

ship

How much

do you require

Doka somehow
mdsktmasti*

o (hon.)

negai

Please do,

beg of you.

beg

(humble word.)

Do
how
is

in

hanashi
talk

de
(predicate)

What

is

it

all

about?

called

gozariinasu ka ?
?

Donata dc

gozainiasu, ?
is

Who
(polite.)
I

is

there

who
how much
scnit.

Donnani ureshi ka shiremajoyful


?

cannot
I

tell

you

how

de-

cannot

lighted

am.

know Do how
shlyu ?
shall

What
desu,
is

shall

do?

do
ka?
?

Dore ! dore ! kore which which this

Let
it

me

see
?

let

me

see

is

this

one

THE PRONOUN.
Doann
omotte.
yosii state of affairs

27
the state of

ka
?

to

affairs

Wondering what was


.

thinking

Ima now
idzure

kokoro-atari

wa

mind

hit'

is

nai ga, not

At present
view
but
i

have nobody
al j

in

at
j ri

events

will

tadzunete mimashd. having inquired will see

make

nqu

es .

DO Do

nasaimasii ?

What

do you propose to do

how
ka

do
nasaimashita ka?
?

Is anything the matter with

you

somehow have done


Sono shUgiin
that

wa Napoleon

Which
general or

is

the

stronger

that

general to dochi ga tsuyu gozaimasu ? and which strong is

Napoleon?

Do

kangayete

mo.

No
over
it.

matter

how

think

how having thought even


25.

Na, 'what.'

is

There Nani, 'what,' is used of inanimate objects only. no adjective form. Nani no, usually contracted into nanis

no or dono,

used instead.

is for na-zo-ye, zo being an emphatic and ye an exclamatory particle. See Chap. X. Nanihodo, contracted into nambo, is used by the Japanese of the central and western provinces instead of the familiar

Naze,

'

why,'

ikura,

'

how much,'

of Tokio.

Examples
Nanda
(for

of nani etc.

nani de

am)

What
matter
?

is

it ?

or

what
?

is

the

Kono mono wa nanda ? this thing what is


Sono
that
to in ?

What
nan'

is

this

thing

gunman
man-of-war

wa

What
ca u e d
?

is

that

man-of-war

what

called

28
Nan: shi what do
ni

THE PRONOUN.
kiln ?

to

have come

What have you come to do what has brought you here ? What
here at once.

Nan! what
te

? sugiini

at

iniimawo hitonce horse having

(nonsense)! lead the horse

koi.

led

come
(for

Nannara
because
ivatakushi
I
it is

nani narcba)
to

Well then
do,

as

have nothing

what
hitna desu kara,
leisure is because

mo

have you any objections

to

my accompanying

you

o
(hon.)

iotno

'i-o

itashitc-

accompany having done


?

mo
even

yoroshiu gosaimasu ka

good

is

issho Nani shiro what do(imperative) together


ni iki

Suppose you go along with me.

nasal.
(polite imperative)

go

Bimbu da
poor

nan'to

in

kokoro
heart

Putting away the feeling that

what

called

was poor

or anything of that sort.

wo

haislnte.

giving up

Yubin-bato ni shi-kotnu to ka train that ? post-pigeon as nani to ka ittc.

Saying he was training


carrier

it

as a

pigeon or something

of

that sort.

something that

saying

Nan no go
what

yd
shiyG

desii
is

ka?
?

What
Is

is

your business

(hon.) business
to

Nani

ka

wa

art-

there
?

nothing

which

can

do manner
tnasnmai ka ? not be

will

be done

Naze hayaku konai ? why quickly not come

Why
To

don't you

come quickly ?

Naze

to iyeba.
if

explain the reason why.

why
Nani,

say

in

the combination
is

nan'desii

'what
'

is

it'

and

constantly introduced by some speakers in a meaningless way, something like our don't you know.'
similar phrases,

THE PRONOUN.
26.

29
the addition of the

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

By

particles ka, mo, demo, zo, interrogative

pronouns become

indefinite pronouns.

Dare

ka,

'

somebody.'

Example.
Dare ka shitani matte
below
oru.

Somebody

is

waiting below,

waiting remains
is

Dare mo, 'anybody,'


verb.

generally used with a negative

Examples.
Dare mo
shiranii.

Nobody knows.
iwanai not say

Dare
yo.

ye
to

mo
even

You

don't

tell

anybody,

(imperative.)

(emph.

part.)
'

Dare de mo means

any one whatever.'

Example.
Dare de mo yoroshiu gozariis good
masu.

Anybody whatever

will do.

Dore mo,
used

'

any

one,' dore de

mo,

'

in a similar
'

way

to dare

mo and

any one whatever,' afe dare de mo.

Nani

ka,

something,' anything.'

Examples.
Kono hako no naka
box
ka halite
iru
ni nani
Is there

anything

in this

box

inside

ka

having entered

is ?

Kojikl ni nani kao yari nasare. do beggar to give

Give something to the beggar,

Nani mo,

'

anything at

all,' is

used with negative verbs.

30

THE PRONOUN.

Example.
Nani mo gozarimasenu.
There
is

nothing at

all.

Nanl

dc mo,

'

anything whatever.'

Examples.
Kono
tabcru. eats

mits-imc

wn

nanl dc

mo

This
whatever.

girl

eats

anything

g irl

Nani de mo

shitte

iru.

He knows

every thing.
'

Nanl

zo, usually contracted into nanzo,


'

something or

another,'

any.'

Example.
Nanzo omoshiroi
diverting

shinibun go-

Have you not some


news
to tell

diverting

news

me

zarimascnu ka
is

not

In the
definite,

same way
as doko
'

interrogative adverbs
'

may become
doko ka)
'

in-

where,' dokka

(for

some-

where,' dokodemo

anywhere.'

Example.
Doko ka de mi to.
omoimasu.
think

yd

ni

think

have

seen

(him)

seen manner

somew here.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. Jibun, self,' Jibuti no, one's own,' is the commonest reflexive pronoun in the Japanese spoken language. It is sometimes replaced by
'

27.

'

Waga means jishin or onore. icaa ko, 'one's own child,'


brothers and sisters,'

'

one's
\i~aga

own

'

in

the phrases
'one's

kiodai,

own

wnga

knni, 'one's

own

country,' and

perhaps some others.

THE PRONOUN.

Examples
yibun
tetsudatte

of jibun etc.
Because
self,
I

de

dekinai
can't

kara because

can't do
please.

it

by my-

help

me

kudasare.
give
It is his

lending hand

ga waru.
himself
is

own

fault.

bad
ni

Tegami
letter

wa yd
use
Itte

tatanai ; stands not

letter is of

no use
himself.

go and

talk to the

man

jishin ni

o hanashi nasare.

going

speak
tokl

do
de
at
It will

Go
(hon.)

jibun no

do at your own time.

own
it is

time

yoroshiu gozarltnasu.

good

Yokei na o sewa needless (hon.) trouble

da
oye.

don't

want your assistance


from your

it is

brush the

flies

own head.

jibun no atama no hai

wo

head

flies

drive off
It
is

Samukute, jibun no te da ka hand is ? being cold own


naii'da

so cold,

don't

know
hands

whether they are


or

my own

ka wakaranu.
is

what

is ?

not clear

what they

are.

siitcte, yibun no inochi wo life abandoning

Throwing away
he aided others.

his

own

life,

hito

wo tasukemashita.
aided

Observe the force of hito

in this sentence.

For each
'

'

other,'

one another,' Japanese use the adverb


'

tagai ni which

means

mutually.'

Examples.
Tagai
ni mite

orimasMta.

They looked They


assist

at

one another.

Tagai ni tasukcru.
28.

each other.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

The

Japanese

language

has no relative pronouns. verb of the relative clause


the relative pronoun refers.

To
is

express the same idea, the put before the word to which

In the case of passive verbs a

32
similar construction
is

THE PRONOUN.
found
English. Thus, for the may say, 'the murdered man,'
in
'

man who was


sareta
hlto.

murdered,'

we

which corresponds exactly

to the

Japanese phrase, koro-

Examples.
Anaia ga
o uri nasattajukiscn.
sell

The steamer which you


The
sailing vessel

sold,

did

steamer

hobune. Sakujitsu katta yesterday bought sailing-ship

which (we)
fast,

bought yesterday.

Hayaku susnmn
quick

fune.

A
fast

ship

which
ship.

sails

or

advance ship

sailing

Nihon
.

J a ? an
tt

go language
hi to.

wakaranot

A man who
stand j apanes e.

does not

under-

understand

man

Instead of korosh ita Into, 'the man ta hlto, 'the man who was killed,'

who
it

killed,'

korosare-

is

possible to say

koroshita tokoro no hito, korosarcta tokoro no Into, tokoro


'place,' but this construction can hardly be said to belong to the colloquial language. Such phrases, however, as kiita tokoro niyotte, 'according to what I have heard,' are not unfrequent.

meaning

29.
'

OTHER PRONOMINAL WORDS


Hlto
on,
'

Hito man'.
It

is

used

in a similar

way
'

to the
'

German
'

man, the French

and the English


other people.'

one

or

people.'

may

also

mean

Examples.
Hlto
people
ikenai.

wo

baka
fool

nl to

shite,

You should
peop
i

not

make

fools of

making

e>

cannot go

Hlto ga

in

no

ni.

According to what people say.

say

in

THE PRONOUN.
H',to no kodomo. children

33

Other people's children,

Mina,
Mina
Ki ga

'all,'

is

used either alone or after a noun.


They have
The
trees
all

kareta.
m'nia karcta.

withered.
all

have
in

withered.

Mina
Mina
all

de ikutsu ?

How many
irasshai-

all?

san

yokn

You
merii

are

all

welcome, Gentle-

Mr.

well (hon.)come

mashlta.
(past)

Ika (root)

'

how

'

is
'

only found in a few combinations such

as iltani or ikaga,

how,' ikahodo,

'how much.'

Iku, 'what number,' appears in the following combinations


ikutsu,

'how many,'
objects,'
'

ikura,

'how much,' ikumai,


cylindrical

'how many

flat

ikuhoHy'how many

objects,' ikitka,

many
itsuzo,

days, ikutari or ikunin, men,' and other similar phrases.


'

how many
is

'how

7/57*,
'

when,'
itsu

found alone and

in

the
'

combinations

at

some time

or another,' itsuka,

another,'
'

mo

or itsu

demo,

'at

on some day or any time at all,'

always.'

Rio-ho,

lit.

'both sides,'

is

used for 'both,' butdockira

mo

is

commoner.

CHAPTER
NUMERALS.

V.

30.

The

Japanese

language

has

two

series

of

numerals, one consisting of original Japanese words, the other borrowed from the Chinese. The Japanese series
extends no further than
the

number

ten,

after

which

Chinese numerals only are used.


List of

Numerals

JAPANESE.
I

CHINESE.

NUMERALS.

35

Larger numbers are expressed by multiples of man. Ex. 150,000, jiu go man; a million, liiaku man. Consecutive

numerals follow the same order as

in

English.

Ex.

1868. sen hap piaku rokujiu Iiachi.

Rio

'

both

'

the phrase rid

sometimes used instead of ni san nin, two or three persons.'


is
'

'

two as

'

in

Nana
1

jiu

is

sometimes

used

instead
'

of shichi jiu,

seventy,' in

such phrases as nana jissen

seventy cents.'

The following rules are to be observed in the use 31. of numerals


:

1.

The

under
Ex.

only cases in which the Chinese numerals eleven are employed are alone or before unor monosyllabic

compounded
jfiu

nouns of
'

Chinese
roku

origin.
'

go

'

kin,

fifteen

catties

nin,

six

men;' hap

The

letter

piaku (for hachi hiaku), 'eight hundred.' changes which take place will be best
from the numerous

understood
elsewhere.
2.

examples

in

32

and

The Japanese numerals when


an old possessive

prefixed to

nouns of

Japanese origin lose the final syllable tsu.

Tsu

is

really

particle.

Futa hako.

Examples. Two

boxes.
parcels.

Ml
Yo
3.

tsutsumi.
hiro.

Three

Four fathoms.

The

possessive particle no

is

sometimes introduced
Ex. FutatsU no mono,

between the numeral and the noun.


'

two
4.

things.'

The numeral

is

very often placed after the noun,

36

NUMERALS.

Examples.
Yanm
fittatsf:.

Two

mountains.

Miktin yotsK,

Four oranges.
itself.

5.

The numeral may stand by

Example.
Ikiitsu

am ?

How many

are there

Jin

ichi gozcirimasii.

There are eleven.

32.

AUXILIARY

NUMERALS.
is

It

is

comparatively
to

seldom that the numeral


noun.
in

joined

immediately

the

What may
They
cattle,'

use.

be called Auxiliary Numerals are much correspond to the English phrases, 'six

head of
shoes.'

'four brace

of

'

partridges,'

two pair of

Examples.
Kami
ichlmai.
(for ichi soku).

One One

sheet of paper.
pair of shoes.
(//.

Hiikimono issoku

Akindo jin i:hi nin.

Eleven merchants chants eleven men).

mer-

Most of these
and
fall

under Rule

auxiliary numerals, are of Chinese origin, A few i of the preceding section.


fall

are Japanese words, and

under Rule 2 as knra hito


are

tomai, 'one godown.'

They commonly placed after the noun, but a construction similar to that described in Rule 3 is also admissible. Ex. Sanniit no akindo, three
'

merchants.'

These numerals

are in daily use, and

knowledge of

some

of

them

is

absolutely necessary,

NUMERALS.

37

The most common

are

NUMERALS.
FOR HOUSES. FOR SHIPS.
GLASSES OF WINE, SHOES. CUPS OF TEA, ETC.

NUMERALS.
33.

39

prefixing

ORDINAL NUMBERS. The ordinals are formed by the word dai or affixing ban to the Chinese
I St.
'

numerals.

2nd.
.

3rd.
4th.

5th.

Dai ichi Dai ni Dai san Dai ski Dai go


&c.

or

Ichi ban.

Ni
,,

ban.
ban.

Sam
Yo Go

ban. ban.

,,

&=c.

ordinals precede the noun, the possessive particle no introduced between. being

The

Examples.
Dai
ichi

no yakti.

The

first,

or highest office.
ship.

Ni ban

nofitnc.

The second

Dai
ship.'

ichi, ichi

ban mean

'

literally

number
fiine,

one.'
'

Me

is

often added after ban, as ni ban

me no

the second

34.
in the

FRACTIONS.
of

following manner: ar-iooths


(lit.

Fractional quantities are expressed is hiaku bun no ni

jiu

one hundred parts twenty one.) The and bu substituted for bun. commonly omitted, Thus for one third the speaker has a choice between
ichi,

no

is

'

'

sain

bun

no

ichi

and

sam
it

bu
is

ichi.

When

there

is

no denominator expressed, are meant.

understood that tenths

Examples.
Hachi
Shichi
te

bu.

Eight tenths.
ni

bu,sam bu

wakehavin

Divide

it

into

seven

tenths

and three tenths.

o kurc.

divided

give

4o

NUMERALS.

One
fourth

half
are

is

han,

or

ham

bun.

One

third

and one

sometimes

milsii ichi

and yotsU

iclii.

These

forms have been sanctioned by usage, but as a general rule Japanese and Chinese numerals cannot be combined in this way.
particular

35Sono
.

Examples
kasa iva iktira
ii-a

of

Numerals.

that umbrella

? He; how much

How much
One
is
I

is

that umbrella
if

fifty

sen but

ippon

gojisscn de gozarififty

one piece
masu.

cents
o

three,

will

is

you buy make them one yen

ga

sambon

kai

twenty sen.

three pieces (hon.)

buy
ni

nasareba, ichi yen


.if

nijissen

do

one

twenty cents to

itashimashu.
will

make
tstitsnini

Hlfo
one

ni
in

hiakn

There are one hundred


shirts, or

(dollars,
in

package

hundred

other

flat

objects,)

mai

imasu. piece each having entered is


dziitsu

haitte

each package.

Sore
that

wafuta

tsuki mayc no two month before

That

is

thing

of

two

months ago.

koto

da.
is

thing

Minn
altogether

de

ikntsu ?

How many

altogether

how many
There are seven.
s<lba

Nanatsii gozarimasu.

Konnichi dora no
to-day
dollar
kiita

Have
rate

you

heard

what

the
is

rate of ex-

of exchange for dollars


?

KO
change

ka
?

have heard

to-day

He, hiakn mai Yes, hundred piece


jiii

ni
in

hiakn

Yes,
dollars.

it

is

no

yen

for

100

hundred

yen de gozarimasu.
are

ten

Kore yori nan' ri hodo ant ? this from what quantity is

How many

ri

is

it

from here

NUMERALS.
Shiclii liachi ri

4!
not more

hoka
other

(or shika)

It is

than seven or

seven eight
is

loa gozarimascnii.

eight

ri ,

not
gen.

Ni

san

Two

or three

houses,

two three houses


Shi go
desu ?
nlchi.

Four or
or

five days.
is

Nan' dokl desu?

Nan'

ji

What

o'clock

it?

Kare kore yoji de gozarimasu.


that
this
iro

It is just

about four o'clock,

Iku

arimasu ka
?

how many

How many
In
all,

kinds are

there

colours are

Sutai de kokono iro gozarimasu. all in nine colours there are

there are nine kinds,

Midzu wo hlto kuchi Water one mouth


one
yiu-nin
10

kurero.

Give

me
is

a mouthful of water.

give
artt.

Hitotsu no samatage ga
obstacle
to-iro.

There

one obstacle.
as

there is

men

As many men,

many

minds.

10 colour

CHAPTER

VI,

THE VERB.

36.

The

verb in

Japanese has

no

means

of

ex-

.pressing

distinctions of

number

or,

person.
lendest,'

Kastt, for instance,

may

except indirectly, of mean, 'I lend,' thou


'

'he lends,'

'we, you, or they lend,'

according

to circumstances.

verbs.

In the spoken language there are two conjugations of The following table shows the terminations of the
:

principal parts in each conjugation

THE VERB.

43

As the Japanese language does not possess the sounds


tn, ti

and

si, tsu,

chi

are required by the conjugation.

and ski are substituted wherever they This will explain several
in the

apparent irregularities

above

table.

The conjugation of shitnan would be shimawi, shiinawa, i, wi, wu and sJiimau'H, shimawe, but, as is explained in
we
/,

are

unknown

syllables in Japanese, being replaced

by

n
i

and ye.
38.

each of the principal parts of the verb, certain In this way forms particles or terminations are annexed.

To

some degree similar to the moods and tenses of European grammars. These terminations are shown in the annexed tables.
are produced in
It will

tacked on

be observed that in most cases they are merely to the verb without any change. This is
'

what

is

called

agglutination,' and
in
it

owing

to the prevalence

of this

method

agglutinative language.

Japanese There are however several cases

has been rightly called an

where something more than mere 'tacking on' has taken The future, kaso, which contains three elements, place.

Kaso is for together, is an example. the root -f- sign of neg. base -{-future particle. kas-\-a -}-mu, Matta, the past tense of matsii, 'to wait,' is another case
closely

welded

where the

original

elements have been so consolidated

together as to be quite indistinguishable on a superficial Matta is for mach -\-i-\-te -\-ar-\-u, i.e. the examination.
root

+ sign

of stem-f-sign of participle -f- root of

verb 'to

be'-j-sign of indie,

mood.
treated of in this chapter

In

some cases the terminations

are really identical with particles described in Chapter IX.

Those readers who prefer the more old fashioned style of conjugation according to moods and tenses are referred to the table given at the end of this chapter, but they are recommended to master at least the
principle of the formation of the various tenses before proceeding further.

44

THE VERB.

39-

CONJUGATION
Kasu, to lend.

I.

Stem

THE VERB.

45

40-

CONJUGATION
Taberu, to eat.

II.

Stem

46

THE VERB.

i The following examples show the letter-changes 41. which take place when the stems of verbs of the first

mi

conjugation ending in chi, ri, ki, gi, i preceded by a vowel, or bi come before the terminations te, ta, tarcba, tarn,

taraba, taro, tari, and tarcdo.


Mnclii-tc

becomes matte, machita


,,

inatta, etc.

Ari-tc

attc.

Kaki-tc
Tsugi-te.

,,

kaite.

,,

tsuide or tsuifc.

Shimai-te

,,
,,

shimatte.
omotte.

Omoi-tc

Yomi-te
Yobi-te

,, ,,

yondc.
yonde.

Exception
j

Iki-tc (iku 'to go')

becomes

itte

not

lite.

42.

and the

IRREGULAR VERBS. Kuril 'to come,' sum 'to do' polite auxiliary masu are somewhat irregular.
is

Their conjugation

given below.

used,
itte

For the future of kuru, koyd is best. Kiyo, which is also is not so good. Kd is sometimes heard in the phrase
ko ka,
'

having gone

shall

come.'
'

to do,' seyo is sometimes heard, and for the negative future semai, some people say siunai or shimni. But these forms are less correct than

Instead ofsho, the future of sum,

those given in the tables.

shltai,

Masu has no we must


(imperative)

desiderative

form.

Instead
'I

of

ikinmgo.'

say
is

ikito

gozaimasii

wish to

Mase
masu.

often

speakers.

Masuru
not

is

pronounced mashi by careless more formal, and less common than

Masu

js

now

in

combined with other verbs

use as a separate word, but only to form polite tenses.

THE VERB.

47

Kuril, to come.

Stem

48

THE VERB.

44-

Snnt, to do.

Stem

THE VERB.

49

45-

Masii, to be.

Stem

5O
$

THE VERB.
46.

THE STEM" OR
will

INDEFINITE

FORM. KasJii,

tabe.

1.

As
is

have been seen from the above

tables,

the

stem

used as a base to which some of the terminations

are added.
2.

The stem

is

used to form

compounds with nouns,

adjectives, or other verbs.

Kashiya.

Examples. A house
'

to

let,'

from kashl, stem

of kasii, 'to lend,' and ya, 'a house.'

Kimono.

'

Clothes,' from ki, stem of kirn,


clothe,'

'

to

and mono,

'

a thing.'
'

'

Migjiriislu,

Ugly,' from mi, stem of mint,


see,'

to

and

'

ktirushi, painful,

dis-

tressing.'
'

Arigatai.

It is difficult to

be

'

(I

am much
hard,
'

obliged), from an, stem of ant,


'

to be

'

and

katai,

'

dif-

ficult.'

Bitchikorosii.

'To

beat to death,'
butsit,

from

bitchi,

stem of
korosu,
'

'to beat,'

and

to

kill.'

Shiagcnt.

'To

finish,'
'

from

shi,

stem of
'

sum

to do,'

and agent,
is

to raise.'
it

Sara
sky
kara,

ma

kumotte clouded

imasu.
is
i

The sky
ike rain .

clouded

looks

furi-st'na
fall

ambni
state

dcsu.

because

* The form which in previous editions of this work was termed the Root is now called the Stem or Indefinite Form for reasons which have been very convincingly put by Mr. B. H. Chamberlain in a short paper read before the Asiatic Society of Japan, to which I am indebted for this improvement. It is possible, however, that such stems as kuslii are after all really roots, the / not being a termination but merely a sound added

comply with the end with a vowel.


in order to

rule that in

Japanese every syllable must

THE VERB.
snmi-shidai ni. Yd business finish order in

As soon as my business
finished.
it

is

Dcki
is

made

I will send shidai ni okiirimaslw. made. order will send

as soon as

it is

Furi-sona
in

(for

furi-so-nam], sumi-shidai and deki-shidai

these sentences should be regarded as compounds.


3.

The stem

is

often a noun.

Examples.
kamai nasaimasuna. do not (hon.) care

Please don't mind.

O
(hon.)
will

wakarl
understanding
but

mo

You

will

probably not under-

stand, but

arimasumai ga.
not be M<>
o kaycri ni nntta. has become already return

He

has already gone away,


refused to listen to

Naka-naka

kiki-ire

He
me.

utterly

middle-middle listen-take-in

ga nakatta. was not


KOHO shina mochi wa yorothis
ski.

This

article

wears well.

article

hold

is

good
Shitnai ni
natta.
It is finished.

end

to has

become
I

Ml

ni ikimashita.

went

to ?ee.

see to

went
I

Kai ni kimashita. buy to come

have come

to buy.

Cha wo nomi nagara.


tea

Whilst drinking

tea.

drink whilst

Negative tenses are formed by prefixing the stem followed by the particle iva or r,io to the negative forms of the verbs sum or itasu, 'to do.' These forms are more

emphatic than the corresponding simple tenses of the verb,

52

THE VERB.
in

and are

very

common

use.

Wa

in this position is

com-

monly pronounced ya.

Examples.
Kono
hi'ct

miiiafo

lit

harbour
art iva
is
(or:

kaknrcta hidden

Are there no hidden rocks


this

in

harbour

rock

ya) shlnai ka? do not ?


I

Machi
wait

iva (or ya) shlmasenu.

won't wait.

do not
orl iaa itashhnascnu-

Darcmo

There

is

nobody

here,

any one remain


Kaiuai ya shlnai.
care
don't
ki ya come

does not
I

don't care,

Mad a
yet

shimasiiinai.
will not

He He

can't have

come

yet.

do
will not die.

Shini via Itashimasumal. die will not do


4.

The Stem

is

very important in the written language, and


ally exemplified in the

the subject of a rule of Syntax which is is occasion-

spoken language.

Rule.

When

two

or

more

consecutive

clauses of a

sentence contain verbs in the same


last

mood and tense, the


termination of the

verb only takes


tense,

the
all

distinctive

those which precede are put in the stem or indefinite form, so called because it has no

mood and mood

and

or tense of

its
is

own.

In the case of Negative Forms,

the indefinite form

the participle in zu.

This rule

is

for Adjectives in

the counterpart for verbs of the rule given Chap. VII.

Examples.
Maine wo makcba, mame if sow beans beans
have, asa no tane
go,

If

and
h

you sow beans, beans grow, if you sow hemp seed)


grows,

wo makcba,
if

grow hemp
asa

seed

sow

ga hemp becomes.

dckint.

THE VERB.
Watnkushi no ydna bimboI

53

poor

man

like

me

buys

sort of

poor

nln

wa

zcni no

am
is

toki ni

wa

man

when he has money> an j does when he has nonenot b

cash
toki

time

kal, nal

buy not time

wa, kaivanai. do not buy


to tu

Tdkiu no ho yc o idc da
side

There
tnat he
j

are
s
;

people
to

who
Tokio,
is

say

go
still

say

gO n g
home.

and
;

hltomo
people
o idc da

ari,

yappari uchi ni

are
to

home

is

also said that he

at to stay at

mo

in.

also say

Mircdomo, miyczu; kikedothough see can't see though

Though they
not see
.

look,

they canlisten,

th

ou gh they

they

mo

kikoycnal.

cannot hear.

hear cannot hear

student should not attempt to imitate this conwhich is not very common in ordinary conversation. Instead of hayc, kai, it is better to say hayeru
struction,

The

ga,

kaii

ga.

For

ari,

areba

is

better,

and

for miyezu,

miyenai.
47.

THE PAST
termination

PARTICIPLE.
te

Kashite, tabetc.
is

The

of the past participle


'

really the

stem of

an obsolete verb tsuru


its

to

finish.'

This ac-

being occasionally like other stems used as you are as a noun, as in the phrase shitte no tori aware.' It also follows that such phrases as matte one, he is waiting,' are really examples of the rule of

counts for

'

syntax given in the preceding section, matte being the


Indefinite

Form.

this

The term Past Participle is not free from objection, as is by no means the only use of this form. It must

sometimes

sometimes be rendered by the present participle, and it lias no reference to time, but describes the

manner

of the action of the verb which follows.

54

THE VERB.

Examples.
Di.ko ye
ittc

kila?

Where has he been


I

to?

where having gone has come


Motfc
kite

ageI

will bring

it

for you.

having taken having come


will cffer

Kami wo
hair

kitte

moratta.

got

my

hair cut.

having cut received


I

Dare ka Yokohama made as far as somebody


ittc

want

Yokohama

for

somebody me.

to

go

to

moraltai.
I

having gone

wish to receive

Sono hagaki
that post-card
naii to
1

wo yondc
having read

What did he say read that p o s t-card ?

when

he

it fa

what

said
nl

wa

horse
ni

nottc miro riding see

hito

Try a horse by
try

riding

him

man

wa

man by

assoc i a fmg

sottc tmro. associating see

him.

ga attc no tagiu. Yoji business being journey


Tattc

A
It

journey on business.

mo

suwaitc mo, ncdan


sitting

is

as

cheap

sitting

as

standing

price

stan ding.

wa

onaji koto.

same thing

furo

ni

ittc

mo

May

go to the bath

bath

having gone
is
?

yoroshiu gozarimasii ka?

good
Haitte
not,
is

mo

daiji

It

does

not

matter,
j

even

if

having entered
not
Ittc

great thing

you come ( or go

in-

shimatta.

He

has gone away.

having gone has finished

Kashi cakes

u'o tabctc

shimatta. eating has finished

He

has eaten

all

the

cakes.

THE VERB.
Amari
too
tabctc iva

55
will

biuki
ill

iii

You
eat too

become
_

ill

if

you

much

much

naru.

become
last example shows that the Past Participle with added may. be used as equivalent to the Conditional Form in cba. Te iva is in the common Tokio dialect

The

iva

pronounced cha.
Conditional.

Te

iva has not

always the force of the

Example.
Nete wa imascnu. having lain down remains not

He

is

not gone to bed.

Note the
1

difference

in

meaning between
'

kashite kara,
lent.'

after lending,'

and kashita kara,

because he

48.

THE PAST TENSE.


is

Kashita, tabeta.

The
which

ta of the past tense is a shortened


itself

form of taru,
'

being the termination of the past participle, and the verb to be.' In the written language taru has a perfect significate-arti,
te

contracted for

am

tion, the
slii

or hi

simple past tense being indicated by the particle added to the stem. These latter forms are
the

obsolete in

simple past not unknown.

spoken language, where ta is oftener a than a perfect, although the latter use is

Yokohama ye
'

itta

may mean,

either

'

he
If

went
it

to

Yokohama,' or

he has gone to Yokohama.'

bring out the perfect signification distinctly, the past participle with oru or iru is employed, as Yokohama ye itte oru, itte iru or itteru, he has
is
'

desired to

gone to Yokohama,'
remains.'

lit.

'

having gone to Yokohama he

Like the other tenses of the Indicative Mood, the Past

Tense may stand


Verb, as a no
Into

to other

words

in the relation (i), of a


(2),

wa

kita,

'he came or has come,'

THE VERD.
of an Adjective,"

as kita Into, 'the

came man'

i.e.

'the

man who
'

there

is

has come,' or (3), of a Noun, as kita no mistake about his having come.'

ni sui nai

Examples
i.

of the Past Tense,

As

a Verb.
kita.

Kid
to-day

He came
What
is

to-day.

came
has happened to him
in
?

Do
how

shimashita ?

has done

The
2.

past tense
is

sometimes used where

English

the present

preferred, as

wakarimashUa
The
days

'I understand.'

As an Adjective. Kono aida kashita kanc. this interval lent money


Kcsa tabcmashlta nashi. ate morning pear
Kioncn nofuyu uafakushino
last

money
ago.

lent

some

The

pears

ate this morning.

this

The man who came

to

my

year

winter
Into.

my

place in the winter of last year.

tokoro ni kita

place

came man
'co

Kanc money
kuni

tamcta
collected

iiye

de

He
country

is

upon

after

going back he has

to

his

amassed

country

ni kaycrn. returns

some money.
is

past tense, as an adjective, by the particle no.

The

frequently

followed

Examples.
Nita
no yori boiled than

wa

yakcta no
roast

prefer roast to boiled,

yoroshiu gozarimasii.

good

is

Shinda no ja nai ka dead is not ?


Iina
jibitn

Is

it

not a dead one

maitla

no

ga

Am
this

wrong
?

to

have come

at

now iv ami
is *

time ka
?

came

time

bad
Cf.

28 Relative Pronoun.

THE VERB.
Shhnbun
newspaper
kimashita so
desii.
it is

57
seems
the

no

koto

de

It

they

have

come

thing

about

newsp aper.

come
3.

As

Noun.
.

Itta

the having gone

ga yokatta. was good


ni

I wish I had gone (' I am glad I went' would be itta no wayokatta).

Maketa
the being beaten

chigai

There

is

no mistake about his

mistake

wa

having been beaten>

nal.
is

not

Tori-otoshlta take dropped

wo mireba. when saw.

When

looked

at

what he

had dropped.

Hiroi-totte knreta pick up having taken gave wa do in Into de atta ? how called man was

What sort of a who picked it up

person
for

was
?

it

me

guage,

Takke, a contraction for tari-kern of the written lanis sometimes employed as a sort of past termination. It is however used only as a verb, and not as an

adjective or noun,
er
is

and generally indicates that the speak-

in

doubt or trying to remember.

Examples.
Ano
that

otoko

wa
?

nan''

to

What was

that

man's name

man

what

iiioshiinashitakke

called

!
!

ah
a

sayd deshitakke it was thus


1

Ah
I

that

is

how
is
j

it

was
this

Cfiotto
little
;

nan' to ka iimashi-

say
is ?

what
shall

your
?

takke

what called moshi o Kane don ka ?


?

name

say

o Kane

suppose

Don shows
49.

that

it is

a servant

who

is

addressed.

THE CONDITIONAL AND THE HYPOTHETICAL FORMS


Kashitcireba,
tabetareba.
te

OF THE PAST TENSE.


Tareba, taraba are for

areba,

te

araba.

Tareba

is

commonly

still

further contracted into tara.

50
There was originally a

THE VERB.
distinction

between tareba and taraba, the

former relating to an event which has actually happened or is probable, the use of the latter implying that the event has not happened at all, or is put as a mere supposition. But this distinction is now
lost

and both forms are used indiscriminately, there being a tendency


of use.

for taraba to fall out

Kashitareba
'

may mean

lent,'
lent,'

if

he shall have

not only if he lent,' but since he has lent,' lent,'


'
' '

'if
'

he* had

when he

'when he had

lent,'

when he

shall

have

lent.'

in

The compound tense kashlta nara is very generally used much the same sense as kashltareba. Nara is here for

iiareba, the Conditional Present of narn, 'to be.'

Examples
Sore ga
that

of tareba, taraba, tara


If (or

and

ta nara.

wakattarcba, when have understood

when) we have underis

stood that) the rest

easy

ato
rest

iva yasni.
is

easy

Tfikiu

ye

ikimashi tareba

when
chfimon shhnashu. will do order
S~>

have gone

As soon as I have gone Tok o> j will order some;

to

mushimashitareba,

mlna
all

When

said so, they all flew

so

when

said

into a pass i on .

okorlmashlta. flew into a passion

Benten wo
dekimashita.

tootara

kaji
fire

ga

When
broke out

passed Benten a

fire

when passed
was made
Ittaraba,
if

had gone

na koto knv~> this kind of thing

If this

wa
was

he had gone, nothing of kind could have ha p pened


.

(h'kinai

hadzu
necessity

dc

not become
arhnashita.

may be well to repeat here a remark which has been already made, viz., that the Japanese Verb has no person, and that where the pronoun he is introduced in the English version, any other pronoun would do as well.
'

* It

'

THE VERB.
Kitaraba
if should

59
terrible thing if

taihen

da.
is

It

would be a

come great change

he came.

Shinimashltarcba do
if

died

sum how do

What would you


If his parents

do, if

he died

Oya

ga shinimashitara do
if

had
?

died,

what

parents skimashltaro ?

died

how

would he have done

would have done


Isshoni
kitcircba yok'atta.
if had

together
!

come good was

It would have been well had come along with us.

if

he

dare ka
!

to

oh

who
kun ka. Mr. ?
to

omottara, while I thought

Oh!

wondered who

it

was.

Mr. Fujita?

Fiijita

1 wan 11
not say

that

when he

moshitara, said
to

when

thought he he had
not.

would not
once
said

tell,

he

kanarazu
certainly

iumai
will not say

would

that

sonjimashita.

thought

Kowashita nara, naze kowabroke


sh'ita
if

If

you broke
that

it,

why

not
it ?

let

why

broke
koto-

me know

you broke

to

watakushi nl

me
tion

to explana?

wari wo iwanai ka?


not say

50.

THE PROBABLE

PAST, OR PERFECT FUTURE.

Ka-

shitaro, tabetaro.

The
te

termination taro of this tense

is

a contraction for

aro, aro being the future of


It
is

am

'

to be.'

little
it

used as a noun or adjective, although theo-

retically

might be so employed.

Examples.

Mo
taro.

shlinai

ni

already finish

narimasMwill have

It

is

probably

(or

will
.

be)

finished

by

this

time

become

6o
DTi
in

THE VERB.
wake dc gozariwill

What
reason
?

could

have

been

the

how
been

called reason

have

mashitarij ?

Kimashitaru ka?
Dctaru.

Do you

think he has

come

He
taikiitsii

has probably gone out.


surely have
.

Sazo go
surely

dc gozariwill

You must
the time

found

ennui

have

long

mashitaro.

been
51.

THE ALTERNATIVE FORM.


termination tari of this

Kasliitari, tabctari.
is

The
te

form

a contraction for

an.

Verb

in this

form

is

one or more other verbs

in the

nearly always accompanied same form.

by

Examples.
Oya
tari,

nl kokorodzukai kake-

He
duct
his
;

reformed his
n

unfilial

conto

parents

hung anxiety oya ivo nakasctari no fitunmake weep


ti'O

now

gi v ; ng

anxiety

pare nts,

and

now

making

kd
filial

conduct

arntamcta. reformed
futtari yandari
falling stopping
ki

them weep.

Kono amc ga
this
sitni

don't
it
i

like
is

this

weather,
raining

rain
tenki u-a

when
and

alternately
off.

ni

iranai.

do weather
Tcnugui
towel

mind

not enter

eav ing

ni tsittsiindari tamoto

Wrapping
towel and
his

up

some

in

his

wrapping up sleeve

putt ing

others

into

ye

irctarishUc. putting in doing

sleeve<

truly

Jitsu nl ncgattari kanattari begging granting


^

Indeed
sooner

it

is

case

of

no
.

asked

for

than granted

dc gozarimasu.
is

Anata wa hi to U'o koroslntayou people killing


rl

If you have commit murder

no
or

wish
robbery
.

to

zoku

U'o

hatarakn kokoro a-a

robbery nrimascnu is not

work
to. if

heart

THE VERB.
Midzu wo knndari
water
shltc

6l draw water
i ike>

nani ka drawing something

Please

for

me,

and

the

o kure.

doing

give

termination tari originally had no alternative meaning, and in some of the above phrases the alternative force is not very evident.
j

The

52.

THE CONCESSIVE
is
lit.

PAST.

Kashltaredo, tabetaredo.

This form
ta to iyedo,

not
'

commonly
added to

still,

used, being replaced by kasJilthough one say that (he) lent,' or more by kashita keredo. Mo 'even' is often

much

all

these forms.

'Though'

is

the correct transit is

lation of the concessive terminations but

usually

more

convenient to render them in English by placing 'but', at


the beginning of the subsequent clause.

Example.
Yohodo

much

inayc before

ni

Itanc

iao

lent

him
but
vet
it

money
he

long
not

money

time

ago>

has

kashita kercdo, niada kaycshilent returned although yet


mascnii.

re t urnecj

not

Kashlte

mo
it

is

also

much used with

nearly the

same

meaning, but

is

of no special tense, and

may

be either

present, past or future.


i

53.

DESIDERATIVE

ADJECTIVE.

Kashitai,

tabetai.

See Chap. VII.


54.

THE POLITE FORM. Kashimasu,


is

tabemasu.

The
use,

conjugation of this form see Chap. XII.


55.

given in

45.

For

its

THE- NEGATIVE

use as separate words.

BASE. Kasa, tabe are not in This form has no meaning by itself.

62
56.
tcibcnii.

THE VERB.

THE NEGATIVE PRESENT


final

INDICATIVE.

Kasanu,

The

u of

this

form
is

is

inaudible,
at.

very distinct pronunciation

aimed

except when The Japanese

it in writing the spoken language. Instead of this form, the Tokio dialect generally prefers the Negative Adjective kasanai, tabenai. (See Chap. VII.)

themselves often omit

tive Present

Like the other tenses of the Indicative Mood, the Negamay be either a verb, an adjective or a noun.

(See remarks on the Past Tense.)

Examples.
1.

As a Verb.
dckinti
is to,

Kane ga money

hoall

If

money

is

not

procured,

not

made

if

there will be duns


_ii ._ all niiarl r< iludiLCis.

coming from

bu kara kakctori ga kuru d'ard. . .. ... r sides from dun come will

Shiran it.

don't know.

Are

kiri

(pron.

arckkiri)

have never seen him since,

that cut off


aimascnii.

not meet
(The
last

example shews that this form

is

sometimes used where we have a

past tense.)

Sora
that
tc,
!

ivaraioanu not laugh de

to

mushi-

There!
after
i

have you not laughed

having
iva nai
is

iav j ng sa ;d you

wou id

not

waratta

ka?
?

said

laughed (pred.)

not

(This example illustrates the principle that in Japanese there are no special forms for indirect narration. If a man says u'uniisnn"i 'I won't laugh' the same word warau-anti is used in repeating v.-hat he said, though in English we change 'will' into 'would.' For warawami as a future see the section on the Future Form).

2.

As an

Adjective.
koto

Shiranu.

wa gozarimais

He

certainly knows.

not-know
scnu.

thing

not
Shiranii
koto

am

mono

Don't

tell

me you

don't know.

not-know thing existing thing ka ? (vulgarly moiika).


is?

THE VERB.
DekitiH not-can-do
toki

wa

shikata

If

it

can't be done, there


it.

is

no

time

do-manner

help for

ga

nai.
is

not

Shiran ti hi to.

A man whom
(also,

don't

know,

man who

does not know.)


not

ivakaranu. Ycigo English words not-understand


Into.

A man who
s tand

does

under-

English.

man
Ichl

ncn
year

mo

tatanii

Before even a year had passed.

one
nchi iii. within
3.

even not-stand

As

Noun.
is I don't know (a very humble form of expression used by people of the lower classes to their

Shirimasenii dc gozaimasu.

not-know

superiors).

Diimo ski ya shi nai kara do not because any how do


nigenii

dc

mo
is

You needn't run away, do anything to you.

won't

ii.

the not-running-away even

good.
Correct
(in

O
(hon.)

ki

ni

iranii

wo

what

displeases

you

mind
do

not-enter

me).

o naoshl nasare.

mend

A number

of

Compound Tenses
etc., to the

are formed by adding

dc aro, de atta,

Negative Form (or the Neg.

Adj.) taken as a noun.

Examples.
SkiranH not-knowing
d'aro. will be
d'attaro.

He He

probably does not know.

Kamawanu
57.

probably did not care.

not-caring probably

was

THE NEGATIVE

PAST. Kasananda, tabenanda. This

form

usually replaced in the Tokio dialect by kasanakatta, tnbenakatta, the predicate form of the negative adjectives
is

64

THE VERB.

(kasanaku tabcnaku] combined with the past tense of ant, to be,' the u final being elided before the a of am.
'

Kasanii (or kasanai] de atta


the

may

also be used to express

same meaning.

Examples.
Ikimasenanda.
I

did not go.


did not sell
it

Sonnani yasiiku wa urananda so did-not-sell cheap


(or uranakatta.}.

so cheap as that,

Hanashi
talk

nl

ukarete
floated

on

ki ga mind

was so taken up by the conI

versat i on tna t

did not notice

it.

tsitkananda. not-stick

or the negative adjective


suitable.

Japanese often uses the negative of the present tense where the past seems to us more

ide nasatta
'

Thus, ka

in

answer

to the question,

Did you go

? the reply will very likely be, Ikimasenu,

for

did not go.'

is particularly true in the case of indirect clauses or where the Negative Past, if used, would be an adjective or a noun.

This

Examples.
Chnmon
order
iu

shita ka scnu ka to did ? do not ?

They were
tion of

discussing the quesit

whether

had been order-

koto

wo

ha:iashlte

called thing
otta.

e d or not. (Note that the Japanese prefers the Active to the Passive

talking

remained
Ki'> made itoma to-day until leave nai mono.

construction).

wo

negatednot-

Those who have not resigned


up
till

to . day<

request person

From

ternative,

the Negative Past are formed a Negative Past Alkasanandarl, tabcnnndari, a Negative Past

Conditional,

kasanandareba,

tabcnandarcba,

Negative

THE VERB.

65

tive

Past Hypothetical, kasanandaraba, tabenandaraba, a NegaPast Concessive, kasanandarcdo, tabenandaredo, and

Negative

Probable

Past,

kasanandaro,

tabenandaro.

These forms have not been included in the scheme of conjugation, as most of them are not very common, and their
formation
is

very simple.

Like other negative forms they

are frequently .replaced by compound tenses formed with the help of the Negative Adjective.
58.

THE NEGATIVE
are

CONDITIONAL.

Kasancba,

tabc-

neba.

These

the

negative forms

corresponding to the

positive forms kaseba, tabereba.

Example.
Mionichi

made ts&kuraneba, to-morrow until if not make

If he does not

make
order

it
it

by

to-

morrow
where

shall

some .

hoka de atsitrayern. elsewhere order

else

This part of the verb followed by the negative of nam,


'

to become,' gives the force of the


'

English auxiliary verb


:

'

must,
if

as in the following example


naranu.
I

Mawarancba

must go round, must wash

not go round does not

become
I

Te wo arawancba if not wash hand

naranu..

my

hands,

The naranu
Ikancba,

is

sometimes allowed
:

to be understood, as in

the following example

must go.
te

The Negative

Adjective followed by

wa

is

used

in the

same way, and is commoner. See Chap. VII. The final ba of the Negative Conditional is
nounced ya.

often pro-

For

'

if

he 'does not lend

'

one can also say kasanakereba,

kasanii kereba, kasanii toki wa, kasanai toki wa, kasanii

66
mini,
ion

THH VERB.
kiisamii

mini, kasanu
dc
in

to,

kisanai

to,

kasanaku

tc

or kas'imii

might be drawn
phrases.
j

though some slight distinctions the meaning and application of these


w.i,

59.

THE NEGATIVE HYPOTHETICAL.

Kasazuba, tabe-

zuba.

kasaba, tabeba.

Kasazuba, tabczuba are the negatives corresponding to They have sometimes an m inserted for
ba.

euphony before the termination

In practice they are

confounded with the conditional forms.

Examples.
Konnichi tune ga
to-day
Tsukiji
itashitil

rain

furazitba, if not fall

I want to go with you to Tsu kiji, if it does not rain

ye

tomo

tod

accompanying
gozaitnasu.

wish-to-do
Shiiski)

am
wo
if

k'msii

little

money

tsukattasanot spend

It will

be necessary to spend a
.

Httle

money

zjtba

narimasSmai.
will not

become

60.

THE NEGATIVE CONCESSIVE.


Example.

Kasanedo, tabenedo.

Hakodate ye
yohodo
very

itte

mint' Jo,

Though

have not gone


for myself,
is
it

to
I

going

see not

Hakodate and seen

samui
cold

ySsu

dc

seem

am

n forme d that

very cold

there.

gozmmasu.
is

is not much used, being ordinarily replaced the Negative Present or Negative Adjective followed by by keredo. For kasancdo, one nearly always hears kasanu. keredo or kasanai keredo.

This form

61.

THE NEGATIVE
tabczn.

PARTICIPLES.

Kasade, kasazu,

THE VERB.

De

as a negative termination

is

commoner
like

in the

western

dialects than in the

Tokio language.
has,

The Negative

Participle

the past participle,

the syntax of the

Stem

or

Indefinite

Form.

As

Stem

it is

usually a noun.

Examples.
Ncgai wo
wish
togczu not obtaining
ni shinda.

He
wish.

died without obtaining his

died

M&tna
horse
ni

ni kaiba wo tsukezu fodder giving not

He went away

without giving

the horse his food.

itte

shimatta.

having gone finished

Hambnn
half

kikazu ni demashlta. not hearing went out

He went
half.

out without

hearing
but

Kare
that
fotte

kore
this

iwazu
not saying
koi.

ni

Don't
bring
it

make
here.

objections,

having taken come


Mizii,

not seeing

shirazu not knowing

A person one has never seen or heard of.

no mono.
person

Muku

mizu

wo

suru

He

is

not a

man who

does

opposite not seeing Into de wa nai. man is not

reckless things.

Ikazu
without going
skita.

ni sfiiniaitnahe finished

He

never went after

all.

In the following sentence this form has an adverbial force.


Ai-kaii'arazu tassha de gozaiis unchangingly robust

He

is in

his usual robust health,

mas.
In the following examples
Shfiyfi
it is

a verb.

wa

irezu

to
if

yoroshiu

You need
(soy)

not put in any sauce

sauce
is

not put in

good

gozaimasii.

6S
Sauna koto wo
such
kaiic

THE VERB.
iwazn
not saying
to,

Don't talk

like

that,

but give

thing

him the

wo

money

yare. give

Kasanu
kasazu.

dc,

kasanai dc are

much used

as substitutes for

As stated above (5 47), the Neg. Participle have the force of the Indefinite Form.
Example.
Hajime
-

in

zu

may

wa gokn
:

beginning
d'atta

ga

shimbiu very admirable oi oi zScho


.

At
stuck
,

first

he was he

an excellent
got the

serv ant,

was

gradually and WQU , d not

but

s/iitc,

...... titsukcrti

doing

gradually increasing koto wa sukoshi order a little thing

slightest attention to

my

orders,

and
lies.

in

addition he
to deceive

is

constantly

mo

even not

sono kikazu, uyc hear that over and


lisa

tr y in S

me
its

by telling

wo

tsuite

oira

u<o

(Kikazu here takes


to be translated as

tense from da at
is

above falsehood telling me fizamnku koto tabi tabi da.


deceive thing frequently
is.

the end of the sentence and


if it

therefore

were kikanH,

the Neg. Present Indicative.)

62.

HYPOTHETICAL FORM.
is

Kasaba, tateba.

It ought to gradually falling out of use. a hypothesis or bare supposition, but in speaking imply it is mostly confounded with the Conditional Form in ba.

This form

There are however some locutions where


ferred to the Conditional.

it

is

still

pre-

Example.
Ana
that
jiito
first

Into

wa

iiraba
if one

He

is,

say shakai no tniko-mochi class society buffoon

man

so to speak, an upper

class soc i ety buffoon.

de gozaimasu.

Other examples of the Hypothetical Form.


Ichido If it were once, there would be narnba, medziirasliiku one time if it were curious nothin g extraordinary about it.
nai.
is

mo

even

not.

THE VERB.
Teppu gun
710

69
I

motaba,
if

uchi-korosu
hit kill

If

had a gun,

would shoot

had

him.

dcsu.
is

rusit

naraba kono tegami wo


if is
*

If

he

is

not

at

home, bring

absent

this

letter

b ack t hi s

letter.

motte
taking

kaycre.

come back.
termination ba of this form
is

The

identical with

the

described in Chapter IX, but it is doubtful particle whether kasaba may not stand for kasan (the old future) wa or perhaps kasan ni wa. It will be remembered that

wa

ba

is

wa
63.

with the nigori.

See

4.

THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE.

Kasanai, tabenai.
is

This form
used
in

It is conjugated as an Adjective. various combinations as a substitute

much
the

for

negative forms of the verb.


64.

See Chap. VII.

THE FUTURE.

Kaso, tabeyo.
difficulty.

The formation of the Future presents some The written language forms the future of all
adding n
(originally

verbs by

WM*)

to the negative base, thus,

In the spoken language this n becomes n, which in the first conjugation is contracted with

kasan, taben, dekin.

the
(e

In the preceding a into 6, thus giving the form kaso. same way tab en and dekin ought to become tabyo

being considered equal to

i-\-a),

dekiu, and these forms

Tokio language, a mistaken analogy, has adopted the forms tabeyo, dekiyo. by The following practical rule for forming the future may
are actually in use in
dialects, but the

some

be found useful.
Rule.

For the
o.

first

Indicative into

conjugation change u of the Present For the second conjugation add yd to

the stem.
* It may be conjectured that mu contains the same root as mini, the original meaning of kasa-mu or kasan was " lend-seem."
'

to see,' and that

70
It
is

THE VERB.
convenient to
call

kaso the Future and kasu the

Present, but in practice the distinction between these forms is less often one of time than that kaso expresses an opinion or a probability (as 'will' sometimes does in

Kaso may be translated he English) and kasu a fact. 'I think he lends,' or 'he probably lends,' probably will lend'; is a positive assertion, and may be rendered accordkasu
'

ing to
that he

circumstances

'

he lends,' or
iiiairiniasho,
it

'

he will lend.'

If a

Japanese says mioniclii


is
'

must not be thought

promising faithfully to come to-morrow.

He

has

I shall most If he only said probably come to-morrow.' intends to give a definite promise, he will say, mioniclii mairimasti.

These remarks

also apply to the Negative Future and

Present, kasnmai, kasanil.

Examples
1.

of the Future.
is

As a Noun.

This tense

not

much used
we

as a noun.

Itte

miytl ja nai having gone shall see is not

Shall

not go and see

it ?

ka?
f

As an Adjective, kaso does not often occur, the Present Thus for the ship which Indicative being used instead.
2.
'

will arrive the

day after to-morrow we say asattc chaku sum There are however certain phrases where (not sho)fune. the future is used before nouns.
'

NnrtJ
will

koto naraba.
is

If

it

can be done.
is

become thing if it koto ga nai. Shiyu


will

There
done.

nothing which can be

do thing

is

not
nai.
is

Shiro
will

hadzu wa
necessity

He

can't possibly know.

know

not

3.

As

a Verb.
ar~> ?

Naii'if

What

can

it

be

what

will be

THE VERB.
Go
will

de

mo

Jiajinteyo

ka

Shall

we

begin a
for

game

of go ?
I

mo Koyv come even

sliirfiiii.

can't

know
tadashi-

He may come
His conduct
correct but

aught

know.

Sono That
hard
will
get-

hinku wa conduct

may

very likely be

be but
haitatsu.

Ynbin
post utu

nin

wo

He made

distribution
to slrita.

man

to strike the postman.

strike (fut.)

did

Konrei

no sakadzuki

wo

shu

wedding
to

wine cup

do

Just when they were about to exchange the marriage wine-cup.

in tokoro. called place

Nagasaki

ni

honya aru ka book shop

Are

there
?

any bookshops

in

Nagasaki
I

Arimashd.
Gozarimasiimai.

believe there are.

am

afraid not.

Hatoba
jetty

nl kciyoi-birne ferry boat

ga an>

Do you

think

there are
?

any

ferry boats at the jetty

ka?
Arhnasu
Miunichi
to

mo.
sotio

To

be sure there are.

muma wo
horse

to-morrow
kaimashd.
will

shall probably buy that horse to-morrow.


I

buy
shuppan shimasho ka sailing will do
?

Itsu

When
She

is

she likely to

sail

when

Mionichi jiu ni ji ni shuppan

sails at

twelve o'clock

to-

to-morrow

morrow.

65.

THE PRESENT
is

INDICATIVE.

Kasii, taberu.

as a Present Indicative had formerly Second Conjugation the force of an Adjective or Noun only, a different form being in use for the Indicative Mood. Taberu (or tableau, as it was then pronounced, and still is pronounced in the central and western provinces) could only be used before a noun, as taburu hito, 'the man who eats,' or as a noun itself in the sense of
in the case of verbs of the

The Form which

now used

72
' It could not eating.' distinct form viz. tabu.

THE VERB.
mean
'

he eats,' to express which there was a In the modern Spoken language tabu has fallen out of use and taburu (altered to inherit in Tokio) alone is employed for

Mood as well as in its other capacities as an Adjective or suspect that this change had its origin in the habit which the Japanese are prone to of leaving their sentences unfinished. They this man's perhaps began a sentence by saying kono h'.to ga iabcru ica
the Indicative

Noun.

'

intending to add words indicating that his eating is a fact, but leaving them ultimately unsaid. This becoming a general practice, kono hi to <f<i fabiru wa or kono Into ga tabcrn came to mean this man eats.'
eating
'

'

This explanation
colloquial

we

confirmed by the fact that even in the modern find such sentences as kono hito ga tabcru u-a (or U'a e, e
is
'

being a slightly emphatic particle) where the meaning is simply this man eats.' It is difficult to see what business the iva has here, if something has not been omitted. In the First Conjugation, the Present Indicative and its Adjective Form have always been identical, so that no change is apparent, but in the Irregular Verbs am and narti, the Indicatives of which were originally art and nari, and in Adjectives, a similar alteration has taken
place.

An
older

interesting consequence of this

change

is

that ga,

which

in the

was a possessive particle only, has in the modern If tabcru in the colloquial become the sign of the nominative case. sentence kono Into ga tabcru no longer means 'eating' but 'eats,' it follows of necessity that ga must also change its signification and that kono Into ga will mean not this man's,' but this man.'
language
'
'

Examples
i.

of the Present Indicative,

As

Noun.
orn

Damatte
silent

ga
is

i.

You
tongue

had

better

hold

your

remaining
chigai

good

Iku

ni

nai.
is

There
going.
It
is

is

no mistake about

his

going

mistake

not

ikanai Iku yori ira not going going than


hit

better

not to go than to

gO

ga

yoroshi.
is

side

good
to

Sliinjini

shinjinai

to

A man

is

at liberty to believe or

believing
via hi to

not believing

not to believe.

no

jiyu
liberty

dfsii.
is

man
SO
doing

stint ni.

In doing so.

THE VERB.
Sore
that

73
it.

wo mint

ni.

In looking at

seeing
that ni after the stem
ni
to

Remember
Nani what do
slii

means

'

in order to

'

as
?

kita ?

What
I

have you come to do


to

have come
karl
ni

Kasa
umbrella

wo

have come

borrow

an

borrow

umbrella.

mairimashlta.

have come
2.

As an

Adjective.
snru
hi to

Sankci

The

people

who come

to wor-

come-worship

do

man

ship are

many.

ga
are

r>/.

many
I

Tabcrn mono ga nai.


eat

have got nothing to

eat.

thing
hi ni

is

not

So sum
so

do

day

wa, on

On
do

the day you do that.

If

you

that.

Moioyori of course

hiki-oi
liabilities

ga haranot

It is

a matter of course
>

when

man

warenai toki wa tsubureru no can pay time smash up wa mochiron no koto desu. of course thing is
Miunichi
tatsii

pay his debts that he should smash up.


t

can

yo-ake

ni shutstart-

to-morrow day break at


snru

ytmi

chanto
in perfectly

do ing shitaku
preparation
ikcnai.

manner

must make everything ready so as to start at daybreak tomorrow.

You

quite

wo shinaku cha if not make

does not do
3.

As

a Verb.
soto

Dare ka somebody

outside
taisu

de matsu. waits

Somebody

is

waiting outside.

Ka ga

oru.

There are a great many musquitoes.


If today,
it is

musquito many abide


Konnichi nara
to-day
(for

nareba),

in time.

ma

ni an.

space meets

74
Yu
go.

THE VERB.
areba,
if is te

wo

tataku.
strike

If I

have anything

for

you

to

business

hands

do,

will clap

my hands.
is

that the present

(Observe used here, not

the future, there being no doubt.)

Jin
ten

rl

nara,
if it

kiizvazu

ni

If

it

were ten

rl,

could (or

dc

mo

were not eating iku ga, hlaku rl dcsu

would) go even without eating, but as j t ; s 1OO r ;_

"
kara because
takn ye agarn o to-day (hon.) house to go up nodes* ga, ashi ga itamimashlis
tc,

Konnlchi

day> but as
(I
.

would go to your house to\ have a bad leg am afraid sha n not be able
j.

leg

being pain-

ful (shall

(ikarcmasumai). not be able to go)

66.

THE NEGATIVE

IMPERATIVE.

Kasuna, tabcnina.

Examples.
Ikuna
Sore
! !
!

Shuchi suruna

Don't go ! Don't consent

wo

tabcruna

Don't eat that.

67.

THE NEGATIVE FUTURE.


in the First,

Kasiimai, fabcmai.
is

The
in the

termination mai of this tense

attached

to

the

Present Indicative

and

to the

Negative Base

Second conjugation.
Adjective followed by aro, future of
for this

The Negative
'to be,'
is

am,

sometimes used

form

as, sliirauak'ard,

'he probably does not know,' for sliiranai. Sliiranli daro, shiranai daro have also the same meaning.

For the true meaning of the Future see

5.

64.

Examples
Mir,nichi

of Negative Future.

made
till

iiaorima-

He

won't

be

better

by

to-

tomorrow
timai, will not

recover

morrow.

THE VERB.
Hi tori
alone
dc
dfkitnai.
will not be able
I

75
will not

Alone he

be able.

Animal.

don't think there are any.


is

Mcshi
rice

tabcmai. ico will not eat

He
It

not likely to eat rice.

Ashitanimo naonimai mono tomorrow not recover thing


dc

is

possible
.

he

may

recover

even tomorrow

mo

nai. is not

even
68.

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.


Conditional Base
is

Kase, tabero.

The
except

in the First

not in use as a separate word, Conjugation, where it coincides with the

In the Second Conjugation ro, or in the Imperative. western dialect yo, is added to the root in order to form

the Imperative.

Instead

of the bare Imperative,


it is

which

is

style of address,

generally preferable to use

a very rough some of the

minor honorifics, even when addressing servants.


of to ivo shimero,
it

Instead

is

better to say to
(for

wo

shimete, to

wo

shimete o kure or to

wo shime na

shimc nasarc}.

Examples.
Achi
there

ike!

Get away
!

go
Shut the door
!

To wo shimero
door
shut

Kono hako wo akcro


this

Empty

this box.

Open

this box.

box

open

Waki ye yore !
side

Go

to

one side

approach
iro !

Shlta ni

down

remain

Squat down (as was formerly done by Japanese when a man of rank was passing).
to

Ten no da bachi heaven punishment is


akiratncro.

Make up your mind that punishment from heaven.

it is

make up your mind

76

THE VERB.
Nani what
ni shiro,

warm

koto

Anyhow

it is

a bad business.

make bad

thing

da.
it is

Shikkari shiro. do firmly


Osok^arc hayak'are kuin ni be it late be it early arrest

Bear up
steady
!

(to

a sick

person)

He
later.

will

be arrested sooner or

narimashd.
will
S

become

69.

THE CONDITIONAL FORM.

Kascbn, tabcrcba.

Properly speaking there is the same distinction between this form and the Hypothetical Form kascba, tabcba, that there is between the forms in tareba and taraba, i.e., the

former denotes a condition either realized, or looked upon as likely to be so, while the forms in aba represent a mere
hypothesis.
in practice,

But
All

this distinction is almost wholly neglected


in

and the forms

eba and aba are used indis-

the hypothetical forms, however, seem to criminately. be gradually falling out of use and are not much employed except in particular phrases. A distinction between these

forms

is

always observed by correct writers.


'

Nareba, the conditional of naru


contracted into nara.

to be

',

is

nearly always

Examples
Asiiko there

of Conditional
isstw
If
I

Forms.
I

J*
to

ikcba,
if

go there,
all

shall
life.

have no

go

one

life

annoyance

my

komaru koto
trouble thing

nashi.
is

not
snrcba,
if

Warui
bad
mitkui

koto

thing

do

warni bad

If

you do

evil,

there

is

an

evil

reward.

ga

aru.
is

reward
Miiscba
if tell

kaycttc

go
to

on the contrary (hon.)


U'O

thought that if I were to tell you, I should on the contrary


I

kuro
anxiety

kakcyu

omotta.

cause you anxiety.

hang

thought

THE VERB.
Arcba
if
il

77
(not a confident hope)

to

omottc.

Hoping
While
justified

there are
to

is

good
naii
1

thinking
to

there might be some.

Dorobu
thief

ka
?

ka
?

he
in

would
calling

have

been
thief,

something
no
ni.

him a

iyeba
if

yoi
is

or the like.

say

good while

70.

THE CONCESSIVE FORM.


is

Kasedo, tabedo.

This Form

mostly superseded by the Present Indicative

followed by keredo or, more rarely, by to iyedo. Both these be used with any tense of the Indicative expressions may

Mood, thus producing a

series of Concessive Tenses.

They

may Form

also be added to adjectives.

Keredo

is

the Concessive

of keru,

which

is

probably the perfect tense of kuni

'to come,' and iyedo, the Concessive

Form

of in, 'to say,,

so that to iyedo

means

'

literally

Mo,

'

even,'

is

frequently added to

though one say that.' all the Concessive Forms.

Examples.
narcdo Tenki weather though it
Kiisnri
vio
is

samui. is cold

Though

fine, it is cold.

medicine
oranai. recovers

nomcdo nathough drink not

He
cine.

will

not

recover,

even

though he do

(or does) take

medi .

Tonin
person in question mushlta de mo
said

sayo thus

The man himself may


likely

have

said so,
it.

but

very can

even
sore that

arimashd will be

hardly believe

kcredomo, although
chito

wa

domo somehow

shinjiraremascnu.

little

cannot believe
keredomo, although
I

TadzuncmasUita
inquired

inquired, but there

was none.

gozaimascnu. is not
Kite
tru
to

Although he has come.

having come
iycdomo.

remains

though

78

THE VERB.

In p eaking Japanese, the student should not use the Conct.^ive Form standing by itself or the Form with to
iycdo.
I

They occur

so seldom that Mr. Satow's

Kwaiwa

Hen, believe, does not contain a single example of them. The Indicative Mood (or Attributive form of Adjectives)
followed by kercdo or kcrcdomo the past participle followed by
is

better, or

he

may
or

use
the

mo

(kashitcmo},

adverbial form of the adjective followed by temo (osoku temo).

DERIVATIVE VERBS.
.

71.

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS.

In English, there are seldom distinct words or forms for the transitive and intransitive applications of the same Thus the words ride, sink, break, bend and verbal root.

many

to circumstances.

others are either transitive or intransitive according In such cases, the Japanese language
root.

has usually two distinct verbs containing the same

No
verbs,

rule can be given for

forming transitive or intransitive

but

some

of the
:

more common modes of doing so

are exemplified below


Intransitive.

Transitive.
to

Tatsu
stand.

(ist.

Conj.),

Tatcru (2nd. Conj.),


set up.

to

Susninit
to advance.

(ist.

(Conj.),

Susumcru (2nd.
encourage.

Conj.), to

Yamu
cease.

(ist.

Conj.),

to

Yameru
cease.

(2nd. Conj.), to

Iru enter

(ist

Conj.),

to

Ireru

(2nd.

Conj.),

to

put
Conj.),
let

in.

to

Sagaru (ist come down.

Sagcru down.

(2nd. Conj.),

to

THE VERB.

79
(ist

Wakn
boil.

(ist.

Conj.), to

Wakasu make boil.


Chirnsu
scatter.

Conj \ to
Conj.), to

Chiru
scatter.

(ist

Conj.),

to

(ist.

Ncrn
sleep.

(and.

Conj.), to

Nckasu
Orosu
lower.

(ist.

Conj.),

to

put to sleep.
(ist.

Oriru (and; Conj.), to


descend.

Conj.),

to

Dern
go
out.

(and.

Conj.),

to

Dasu
out.

(ist.

Conj.), to put

The
force,

Intransitive Verbs illustrated in


class.

the following ex-

amples form a separate


of the

They have usually a potential but must not be confounded with the passive forms
verbs.

same

Kireru (and. Conj.), to


be discontinuous.

Kirn

(ist. Conj.), to cut.

Ureru (and. Conj.), to


be saleable, to
sell.

Urn

(ist.

Conj.), to

sell,

Miyeru (and. Conj.), to be visible, to be able


to see.

Mini (and

Conj.), to see.

Kikoyeru (and. Conj.),


to be audible, to be able

Kiku
hear,

(ist.

Conj.),

to

to hear.

Ikeru (and. Conj.), to be able to go.

Ikn

(ist Conj.), to go.

The French
these verbs
transitive

se couper,

se

curately to kireru, ureru.

The example

vendre correspond pretty acikeru shows that

may

be formed from intransitive as well as from

verbs.

Ikeru
'

is

familiar to us in the negative


'

adjective form ikenai, it is no go ', it won't do '. Note that while the termination eni may belong either to

the transitive or to the intransitive form, verbs ending in su

8o
are transitive only.

THE VERB.
Exception.
as,
'

sometimes

intransitive,
',

Dasu in combination is nmc ga furi-dasJilta, it has


'

come on

to rain

tobi-dashlta,

he rushed out

'.

In the examples given below, verbs containing the same root.

we have

pairs of transitive

Kcirn

(xst.

Conj.),

to

Kasit (ist. Conj.), to lend,

borrow.

Adzukaru

(ist. Conj.),

Adsukeru (2nd. Conj.)


give
in

to

to take charge of.

charge.
(and.
Conj.),

Kiru (and.
wear.
(2nd.
see.

Conj.),

to

Kiscru
clothe.

to

Conj.),

to

Misci'u

(2nd.

Conj.),

to

show.
of Transitive
boiled

Examples
YU
hot water

and Intransitive Verbs.


Is the hot

ga waita ka ?
?

water ready

He,
yes
it is

ima

ndkasfuMOsi de

Yes,

am just

getting

it

to boil.

now

make

boil

gozatmasu.

Hara ga
belly

tail a.

He

got angry.

arose

Umi-taic no tamago. lay set up egg


Tatfiiai.

A
I

new-laid egg.

cannot stand.

do not

set up.

cannot stand
Buchfin
(see Ch. XII.)
I;
T

nckashUc having put

When

you have put young masyou can go


too.

ter to bed,

kara,
to

bed

after

omaye mo iictc too having you

mo
gone
to

yoroshi.
is

bed even

good

Betsudan
hodo

hiina

ga

torcru

particularly time

can take
will not be

thing

There probably won't be anywhich will occupy any

no koto
thing

mo arimasumai.

amount

great time.

THE VERB.
Sekcn yc world to
nchi ni. within
shircnai

8l
it

Before

becomes known

to

not become

known

tne wor id.

Kokoja hanascnai
here
part.)

yo.

We

can't talk here,

cannot talk (emph.

Hitori

mo
even
nai.
is

one
yatsufellow

man

hanaseru can talk

There

is

not a

single

fellow

worth taking to .

wa

not
ni o

Taisi)

very

much
!

(hon.)

kawari change

How
are
j

very

much changed you

nasatta nc

Dashintikc ni
abruptly

enoug h to be unrecognizable if one met you all of a sudden,

done
attara,
if

ml-chigayern

gnrai

met see can mistake amount

da.
it is

72.

CAUSATIVE VERBS.

Causative verbs are formed by adding seru to the Negative Base of verbs of the first conjugation, as tsukuru to make ',
(

tsukuraseru

'

to cause to make.'

In verbs of the second con'

jugation saseru is added to the stem, as tabcru tabesaseru 'to cause to eat.'
causatives of the irregular verbs Imru and kosaseru and saseru.
All causative verbs

to eat,'

The

sum

are

belong to the second conjugation.

Instead of the causative verbs, such phrases as iku yd ni

sum,
used.

'

go-manner-make'

i.e.

'

to

make him

to go,' are

much

The
in

transitive verbs in su (ist. conj.)

and the causatives


the

seru

are

constantly
at

confounded,

same

person

saying

for

example

one time kikashUe and

at another

kikasete.

THE VERB.

Examples
Taihen
dreadfully
ni
o (honorific)

of Causative Verbs.
I have kept awful time.

you

waiting an

matase

mushita.
to wait (respectful) ni manic

made

Muma
horse

beans

wo kuwaseta made eat


kikasete

Did
beans
?

you give

the

horse

his

ka?

Mo

ichido

Please

let

me

hear once more.

more once having made hear


kiidasare.

give

Kono
this

ko ni kega wo sasete child wound cause

It

won't do to cause any hurt to

this child.

sumanai.
not finish

Jiu
ten
shuchi

ni

shichi

hachi
eight

wa

have an idea that

it

is

seven
I

seven
itasaseru

or eight chances out of ten that


shall

kokoro de
heart

make him

consent.

agreement
gozarimasv.
is

cause

Fusoku
insufficient
toraseytl.

nara,
if is

motto

If

it is

not enough,

will give

more

you more.

will

make

take

Hont~>
reality

no

okka mother

sail ni

He was

kind enough to cause

her to meet her real mother.

kudasatta. awascte having made meet he gave

A.

Musume

daughter
torasete

ni to

mttko

wo

husband
raku KO
ease

having made take


shi'>

A. My reason for giving my daughter a husband is not that I B. I intend to enjoy my ease.
will not allow her to take (a hus-

to

in

wake de wa
reason

will nai.
is

make
B.

called

band) on any account.

\Vatakushi
I

wa

do

not

how

shite

mo
even

having done
torasenai.

do not make take

THE VERB.
73. PASSIVE
tial

83
Passive or Poten-

OR POTENTIAL VERBS.

Verbs are formed by adding areru to the present indicative form of the active verbs, the final u of which is
elided.

Thus:
is

Mirarcru, to be seen,

formed from mint, to


,,

see.
kill.

Korosarcru, to be killed,

,,

korosu, to

Tadzuncrarcni, to be sought,

,,

tadzuncru, to seek.

The

passive forms of the irregular verbs suru, kuru are

serareru, korarem.

The Passive

verbs have also a Potential meaning.


is

In the

case of Intransitive verbs, this

their ordinary signification?

although in such sentences as teislii ni shindremashlta she was died by her husband,' i.e. she was separated by
'

'

death from her husband,'


sive of

we have something
less

like the pas-

an intransitive verb.
is

The Passive Voice


in

much

used in Japanese than

English.
All passive verbs are of the and. conjugation.
'

By,' after

a passive verb,

is

rendered in Japanese by ni.

Examples.
yimmin
people
ni

kimwareru. is hated

He

is

hated by his subjects, saved by a boatman,


?

Sends ni tasukeraremashita. boatman was saved


Miraremashlta ka
?

He was

Could you see

Ikarcru dc aro ka ?

Will he be able to go
I

Mairaremasenu.
iwaremashita. scolding he was said

cannot come.
got a scolding,

Kogoto

He
no wo

Tanji no
mite.

korosarcru

On

witnessing Tanji's murder.

being killed

having seen

THE VERB.
Hachijiu yen
eighty
taikin
u-o
to

in

called
torareta.

THE VERB.

85

In the terminations of Transitive, Intransitive, Causative

and Passive Verbs,


'to do,'

it

is

easy to distinguish the verbs

sum
'

am
'

'to be'

and
is

em

'to get.'

The

termination

areru of Passive Verbs

nothing more than aru 'to be

and eru

to get,'
'

the literal

meaning of mirareru,
easy to see

'

to

be

seen,' being

get-be-see.'

It is

why

the

same

form

may
74.

also have a potential signification.

OTHER DERIVATIVE VERBS.

Verbs are formed from nouns by adding various terminations as


:

Yadoru, to lodge,
Tsukaniu, to grasp,
Tsuncigu, to
tie,

from yado, a lodging. from tsuka, a hilt. from tsuna, a rope.


from uta, song, poetry.

Utau, to sing,
75.

Chinese and other uninflected words (which are really nouns) do duty as verbs with the help of the

Many

In most cases of this kind Japanese verb sum 'to do.' sum remains a distinct word, as shimpai sum to be
'

anxious,' hai

sum

'

to abolish,' rioko

sum

'

to travel,' etc.

But with some words

sum

in

this

position suffers a con-

siderable change. The 5 takes the nigori, and becomes j, while the conjugation is assimilated to that of verbs of the second conjugation whose stem ends in i. Thus kin, a

Chinese word which means 'prohibition,' forms with suru a verb kinjirtt which is not conjugated like suru but like
dekiru.
76. Derivative verbs are

formed from adjectives by


intransitive, to

adding
stem.

mu

to

the stem.

These verbs are


verbs

The corresponding

transitive

add

mem

the

86

THE VERB. Examples.


Takamti,
takai, high.
to

become

high,

takamcru, to

make

high,

from

HiromK,
hirui,

to

become wide, hlromcru,

to

spread abroad,

from

wide.
no
io
cliii

Fujin

ico

think of raising the position

woman
takamcyo make high

position
onion.

of %vomen .

think

The schemes of conjugation given on pp. 44 to 49 77. are intended to show the formation of the simple moods
and tenses of the verb, but there are many compound These are pressions in use as their equivalents.
ex-

so

impossible to give them all, but the tables, which comprise a selection of the more following common, may be useful. The Auxiliary Verbs used in

numerous that

it

is

these combinations are treated of in Chapter VIII.

the

must not be supposed that the forms arranged under same heading are used altogether indiscriminately. There are distinctions between them, some of which are
It

pointed out in
practice.

these

pages and others

will be learnt

by

THE VERB.

CONJUGATION
Kasit,
to lend.

I.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

88

THE VERB.

CONDITIONAL MOOD.

THE VERB.

8g

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

go

THE VERB.

79-

CONJUGATION
Taberu,
to eat.

II.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

THE VERB.

CONDITIONAL MOOD.

92

THE VERB.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

CHAPTER
80.

VII.

THE ADJECTIVE.
The
Adjective
is

conjugated as follows:

HIROI WIDE
Stem
Predicate, Adverb or Indefinite

Hiro

Wide

Form

Hiroku orhiro...
hiroku
hiroku hiroku
te
te te

Wide; widely
if

wa
mo

being wide wide

even though wide

hiroku ba
or

hirokumba
hiroku nai
hirok'atta

if it
is

should be wide

not wide

was wide
will be

hirok'aro

wide
(before

Attributive

and
Hiroi
Hirokereba
Hirokeredo

Verbal

Form

Wide

Conditional

noun); is wide If it be wide

Concessive
Abstract

Though
wide

it is

or be

Noun

Hirosa
this conjugation

Width
with the conjugation of verbs will The stem of the verb cor-

comparison of

show

that they are essentially

identical.

responds to the stem of the adjective, and the Indefinite Form to the Adverbial Form. The Negative Base is not in use in the case of the
Adjective, for
tical

Negative Forms or

for

the Future, but the Hypothe-

Form is hiroku ba where the Adverbial Form stands for the Neg. Base. The Present Indicative of the Verb corresponds to the Verbal Form of the Adjective, and the Conditional and Concessive Forms
.

contain a Conditional Base viz. hirokere.

94
81.

THE ADJECTIVE.

THE STEM.
is

Hiro.
in

The Stem

used

forming compounds.
'

Thus from naga


cape,' is derived
' ;

the stem of nagai,

long,'

and
1

saki,

'

Nagasaki (the literal signification of which is long cape ') from yo the stem of yoi, good, and sngiru, to exceed,' we have the compound yosugiru, 'to be too
f

'

'

good

'
;

usuguroi
'

dark-coloured,'
'

is

formed from usu stem

of nsui,

thin,'

and knroi,

black.'

Hadzukashi-so na kawo de. shameful appearance face with


Tegani-so
ni
in

With a shamefaced expression


o f countenance.

keredo.

hand

light

say although
ortt.
is

Though he manner
.

talks in

an offhand

Hfcdzurashi-so ni mite curious looking

He is looking at a curious thing.


(

it

as

if it

were

The stem
the phrase
82.

occasionally stands
ni natta,
it

makkuro

by itself as a noun, as in has become quite black.'

THE PREDICATE, ADVERB OR


or hiro.
to the

INDEFINITE FORM.

Hiroku

By adding ku
used where

the verb 'to be

stem we get the predicate, or form comes between the adjective


'

and the noun.

The same form


hiro
is

is

also used as an adverb.*

The

contracted form

obtained by dropping the

k of hiroku and joining into one syllable the last vowel In this way, of the stem and the u of the termination.

hiroku becomes

first hiroii

and then hiro


' ;

hayaku becomes

dense,' loses first successively hayail and hayo shigeku, its k and becomes shigeii, which is then contracted into

shigyo; furukit becomes furil. Adjectives whose adverbial form ends in iku lose the k but suffer no further change.

Thus yakamashiku,
shiu.
*

'

noisy,'

is

contracted

into yakamci-

As

in

German.

THE ADJECTIVE.

95

a predicate, the contracted form is better, but when used as an adverb, the uncontracted form is more usual,

As

especially in the

Tokio

dialect.

Examples.
i.

As a

Predicate.

O
(hon.)

hayu.
early

Good morning. Good morning (more


Isn't
it

O
(hon.)

hayu gozarimasii.
early

polite).

are
early yet
?

Mada
yet

hayu gozariniascnu ka?


early
is

not

Kono
this

tniima via

goku fakO
very dear

This horse

is

very dear.

horse

gozarimasii.
is

2.

As an Adverb.
or hayo!

Hayaku Hayaku
quickly

Quick
I

ide

nasare

Come
It is

quickly.

Come

early.

come

do
well made.
it

Yoku

dekita.

Shiroku nurlmasMta.
3.

He

painted

white.

As a Noun.
He worked
till

Osoku made hataraita. late until worked

late.

Oku
numerous
shirasete.

no

Into

ni

man

Letting people in general know.

making known
4.

As

Indefinite

Form.
in

Ride.

Whenever

English two or more adjectives are


'

joined by the conjunction and,' all but the last take in Japanese the adverbial or indefinite form. Compare the
rule

given for the use of the Indefinite

Form

of verbs

on

p. 52.

96

THE ADJECTIVE.

Examples.
Kumo
clouds
kitroku,

amc

hidoi.

The
rain
is

clouds are black and the


violent.

black

rain violent

Kami
head

no

kc ga ktirokit, me hair black eyes

A woman
^j ue eveSi

with black hair and

ga

(lu'oi

onna.

blue

woman

UtsnknsJiiku chisai kodomo. little child pretty

pretty

little

child.

Oya mo nakn
parents
sisters

not

kiudai brothers or
to

a person who has neither parents nor brothers or sisters.


is

He

mo
mono
person
da,
is

nal

iu

even not

called

no iva sono that having come out no niubu to niiyctc, soma woodcutter's wife seeming ..._ ,. ,. ,. tcshigoro wa mini shichi hachi
,

Dete klta

The person who came forth was apparently the woodcutter's wife. She was twenty seven or
fair

age
de,
iro

twenty seven eight


shirokit,

twenty eight years of age, with complexion and a straight


. '

liana suji

nose

and was a

st >' le

of

woman

complexion white
tori,

nose line
ni

not often found in mountain huts.

yamaga

wa

was thorough mountain huts mare na onna de gozaimasu.


rare

woman
last

is

The

sentence shows that in this construction the

adverbial forms of adjectives (shiroku) and the stems of In verbs (tori) are given the same syntactical value.

ordinary conversation
preferred.

some other construction

is

generally

83.

Adverb with
'

te.

Hiroku

te.

Te

in this

combination

may

be taken as the equivalent

of atte,

being.'

Examples.
Knraku, dark

miyemascnu being cannot see

te

It is

so dark

cannot

see.

THE ADJECTIVE.
Samiiku
cold
te

97
I

tamarimasenn. not endure


te

It is
it.

so cold

cannot endure

Isogashiku

tsui

go

busy

casually (hon.)

have some how or

have been so busy that I another not


to see yoiu

busata wo itashimashita. did not giving news

come
Its

Shiroku being white

te

yoroshi.
is

being white

is

an advant-

good

age.
It is

Atsuku
84.

te hiroi.

thick and wide.


te

Adverb with

te

wa.

Hiroku

wa, commonly

contracted into hirokucha.

This form

is

a sort of Conditional

Mood.

It is in

very

common

use, especially with the Adverbial

Form

of the

Negative Adjective.

Examples.
Hatsuka
20th
yori

osoku
late

te

wa
;

shall be

inconvenienced

if it

than

ater

h an the twentieth.

komaru. am inconvenienced
Usukiicha
thin
ikcnai.
It

won't do

for

it

to

be too

does not do

thin.
I

NakHcha
if

not
nl

naranu. does not become

must have

it.

Sugic
at

knwanakucha
not buying

Some must be bought

at once,

once

naritnasenu.

does not do

84.

Adverb with
is

te

mo.

Hiroku
It

te

mo.

This
tense.

a Concessive

Form.
mo

belongs to no particular

Donnani

kitanaku
dirty

te

don't care

how

dirty

it

is.

how much
kamawanai.
don't care

Abnnaku

te

mo

Kamau
care

Who
gerous
?

cares even

if

it

is

dan-

dangerous being even mono ka ?


person
?

98
Usuku
thin
te

THE ADJECTIVE.
mo
daijubu
safe

dcsu.
is

It is

quite safe,

though

it

is

thin.

85.

Adverb with

ba.

Hiroktiba or hirokumba.
Hypothetical

Ba
Form

with the Adverb corresponds to the


of the Verb, and like
it is

not

much
'

used.

86. The Negative of Adjectives is formed with the help of the Negative Adjectives nai is not,' and the past and future by adding the past and future of aru to be,' to
'

the Adverbial form.

Examples.
Omoshirok' atta.
It

was amusing.
must be
late,

Mo
already
red

osok

art.

It

late will be

Akaku nai no
not

via iranai.

don't

want

I don't not red.

want

any

that

are

87.

This form

THE ATTRIBUTIVE FORM. Hiroi. may be obtained by adding i to


:;:

the root.
ki,

It is

really, however, a contraction for an older form in being omitted.

the k

This form

is

used when the adjective immediately pre-

cedes the noun.

Examples
Yoi
hito,

of Attributive

Form.

Warni onna.
Atsni kaml.

A good man. A bad woman.


Thick paper.

Awoi kawo.
Sainiti koto
!

pale face.

How

cold

it

is

(lit.

the cold

thing!).

Fnkai toki wa func dc wataru. If it boat cross deep time a boa t


*

is

deep,

shall

cross in

The

older form

is

the proverb tori naki sato no kumori,

not quite obsolete. It is retained for example in the bat of No-bird-town,' and in
'

the termination bcki.

THE ADJECTIVE.

gg

The
tive.

particle

no

is

No

has

in this position
'

often attached to this form of the adjecvery much the force of the
one.'
It is

English indefinite pronoun


traction for
rate suit the

possibly here a conat

mono

thing.'

This derivation would

any

meaning.

Examples.
Yoroshi no

wa

nai ka

Have you no good ones ?


There are only white ones.

Shiroi no bakari aru.

Kuroi no
black

wa ikutsii arimasu ? how many

How many
there
I
?

black

ones

are

Akai no hitotsu mo gozarimared


SC1IU.

have not a single red one.

Kore wa
no dc

hiakiishij

no

wand
bad

This

is

not the farmer's fault,

farmer

wa

nai.

Yorl-dotte

mo

ii

May

have pick and choice

choose having taken even good no desu ka ?


is

No
lated
'

ni following this

form of the adjective


:

may

be trans-

while,' as in the examples

Sono
that
soto

mama
state

de

ii no good

ni,

naze

why

as they werC)

ye dashita
put-out

While they were well enough why did you put them out of doors ?

outside

Samui no
cold

ni naze atatakai ki-

why
ki

warm

Why

don't

you wear warm


?

clothes in this cold weather

mono

nai ka ? clothes wear not

This form of the adjective


as in the following examples
Sui
sour
ta

may
:

stand by

itself

as a noun,

mo amai mo
sweet
hito desu.

shiri-nni-

He
fectly

is

man who knows


is

per-

know passed
is

what

what<

through

man

IOO
Naga!
long
mijikai short

THE ADJECTIVE.
mo
iwazti
ni

Take

receipt of the

money

withit .

not-saying

out making any fuss about

kanc

co

itki-torc.

money

receive
I

kavcri nusatta hii ga yoroslri return did side good


dcshfi.

think you had better go away.

will be

88.

THE VERBAL FORM.

Hiroi.

The same form is used for the adjective combined with the substantive verb as for the attributive form. The older
and book language has a special form produced by adding shi to the stem.*
for this, viz. hiroshi,

Examples
Amarl mntsukashi.
too
is difficult

of the Verbal
It
is

Form.
difficult,

too

Kaica ga
river

asai kara daijubu da. It shallow safe river

is is

quite safe shallow.


is

because

the

Tcnki

wa yoroshi.
inaitc,

The weather
komc no
rice tea

good.

Mugi wo
wheat
dckita koto

If

we sow wheat, we

never

having sown

mo naku ; mamc
beans

become
matte,
nai.
is

have a crop of rice) and if we sow beans we never have a crop


of hemp.

asa no hay eta koto mo hemp grown thing also

not

Warui
Osoi

to

wa

iwanai.

don't say that

it

is

bad.

to ikcnai.

It

wont do

to be late.

89.

THE CONDITIONAL FORM.


is

Hirokereba.

Kercba
*
is

often pronounced kereya or keria.


in

In some phrases the old form


'

is

still

use, as shobit n?shl 'there


'

no victory-defeat,' 'neither side has won;' kidzukai nashi, there is no cause for alarm yoshi, yoshi, lit. 'is good, is good,' all right never
'

mind

' !

THE ADJECTIVE.

IOI

Examples.
Miunichi
tenki

ga yoroshlif

will

come to-morrow,
is

if

the

tomorrow weather
kcrcba, mairimasu.

weather

good.

good

come
de ii-nikukereba wata,

HUon
alone
kiishi zva

If
;

you
it
,.

find a difficulty in tell-

if

say

difficult

ng
j

all

by yourse if

w ui

go

go issho ni ikiinashtl. along with will go

t j1

OIU

Michi no nukari ga mud road


hanahadashikereba. since extreme
Mionichl
rukereba,
tsngo
asatte
after

As the mud of the road was


something awful.

ga

viaif
I

If

tomorrow

is

not convenient,
after ;

tomorrow convenience
bad
mashu.

win come the day

kl-

day

tomorrow

will

come

(or hiro] gozarirnasureba, hiroi to, hiroi


wtf.

Other Conditional expressions are hiroi toki wa, hiroku nara and hiroku te

These have nearly the same meaning as hirokereba


go.

and are more common.


Hiroi kercdo or hiroku
hirokeredo.

THE CONCESSIVE FORM. Hirokeredo. te mo are generally preferred


Example.

to

Warukeredo, (better wand kcredo or waruku, te mo) shikata

Though

bad,

it

can't be helped.

ga

nal.

91.

THE ABSTRACT NOUN.


12.

Hirosa,

See

DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES.
92.

A number
English
'

of Derivative Adjectives are formed from


'

nouns by adding
to

rashi, a termination
ish

the

or

'

ly.'

which corresponds Examples. Kodomorasht,

'childish,' bakarashl, 'foolish.'

IO2
93.

THE ADJECTIVE.
DESIDERATIVE ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives
able.'

may

stem the termination

be formed from verbs by adding to the ta i which means desirous or desir' '

'

The forms thus


'

obtained are used where

we

should

employ such verbs as

wish

'

or

'

want.'

Moraitai

mono.

Examples. A thing
present
I

should

like to get

receive like thing


Ikitai.

of.

want want

to go. to buy.

Kaital or kaitu gozaimasu.

O
to

hanashi rro (or ga) shttai


talk

have been wanting to talk


ou>

wish to do

to

.,

omottc itnasii. thinking remain

The
fore
j

it,

Desiderative Adjective may take either ga or as shown in the last example.

wo

be-

94.

NEGATIVE ADJECTIVES.

important class of adjectives is that which is formed from verbs by adding to the negative base the negative
adjective nni,
.

An

not.

'

They

are formed from

all

verbs, with a very few excepto

tions, constantly used forms of the verb proper.

and are

replace

the

negative

The

contracted, and the Abstract

Predicate and Adverb of these adjectives Noun is not in use.

is

seldom

Examples.
Wakaranai.
it is

don't understand,

unintelligible
I

rkcnu-anai.

don't guarantee
I

it.

Shiranai hi to.

A man
te

don't know.

Yakanaku. not roasting

mo yorosht.
is

You need

not roast

it.

even

good

THE ADJECTIVE.
Kaze ga nai kara, ho wo wind not because sail
kakctcmo kakenaku
set
te

I0 3
the

It

is

all

hoist sail or not, as there

same whether you is no

mo

onaji

not set

same

wind.

koto da.

thing

is

Shiranakcwba, sensaku shimainquiry


shr>.

If

he does not know,


inquiries.

will

make
It

Sonna
kcrcba

koto ivo iwanaif not that sort of t'hing


it no ni. good while

would have been better


sort.

if

he

had said nothing of the

say

Mono wo mo iwanai
thing

de

He
word.

ran off without saying

without saying

mgcdashita. ran off


I kanakii
not-go
tc

wa

if

narimasenb. does not be-

must go.

come
In the idiom exemplified in the last sentence, the .word

narimasenu

is

often omitted,

and

te

wa

contracted into

dm.

Examples.
Kawanakucha.
Te wo arawanakiicha.
I
I

must buy.
must wash

my

hands.

Konakucha naranu.

He must come.
'
'

.95.
'
'

Bcki.
' '

This termination, which means


'

ought,
all

should,

may,

must

'

or

'

'

will,

is

indispensable in

forms of the written language, but, by a curious caprice, it has been almost entirely banished from the colloquial.

The uncontracted forms

beki (attributive), beku (adverb) and

beshi (adj. with substantive verb) are considered bookish and affected, while the contracted form bei is also con-

demned

as characterizing the rustic dialect of the east of

Japan. Byd, the contracted adverbial form, is seldom or never used except on the stage. In a few combinations,

104

THE ADJECTIVE.

however, beki, beku remain in use, as ko subeki hadzu da, thus ought to do necessity is,' i.e. this is how it ought if to be done, narubcku, as far as possible,' narubeku wa,
lit
' '
'

'

'

possible.'

With verbs

of the First Conjugation beki

accom-

panies the Present Indicative, with verbs of the Second Conjugation, the stem, but in the latter case there is some

confusion and the practice of the written language

is

some-

times followed.

On

the whole, the student

may

be recommended not to

trouble himself about beki.


96.

OTHER DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES.

are

Katai 'hard,' yasui 'easy,' nikui 'difficult,' 'hateful,' also added to the stems of verbs to form derivative

adjectives.

Examples.
Ari-gatai.
It
is

difficult to be.
'

(a

phrase

used to mean Thanks.')


li-nikui.
Difficult to say.

Mi-nikui.

Hateful to look at

ugly.

Kowarc -yasui.

Easy

to break, fragile.

are isogashi,

Other examples of derivative adjectives formed from verbs osobusy, from isogit, to be in a hurry
'
'

'

'

'

roshi, dreadful,

from osoreru,

'

'

to fear.

97.

Uninflected words used as Adjectives.

tives,

There are a number of nouns which do duty as adjecand are often considered as such. Like other nouns,

they are properly speaking uninflected, but with the aid of certain particles, a conjugation may be made out for

them corresponding
proper, as follows
:

to

the conjugation

of the

adjective

THE ADJECTIVE.
Akiraka, Bright.

105

Stem

...............
.........

Akiraka

...

bright.
bright.
brightly.

Predicate

Akiraka de
Akiraka ni

Adverb
Verbal

............
........
......

Attributive

Form

Conditional

...... ......
...

Concessive"

Abstract noun

Akiraka no, bright (before a noun). is bright. Akiraka da Akiraka nareba if bright. Akiraka naredo though bright. Akiraka na koto brightness.

Examples.
Rlppa na mono ja nai ka ?
Is
It
it

not grand

Makoio
truly

ni o rippa de gozai-

is

really splendid.

Hi
sun

tva akiraka ni tcru.

The sun

shines brightly.

brightly

shines

Kinodoku sorr y

na

no

wa Mori
is

The one who


Mr. Mori.

is

to be pitied

San da.

Bimbo
poor

ni

natte iru

become
shinakiicha
if-not-do

kara because
nari-

Now
l

that

have become poor,

must pract ; se economy.

kenyakn

economy
mc.senu.

does

not become

Are wa
he
yatsu
fellow

ganko

na

He

is

one of the old school

obstinate prejudiced desu.

an old fossiL

To

this class of
'

words belong rippa


'
'

'

'

'

grand,'
'

splendid
'

rich bimbo, poor ;' kanemochi, kirei, clean,' and a multitude of words of Chinese derivation.
;

pretty,'

Some adjectives proper use the termination na added to the root as well as the regular attributive form. Thus we may say either chisai or chisana, small ;' okl or okina,
'

IO6
'
'

THE ADJECTIVE.
'
;

okashi or okashina, ridiculous.' English adjectives must often be translated in Japanese by other parts of speech. Single' for example is hltoye no, a noun with the
big
'

possessive particle no 'Japanese' is Nippon no, lit. 'of Japan;' fat' is fiitotta, the past tense of a verb futoni to get is hakkiri shita, an adverb followed by the fat ;' explicit
;

'

'

'

'

past tense of
98.
tive

sum

'

to do.'

DEGREES OF COMPARISON.

has no degrees of comparison.


is
'

The Japanese adjecThe idea of compari-

son
is

finer

'the weather expressed in the following manner: than yesterday is in Japanese, sakujitsu yori today

ga yoroshi. This the weather is good.' yesterday today


konnichi
tenki

wa

is

literally,

'than

Examples.
Watakushi yori
I

anata

You

are younger than

I.

than

you

waku gozaimasu. young are


In sentences like this, the former part
is

often omitted

if

the

meaning

is

clear without

it,

as anata iva o

jnasii,

'you are the younger,' or


lit.
'

wako gozarianata no ho ga o wako

gozarimasu,
Sore lea
that
rimasii.

your side
is

is

young.'
That
is
still

nawo yoroshiu gozastill

better,

good

Mijikai
short

hodo

amount

wa, yoroshi. is good

The
She
sister.
It is

shorter the better,

Ane
elder sister

hodo okiku
big

wa
is

nai.

is

not so

tall

as her elder

not

Omol
thought

no

hoka
outside of

katai.
is

harder than

thought,

hard

Instead of a Superlative Degree qualifying adverbs are used or the meaning is indicated by the context.

THE ADJECTIVE.

IO7

Examples.
Kore
this

wa

ichiban takai.

This
This

is

the highest,

No.
kore
this

is

high
is

Naka ni among
Mitsu no
three

wa

takai.
is

the highest,

high
sore

uchi

ni

wa

That
three.

is

the

prettiest

of

the

among
kirci

that

ichiban

do gozaimasu.
is

No.

pretty'

CHAPTER
Am,

VIII.

AUXILIARY WORDS.
'to be,' ist. conjugation. With the present 99. indicative followed by the particle de and the verb am, 'to
be,' are

formed a number of compound tenses which are

in very

common

use.

The

present indicative

is in

this con-

struction a
is

noun and de the sign of the

predicate.

DC

am

usually contracted into da, de aro into d'aro, etc.

Examples.
Itsii

when go
this

iku d'aru ? will be


taranu.

When

is

he likely to go

Kore baknri de
alone
d'aro. will be

This alone won't be enough,

not suffice

Konu d'atta. not come was


Yoroshiu arimascnu d'atta. was is not good

He
It

did not come,

was not good,

The

last

sentences show that the negative in this con-

struction goes with the principal verb.

similar construction

is in

use with adjectives.

Examples.
Katai
da.
It is

hard.

Atarashl dc ariniascnu.

It is

not new.

The

particle

no often comes between the verb or adjective


etc.

and da, d'aro, d'atta

AUXILIARY WORDS.

log

Konai no

d'aro.

Examples. He is
When
He
time.

probably not coming.


is

Itsu iku no d'aro ?

he going

Mo
<Taro. will be

chaku shitnashlta no
did

has probably arrived by this

already arrival

When

the'

dicate, is followed

verb aru preceded by de, the sign of the preby the polite termination masu, a still
is
is

further contraction takes place, which in familiar conversation. De arimasu

constantly used contracted into

demasu, and then into desu, de arimasho into demasho and then into desho, de arimashita into deshita etc.

The
polite
it

shorter and

becomes.

Desii

more contracted the phrase, the less is very much more familiar and

less respectful

than de gozarimasii.

Examples.
So
desu.
desu. It is so.

Do

ka

How

is it ?

(in the Tokio dialect commonly the polite substitutes for aru, may pronounced gozaimasii), Gozaru is not often heard in be used in the same way.

Gozani and gozarimasu

ordinary conversation.

Another

series of

compound

tenses

is

formed by the past

participle followed by aru.

Example.
Kite gozaimasu.

They have come.

The

verbs aru, arimasu, gozarimasu,


:

may

also be joined

to the stem, as

Dochira ye o ide de where go gozarimasu ka ?


is

Where

are

you going

IIO
?

AUXILIARY WORDS.
100. Grit, ini, 'to remain,'
'

to dwell.'

With

the various tenses of the verbs oru (ist. conj.) and

iru (and. conj.) and the past participles of verbs are formed a series of tenses which in some verbs correspond to the

compound

and the pretenses formed by the verb 'to be sent participle of English verbs in others to the tenses
; '

'

formed by the verb

to

have

'

and the past

participle.

In other words this combination has sometimes a Perfect,

sometimes a Continuative Force.

For instance,
kite

liataraite oru
'

means
It

'

he
'

'

is

working

but

oru means not

he

is

coming,' but

he has come.'
'

Iru
'

has the same meaning as oru.


tion with the verb, thus
lit.
'

usually forms a contracI

shitteru, for shitte iru,

know

having

learnt, I remain.'

The

last section is slightly different in


sii.

gozarimasu of the meaning from kite oriinakite


'

The former might be expanded into as the latter means come, there now are some
;'

they have

'

they have

come, and
iru
is

still

more

Naturally the form with oru or in use in the case of living beings.
remain.'

Examples.
Issaku

ncn no

natsu kara
orimasu.

before last year kelko shite

summer from

I have been studying since the surnmer of the year before last.

study having

made remain

Bakana
foolish

koto

wo

ittcrn.

You

are talking nonsense,

thing
tabi ni

say remain

Kono
oru.

ana ga
hole

aitc

These socks have got holes


them.

in

these socks

opened

remains
Dete orimasu.
Tsuite orimasu.

He
It
'

has gone out.

has arrived.

101.

Naru,

to be.'
is

The verb

naru, 'to be,'

extremely frequent

in

books.

AUXILIARY WORDS.

Ill

Conditional

In the spoken language it is most usually found in the Form as an auxiliary joined with the Indicative

tenses of verbs.

Thus

it is

common,

instead of ikcba,

'

if

he goes,' to say, iku nareba, or iku nara ;* for ittareba if he went or had gone,' we may say itta nareba or itta nara. Nara may be used with adjectives in the same way,
'
'

'

as utsukushi nara

'

if pretty,'

and

is

particularly frequent

with those uninflected words described in

97 which are used instead of adjectives. It has been already pointed out that the termination na of these words is a contraction for

naru.

Naredo, the Concessive Form,

is

also in use.

In the written and older language the present indicative of this verb was not naru but nari, and in some phrases
this

form

is

retained.

Example.
Tatoye kuchi yakiisoku nari suppose mouth promise to mo.

Granted that
promise.

it

is

only a verbal

Naru,
become.'

'

to be,' should be distinguished

from naru,

'

to
its

The

latter

may
to.

be generally recognised by

being preceded by ni or

Examples.
Kirei ni naru.

Hito 102.

to

naru.
'

To become To become

beautiful.

a man.

verb

to do.' The conjugation of the irregular given in 44, and its use with the stems of verbs to form an emphatic negative has been explained in 46. But perhaps the most common use of sum is to supply

Sum,
is

sum

the place of verbal inflections in the case of Chinese and other words, which are themselves uninflected.
* Nara is merely a contraction for nareba. It is the nara which we have in the well-known phrase say~) nara, the literal meaning of which is if it be so,'' good bye.'
'

112

AUXILIARY WORDS.

Examples.
yisnn sum.

To To
I

bring.

Undo sum.
Sudan shimashu.
Shimpai suruna.
Yujin shinai to ikcnai.

take exercise.
it).

will consult (about

Don't be anxious.

You must

be careful.

For the honorific verb nasaru, the

polite verb masTi

and

the respectful verbs itasu and mosu, see chapter XII.


103. In, 'to say,' a regular verb of the first
tion.
It is

used with other verbs in a

way which

conjugawill be

understood from the following examples.

Am
Ant

to in

to.

If one say that there are, supposing that there are.

i.e.

to

iycdcmo.

Though one say


i.e.

that there are,


are,
al-

granted that there


are.

though there

Iku

to iu

to.

Ifwesay that \vego


to in

i.e. if

\ve go.

Tada

naku

koto

Who ever heard of anybody crying for nothing


?

simply cry called thing ant mono ka ?


is
?

Iu used

in this

way

is

often altogether redundant.


'

104. Kent, an old perfect of kuru,

to come,' is

much

used

in the

Concessive

Form kendo with

the Indicative

Tenses of verbs.
'

the tense of the principal verb example means he went, but


'

In these combinations the meaning of is not lost. Itta keredo for

though
is

go,' or ittcnio,

one says ikedo, 'even having gone,' no particular


,

'

while

if

tense

indicated.
is

Keredo

also used with the Verbal


it is

Form

of Adjectives,

as nigai keredo, 'though


It

bitter.'

may

be useful to notice here


better

some nouns which

for

want of a

name may

be called Auxiliary Nouns.

AUXILIARY WORDS.
105.

113
is

Hadzu.

'necessity,' 'obligation,'

much used
'

to

express the idea contained in our auxiliary verbs 'must.'

ought,'

Examples.
Kono
this

shina
article

ga makoto ni
truly

These

articles are really cheap.

yasui.
is

cheap

Hanahada wand
very
hadzii
da.

kara, yasui

They ought
V ery bad.

to be, for

they are

bad

cheap

necessity
Sakiijitsit

iku hadzu de

He
j ay>

ought to have gone yester-

yesterday
arimashita.

go

was

Danna wa
master

konnichi o ide

Master ought to come


expected) to-day.

(i.e.

is

today
is

nasaru hadzu desu.


Shird
wil1

hadzu wa

nai.

There
find out.

is

no

reason

why he

know

should know.

He

can't possibly

Sonna koto wo shiranakatta yo.


such
did not

I tell

you

knew nothing

of the

know

kind.

Shiranai hadzu da. not know necessity is

How
wo
I

could you
to

know ?

kane Sakujitsu sono yesterday that money uketoru hadzu deshlta.


receive necessity

was

have been paid that


.

money

yesterdav

was

hadzu Raigetsu next month go ought necessity


ikubeki
dcsu.
is

He

is

to

go next month,

Iku hadzu

will

do as well

as, or better than, ikubeki

hadzu

in the last sentence.

106. Koto, 'action,' 'thing,'

is

much used

with adjectives

and the forms of verbs which are capable of being made

114
adjectives in a

AUXILIARY WORDS.

way which

will be

best understood from a

few examples
Iku
koto.
koto.

The

going.

Ikanu

The

not going.

Itta koto.

The having
Will
it

gone.
?

Iku koto wa dekimasho will be possible going thing

be possible to go

ka?
Ikanu
koto wa arumai. will not be not going thing

He

will surely go.

Tukio ye

itta

koto arimasii
is

Has he

ever gone to Tokio

gone thing

ka?
?

Nippon
Japanese
koto
K-rt

no sake
nai.
is

wo nonda
drunk

have never drunk Japanese

sake,

thing

not
koto
oriru
li'a

Noboni

noborare-

So

far
I

as

ascending thing

can
koto

cer ned,

masu:
mudxukashi,
is difficult

wa

getting up can get up;


that

is
it

conis

the

ascend coming down

coming down

is difficult.

Tokiu ye kita
kimasJuta,

koto n~a

He

has come to Tokio, so

far

come thing

as that goes-

Watak&shi wa mo nagai koto


I

don't think

have long

to live.

long

wa

arumai.
will not be

Rippana

hi to ni

naru

to in

know

that he will turn out a

become splendid koto li'O shochi sh\te im.

splendid fellow.

know
In the last sentence, koto takes the place of the conjunction that.' The to in is superfluous, as it often is in
'

Japanese.

AUXILIARY WORDS.
Ichido o

me

nl kakatta koto

have once met you.

eye ga arimasu.

once

hung
nai.
I I

Mita koto ga

have never seen.


can't see.
!

Mint

koto

ga

dekinai.
!

iicmui koto

Ah
I

how

sleepy

am

sleepy

Wakizashi no koto wo
short swqrd

thought of enquiring about the

about

short swords.

kiko
will

to otnotta.

hear

thought
to

Taikomochi
jester

wa

dare no

Whom

do you mean by
'

'

pro-

who

fessional jester

koto da ?
is

Omaye no

koto sa.

mean

you.
!

Wakaranu, to not understand


koto.

wa

anata no

Talk of not understanding

it is

your

you who don't understand.

thing

Watakushi no kita koto

wa

come
danna ye
master
shirasetc
o kure.

Let your master know that have come.

make kno\vn
shomotstt

give
I

Kono
this

no koto via
kikimashlta.

heard about this book from

book
heard
'

Miss

Kiyo.

Kiyo san kara from 107.

Mono means
clue.

thing,' but

it

frequently occurs after

verbs in
affords

idiomatic expressions to

which

this

meaning

little

Examples.
A. Are she

wa

sen nl before

A.
fore.

never saw that


B. Very likely
;

woman

be-

considering

miyenakatta not seen


B.

onna da.

that she has

come

this year.

woman

is

So
thus

d'aro;
will be

are she

wa

kotoshi
this

kara kitau'da mono. year from come is thing

n6
A.
ire

AUXILIARY WORDS.

A no
that
n'o

tokoro ye tabakotobacco place


atsiirayete

oita

holder

having ordered put


ki na.

A. I ordered a tobacco-pouch from that place go and fetch it. B. Well, considering that it \vas
:

arc ico tottf that having taken

promised

for

the

12th

of next
is

come
Jin ni

month

(The

sentence

left

B.

Are
that

wa

raigctsu

unfinished as so often happens in

next month

Japanese.)

nichi no yakiisoku

da mono wo

day
care

promise

Kamau mono ka?


thing
?

What
It is

do

care

Komatta mono da.


Ikitai like to

very annoying.

man' dcsu

kercdo

should like to go, but

go

is
'

although
place.'

108. Tokoro,

of rendering in Japanese the relative ordinary clauses of European languages has been already described in 28, but in order to bring out the relative force more distinctly, the word tokoro is sometimes introduced, in
imitation of a Chinese idiom.
f

The

mode

Thus

instead of iku hito,

the

man who

goes,'

it is

possible to say iku tokoro no hito,

which means the same thing.

The

relative force
:

may

be recognized in the following

examples
you
place

Omaye no
tokoro dc via.

kinD

hanashtta
said

By what you

said yesterday,

yesterday

by
ni

Kampukn
admiration
tokoro da.

tayenai

It is

do not endure

not contain

a thing for which my adrn rat on


i

can-

Kugoro san wa do
tokoro

sitru

What
do?

did

you see Mr. Kogoro

how doing
wo
place
see

mi-nasatta ? did

Tokoro

after the indicative tenses of verbs


1

has the force


\

of our 'just, as in the following examples

AUXILIARY WORDS.
Anata no uwasa wo
report tokoro d'atta.
shite iru

We
I
it

were just talking about you.

Nan da
11

ka kore kara yomu


read

am

just going to read

what

is.

tokoro da.

Tonari
neighbour
kite

no

hanashl
talk

wo

We

are just listening to


i

what

they are say n g next door.

iru tokoro da.

listening

Other examples of
Tokoro ga, sono ban
that night
ni

tokoro.

Well then, on that night

Yondc

mita tokoro ga reading seen place

Upon

reading

it

Sayo mushimashlta tokoro ga


A. Sazo o yakamashiu gozawill surely noisy riinaslritard. B. Yakamashi have been noisy
dokoro ka?
place
?

On my saying so A. I am sure you must have


been disturbed by our noise. Far from it!
B.

A. Watakushi no tokoro ma-

A.

Would

it it

be
as

possible
far

for

my
de
far as

place
kite

as

you to bring
place

as
;

my

motte

having taken having come kudasaru koto ga dcklwill be posthing give

we ? B. Thank you would do much more than send


it.
('

No

trouble

at

all

'

we

mashu ka
sible
?

B. Hei

arigato

should say.)

thank you
;

gozar'unasu

sashl

agcmasu send up

dokoro de via gozarimasenu. it is not place

CHAPTER

IX.

PARTICLES.
Particles

109.

have very varied

uses

in

Japanese.

serve instead of case and plural terminations, and are also used as prepositions* and conjunctions.

They

of the particles described in this chapter are really some of the terminations of verbs and adjectives already noticed.

Many

identical with

They are mostly found after nouns, but are also used with those parts of the verb and adjective which are nouns in syntax, and a few are joined to verbs in the indicative mood
or to adjectives in the verbal form.

For convenience of reference they have been arranged


alphabetically.

no. Dano.
used
in

Dano

is

a contraction for de

am

no.

It is

enumerations, where it is desired to make each mentioned as distinct as possible. It is usually transthing lated and ', but this does not give the full force of this It resembles not a little the alternative form of particle.
'

the verb, and like

it is

found

in pairs.

Examples.
Kid
to-day

dano

asu

dano

to-morrow

now

mairtt to fc.f kimasent.

come
*
t

come not

Saying that they were coming, todayi now tomorrow, they have not come>

As they come For to Me.

after the noun, postpositions

would be the more correct term,

PARTICLES.
lya dano o dano no y es shinai nodesu. s not do
coolie
to

IIQ
at

itte,

Saying

one time

'

no

'

at

saying

another time 'yes', he nevertheless does not do it.

Ninsoku dano, daiku


carpenter

dano

He
them

sent for coolies, and for car-

penters,

and

for

tilers,

and

set

yaneya dano
tiler

yonde,

to work-

having called

shigoto

wo

sasemashita.

work

caused to do

in. De.
ous verbs for
'

De

is

a contraction for nite.


',

With

the vari-

to be

it

forms a series of contractions, as


etc.

da

for de

aru, dcsu for de aritiiasii, deshtta for de ariina-

sJnta, datta for de atta,

daro for de aro

De wa

is

con-

tracted into /a.

De means
'
'

'

'

with,

'

'

'

by,

by means

'

'

of,
:

on account

'

of,

at,'

in,'

as in the following examples


de
ita

Zukin
floorcloth

wo nugu.
wipe

To wipe
c ] th.

the

boards

with a

board

Oka
land

de iku.

To go by
de

land,

go
kane

Kawase
bill

wo

To
bill

send money by means of a

of exchange

money

of exchange .

okuru. send.

Wakaranai
understanding

de komaru.

am

bothered by his not under-

standing.
It is
;

Hey a wa hanahada fuketsti de room by very dirty


komarimasu.

an annoyance that the room

so dirty.

am annoyed
Gan
wildgoose
kore iu
ichi

wa

one
de

de kare that
not

It

is

not a

that

it

is

worth

ma ki ng
goose.

fuss

about

one wild

wake
reason

wa gozaimais

say
sen u .

Yashiki de sodachimashlta.

was brought up

in a yashiki.

I2O
Gakko
de

PARTICLES.
sonna
koto

wa

They know nothing


at the college.

of the kind

such college at^ shlranu. ikko wholly do not kno\v

Kore de
this

mlna dcsH ka
all
is
?

Is this all

with
iu

Du
what

called

shidai dc ? order

Under what circumstances

as the sign of the Predicate. joined together by the verb 'to be' masu), the latter affixes de.

De

When
(am,

two nouns are

arimasti, gozari-

Examples.
Watakiishi
gozaritnasu..

kajiya

de

am

the blacksmith.

blacksmith

Kono mushl iva tombo


insect

dcsu.
fly

This insect

is

a dragon

fly.

dragon

Uso da.
I ja nal ka ?

It is

lie.

Is

it

not good
?

? i.e.,

are you not

satisfied

Tdkio

hen

no

yatsu

wa

The Tokio

fellows are effemi-

fellow quarter de (atte) ikenii. jtujaku not go effeminate

nate and therefore useless.

Neruson via Igirisb no hlto Nelson Englishman


de
(atte),

Nelson was an Englishman and


a naval hero>

kaigun

navy
dcsu.
is

no guketsu hero

Kore

wa

Jiluban

no
ni

He had

a great reputation, and

He
mono de

report great cho (atte), Aioi


street

lived in Aioi St.

orimashlta.
lived

De
the

as the

mark

of the predicate

is

much used

in

compound

tenses of verbs and adjectives.

forming See 99.

PARTICLES.

121

Demo combines
1
'

the

even,
Sayo
thus

'

'

also.

It

may
it

meaning of de with that of generally be translated even'.


'

mo

(pred.)

demo even

gozaiwill

That

is

probably even so, but

masho ga,
be
but

Demo gozaimasho ga, Demo


Sore

(Same as
Yes,

last.)

butso
it

demo
it

ikenai.

Even
demo

won't do.

that with even

can't go

Okata

taki

ye

probably waterfall to mawatta no de gozarimasho. will be gone round

He has probably gone round to the waterfall. (Demo here shows


that the remark
is

a mere guess.)

Ato
after

demo
even

yoroshl.
is

It will

do afterwards.
child understands that.

good

Sore
that

wa kodomo demo wakaru.


child

Even a

even

is

in-

telligible

Fntotta no demo, yaseta fat lean

no

Either fat ones or lean ones will


do.

demo yoroshi. is good


Seiyo

no

hlto

demo

He

is

west ocean Shin aj in demo nai. Chinese

man

neither a European nor a

Chinaman.

In the last sentence

we have

dicate and mo, repeated with


'

two nouns

a combination of de as prein the sense of

both.'

For demo with Interrogative Pronouns see


112.

26.

Dzutsu, 'each,' 'every,' 'apiece'.

Examples.
Kono
this
kttsitri

wa

ichi nichi

This medicine
times every day.

is

taken three

medicine
dzntsu each

sando
three times
desu.
is

one day nomu no


drink

122
Hitori
dzutsii

PARTICLES.
hairima-

They came

in

one

at a time.

one person
shita.

at a time entered

Toshi ni nldo gurai dzutsu twice amount each year TOkio ye dete kuru wake ni wa out come reason

Would
come
to

it

not be possible

to
?

Tokio Uvice every year

ikumai
will not

ka

go

Mlna
all

ni futatsu dzutsu haitte

There are two

in

each of them.

two

each

or u.

113.

Ga.

Ga was

originally

possessive

particle,

and

it still

retains this force in certain phrases.

Examples.
Koma-ga-take.
Colt's

peak

(the

name

of a

mountain).

yiu
ten

ncn ga aida.
year

For

the

space
is

of ten years,
equally good

space

(jiu nen no aida

and much more common.)


Ore ga me
no

may e
before

dcsaye.

Before

my

very eyes,

my
Waga Waga
It
is

eyes
kuni.
kiijdai.

even

Kore ga tame

ni.

On

this account.

One's country. One's own brothers and

sisters.

better not to use

in

phrases for

ga as a possessive which there is good precedent.

particle except

By

colloquial

the process described in 65 ga has in the modern come to be chiefly used as the sign of the nomi-

native case.

This case
It
is

panied by ga.

is, however, not necessarily accomomitted when wa or mo follows the

noun and

in

many

other cases,

and

a noun
all
'

may

be in

the nominative case without any particle at Ga is almost always used before the verbs
'

am
'

being added. to be,' dckirn

to

become,'

'

to be made,'

and oru and iru

to remain.'

Examples of ga as sign of the nominative

case.

PARTICLES.
Kane ga money

123
any money
?

am
is

ka
?

Is there

Have you

any money

Hana ga
nose

takaku natta.

He

gave himself
is

airs.

high

became
kara.

Isogu koto ga hurry


Sei stature

am
is

Because there

hurry.

because

ga

takai hlto.
tall

A man
There
There
is

of

tall stature.

man
is

Shiknta ga. nai.


do-side
is

nothing
for

to be done.
it.

not

no help

Uso
falsehood

ga arawareta.
has been revealed
iru
hi)

Your falsehood has been found


out.

Damatte

ga

You had

better hold your tongue.

being silent remain


is

side

good.

Saku
last

ya

hltogoroshi

ga

There was a murder

last night.

night

murder

atta.

was Yube

ante gafutta.
fell

It

rained last night.


that charcoal-dealer a wife

last night rain

Ano
o kamisan

sumiya

san
?

wa

Has

that charcoal-dealer

ga

arimasii ka
is

wife

Aka ga
red
Oi-oi

nijittan

aru.

There are twenty pieces of the


red.

twenty pieces
o hanashi

ga nakaba
middle
kore kara
this after

Now

that

we

are at length get-

gradually
ni narimasu

story

ting to the middle of the story,

kara,

what remains becomes


ing.

interest-

becomes because

ga omoshiroku narimasu.
amusing
becomes

cha ga dekimaslnta.
is

The
I

tea

is

ready.

(hon.) tea

made
had not time.
here
I've

Hima ga
leisure

nakatta. was not

Yo ga
business
o ide.

aru
is

kara,

because

kochi hither

Come
you to

something

for

do.

I2 4

PARTICLES.
is often followed by ga where we should expect an accusative case, as in the following examples.

The noun
to find

Kono
this
sftiu.

imi

ga wakarimais

don't understand the

meaning

meaning

unintelligi-

of this.

ble

Hana ga
flower

sitkl desii

ka
?

Are you fond of flowers

like

is

Kane ga money
toki

uketoritai desirable to receive

When
money.

you want

to receive the

wa.

time

Hansho no
fire-bell

oto

ga sum.
does

There

is

the firebell.

sound

In the above sentences imi, liana, kane, and oto are regarded by the Japanese as the subjects of the verb or
adjective

which follows.

.Ga, after those parts of adjectives and verbs which are used as nouns for purposes of syntax, has the same force
as

when

it

follows ordinary nouns.

Examples.
Ikit

gayoroshi.
is

You had

better go.

the going
Itta

good
yok'atta.

ga

He would
have gone.

have done better to

having gone
Ycnrlo
ufhi-akcte

was good
sczu
ni

ceremony not doing


frankly
yoroslii.
is

You had better make no ceremony, but speak out frankly.


ga

hanashita the having spoken

good
Ori-ai

ga tsuklmasenu.
not
tsurete
hit.

They

don't hit

it

off together.

bend-meet

Sugu
at

ni

You

should have brought him

once

accompanying
ii.

here at once.

kita

ga

the having

come was good.

PARTICLES.

125
not meet him.

al

ga naku
without

te

yoroshiu

You need

meet
gozaimasii.

good

Ga

after a verb in the indicative

mood

or

an adjective
'

in
'

the verbal form

may
in

generally

Sometimes a pause

speaking

is

be translated by but. a sufficient equivalent.

Examples.
to Tori-naoso take will mend

omou ga
think

wish to put

it

right, but I can't.

tori-naoscnai.

take cannot

mend

Shinsetsu kindness
zthi
positively

wa

arigatai ga,

You

are very kind, but

must

thanks
if

positively be going (to an inferior).

ikaneba naranai. not go does not

become
Motnen
aratte

de cotton (pred.)

wa arimasS, ga,
is

It is true that they are cotton, but they have just been washed

shitate-naoshrta

bakari

washed made up renewed only


desu.

and made up again.

are

nanl ka miseru Senkoku former hour something show

You
I

said awhile
to
?

ago that you

mono ga

am

had something
look at
it

show me

may

to

osshaimashita

here

is said thing shitemo ga, koko de haiken here see having done no de gozarimasu ka? yoi

good
Ante ga
rain
ii

is

it

kagen good condition

n't

If the rain

able

time,

it

would stop in reasonwould be a good


don't expect
it

yamcba,
if

yor.oshi
is

ga

stop

good

thing, but

(I

will).

After tokoro,
Kiite

ga has a somewhat similar


mita tokoro ga.

force.
inquiries
(a

Upon
pause)

making

having heard seen place

Tokoro ga or daga

(for

sentence means 'this being

de aru go) at the beginning of a so,' upon this,' 'well then.'


'

126
114.

PARTICLES.

Gena
'

is

found after verbs


told that,'
'

in the

sense

'

it

would

appear

that,'

am

understand

that.'

Cln'man
dr P s y

to

yarn de gozari?

Examples. I am
that
is

told that

it

is

dropsy,

if

is

the right name.

masS gena.
Sakujitsu kayerimashita
I

understand that he came back

fena

'

yesterday.
is

So desu

commoner

in

a Kioto expression, and has the


jitsu kayerimashita so desu,
'

Tokio than gena, which is more same meaning. Ex. SakuI

understand that he returned

yesterday.'

asks a question or intimates a doubt, it very accurately represented by the mark of interrogation.
115.

Ka

is

Examples.
Oki fune
large ship

ka
?

Is

it

a large ship

Watakushi ka
Kita ka
?

Is

it I ?

Has he come

Ka

between two nouns represents our conjunction

'

or.'

Osaka ka Nagasaki no uchi one or


ni orimasu.

Examples. He lives
pi ace s,

in one of the two Osaka or Nagasaki (I

don
ni

other

lives

know which ).
killed

Ya
arrow

ka

fama
bullet

atatte

He was
a bullet.

by an arrow or

striking

shinimastuta. died

Otoko ka

onna

ka
?

Is

it

a male or a female

man
Itta

woman
ka
?

has gone

ikanai ka does not go ?

Has he gone,

or not

PARTICLES.
Sono
that

127
cover of that book thick

hon no hiyoshi book cover

wa

Is the

or tb ; n

atsui ka iisui ka ? thin thick

ka

Where the clause may be omitted.


Dare desu
?

begins with another interrogative word,

Example.

Who

is

it ?

indirect narration, a question or doubt indirect

The Japanese language having no special forms for when repeated in an


clause does

not change

its

form as

it

does in

English.
Anata wa midnichi tomorrow you
o ide nasaru ka

iyo-iyo
still

Examples. He came

to

enquire whether

do you come
kiki

(sign of quotation)

.to

you had not change d your mind about oi tomorrow.

ni

kimashita.

hear

to

came
ka
ushl ka shiranu.
bull
to
I

Muma
horse

don't

know whether
it

it

is

horse or a bull.
I

Donata ka

omoimashtta.
I

wondered who

was.

who
Iko
will
to

thought
I

omou.
think

am

thinking of going,

go

Iko
will

ka
go
-

to

omou.
think
in

think

may

perhaps go.

Man
10,000

ichi so
i

koto

It

occurred to

me whether there
i

so called

demo

ari

wa

umai
will not

might not possib y be som ething


ka
to

o f that kind,

even be
omotta.

do

thought
naro Shijiu hak-ku ni forty eight nine will become

A beggar who one would think might be per ha P s forty eight or


fort

*a

to

omou

kojiki.

nine

rs of

think beggar

Aru ka
are
?

mo
even

shirfmasenti. can't know

There may be some,


j

for

aught

know.

128

PARTICLES.
26.
;'

For ka with Interrogative Pronouns see


116.
'
'

Kara, (with nouns) 'from,' 'since


after.'

(with verbs)

because,'

i.

Examples, With nouns.


From
today.
ri

Konnichi kara.

Korc kara hachi


Saki kara.

ri.

Eight

from here.

From
ikimasu ka ?

a while ago.

Doko

kara

By which way do you go ?


I

where from

go

Nakasendu kara ikimasu.

am

going by the Nakasendo.

Kanada kara
iko
will

seiyo

ye

think of going to Europe via

from west ocean


to zotijimasii.

Canada.

go

think
shu
will

Sore kara no koto nl


that after

Let us take

it

after that.

thing

make

ja nai ka
is

not

Kore kara.

Henceforth.
irete

Omote no ho kara
front
side from

Don't
in

let

him

in

by the

front.

having let

kureruna. don't give

Kakushi kara
pocket
dashltc.

kane from money

wo

Taking money from

his pocket.

taking out

Ima kara sugti ni now from immediately

kaycrn. return

am now

going straight back

again.

2.
(a).

With Verbs.
With
Indicatives.

Oyaji ga
father

naku narimashita
not

My
i

father

is

dead, so
or

would
days

became

ask you for two

three

ni kara san nichi o itoma because two three day leave

eave

wo

negaimasii. request

PARTICLES.
Daijobu
safe
desu,
is

I2Q
at

kara,

go

You may make your mind


ease
.

because

it is

quite safe-

anshin

easy-mind

Kono
this

uchl

no maye
before

wa
kara,

Remember
^is h ouse>

that

don't allow

house

jinrikshas to be set

down

before

kuruma
jinrikisha
su omotte

wo

okasenai
iro.

not-let-put because

so thinking remain

Ima now
driver

ni

kaycru
su itte

kara, o
kitre.

Tell the driver


in a

am

going away

go back because
having said
give

moment

g'wsha ni

In the last two sentences kara

is

used where

we might

have expected
Atstti kara.

to,

the sign of quotation.


Because
it is

hot.

(b).

With Past
kntte

Participle.
It will

Mama

demo

do

after

you have had

boiled rice even having eaten

kara yoVaro. after will be good

your rice (to persons , ferior in rank

much

in .

Mina
all

atsumatte

kara
after

having assembled ni nasaremascnii ka ? not do


Hiru-meshi noon meal

Won't you wait till they are assemb i e d before doing it ?

all

wo

tabete

won't go

till

after I

have had

having eaten

my

middav mea i.

kara de nakucha ikimasenu. if not don't go after

117.

/^oso

is

a very emphatic particle.

It

formerly

had the

effect of

making the verb

or adjective at the end of

the sentence be put in the Conditional Base, and rare cases of the application of this rule are still met with.

Examples
Omaye
you
koso usotsuki da. liar are

of Koso.
It is

you who

are the

liar,

130
YD
well koso oide nasatta.

PARTICLES.

You

are most welcome,

come
It is I

Watakushi koso go busata I not-giving news


Shinzurcba
since believe
mvshima.su,.
koso,

who have

neglected call-

ing on you>
It is just

go chiukokii
advice

because

I
.

believe

it,

that

j offer

you advice

say (respectful)
Yoroshi
is
;

good

sore de that with

koso kimi

Right

That

is

like yourself.

you

da.
is

118.
'to,'

Made, from ma 'space' and de


to,' 'till,' 'until,'

'with,'
of.'

means

'up

'as far

as,'

'inclusive

Examples.
Miunichi made.
Till

to-morrow.
to Tokio.
?

Yokohama kara Tokiv made.


donogurai Hathwji made what quantity

From Yokohama

How

far is

it

to

Hachoji

am ?
In

made
as far as

mo
even

nai.
is

It is

not worth mentioning,

saying

not
ni
It will

Mivgonichi

made
by

be finished by the day

day
is

after

tomorrow

after

tomorrow.

deki-agarimaaL
finished
to

Kojiki

made
as far as

ni natta.

He
I

fell

so low as to

become a

beggar

became

beggar.

Namaye name
told

made
as far as

even told you

my

name,

o hanashi tnoshtta.

Konnichi no Into ni
today

made.

Even down
day>

to the

men

of this

man
osoku
late

down
made
until

to

Sakuban
last night

He had
last night.

not returned up

till

late

kayerananda.
returned not

PARTICLES. Doko
made
far as

131

mo

chikara

where as

even strength

Exerting one's strength to the very u t mO st.

wo

tsukushitc.

having exhausted

Omaye
you

made
inclusive of

watashi

me

Even you

join in vexing

me.

wo

ijimeru.

vex

119.

Mo means
'

'also,'
'

'too,'

'even,' and,

when

re-

peated with two nouns,


K'a

both.'

It is

the opposite of wa,


'

meaning

this,

and nothing more,'

this, if

nothing

some thing else is associated These two particles with the noun to which it belongs. are therefore not found together. The case particles come before mo, but when it is used, ga (as sign of the nominative)
more,' while
implies that

mo

and wo are generally omitted.

For demo see


It is

in.
particle

the

same

which

is

used with the concessive

form of verbs and with participles.

Examples,
i.

With nouns.
Buy
this vase too.

Kono
this

tsubo

mo

o kai nasare.

vase

buy

do

Inn mo neko mo. cat dog


Ingirisu

Both dogs and

cats,

mo Nippon mo.
to

Both England and Japan. Both of them.

Futatsu

mo.

so think even

So omou mo muri wa nai. is not wrong

You

are not

wrong

to think so.

Shiri

mo

shinai

hlto

no

know
place

do not

man
dashite.

Sending

off a letter to
.

man

tokoro ye tegami
letter

wo

she knows nothing of


off

sending

Omou and
as nouns.

shiri in the last

two sentences must be taken

132
Shinku shinai belief do not
Into

PARTICLES.

mo am.
also are

There are some who


believe.

do

not

men
2.

With Verbs.

('

even

').

KHTU ka mo come ? even

shiranu. don't know

He may come,

for

aught

know.

he

This phrase implies a slight leaning to the opinion that kuru ka shiranu is simply an expression of will come
;

ignorance.
Kill

a-n

mata Hayaji
again

don't

know

whether

that

today

fellow Hayaji

me
(contemptuous) termination
shircnu. can't know

ga koyo mo willcomeeven

may not come

again

today.

nani Tafoye supposing what

to

iwd
will say

to

No

matter what he
is

may

say,

mo,
e"ven

tori-awanai no take-meet-not
i is

ga

the best plan of him.

to take

no notice

ichiban da.
no.

Mina
all

tabenaku.

te

mo
even

You need

not eat them

all.

not eating

yoroshi.
is

good

Aru
are
nl to

kercdo

mo

although even
yaranai. not give

omaye you

have some, but

won't give

wa

you any.

120.

Nagara,

'whilst.'
i.

With nouns.
In

Kage
shade

nagara.

my

inmost heart.

Go mendo
trouble

nagara.

am

sorry to trouble you, but

Shikkei
impolite
Ftitatsu

nagara.
nagara.

It is

very rude of me, but


of

Both
them.

them.

The two

of

two

PARTICLES.
2.

133
form).
all

With Verbs (stem


'

Utnre
being beaten

nagara,

kanjd counting

Going on with his counting the time he was being beaten.

wo

shzte.

doing

Cha wo nomi nagara


tea
shabctte

They were
tea<

chattering over their

drink

whilst

orimashtta.

chattering

remained
ski nagara.

Kiusoku
rest

While

resting,

do
o (hon.)
to shiri

koloba

damashi
deceive

words
asobasn

your

Even knowing all the time that wor d s were deceiving

condescend

know

nagara mo. even

(highly respectful),

Osore nagara.
fear

With With
ni

all

due respect, due respect,

Habakari nagara.
fear

all

121.

Ni.

With nouns

usually

means

'to,'

'in,

'at,' 'into,' 'on.'

Kioto ni iku.
to

Examples. He goes
He
He

to Kioto,

go
lives in Kioto.
is

Kioto ni orimasu.

Uchi
within

ni orimasQ.

at

home,
into

Denshinkyoku

ni haitta. telegraph office into entered

He went
o ffi ce-

the

telegraph

Yengawa
oke.

ni

dashlte

Put

it

out on the verandah.

verandah on having put out


put
ni Kiuji waiting at table mashtta.

mainhave

have come to wait

at table,

come
Hlto
person

wo baka
fool

ni into

sum.

To make

a fool of a person,

make

134

PARTICLES.

Other meanings of
Dare
ill

ni. did you hear


it ?

kiita ?

From whom
Separated

whom

from did hear from


her

ni Wakai toki, haha young time mother from

mother

when young.

wakarete.

separated

Toshi ni
year
that
chikokti
for

wa
ni
for

uki.
is

He

is

big for his age.

big
It is

Anohtto

nicdznrashi
rare

very unusual

for

him

to be

man
is

so late.

dcsu.

late-hour

Sore

ni

soi

nai.
is

There

is

no mistake about

that.

that about mistake

not

Sore

inata ni, that in addition to again

And
to see

besides,

when

went again

mircba itte having gone when I saw.


'

Bekon bacon
Take

ni
in addition to

tamago.
eggs.

Bacon and eggs.

ni siiztimc.

Bamboos and sparrows


subject of a painting).

(as

bamboo
Taisftsit

sparrow

na

kiishi

kanzashi
hairpin
haitte

It

contained

clothing

besides

valuable
ni
irui

comb

valuable

combs and

hairpins.

mo

clothing MMjftffe.

having entered

was

Yomc
bride

ni

ikitai.

She wants

to get married.

as

wishes to go

Ni

is

often

required

in

Japanese where there

is

no

preposition in English.

Examples.
Isha ni Sudan sum. doctor consultation do Isha ni
mite morau, having seen receive

To
To
one.

consult a doctor.

get

a doctor

to

examine

PARTICLES.
Yotsu
four

135
at the cross-

de tsuji crossroads at
ni aimashlta.

met the carriage

roads.

basha
carriage

met
ni ichi

Minn
all

mat dzntsu one (flat object) apiece

Give them

all

one apiece,

yare. give

Shindai

kagiri ni natta. became property-limit

He became He

bankrupt,

Fuji san ni nobotta. ascended Fuji Mt

ascended

Mj

Fuji.

Tonari ni arimasu.

It is

next door.

Ni with nouns

often forms Adverbs.

Examples.
Makoto
truth
ni.

Truly.

in
ni.

Tashika

Certainly,

certainty in

Dai ichi number one


Uye
ni.

ni.

Firstly,

in

Above.
Seldom.
'

Mare

ni.

Before passive verbs, ni means verbs indicates the person who


action.

by,'
is

and before causative

caused to perform the

Examples.
wa karasu ni Hiyoko crow by young chicken
torareta.

The chicken was


a crow<

carried off by

was taken

Nani ka
something
iwareta. was said

Moriyama

ni

mo

He was
Moriyama

talked to a
too.

little

by

by too

136
re

Give the Sort* their food.

bai

Example.
I

am knocked op by

this

maj

ibflow those parts of the verb and

wincfa ate rapanie of becoming noiiim.

to
ieticara

it

When

it

would do quite well


r,

if

wiry

.-i

*~~

iT-

~'4.7.~.~.

r.\.r-;-r-^.

:_

if

Mb

r-c"
|

'-_

.."-_'

-"*

"

'_..

".'-"

getwet
Bgooiitni

to

at

**

When
don't
'

I tell yon yon Ksten ?)

to listen

(why

Ar.c*

.-.'.~ '.'---..

"i

_>'-.._.

-^

.--^

-.._

^
i

*
,

*-

-:

_'

4,

-^

*
-,

.^.

;...-

aajm
ckZckc*.

JEir

K, naze
:v^
'

When k
jontriaja]

*o dark,

wby

don't

ra wfay lantern

PARTICLES.

137
I

Yd
business

mo

nai ni saki ye not while first yoi

As
do>

have nothing
to

for

mrtba
if

go

to is
'

bed

is

you may go waiting for me.

^d ^fr^

you to

good

Xi
of nai
is

frequently found after nashi, the old verbal form This not,' as yenrio nashi ni 'without ceremony.'
it

an ungrammatical construction but

has the sanction

of use.
(c)

After Stems.

clothes

Kimono wo arai id yatta. wash sent

He
Did

sent

the

clothes

to

be

washed.

Naoshi ni yatta ka ?

you send
?

them

to

be

mend
J/i ni itta.

sent

mended

He went

to see.
is

It is not every verb with which this construction or possible.

usual

kiki

ni

inmost.
put in
(d) After

I will tell

you (very

respectful),

hearing

Negative Participles.

(Gosen no) Ato no katadsuke

He went
away the

to

bed without putting

meal

after putting

away

-.v.v stfu ni not doing having gone to bed sAimaitnashtia.

wo

(dinner) things.

finished.

Kanjo wo kanmant
not paying skimaimaskita.
bill

ni

He
jjj_

never paid the

bill

after

finished.

122. A'o

of

'

is

the ordinary sign of

the possessive

case.

Examples.
Hlto no
ashi.

man's

leg.

Hako no

kagi.

The key
Your

of the box.

Omayt no kiwte*.

clothes.

38

PARTICLES.

Ima no
no%v

(Ufa

of
dt-sii

koto) said thing


yo.
part).

wa

What
joke,

said just

now was

I tell

you.

judan
joke
Sci

is

(emph.

no takai hcitai. growth of high soldier

A
kuni.

tall soldier.

Yama
mountain

no

vi

mountainous country.

numerous country
ni.

Hi
sun's

no

aru ttchi being within

While there

is still

daylight.

Rondon kara no dempu. London from telegram.


Kin no
kahci.

telegram from London.

Gold

coins.

no shita ni Miya Shinto temple of below ant. yadoya ga nikcn


inn

There are two inns below the


Shinto temple.

two

there are.

Yane no
roof
itte

nye kara of above from

tondc
flying

It

flew

away over

the roof.

shimatta.

going finished

Me
eye

no

mays

de.

Before

my

eyes.

of before at

No joins
thing.

two words which

relate to the

same person

or

Dokushin no watakushi. single body

I,

who am

a single man.

Sagami no

knni.

The

province of Sagami.

Mekura

no kojiki. eye-dark of beggar.

blind beggar.

Bfttv no Tsunckichi.

The
no

horse boy Tsunekichi.


to

Sugu
at

ni

koi

to

message that he was

come

once

come

at once.

kotodznkc.

message

No

is

sometimes used

like

enumerations.

Here

it

may

be rendered

dano (which is=</a-f no) and or 'or.'


'
'

in

PARTICLES.

139
if I

Muko
son-in-law
to

no

yoshi

no

Even
above

asked

for

a thing so far

adopted son

my

station as to

become

ni sonna ml siigita such person exceeding

koto

mo tea negatte having requested even thing kanaimast-nu. cannot be granted


Moto
.
.

your son-in-law or your adopted son, my request could not be


granted.

yori

izon
difference of

no

Of course
kind.

there

is

no difference
of that

ongm
nan no anything
nai.
is

from
to

of opinion or anything

in

wake
reason

wa

called

not

No
Mitsu no hako.

with numerals.
Three boxes. Three
thieves.

Sannln no dorobo.

No
mono
Ito

after adjectives
'
'

may

very often be taken as equal to


'

thing
no

and translated by one.' futoi no wo motte Bring me


thick

stout

piece

of

thread
koi.

taking

come
no bakari aru ; are only togatta no ga arimasenu ka ? ? are not sharp
this

Kore ! nibui

Look here
ones.

there are only blunt


?

blunt

Are there no sharp ones

Ichiban yasui no no ncdan.


no.
i

The

price of the cheapest ones.

cheap

price ni

Omaye wa warm no
you
chigai
nai.

You were

certainly to blame.

bad

mistake

In the following examples no ni

may

be rendered
lot

'

whilst.'

Ka
musquitoes ni naze
whilst

ga

ui

no

numerous

why

wo kaya musquito net

of musquitoes about) why did you not put up the musquito net ?

With such a

okanai ? having hung not put


tsutte

140
Ki'i

PARTICLES.

wa

Doy'ibl

tic

nai no

How
day
?

is

it

you have come

to-

today
ni

Saturday
dushitc
o

not
ide

It is

not Saturday.

whilst

how having done

come

nasatta ? did

No
Kfisatsusho
police
tsnrctc

with verbs.
Because
to
it is

yc
to

too

much
to

trouble
police

station

go with

you

the

iku

no

wa mcndo
trouble

station.

accompany going da kara.


is

because

Ku
mite,

kaitc

arimasu. no
is

wo

Seeing what was thus written.

thus written

seeing

Omaye ga kowashlta no ka?


you
Kowashlta no
broke
dc gozartmascnu. is not

Is

it

of your breaking
it ?

Was
it.

it

broke

you who broke


It

wa

watakushi
I

was not

who

broke

Kowasu
break
Hisashi

no

mifa yo.

I tell

you

saw you break

it.

saw
koto ycnzctsu ga thing speech kid wa no ni, whilst to day

long nakatta

for

There have been no speeches a long time but one or two

was not
ichi

clever speakers'

names appear

(on

the

ni

nin

no

jozu
clever

no

list for)

today.

one two men

namaye ga miyerti. names are visible


Watakushi
I

wa ima

mil a

When

looked just now, there


there.

no

ni

nani

now looked inai. mo


is

was nothing

when

something

not

Doko ye o idc nasatta where to did go Ima made koko no desh<~> ?


will be

He was

Where can he have gone to ? here till a moment ago.

now

until

here

ni o idc nasatta no ni.

PARTICLES.
123.

141

Ra

is

a plural particle.
of place ra adds vagueness to their
'

With adverbs
like the

meaning
for

English

abouts
here,'

'

in the
'

same

position.

Koko,

example, means

'

kokora

hereabouts."
is

When it is wished to show respect ra nouns or pronouns, but daclii or gata.


Examples.
Suzdshl
noisy

not used with

yatsu
fellow

ra
(plural)

da !
is

What
I

a noisy lot of fellows

Sore
that

ra
(plural)

no

koto

wo

heard

about

(koto)

those

segare

thing kara kikimashita.

things from

my

son.

son

from

heard

Go
dochira

riokwan
travel-residence

wa
:

Whereabouts
lllgO

are

your lodg-

n~

> .

desu
is

whereabouts
124. So,
is

found after nouns at the end of a sentence,


'

where

it

has the same meaning as da

is,'

but

is

more

emphatic.

Examples.
Ayashimu
think strange
ni
is

taranu not enough

There
thinking

is
it

not enough reason for


strange.

wake
reason

sa.
is

Go
tsuinori

sodan
consultation
sa.
is

musu
do

intend to consult you.

intention

Yo
business

ga aru
is

to sa.

He
you

says there

is

something

for

to do>

Sugu
at

ni

tonde
flying

iku no

I tell

you

it is

said that

it

goes

once

go

flying off at once>

dcsu to sa.
is

142
Are
sa.

PARTICLES.
(A phrase used as the equivalent of our 'I say' in calling one's attention or

by way of remonstrance.)

Say'i sa.

Yes.

thus
i

is

125.

Saye

after

nouns or the stems of verbs means

'

only.'

Examples.
Danna
master
saye
yoroshikcreba,
If
I

my

master

is

only

satisfied,

only

watakushi
I

wa

good dudemo

if is

don't'mind.

anyhow
is

yoroshiu gozarimasu.
.

good
Yudachi shower
dckakcte

no

maye
before

nl
-

If they

have only started before


.

the shower

saye
if

ircba.

having gone out


Jlbiin
self

remain
okashi

ga

huritsu

wo

For
reason
.

my own
wh J
l

part, so

long as
is

law

break

don't break the law, there

no

saye

only nani
koto

if

senya not do

(for seneba)

should be the least

mo

junsa
police

no

kowai
afraid
sa.

afraid of the police.

anything

wa

thing

nal not

hadzu
necessity

De sometimes comes between


adds nothing to the meaning.
Sempu
other party

the

noun and

saye.

It

de saye go

shuchi

If the other party only agrees,

consent
if

de gozarimasu nara.
is

Chikusho de saye mo
beast
shiru.

on
favour

wo

The very beasts have a sense o f gra titude.

know
126.

Shi
'

is

used with verbs


It

in the indicative
'

mood

as

a conjunction.

may

be rendered

and,' 'and

also,'

'not

only

but,'

and

so.'

PARTICLES.

143

Examples.
Michi
osokn
late

mo yohodo much way


natteru

am
is

shi,

As you have a long way to go, and besides it has got late, you
had
and
better stay here for
start

kara,
tomatte,

has become because

one

ni ht

ban koko one night here


hito

tomorrow.

having stayed

ashita

tomorrow
Toi
distant

if

tattara yok'aru. started will be good

mlchl

demo
even
hashi

art

wa

way
ski,

be

but

Not only is it no great way off, if you cross the bridge) there
before your nose,

shimai will not do

wo
no

it is

bridge
tstti

watareba
if

hana

cross

casually nose

saki.

before

Soto
outside

wo arukeba
if

ashi

ga

If I

go

out,

my

legs get tired,


j feel

walk

leg

and

if j

stay at

kutabireru shi, tichi ni at home get tired oreba taikutsu surit shi,
if

SQ that rea n y

home

bored>

remain

ennui

do

jitsu ni truly

domo somehow
I

Sewashi hi mo aru shi; bus y dav hi mo aru. hima na leisure day


127.
It is

have busy days and days of

leisure.

a moderately respectful plural particle. comparatively little used.


is

Shin

Examples.
Tomodachi
shiu.

Friends.
Children.

Kodomo

shiu.

Danna
128.
particle.

shiu.

Masters.

Tachi

or

dachi

is

also

respectful

plural

144

PARTICLES.

Ima now

no ftijin lady

dachi
(plur.)

ga

Examples. When we
no
present time.

consider the pursuit

of learning by the ladies of the

gakutnon wo
learning

sluts

iru

doing remain
to.

wo mini
see

if

Mo
ka?

kimi tachi zva tncshi


rice

Have you gentlemen got


r i ce

to the
?

already you

(the last part of a meal)

129. To.

To between two nouns means


after the second.

'and.'

It is

sometimes repeated

WataktsJri
I

to

otnayc

wa

Examples. When
province.

you and

came from our

and

you

kuni
province

kara kita toki. from came time


to

Temayc no oknbio cowardice you


mttgakn ignorance
ngete.
to

Putting in the background your cowardice and ignorance.

wo

tana

ni

shelf to

raising

Uchi no inn

to

home
IMM to

dog
aunt's

no dokka somewhere
daijina

Our dog and another one have


killed

my

aunt's

much-prized

ga oba san no

dog
hato

pigeon.

much-prized

wo

koroshtta.
killed

pigeon

Note
no

that in the last


is

sentence the whole phrase uchi no inn

to

dokka
it

the subject of the sentence and therefore takes the sign of the nominative case.
tint to

ga

after

as

Hone
bone

to

kawa
skin

to ni

natta.

He
to

has become skin and bone,

has become

Other uses of
kenkwa wo Shina -jin to China man with quarrel
shtta.

with nouns.

He had
man.

a quarrel with a China-

did

PARTICLES.
Kino
to

145
are the

kattn

fan/mono

They
goods
j

same

as the piece

yesterday bought piece goods


onnji

bought yesterday.

mono
thing

dcsn.
is

as

same

Sakujitsu katta yesterday bought


to

kanakin
shirtings

They
shirtings

are
i

different

from the

bought yes terday.

chigannasn.
differs.

from

Kono
this

into'

to

issho

Go

along with this man.

man

with same place

ni ike.

go

Arc

K'o tfizoku to

shite

If

we

look on him as a robber,

him
mini
see
toki

robber

having made

wa.

time
to

Riunin

mo.

Both of them,

two men and even


Ittu
first

shokikan
class secretary

to (or

/)

He

has

been

made

First

Secretary.

iiarimashtta.

has become

To with some uninflected words


Shikkari Totsuzcn
to.

is

used to form adverbs.

Firmly.

to.

Suddenly.

Pan

to.

With a bang.
to.

Bara barn

With a
like

rattling noise.

Onomatopoetic words
exceedingly
inelegant.

the

two

last

examples are
are

common

in

Japanese,

but they

rather

To with nouns sometimes corresponds

to

the inverted

commas

used as a sign of quotation.


to

Urashiwo
Vladivostock

ka hi tokoro.
?

place called,
,

if

remember

rigbti

viadivostock.'

146

PARTICLES.

nam:n'c

"Ct!

nan'

to

in? say

\Vhatisyourname?

name
IVataktshi
tn'ishiniasS.
call

what
~i'(i

Deiikichi fo

My name

is

'

Denkichi.'

Hontit to
truth

mo

(lite

yoroshl).
is

To

be sure

it is

true,

even saying

good

With verbs, to (like our conjunction 'that') is the sign of quotation" or of indirect statement generally, and is used after such verbs as 'to say,' 'to think,' to promise,' 'to It must not be omitted as that often is advise,' etc. etc.
'

'

'

in

English.
Scri-nri go.

It

must sometimes be rendered by


mo
shiinai ni
finish

'

to.'

He
over

said that the auction

was

auction

already
iinmslitta.
said.
to in

natta

to

became
.Ike

no da.
is

tell

you

to

go away,

go (imp.)
Nail da
1

say
to

ye?

What
to

is it

you say

it is ?

what

is it

Koko de
here

awo
will

wa

did not expect to meet you

meet

here

omowananda.
did not think
Utfi to shita. will strike did

He made
an

to strike him.

When
think,'

to is used, there is often

ellipsis of
see,'

some

of one of the verbs in 'to

say,'

mint 'to

part omott 'to

sum

'

to do,' kiku

'

to hear.'
I

Anata ni sSdan you with consultation


(shfi)

came

to consult with you.

to

(oniottc) kiin a shit a.

will

do

thinking

came
'

am inclined to think that to is identical with the root so of sore that.' and that a demonstrative, this particle has become a conjunction, just like its English equivalent. In the phrases to kaku, to mo kakti 1110, its original demonstrative force is
*
I

from

retained.

PARTICLES.
Kubn
yc
ka Ufa.
?

147 was going


to

engineering'

n'nigaku matriculation

think he said he

matriculate in Engineering.

(.)
do

fo

said
to
(''/<)

y
good

goznrimasu
is

To

be sure

will,

that

said

mo
even

(yoroshl').
is

good
,to

ArimasS.

vio.

To

be sure there are.

The
'

ordinary force of to

mo

after

verbs

is

'

though,'

even though.'
Nani what
to

nl
for

spend

tsukai-harawarcru be paid
kattc

You can spend the money on whatever you please.

mo omayc no
your

da.
is

even

convenience

In the language of the lower classes, to


tracted with the verbs iu and
Ikcttara, (for
ike
to

is

often con-

am
you
?

following.
don't you go

Why

when

I tell

go (imp.)
i

tiara)
I

when
not
in

said

ikanai not go

ka ?
?

Shiranai

ttc (for to ittc)

When

I tell

you

don't know,

know
nl,

saying

in

Na
name
to

wo
sonna

iyc

tatte (for

You

ask
;

me
s

say (imp.)
litto

but there

to tell you his name, no such person<

attc)

wa

being such arhnascnn. is not

person

Hongu ye
tcnde

hiki-koshi nasatta remove did


(for to in

By
you

the help of a statement that

had removed

to

Kongo,

no dc),

found you out with

difficulty,

by-its-being-said-that

yu-yo no koto de shiremashtta. hardly thing by found out.

148
Mfknrn
blind
ta (for to

PARTICLES.
wa, which
dare no who of

Whom

do you

call blind

again
koto

is

for to hi

<i'n)

lid ?
is

thing

Tcgntiii
letter

ga

nai
is

tcbd

Have
letter
?

not

told

you there

is

no

not

(for to ifba).
if
I

say

To
'

after

verbs must sometimes be translated

'

'

if

or

when.'
Giidzit

gudzu sum
do
kitrcru

to,
if

tofhitt

If

you

loiter,

it

will

be dark

loitering
</(

way

before you get there.

///

ga

yo.

on sun

goes
iii

down
narn
to.

Yoku-jitsn

When
arrived.

the

following

day

next day
'

become when
no
koto
ico

So HO
that

toki

When

think of that time.

time
to.

thing

onion think

Kuril

to

come when

sugit at once

ni.

As soon

as he

comes

(or

came).

i It has is a distinctive or separative particle. 130. the force of isolating or singling out one object from among a number, of opposing one thing to another, or of limiting a statement strictly to the word which x>a follows. Thus

Wa

korc

wa may mean
that
one,'
'

not

one out of a number,' this one this one at this one and nothing else,'
'

this

'

'

least.'

Wa
is

is

must not be taken


also found

often found with the subject of a sentence, but it It for the sign of the nominative case.

combined with the locative


after

particles ni

and

dc,
it

and even

wo

the sign of the accusative case,

when

takes the iiigori and becomes ba.

PARTICLES.

49

a is perhaps the nearest equivalent to but in European languages the same idea is usually wa, expressed, not by a separate word, but by means of a greater

The French quant

emphasis on the noun. Wa has frequently very little meaning, and its presence or absence is often immaterial.

Wa

may

be used after those parts of the verb or adjective


in syntax.

which are nouns

Sliiroi koto u-a shiroi.

So far as whiteness
white.
wa.

goes,

it is

Arc
that
yorosli i.
is

wa warui ;
is

korc
this

That

is

bad, this

is

good.

bad

good Korc
this

dc with

wa

ikcnai.

This won't do.

cannot go
kiiui

Watakftshi no

ni

wa

There are

no earthquakes

in

my
jishin
go.

country
tiai.

my

country.

earthquake

is

not

Konda
this time
(for

wa

sonna wake ja such reason

This time, there will be nothing


of that kind.

dc wa)

nai.
is

not
santhree

Do

sh > tctno

No
think
nights.

matter
it

how having done even wa kakaru d\ird. ya


nights

what you
least

do,

will take at

three

belong will be
uchi
inside
ni arimashita

Hako no
box
no
all

brought

all

that were in the

was
malri-

box.

wa mlna

(The

mottc

having taken came

were, or

wa may

implies that there

have been, others

mashita.
TokaidTi no

not in the box.)

ninsoku
coolie

wa

The Tokaido
ktinwsukc.

coolies are called

kumosukc

to iu.

call

Kono sakana wa
this
fish

takai ka ?

Is this fish

dear

dear

150

PARTICLES.

Hi to man
ilc
r

no mono
thing

7,-vi

waga mono

What
p CO ple's.

is

my
liito

but what

is

other people's is mine, mine is not other

mono nu.
is

via

no mono

not
to

Taha
colonel
ini

nattc

Ever since he became a colonel.

having become kara tea.

(The

ir

hints a contrast with the

remain since

time before he became a colonel.)

mX
ba

\Vntakiishi no bunko ni iikai red desk


:

There
desk
.

is

a red visiting card in


.

ichlmai ant na-fuda is name card one


tottc

sore

KO

that

The ba ( bring ; t to me my shows that the card ; s to be singled


out

KOI. koi,

among

the other things in the

having taken come

desk.)

Saiwai
fortunate

na koto

ni u-a.

Fortunately.

thing in
:ca

Kawagishi no dcnakatta
not
saniifii

\\'hat a pity Kawagishi

was not

come out

present

d'atta.

disappointment

was
iva.

Xanibcku become could


Kaigitn ni

If possible.

irai

shinaku.

We

must

rely

upon the Navy.

navy
tc
li'a

reliance

not doing

in

case

naranu. does not become


si>z<>

M'atakiishi no

ataru ka
hit
?

don't

know whether my

idea

my
ataranai ka not hit

idea

is

correct, or not.

wa

(or U'o) shiranu.

]\'a without any apparent meaning at the end of a sentence has been already adverted to in $65. The Kioto

terminations wni na, wii na suggest that the verb iinrtt to be must be supplied in. this case, as inada o kaico ni
'
'

sukoslii >no dcinascnu

wa

(nani),

lit.
'

'

not yet
it

coming out

in

the least on your face is (a on your face in the least.'

fact),'

does not yet show

PARTICLES.

An
O

interrogative
atsurayc order

is

often understood after wa.


(iiani dc

iva

What

do you order, Sir

(hon.)
is

what

gozarimasu) ?

A to
next

iva?

(What
sail !

is)

the next (course)

Dcnkichi

aimaija wci ? guide


o

Mr.

Denkichi
?

what
is

about

the guide

Shikkfi nagara,
impolite whilst

Excuse me, but what

your

(hon.)

name

namayc wa

name
In the common language of Tokio wa often suffers change or contraction. Thus for arl wa slrinai ka, we have ari ya shinai ka, for sore wa, sore ya or sorya, for nauzo wa,

nanzd, for korc wa, kord, for koto wa, kotd,


131.
in the

etc.

is the sign of the accusative case. But a noun accusative case does not necessarily take wo after it.

Wo

The

wo, which

accusative case governed by a preposition does not take is often omitted before sum or itasu 'to do and
'

in other cases.

Daiku

iva dai

wo

tsuktirti.

The
I

carpenter makes a table.

carpenter

table

makes
to

Anc
elder sister

no ycnsho
love letter

yarn
?

should
letter,
it,

like
if

my

elder
is

sister's

love
call

that

what you
me.

wo watakushi made me to
moral fat. wish to receive

kaycshitc return

to be returned to

Umcjiro san no koto bakari thing only

He
j

iro>

thinks of nothing but UmeNote the pos t i on of wo ^ (


j

wo

ki ni

kakctc

iru.

mind

having hung remain


Please have patience with me. the abse nce of wo after

Ktinuin shite kudasarc patience having done give

(Note

kannin.}

152
Stizatca
oniotta.
fi'o

PARTICLES.
'n-atakushi
I

da

to

He

thought Sazawa was

I.

thought

Wo

is

often found
'co

demashUa. lye house from went out


Kiiruma

where we use a preposition He left his house,

in

English.

wo
no

oritf.

Getting out of the jinrikisha.

jinrikisha from having got


Sfiivfii

down

kanc

wo
of

He was
sand yen>

robbed

of one

thou-

loob yen
torarcta.

money

was robbed
Kon~atsn wo hanarctn tokoro. turmoil from removed place

place removed from turmoil,

For mono wo see mono, ^ 107. In wo has a somewhat similar meaning


Taikii

the following sentence


:

ni

mo

ncini

tokoro

It

had gone so
the

far that

he was

even become place dc atta dare ka wo, was whereas somebody


expulsion
S/llllSt'H

on

^^
good

of

^^g

expe ii e d

from

co n egei
s

when

by

some

SHlt<-

body

offices

good

offices

having done

But ga
132.
'
'

is

commoner than wo

in this construction.

Ya.

Ya
!,'

oscillates in

meaning between the two

being sometimes expressive of doubt, signs and at others a mere exclamation.


?

and

'

After nouns

it

is
1.

used

As

a Vocative termination.
!

Tnke ya
2.

Ttikc

With

the

meaning

'

or.'

Nido ya
twice

samio. three times


samist-n u-a
tat-

Two
A

or three times,

Koto ya Jap.harp
ttl
</<

moderate on the

degree

of

profi-

guitar
is

pretty- ciencv

ku(o or satltiKll

is sufficient.

nearly with

good

PARTICLES.

153

With Verbs.
Kuu ya
eat

kuwazii no mi. or not eat body

A person with precarious means of subsistence.


The
;

Anata no
your

basha
carriage

wa
is

miycru
visible

moment
sight>

your

carriage

comes n

ya
?

inaya.

not?
last

The
Ikr>

idiom

is

rather bookish.
Let us go
!

will

ya ! go

Forya
133.

as a corruption of wa, see above,

130.

Yara.

Yara

is

a contraction for

ya

(see prebe.'
It

vious section) and aran, the old future of aru, 'to


expresses uncertainty.

Doko
where

ni

orimasu,
lives

yara
?

don't

know where he

lives,

watakushi ni

wa wakarimasenu.
is

me
Doko ye

to
itta

not

known
I

yara.
is left

wonder where he has gone.


in

The
sion.

last

sentence

incomplete

the Japanese ver-

Some such
to

phrase as the concluding words of the


is

previous example

to be supplied.

Amakao Macao

yara ye o idc ni to went

The
Macao,
Qf
t jj

year after you went to if that is the right name

narimashlta yoku nen. (respectful) next year


Tanoji tara
geisha.
(for to

e p i ace . singing-girl called Tanoji, if rightly.


said,

yara) iu
I

remember

Dare yara ga

itta

koto.

Something somebody
'to.'

who
134.

said thing

Ye, 'towards,'

They

in this particle is

pronounced very lightly, plan is to omit it altogether, as many Japanese do. Itsu o kni ye o kaeri When do you return when country to return country ?
nasarit

and perhaps the student's


to

safest

your

ka
?

do

154
Tabi
journey
nobashtta.
oft

PARTICLES.
yc
tafsii

no

wo

He

put

off

starting

on

his

starting

journey.

put

Watakushi no

yado
lodging

yc
in

Stay

for

the

night

in

my

my
tomari nasarc.
stay

lodgings.

do

Achira yc male.

Wait

there.

Ye

in

the last two sentences seems to


itte is to
is

mean

'at' or 'in,'
it.

but perhaps o idc nasatte or

be supplied after

There
'

is

a ye (or
'

e)

thing like our towards.'


\

eh

?,'

a mere interjection someand must be distinguished from ye

which

but
is

is used with nouns in the vocative case, more than a mere vocative particle. It something emphatic, and implies pleading, remonstrance, appeal

i^S'

Yo.

Yo

it is

or warning.

Indeed

it

often stands quite by itself as


It is difficult to

an

exclamation with this force.

render yo by

any English word, but


it

'

I tell

you,' will

sometimes translate

In the Kioto dialect yo is used with the roots of verbs of the second conjugation to form the
pretty accurately.

tabeyo.

imperative mood. Thus for tabero, the Kioto people say In the Tokio dialect, jo with the imperative is not a mere termination, but has the emphatic force described
above.
It is

a favourite particle with

women.

Okka
mother

san yo.

Mother!

cha yo! o
tea

yukata
bath

yo

Some
a guest).
It is

tea

a bath

gown

(for

gown

Abunal
is

yo.

dangerous,

tell

you.

dangerous
Shiranai yo.
I tell

you

don't know.

PARTICLES.

'55

O O

ide yo.

Do come.
(for

agari nasal

nasare) yo.

Do come
'

in.

come up
136.

do

Yori,

'

'

from,'

since,'

than.'

Examples.
Kore yori hachi
this
ri.

Eight

ri

from here.

from eight
bioki
illness

Konaida yori some days ago from


dc
slntkkin
to

For some days past I have been prevented by illness from going to
office.

owing

going to

office

itashimasenit,

do not
Mdshi-agemashtta nedan yori stated price than
shtta
I

can't let

you have them

for

less

than

said.

low
not

de with

wa

sashi-agerarareoffer

can

mcisenii.

thought

Omotta yori yasui. cheap


Watakushi yori hoka ni

It is

cheaper than

thought.

me

Nobody knows but me.

than other

shiru

htto

wa

nashi.
is

know man

not

Itsumo yori kenku desu. ever than robust is

He
usual.

is

in stronger health

than

Scppuku sum yori hoka ni harakiri do than other


shikata do-side

There
to

is

nothing
harakiri.

left for it

but

commit

ga

nai.
is

not

A.
shtta ? did

O!
Hilloa
!

Fuku ka?

do

A.

Hilloa

is

that
?

how

What became
rather

of you

B.
?

Fuku ? Or

B. Ore yori

wa

o'maye

me
shtta ?

than

what became of

you

san

do

how
137.

did

Zo

is

a very emphatic particle.

156

PARTICLES.

Examples.
Keshlte
nchi

yc

ircte

You must
him

positively not allow

positively house

into admit

into the house.

wa
in

case

naranai zo, not become


n-tsiikcta zo.

Kataku
hard

You have my
Here he
is
!

strict orders.

ordered

Kita zo. has come

Kiku
hear

hodo
quantity

no mono
thing

wa

I tell you there worth listening to.

is

nothing

is

nai ze (for zo ye). not

CHAPTER

X.

ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.

ADVERBS.
138.

The
l

true adverb

adjective ending in
atarasJiiku,

newly

;'

Japanese the form of the the syllable ku : as hayaku, quickly ;' yoku, well.'* See 82. Many words
is

in

'

'

used as adverbs are really nouns or nouns


particles, as aslrita,
'

followed by
;'

'

tomorrow
at

'

;'

sakini,

before

bakani,
'

foolishly
subete,
'

;'

suguni,
;'

'

once
'

;'

or participles of verbs, as
;'

generally

semete,

at least

nokorazti,

without

exception.'

The
to
(

present indicative of verbs

is
l

sometimes reduplicated
',

form an adverb, as miru-miru, as one goes along.'


list
:

a vue d'oeil

yuku-yuku,

139. The following commonly used adverbs

contains

some

of the most

ADVERBS OF TIME.

Mo,
Itsu,

already.

Mada, not yet.


Itsudemo, always.
Jikini, soon.

when

(interrogative).

Toki, ditto, (relative).

Mionichi, to-morrow.
Ashita,
ditto.

Mettani, (with neg.) seldom.

Konnichi, to-day.
Kid,
*

Tadaima, immediately. Mohaya, already.


Sudeni,
ditto.

ditto.

Also contracted into hayo, atarashiu, yo.

158

ADVERBS.

ADVERBS OF TIME.
Sakujitsu, yesterday.

Tabi
Iclii

tabi,

several times.

Kind,
Scndattc,

ditto.

some days

ago.

Ni

do or Into tabi, once. do or futa tabi, twice.


&c.
: :
'

Nochihodo, by and

by.

&c.

ADVERBS OF PLACE.
Koko, here.
Kokoni, here. Doko, where.
Dokoni, where.
Soko, there.
.

Dochi ra, where, whither.


Sochi, there, thither.

Sochira, there, thither. Achi, there, thither.

Achira, there, thither.


Sakini, before. Atode, behind.

Sokoni, there.

Asuko, there.
Asukoni, there.
Kochi, here, hither.

Sakasama, upside down.


Yokoni, across. Uyeni, above.
Sliltani, below.

Kochira, here, hither.


Dochi, where, whither.

ADVERBS OF MANNER.
Do, how.
Ikaga, how.

Domo, howsoever.
Hanaliada, very.

Ko,

in this

way.
way.

Naze, why.
Zelii, positively.

Kayoni,

in this

So, in that way. Sayoni, in that way.

jfozn ni, cleverly.

Yoku, well.

ADVERBS OF QUANTITY.
Takusan, taiso, much. Donoknrai, how much.
jfiubnn, enough.

Bakari, only.
Ikura,

how much.
or

Motto, more.

Sukoshi,
Ikutsu,
*

little.

Amari

how many.
18 to 24.

Yokcini

too

much.

See also

ADVERBS.

159

ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION.


He, or hai yes.
t

lye, no.

Mottomo, right

He
It is

or hai

often nothing

must not be understood in too strict a more than a polite expression of


being said.

sense.
atten-

tion to

what

is

The

true

mode

of expressing

affirmation

is to

repeat the verb of the clause referred to.

negative answer to a question may be expressed in a similar manner. He and hai are more used in answer to

commands than

to questions.

Examples.

Mo

kimashzfa ka

Has he come

Kimashlta.
Miunichi
tsugo

yet ? Yes, he has come.


it

wa

Is

convenient tomorrow

tomorrow
yorosli
is
z

convenience

ka ?
Yes,
it

good

SayO dcsii or He, sayu desuHe, sayo de gozaimasenu.


140.

is.

No,

it is

not.

Onomatopoetic Adverbs are

common

in

Japanese
are often

but most of them are somewhat vulgar. followed by the particle to.

They

Examples.
Gata gata. Butsu bntsu.
Potsttri-potsTiri.

of a rattling noise.

grumblingly. of the spitting


'

'

of rain.
'

Domburi

to.

of falling with a

flop.' it

The adverb

invariably precedes the

word which

qualifies.

PREPOSITIONS.
141. Preposition should in Japanese be called the Postposition, as it always follows the noun. The pre-

The

positions have been treated of in the Chapter on Particles.

l6o

INTERJECTIONS.

The English prepositions must often be rendered in Japanese by different parts of speech. Thus, for between,' we have no aid a ni, lit. in the space of: for beside we must
'
' ' ' '

say no soba

ni,

lit.

'at the side of;' for 'over,' koyete, the

past participle of koyern, 'to cross.'

CONJUNCTIONS.
in English are variously rendered Japanese by Particles, Verbal or Adjectival terminations etc. Some have been already noticed under the head of

142.

Conjunctions

in

Particles,

and hints as
found
in

to translating

them

into Japanese

will also be

Chapter XI.
INTERJECTIONS.

143.

As

in

other languages Interjections are merely ex-

clamations, and can scarcely be said to have any grammar. The principal are
:

Oi, Halloa!

Aita,

Oya,

Ah Oh

of pain. of surprise

used chiefly by women.

He

(rising accent) of surprise Yai, of terror.


,

and admiration.

Dokkoi, when

lifting a

heavy weight, or otherwise

exerting oneself. Sd, of inciting a person to do something. Ma, of satisfaction, 'surprise, etc.

The
very

ne so

common
it is

in

the vulgar

Yedo

dialect (in other

parts of Japan
little

na or no) is a sort of interjection. It has meaning, and merely serves to draw the attention
It

of the person addressed.


'

has about the same force as the

in English conmeaningless, Yoroshi ne, it is good, is it not '? mata viiunicJii o ide nasarn ne, 'you will come again to-morrow, won't after that, don't you know you '? sore kara ne

you know,' sometimes heard


'

versation.

'

Ne

is little

used by men.

CHAPTER

XI.

ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.


144. At the risk of some repetition, it has been considered desirable to give a few notes on the mode of render-

ing into Japanese


145.

some common English words."


'

'Although or 'though.' Keredo with indicatives or verbal forms of adjectives, as itta keredo 'although he went,' samui keredo although it is cold participle
'
'

and mo or adverb and


gone,'

te
'

mo, as

itte
'

mo
;

samnhu
'

te

mo

though cold

although having concessive form, as


'

'

ikcdomo
146.

although (he) go,' samnkcredo,


'And.'

although

cold.'

Connecting nouns,
'

to,

which
'

is

often

wine and repeated after the last noun, as sake to sakana, fish ;' kore to are to, 'this and that ni, as kashi ni kndn:

mono
dano,

<

cakes and

fruit.'

Sometimes the nouns are simply


fish.'

placed together as sake sakana 'wine and

See also
is

in

and no,

122.

Connecting verbs, 'and'

expressed by putting the first verb in the participle form, at least where the action of the first verb is conceived as
preparatory or preliminary to that of the one succeeding it, as tokkuri ivo akete motte koi, 'open the bottle and bring it here.' In other cases, and at the beginning of a sentence,
and.' When Adjectives are joined by 'and,' the first is usually put in the adverbial form followed by te, as yasukute atatakai it is cheap and
soshite or sore ni is used for
' '

warm.
*

See also

shi,

126,

and

de,

in.

The

subject of this chapter has been

'Japanese Etymology,'
consulted.

more fully dealt with in Dr. Imbrie's excellent Messrs. Satow and Ishibashi's Dictionary should also be

l62

ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.


147. 'As.'

manner
take
or

of your

'As you know,' go knowing' 'as you


; '

zonji no tori,

lit.

'the

dear as that,' sore Iwdo takai

say,' ossharu tori; 'as as many as possible,' naru-

narubeku takusan

'as
'

soon as finished,' deki-

shidai or deki-agaru to sugu ni ; as far as,' made; 'as it sono mama ; 'as I was going out,' deru toki ; 'just as is,' I was going out,' deru tokoro de ; 'the same as mine,'

ivatakushi no to onaji koto.


'

148.

Because.'

Kara, ynye, yuye


indicative

ni, all

of which are
adjectives in
;

used after verbs

in the

mood and

the verbal form: 'because why,' naze nareba because,' naze demo.
'

'Oh!

just

j
'

149.

Before

'

is
'

usually no

maye

/,"

as
'

me no mayc
'

ni,
' ;

Nichi-yo no maye ni, before Sunday maye ni kiita, I heard before ;' deru maye ni, before he Before he comes' may be rendered goes (or went) out.'
before one's eyes;
'

'

kimasenu
150.

ncJii ni
'

or kiiru

maye

ni.
'

the

Instead of a conjunction like our but,' concessive forms constructions with mo or the
But.'
j

described in

145 are preferred.

See also under ga,


'

123.

At the beginning of a sentence,

but

'

may

be rendered
'

by shikashi, shikashi nagara, datte, daga, or demo. is but one,' hitotsu shika nai.

There

'lean go,' iku koto ga dckiru, 151. 'Can,' 'could.' ikareru; 'you can go,' (permission), ittcmo yoroshi ; 'can't you come?,' o ide nasani wake ni wa mairimasenu ka ? ;
'

could not come,' kurn koto


d'atta.
'

wa dekimasenanda,

korare-

masenu

152.

If.'

Conditional or
participle

usually expressed by one of the Hypothetical terminations of Verbs, the


'

If

is

and wa, or the indicative with

toki

wa

or to.

ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.

163

preceded by a present tense where we should expect a past, as atarashi no desu to ikenai kara kareta no motte kimashita, as it would not have done if it

To

for

'if

is

often

'

had been a new one,


is

Even if brought a seasoned one.' expressed by the participle and ino, in which case the verb
I
'

is
is

sometimes preceded by tatoye, supposing that.' Moshi sometimes prefixed to the verb when a mere hypothesis
'

one in ten thousand,' followed by Man-ichi, the indicative with toki wa, may be used when a bare posis

intended.

'

sibility is
'

spoken
May,'
; '

of.
'

153.
ino

might.'

You may

go,' (permission) itte

yoroshi 'so that all

'there

may

be some,'

aru ka

mo

shirenti

may

hear,'

may

perhaps go,' iko


'

ino yoroshi to itta

mina ni kikoyeru yoni ; 'I think I I said you might go,' itte ka to omou you might have warmed my clothes,'
' ;

kimono de mo attamete okeba yoi


'

ni.

154.

Must.'

'

must

go,'

ikaneba naranu, ikanakute


'

you must have noticed woman,' ano bijiu wa me ni tsnkanx hadzn wa nai ; you must be aware,' go shochi no nai hadzn wa nai ; you must have been bored sazo go taikittsii de'mashitard. See also 59, 94, 95.
naranu, ikanai
'

wa

to

narimasenu

that pretty

'

'

155.

Or.'

Ya between two nouns


See

both alternatives.

132 and 115.


'

ka repeated with 'Or' is some;

times not expressed, as go roku nen, five or six years go shinzo omaye nomitakereba, if your wife or you wants
to drink.'
' '

156.

Ought.'
'

You ought
to

not to do that,' so shite


'

wa
'

sumanai

what ought I ; to have told you ought

do

do itashltara yokaro ?

my

name,' namaye moshi-agereba


95
(beki)

yoroshiu gozarimashita.
(hadzu).

See also

and

105

164
j

ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.


157. 'Should.'
'

If any one should come,' moshi mo ga kitara ; 'if you had not fired, I should have been killed,' anata wa teppo wo utanakcrcba, watakiishi wa

Into

inocJii

wo

torarete

shimau no da;

'you
'

should
if

go at
I

once,' sugu ni o

idc

nasaru ga yokaro

that should
'if

happen,' moslii so hi koto ga atta toki ni time, I should go,' hima ga atttira, iko
'
'

wa;
g<i.

had

See also

ought
vi

and

'

must.

158. 'That.'
'

'That' as a conjunction
tell

is

usually to

(see

129).

Please

(your master) that

it is

somebody

who has

a trifling request to
'

no suji ga attc

make of him,' sukoshi go iral maitta mono da to ko itte knrc. Other


'

'I am sorry that I did not 'modes of rendering that take do so sooner,' liayaku shi-nakatta ga zanncn da
; ' ;

care that

it

yojin
tive

sliiro.

does not catch fire,' ga kakaranai yd ni For 'that as a relative and as a demonstrahi
'

pronoun see
159.

20, 21
is in

and 28.
'

iko

to
' :

think

I think of Japanese omou. going,' iko ka to omou. Other ways of translating omou, what do you think of doing,' ikaga nasaru tsumori

'Think'

dcsu

'
;

think he has come,'


' ;

mo

kimashita

to

omottc iinasu,
'I

mo

kimashita ro
it is

don't think
i

think he will go,' ikiinasu desho ; ready,' inada shitaku wa dckimasu mal.
I

60. 'To.'

ni

yc and made, Ch. IX.,


it

For 'to' as a preposition with nouns see 121, 134 and 118.

Where
'
'

is

used with verbs to form an infinitive mood


translated

according to circumunable to go,' iku koto ga dckinai ; I want to go,' ikitai ; 'I have to go,' ikaneba naranii ; 'it is too late to go,' mo iku ni iva osoi ; do you intend to go?'
to

must be variously
'

stances, as

am

'

'

iku tsumori ka
to send

'

tell

him

to go,' ike to

itte

o kure

: 'tell

him

me some

money,' kane

wo okuru yd

ni hanashlte

ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.


kurc
'

165
'

it is

easy to go,' iku koto

wa
'

yasui

to come,' kuru to

yakusoku

shita
'

it is

he promised arranged that he is


;

to go,' iku koto ni kimatta


itta ;
'

it

won't do to be
'

late,'

he has gone to buy,' kai ni osoku te wa ikcnai.


' ;

161.

Want.'
' ;

to go,' ikitai

want money," kane ga iru don't want to go,' ikitaku nai


'

want

want this ? I want to


'

'

kore

wa

o iriyo dcsii

ka

?,

kore

wa

do you hoshl ka ? ;
' ;

buy,' kai ni kimashlta.

162.
to itta; 'I

'Would.'
'

'

He

said he

would

go,' iku (or iko)

thought you would be here,' koko ni o ide nasaru konnichi (Varo to omotta ; I would have come today but kuru no deshlta ga 'if he came, what would you do,'
'

kitara do nasaru
gone,' itta
'

'
;

it

would have been

better

if

he had

ho ga yok'atta, ittara yok'atta.

would get some tea ready, only the fire has gone wo irerunda (ireru no da') ga, hi ga kiyete sliiinatta ; if my father had been alive, I am sure he would have been pleased,' ottotsusan go zonjo nara, o yorokobi
I

out,' cha

'

nasaimasho.

CHAPTER

XII.

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.

163.

One

of the chief difficulties which confront the


it

foreigner

whose ambition
is

is

accuracy and propriety

the

to speak Japanese with use of the honorific and

"humble forms of expression. Grammatical rules, however, go but a short way in teaching their use, and much must
be
left

to the student's experience

and observation.

It may be taken that the honorific forms are chiefly appropriated to verbs, nouns, and pronouns in the second person, though they are also used in speaking respectfully

of absent persons.

The humble forms belong


polite termination vtasu,
is

to the first

person, and the

used indis-

criminately with
It will

all

three persons.
is

be seen below that there

a considerable variety

humble expressions, varying according to the rank of the person addressed. But even in speaking to the same person, forms, the neglect of which on a first introduction or on other formal occasions would be a gross
of honorific and

breach of decorum,

may

be dropped without offence in the

heat of an argument, or in the freedom of more familiar intercourse. Women use honorifics more than men, and they
are less frequent in dependent than in principal clauses.
?

164. Respect
:

and humility are indicated

in

the

fol-

lowing ways

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


1.

167

By By By

special honorific or
:|:

humble nouns, pronouns or

verbs.
2. 3.

honorific prefixes.
honorific suffixes.

165. Honorific

and humble nouns.


Examples.

Neutral.

Humble.
Scgarc (my son).

Honorific.

Ko

or kodomo, child.

Kanai, wife.
lye, house.

(Go) shisoku (your Snikun (your wife).

son).

(O) taku (your house).

Chinese words are commonly considered more elegant


than their Japanese synonymes, and are therefore sometimes preferred in polite speech. Thus for o sake, go shin
is

preferred to o

considered a more polite term go ran nasare 'look' is mi nasare and go zonji de gozarimasu, 'you
;

know,'

is

always said instead of o

sJiiri

nasaru.
self

It is chiefly in

speaking of the relations of one's


particularly of the person

and

of others,

more

addressed, that

words are used. Special humble not very numerous, the absence of are, however, honorific forms being usually considered sufficient. The

humble and

honorific

nouns

following

list

of relations

which has been taken, with some


'
'

Kuaiwa Hen will serve alterations, from Mr. Satow's as a guide to the use of these words. With some, the
honorific prefixes described in

167 are used, or the suffixes

mentioned

in

168.

RELATIONS.
Another's wife.

One's

own

wife.

under [all o kami san \ the rank of


(samurai.
*

niubu.

The

honorific and

humble distinctions of pronouns have been already noticed

in

Chapter IV.

68

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


go

saikun
okit

Ana|
j

lowe rank
;)f

sai.

kanai.

official.
\

san

gentlemen
of rank.
kanai.

oku sama
j-

go

naishitsii)

for their

Old-fashioned people sometimes say g-usai ('stupid wife') own wives.


Another's husband.

One's own husband.


tsnre-ai (by the lower class).

danna.
teishi (familiar).

danna or
yado.

teishi.

go

teishi.

But

in general

the husband's surname

is

used both

in

addressing the wife and by her in speaking of her husband, in the former case with san added, in the latter without san
Another's father.

One's

own

father.

go

souipu.

oyaji.
chichi.

ototsn san (to children).

Another's mother.

One's

own mother.

go boku. haha sama.


okka san (to children).

haha.
o fiiknro.

okka (by children).

go rubo (when aged).


Another's grandfather. go sofu sama.

One's own grandfather.


sofu.

go

sofu.

MIBfl l J!f to children. o jt san


j

Another's grandmother.

One's

own grandmother.

go

sobo.

sobo.

o ba san (to children).

baba.

Another's brother.
o ani san (elder).

One's own brother.


ani.

go sonkei

do

).

go go

shatei shatei

sama (younger).
(

otuto.

do.
do.

). ).

oro/o

go

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


Another's
sister.

169

One's

own

sister.

o ane san (elder).

ane.

anc san.
o imuto

go (younger).

imuto.

Another's son.

One's own son.


segarc,

go shisoku,
o musttko san.

musuko.

kodomo
go
sHriv (eldest).
svriu.

(also of daughters).

go jinan (second). go sannan (third).


Another's daughter.

jinan. samian.

One's

own

daughter.

go
o

sokujo.

musume.

musume go.

o jo san.

Oji and oba are used for one's

own

uncle and aunt

the

same words followed by san or sama


01 and mei are used
oi

for another's.

for one's

own nephew and

niece

go sama and

o mei

go sama

for another's.

shiutome go

Another's father-in-law and mother-in-law are shiuto go, ; one's own simply shiuto, shiutome.

own son-in-law is muko, another's Similarly one's muko san; daughter-in-law (own) yome or (another's) o yome go ; grandchild (own) ma go or (another's) o mago ;
cousin (own) itoko or (another's) o itoko ; adopted son, (own) yosJii or (another's) go yoshi. San or sama may be

added to any of the above honorific forms.


Children, and to

some

extent

ing of their

own

elder relations.

ane san for

'

my

elder sister,'

women, add san in speakThey say, for instance, okka san for my mamma.'
'

The words used


is

of one's

own

relations

may

also be used

of the relations of third persons to

whom

no special respect

due, or even of the relatives of the person addressed

when

the latter

is

of a rank decidedly inferior to the speaker.

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


one's servant, one says
'

To

omaye no

chichi

or

omaye no

oyaji for

your

father.'

Segare and gusai can only be used of one's own son,

and one's own


1

wife.

66.

Honorific and humble verbs.

Honorific verbs

are of

two kinds

stituted for

(a) where a wholly different word is subthe ordinary verb and (b) where the causative
is

is more respectful to say that a person has caused a thing to be done or has been able to do it than merely that he has done it. Humble verbs

or potential (passive) verb verb, on the principle that it

put instead of the simple

belong exclusively to the

first

of these

two

classes.

Neutral.

Honorific.
Itasit or

'Sum, to do
Ikit, to

Nasaru

or

tsukamntsiint

asobasit.

go

Maim
Musu
Agent

idc iiasarn or irnssharn.

In, to say

Ossham.
Kudasarn
toman.
or

Yaru, to give
Taberu, to eat
Onion, to think

Mcshi-agam.
Oboshhiu'stt.

DoitsH

no Kiitei
Erriperor

ga

The German Emperor

is

dead.

Germany
shinaretnashila. was able to die.

Daijin ga deraremasluta. H. E.
Hittu'i in

nisters of State)

His Excellency (used of Mihas gone out.


died a violent death.

He
command
died.
(
i.

without

e.

of

shinaremashtta,

Heaven)

O mac hi

asobase.

Be pleased

to wait.

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


S

IJI

167.

Honorific Prefixes.

The

honorific prefixes o and

go

are used before nouns, verbs and adjectives, as indica-

tions of respect.

They generally, though not invariably, words with which they are used are in the show that the second person or have something to do with the person

addressed, and they therefore render to a large extent unnecessary the use of pronouns of the second person. Thus
usually mean your horse,' 'your jinrikisha' without the addition of any personal pronoun. Sometimes however the pronoun understood is not in the
o inuina,
o,

kuruma

will

'

O ncgai, for example, possessive but in some other case. means a petition to you and o muma may only usually mean a horse for you,' as in the phrase osore-itta o muma
' '

'

de gosari/uasu, 'it is a horse


o saki ye

'

it is

a fear-entered honourable horse


to offer you.'
It
is

'

i.e.

I
'

am ashamed
before you.'

The phrase
addressed.
to

means

an apology for going


person
'

on

ahead of or
licnji

leaving
'

before

the

Go
'

(honorable
either either
'

answer) may mean according

circumstances,

your answer

or
'

'an
or
'

answer to

you

go burei

your impoliteness

impoliteness

to you.'

Sometimes the honorifics are intended by way of respect which they are applied. There are words with which the lower classes use them almost invariably, partly from this reason, and partly no doubt from habit. The sun for example is o tento sama with women of
to the objects to
'
'

the lower class, 'cold water'


'

is
'

food

'

go

sen,

'

cash

'

o ashi,

a Buddhist temple

o Jiiya, 'hot water' o yu y o tera


'

etc. etc.

O
oki,

is
'

a word of Japanese origin, no doubt connected with

great,'
is

and

is

ordinarily prefixed to Japanese words.

Go
is

used before Chinese words.

without exceptions.

But neither of these rules number of Chinese words good

172

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.

have become so assimilated that their Chinese origin is overlooked, and they are no longer recognized as strangers.

They

therefore take the native prefix, while on the other


to be

hand one or two Japanese words have come

some-

times preceded by go. Ex. taku, 'your house;' o kyaku, 'a guest;' o tokei, 'your watch;' go inottomo, 'you are right;' go (or o) ynruri to, 'at your ease (in pressing a
'

guest to stay longer).

A very common use of o is with the stems of verbs in the second person followed by the honorific verbs nasant or asobnsu as o kashi nnsare 'lend,' o kasJii nasatte kitdasare,
'

please be kind

enough

to lend me,' o inaclri nsobase,

'

be

good enough

to wait,

sir.'

This combination

when nasarc
altogether.

is

very common in the imperative mood sometimes contracted into na or even omitted
is

But

in

such cases the honorific force almost

entirely disappears.

wachi na or

o maclii

'

wait

'

would

only be used to servants or


is

members

of one's

own

family.

also used before the stem


in

followed by the humble

word niosu

person, so that this construction an expression of respect for the person addressed comprises Ex. O ncgai inosJiiniasu with a humble reference to oneself.
the
first
'

ask a favor of you, o tanomi

inosu'-'-

'

pray you.'
sainuu goznri'

O may
masho
'

also be used with adjectives. Ex.

am

sure you are cold,' o

wako gozariinasu

you

are young.'

In the compound gozariinasu or gozainiasu, so common to be,' go is not a as a polite substitute for the verb honorific particle indicative of respect to the person who is

am

'

the subject of the verb, but


*

like

masu,

its

use implies
called out by the

visitor to a

This phrase or o tanomu, tanomu or o tanomi moshimasu Japanese house instead of knocking or ringing a bell.

is

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


courtesy to the

173

person

addressed whatever

may

be the

nominative to
'

it.

When we
'

say ivatakushi de gozaimasu


is he,'

it is I,'

arc de gozaimasu

it

there

is

no intention of
;

speaking honorifically of oneself or of him the courtesy implied by the use of go is all intended for the benefit of the
person addressed.
?

168.

HONORIFIC SUFFIXES.

sliiu

Plural Suffixes gata and tacJii and in a less degree have a moderately honorific force ra and domo are used when no honorific meaning is intended.
:

The

Santa, the original meaning of which is 'appearance,' used after the name, description or title in addressing or

is

in

speaking
customers.

respectfully

of

superiors,

more

especially
to

by

servants to their masters,


It

and by tradespeople

their

indicates

as our 'Sir.'

Ex.

much the same degree of respect Danna sama 'Sir,' annta sama 'your
'

honour,' Takeda

sama Mr. Takeda, oku sama


i.e.
'

the honour-

able interior of the house,'

sama sama the


'

the lady of the house,' koshi 'the Minister,' Tenshi sama 'the Mikado,' o Tento
sun,' tono

It is
'

daimios) your Lordship.' also used with a few other words, as go kuro sama
(to
'

sama

'

thanks for your trouble,' o sewa sama I am much obliged Kocliira sama, achira sama are highly respectful to you.'
expressions for kochira, achira.

San, a contraction of sama, corresponds roughly to our Mr., Mrs. or Miss. It is used chiefly between equals, occasionally to superiors and even to inferiors when one wishes
to be civil.
It
is

not used with reference to one's

own
'

relations or in addressing one's


is

own

servants.

'

My

father

to the personal

not oyaji san but simply oyaji. San may be added either name or to the surname. In the case of
o is usually prefixed at the

women

same

time,

when

the

174
personal
one's

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.

name is used, as own servant or wife


is

Tora san
the

'

Miss Tora.'

To

without o

used.

husband husband
'

san
in

or personal wife does not speak of or call her In speaking of her a concubine does.

name with

the third person, a wife generally says the house' or tcishiu (pron. tcislii), husband.' San
'

yado
is

not
of

used to one's friend's servants.

But

to the servants

'Madame' strangers don should be used instead of san. is okn san or in a lower class of society o kaini san.
'

Mademoiselle

'

is

person kanai or saiktin


.

third

for
is

o jo san Mrs. A

or o
,

mnsnmc

go.

In

the

san

no

go

used after names


'

the proper expression. San is much of trades and professions, as daikn san
'

the
'

carpenter,'

banto san
'

the merchant's

clerk,'

isha
third

san

the doctor,

both in the second and in the

person.

Children use to each other the

first

part of the personal

name with
addressed

or without san.

One's

own male

servants are
are

by

their

personal names which


for

mostly
boys up

abbreviated, as

Tsune

Tsunesaburo.

Little

to five or six are called bo clian (for bo san).

Dono
used
in

is little

used

in

speaking but

its

contraction don

is

addressing or in speaking of the servants of others,

also by female servants

and bantos (merchant's

clerks) to

each other.

Knn
like

use by students for Mr.. the use of the bare surname in English.
is

the

word

in

It is familiar,

The surname

without any addition


address, and
is little

is

an exceedingly familiar form of

used.

As an example
servant.

of the use of these suffixes, take your

His

full

name

is

Ikcda

Torakiclii, Ikcda

being
will

the surname and TorakicJii the personal name.

You

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


address him as Torn or Torakichi
;

175

his intimates of his

own
his

rank

will

call

him Torn san or perhaps Ikeda san ;

wife Ikeda, and strangers Ikeda san; if his son goes to the university or is drawn as a conscript, he will be called

by his comrades Ikeda


sauia.

kitii,

his subordinates will address

and if he becomes an official him and speak of him as Ikeda

On visiting cards, the personal or official rank only are written.


suffix is used.

name, surname and

title

No

san or other similar

Go

is

used as a
in

suffix after a

few names of relationships.

See the Table


169.

166.

The above modes

of expressing respect or humi-

Thus the phrase lity are generally found in combination. o ide nasaremase includes the honorific particle o, the special
verbs ideru instead of ihu or kurn, and nasaru for sum, and
the potential form nasareru for nasaru.

Masu was

originally a honorific.

As now

used,

it

ex-

presses neither respect nor humility but is a polite termination which may be used indiscriminately with any person
of the verb.
It

should be remembered that masu


desii,

is

an

element of the contracted forms

deshita and desho,

which are therefore somewhat more polite than da, datta, and daro. But a contracted form which contains a honorific

or polite form

is

always

much

less respectful than the

uncontracted form.
masii
is

The

politeness implied in the use of

always

for the benefit of the person addressed,

and

not of third persons.


It

should not be used to servants or coolies.


170.

Examples of Honorific and Humble expressions.


in

See also the extracts

Chapter xvi.

176

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.

Nouns.
A. Go
shin
(for

sake)
?

K-a

A.

May
B.

offer
I

you
will

some
take

ikaga dc gozarimasn

B.Hal,

sake?
some.

Thanks,

how
chudai
receive
will
(for

is

itashimaslw.

do
atama) kara saki from first
Shall
sir
?

tsumuri

do your

head

first,

head

(a s h a

m pOoer

asks).

ni Itashimasho ka ? shall do ?

Go

zcn

(for mcsJil)

ga

dcki-

Dinner (breakfast or supper)


ready, Sir.

is

meal
mashita.

Go zcn tsubu boiled rice grains


o kurc.

dc

tsuketc

Stick
r j ce

it

on with some boiled

having

stuck

give

A.

Yu go han
dcsu.

gozaimasu, ka ? B.
ii'a

wci mad a dc He ; yu-mcshi

yet?

A. Have you not had supper B. No, not yet.

mada

Verbs.

maclri moshite (humble for

was waiting

for you.

wait doing shite) orimashita.

remained

Kataku go
hard

chitikokit

m~>shi-

strongly advise 3'ou.

advice

do

masu. (humble for sum).

Go
rif.

marriage
for

konrel asobasanai (honodo not


nchi.

Before you perform the marriage.

sum)

within

siiki

asobasn ongakii.

The music which your Lordship


is

like

do

music

so fond

of.

Oki-tamayc. put give

Have done,
guage).
mDsti hodo do amount
It is
for.

(student's

Ian-

ret

TJCO

thanks

o tike receive
is>a

not worth being thanked

no koto
thing

de

gozainmstiiu. is not

HONORIFIC AN D HUMBLE FORMS.


?

177

O hima
leisure

no

toki

hannshi
talk

When

you have time, please


a chat.

time

come and have

ni irasshatte (for kite) kudasare.

having come

give

Donata dc irasshaimasu ka ?

May

ask

who you

are, Sir

who
Nan'to

are (for

am)

osshaimashita ?

What
I

did you say, Sir

what

say

(for itta)

Mionichi o kaycshi moshimasu. do tomorrow return


II aikcn shltcmo see having done even
(for

will return

it

tomorrow.

May
?

see

it ?

mitcmo)

ii

no desu ka
is it

good

Haishaku borrow
warui ka ? bad

shite

wa

Would
borrowed

it

be

any harm

if

having done

it ?

Honorific Prefixes.

O
nari

toshi

wa

ikutsu

What

age are you

year

how many

become

nasaru ? do

toshi ni shite

wa

o tassha

You
age.

are a robust

man

for

your

year
de gozarimasii.
is

robust

medetu gozarimasii.

beg

to

compliment you.

(a

new

beautiful

year's greeting, also used at wed-

dings etc.)

O yakamashhi
noisy

gozarimashita.

have been making myself a

nuisance to you.
I

Makoto
truly

ni o sewa da. trouble

am much

obliged to you (said

ironically or to inferiors).
It is hot.

atsuu gozarimasii. hot

shidzuka ni irasshaimase.
quietly
be,

Go
Kues t).
Is

in

peace,

(to

a departing

go or come.

Donna wa
master

o uchi ka ?

your master at home

within

178

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


Oku sama
He,
o
ritsit

tva o iichi ka

Is

your mistress

at

home?

dc gozarimasu.

No, he (or she) has gone out.


Ditto.
I

absent

O O

dckake dc gozarimasu.
iirami
n't

wa

hate

zonjimascnu. not think

don't hate you for

it.

Anaia wa o wakai kara. are young because you

Because you are young,


In your opinion,

Anata no

kangaye de wa.
opinion with

O
O

kage

de.

Thanks
I

to you.

shadow with

jama

ivo itashimashita.

apologize for having inter-

interference

did

rupted you-

Doko

ni o sitmai desu,

ka?

Where do you
master
etc.) live
?

(or

your father,

where

dwell

is

Otoko no o ko

desu.
is

ka

onna

Is

it

(your friend's child) a boy


p

male
no o ko
child

child
desu.

female

or a g ; r i

ka

Danna
master
mashlta.

mukai meet

ni mairi-

have come to meet you,

Sir.

have

come

machi nasarc.
ni
kite

Wait.
o

Koko
here
(nasarc).

knrc
give

Come

here,

having come
nattara

O
me

aki ni

wata-

empty when became


kushi ni kashitc
kttrcnu ka ?

Won't you lend it to me when ? you have done with it

having lent give not


tsuki

sama

moon
Yoku
well
visit

ni suppon da. tortoise

It is

as different as chalk from

cheese.

o tadztinc kndasalta.

Thank
see
I

you

for

coming

to

have given
sama.

me>

O O

kinodoku

am

sorry for you.

mind of poison
machidd dcshita.
I

have kept you waiting.

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


Go mends
trouble

179

de gozaimashu will be

It will

be troubling you very

much) but

go Go

shimpai ni anxiety masenu. not

wn

oyobi-

You need

not be anxious.

reaches

Go

katte

shidai.

Just as you please.

convenience according to

Goran nasal!

Look!
Pardon
ni gozaimasu.
is I

Gomen
Gyoi

nasai

me

beg your pardon.


quite right.

(for

go

i)

Your Honour

is

hon. opinion

Mada go mcnkai nwshimascnu


yet
dcshtta.

have not met you before.

meeting

do not

was

Go

yenrlo naku

Without ceremony.

Sazo
surely

go shinsho de
sorrow

You must
grief
(a

surely be

common

in great expression of

gozaimashu.
will be

condolence).

Iro
all

iro

go

yakkai

ni

am

under

all

kinds

of obli-

kinds of

assistance

gations to you.

narimashita.

become
Goran no
see
tori.

As you
shisokti

see.

manner
no go
house

Tdke
this

Your son Hayazo.

son

Hayazo kun.
Mr.

Go

isshin

mayc.

Before the Restoration (of the

restoration before

Mikado's power

in 1868).

Suffixes.

O
shita.

kyaku sama ga miyemavisitor

visitor

has arrived,

Sir.

has be-

come

visible

i8o
A.

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


Uycki-ya san gardener
kiinrii
!

kono
this

ki
tree

A. Gardener
-

is

not this tree


;

ja

nai

ka yc
to

B.

wither

dy mg ? B< Y es. Sir p l an t it over there.

I'll

trans-

He !

achira there

sama

ttyt-keyemtukQ. plant change.

Danna sama
master

ni

tnushi-icakc

My

conduct has been inexcus-

excuse

able, Sir.

ga gozarimascnu.
san jw go biuki Yomc go illness daughter-in-law wa ikaga dc gozaimasu, ?

How

is

your daughter-in-law

how
Kono
ftijin

gata

wo
ainiai

Show
room.

these ladies to the waiting

ladies
khtsokitjo

yc
to

restingplace

guidance

nwshi-agcro.

do
171.

The word

'

come

' !

(imp. mood) in a gradually

ascending scale of respect towards the person addressed.


Koi.

To

children or animals, and to


coolies etc.
in

servants,

giving

short orders.

O idc. O idc na. O idc nasare.


Irassharc.

Familiar.

Ordinary form

among

equals.

O O O

idc nasarcmasc.

To

superiors.

Irassharcmasc
idc asobasc.

To
rank.
.

persons

much

superior in

idc asobashinmsc

Exceedingly respectful.
'

If the

word

'

please

is

introduced, the scale will be as

follows

Kite kiircro.

Kite

ktirc.

HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.


Kite kurc
net.

l8l

Kite o kurc.

Kl tanwyc. Kite kudasare.

Student's language.

O O O

idc kudasare.
idc nasatte kudasare. ide

wo

negaimasu.

Irasshattc kudasare.
Irasshatte kudasaimase.

172.

CONTEMPTUOUS FORMS OF EXPRESSION.


tsura
'

Some nouns have a contemptuous force, as for kawo face,' yatsu fellow,' for Into man.'
'
' '

mug,'

Examples
Kuti or
Userti,

of

Contemptuous Verbs are


'

krirati,
'

to eat to

'

for
'

taberu.
iku.

go away
'

for for

Ketsukaru,

'

to be

aru or oru.

Agarn with
iliary,
(

the stems of verbs

as kono

is a contemptuous auxbnka yard me nani wo uukashi-agaru ?


'

fool gabbling about ? What is this Me is used after nouns as a contemptuous suffix, as chikusho me beast,' ama me hussy,' berabo me scoundrel,'
' '

'

yard me

low

fellow.'

CHAPTER
SYNTAX.

XIII.

ORDER OF WORDS

IN A

SENTENCE.

The first place in a Japanese sentence is occupi173. ed by the nominative case, the next by the indirect object of the verb or by a noun followed by a postposition, the third
by the direct object of the verb (accusative case) and the Ex. last by the verb or the adjective in the verbal form.
IVatakiishi
'

wa

uchi ni tabako

wo

nomanii,

'

don't

smoke

drink') tobacco in the house ;' tenki wa saknjitsu kara the weather is hot since yesterday.' atsui,
(lit.
'

Exception.
is

comparison Ex. Kono yama yorl are than that.'


174.

made

In comparisons the object with which the is usually, but not always, put first.

wa

takai, 'this

mountain

is

higher

Qualifying words or phrases precede the words


qualify.

which they
(a)

Thus

The

adjective and the verb in the

attributive

form

precede the noun to which they belong, as yoroshi hito, a good man,' kuru hito the man who comes.'
1
'

(b)

The adverb
it

precedes the verb, adjective or adverb

which
1

qualifies, as

goku hayakn 'very


'

early,'

goku hayai

very early,' hayakii koi

come

quick.'

(c) The noun followed by the possessive particle no or ga precedes the noun to which it is joined, as hito no chikara 'a man's strength,' kin no tokci a gold watch.'
'

SYNTAX.
175.

183
case, with

Particles indicating

number and
'

wa,

ya, ga, mo, ka, to, or jiagara, come after the noun, asyama ni to the mountain,' korc ka is it this ? Roughly speaking
' '

to or plural particles they come in the following order case signs wa, ga, ya, mo, or ka, but to this Kagara
: ; ;

there are

numerous exceptions.

176. The signs of gender o and on, me and men and the honorifks o and go are put before the word to which

they belong.

But these are


in

really qualifying words,

and

fall

under the rule


177.

174.

Expressions denoting time precede expressions denoting place and a general expression precedes one that is more precise. Ex. Itsu Kobe ni ikimasu ka ? when are
'

you going

to

Kobe

'

konnichi go ji ni oide nasare,

'

come

at five o'clock today.'

But

this rule is

by no means rigidly observed.

Conjunctions and interrogative particles are 178. placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they
belong.

money

Ex. Kane ga arimasenu kara, because naze nai ka ? why have you none ?'
'
'

have no

179.

Dependent clauses and

participles

precede the

principal verb of the sentence.

Kane ga money
old

am
is

toki,

kaimasho. time will buy


uttc,

intend to buy have the money .

some when

Fund kimono wo
clothes

Having
she bought

sold her

old

clothes,

having sold

ncw

ones>

atarashi no kaimashita.

new

bought
in

Clauses ending

clause of the sentence.

kara occasionally follow the principal Ex. GiosJia san, basha wo tomete
'

kure, koko ni oritai kara,


I

Driver, please stop the carriage

want

to get
really

down

here.'

But

in these cases, the latter

clause

is

added by way of an afterthought.

184

SYNTAX.

INDIRECT NARRATION.
180. In European languages, a sentence when reported another person changes its form considerably. If I say by I will go,' another person in reporting my promise, says
i
'

he said he would

'

'

go,' for

will
'

being changed into

'

would,'

In Japanese no change takes and the fact that the sentence is a quotation is inplace, dicated simply by the particle lo placed after it. Thus I
I.'
'

and 'he' substituted

will

go'

is

ikn
146.

'he said he would go'

is

iku to iimashita.

See

to, p.

APOSIOPESIS.
181. The Japanese are very fond of breaking off a sentence in the middle leaving the remainder to be understood. This habit of theirs explains many apparent

anomalies.

Examples.
O
rusu nara, sashi-oki dc leave absent if is
If

he

is

absent,

it

will

be

sufficient

to

leave

it,

so

(don't

yorosht
is

kara (mottc kaycruna).

bring

it

back again),

good because

Daiku
carpenter
(o

wo

yonde having called

Call a carpenter,

knrc).

give

O
after

knrc
it.

is

itself

an example of

this

practice,

nasarc bting omitted

Dusu

kannin

shite

Please have patience with me.

please patience
(kndasart).

having done

COORDINATION.
182.

The Rule by which, when two

or

more Verbs or

Adjectives are coordinated in a sentence, the last only takes the inflection or particle belonging to all, the others being

SYNTAX.

185

put in the indefinite form, has been already explained in

46 and 82.

somewhat

similar rule applies to nouns.

Particles

which belong to several nouns are not put with each of We do not them, but only with the last of the number.
say for example niobo wo kodomo wo sutete nigemashlta he ran away but niobo kodomo wo sutete nigemashlta,
'

abandoning- his wife

and

children.'

CHAPTER
TIME, MONEY,

XIV.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.


YEARS.

183. The Japanese have two modes of reckoning years. One is by means of a cycle of twelve years, to which the names of the twelve signs of the Japanese zodiac have been

given.

These signs are


1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1 88 1 1882
1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888

Ne, the

rat.

Ushi, the bull. Torn, the tiger. U (for usagi) the hare. Tatsu, the dragon. Mi, the serpent. Munia, the horse. Hitsnji, the goat. Snru, the monkey. Tori, the cock. Inu, the dog. /, the wild boar. is again Ne, and so on.
is

This mode of reckoning


in referring to the

not

much used now

except

year of one's birth.

other plan is by means of periods of uncertain length These periods distinguished by a special name (nengo). were formerly fixed arbitrarily, but it has been announced
that
in

The

future they will coincide with the reigns of the

Mikados.
Meiji.

The present year (1888) is the aist year of The Japanese year now coincides with our own and

begins on the ist January.

TIME, MONEY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

i8 7

MONTHS.
184.
for the

Japan

The Gregorian calendar has been month as well as for the year.
are called
:

introduced in

The months
January,

August, September,
October,

hachi gatsu.

ku
jiu jiu ichi

,,
,, ,,

November,
December,

or

shiinotsuki. jiu ni gatsu,

or shiwasu.

'One month,' 'two months,' &c., are expressed by means of the Japanese numerals and tsuki, the Japanese word for a month. One month is hlto tsuki, two months futa tsuki, &c.
'
'

'

'

Ik-ka-getsu (contr. for ichi-ka-getsii), one month,' ni-ka' two months etc., may also be used. getsii,
'

DAYS.
185.

The days

of the

month

are as follows

l88

TIME, MONEY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.


also be used

The above numerals may


is

when

number of
'

meant, and not the day of the month. For one days however we must say iclii nicJii not tsnitaclii. Misoka day" is used for the last day of the month on whatever day it

may

fall.

186.

The days
Sunday,

of the

week

are

Niclii

yd
bi.

bi. bi.

Monday,
Tuesday,

Getsu yd

Ka

Wednesday,
Thursday,
Friday,

yo Sui yd

bi.

Moku yd
Kin yd

bi.

bi
bi.

Saturday,

Do yd
is

Bi
one

(for hi)

'day'

often omitted.

Thus

for

'

'

Sunday

may

say either Niclii yd bi or Niclii yd.

The month is also divided into three jun, the first ten days being called jojun, the second chiujnn, and the third gejun.
HOURS.

The Japanese have now adopted the European 187. For one o'clock' they say ichi ji, for division of the day.
' '

two o'clock
etc.

'

ni ji,

'

three o'clock
is

'

san

'

ji,

four o'clock

'''

yoji

and so on.
ban
'

ichi-ji-kan, 'two hours' ni ji Minutes are called fun, and seconds bid. Thus
is

'One hour'

five

minutes and three seconds past six'


bid.

roku ji go fun

sam

MONEY.
188. 100 sen

yen.

a silver coin worth at the present rate of exabout three English shillings. It is the equivalent change of the Mexican dollar which has disappeared from circulais

The yen

tion in Japan.
*

See

p. 37-

TIME, MONEY,

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

189

MEASURE OF LENGTH.
189.

10 rin 10 bu
10 sun

6 shaku
10 shaku

60 ken
36 cho

= = = = = =
may

i i

i i i i

bu sun shaku ken


jo cho
ri

The shakn
English
foot.
is

or kaneshaku

be taken as equal to one


11.93 inches.

More

accurately,

it is

The ken The


The
It
'

nearly six English feet (71.58 inches).

ri is

equal to 2.44034 English miles.


is

hiro

not

much used

for accurate

measurements.

may be taken as equal to about 5 feet, and like our fathom is chiefly used in speaking of the depth of water.
'

For nautical purposes, the European Geographical mile


(kai-ri) is used.

DRY GOODS MEASURE.


190.

For measuring dry goods, a shaku


is

(called the
is

kujirajakii) of 14.913 inches

used.

The English yard

pretty

generally known.
silk

Japanese cotton and


pieces
of a
little

over

goods are usually made up in lof yds (tan) or of twice that

length (hiki).

SUPERFICIAL OR LAND MEASURE.


191. 30 tsubo

10

se

=1
=
i

se

tan
cho

10 tan

The tsubo, which is the ordinary unit, of 6 kaneshaku square or about 3.95 sq. yds.
to 2.45 acres.

measurement

is

The

cho

is

equal

IQO

TIME, MONEY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

\VKIGHT.
192.

10 rin

10 fun

100

= = mommc = =

fun mounne

Jiyakii-me

1000
1

60

mommc mommc

kamme
i

kin
;

The/H
me
kin)
is

is

equal to 5.7972 grains avoirdupois

the kam-

to 8.2817 Ibs. avoirdupois.

The hyaku-kin
in

or picul (100

the weight

commonly used
It is
if

commercial transac-

tions with foreigners.

equal to

dupois, but

is

usually taken as

132.5073 Ibs. avoirthe kin were ij Ibs.

MEASURE OF
193. 10 sai

CAPACITY.
i i i
i

10 shaku 10 go 10 sho 10 to

= = = = =

shakn
go
sho
to

koku

This measure
397
f
is

koku

used for liquids and grain. The slid is a gallon. A 5//o of rice weighs about 2^ kin. The used for junks' measurement. One koku is equal
is

to about

of a ton or a

piculs.
in the

194. All the


ts2ibo,

words

above

tables, except hiro

and

are of Chinese origin, and are accompanied by Chin-

ese numerals only. See Chap. V.

CHAPTER
COMMON ERRORS
195. IN

XV.

SPEAKING JAPANESE.
is

The

likely to fall

following list of errors into which he may be useful to the beginner


:

most

The use

of the honorific words and particles

o,

go, masu.
in

(as in arimasu}, nasaru, (as in o ide nasare), addressing servants or coolies.

and anata

kayo means early,' and should not be used without some special meaning. day
'

late in the

Shinjo means

'

respectfully to offer,'
'

and should not be

made

to

mean simply

give.'
hltotsii,

The

use

of the numerals

futatsu,
32.

&c.

where

custom requires the words described

in

The use

of the form of the adjective ending in


in

where

that ending required. gozaimasu, are often heard instead of yoroshiu arimasu,
is

Yoroshi arimasu, warui

waru gozaimasu.

The

indiscriminate introduction of personal and possessive

pronouns.

See Chap. IV.


in

Remember

that for one of these


in English.

pronouns

Japanese there are at least ten

Confounding in pronunciation short and long vowels and single and double consonants.

The arrangement
order.

of the words of a sentence in a

wrong

See Chapter XIII.

CHAPTER

XVI.

EXTRACTS.

The
the

following extracts are intended chiefly to illustrate use of honorifics. They are taken from modern
in

Japanese novels, the conversations


colloquial
style,

which are
in

in the

language.

part being Yencho's novels, which are entirely composed in the spoken language, are an exception. Ycnclw is the best-

the

narrative

the written

takes

known public down his

story-teller

of Tokio,

and an amanuensis

tales exactly as

he delivers them.
is

The number
and
it

of lady students of Japanese

increasing,

may

therefore be convenient to state that the story


is

called

Asiikagawa, the opening passage of which

given

in Extract V., is suitable for their reading.


part,

The

narrative

in the written style, and perhaps the not to attempt to read it but to get a plan Japanese teacher to relate the substance of it viva voce.

however,

is

best

will be

I.

Conversation with a Jinrikisha Coolie.


Fare.
Coolie.

Oi
I

oi !

Kurumaya !
jinriksha

say
he,

man

michi road
is

ga

mistake
F.

chigai iva shinai ka ? not do ?

He,

daiidbit quite safe


shittc

dc trnzaimasu^

Doko yc ikunda
where
:

(for iku

no da) ka
?

oru

ka
?

C.

knowing remain

to go is He, zonjitc orimasii knowing remain

kochira
this

kara mairimashlta
F.

way from

gara gara).
rattle rattle

came Oil oi!


I

side

Iw ga chikai no dc gozaitnasv. (gara is near rattle

say

shittern Daga, doko da ka But where is ? knowing remain

EXTRACTS.
ka ?
?

193
F.

C.

He,

he,

zonjitc

orimasu.

(gara gam).
rattle
rattle

Zonjite

knowing remain
(for

knowing
?

oru

ja remain with

de iva)
is

wakaranai.
not intelligible

Doko yc iknnda
where
to

C.

go

is

He, he (gara gara).


rattle rattle
ni.

F.

Korc
this

to in matte kitrc having waited give that saying

(gara gara gara

gara gara gara).

in

rattle rattle rattle rattle rattle rattle

From

a Japanese novel called Shosei katagi.

TRANSLATION.
Fare.
Coolie.
I

say, jinriksha
Sir,
it is

man

are not you going the

wrong way?

Yes,
?

all right, Sir.

F.

Do you know where you

are going
F.
Sir,
I I

Yes,

say, but do

know,

know, this is the short road (rattle, rattle). you know where it is (I am going) ? C. Yes, I don't understand what you F. (rattle, rattle).
Sir, I
'

mean with your

know.'
F.

Where
!

is

it

you are going


I

C. Yes,

Sir (rattle, rattle).

Look here

wait,

tell

you.

(rattle, rattle,

rattle, rattle, rattle, rattle).

II.

A Lady
Pupil.

Teacher

is

a gentleman of rank has

informed by one of her pupils that come to pay her a visit.


ye

Tadaima Yagimoshi-agcmasn. say raise just now wara sama ga o ide ni narimashita ga, o ima ye o tushi come became pass sitting room mushimashu ka? Teacher. E, nani ? Yagiwara sama eh what (humble auxiliary) ?
shisho

sama

teacher

ga....

Ima wa ano oku no yori back sitting-room rather than ko-zashikl annai Sore kara yc go moshi-agete kudasai. invitation (humble aux.) that after small-parlour please
O, say d desu ka ?
so
is it
?

oh

ni mo go shht shiu snye ye iitstikctc, o tomo no servant to ordering suite of persons to too sake

wo

daslute,

put out no o riuri wo o mochi take back part of the house always of cooked food nasai yot Hayakn nasaranu. to (ikcnai) o isogl ka mo zonjiif soon not do not haste ? even

oku

yc

mo

it

sumo

mascnu yo.

know
Shinso no gajin.

IQ4

EXTRACTS.

TRANSLATION.
Pupil.

Madam,
?

just arrived.

Eh

what

beg to inform you that Mr. Yagiwara has Shall I show him into the sitting-room ? Teacher, Mr. Yagiwara has Is that so ? Don't show
I

him

into the sitting-room but

into the small reception


tell

room

at

the back of the house.

Then

the servants to let the people

of his suite have some sake, and being the usual refreshments to the back part of the house. You must be quick about it, for he may perhaps be in a hurry.

Note the highly respectful forms sama, moshi-ageru, used by the pupil teacher, and the honorific references to the guest by the use of sama, o idc ni naru, o tushi mH'shimashu, go aitnai, o riuri and o isogi.
to the

The

teacher's language to the pupil differs from that used to a servant


desii,

as the forms

show.

It

has an

air

kudasai, o machi nasai, nasaranS. and zonjimascnu, of friendly condescension.

III.

A young man
as the latter
is

of the lower class meets a merchant's son going to the bath-house.

A. Toki ni waka-danna ! kore kara go ni niutu nattc, time enter bath having become young master this from sore kara do nasarit no desu ? B. Uchi ye kayerii no sa. A. O is that from how do house to return
uchl
ni sore kara nattc, ye o kayeri house to return having become that from
?

B.

Asameshi wo morning rice

knu no yo.
eat

A.

sore kara ? Asa gozcn wo meshi-agatte, having-partaken of that from morning meal
itte,

B. Urusai na; mise ni

akinai

wo sum no
do
hi

sa.

A.

bothersome shop to having gone business

having done sun go down to ? B. Yu-meshi wo knu no sa. A. Sono go yuhan ga when that eat evening meal evening rice aite sumu do nasaimasu ? B. Mise no ivakai mono wo to, finish when how do shop young person partner ni (shitf) hanashi demo sum no sa. A. Sono hanashi ga sianit finish that talk talk even do
to?
B.

Nanthodo : sono become quantity that

akinai business

wo

shite

ga kiircm

when
ncru

Urusai na. bothersome

hoka
!

ni

else

shikata mo do-side even

is

nai not

kara,

because

no

sa.

go to bed
Mfiji uki yo no furo.

EXTRACTS.

195

TRANSLATION.
You are now going to have a young master what will you do ? B. I shall go home. A. When you have gone home, what next ? B. I shall have my A. And when you have had your breakfast, what breakfast. then ? B. You are a nuisance, I go to the shop and attend to
A.

Well but

bath.

After that

business.

A.

To
?

be sure.
B.
I

And when

business

is

over,

and the

sun goes down


is

have
?

my
B.

supper.
I

finished;

what do you do

the youug men in the shop. A. B. You are a nuisance. Then there

supper very likely have a talk with And when your talk is over ?
is

A.

And when

nothing else to be done

but to go to bed.

IV.
Interview with a ragman.
Ragman. Kudzuya dc gozai kudzu wa o harai wa gozaimascnu, it is sell is not ragman rags Choito ! kudzu ya san ! kore wo totte ka ? Customer. ? a little Mr. this ragman having taken
o ktire.

give

R. He, he! yes

haiken Itashimasho look (respectful) will do


yogorete

zuibun
tolerably

fnrubite

soshite

imasu na.
is

He

and having become old n i Itadakimasu, ikahodo

having become dirty


?

C.

how much
yo.

Omayc ma
you

for

receive

goran funde having estimated see


?

R. He, he,

hassen de eight sen with

wa

ikaga sama

C.

Bakana
te

koto
kircl

how
moto

foolish thing

oil denaiyo. say is not

Sore

demo

wa

takaku.

that with even originally


fiimi-taosarctc

dear

d'attayo;

sonnani
so

tamaru
nl

and pretty mono ka


thing
is
?

was
ne?
R.

much

estimate being knocked

down endure
chigal

He ;
ga

moto
originally

wa

takaku
dear

te kirei

arimasaiu
not

pretty

mistake
koso

ga; kore
but
this

chirimcn

nl

is crape do shite he. itadakimasu; sore de nakercba for receive (humble) that for were-it-not how having done watal mo hassen de wa iyada C. Atarlmaye da ne ; da kara I dislike is because too eight sen for ordinary it is

nareba because it

hassen (emphatic part.) eight sen


]

mo

to

iunda, ne saying is

jiu go sen nl o shl ; sore de omayc ni son fifteen sen do that with you to loss

wa
is

nai not

196
yo.

EXTRACTS.
R.

DO
how

itashimashttc

sore

ja
He,

maldo

(emphatic part.)
un'tlfsu

having done

well then every

ncgatime re-

kara,
is

questing

because ten sen

jisscn ni itadakimashd. will receive

sore dc yoroshlkuthat with if good

ba

fie.

C. Shikata do-side
cln~>do

ga

is

nai nc not

motte

o ide yo.

R. Arigatu

having taken

go

thank

zonjimasu:

you
dc gozai.
it

jisscn; arigatu zonjlmasu. thank you exactly ten sen every time

maldo

Kudzu ya ragman
sell

C.

Ing<~>

na kudzu ya da

nc.

R.

Kudzu
rags

u'a o liarai dc

is

hard

ragman

gozarimasctiu,
is

ka?

not
kago.

Kudzu ya no

TRANSLATION.
Ragman,
Yes,
besides
(calls)
I
!

The Ragman

Any

rags for sale

Customer.

say,

ragman! won't you take this?


;

Ma'am please let me see it yes, Ma'am how much shall


!

it

is pretty old, and dirty give you for it ?

Do you

put

a price on

it.

Yes, Ma'am.

Would
;

eight cents

Don't talk nonsense

that

was

a very pretty and expensive thing


it

when
it

it

was new and

can't let
it

go

for so little as that.

Yes,

Ma'am

No

doubt

was a
I

pretty

was new, and


I

it is

just because

it is

and expensive thing when crape that I will take it from

you

for eight sen,

otherwise

really

Well, suppose you have a right to name your price, but I would have you know that I have something to say to it too and
I

won't take eight sen.


it.

Make

it

fifteen

sen

you

will lose

nothing

by

Really,

Ma'am,
I

could'nt think
it

Well then, as you are such


for ten sen.

a good customer,
suit

will take

from you

If that will

you Well
!

it

can't be helped, take

it

away.
just ten sen.
!

Thank

you,
all

Ma'am,

(here

is

your money)
(calls)

Much

obliged for

your custom,
is

The Ragman
!

How
Any

fond that ragman


rags for sale
!

of a hard bargain

Exit.

EXTRACTS.

197

V.

young engaged couple view the plum blossoms and


:;:

listen to the nightingale.

She (from the garden).

Takco

san

Takeo san
;

chotto.

He

(from the house).

(personal name) Mr. Nani ka arimashlta kn ?

moment
tokoro

ima

iku

anything
dcsii.
it is.

(comes
.

out).

She.

Ima

was muko

now

go

no

no\v opposite

mumcbayashi plum grove

place dc
in

no hatsu ne ga shita desu. kiki ni kara, yd first note did manner is because hear to nightingale ikimashu. He. Sayo desu ka. Sore wa yukai desu na : sd, let us go thus it is ? that is come pleasant itte kikimasho. (A little later). O jo san! anata wa o Miss having gone let us hear you
ttguisu

damashi
deceiving

de

wa

arimascnu ka ?
is

mascnu
not

ne.

She.

Chitto mo ugiiisu ga nakia little even nightingale sings sakki wo shite, futa lye, yoi ne no a while ago good voice having done two

not

kara anata wo o yobi tiwshita no desu. koye bakarl nakimashlta call did is cries only because sang you ate ni naraHe. So desn ka ? Shlkashi nan? da ka it is so not ? but somehow reliance
nai

become

na yd manner
naita

kl

ga

mind
koto

shimasn does

ne.

She. Mattaku

sakki a while ago

wa

nakimashlta

sung

thing

matte

ite

mimasho.
will see

waiting remaining

sung He. Sonnara kore kara mo ichiji if so this from more one hour

completely kara sukoshi because a little

kan
space
it is

hodo

matte
if

amount waiting

nakanakattara do nasaimasu. She. SO so should not sing how do

desu ne.

Ko
thus

shimashiJ. will do

Nan'daka hinata ye what is it sunshine to


yd
desu
kara,

detara
since

went out
ii-tsukc

nodo
throat
ni to

ga

kawaita

kahe

wo

became dry appearance it is because coffee order iku o tsukai wo shimasho. He. Sorewa omoshiroi. Watakushi I that is amusing go your messenger will do
noini

mo nanda ka
too

mono ga hoshiku

what

is it

drink thing

naita tokoro desu kara desirous have become place is because

She. Sore de zvatakushi no o yaku that with office my


*

wa

dekhnashlta ga; has been made

moshi
if

The uguisu

is

not a nightingale but a bird

somewhat resembling

it.

198
anata should sing you watakushi mo sono
naitara
it
I

EXTRACTS.

wa
o

how

do nasaimasu. do
tsitkai

He. So dcsu
so
it is

nc.
if

Naitara

ni ikimasho.

your messenger as will go scnu yo. Sono koto wa watakushi ga kangaycta no dcsu, kara. I is do that thing because thought of He. Sonnara nan demo o nozoml no koto wo shimasho. She. if so will do anything at all your wish thing
also
1

should sing She. Sore wa ikcmathat won't

Sakki

mite mono o idc nasatta watashi no namayerashl a while ago reading my nameresemhling thing you were no ntta ano o tcgami wo o mise nasal na. He. Yo gozaimasu, ;

was
moshi

that

letter

show

good

it is

ni kakcmashO. naitara o me She. Kitto desuka? if it should sing your eyes on will hang certain it is ? o me ni kakcmasu to mo. sakarl He. Kitto She. Ima ga

certainly
dcsu, ne.
is

eyes on will hang


so
it is

now
it

full

blossom
truly

He. So dcsu, Ima ga chodo

midokoro dcsu ga, jitsu ni


is

now
to

exactly see-place

mume wa
plum
mint hlto
see person

fioka no

other

kin ga yoi kara chigattc flowers from differing quality is good because
liana

no kokoro
heart

made
as far as

shizen
naturally

to

kosho ni elevated

naru

become
kosal

dcsu nc. yd manner it is

She. Sayo de gozaimasu. it is thus

Hlto
people

no

intercourse

mo
ta

korc to onajl-koto de watashi nado mo ko sliitc anatagaalso this as same thing being I etc. also thus doing you

no yuna o kata to o tsnki-ai wo shijiu kind of gentleman with constantly association


ichi

shttc

irit

doing

no de jibun no

ga

by own naturally position He. Do watakushi nado shite; how having done I etc.
rimascnu ga: nan'dc not go (pause) anyhow
dcsu. Toki kanjin important is by the

shizen to agaru ka to omoimasu yo. ? rises think

wa

sonna wake ni such reason

wa

mai-

do
no

mo

hito

wa
!

tomodachl
friends
tsftkanai

wo ycrabn
choosing
koto

ga

people
o jo san

ni,

wo

kiki

way

Miss

not stick

thing

inquire

moshimasu ga, kono mayc no Nichiyo mo ima no Nichiyo this before now (humble aux.) Sunday Sunday wa nanika o shirabe mono no Daijin yo His Excellency appearance something investigation
ga, o kajimuki no o
shirabe
investigation

mo
also
dcsu,
is

dcsn ka.
is
?

She.

lye, watashl

mo
too

household

no

yoku wa
well

shirimascnu, ga, do not know but

anata

mo go
too

zonji no

tori

you

know

manner

EXTRACTS.
mai-toshi

199
nl
at

kono
this

mume
plum

no

sakari
full

wa

every year
itashimastt

bloom

yenkai entertainment

wo

does

kono aida haha kara because the other day mother


ko-toshi
this year

ga

sono koto that thing

wo

mfishi-

when
is

mashttara, she spoke of

wa

ayanikn
to

shirabc-mono ga aru

unfortunately investigation

kara yenkai because entertainment

wa gozarimasenu
is

kotayemashita.

not

answered
Asiikagawa.

TRANSLATION.
(from the garden) Takeo He. (from the house) what is it ?
She.
(he
I
!

come here
I'll

for a little.

be with you in a moment,

comes

out).

thought just now I heard the first song of the nightingale from the plum orchard over there let us go and listen to it.
:

Indeed.
later)

How

nice!

Come we
!

will

go and hear
?

it.

(a little

Have you not been humbugging me, Miss


it

The

nightingale

does not sing a bit. Yes, a while ago,

did sing twice with a beautiful note, and that

was why
Indeed
It

I
!

called you.

But somehow

don't feel quite satisfied.


little

did really sing a while ago, so let us wait a


we'll wait for an hour from

and
if it

see.

Well then,

now, and

does not

sing by that time,

what will you do ? Well, I'll tell you what I will do. Coming out into the sun makes me thirsty, so I will go and order a cup of coffee for you. That is a good idea. I do feel as if I should like something to

drink.

Now

that

it is

settled

what
?

have got to do,

if

the nightingale

does sing, what will you do

If it sings, I will go as your messenger. Certainly. That will never do that was my idea. Well then, I will do anything you like. Show me the letter you were reading a while ago which had
:

something

like
;

my name
sings,
I

in

it.

Very good
I

if it

will

show
it

it

to you.

You promise me

faithfully.

promise faithfully to show

to you.

200
The
Yes,
plum-trees are just

EXTRACTS.
now
in full

blossom.

now

is

a quality so as it were the minds of those

Indeed the plum is of exactly the time to see them. far surpassing other flowers that it naturally elevates

who

look on

it.

society one keeps ; of a person like myself were naturally raised by constant association in this way with gentlemen like you. Not at all that is not so in my case. Still people ought to be

You

are right.

And

it

is

the

same with the

feel as if the position

very careful in their choice of friends. By the way, Miss! to change the subject, I want to ask you a question. Both last
in investigating

Sunday and today His Excellency seems to have been engaged something; is it some private matter ?

No, I really do not quite know, but as you will remember, he has been in the habit of giving an entertainment every year when the
plnm-trees are in full blossom. When my mother asked him about it the other da}', he said that unfortunately he would be prevented from giving it this year by an investigation which he had in hand.

VI.

A man
Master.

of high rank talks to a newly-engaged

servant.
Kore
this
!

korc

this

Temayc wa Kudzuke you

to

mosit are called

ka?
?

Servant.

Tonosama ni Hci, yes your Lordship


to

wa

gokigcn yoroshin
health

watakushi
I

good
dc

z>'<7

Kmlznke

tnOshimasn
called

shinzan

mono

gozaimasu..

new came person

am

naku mono demo kagc hinata M. Sono ho wa shinzan new come person even shade sunshine withoutyou
distinction well

yoku hatarakn work

to iftc,

hioban daibu yokti mina saying a good deal reputation well all

no

like

ga yol
is

yo.

Toshigoro

wa

ni jiu

ichi

ni

to

miycru

reception

good

age
otokobnri

twenty one or two


to
ii,

seem
ni
-^-a

to ii, ga, hito-gara personal appearance say

ziJri-tori

manly bearing
ni

say sandals take as


konaida-jin
for

oshi

mono

da. S.
is

Tonosama
your Lordship

wa
dc
o

go

regrettable thing

some days past


atyi-mushifeel

fnkai
indisposition

dc

gozaimashita having been

so

appearance by

anxious

EXTRACTS.
agemashlta did (humble)

201

ga;
(pause)

sashi-taru

koto

mo

important
kureta
;

thing
betsu

gozaimasenii ka. is not ?


koto

M. 0, yokn
oh well
n ai
it is

tadzunete

ni sashitaru

mo
wo

having asked

gave

specially

important thing even

ga. Shite not (pause). And

tcmayc

wa ima made
now
until

idznkata ye

hoko
service

you

where

shlta koto gaatta ka ? S. did thing was

Hell Tadaima made hobo hoko mo Yes just now until all quarters service
ichl-ban
sciki

jtashimashita

madzu
to begin with
ichi

ni Yotsuya no kanamonoya.

have done

'

first-of-all

ironmonger
orimashlte,

ye mairlmashiia ga,

went
shita; sore kara
that after

kake-dashimabut one year amount having remained ran away

nen

hodo

Shimbashi no

tsuki kajiya ye mairi, mi blacksmith going three months

hodo

kake-dashi, main Nakaddrl no Yezoshiya sugitc ye amount having passed ran away again picture dealer

tdka de kake-dashimashlta. mairimashlta ga, went but ten days with ran away

M.
S.

Sono ho no you
Watakiishi ga
I

yo ni 'manner

so

akite

wa

hoko
service

wa

dckinai yo.

so getting tired

cannot do
ga, (pause)

no de akippoi readily disgusted ddzo


shttc

wa gozaimasenu am not

ivatakushi
I

wa

some how

or another military

buke hoko ga itashitai house service wish to do

to

omoi,
thinking,

sono wake wo oji ni tanomimashitcmo, oji that reason uncle having applied even uncle

wa

bukc

hoko

wa

mendo da
trouble
is

kara,

because

choka ye ike merchant's house to go (imp.)


hoko
ni yarlmasu,

to

moshimashite,

having said

achi thither
ate
hit

kochi hither
ni

kara,

watakushi
I

mo
too

service

sends

because
yarimashlta.

tsuraface

kake-dashlte

M.

by way of

having run away


shitai

gave
to

Sono ho wa you

kiukutsn

na buke hoko wo
S.

iu

mono wa ikaga na
thing

irksome

wish to do

said

how
wo
itashi,

wake
reason
o

ja?

Hei ; watakushi
I

wa

buke hoko military house

doing

kenjutsu fencing
to

wo

no de, hei. oboyetai wish to learn by

M.

Ha !
ah

kenjutsu-suki

fencing like

na.

Botan dord by Yenchd.-

2O2

EXTRACTS.

TRANSLATION.
Master.
Servant.

Look here
Yes,
Sir,

Is

your

name Kudzuke
is

My name

KOdzuke,

have just entered your

Lordship's service ; I hope your Lordship is in good health. I hear that though you are a new comer you have made a favour-

impression on everybody, and that you have got a good character for working hard night and day. You seem about twenty one or twenty two years of age, and with your looks and bearing,
able a pity you are nothing better than a sandal bearer. understand that your Lordship has been unwell for some days 1 past, and I was anxious about you hope it is nothing serious. Thank you, it is nothing of importance. And where have you
it is

been

at service

Up
of

to the present,

up to now ? I have been

at service in various

places.

First

all I

went
I

to an ironmonger's in Yotsuya,
I

three years
bashi.

ran

ran

away then away from him


:

being there went to a blacksmith's in Shimafter

and

after three

months.
I

next took
in ten days. in

service with a picture-dealer in Nakadori St, but

left

him

But you
that way.

can't do your duty as a servant

if

you get disgusted


it

Oh

It is

not that

am

easily disgusted

is

because

I I

wanted
begged

to take service in

the house of

some

military noble.

my
go
I

uncle to get me a situation of this kind, but he told me that service with a military noble was very troublesome, and that I must
to a merchant's.

So he sent me

to service here

and

there,

and

ran

away just to spite him. But what made you want


?

to take

employment with a

military

noble

It is

an irksome kind of service.

Well,

Sir, It

was

in order that I

might learn fencing.


?

Ah

You say you

are fond of fencing

VII.

A
gate.

youth named Tasuke goes to the Toda yashiki to ask

for his father.

He

addresses the officer in charge of the

Tasuke.

Half Gomen
pardon
ike,

nasai.

Officer.

Doko ye maintnda
where
are going

Monobeg-

do T.
Hai.

morai narn achira ye


gar
if

are thither

go

Shusho mono ga ukftamawawish to little thing

EXTRACTS.
ritiJ

203

o fsnji ye ike, wish to hear outer guard go \tinda ? kojiki mita yo na narl -wo shite T. Korc kara kojiki what this from beggar beggar seen kind of dress

gozaimasu.

O.

learn

am

Mono ga

kikitakcrcba

if

ni

narunda ga, mada kojiki ni wa naranai. Ano become is becoming but yet beggai ot-become Toda sama no o wa koko dc gozaimasu ka? O. yashiki
narcbn
if

daimio's residence

here

is

Toda sama HO yashiki wa kochi da.


here
is

T.

Sore dc then

wa

mayc

ni

before

kochi yc kakaycrareta Shiobara here employed


?

Kakuycmon

ncn jiu yo fourteen years to iu kata ga


person ncn maye
ni

arlmasu ka
is

O.

Nani what

Shiobara

? hai, arc

wa

jiu san
o

he
natte,

thirteen years before

ni

shita-dzumc
country-station

ni

kono

yashiki

wa

oraiiii.

T.
O.

having become this kuni wa Yashin no Utsunomiyadc gozaimasu

does not live

province
before
to o

Kodzuke
dc atta ga, Matstidaira was but

is

ka ?
?

Maye wa Utsunomiya

Tonomo

ni ima dc wa Hinattf, kuni-kayc province change having become now zcn no Shimabara da. T. Hizcn no Shimabara to iu tokoro wa

no kami dono

is

place
?

to

gozaimasu ka
is
?

O.

Su

sa.

Shimabara
falls

made
as far as

wa, sain
three
in

distant

yes

biaku

ichi

ri

han
half

am
is

na.

(Tasuke
!

down

faint.)

hundred one
O.

Kore
this

kore !
this

achi
thither

ye maire go

achi ye maire .

Shiobara Tasiikc

by Ycnchu.

TRANSLATION.
Tasuke. Excuse me.
Officer.

Where
want

are

you going

If

you have

come

to beg, get

away.

T.

to inquire something from you.

O. If you want to inquire, you can go to the outer guard. What do you mean, you beggarly looking fellow ? T. If after this I am to become a beggar, I suppose I shall become one, but I have not got so far yet.
is

Is this the residence

of Lord
is

Toda ?

O. Yes,

it

Lord Toda's residence.


O.

T.

Then
?

there a gentleman here


this

named Shiobara Kakuyemon who entered


years ago
?

service fourteen

What ?

province thirteen

went on duty to our years ago, and does not live here now. T. Your
Shiobara
yes, he

4O2
province

EXTRACTS.

O. It was Utsuis Utsunomiya in Kodzuke, is it not? nomiya formerly, but there was an exchange of domain with Lord Matsudaira Tonomo no kami, and now it is Shimabara in Hizen. T. Is Shimabara in Hizen far off? It is three O. That it is. hundred and one ri and a half to Shimabara. (Tasuke falls down
in

a faint.) O. Here

here

Be

of:

with you.

Be

off

with you.

VIII.

Dreams.
A. Yinnc dc
matsu-jo

ga zommci

shite

iru

y<Jsn

alive doing remain appearance youngest daughter wo kokoro ga mayohnashtte nc, ika nam duri to 1110 mite, how be rationale having seen heart being bewildered
in

dream

kai

shi

understand do
seltnii

kancmasu ga ; zcntai Shina dc musu yu nl cannot (pause) generally China in say manner by koto ga gozaimashu ka nap Ninna sail nazo to in
called thing
will be
?

true
H'rt

dream

(plur.)

(surname)

tctsngakiika

da
is

to

nkctamawatta
learnt

kara,

student of philosophy
shifsnnion

because

fufo go suddenly

wo

itasu n-akc

dcsu
it is

ga
(pause)
kitai

interrogation

do

reason

dream strange 'ca nal koral sono rcl ga shikashi is not (pause) but from old time of that precedent
very
koto
dc,

B. Naruhodo, indeed

soriya that

hanahada

na o ynmc

ni

-u>a

s<>i

mistake
ainata

aru
is

plenty

nani

mo

true thing being anything no gotokl u'a tnoto yorl nioto arubckarazarn duri dc, dream the like of of course a jot ought not to be principle being somo-soino in yumc to in mono v.-a ika nara mono ka to how being thing ? this being so dream called thing saving
tint

na koto ja arhnascnu yo. miraculous thing is not


kikai

Set-

ni
in

kcdashi
dcsu.
is

u-aga

kokoro no hataraki

pretty nearly one's

own mind

ni hoka naraoperation than other does not

Yarn ni tiarti to ningcn no shintai u-a liintma no becomes human body daytime night dc nc-ittc tsiikarc shimai, mam dc Annsensafatigue on account of having fallen asleep finish wholly kakn ga naku narimasu, ga, nu wa niattakn shintai to chigattc tion not becomes but brain wholly body from differing
zn

become

yarn

night

shite him no tiiri ni hatarakikinsoku sczn works although rest not do doing day of manner in no ga odayaka de nai toki nanzo inasu kara, because brain quiet (sign of pred.) is not time (plural part.)
to iycdonio

EXTRACTS.

2O5

koto wo mirtni'dc arimasii. Katsti ya kinds of thing seeing(pred.) is farther kankakii ga yasun'de ini no dc gwaibu kara no shigcki sensation resting remaining by outside from impression nai moknzcn no kara, shltagattc ga sukoshi mo a little even is not because, accordingly eye-before
koto
ni
iroiro net

wa

particularly

all

koto

wo

kangaycnt
reflect

hitsuyu

mo

naku,

shizcn

is not upon necessity naturally nado yumc de wa mini koto ga omoi-yoranu, mukashi no koto in not think of ancient see thing thing (plur.) dream

thing

arimasu. no
is

'sa.

Korc
this

ta

nashi.
is

other

not

ningen Sojitc on the whole mankind

to

in called

mono wa

kcikcn wo ba minna nozui yushti no toki kara no time from all brain thing infancy experience no uchi ni osamete tsitnc ni takuwayctc wa orimasu within stored remains having laid up ordinarily

no da ga, him is but day

wa

mi-kiki see hear

sum
do

ya

ni tori-magircte mokuzcn by being confused eye-before

okute sort y a korc koto ga this thing being many that shisd wa no koto ni muyo-na thing for needless thought

nattc shizcn oku no ho yc hiki-komi-gachi ni yui ni side retire naturally back part having become readily

mottc korc wo taking this moscba san-taru wo mini ga ydriu kage kuro shite kcika no if one say willow shade dark see shine firefly chin-chin to shite hajimclc mushi no koye wo gotokn, yashoku
omoidasu, think of

mono

dc

arimascnii.
is

Tatoye

wo

thing (pred.)

not

illustration

like

night-colour
to

quiet

first

insect

cry

kiku

ippan,

hotam wa

hirinna

same thing firefly day time naku, mushi iva him nakanu, mono dc mo nai is not insect day not cry thing even is not
hear
suzushi

mono dc mo oranu even not remain thing


ga, but

him wa
day

yuyc hoka no shigcki ni go. sasayerarctc go-jin because other impressions being impeded I +man = we ki ga tsukanu. in duri dc arimasu. Dcsu kara ynmc to mind not stick principle called it is it is because dream
noisy
katsiitc omotte otta koto wo mini see previously having thought put thing mon'' de kcsshttc omowanai koto wo mini mon" dc arimascnii yo. see thing is not thing being certainly not think thing

mono

iva to ni

kakn

thing

in-any-case

The above passage


others.
It

is

in

much

less

familiar

style

than the

contains numerous expressions and

forms which are

only used by educated

men

or in books.

From

the Shosei Katagi.

2O6

EXTRACTS.

TRANSLATION.
A.

Having seen
is

in a

dream
and
I

my youngest

mind

quite perplexed,

daughter as if alive, my cannot understand on what principle

this could take place.

Is it possible that there may be after all such I hear thru you, Mr. things as true dreams, as they say in China? Ninna, are a student of philosophy, and it amounts to subjecting you without warning to an examination (but I should like to know

your opinion).
B. Indeed. That is unquestionably a very strange dream. But there are numerous precedents of such dreams from old times, and there is nothing miraculous about it. In principle there can of course be no such thing as true dreams.' This being so, let me
'

It may be taken that explain the nature of what we call dreams. they are neither more nor less than the operation of one's own mind. At night, the human body, owing to the fatigue of the

day, falls asleep, and

all

sensation ceases.

But the mind, unlike

the body, does not rest even at night. It continues its activity as in the daytime. The brain therefore, when it is unquiet, is specially sensitive to all manner of things, and as sensation is suspended, there are no impressions from without. There is therefore no necessity for it to attend to that which is immediately before it, and so in

dreams we naturally become conscious of past things which we had not been thinking of. The sole reason for this is that mankind
up
generally are from their infancy continually receiving and storing In the daytime, o\ving to all their experiences in their brains.

the multitude of impressions, our minds become confused by one thing and another, and thoughts needless for immediate matters are

huddled back into the

interior of the

readily brought out again

by
'

reflection.

mind from whence they are not As an illustration of this,


it is

Imay quote
we can
all is still,

the saying

It is in

the dark shade of the willow that

best see the lustre of the firefly;

that

we can hear

the cries of the insects.'

not until night, when It is not that

there are no
their note
their

fireflies in

the daytime, or that the insects do not utter

by day, but our minds do not attend to them owing to being embarrassed by other impressions caused by the noises

of daytime.

Hence what we

call

dreams are visions of things which we must

have previously thought of, and we certainly can not dream of things that have never entered our minds before.

INDEX.
PAGE
PAGE

208

INDEX.

INDEX.

209

210

INDEX.

INDEX.
PAGE

211
PAGE

Shi

...
..

100, 142

Taro

. .

..

..

Shika
Shinjo

18

Shiu

. .

164
18

Taru Te (with Te (Past

55
Adj.)
. .

..
. .

96
53

Participle)

Should
Sochi
. .

7.

^3' !73
13,
..
.. -.

Temaye.. Te mo
Terminations of Verbs

ir,

13

Sochira..
Soitsu

19 18
13 18

.. ..

97 186

Sokka
Soko
Sokora

..
..

Te wa with Adj. with Verbs ,, ,, That . 18,


.

97
55

21, 25,

164 16

19

They
Theirs

.. .. ..
. .

Somebody
Something So
Sonata
.. ..

29

..
. .

29
21 23
21

Think
This

164
161

18,
. .

Sonna
Sonnani

Though Time
To
Tokoro

.. ..

. .

186

..
..

18 21
13

144, 164
. .

Sono So MO ho
Sore
Stems, as Nouns
,,

32, 106, 125


. . . .

.. ..

Tonin

. .

14

21 IO

Transitive

and

Intransitive

Verbs
Uninflected

of Verbs of Adj.
. .

.. ..

50
94
81

Words
. .

. .

. .

78 6

,,

used as Adjectives. 104

Su
Superficial or

Unu
Verbs
Verbal

. .

. .

. .

13

Sum
,,

Land Measure. 189 with uninflected Words 85


. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Form of A dj
. .

42 100
148

Conjugation with Negatives


to

46, 48
..

Wa
Waga Want
Ware
Washi
Watai
. . . . . .

..

51

30
165

,,

do

in
55
7
. .

T
Tachi
J 43

.,
.. ..

..

.. ..

173

..

Tagai ni Tai .

..
.
.

..31
61, 102

..
..

.. .. ..

..13 ..ii ..ii


ii, 15
..

Watakushi
Watashi
Wattchi

Takke

57 57
. .

..

ii ii

Tara Taraba
Tareba
Taredo
Tari

. .

. .
. .

57

We
Week
Weights
. . . .

ii, 15
1 88
. .

..

. .

57 61
,

190
27

60

What

212

INDEX.
PAGE PAGE

When

33
18, 25 18, 27
.. ..
..

Years

. .

186

Who Why Wo
Would

Yo
Yori

75. 154

155
12,
..
J

151

You
Yours

13

165

16
55

F
Yara
Ye

152
153

Zo
Zit
..

66 66

153

Ziiba

ERRATUM.
Bottom of
p.

57 after tabetareba, add kashitaraba, tabetaraba.

" Printed at the " Hakubunsha Tokio.

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ft

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