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17-

title.indd 1

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UPGRADING
AND

REPAIRING PCS
17TH EDITION

Scott Mueller

800 East 96th Street


Indianapolis, Indiana 46240

title.indd 2

25.01.2007 16:10:08


17-

-
2007

title.indd 3

25.01.2007 16:10:08

32.973.26018.2.75
98
681.3.07


..
. ..
..
:
info@williamspublishing.com, http://www.williamspublishing.com
115419, , / 783; 03150, , / 152.

, .
98
, 17 . : . . . :
.. , 2007. 1360 . (+147 c. D) : . . . .
ISBN 9785845911261 (.)

. 
. 
, , ,

. ,
,
, 
, . , 
,
.
32.973.26 018.2.75

.

, , 
,
Que Corporation.
Authorized translation from the English language edition published by Que Pubishing, Copyright 2006.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system,
without permission from the publisher.
Russian language edition is published by Williams Publishing House according to the Agreement with
R&I Enterprises International, Copyright 2007.

ISBN 9785845911261 (.)


ISBN 0789734044 (.)

. 4

, 2007
Que Publishing, 2006

23

29

45

59

241

BIOS: "

443

499

ATA/IDE

573

( )

627

653

10

701

11

755

12

855

13

889

14

15

, "

16

1047

17

1089

18

( )

1133

19

1181

20

1257

21

1299

22

1329

( )

1397

( )

1449

( )

1453

. 5

971
1013

1470





Web

!










IBM

23
23
24
24
25
27
27
28

29
30
30
33
33
34
35
35
37
37
40
40
42
42

1971




(
)

45
46
46
49
52
53
56

. 6

59
60
60
63
68
69
70
71
76



Cyrix
AMD






SMM

MMX
SSE, SSE2 SSE3
3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! 3DNow!
Professional

HyperThreading


PGA
SEC SEP

ZIF
Socket 1
Socket 2
Socket 3
Socket 4
Socket 5
Socket 6
Socket 7 (Super7)
Socket 8
Socket 370 (PGA370)
Socket 423
Socket 478
Socket A (Socket 462)
Socket 603
Socket 754
Socket 939 Socket 940
Socket T (LGA775)
Socket AM2




P1 (086)
8086 8088
80186 80188
8087

80
83
84
88
90
91
93
93
98
98
99
99
100
101
102
103
103
105
110
111
112
114
116
117
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
123
125
125
126
127
129
129
129
130
130
133
135
136
137
138
140
140
141
142

P2 (286)
286
80287
P3 (386)
386
386DX
386SX
386SL
80387
P4 (486)
486
486DX
486SL
486SX
Co 487SX
DX2/OverDrive DX4
Pentium OverDrive
DX2 DX4
AMD 486 (5x86)
Cyrix/TI 486
P5 (586)
Pentium
Pentium

Pentium

Pentium MMX
Pentium

FPU
,


Pentium
AMDK5
: P6 (686)




Pentium Pro
Pentium II
Celeron
Pentium III
Pentium II/III Xeon

Nexgen Nx586
AMDK6
AMD Athlon, Duron
Athlon XP
AMD Duron
AMD Athlon XP
Athlon MP
Sempron (Socket A)
Cyrix/IBM 6x86 (MI) 6x86MX (MII)
VIA C3
P7
(Intel Pentium 4)

. 7

142
142
143
143
144
145
145
145
146
146
146
148
149
150
150
151
153
153
155
155
155
158
159
161
162
163
164
164
165
166
166
166
166
167
171
181
187
192
194
194
194
197
200
202
204
204
205
206
207

Pentium 4 Extreme Edition


,
Pentium 4

Xeon

(64)
Itanium Itanium 2
AMD Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX
AMD Sempron (Socket 754)
AMD Opteron


?
Intel Pentium D Intel
Pentium Extreme Edition
AMD Athlon 64 X2
AMD Opteron

OverDrive


4


PC XT
AT
BabyAT
LPX
ATX
microATX
FlexATX
ITX miniITX
BTX
NLX
WTX






Intel

AMD
/
Hub


386/486 Intel

Pentium (P5)

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

218
218
218
219
220
220
223
227
229
230
231
231
235
238
239
239
239
241
242
244
245
247
249
252
258
261
262
266
268
274
275
276
279
280
281
283
285
286
287

289
291
291
293

Intel 810, 810E 810E2


Intel 815
Intel 820 820E
Intel 840

( Intel)

(P6)

Pentium 4 (P7)
Intel 850
Intel 845
Intel 865
Intel 848P
Intel 875P
Intel 915
Intel 925X

Intel 945 Express
Intel 955X
Intel 975X


Pentium 4 (P7)

SiS Pentium 4 Pentium D

ULI Pentium 4

ATI Pentium 4

VIA Pentium 4

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

AMD Athlon/Duron

VIA Athlon, Duron
Athlon XP

SiS AMD
Athlon/Duron

(ALiMagik 1) AMD Athlon

NVIDIA
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

ATI Radeon IGP

Intel
Pentium 4 Xeon
Intel 860
Intel E7205
Intel E7505
Intel E7525

Athlon 64

. 8

296
299
301
303

305
309
314
316
317
317
318
318
319
319
321

321
321
326
328
330
335
335

337

345
350

351
353

355
356
356
356
356

AMD 8000 (8151)


ULi
Athlon 64
VIA
Athlon 64
NVIDIA
Athlon 64
SiS
Athlon 64
ATI
Athlon 64
Super I/O
CMOS

,






EISA

VESA
PCI
PCIExpress
(AGP)



,


Plug and Play






BIOS:
"
BIOS
BIOS
BIOS
ROM
ROM

ROM BIOS
BIOS
BIOS
BIOS
BIOS

362
363
365
367
370
373
374
375
376
384
389
395
395
396
399
400
403
405
405
409
411
414
415
421
423
425
427
428
432
435
437
440
440

443
444
447
448
449
450
451
455
460
461
461
462

357

CMOS
BIOS
CMOS
ROM BIOS
2000

CMOS
Setup BIOS
Setup BIOS
Maintenance
Main
Advanced
Security
Power
Boot
Exit

Setup BIOS
Plug and Play BIOS
,

Plug and Play
ACPI
Plug and
Play
BIOS

BIOS
ROM
BIOS
6

:
ROM
DRAM
 SRAM



EDO
SDRAM
DDR SDRAM
DDR2 SDRAM
RDRAM

SIMM, DIMM RIMM
SIMM
DIMM
DDR
DIMM
DDR2
DIMM
RIMM



. 9

463
469
471
471
471
474
474
474
475
475
477
487
488
489
491
491
492

493
493
494
494
495
496
499
500
502
503
504
508
511
512
513
514
516
517
520
521
527
529
531
532
534
536
538
540


(ECC)


,
DIMM RIMM






ROM BIOS
ROM

7
ATA/IDE

IDE
IDE
IDE

ATA
ATA
ATA1
ATA2
ATA3
ATA/ATAPI4
ATA/ATAPI5
ATA/ATAPI6
ATA/ATAPI7
SATA/ATAPI8

ATA

ATA

ATA


ATA

PATA
PIO
ATA
DMA
ATA
Serial ATA
SATA
SATA
Serial ATA II
AHCI
SATA
ATA

541
547
547
548
554
557
559
560
562
567
569
569
569
571
573
574
574
575
576
577
579
580
580
581
581
582
583
584
584
585
585
588
589
590
591
593
594
595
597
599
599
600
601
602

ATA
ATA

ATAPI (ATA Packet
Interface)
ATA

BIOS
CHS LBA
CHS/LBA
LBA/CHS
BIOS ATA
CHS (
528 )
CHS (
528 )

2,1

4,2
LBAAssist

8,4
137


ATA RAID


( )





/





(FM)

(MFM)

(RLL)

PRML



AFC

602
603
604
605
606
607
607
608
609
610
611
612
614
615
616
619
620
622
623

10

. 10

627
628
628

9

653

654

654

656
5,25
657
3,5
657
2,5
658
1,8
658
1
658

659

661

662

665


669

670

671
/
673

674

682

683

684

685

686

687

687

688

688

690

697

700
10

629
632
633
633
633
634
636
637
639
640
641
641
643
644
644
645
647
648


701

702

702

702

703

704


704
, 

704

704

705

705

706

707

708
3,5
1,44
709

709

Iomega Zip
Iomega REV










Microdrive

,









DAT/DDS, AIT

DLT SDLT










11

710
717
719
720
721
721
723
723
723
725
725
727
727
728
728
728
734
735
737
738
739
739
740
740
743

744
746

747
748
750
750
751
753



755

756


756

757

. 11


, CD
ROM
DVD
DVD
DVD
DVD

DVD ( )

Bluray Disc
HDDVD



CDROM
DVD
DVD

CD/DVD






CDR
CDRW
:
MultiRead



CDR/RW

CDR/RW For Music Use Only



DVD
DVDRAM
DVDR
DVDRW
DVD+RW


CD/DVD

CD/DVD

DVD El Torito

CD/DVD

757
770
771
771
772
773
777
778
781
782
783
783
784
794
800
802
806
806
814
815
817
818
819
823
826
827
831
832
834
835
837
838
839
840
841
843
844
844
847
847
848
848

11


CDRW DVDRW




FDISK
Format


MSDOS

Windows 9x/Me






SCSI

SCSI

851

12

13





VGA





12

. 12

855
856
856
856
857
859
864
865
865
867
874
875
877
877
877
878
879
879
880
880
881
882
883
884
885
889
890
890
899
903
904
905
907
919
920
921
922
922
925
925
928
930
930

API




TV


Desktop Video (DTV)




14

Sound
Blaster Pro
DirectX





MIDIc

DVD

935
936
938
940
944
945
951
952
954
960
960
961
961
962
963
963
967
968
969
971
972
973
973
973
974
974
977
981
981
982
983
983
984
984
986
986
987
988
989
989
989
990
991



AOpen TubeSound



,
DirectX








15

991
993
993
996
997
998
999
1000
1000
1002
1002
1004
1004
1004
1008
1010
1011

,

"
1013

1014

1014
IEEE1394 USB 1.1/2.0
1015

USB
1016
USB
1017
USB
1022
USB 2.0/HiSpeed USB
1023
USB OnTheGo
1024
USB
1024
legacyfree
1026
IEEE1394 (FireWire i.Link)
1026
1394
1026
1394a
1027
1394b
1028


1029

1030

1031
UART
1034

1035

1036

1036

1037

1039
IEEE 1284
1040

. 13


EPP ECP

,


SCSI

1043
1043
1044
1046
1046

16
1047

1048
101 102

1048
104 Windows
1049

1051
Num Lock
1052

1052

1052

1057

1059

1060


1061


1061
USB
1063


1064

1065

1066

1066

1067

1068

1069

1069

1072

1074

1076
TrackPoint II/III/IV
1077

1079

1080
Ergonomic
Mouse 3M
1081

1081
1081
USB
1081

1082

1082


1082

1086

1087

13

17
1089

1090


1090
1091

1092

1092


1092

1093
CATV
1095
CATV
1097
CATV
1097
DSL
1097
DSL
1098
DSL
1099
DSL
1100
DSL

1101
DSL
1102
DSL
1103


1103
DirecWAY StarBand

1103
DirecWAY
1104
StarBand
1105

1106
ISDN
1106
ISDN
1106
ISDN
1107
ISDN
1108


1108

1109

1110
T1 T3
1110

1111

1111
()
1112

1114

1115

1115

1116

1117

1118

56 /
1118
56
1119
56 / 1119

1122


1122

1126
, 

1126

14

. 14











( )


,




/
/


/

Ethernet
Ethernet
Bluetooth






/
Ethernet
802.11

TCP/IP
IPX
NetBEUI

HomePNA




//

1127
1129
1129
1129
1130
1131
1131

18

1133
1134
1134
1134
1135
1136
1136
1136
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1145
1145
1145
1148
1151
1155
1159
1159
1163
1167
1167
1168
1168
1168
1169
1170
1172
1172
1173
1173
1174
1174
1174








TCP/IP
19



Power_Good




ATX
PC/XT/AT LPX

/LPX
ATX ATX12V 1.x
24
ATX12V 2.x


()
ATX Dell




Serial ATA
PCI Express x16 (SLI)






?

,
Energy Star




,

. 15

1176
1176
1176
1177
1177
1177
1177
1178
1178
1181
1182
1182
1183
1183
1184
1185
1187
1191
1204
1204
1204
1206
1206
1208
1216
1218
1220
1223
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1227
1229
1230
1232
1234
1234
1237
1238
1239
1239
1240
1240
1241
1242



RTC/NVRAM
CMOS

CMOS
CMOS




Setup BIOS





Windows 2000/XP

1243
1245
1246
1247
1247
1248
1248
1249
1250
1250
1250
1253
1253
1255
1256

20

1257
1258
1259
1260
1262
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1270
1272
1273
1273
1277
1279
1279
1283

1286
1287
1289
1290
1291
1291
1292
1293
1293
1293
1293

15

CDROM

1294
1295
1296

21

22

1299
1300
1301
1303
1304
1306
1307
1308
1308
1309
1316
1321



1329

1330

1330
(POST) 1330
1340

1341


1341

1341
: ,


1342
DOS
1345
Windows 9x/Me
1345
Windows NT/2000/XP
1348

1349

1349

16

. 16



POST






A

1353
1353
1355
1360
1362
1362
1372
1377
1377
1378
1379
1379
1380
1382
1382
1382
1383
1383


( )

1397

( )

1449


( )

1453

1470

:

, .

. 17


Mueller Technical Research (MTR), 
() 
. 1982 MTR

, .
MTR Fortune 500, 
, , 
, .
.
, (
, , , ),
A+ .
. , 10 , 
.
1982 ,
,
. 17 ,
.
20 ,
(17 ); Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Academic Edition; Upgrading and Repairing Windows,
(1 2 ); Upgrading and Repairing PCs:
A+ Certification Study Guide (1 2 ), Upgrading and Repairing PCs Technicians Portable
Reference (1 2 ); Upgrading and Repairing PCs Field Guide; Upgrading and Repairing
PCs Quick Reference; Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Linux Edition; Killer PC Utilities; The IBM PS/2
Handbook; , Ques Guide to Data Recovery.
, ,
Upgrading and Repairing PCs Training Course: A Digital Seminar from Scott
Mueller, . 
, Upgrading and Repairing PCs Video: 12th Edition
Your PC: The Inside Story, Upgrading and Repairing PCs (10
1217 ), Upgrading and Repairing Laptops Upgrading and Repairing
Windows.
MTR :
Mueller Technical Research
3700 Grayhawk Drive
Algonquin, IL 601026325
.: (847) 8546794
: (847) 8546795
: scottmueller@compuserve.com
Web: http://www.m-tr.com
http://www.upgradingandrepairingpcs.com

18

. 18

, 
( 2 . )
.
, ,
, (scottmueller@
compusrve.com) Web http://www.upgradingandrepairingpcs.com
Ask Scott.
,
.

. 19

19


(Mark Edward Soper) Select Systems & Associates, Inc.,
, . 23
, , ,
, , .
IBM PC, PCXT PC
. , , PC,
, Atari, TI, Commodore 64 CP/M, 
( , ) 1983 1989 .

, 
, .
1998 ,
; . , 
Upgrading and Repairing ( ).
11 ;
, ,
, 2 .
Upgrading and Repairing Servers; Upgrading and Repairing Networks, 5th edition; Upgrading and
Repairing PCs: Technicians Portable Reference (1 2 ); Upgrading and Repairing PCs:
Field Guide ( );
Upgrading and Repairing PCs: A+ Certification Study Guide, 2nd edition. ,

www.upgradingandrepairingpcs.com.
Complete Idiots Guide to HighSpeed Internet Connec
tions, Absolute Beginners Guide to Cable Internet Connections, TechTVs Upgrading Your PC (1
2 , ), PC Help Desk in a Book, Absolute
Beginners Guide to A+ Certification, Easy Digital Cameras, Absolute Beginners Guide to Home
Networking, Absolute Beginners Guide to Home Automation, Leo Laportes PC Help Desk.
Using Windows 
Que, Special Edition Using Windows Millennium, Special Edition Using Win
dows XP Home, Special Edition Using Windows XP Professional Using Windows XP Platinum Edition.
(Will Schmied) Active Directory 
, , Fortune 100.
, , Pearson
Microsoft. Microsoft,
MCSE; www.mcseworld.com, 
MCSE. , ,
, , , .
.
(Mark Reddin) (MCSE, A+)
. 
, , 
.
Commodore Atari ( ).
Ball State University 
.

. 
, Que, .
Exam Cram Pearson Education.
20

. 20


, 17 
. 
. 
. .
.

, ,
, . 
?
(Lisa Carlson) MTR 
. 
; ,
.
(Rick Kughen)
Que. ,
Upgrading and Repairing 
. ,
,
.
(Todd Green).
, Upgrading
and Repairing Windows.
Upgrading and Repairing Laptops ( ) Upgrading and
Repairing Networks ( ). ,
.
(Todd Brakke), ,
.
.
(Tonya Simpson) (Megan Wade) 
, .
, , ,
Que, 
. ,
. , 
Que.
(Greg Wiegand),
, 
, , 
, .
Que, , ,
; , 
.
, (Mark Soper), 
. 
, , 
.

. 21

21

, ; 
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. 
, , , ,
, .
, , . 
, , !

22

. 22


, 17 .
, 
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, 17 ,
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PC 8 64
, . ,
, 
, .

, , 
.
, 8088 Pentium D
Athlon 64.
,
.
,
, 
. 
, , 
, , PCI Express, DVD+/RW, Serial
ATA, USB 2.0 FireWire ..


, ,
. ,
, , 
. , .
Intel
AMD, , 
. , 
.
() , 
PCI Express.
, 
, .
,
. 
,

. 23

23

,
, SLI 
NVIDIA Crossfire ATI.
,
.
, , .

.
. 
, . 
.
,
, , (Technical Reference)
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!



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IBM PC PC
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Intel, AMD, VIA, NVIDIA .
, , , PCI, PCI Express
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Intel 850
ATX BTX.
5, BIOS: ,
BIOS, , , .
BIOS, Plug and Play BIOS
, BIOS . 
,
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6, , . 
, .
. 
,  , 
 , SIMM, DIMM RIMM, 

. 25

25

SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM, EDO 60 ,


PC133, PC3200 DDR2? . ,
PC3200 DDR
SDRAM DIMM EDO SIMM, (Fast
Page Mode), , , .
7, ATA/IDE, ATA/IDE, 
Ultra ATA 133 /; ,
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. 26

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28

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. 29

""""

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.
.
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, 
.
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, ,
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1906 .

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1936 .

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1936 .

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Z3. ,
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1937 .

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5 .

1943 .

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.

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.

1946 .

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1947 .

23 (John Bardeen), (Walter Brattain)


(William Shockley) ,
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1949 .

(Maurice Wilkes)
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1950 .

ERA 1101.

1952 .

UNIVAC I.

1953 .

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1954 .

2,5 ,
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1954 .

IBM 650; 450


.

1955 .

Bell Laboratories TRADIC.

1956 .

5
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1956 .

IBM 305 RAMAC .

1958 .

(Jack Kilby) Texas Instruments ,


.

1959 .

IBM 7000 5555 .

1959 .

(Robert Noyce) 5555 Fairchild Camera Instrument Corp. 5555 ,


.

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.

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30

. 30

1.

1961 .

Datamation, IBM 81,2% ; IBM 5


1400.

1964 .

CDC 6600, (Seymour Cray), 3 .


, , IBM Stretch.

1964 .

IBM System/360 ( 40 5
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1964 .

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1965 .

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1966 .

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ARPAnet,
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1971 .

IBM 5 85 .

1971 .

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1971 .

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1972 .

Hewlett5Packard HP535 .

1972 .

Intel 8008.

1972 .

(Steve Wozniak) 5555 , 5


.

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5 Xerox.

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1973 .

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1974 .

5 Xerox ,
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1975 .

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Popular Electronics Altair 8800, 5


Intel 8080.

1975 .

(VDM), (Lee Felsenstein),


5 .

1976 .

Apple I.

1976 .

Shugart Associates 5,255 .

1976 .

Cray I.

1977 .

Tandy Radio Snack TSR580.

1977 .

Apple II.

1977 .

Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor).

1978 .

Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780, 4,3


.

1979 .

Motorola 68000.

1980 .

(John Shoch) 5 X erox


5555 ,
.

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, 60 5,255
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1981 .

(Adam Osborne) Osborne I


1 795 .

1981 .

IBM PC.

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Philips Sony CD5DA (5 ).


5, Sony, .

5555

. 31

31

1983 .

Apple Lisa .

1983 .

Compaq Computer Corp. IBM PC.

1984 .

Apple , 5
1,5 . .

1984 .

IBM PC5AT (PC Advanced Technology),


. Intel 286 165
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1985 .

Philips 5 CD5ROM.

1986 .

Compaq Deskpro 386, Intel 386.

1987 .

IBM PS/2, 3,55 5


VGA5.

1988 .

Apple (Steve Jobs), , NeXT.

1988 .

Compaq PC5
.

1988 .

(Robert Morris) ARPAnet;


6 60 . .

1989 .

Intel 486, .

1990 .

5 (Tim Berners5Lee), (CERN),


(HTML), World Wide
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1993 .

Intel Pentium P5. , Intel


.

1995 .

Intel Pentium Pro 5555 P6.

1995 .

Microsoft 325 Windows 95.

1997 .

Intel Pentium II, Pentium Pro MMX.

1997 .

AMD K6, Intel P5 (Pentium).

1998 .

Microsoft Windows 98.

1998 .

Intel Celeron, Pentium II.


5, Intel , 5
5 .

1999 .

AMD Athlon.

1999 .

Intel Pentium III, Pentium II SSE


(Streaming SIMD Extensions).

2000 .

Microsoft Windows Me (Millennium Edition) Windows 2000.

2000 .

Intel AMD 1 .

2000 .

AMD Duron, Athlon 5


.

2000 .

Intel Pentium 4, 325 (IA532) Intel.

2000 .

Intel Itanium, 645 (IA564) .

2001 .

205 IBM PC.

2001 .

Intel 2 , Pentium 4.
28,5 , 108 1 , 18 ,
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2001 .

Microsoft Windows XP Home Professional, (9 x/Me) 5


(NT/2000) Windows NT.

2002 .

Pentium 4, 3 . 5
Hyper5Threading (HT), 5
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2002 .

Intel Pentium M, , ,
, ,
. Pentium M 5555 Centrino Intel.

2003 .

AMD Athlon 64 5555 645 ,


.

2003 .

IEEE
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Intel Pentium 4 Prescott;


, 0,095 .

32

. 32

1.

2004 .

Intel EM64T (Extended Memory 64 Technology) 5555 645


IA532 Intel. EM64T ( )
x86564 (AMD64), AMD; 645
Itanium.

2005 .

Microsoft Windows XP x64 Edition,


AMD64 EM64T.

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. Intel Pentium D 8 xx
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2005 .

AMD Athlon 64 X2.


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. 34

1.

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, ().
, 1945 , , 


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.
 ,
, 1947 . 
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(), .
, , 
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,
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), .
,
.
, 
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, : ,
. ,
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. ,
;
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, .

.
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.
( ) 
. 1947 Bell Laboratory (John Bardeen)
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. 35

35

Bell, . 1956
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, ,
. 
,
.

. 1.1.

, 
.
, .. N, , P.
, .
,
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Intel .
, Intel 
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Duron, , Athlon
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Athlon,
,
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64 Intel (IA64).

. 39

39

, ,
, 32 .
2000 , 
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.
2001 Intel Pentium 4
2 , , .
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Palomino, Athlon , 
. 2001 AMD Intel 

Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4 Athlon/Duron.
2002 Intel Pentium 4,
3,06 . Hyper
Threading (HT), 
.
HT 2540%
Pentium 4. Windows XP Home
Edition, , , .
2003 AMD 64 Athlon 64 ( 
ClawHammer, K8). 64 Itanium
Itanium 2, 64
32 , Athlon 64
64 x86, 
Athlon, Pentium 4 . Athlon 64 32
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,
.
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. . 

.


1973 
8008. ,
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40

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1.

1975 Altair MITS 


Popular Electronic. ,
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(),
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BASIC (Beginners Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code) Microsoft.
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IBM PC 1980 Sys
tem/23 DataMaster.
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IBM PC.
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IBM, Mac.
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, IBM, 
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Apple, Apple , IBM.
IBM PC Macintosh
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1980 IBM 
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1975 , IBM ,
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IBM PC.
IBM PC DataMaster. , , 
DataMaster; , IBM PC
, DataMaster, 
( ).
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ter, IBM PC.
DataMaster 8085 Intel,
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IBM PC 8088,
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IBM , 
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IBM. , 
IBM PC Microsoft.

, IBM Digital Research, CP/M,


. Microsoft,
5555 . IBM
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IBM PC 12 1981
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. 
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IBM PC 25 , , , 
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( , ). IBM PC
160
DOS 1.0,
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, , 23 ( 
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, ,
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1965 5
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,
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2,3 . 4004 140 . Pentium III Xeon. , 2007 Intel
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: IBM 
PC . , IBM
, ,
. .
Intel , Microsoft
.  , ,
Wintel. AMD 
Intel (AMD 484,
K5/K6), Pentium, Athlon
, 
Pentium II/III/4.
Intel, Microsoft AMD
. , PCI AGP, 
ATX NLX, ,
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, . AMD
,
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AMD , 
Intel , .
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Windows, Office .. Intel, Microsoft
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, DVD,

. 1990
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43

, CP/M UNIX, DOS 


. Windows , 
PC .
Macintosh Apple , PC
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, ,
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Apple , Power Computing.
Apple 
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Apple 
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Intel x86, 
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1.

2
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1975 , MITS Altair.) 
PC IBM .
PC IBM ,
( , IBM PC).
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PC
PC , 
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PS/2. , 
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, IBM , .
IBM,
.
: PC IBM ,
? :
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, , PC , , 
PC.



, : Microsoft!.
, . ,
Microsoft , ;
MS DOS Windows 3.1/95/98/NT,
Windows 2000/XP. 2007 Microsoft
Windows XP Windows Vista.
Microsoft , 

(, ). , (, , 
, , ),
, Windows. Microsoft
Web, ,
.

Microsoft 
. Microsoft

46

. 46

2. ,

,
.
, IBM ;
Microsoft
. , BIOS (Basic Input Output System
), Microsoft DOS (Disk Oper
ating System )
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soft MS DOS, IBM,
. , Compaq, ,
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PC, .
( ),
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soft 1981 . IBM
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( 17 ).
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Intel, 8088,
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,
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. , IBM

. IBM,
,  PC .
( 
IBM ), . 
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, BIOS
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47

( DOS Windows) BIOS 


.
, Phoenix
, , 
, BIOS, IBM. 
, IBM, BIOS. 
, ,
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Phoenix clean room,
. 
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, .
 IBM , BIOS,
, , IBM, 
. POST (PowerOn Self Test), BIOS,

32128 . Phoenix, , Award, AMI
(American Megatrends) Microid Research, BIOS
.
 IBM 
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, IBM.
, Macintosh Apple. 
, Mac ; Mac
, .
, Apple MAC OS Apple
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clean room BIOS, .
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Apple, 
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PC. , Apple
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BIOS, 
Macintosh!


, Microsoft ,
PC, , 
. , IBM
PC 1987 . IBM
PC, (8/16 ISA),
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, 
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Intel.
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Intel PC. ,
Intel inside ( , Intel),
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. Computer Reseller News Compaq (
HP) IBM 
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, .. , 
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( ),
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, , 

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49

.
, , .
, , 
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, 
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. Gateway
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, ? Intel. 
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, , , .
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1989 , 82350 EISA (Extended In
dustry Standard Architecture), 1993 ( ) 
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50

. 50

2. ,

1994 , Intel 
. : 1997 Intel 
,
( 30 . , 3,6 . !).
,
, Intel, , 
.
, Intel , 
. 
, ,

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.
Intel PC.
I (Peripheral Component Interconnect) .
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.
I Express ( 3GIO) , 
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SIG (I Special Interest Group) I.
DMI (Desktop Management Interface ), 
.
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) APM (Advanced Power Management
) .
Intel , 
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IC Insights, Intel 
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, AMD (. 2.1).
, , Web
, The Register (http://www.
theregister.co.uk), 
Chipzilla.
2.1. 2004

2004


2004 *



2003


2003 *
2004/2003

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

30,900
15,830
10,700
9,180
9,000
8,760
8,531
7,648
6,469
5,692
5,519

27,030
10,400
8,250
7,109
7,970
7,238
7,355
5,855
5,603
4,512
4,654

. 51

Intel
Samsung
TI
Infineon
Renesas
ST
Toshiba
TSMC
NEC
Philips
Freescale

1
2
3
7
4
6
5
8
9
11
10

14%
52%
30%
29%
13%
21%
16%
31%
15%
26%
19%

51

. 2.1

2004


2004 *



2003


2003 *
2004/2003

12

5,070

Sony

13

3,933

29%

13
14

5,001
4,635

AMD/Spansion
Micron

12
15

3,940
3,575

27%
30%

15
16

4,420
4,265

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Matsushita

20
14

2,516
3,675

76%
16%

17
18

3,900
3,440

UMC
Fujitsu

19
18

2,740
2,955

42%
16%

19

3,355

Sharp

17

3,035

11%

20

3,224

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22

2,466

31%

21

3,150

IBM

16

3,115

1%

22
23

2,818
2,570

Rohm

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21
24

2,490
2,100

13%
22%

24

2,401

Broadcom

28

1,610

49%

25

2,220

Sanyo

23

2,245

551%

26
27
28

2,048
2,011
1,975

National
Agilent
NVIDIA

29
27
26

1,560
1,635
1,820

31%
23%
9%

29
30

1,807
1,740

Agere
ATI

25
38

1,920
1,135

556%
53%

* .

, 
,
, , , 
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, ,
Wintel.


Intel , Microsoft 
, ,
x Design Guides, ,
, ( 
) Windows. 
Designed for Windows ( Windows). 
,
Designed for Windows, () 
x.
.
Hardware Design Guide for Microsoft Windows 95 ( 
Microsoft Windows 95).
Hardware Design Guide Supplement for 95 (
95).
97 Hardware Design Guide ( 97).
98 System Design Guide ( 98).
99 System Design Guide ( 99).
2000 System Design Guide ( 2000).
2001 System Design Guide ( 2001).
52

. 52

2. ,

Web Microsoft
Web Design Guides (http://www.desguide.org).
, 
, , 
Windows 95/98 Windows NT/2000/XP.

, Designed for Windows ,
Microsoft.
,
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, (USB) IEEE 1394, 
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, DVD, , .

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.
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,
PS 2001 System Design, Web:
Microsoft http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/
platform/default.asp;
Web Intel http://developer.intel.com.


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. , , 1970 , 
, Intel ( , ,
Intel). Z80
Zilog 6502 MOS Technologies. Z80 
8080.
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, . AMD 
. , ,
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 , . 
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(, 1 ), Microsoft Softcard ( Z80), 
. Softcard , , Z80 
2 .
. Z80 1970 
1980 CP/M. 6502, ,
Apple (.. Mac).
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IBM PC Intel 8088 (4,77 ) 
Microsoft Disk Operating System (DOS) 1.0.
Intel (Pentium Celeron/III/4 Athlon/Athlon XP)
Microsoft. , 
, , 
, .

1971
15 2001 30 . 
, 10 
IBM PC. 18 500
( 0,108 2 ). Intel 4004 1.
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, 
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60

. 60

3.

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.
, 8080, 1974 .
6 000 64 .
( PC) Altair 8800.
CP/M, Microsoft BASIC.
, .
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1975 Intel, 8080,
Zilog. 1976 Z80,
8080.
8080 , ,
(RAM), 
. Z80
8080, .
, , 
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Z80 2,5 (
10 ), 8,5 . 64 .
Radio Shack Z80
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, Osborne Kaypro. 
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3 .
MOS Technologies 6502, 
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6800,
68000. 8080 300 ,
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(Steve Wozniak), 6502
Apple I Apple II. 6502 ,
Commodore .
, Nintendo Entertainment
System (NES). Motorola 68000,
Apple Macintosh.
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86. 
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. 29 000 5 . 
20 1 . 
8086 8080 .

.
, CP/M (8080).
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1971

. 61

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, Windows 95 ( 32) Windows NT (
32 ). 
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, . , 32 
16 . .
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AMD 64 32 Intel. 
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Intel), Itanium Itanium 2,
32 . IA64
1994 Intel HP
Merced; 1997 . 
2001 Itanium, IA64.
, IA64 IA32, 
. ( IA64 ), 
, 
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.
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64

64

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64

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0,13

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64

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1978 .

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1988 .
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1994 .
1991 .
1989 .
1992 .
1992 .
1994 .
1995 .

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128

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3,3 .
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5,5 .

1993 .
1994 .
1997 .
1995 .

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1997 .
1997 .
1999 .
1998 .
1998 .

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1/2








SSE
SSE
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9,5 .
28,1 .
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125 .
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1999 .
1999 .
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2002 .
2000 .
2002 .
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. 65

65

3.2. AMD

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"

()

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64

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128

16

AMD Athlon MP
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AMD Athlon MP
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AMD Athlon MP
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AMD Opteron
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AMD Opteron
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32

64

0,13

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32

64

0,13

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32

64

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128

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66

. 66

3.

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1998 .

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1999 .

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2002 .

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5555
5555

Celeron;

36

68 719 476 736

67 108 864

65 536

64

5555

Athlon 64;
Athlon 64 FX;
Opteron

40

1 099 511 627 776

1 073 741 824

1 048 576

1 024

Itanium;
Itanium 2

44

17 592 186 044 416

17 179 869 184

16 777 216

16 384

16

Pentium Pro;
Pentium II;
Pentium III;
Pentium 4

. (), () ()
, (kibibytes
KiB), (gibibytes GiB) (tebibytes TiB). Web
www.iec.ch/zone/si/si_bytes.htm.

,
, , , 
. : 
, 
, .

( )
, , 
. , ,
; , , 
, .
, 
, . , 32
32 , 
32 , 16 
.
32. Itanium Athlon 64 64 ,

.
( 
) . ,
8088 386SX
. ( )
. , 386S 32,
16 . 
16 ,
32 386.
,
. ,
386D 386S 32, 386S

70

. 70

3.

, 386D . 
.
Pentium 64, 32. 
, ,
32 . Pentium 
32 , , 64
. 
.
Intel AMD
. 
(.. ),
.


32 Intel, 386, 
, . 
;
, . 
.
.
(16 ).
IA32:
(32 );
(16 32
).
64 IA32e 6 ( AMD64, x8664
EM64T):
64 (64 );
(32 ).
. 3.6.
3.6.

IA532

5555


645

16
32
32
64

16
32
16
64

24
32
24
64

16
32
16
32

16
32/16
16
64

64

32

32

32

32/16

IA532e


IBM PC 8088, 16
, 16 , 1 ,
20 . PC
; 16
1 . , DOS,
DOS, Windows 1.x 3.x Windows 1.x 3.x
16 . 16 
8088.

. 71

71

, 286, 16
, 8088, . ,
286 8088 16
, 8088, . 
, 8088 286, 
. , , 16
, 20 ,
1 . 
, .. .

; ,
,
( ).
IA"32 (32")
32 , PC, 386.
32 .
32 , 32
32 . , 

. ,
.
, , ,
.
, , 
32 , , Intel
386 . 386
16 . 
, . 
; 32 
, 16 
. ,  32
.
, Pentium 4, 
, Turbo 8088. Turbo , 
16 ,
16 1 , 
8088. , Pentium 4
Athlon XP 256 , Windows 3.x
DOS , 127
!
, 
32 
.
32 .
. , , .
 , 32 , ,
Unix (, Linux), OS/2 Windows NT/2000/XP, 
. Windows XP 

Windows 95/98/Me ( 16/32 ). 

72

. 72

3.

16 Windows 3.x.


DOS.
64 , Itanium AMD Opteron, 
, Athlon 64 
. 
32 . ,
, 64 
. Microsoft 64 Win
dows XP, 64
.

Itanium AMD Opteron/Athlon 64 645 .


, 645 , , 5
. ,
645 Intel 5
645 Athlon .

IA"32
32 Windows
. , 16
( ), 32
(.. , ). DOS Windows,
.
, 
,
. ,
32 .
, , 
, 1 , 
. 
, DOS , 
640 . , 1
16 , 384
. 8088, ,
, , 
PC .
1 
( ), 
.
16
DOS. DOS Windows 
DOS, .
, Intel ( AMD Cyrix)
. 32 
32 .
DOS Windows 3.x , .. 
, . 
: 
( ) Windows.
Pentium 4 ,
DOS.

. 73

73

Windows 9x ( Windows Me), <F8>, 


Starting Windows.... , ,
16
DOS. Safe mode command prompt,
( ),
.
Windows Me , , Windows 98.
16 , Microsoft
(Startup). Windows NT/2000/XP
. DOS
, 
. ,
,
.
DOS DOS,
, DOS
XMS ( 1 ). DOS 
DOS Windows 3.x, .
, , DOS , DPMI
(DOS protected mode interface DOS).
Windows 3.x
XMS Windows 3.x. 16 
, 1 . DOS
DOS; ,
(1 ), 
, . DOS 
, Windows
DPMI, Windows, 
XMS .
: 64 
. IBM AT, 21
(A20, A0 ). A20, 
64 
64 , .
(high memory area HMA).
64" IA"32e (AMD64, x86"64, EM64T)
IA32, AMD
Intel. , 64 
, (8086), IA32 IA32e.
IA32 .
IA32e 64 ,
64 32 .
IA32e .
64 . 64
64 .
. 64
32 .
64
64 . 64
.
74

. 74

3.

64 .
4 (
).
GPR (generalpurpose register).
SIMD (MMX, SSE, SSE2 SSE3).
64 GPR .
IE32e 32 16 
64 . , 16 
, (, DOS), 
, , . 
. 64 , 
,
64 32 .
, 64
, , 64 , 
. 64
Windows.
Windows XP 64bit Edition for Itanium.
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition.
, IA64, ,
Itanium Itanium 2, 2001 . ,
IA32, 64 , 
Athlon 64, Opteron, Sempron, Pentium D, Pentium Extreme Edition,
Xeon Pentium 4;
Windows XP Professional 360 . 
, Microsoft x64 ,
AMD64 EM64T, IA32, 
AMD Intel, Windows.
32 64 Windows . 3.7.
3.7. 32" 64" Windows XP

Windows XP (32")

Windows XP (64")

32

16

16

512

470

128

256

128

32 64 Windows XP


, 32 Windows 4 
, 2 , 64
Windows XP 32 , 16 
. , 
, ,
. 4 , 
64 , 64 Windows.
, 64 Windows XP  
32 Windows, DOS 

. 75

75

, . 
: 32 64 
DLL, 64 , ,
32 DLL. , , ,
32, 64 . 64
. ,
, . 12 
, 64 .
64 Windows, 64
. ,
Itanium , 
x64 .
32 64 , 
,
. , 16
32 16 . , 32 64
16 , 23 .


, 
. Intel, AMD VIA/Cyrix.
,
(). , 
, . 

, .
. 
. ( .) , ..
. . 3.1 .

. 3.1.

. 1885
,
.

()
, . 
. , Pentium II
. ( , 
76

. 76

3.

; ,
.)
, .
8086 8088.
12 .
286 386.
4,5 .
486 Intel ,
, AMD 5x86, 2 .
Pentium, K6. Pentium Intel
, AMD Cyrix, 
,
.
Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III/4Celeron Athlon/Athlon XP/Duron.
, AMD Cyrix, ,
, .
, , 
, (.. 
).
? .
486 386,
, 386. 
Pentium , 486. , 486 
133 ( AMD 5x86133) , Pentium 
75 ! , Pentium 
, 486. Pentium II III 50%
Pentium, , 
.
, , 
Pentium III, 1 000 ,
Pentium, 1 500 ,
, , 486, 
3 000 , , , 
386 286, 6 000 , 8088,
12 000 . , PC
8088 , 4,77 ,
1,5 . .
, ;
, .
. 
:
, .

, , Intel
, Intel, 
.
, 32 ;
( ) iCOMP 2.0 (intel Comparative Microprocessor Performance
Intel). 
iCOMP 3.0. 

. 77

77

Web Intel : http://


developer.intel.com/procs/perf/index.htm.

iCOMP.
Pentium 4 Intel .

. 3.8 , iCOMP 2.0, 


.
3.8. iCOMP 2.0 Intel

Pentium 75

67

Pentium Pro 200

Pentium 100

90

Celeron 300

220
226

Pentium 120

100

Pentium II 233

267

Pentium 133

111

Celeron 300A

296

Pentium 150

114

Pentium II 266

303

Pentium 166

127

Celeron 333

318

Pentium 200

142

Pentium II 300

332

Pentium5MMX 166

160

Pentium II Overdrive 300

351

Pentium Pro 150

168

Pentium II 333

366

Pentium5MMX 200

182

Pentium II 350

386

Pentium Pro 180

197

Pentium II Overdrive 333

387

Pentium5MMX 233

203

Pentium II 400

440

Celeron 266

213

Pentium II 450

483

iCOMP 2.0
.
iCOMP ,
.
Pentium III, Intel iCOMP 2.0 
iCOMP 3.0.
, , 
, ,
, . 
ICOMP 3.0, , : WinTune 98 Advanced CPU In
teger, CPUMark 99, 3D WinBench 993D, MultimediaMark 99, Jmark 2.0 WinBench 99FPU
WinMark. SSE (
SIMD), ,
Pentium III. , Pentium III
, , Pentium II,
.
. 3.9 iCOMP 3.0 Intel Pentium III.
3.9. iCOMP 3.0 Intel

Pentium II 350

1000

Pentium III 650

2270

Pentium II 450

1240

Pentium III 700

2420

Pentium III 450

1500

Pentium III 750

2540

Pentium III 500

1650

Pentium III 800

2690

Pentium III 550

1780

Pentium III 866

2890

Pentium III 600

1930

Pentium III 1000

3280

Pentium III 600E

2110

78

. 78

3.

Intel AMD
BAPCo SYSmark 2002 BAPCo SYSmark 2004. 
, BAPCo SYSmark 2002 BAPCo
SYSmark 2004, . 3.10 3.11.
3.10. SYSmark 2002

Pentium 4 Extreme Edition

3,2

SYSmark 2002
362

Pentium 4

3,2

344

Pentium 4

3,0

328

Pentium 4
Pentium 4

3,06
2,8

324
312

Pentium 4
Pentium 4

2,6
2,67

295
285

Pentium 4
Pentium 4

2,53
2,4

273
264

Pentium 4

2,26

252

Pentium 4
Pentium 4

2,2
2,0

238
222

Pentium 4
Pentium 4

1,9
1,8

192
187

Pentium 4
Pentium 4
AMD Athlon XP
Pentium 4
AMD Athlon XP
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III

1,7
1,6
1,67
1,5
1,53
1,2
1,3
1,13
1,0

178
171
171
162
149
108
104
100
92

3.11. SYSmark 2004

SYSmark 2004

Intel Pentium 4EE


Intel Pentium 4E
Intel Pentium 4EE

3,4
3,4
3,2

225
218
215

AMD Athlon 64 FX553

2,4

213

Intel Pentium 4C
Intel Pentium 4E
AMD Athlon 64 FX551

3,4
3,2
2,2

212
204
200

AMD Athlon 64 3400+


AMD Athlon 64 3200+
Intel Pentium 4C
Intel Pentium 4E
AMD Athlon 64 3200+
AMD Athlon 64 3000+
Intel Pentium 4C
AMD Athlon 64 2800+
AMD Athlon XP 3200+
Intel Pentium 4C
AMD Athlon XP 2800+
AMD Athlon XP 2700+
Intel Pentium 4B
AMD Athlon XP 2600+
AMD Athlon XP 2400+

2,2
2,2
3,0
2,8
2,0
2,0
2,8
1,8
2,2
2,4
2,25
2,18
2,8
2,08
2,0

195
194
193
182
180
178
174
164
163
153
151
148
144
144
133

. 79

79

. 3.11

SYSmark 2004

Intel Pentium 4B
Intel Celeron

2,4
2,8

130
117

Intel Celeron

2,7

115

AMD Athlon XP 1800+

1,53

111

Intel Celeron
Intel Celeron

2,5
2,4

110
104

Intel Pentium 4A
Intel Pentium III

2,0
1,0

104
64

SYSmark 2002 SYSmark 2004, 


, 
, 
Microsoft Office.
SYSmark 2002 , 
:
 Adobe Photoshop 6.01, Premiere 6.0, Windows Media
Encoder 7.1, Macromedia Dreamweaver 4 Flash 5;
Microsoft Word 2002, Excel 2002, Power
Point 2002, Outlook 2002, Access 2002, Netscape Communicator 6.0, Dragon Naturally
Speaking ( 5), WinZip 8.0 McAfee VirusScan 5.13.
SYSmark 2004 , 
:
 Adobe After Effects 5.5, Adobe Photoshop 7.01, Adobe
Premiere 6.5, Discreet 3ds max 5.1, Macromedia Dreamweaver MX, Macromedia Flash MX,
Microsoft Windows Media Encoder 9 Series, Network Associates McAfee VirusScan 7.0
WinZip 8.1;
Adobe Acrobat 5.0.5, Microsoft Access
2002, Microsoft Excel 2002, Microsoft Internet Explorer 6, Microsoft Outlook 2002, Micro
soft PowerPoint 2002, Microsoft Word 2002, Network Associates McAfee VirusScan 7.0,
ScanSoft Dragon Naturally Speaking 6 Preferred WinZip 8.1.
SYSmark SYSmark 2004 SE 2005 ;
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition.
SYSmark 2004 SE , SYSmark 2004, 
, .


, 486DX2, , 
. 
, 2,53 Pentium 4 4,75
533 , 2,083 Athlon XP 2800+
Barton 6,25 ,
333 . 1998 Intel
66 . 1998
, , 100 .
1999
133 , Pentium III.
AMD Athlon 100 , 

80

. 80

3.

. 
Athlon 200 .
2000 2001 AMD Athlon Intel Itanium 
266 , Pentium 4 400 533 . 2002
Athlon XP 333 . 2003 Intel
Pentium 4 800 . , 
, Intel AMD.
,
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM.


BIOS. ,
;
. Pentium 
.
, ,
. , Pentium
. . 3.12
Pentium .
3.12. Pentium

Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium/Pentium Pro
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium
Pentium/Pentium Pro/MMX
Pentium/Pentium Pro/MMX
Pentium MMX/Pentium II
Pentium MMX ()/
Pentium II/Celeron
Pentium II/Celeron
Pentium II/Celeron
Pentium II/Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron
Pentium II
Pentium II
Pentium II/III

. 81

75
60
90
120
150
180
66
100
133
166
200
233
266

1,5x
1x
1,5x
2x
2,5x
3x
1x
1,5x
2x
2,5x
3x
3,5x
4x

50
60
60
60
60
60
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

300
333
366
400
433
466
500
533
566
600
633
667
700
733
766
350
400
450

4,5x
5x
5,5x
6x
6,5
7
7,5
8x
8,5x
9x
9,5x
10x
10,5
11
11,5
3,5
4
4,5

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
100
100
100

81

. 3.12

Pentium III

500

100

Pentium III
Pentium III

550
600

5,5x
6x

100
100

Pentium III
Pentium III

650
700

6,5x
7x

100
100

Pentium III
Pentium III/Celeron

750
800

7,5x
8x

100
100

Pentium III/Celeron

850

8,5x

100

Pentium III/Celeron

900

9x

100

Pentium III/Celeron

950

9,5x

100

Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III/Celeron

1000
1100

10x
11x

100
100

Pentium III/Celeron

1200

12x

100

Pentium III/Celeron

1300

13x

100

Pentium III/Celeron
Pentium III
Pentium III

1400
533
600

14x
4
4,5

100
133
133

Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium III
Pentium 4

667
733
800
866
933
1000
1066
1133
1200
1266
1333
1400
1300

5x
5,5x
6x
6,5x
7x
7,5x
8x
8,5x
9x
9,5x
10x
10,5x
3,25

133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
400

Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4/Celeron
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4

1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2200
2400
2266
2400
2500

3,5
3,75
4
4,25
4,5
4,75
5
5,5x
6x
4,25x
4,5x
6,25x

400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
533
533
400

Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4, Pentium D
Pentium 4, Pentium D
Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Pentium 4, Pentium D, Pentium EE
Pentium 4
Pentium 4 EE

2533
2600
2660
2800
2800
3000
3060
3200
3200
3400
3460

4,75x
6,5x
5x
5,25x
3,5x
3,75x
5,75x
4x
4x
4,25x
3,25x

533
400
533
533
800
800
533
800
800
800
1066

82

. 82

3.

. 3.12

Pentium 4

3600

4,5x

800

Pentium 4 EE
Pentium 4

3730
3800

3,5x
4,75x

1066
800

733
800

2,75
3

266
266

Itanium 2
Itanium 2

1000
1300

2,5x
3,25x

400
400

Itanium 2

1300

2,43x

533

Itanium 2

1600

4x

400

Itanium 2

1600

3x

533

Itanium 2
Itanium 2

1666
1666

4,17x
2,5x

400
667

Itanium
Itanium

( , 
) 
. :
, ,
. , ,
,
, . 
, .

, . ,

, .
, .

Cyrix
Cyrix/IBM 6x86, Intel
Pentium, Pentium II, AMD K5 K6, PR
(Performance Rating ), 
. , Cyrix 6x86MX/MIIPR366 
250 (2,5100 ). 
,
250, 366 ( 366 ). . 3.13
Cyrix.
3.13. Cyrix

(P"Rating)

6x86
6x86
6x86
6x86
6x86
6x86
6x86MX
6x86MX
6x86MX
6x86MX

PR90
PR120
PR133
PR150
PR166
PR200
PR133
PR133
PR150
PR150

80
100
110
120
133
150
100
110
120
125

2x
2x
2x
2x
2x
2x
2x
2x
2x
2,5x

40
50
55
60
66
75
50
55
60
50

. 83

83

. 3.13

(P"Rating)

6x86MX

PR166

133

2x

66

6x86MX
6x86MX

PR166
PR166

137,5
150

2,5x
3x

55
50

6x86MX

PR166

150

2,5x

60

6x86MX
6x86MX

PR200
PR200

150
165

2x
3x

75
55

6x86MX
6x86MX

PR200
PR200

166
180

2,5x
3x

66
60

6x86MX
6x86MX

PR233
PR233

166
187,5

2x
2,5x

83
75

6x86MX

PR233

200

3x

66

6x86MX
6x86MX

PR266
PR266

207,5
225

2,5x
3x

83
75

6x86MX
M5II
M5II
M5II
M5II
M5II
M5II
Cyrix III
Cyrix III
Cyrix III
Cyrix III
Cyrix III

PR266
PR300
PR300
PR333
PR366
PR400
PR433
PR433
PR466
PR500
PR533
PR533

233
225
233
250
250
285
300
350
366
400
433
450

3,5x
3x
3,5x
3x
2,5x
3x
3x
3,5x
3x
3x
3,5x
4,5x

66
75
66
83
100
95
100
100
122
133
124
100

, Cyrix 6x86MXPR200 
150, 165, 166 180 , 200 . 
Intel Pentium (Celeron,
Pentium II Pentium III ).
, (PRating) 
Intel Pentium. , Cyrix
MMX,  , 
, 
. PRating 
Cyrix Celeron, Pentium II Pentium III, , 
. , MIIPR366 
250 Intel, 
. , (MII366) ,
250 , , .

AMD
Athlon XP, AMD,
, , , 
.
, ,
,
Intel Pentium 4 ,
. , !

84

. 84

3.


. AMD 
Sempron Athlon 64,
Intel.
Intel AMD , 
, , ,  L2 ..
. 3.14 5, 6, Athlon XP
Duron, AMD.
3.14. AMD

"
(P"Rating)

"
,

K5
K5

75
90

75
90

1,5x
1,5x

50
60

K5

100

100

1,5x

66

K5
K5

120
133

90
100

1,5x
1,5x

60
66

K5
K6

166
166

116,7
166

1,75x
2,5x

66
66

K6
K6
K6
K6
K652
K652
K652

200
233
266
300
233
266
300

200
233
266
300
233
266
300

3x
3,5x
4x
4,5x
3,5x
4x
4,5x

66
66
66
66
66
66
66

K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K653
K653
Athlon
Athlon
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron

300
333
333
350
366
380
400
400
450
475
500
533
550
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400

300
333
333
350
366
380
400
400
450
475
500
533
550
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400

3x
5x
3,5x
3,5x
5,5x
4x
6x
4x
4,5x
5x
5x
5,5x
5,5x
4x
4,5x
2,5x
2,75
3
3,25
3,5
3,75
4
4,25
4,5
4,75
5
5,5x
6x
6,5x
7x

100
66
95
100
66
95
66
100
100
95
100
97
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

. 85

85

. 3.14

"
(P"Rating)

"
,

Athlon

1000

1000

3,75

266

Athlon
Athlon

1133
1200

1133
1200

4,25
6

266
266

Athlon
Athlon

1333
1400

1333
1400

5
5,25x

266
266

Athlon XP
Athlon XP

1500+
1600+

1333
1400

5x
5,25x

266
266

Athlon XP

1700+

1466

5,5x

266

Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Sempron

1800+
1900+

1533
1600

5,75x
6x

266
266

Athlon XP

2000+
2000+

1500
1666

4,5x
6,25x

333
266

Athlon XP
Sempron

2100+
2
2200+

1733
1500

6,5x
4,5x

266
333

Athlon XP
Sempron
Sempron

2200+

1800

6,75x

266

1583
1667
2000
1750
1833
1833
1917
2083
2133
2167
2000
2083
2250
2000
2167
2200
2333

4,75x
5x
7,5x
5,25
5,5x
5,5
5,75x
6,25x
8x
6,5x
6x
6,25x
6,75x
6x
6,5x
5,5x
7x

333
333
266
333
333
333
333
333
266
333
333
333
333
333
333
400
333

Athlon XP
Sempron
Athlon XP
Sempron
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Sempron
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Sempron
Athlon XP
Athlon XP
Athlon XP

2300+
1
2400+
2400+
1
2500+
3
2500+
1
2600+
3
2600+
2600+
2600+
2700+
1,2
2800+
3
2800+
2800+
4
3000+
3
3000+
3
3200+
3
3200+

. Athlon/Duron 200 266


100 133 ,
, . 
, 100 133 , 
.
1
Sempron Model 8 (  L2 256 ).
2
Sempron Model 10 (  L2 256 ).
3
Barton,
 512 256 Athlon XP.
4
Sempron Model 10 (  L2 512 ).

AMD : ,
,
? , AMD Athlon XP, 
2 , , Pentium 4 
2 , , Pentium 4
2,4 ( Athlon XP 2400+). 
P4 
. Pentium 4
20 , 11 Athlon
10 Pentium III/Celeron (. 3.15).
86

. 86

3.

3.15.

Pentium III

10

Athlon 64/64 FX

12

Pentium M

10

Pentium 4

20

Athlon/XP

10

Pentium 4 Prescott

31


,
. ,
Athlon ( Pentium III) .
(
)
. ,
Athlon, Pentium III Pentium 4,
, ,
Athlon Pentium III ,
, Pentium 4.
Pentium 4,
. Intel 
:
30% ,
50% Athlon Pentium III,
. 20
P4 
. , Athlon XP Pentium 4 
0,18 ( 
, ). 20
P4 0,18
2,0 , Athlon 11
1,73 , Pentium III/Celeron 10
1,13 . 0,13
Pentium 4 3,06 ,
Athlon XP 2,083 ( Athlon 3000+). Pentium 4
,
.
, Pentium 4 Athlon XP ,

.

Athlon ( 5
, , 5
), Web5 AMD
.
( 1 000 ).
Athlon XP Model 10, 5
Model 8 Model 6 .

: 
, () (), 
,
. Intel 
. , Intel 
, 

. 87

87

Pentium 4 Celeron; 
. , 
.


21,
; (overclocking). 
. 

. , 800 900 . 
,
. , 
, , 
, 
1020%.

, . ,
Intel, Pentium II, 
, 
. Intel AMD
, AMD
, , ,
, .
, .
? 
.
. Intel
: 66, 100, 133, 400, 533 800 . 
Intel (burnin),
( , ) 4%. 
, 
. 
, , 1 .

, ,
. , 
,
. ,
, ,
, . , Asus P5LD2,
Pentium 4 Socket 775,
533, 800 1 066 .
1 (
4 ), . ,
2,8 800 . 
? 200 4. 
800 .
( 3,5x), 2 800 ,
2,8 . 200
( 800 ) 220 .

88

. 88

3.

,
BIOS,



(FSB)


(FSB),

5
,

200

4x

800

3.5x

2,80

201
202

4x
4x

804
808

3.5x
3.5x

2,814
2,828

203
204

4x
4x

812
816

3.5x
3.5x

2,842
2,856

205

4x

820

3.5x

2,870

206

4x

824

3.5x

2,884

207

4x

828

3.5x

2,898

208
209

4x
4x

832
836

3.5x
3.5x

2,912
2,926

210

4x

840

3.5x

2,940

211

4x

844

3.5x

2,954

212
213

4x
4x

848
852

3.5x
3.5x

2,968
2,982

214
215

4x
4x

856
860

3.5x
3.5x

2,996
3,010

216
217
218
219
220

4x
4x
4x
4x
4x

864
868
872
876
880

3.5x
3.5x
3.5x
3.5x
3.5x

3,024
3,038
3,052
3,066
3,080

, 1020% ,
, 
. , ,
, 200 .
,
. ,
10%
PCI AGP. , 
, 
. 
, .
Socket A
AMD Athlon Duron, FCPGA (FlipChip Pin Grid
Array) Socket A, , 
.
. 

, .

, . 

. , ;
, 
, . , ,
, 
. , 
, , .

. ,

. 89

89

, .
, , BIOS Setup.
 
, .

,
, . 
, Slot 1, Slot A, Socket 8, Socket 370, Socket 423, Socket 462 (Socket A), Socket 478,
Socket 754, Socket 775, Socket 939 Socket 940, 
. ,
. , Intel,
 , .
, Asus P5LD2,
. 
,
, 
.
,
. ,
,
; 
. , 
, , 
, 
.
19. 
, 
. 
, 
.

"
, , ,
. :
, , ,
? : . ,  
, ,
. ,
. ,
 , . 
.
,
, , . ,
, ,
.
, . 
(SRAM),
.
, 
(L1) (L2) ( ,
Itanium,  L3).
 .
90

. 90

3.

"
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 8 486DX, 32, 64 
. ,
. 
, ,
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, 
. , 
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, 233
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. , 233
66 , 15 . 
, 60 (
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Pentium 233 , 233 (4,3
), , 66 (15 ), ,
16 (60 ).
 , 
, , (
).  
, 
, .
,
, 
.
, , ,
, . , (2,8 )
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533 . (266 ),
Pentium 4 . 
,
266 . 2,8  , 
. Pentium 4, 2,8 ,
20  (8 , 12 
) 512  .  
.
, , , 
.
 ( ) , .. 
.

"
 ,
.
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, .
, ,
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. 91

91

 . 
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60 (, 60 ).
, , 
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 , , , .
, . ,
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60 . ,
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,
.

.  ,
.
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, , . , 
,
. 
, , ,
. , , .
. , , 18.00 
. , , 
, , , .
 :
 . , , .
, 60 ,
. , .. 
, , (cache miss).
, , , Pentium 233 ,
16 (..
).  Intel
, 90%.

92

. 92

3.

,  90% , ,
( 233 ) 90%
. 10%  
, . 
,
60 , 16 .
14 
. 16 (60 )
333 (3,0 ), 3 , ..
7,5 ( ) .  
.
 , 
. 
, 90%,  .

"
,
,  .
, 
,  L2
,
15 . Pentium (Socket 7) 
, ..
(66 , 15 ). , ,
. , 60
,
. 15 . 
:
233 16 60
 , 15 (66 ).
, 233 66 .
 , 
, , 
. ,
, 
. , ( 
), 
( ),
, 15 , .

"
, , 
,  L3.
 L3 , L1 L2.
,
 ,  L3 
. , ,
.
Intel  L3 Pentium 4
Extreme Edition, Itanium 2 Xeon MP, 
, Pentium D Pentium Extreme Edition, 
 L2  L3.

. 93

93

"
 , 90%.
, , , 90%
( 233 ),  
; 10%  . 
 90% , 10% 
. , 
, , 
90% ( 233 ), 9%
(.. 90% 10% 66 ), 1%
(10% 10% 16 ). 
;  ,
.
. , 
 . 
? 1%
,
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 , 
9% ; ,
.
Intel AMD

. Pentium (P5) 
. Intel 
,  
,
.
. , , 
Pentium II, Intel  
(Sony, Toshiba, NEC, Samsung ..).
, , Intel 
. Pentium II 
.
 
. 3 , 
333 . 
, Pentium II Pentium III 
. Athlon 
.
Celeron 300A
.  
.  , 
. , 
,
. Pentium III, 
Xeon Celeron  
, , 
. Athlon
Duron , .
,  

94

. 94

3.

, ,
.
, 9%  ,
.  
, .
,
Pentium 4 2 . 
( 2 0,5 ).
 , .. , 
, ( 
). ,
, ( ), 
.
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400 (2,5 ) 2,5 . ,
, !
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, 
. 
, , ,
, 
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, .
,
.
 
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. 95

95

. 
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. 
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n
.

,
. 
.
,
, 
. n

. ,
() .., .
, , 
. 
, Windows, 
, 
, n
.
 486 Pentium 
(fourway set associative cache),
 . , ,
128 256 16 . 
.

486

Pentium ( MMX)

Pentium MMX

Pentium Pro/II/III

( )

Pentium III/4

( )

,
. 486 
(writethrough), , ,
.
Pentium (writeback),
, .
. 486 
, . ,
486 4 ,
. , .
,  
. ,
96

. 96

3.

. 

. , 
, 
.
, , 
, 
(bus masters). , , 
(bus snooping). ,
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,
. 
, 
.
, ,
(Translation Lookaside Buffer TLB),
. 
, 
. 
. (
, Athlon Palomino) TLB.
Pentium 4 HyperThreading 
TLB (iTLB).
. 
, DDRSDRAM RDRAM,
Pentium 4/Celeron Athlon XP,
.  ,
, 
. 
, . , , 
. . 3.16
, ( ) ( )
.
3.16. , ",

Pentium

Pentium Pro

Pentium II

,
( ) 5
, ()

233
4,3 (233)

200
5,0 (200)

450
2,2 (450)

5 ,
5
5
( ) 5
, ()
5 ,

16

2/7
15 (66)

32

1/1
5 (200)

32

1/2
4,4 (225)

,
( ) , ()

66
60 (16)

256
66
60 (16)

512
100
10 (100)

AMD K6"2

AMD K6"3

Pentium III

,
( ) 5
, ()
5 ,
5

550
1,8 (450)

450
2,2 (450)

1 400
0,71 (1 400)

64

64

32

. 97

97

. 3.16

AMD K6"2

AMD K6"3

Pentium III

5
( ) 5
, ()
5 ,

2/11
10 (100)

1/1
2,2 (450)

1/1
0,71 (1 400)

,
( ) , ()

100
10 (100)

AMD Athlon XP AMD Athlon 64

Pentium 4

2 200

2 400

4 000

( ) 5
, ()

0,45 (2 200)

0,42 (2 400)

0,25 (4 000)

5 ,
5

128

128

28

5
( ) 5
, ()
5 ,

1/1
0,45 (2 200)

1/1
0,42 (2 400)

1/1
0,25 (4 000)

512

1 024

1 024

,
( ) , ()

400
2,5 (400)

400
2,5 (400)

800
3
2,5 (400)

256

512

100
10 (100)

133
7,5 (133)

 , 
.
2 Pentium Pro  1024 512 .
3 , .

,  
, 
, .
 , .
, .



,
, .
, 
, , MMX SSE.

SMM

, Intel .
. 
486SL, 
486DX. ,
, Pentium 
. SMM (System Management
Mode ).
, SMM . 
, 
. ,
. 
/,
, . 
BIOS.
98

. 98

3.


Pentium 
, . 486

.
. 
486.
RISC (Reduced
Instruction Set Computer ). Pentium
CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer
), ,
.
CISC.
1. .
2. .
3. .
RISC.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. ? , . 5.
7. .
RISC ,  
. ,
, , ,
(). ,
RISC CISC, , , ,
RISC CISC, .
.
Intel CISC. 
, RISC
CISC RISC.

MMX
, MMX multimedia extensions (
) matrix math extensions ( ).
MMX Pentium
, / 
, , 
, .
MMX . , 
, , MMX 
, , .
, 
MMX.

. 99

99

MMX 57 
, , 
(Single Instruction Multiple Data, SIMD).
;
10% ( ) , 
90% . SIMD 
, 
, , , 
. SIMD ,
,  ;
.
Intel 57 ,
, .
,
.
, ,
.
, AMD Cyrix, Intel MMX 
.

SSE, SSE2 SSE3


1999 Intel Pentium III,
MMX, SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions 
SIMD). SSE Katmai New Instructions
(KNI), Pentium III
Katmai. Celeron 533A , Pentium III, 
SSE. Pentium II, Celeron 533 
( Pentium II) SSE .
SSE 70 
MMX.
KNI MMX2. SSE 
, . MMX
.
SSE2, 144 SIMD,
2000 Pentium 4. SSE2
MMX SSE.
SSE3 2004 Pentium
4 Prescott; 13 SIMD,
, , 
. SSE3 MMX, SSE SSE2.
SIMD (SSE) 
, . 
SSE ,
 (DVD), .
SSE :
/ ;
MPEG2,
MPEG2 
;
/
.
100

. 100

3.

SSE SSE2
MPEG2, , DVD.
, SSE 
MPEG2 (,
MPEG2). , , SSE,
.
SSE MMX 
SIMD ,
. SIMD, MMX, 
. , SSE 
; 
. 
SSE MMX
. SSE (prefetching), 
.
:
.
, , 
, ,
SSE. , Adobe Photoshop
SSE,
SSE . SSE DirectX 6.1
 , Windows 98
Second Edition, Windows Me, Windows NT 4.0 ( 5 )
Windows 2000.
SSE MMX, SSE2 
SSE. , , SSE2, SSE,
, SSE, , 
MMX. , MMX
.
AMD SSE3 0,09
Athlon 64, Athlon 64 X2.

3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! 3DNow! Professional


3Dnow! AMD 
SSE Intel. ( 1998 ) 3DNow 
AMD K6, Enhanced 3Dnow! 
Athlon Duron. 3DNow! Professional 
Athlon XP. AMD MMX Intel
MMX K6, Athlon Duron. 
SSE, AMD
MMX, 3DNow!. SSE/SSE2,
3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! 3DNow! Professional
, .
3DNow! 21 SIMD, 
. Enhanced 3DNow!
24 (19 SSE 5 DSP/ ), 
45 . MMX, 3DNow! 
, SSE Pentium III
Celeron. AMD, 3DNow!
MMX SSE,
. 3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! 3DNow!

. 101

101

Professional SSE, , 
. 
3DNow! 3DNow! Professional 51 SSE 
3DNow! Enhanced, AMD
SSE. , SSE2,
Pentium 4 Celeron 4.
3Dnow!, SSE, SIMD ,
. 
3DNow! 
MMX .
.
SSE 3DNow! 
, Windows 9x, Windows NT 4.0
Microsoft. Athlon XP Athlon 64
SSE 3DNow! Professional.


P6 ( )
,
, .
.
(). 
.
. , 
.
.
, , , 
.

, 
,
. /, 
, , 
,
, . ,
, 
. 
.

, 
, 
. /
, 
.

   .


. /
102

. 102

3.

, , ,
() , 
.
, , ,
, . 

Intel , .
.
, 
. 
, 
.
, , 
. P6 
, Intel, , P5 (Pentium)
, !


(Dual Independent Bus DIB)

.
 
, , . , (backside),
DIB  , 
, ,
( ) .
DIB :  ,
(FSB). Pentium Pro, Celeron,
Pentium II/III/4, Athlon Duron , 
, .
 
,
(FSB) , 
. .
FSB, , , 
 . 
 .
DIB 
, 
,
, .
, .
DIB 
( ),
. DIB 
, .

Hyper"Threading
, Windows NT 4.0/2000/XP Professional/2003 Server
Linux, 
,

. 103

103

. 

,
, 
.
HyperThreading (HT) Intel 
. , HT
.
HT Xeon
2002 . 
. HT
Xeon 533 ,
2002 Pentium 4 3,06 , 
/ . HT
Pentium 4 800 ( 2,4 3,8 ), Pentium 4 Extreme
Edition Pentium Extreme Edition.
Pentium D HT .

HT ,
. 
, /. 
(. 3.2).


HT

. 3.2. , HT,

, 
HT c 
. 
HT
25% .
104

. 104

3.


HT, , Pen
tium 4 c 3,06 . Pentium 4 
Pentium 4 800 HT.
. 
.
HT ( ). 
BIOS.
BIOS / HT. HyperThreading
, HT
BIOS.
HT , Windows XP Home Professional.
HT Device Manager ( )
.
Intel Pentium 4
HT; 4. , 
HT, 
() BIOS . Windows NT 4.0 Windows 2000 
,
HT .
Linux 2.4.18 .
, HT 
. , 
HT .


, , 
, . 
, ( );
.
, 
, 
(Czochralski). ,
, 
. , 

(99,999 999%).
,
2 500 . 
, . 
, , , 
, .
, 
, (. 3.3). 
, ,
, . 
(1040 ) ( 2 500 ), 
,
. ,
812 (2030 ) 5 ( 1,5 ) . 
.

. 105

105

. 3.3.

200 ( 300 ),
.
(. 3.4).
, .

. 3.4. 

106

. 106

3.

, . 
: , , 
; ,
(), . 
().

, 
, 
.
(, , )
. 
(), , , .
( Pentium III ;
. 
.)
, , 
. ( 
.) , 
() .
, ,
, () 
( ),
.
, ()
. 
, .
, 
.
, .
0,18 
AMD , Pentium 4
Northwood 0,13 .
, ,
, ,

. 
, . 
,
.

Pentium III Celeron, (coppermine) (coppermine 5555


0,185 ), , ,
. ,
; Coppermine, 5
. Intel (
), 5 ,
. , Pentium III
(0,255 ) Katmai ( ). 5
Intel : Deerfield,
Foster, Northwood, Tualatin, Gallatin, McKinley Madison 5555 , 5
, , , .

. 107

107

SOI (silicon on insulator


). CMOS.
AMD SOI 90 (0,09) 
. , SOI,
CMOS, .
,
.
, ,
.
.

, 
, (. 3.5). 2001 2002
0,18 0,13 , 
, 200 (8 )
300 (12 ). 300 
. 0,13

.
, . , 2010 
, , .
, 
, Pentium 4. , 
, 200 
8 . ,
2
31 416 . Pentium 4, 
200 ,
Willamette, 0,18
,
2
217 .
42 . . 200 (8)
145 .
. 3.5. 200 Pentium 4,
0,13

Pentium 4 Northwood, 0,13


, , 
2
131 . 55 . .
Willamette Northwood 
(512 ), . 
0,13
60%, 200 (8)
240 . , 145 
Willamette.
2002 Intel Northwood ,
2
300 70 686 . 2,25 
200 ,
, . Pentium 4 Northwood,
300 540 .
0,13

108

. 108

3.

3,7 Pentium 4.
, .
2004 90 (0,09)
, 
. , 2005 ,
. 2006 . (
2006 Intel Presler,
0,065 . . .)
2007 65 ,
2010 45 , ,
, !
300 , 450
2013 . 
, , . 3.17.
3.17. ,

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2004

2007

2010

2013

2016

()

1,0

0,8

0,5

0,35

0,25

0,18

0,13

0,09

0,065

0,045

0,032

0,022

()

1000

800

500

350

250

180

130

90

65

45

32

22

.

() , .
50%, , 
, 90%. 
,
. 
, ,
, 
.

, .
.
, 
, . :
, 
( ) .
, , ,
.
,
, , 
.
.
( 
, ), , 
. 
; 
:
. , Pentium 4 2,0, 2,2, 2,26, 2,24 2,53 
, .. ,

. 109

109

, ,
.
: ,
,
. 
75% 25%
. , Intel 

, .
,
, , .


, 
,
.
,
. 
Intel AMD 
. , , 
. , , 
, .

. .
, Slot 1
Slot A. 
, .

, 
.
Intel AMD ,
;
10 . ,
; 
.
, , , 
. , , 
, 
.
, Intel AMD, 
, ,
.
, ,
.
. 
,
Intel AMD. , ,
.  Web
, , .

 .
Intel AMD, OEM. 
110

. 110

3.

,
.
. 
(SIMM/DIMM),
, , SCSI, , 
, . ,
, , , 
. ,
Microsoft. 35 , 
, 2 32 .  
2 Microsoft, 
20 . ,
, , .

PGA
PGA .
1980 286 Pentium
Pentium Pro. ,
. PGA ZIF (Zero Insertion Force
). ZIF .
Pentium PGA SPGA (Stagge
red Pin Grid Array ),
, .
, 
. . 3.6 Pentium Pro, 
SPGA; Pentium 66.
: Pentium Pro
, .
PGA
, . 
, 
. 
. 

,
.
. 3.6. Pentium 66 PGA () Pentium Pro
SPGA, 
()


(FlipChip Pin Grid Array FCPGA).
PGA, 
. FCPGA 
.
.
. FCPGA
,
.

PGA

. 111

111

, ,
FCPGA. ,
. (,
) ,
. ,
, .
AMD ,
, 
. , 
.
Intel FCPGA2,
Pentium III Pentium 4. 
, 
. 
, .
Athlon 64 
Athlon XP. Athlon 64 
, . , Athlon 64, Opteron
Sempron Socket 754 ,
.
, (Bumpless
BuildUp Layer BBUL), ; 
, 
. ,
, , 
.

SEC SEP
1997 2000 Intel AMD , 
. , 
(Single Edge Contact Cartridge SECC)
(Single Edge Processor Package SEPP),
 , ,
.
.
SEC , , 
,  .

 
.
SEP (Single Edge Processor ) 
SEC. 
 ( ).
SEP Slot 1. SEP ,
Celeron.
Slot 1 242 . Slot 1
. 3.7. SEC SEP, , Slot 1
. 
. . 3.8 , SEC.
, , . SEP
. 3.9.

112

. 112

3.

132,870,25
5,2310,010
72,00
2,832

R 0,25
0,010
2,540,127
0,1000,005

73

2,50
0,098

47,00
1,850
2,50
0,098 48

1,880,10
0,0740,004
9,500,25
0,3740,010

1,27
0,050

4,75
0,187

1,780,03
0,0700,001

2,000,127
0,0790,005
76,13 (.)
2,997 (.)

51,13 (.)
2,013 (.)

0,94
0,037

. 3.7. Slot 1 Pentium II

. 3.8. SEC Pentium II

Pentium III , SECC2 (Single Edge


Contact Cartridge, 2). SEC.
, 
. 
SEC SEP

. 113

113

. Slot 1. 
SECC2 . 3.10.

. 3.9. Celeron SEP

. 3.10. SECC2 Pentium II/III

,  
. ,
 ,
SEC SEP . 
 ,
PGA.


Intel AMD ,
. 486 
. 3.18.
3.18.

"
"
,

Intel/AMD 486

Socket 1

169

1717 PGA

486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4 1989 .


OD

Socket 2

238

1919 PGA

Socket 3

237

1919 PGA

5/3,3

486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4 1992 .


OD, 486 Pentium OD
486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2,
1994 .
DX4, 486 Pentium OD,
AMD 5x86

114

. 114

3.

. 3.18

Socket 6
Intel/AMD 586
(Pentium)

Intel 686
(Pentium II/III)

Intel Pentium 4

AMD K7

AMD K8

"
"
,

235

1919 PGA

3.3

486 DX4, 486 Pentium OD 1994 .

Socket 4

273

2121 PGA

Pentium 60/66, OD

1993 .

Socket 5

320

3737 SPGA

3,3/3,5

Pentium 755133, OD

1994 .

Socket 7

321

3737 SPGA

VRM

Pentium 755233+, MMX,


OD, AMD K5/K6, Cyrix
M1/II

1995 .

Socket 8

387

Dual5pattern
SPGA

Auto VRM

Pentium Pro, OD

1995 .

Slot 1(SC242)

242

Slot

Auto VRM

Pentium II/III, Celeron


SECC

1997 .

Socket 370

370

3737 SPGA

Auto VRM

Celeron/Pentium III
PPGA/FC5PGA

1998 .

Socket 423

423

3939 SPGA

Auto VRM

Pentium 4 FC5PGA

2000 .

Socket 478

478

2626 mPGA

Auto VRM

2001 .

Socket T
(LGA775)

775

3033 LGA

Auto VRM

Pentium 4/Celeron FC5


PGA2
Pentium 4/Celeron
LGA775

Slot A
Socket A (462)

242
462

Slot
3737 SPGA

Auto VRM
Auto VRM

1999 .
2000 .

Socket 754

754

2929 mPGA

Auto VRM

AMD Athlon SECC


AMD Athlon/Athlon XP/
Duron PGA/FC5PGA
AMD Athlon 64

Socket 939

939

3131 mPGA

Auto VRM

AMD Athlon 64 v.2

2004 .

Socket 940

940

3131 mPGA

Auto VRM

2003 .

330

Slot

Auto VRM

AMD Athlon 64FX,


Opteron
Pentium II/III Xeon

603

3125 mPGA

Auto VRM

Xeon (P4)

2001 .

604

3125 mPGA

Auto VRM

Xeon (P4)

2003 .

Socket PAC418 18

3822

Socket PAC611 611

2528

Auto VRM split


Itanium
SPGA
Auto VRM mPGA Itanium 2

2002 .

Socket 940

3131 mPGA

Auto VRM

2003 .

5 Slot 2 (SC330)
5

Intel/AMD
Socket 603
Socket 604

940

AMD Athlon 64FX,


Opteron

2004 .

2003 .

1998 .

2001 .

* Socket 6 .
FCPGA FlipChip Pin Grid Array ( ).
FCPGA2 FCPGA with an Integrated Heat Spreader (IHS) ( FCPGA ).
OD OverDrive (, ).
PAC Pin Array Cartridge ( ).
PGA Pin Grid Array ( ).
PPGA Plastic Pin Grid Array ( ).
SC242 Slot connector, 242 pins (242 ).
SC330 Slot connector, 330 pins (330 ).
SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge ( ).
SPGA Staggered Pin Grid Array ( ).
mPGA Micro Pin Grid Array ( ).
VRM Voltage Regulator Module ( ). 
.
Auto VRM ; ,
VID (Voltage ID ).

. 115

115

Socket 1, Socket 2, Socket 3 Socket 6, 


486, . 3.11,
. Socket 4, Socket 5, Socket 7 Socket 8,
Pentium Pentium Pro, . 3.12, 
. 
.
Socket 1

Socket 2

Socket 3

Socket 6

. 3.11. 486

Socket 4

Socket 5

Socket 7

Socket 8

. 3.12. Pentium Pentium Pro

ZIF

, , 
. , Intel Socket 1, 
, , Socket 1, 
( ), 100 . , 
. ,
LIF (Low Insertion Force
); 169
60 . ( LIF
, , 
.) 60 ; , 
. 
, .
ZIF (Zero Insertion Force ).
Socket 1.
Socket X , ZIF, LIF ; 
. 
ZIF. 

! ZIF ; , ,
. .
116

. 116

3.

Socket 1
OverDrive, Socket 1, PGA 169 
. 486SX, DX, DX2 DX2/
OverDrive.
486, OverDrive. .
3.13 Socket 1.
DX 
0,9
17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
5 33 ( 
S
S
4,5 ) 1
R
R
Q
Q
50 (5 ). DX2
P
P
OverDrive 1,2
N
N
M
M
66 (6 ).
L
L

K
K
Socket 1
J
J
,
H
H
.
G
G
F
F
OverDrive 
E
E
40 .
D
D
ADS#

A4

A6

VSS

A10

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

A12

VSS

A14

NC

A23

A26

A27

NC

BLAST#

A3

VCC

A8

A11

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

A15

VCC

A18

VSS

VCC

A25

A28

A2

A7

A5

A9

A13

A16

A20

A22

A24

A21

A19

A17

VSS

A31

A30

A29

D0

W/R# M/10# LOCK#

DPO

D1

VSS

VCC

D/C#

D4

VCC

VSS

VSS

VCC

PWT

D7

D6

VSS

PCHK# PLOCK# BREQ


VSS

VCC

HLDA

VSS

VCC

BEO#

D14

VCC

VSS

PCD

BE1#

BE2#

D16

D5

VCC
VSS

VSS

VCC

BRDY#

DP2

D3

VSS

VCC

NC

D12

VCC

VSS

BE3#

RDY#

KEN#

D15

D8

DP1

VSS

VCC

HOLD

D10

VCC

VSS

KEY

D17

D13

D9

VCC

CLK

D18

D11

BOFF# BS8# A20M#

BS16#

C
B
A

D2

EADS#
AHOLD

RESET
NC

FLUSH # NC
NMI

INTR IGNNE#

17 16 15

NC

NC

NC

NC

D30

D28

D26

D27

VCC

UP#

NC

NC

VCC

NC

VCC

D31

VCC

D25

VSS

VSS

VSS

D21

D19

NC

FERR#

NC

VSS

NC

VSS

D29

VSS

D24

DP3

D23

NC

D22

D20

13 12 11 10

14

C
B
A

. 3.13. Socket 1

Socket 2
DX2, Intel Pentium.
32 Pentium 
, DX2.
, Intel 
Pentium.
, Pentium OverDrive Processor, Socket 2
Socket 3. 
486 SX, DX, DX2 Pentium OverDrive. , ,
32 Pentium ( 64), Pentium SX.
, 25/63 33/83
. ,
Pentium OverDrive. , 2,5
(.. 2,5).
. 3.14 Socket 2.
Socket 2 Pentium Over
Drive, Pentium ( 64 ).
Intel Socket 2,
, .
Pentium OverDrive ,
. 
, ,
5 , 
.
.
, .

3,5 ( ).

. 117

117

, , Pentium
OverDrive .

19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

NC

RES

VSS

VCC

VSS

INIT

VSS

VSS

VCC

VCC

VCC

VSS

VSS

RES

VSS

VCC

VSS

RES

RES

W/R#

VSS PCHK# INC ADS# RES

RES AHOLD EADS# BS16# BOFF# VSS

BE3#

VSS

VSS

PCD

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

RDY#

VCC

VCC

BE1#

VCC

VCC

VCC M/10# VCC PLOCK# BLAST# A4

VSS

INTR

RES RESET BS8#

VCC

PWT D/C# LOCK# HLDA BREQ

A3

A6

VCC

PLUG PLUG PLUG

A2

VCC

VSS

VSS

PLUG

PLUG

A7

A8

A10

VSS

PLUG

A5

A11

VSS

VSS

A9

VCC

VSS

VSS

A13

VCC

VSS

VCC

VSS

VCC

VCC IGNNE# NMI FLUSH#A20M#HOLD KEN#STPCLK# BRDY# BE2# BE0#


VSS

RES

UP# INC

VSS FERR# INC

NC

PLUG PLUG PLUG

VSS

INC

INC SMIACT# PLUG

VSS

VSS

VCC

INC

VCC

INC

SMI#

INC

VCC

VSS

VCC

D30

A16

VCC

VCC

D29

D31

D28

A20

VCC

VSS

VCC

A22

A15

A12

VSS

Socket 2

VSS

VSS

VCC

D26

RES

D24

D25

D27

PLUG

PLUG

A24

VCC

VSS

VSS

RES

DP3

VSS

VCC

PLUG

PLUG

A21

A18

A14

VSS

VSS

D23

VSS

VCC

KEY

PLUG PLUG PLUG

A19

VSS

INC

VSS

VCC

RES

VSS

CLK

D17

D10

D15

D12

DP2

D16

D14

D7

D4

DP0

A30

A17

VCC

A23

VCC

D21

D18

D13

VCC

D8

VCC

D3

D5

VCC

D6

VCC

D1

A29

VSS

A25

A26

VSS

D19

D11

D9

VSS

DP1

VSS

VSS

VCC

VSS

VSS

VSS

D2

D0

A31

A28

A27

RES

VSS

VCC

VSS

RES

RES

VSS

VCC

VCC

VCC

VSS

RES

RES

VSS

VCC

VSS

RES

RES

VSS
PLUG

D22
D20

PLUG PLUG

PLUG PLUG

19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

. 3.14. Socket 2

, , 
. Pentium OverDrive 2,5 ( )
5 ( 12,5 ), ,
DX2 66 . Intel 
, 
Pentium OverDrive. 
, .

, Pentium OverDrive, Web5 Intel:


http://www.intel.com/support/processors/overdrive/index.htm.

Socket 3
Socket 2 ,
Pentium OverDrive 5
, Intel , 
Pentium OverDrive, , 3,3 ,
3,0 ( 9,9 ); 
, 5 , 0,2
(1 ). , 10,9 ,
, 5 . 

118

. 118

3.

, 
.
DX4 Pentium OverDrive 3,3 
Intel .
3,3 , SX, DX, DX2 Pentium
OverDrive ( 5 ). Socket 3
. 
. 3.15.

19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

NC

RES

VSS

VCC

VSS

INIT

VSS

VSS

VCC

VCC

VCC

VSS

VSS

RES

VSS

VCC

VSS

RES

RES

RES

AHOLD

EADS# BS16# BOFF# VSS

BE3#

VSS

VSS

PCD

VSS

VSS

VSS

W/R#

VSS

PCHK#

INC

ADS#

RES

VSS

INTR

RES

RDY#

VCC

VCC

BE1#

VCC

VCC

VCC

M/10#

VCC PLOCK#

VCC

IGNNE#

KEN# STPCLK# BRDY# BE2#

BE0#

PWT

VSS

RES

VSS

FERR#

RESET BS8#

VCC

BREQ

A3

A6

VCC

A2

VCC

VSS

VSS

PLUG

PLUG

A7

A8

A10

VSS

PLUG

PLUG

A5

A11

VSS

VSS

A9

VCC

VSS

VSS

A13

VCC

VSS

VCC

UP#

INC

PLUG

INC

NC

INC

INC SMIACT#

VSS

VSS

VCC

INC

VCC

INC

SMI#

INC

VSS

PLUG

NMI FLUSH# A20M# HOLD

VSS

BLAST# A4

PLUG

PLUG

D/C# LOCK# HLDA


PLUG

PLUG

Socket 3

VCC

VSS

VCC

D30

A16

VCC

VSS

VCC

VCC

D29

D31

D28

A20

VCC

VSS

VCC

VSS

VSS

VCC

D26

A22

A15

A12

VSS

RES

D24

D25

D27

PLUG

PLUG

A24

VCC

VSS

VSS

RES

DP3

VSS

VCC

PLUG

PLUG

A21

A18

A14

VSS

VSS

D23

VSS

VCC

KEY

PLUG

PLUG

VCC

RES

VSS

CLK

D17

D10

D15

D12

DP2

D16

D14

PLUG

D22

D21

D18

D13

VCC

D8

VCC

D3

D5

PLUG

D20

D19

D11

D9

VSS

DP1

VSS

VSS

KEY

PLUG

PLUG

VCC

VSS

RES

RES

VSS

PLUG

PLUG

PLUG

A19

VSS

INC

VSS

D7

D4

DP0

A30

A17

VCC

A23

VCC

VCC

D6

VCC

D1

A29

VSS

A25

A26

VSS

VCC

VSS

VSS

VSS

D2

D0

A31

A28

A27

RES

VCC

VCC

VCC

VSS

RES

RES

VSS

VCC

VSS

RES

RES

19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

. 3.15. 237 Socket 3

, Socket 3, Socket 2,
. 
, .
:
. 
, , 
(5 3,3 ).
!
, : 5
5 , 3,3 .
. 5
, . 5
: 55 3,3 .
, , 5
.

Socket 4
Pentium 60 66 273 ;
Socket 4 5 ,
Pentium 60 66 ,
OverDrive. . 3.16.

. 119

119

1
A

INV

IV

VCC

D
E
F
G
H
J
K

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

DP2

D23

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

DP5

D43

D45

D6

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

D17

D24

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

D41

D47

D48

IERR# PM1/BP1 D4

M/10# EWBE#
BP2

BP3

10 11 12 13

14

15 16

17 18

19 20

21
A
B
C

DP1

D18

D22

D25

D29

D31

D26

D9

D10

D12

D19

D21

D33

D36

D34

D50

D52

VCC PMO/BPO

D0

D13

D15

D16

D20

DP3

D27

D32

D28

D30

D14

D40

D39

D37

D35

DP4

D38

D42

D44

VCC

VSS

D1

D2

D11

Plug

D46

DP6

D54

DP7

VCC

VSS

D3

D8

D51

D49

D57

VCC

VCC

VSS

D5

D7

D53

D55

VSS

VCC

VCC

VSS

FERR#

DPO

D63

D59

VSS

D56

VSS

IU

D58

D62

VSS

VCC

VSS

VSS

NA#

BOFF#

CLK

D61

VSS

VCC

NC

BRDY#

RESET

D60

KEN# CACHE#

Socket 4

VSS

AHOLD

VSS

WB/WT# EADS#

VCC

VSS

W/R#

VCC

VSS

AP

VCC

HLDA

BE1#

VCC

VSS

VCC

VSS

VCC

VCC FLUSH# PRDY

BE3#

BREQ LOCK# D/C#

HOLD

A28

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

BE7#

HIT# APCHK# PCD

A30

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

VCC

10 11 12 13

14

15 16

VSS

VSS

BUSCHK#

E
F

J
K

VSS

VCC

PEN# FRCMC# VSS

VCC

NC

INTR

NMI

VSS

VCC

ADS#

SMI#

TMS

VSS

VCC

VCC

NC

VSS

VCC

HITM#

R/S#

NC

VSS

VCC

Plug

TRST#

NC

IGNNE#

TDO

PCHK# SCYC
PWT

BE5#

Plug

TCK SMIACT# BE4#

BT2

BT0

A26

A19

A17

A15

A13

A11

A9

A7

A3

NC

IBT

INIT

TDI

BE0# A20M# BE2#

BE6#

A24

A22

A20

A18

A16

A14

A12

A10

A8

A6

A5

A25

A23

A21

VSS

VSS

A31

A29

A27

VCC

VCC

A4

BT3

BT1

19 20

21

17 18

. 3.16. 273 Socket 4

, Pentium 66
3,2 5 (16 ) ( ,
), OverDrive
2,7 (13,5 ), 1 
. Pentium 60
2,91 5 (14,55 ). , 
, , , , .
Pentium 
OverDrive.
5 , 
Pentium , ,
0,8 . , ,
,
0,6 , OverDrive 
Pentium.
. OverDrive Pentium
, , 
, 
, . OverDrive
,
,  .
.

Socket 5
Pentium 75, 90 100 , Intel 
, 0,6 , 
3,3 . 10,725
(3,25 3,3 ). , 100 
, Pentium,
120

. 120

3.

60 . Pentium, Pentium Pro Pentium II 


0,35 ,
.
Pentium 75 296 ;
320 Socket 5.
Pentium OverDrive. Socket 5
( SPGA Staggered Pin Grid Array), 
.
OverDrive 
Pentium. , 
, , 
. Intel 
, Evergreen PowerLeap
. . 3.17.

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
AG
AH
AJ
AK
AL
AM
AN

1 2

PLUG

VSS

D45

D50

D44

D52

D49

DP6

D56

VSS

VSS

VSS

VCC

D26
VSS

D23
NC

D22
D20

D21
D19

VCC

D18

DP1
VSS

D15

D16

D13

D17

D10

D12

D8

VSS

D6

PICD0

D60

VCC

TDO

VSS

VCC

NC

PBREO#

A23

VSS

LOCK#
HLDA

AP

ADS#
DC#

INC

PWT

ADSC#

EADS#

VSS

W/R#

VSS

A20M#

BUSCHK#

INC

PLUG

HIT#

HITM#

VCC5

NC

A27
PLUG

VSS

FLUSH#

VSS
BE3#

BE2#
VSS

VCC

VCC
BE1#

BE0#

VSS
VCC

NC
BE5#

BE4#

VSS
BE7#

BE6#
VSS

VCC

VSS
VCC

VCC
CLK

SCYC
VSS
VCC

VSS
RESET

NC
VSS
VCC

NC
A19

A20
VSS
VCC

VSS
A17

A18
VSS
VCC

VSS
A15

A16
VSS
VCC

VCC
A13

A14
VSS
VCC

VSS
A9

A12
VSS
VCC

A31

A10

A25

VSS
A28

A3
A4

A6

VCC
A22

A29
A7

A8

VCC
VSS

A24
A26

A5
A11

VCC
VSS

A21

PCD

VCC

VSS
RS#

INTR

APCHK#

VCC

VSS

IGNNE#

NMI

PCHK#

VCC
VSS

SMI#

PRDY

VCC
VSS

FRCMC#
PEN#

HOLD

SMIACT#

VSS

NC

INIT

VCC

VCC

VSS

BF

PBGNT#

VSS

NC

STPCLK#

WB/WT#

VCC
VSS

VSS

NC

NA#

PHITM#
VSS

TDI

VCC

BRDY#

VCC

CPUTYP

NC

BOFF#
PHIT#

VSS

NC

Socket 5

VCC

VSS

TMS

INV

BRDYC#
VSS

VSS

PICD1

TRST#

KEN#

VCC

D2

DP7

MI/O#

VSS

D4
D1

PICCLK

AHOLD

VCC

D5
D3

FERR#

EWBE#

D9
DP0

D7
PLUG

D58

CACHE#
VSS

NC
D11

D14

BP3

VSS

1 2

NC

D28

VCC
VSS

D24

D0

BP2

VCC5

VCC

D30

VCC
VSS

DP2

PM1BP1

VCC

BREQ

VSS

DP3

VCC
VSS

D25

IERR#

PM0BP0

VCC

D33

VCC
VSS

D27

TCK

D63
VSS

VCC

VSS

D35

VCC
VSS

D29

D62

VCC

VCC

D42

D37

VCC
VSS

D31

PLUG

D61
VSS

VCC

D39

VCC
VSS

D32

D59

VCC

VCC

D40

VCC
VSS

D34

DP5

D57

VCC

VCC
VSS

D36

D53

VSS

VCC

VCC
VSS

D38

D46

D51
D55

VCC

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
VCC

VSS
DP4

D48

D54

VSS

D47

VCC

7
VCC

D43

INC

VCC

D41

VCC

VSS
A30

NC

VSS

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
AG
AH
AJ
AK
AL
AM
AN

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Socket 5

. 3.17. 320 Socket 5

Pentium OverDrive, , ,
, ,
. 
4,33 3,3 (14,289 ), 0,2 5
(1 ) . 15,289 , ..
, Pentium 66 ,
!

Socket 6
Socket 6 , 
DX4 486 Pentium OverDrive.
Socket 3, , 

. 121

121

. 235 ;
486 OverDrive 3,3 .
DX4 486 Pentium OverDrive. Socket 6
3,3 , ,
, 
Socket 3, .

Socket 7 (Super7)
Socket 7, , Socket 5 
.
Socket 7 321, SPGA 2121. 
, 
VRM (Voltage Regulator Module).
, 
, , 5 
, .
VRM ,
Intel AMD , , 
3,3 5 , . 
VRM, 
3,3 5 . Intel 
Pentium PentiumMMX 3,3
( VR), 3,465 ( VRE) 2,8 . , AMD,
Cyrix , 3,3 1,8 . 
VRM, 
Pentium.
. 3.18.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 36 37
A
VSS D41 VCC2 VCC2 VCC2 VCC2 VCC2 VCC2 VCC3 VCC3 VCC3 VCC3 VCC3 VCC3 D22 D18 D15
NC
B
VCC2 D43 VSS VSS VSS VSS
VSS VSS VSS VSS
VSS VSS VSS
VSS D20 D16 D13 D11
C
D32 D31 D29 D27
D25 DP2 D24
D21 D17 D14 D10
D9
D INC D47 D45 DP4 D38 D36 D34
D50 D48 D44 D40 D39 D37
D35 D33 DP3 D30
D28 D26 D23
D19 DP1 D12
D8
DP0
E
VSS VCC3 VSS NC VCC3 VSS VSS
D7
D6 VCC3
F D54 D52 D49 D46 D42 VSS VSS VCC2 NC
DP6 D51 DP5
D5
D4
G
VCC2 D55 D53
D3
D1 VCC3
H
VSS D56
PICCLK VSS
J
VCC2 D57 D58
PICD0 D2 VCC3
K
VSS D59
D0
VSS
L
VCC2 D61 D60
VCC3 PICD1 VCC3
M
VSS D52
TCK VSS
N
VCC2 D63 DP7
TD0
TDI VCC3
P
VSS IERR#
TMS# VSS
Q
VCC2 PM0BP0 FERR#
TRST# CPUTYP VCC3
R
VSS PM1BP1
NC
VSS
S
VCC2 BP2 BP3
NC
NC VCC3
T
VSS M/0#
VCC3 VSS
U
VCC2 CACHE# INV
VCC3 VSS VCC3
V
VSS AHOLD
STPCLK# VSS
W
VCC2 EWBE# KEN#
NC
NC VCC3
X
VSS BRDY#
BF1 VSS
Y
VCC2 BRDYC# NA#
BF FRCMC# VCC3
Z
VSS B0FF#
PEN# VSS
AA
VCC2 PHIT# WB/WT#
INIT IGNNE# VCC3
AB
VSS HOLD
SMI# VSS
AC
VCC2 PHITM# PRDY
NMI RS# VCC3
AD
VSS PBGNT#
INTR VSS
AE
VCC2 PBREQ# APCHK#
A23 D/P# VCC3
AF
VSS PCHK#
A21 VSS
AG
VCC2 SMIACT# PCD
A27 A24 VCC3
AH
VSS LOCK#
KEY A26 A22
AJ
BREQ HLDA ADS# VSS VSS VCC2 VSS
NC
VSS VCC3 VSS
NC VSS VSS VCC3 VSS A31 A25 VSS
AK
AP D/C# HIT# A20M# BE1# BE3# BE5# BE7# CLK RESET A19 A17
A15
A13
A9
A5
A29 A28
AL
VCC2DET PWT HITM# BUSCHK# BE0# BE2# BE4# BE6# SCYC NC A20
A18 A16
A14
A12
A11
A7
A3
VSS
AM
ADSC# EADS# W/R# VSS VSS VSS
VSS VSS VSS VSS
VSS VSS VSS
VSS VSS
A8
A4
A30
AN
VCCS VCCS INC FLUSH# VCC2 VCC2 VCC2 VCC2 VCC2 VCC2 VCC3 VCC3 VCC3 VCC3 VCC3 A10
A6
NC
VSS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 36 37



















Socket 7









A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
AG
AH
AJ
AK
AL
AM
AN

. 3.18. Socket 7

122

. 122

3.

AMD, Cyrix 
Intel Socket 7; 
Super Socket 7 ( Super7),
66, 95 100 . 7, 
500 ; ,
Slot 1Socket 370, Intel. Super7
AGP Ultra DMA; 
, .
, Acer Laboratories, Inc. (ALi),
VIA Technologies Silicon Integrated Systems (SiS), 
Super7. 
BabyAT ATX.

Socket 8
SPG (387!) .
Pentium Pro . 
()
, .
Socket 8 . 3.19.
47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1
BC
BA
AY
AW
AU
AS
AQ
AN
AL
AJ
AG
AF
AE
AC
AB
AA
Y
X
W
U
T
S
Q
P
N
L
K
J
G
F
E
C
B
A

Socket 8

BC
BA
AY
AW
AU
AS
AQ
AN
AL
AJ
AG
AF
AE
AC
AB
AA
Y
X
W
U
T
S
Q
P
N
L
K
J
G
F
E
C
B
A

VccS
VccP
Vss
Vcc5

46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
47 45 43 41 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1

. 3.19. Socket 8

Socket 370 (PGA"370)


1999 Intel P6.
Socket 370 (PGA370), 370 () 
Celeron Pentium III
PGA. Socket 370 ( 
) Super7,
AMD Cyrix. ,
, .., .
Celeron Pentium III SECC SEPP.
, 
, , , , 
Slot 1.

. 123

123

, .
Intel Pentium Pro, , ,
.
, Pentium II .
Intel, Celeron 300 ( 1998 ),
 ; 
.
 .
, Intel ,
, , Celeron.
Socket 370 (PGA370) . 3.20.
1

AN
AL
AK
AJ
AH
AG
AF
AE
AD

Y
X
V

VCC

Rsvd

VSS

M
L
K
J
H
F
E
D
C
B
A

D11#

D30#

D21#

D23#

VSS

A23#

VSS

VSS

VSS

VSS

VCC

VCC

D19#

VCC

PICCLK

VCC

D38#
D34#

VCC

D39#

VCC
VCC

D42#
D45#

VCC
D37#

D27#
VSS

D36#
VSS

D43#

Rsvd
VCC

D41#
D49#

VSS
D44#

D63#
VSS
D52#
D40#

VCC
D51#

VREF1
VCC
VSS
D59#

VSS
D47#

VSS
VSS

VCC
D55#

VCC
D48#

VCC

VCOREPET
VSS
D54#
VSS

D57#

VSS
Rsvd
VCC
D58#

VCC
D46#

VCC
D62#
VSS
D50#

VSS
D53#

VSS
Rsvd
VCC
D56#

VCC
D60#

VCC
Rsvd
VSS
Rsvd

VSS
D61#

VSS
Rsvd
VCC
Rsvd

VCC
Rsvd

Rsvd

Rsvd

L
J

VSS

Rsvd

BP3#

E
C

VCC
BPM0#

CPUPRES#

B
A

Rsvd
PRDY#

H
G

VSS

VCC
Rsvd

PREQ#

BPM1#

Rsvd
VSS

LINT1

VCC

VCC
VREF0

VSS
PICD0

BP2#
D22#

Rsvd
LINT0

VSS

T
R

Rsvd

PICD1

Rsvd
VSS

VSS

Y
X

VCC
Rsvd

VCC

S
Rsvd

VSS

AA

U
Rsvd

VSS
Rsvd

Rsvd

VSS

VCC

VCC

AC

W
BCLK

Rsvd

Rsvd
D3#

VSS

VSS

Rsvd

D24#

VSS

VCC
Rsvd

VCC

V2.5

Rsvd

PLL2

AE
AD
AB

VCC

VCC

VCC

D9#

Rsvd

VCMOS

VCC

PLL1

VREF3

AF
FLUSH#

V1.5

VSS

VSS

AH

Rsvd

VCC

Socket 370

AG

FERR#
VCC

VSS

AJ

IGNNE#

VSS
IERR#

VSS

Rsvd

D28#

VCC
A20M#

D31#
VSS

VSS

VCC

D32#

VSS

D29#

A25#

VID3
VCC

STPCLK#

AL
AK

VSS
SMI#

VSS

AN
AM

VID2

VCC

VCC

VREF5

VCC

VCC
D35#

SLP#

TDO
VID1

VID0

BSEL#

VSS
VCC

D25#

D33#

THERMTRIP#

TDI
VSS

TCK

TMS
VSS

VCC
D16#

VCC
D26#

RS0#

Rsvd
VCC

VSS
VREF2

VSS

VCC

RS2#
VSS

VCC

D20#

D7#

RS1#

PWRGD
VCC

TRST#
VCC

THRMDP

VSS
D18#

VSS

Rsvd

Rsvd
VSS

ADS#
VSS

THRMDN

VCC
D17#

VCC

REQ2#

VREF7
VCC

BR0#
VCC

DBSY#

D6#

D14#

D13#

LOCK#
VSS

DRDY#
VSS

HIT#

INIT#

VREF4

D10#

D2#

REQ1#

VSS
D1#

VCC

REQ0#
VCC

TRDY#
VCC

HITM#

Rsvd

Rsvd

Rsvd

BNR#

Rsvd
VSS

Rsvd

VCC

D5#

D12#

A4#

Rsvd
VSS

Rsvd

VCC
REQ3#

VSS

D15#

D8#

A14#
VCC

DEFER#
VSS

REQ4#

A18#

RESET#

VCC

Q
P
N

A29#

Rsvd

D4#

BPRI#
VCC

A7#

VCC

A26#

D0#

VREF6
VSS

A8#

Rsvd
VSS

Rsvd

VSS
A24#

A30#

Rsvd

A11#
VCC

A5#

Rsvd
VCC

Rsvd

VCC

A20#

VSS

S
R

Rsvd

A31#

VCC

Rsvd

A3#
VSS

A10#

Rsvd
VSS

A9#

VSS

A22#
VSS

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
A6#

VCC

A28#

Rsvd

A13#

VCC

A19#

A27#

7
A16#

VSS

VSS

VSS

A17#

A15#

VSS

EDGCTRL

U
T

VCC

VCC

5
A12#

VSS

A21#

AA
Z

VSS
VSS

AC
AB

3
VSS

AM

VSS

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

. 3.20. Socket 370 (PGA370)

Celeron 333 Slot 1,


366433 Slot 1, Socket 370, 466
1,4 Socket 370. Socket 370 (PGA370) 
Slot 1. PGASlot 1.
1999 Intel Pentium III 
, Socket 370. 
FCPGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array). , 
Intel.
, Socket 370
Pentium III Celeron FCPGA. , 
RESET VRM 8.4. 
, Celeron,
, , RESET
VRM 8.4, . ,
, 
. ,
Intel CA810, VRM 8.4 

124

. 124

3.

. Vtt, Pentium III FCPGA


RESET#.
FCPGA
. , : Pentium III, 
0,18 , 1,601,65 ,
2,00 . 
, . , BIOS 
. 
BIOS, 
.
Slot 1
Celeron, Pentium II Pentium III,
Celeron Pentium III. Slotsocket,
slotket. , , Slot 1, 
Socket 370, PGA
Slot 1. slotket Celeron .

Socket 423
ZIF Socket 423 (. 3.21) 2000
Pentium 4 ( Willamette).
Socket 423 400 , 
(Memory Controller Hub MCH), 
. Pentium 4
2 Socket 423; 
Socket 478.
Socket 423 , 
,
, .
, ,
Pentium 4. Socket 423 
, . , 
Socket 478, Pentium 4, 
.
(VID),
VRM, , 
. 
. Pentium 4
1,7 , . 
1, 
.

Socket 478
ZIF Socket 478 2001 Pentium 4
Celeron 4 ( Pentium 4).
Pentium 4
2 . ,
Socket 423, 
. Socket 478 . 3.22.
Socket 478 400, 533 800 , 
(Memory Controller Hub MCH), 
.

. 125

125

1
. 3.21. 1

. 3.22. 1

Socket 423 (Pentium 4)

Socket 478 (Pentium 4)

Socket 478 , 
, 
(, , Socket 423). ,

, Socket 423.

, .
Socket 478
(VID), VRM, , 
.
1,
.

Socket A (Socket 462)


2000 AMD Socket A (
Socket 462), Athlon Duron PGA.
Slot A, Athlon.
Athlon Duron  ,
, Athlon, .
Socket A (Socket 462) 462 , Socket 370.
Socket 370 Socket A . 
32 1,1001,850 0,025
( VID0VID4).
. Socket A . 3.23.
11 ,
.
. Socket A . 3.24.
126

. 126

3.

55,9
52,40
13,72

1,27

65,5

2,54

(2X)

2,54

1,27

. 3.23. Socket A (Socket 462) Athlon/Duron

AMD , Athlon/Athlon XP
Socket A. , AMD
Athlon  ,
Duron. Athlon 64 Socket 754.
!
, 5
. Athlon XP
, Athlon/Duron, BIOS 5
. , , 5
.

Socket 603
Socket 603 (. 3.25) Intel Xeon 
(Dual Processor DP) (Multiple Processor MP) 
. ,
.

. 127

127

SAO#
12

A
VSS101

B
C

SAO#7

SAO#9
VCC90

D
E

SAO#11

SAO#
10

H
J

VID(1)
VCC66

PICCLX

TCK

R
SCNSK1

X
FID(2)

AA

A20M#

AF
AG

AJ

AL
AM

VSS75

VCC77

VSS3

VCC4

NC
VCC3

SD#38
VSS86

SCK#4

VCC82

VSS74

VSS85

VCC76

NC58

VSS9

VCC11

VSS11

VSS54

NC36

VC12

NC42

NC50

VCC32

KEY14

COREF8

NC51

NC57
NC53

NC54
VSS104

SMI#

NC56

ANLOG

NC16
VSS93

10

11

VCC30
NC12

VSS82

15

16

VSS71

19

VCCA

VCC49

20

21

VSS31
PLBYP#

VCC38

25

VSS49

27

SFIILV#

VCC28

28

29

VSS28
SAI#14

30

31

SAI#6

32

VCC17

33

SD#6

SCK#0

SD#1

SD#12

SD#13

AA

SD#11

AC

SD#9

AE

SAI#7

AG

AB

AD

AF

AH
SAI#3

AJ

SAI#10

AL

SAI#9

AN

AK

AM

VSS17
SAI#13

34

VCC18
SAI#4

SDINV#

SD#16

VSS27

VCC19
SAI#8

VCC35
SAI#11

SAIC#

SD#18

VSS39
SDOC#
0

VSS29

VSS18
SDOV#

SAI#12

VSS40

SAI#2

VCC41
SD#14

VCC36

VSS30

VCC20
SAI#1

NC

26

NCB

NC

SD#0

SAI#5
NC46

NC49

VSS19
NC

NC

24

NC45
KEY18

VCC21

VSS60

23

VCC27

NC

PRCROY

22

NC44

NC15
VSS20

CNNCT

K7CD#

VCC16
NC7

VSS32

VCC22
K7CD

RCLK

18

NC6

CLKFR

RCLK#

VSS16

VCC29

VSS21

VCC60

17

NC

NC13

CLKIN

VCC15

VSS33

VCC23
CLKIN#

PLBYC

14

VSS15
NC

VSS22

VCC72

13

VSS34

PLBYC#

PLMN1

12

VCC14

NC11
VCC24

PLMN2

NC17

VSS14
KEY16

VCC31

VSS23

VCC83

COREF8#

NC10

NC18

VCC13

VSS35

VCC25
NV55

NC57

VSS13

SD#28

VSS45

VCC42

VSS41
NC3

NC43

VCC47
SD#3

SD#10

SD#29

VSS52
SD#2

VSS46

VCC43

NC41

NC48

VSS53

SD#8

NC2

VSS_Z

SD#4

SCK#1

VCC54

VCC48

VSS47
NC1

VSS12

SD#15

SDIC#0
VCC50

SD#21

VSS58

VCC55
SD#5

VCC61
SD#17

VSS59
SD#7

SD#22

VSS65
SD#27

VCC62

VCC56

NC34

VCC_Z

SCK#2

SD#24
VSS61

VCC67

VSS66

VCC63

NC32

VCC10

SDIC#1

SD#25

SDOC#
1

VSS72

VCC68
SD#26

NC30

KEY12

VSS103

SD#19

VCC73
SD#23

VSS73

VSS67

VCC8

VCC9

VCC74

VCC69

37
SD#30

VSS83
SD#31

SD#20
NC63

NC28

VSS10

VSS84

VCC75

36

VCC91
SD#41

SCK#3

NC27

35
SD#40

SD#47

NC23

VSS5

34

VSS92

VCC81

NC62

SOCKET A (SOCKET 462)

33
SDOC#
7

SD#32

NC22
NC61

32

VCC92
SD#43

NV35

VCC26

31
SCK#5

SD#33

NC21
VSS4

30

VSS94
SD#45

SDK#2

KEY4

29
SD#44

NC24

VSS8

NC47

VSS102

VCC84

28

VCC94

NC66

NC33

VCC101

NMI

VCC78
NC

VSS2

SD#47

SD#46

27
SD#34

NC31

VCC37

VSS25

VCC93

VSS87

26

VSS95

NC29

IIC9

FLUSH#

AN

VSS76
KEY6

SD#37

SD#36

25
SD#35

VSS7

ZP

INIT#

INTR

VCC2

VCC85

24

VCC95

VCC6

VCC33

VSS26

VCC79

VSS1

SD#56

SD#58

23
SD#39

VSS6

VSS42

VSS37
RESET#

IGNNE#

AK

VSS88

22

VSS96

VCC7

VCC44

VCC39

VCC34

VSS77
NC20

VCC1

SD#59

SD#48

21
SD#S7

VSS62

ZN

PWROK

FERR#

AH

VCC86

20

VCC96

VCC5

VSS48

VSS43

VS38

VCC80
NC19

NC60

SD#60

SDK#3

19
SCK#7

SVRFM

PLTS#
VCC40

AD
AE

VSS89

18

VSS97

VCC57

NC37

DBRFQ
#

STPC#

VSS78

SD#51

SD#49

17
SD#62

KEY10

VCC51

VCC45

VSS44

AB
AC

VCC87

16

VCC97

VID(3)

VREF_5
VSS50

FID(3)

DBRDY

SCK#6

SD#50

15
SD#63

NC67

VSS55

VCC52

VCC46

VSS90

14

VSS98

VID(4)

TDO

FID(1)
VSS51

13
SD#53

SDOC#
3

KEY8

SCNCK2

TRST#

FID(0)

12

VCC98

SCNSN

VSS56

VC53

V
W

VSS63

SCNINY

TDI

NC65

VCC65

VCC58

VSS57

NC59

NC64

11
SD#61

SD#52

VSS79

PICD#1

TMS
VCC59

VCC88

VSS68

VCC64

10

VSS99
SD#54

SAO#6

VID(2)

PICD#0
VSS64

P
Q

SAO#7

NC25
VSS69

9
SD#55

SAO#
13

SAO#1

VID(0)

VSS80

VCC99

VSS91

VCC70

VSS70

7
SAO#3

SAO#4

SAO#
14

SAO#0

K
L

VCC89

VCC71

VSS100
SAO#8

SAO
CKL#
VSS81

F
G

5
SAO#5

VCC
106

35

36

37

. 3.24. Socket A (Socket 462)

. 3.25. Socket 603

. 3.26. Socket 754.

Intel Xeon


1

128

. 128

3.

Socket 754
Socket 754 (. 3.26) Athlon 64
AMD 64 , .

Socket 939 Socket 940


Socket 939 AMD Athlon 64 AMD
Athlon 64 FX Socket 939 (. 3.27). ,
, DDR SDRAM 
, ( )
, Socket 940. Socket
939 Socket 940 , 
.
Socket 940 AMD Athlon 64 FX AMD
Opteron Socket 940 (. 3.28). , ,
DDR SDRAM . 
Socket 939 Socket 940 ,
.

. 3.27. Socket 939.

. 3.28. Socket 940.

Socket T (LGA775)
Socket T (LGA775)
Intel Pentium 4 Prescott. Prescott
Socket 478. Socket T ,
, . LGA Pentium II
Celeron 1997 ; Slot 1.
LGA , 
. LGA
LCC (leadless chip carrier),

. 129

129

286 1984 . LGA  BGA


(ball grid array), .
LCC , LGA Pentium II 
, . LGA 
. , LGA Pentium 4
, , OLGA
C4 (. 3.29).

. 3.29. Socket T.

Socket AM2
2006 AMD , 
, Socket AM2 (. 3.30). AMD 
M2 Socket 754, Socket 939 Socket 940,
Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2, Op
teron Sempron.
Socket AM2 940 ( , Socket
940), Athlon 64, Opteron
Sempron DDR2.
Socket 754, Socket 939 Socket 940 DDR 
Socket AM2.


Pentium Pro 
L2 Intel , 
. Intel 
130

. 130

3.

. .
, 
.

SOCKET M2

. 3.30. Socket AM2

Pentium II, Pentium III Celeron 


242 Slot 1. Pentium II Xeon Pentium
III Xeon, , 330
Slot 2. , 
Slot 1 Slot 2. Slot 2
, .
Slot 1  .
, Slot 2 SC330 ( slot connec
tor with 330 pins 330 ). Intel 
 L2 , 
Slot 1 Slot 2 .
Slot 1 (SC242)
, SC242 ( slot connector with 242 pins 
242 ), SEC (Single Edge Cartridge 
), Pentium II, Pentium III
Celeron. . 3.31 Slot 1 .
Slot 2 (SC330)
Slot 2 ( SC330, 330 ) 
Pentium II Xeon
Pentium III Xeon. Slot 2 . 3.32.

. 131

131

B74

B1

72,00
2,832

R 0,25
0,010
2,540,127
0,1000,005

B141

B73

132,870,25
5,2310,010
2,50
0,098

73

47,00
1,850
2,50
0,098 48

1,880,10
0,0740,004
9,500,25
0,3740,010

1,27
0,050

4,75
0,187

1,780,03
0,0700,001

2,000,127
0,0790,005
76,13 (.)
2,997 (.)

51,13 (.)
2,013 (.)

A1

A74

0,94
0,037

A141

A73

. 3.31. Slot 1

B1
B2

B165
A166

A2
A1

. 3.32. Slot 2 (SC330)


. 3.33. Pentium II Xeon Pentium III Xeon

132

. 132

3.

Pentium II/III Xeon (. 3.33),


Pentium II/III.
Slot 2
, , Pen
tium II/III Xeon.



. 
. , , 
; ,

. , 
, , 
.
, , ,
.
, .. ;
, . , 
, .
.
Pentium Pentium MMX 
, .
,  , 
5 , 3,5 3,3 ( 
). ,
, , ,
, .
Pentium Intel
, 

, , , 
3,3 . ,
, 
,  3,3 . 
(Voltage Reduction Technology VRT); 
Pentium 1996 . 
; , Pentium MMX
2,8 ,  3,3 .
, 
. Mobile
Pentium II 1,6 ,
, 3,3 .
Socket 370, Socket 478, Socket A, Socket 604, Socket 754, Socket 940 
Pentium Pro (Socket 8) Pentium II (Slot 1 Slot 2) 
Voltage ID (VID),
. ,
, 
.
, Socket 7 , 
, . 

. 133

133

, 
. Pen
tium (Socket 4, Socket 5 Socket 7) , 
MMX 2,8 , Pentium
, 1,8 . , 
, . 3.19.
Socket 7 : 
.
3.19. ,


",

VRE (3,5 )

Intel Pentium

3,5

3,5

STD (3,3 )

Intel Pentium

3,3

3,3

MMX (2,8 )

Intel MMX Pentium

2,8

3,3

VRE (3,5 )

AMD K5

3,5

3,5

3,2

AMD K6

3,2

3,3

2,9

AMD K6

2,9

3,3

2,4

AMD K652/K653

2,4

3,3

2,2

AMD K6/K652

2,2

3,3

VRE (3,5 )

Cyrix 6x86

3,5

3,5

2,9

Cyrix 6x86MX/MII

2,9

3,3

MMX (2,8 )

Cyrix 6x86L

2,8

3,3

2,45

Cyrix 6x86LV

2,45

3,3

5% .
Socket 7, 
Pentium
(, 2,5; 2,7; 2,8 2,9 ). ,
,
, . 
.
Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III/4 
, 
Voltage ID (VID).
: STD VRE , 
 ; 
.  , STD
VRE, , 
 ,  
, 3,3 .
Socket 5 STD VRE. 
, , Socket 5, Socket 7. 
Socket 4 5 ,
. , 
. , ,
Socket 7 Socket 5, .
Pentium Pro, (Celeron, Pentium II/III/4, AMD Duron,
Athlon, Athlon XP Athlon 64) 
. VID.

. 
, .
134

. 134

3.

, , , , 
.

VID 5
, ,
, , .
, ,
, . 5
BIOS.


. 
, . ,
. ,
, .
, , ,
, . 
(. 3.34). . 
,
.
, , , 
21.

Pentium 4
4785 mPGA478B
. 3.34. Pentium 4 (Socket 478)

. 135

135


Intel ( ) . 
Pentium 486 , . 
,
. 
, .
, ,
, 
, 10100 . 
, . 
, 
.
.

; 
. , 
, .

: , , 
. 
. . 3.20.
3.20.

8086

8087

8088

8087

286

287

386SX

387SX

386DX

387DX

486SX

487SX, DX2/OverDrive1

487SX*

486SX2

DX2/OverDrive

486DX

486DX2

486DX4/586

Intel Pentium/Pentium MMX

Cyrix 6x86/MI/MII

AMD K5/K6/Athlon/Duron

Pentium II/III/Celeron/Xeon

Pentium 4

Athlon 64

Itanium

487SX 486DX ( ) 
. 486SX ,
487SX.
2
DX2/OverDrive SX2 .

, 486,
, . , 
Intel , AMD Cyrix,
.
(, 8087 287)
. 
(. 3.21).
136

. 136

3.

3.21.

8087

808753

808752

808751

10

80287

8028756

8028758

80287510

10

, 387 486, 487 Pen


tium, . ,
486D266 66 .
( 386) 
, . .
PS/1 . . 3.22 
.
3.22.
"

"
,

"
,

8087

85

45 000

1980

287

85

45 000

1982

287XL

1,5

85

40 000

1990

387SX

1,5

85

120 000

1988

387DX

1,5

85

120 000

1987

, ,
.



, . 
, 

.
, 
Pentium. , .
,
. , 
, ,
. ,
. , 
, . 
.
,
.

, .
, .
Intel (Specification Update
manuals), Web5. Web5

. 137

137

, , , , , 
.
.
Intel P6/P7, Pentium Pro Pentium III/4/Celeron, , 
, .
; , 
. ROM BIOS

. , ,
.
Intel , 
 BIOS.
, BIOS
. ,
BIOS , 
. Web ,
BIOS .


, Intel, AMD Cyrix
. , ,
. ,
, ,
.
. 3.23.
3.23.

AMD

5x86133 [Socket 3]

SSA5

K5 (PR75100) [Socket 5, 7]

5k86

K5 (PR120200) [Socket 7]

K6

K6; AMD NexGen

NX686

NexGen, K6 [Socket 7]

Little Foot

0,25 K6 [Socket 7]

Chompers

K62 ( K63D) [Socket 7, Super 7]

Sharptooth

K63 ( K6 Plus3D) [Super 7]

Argon

K7

K7

Athlon [Slot A]

K75

0,18 Athlon [Slot A]

76

0,18 Athlon (Slot A)

K8

Athlon 64

Thunderbird

Athlon [Slot A, Socket A]

Mustang

Athlon [Slot A, Socket A]

Corvette

Athlon [Socket A]

Palomino

0,18 Athlon XP/MP, Athlon 4 [Socket A]

Thoroughbred

0,13 Athlon XP/MP [Socket A]

Barton

0,13 Athlon XP/MP,  512 [Socket A]

Spitfire

Duron [Socket A]

Camaro

Morgan

Morgan

Duron [Socket A]

Applebred

Duron 1,4  1,8

Appaloosa

0,13 Morgan [Socket A]

ClawHammer

Athlon 64 (64 ) [Socket 754]

138

. 138

AMD

X5

3.

. 3.23

AMD

AMD

ClawHammer DP

Opteron DP [Socket 940]

NewCastle
Winchester

0,135 Athlon 64 [Socket 939]


0,095 Athlon 64 [Socket 939]

Odessa
Manchester

0,095 Athlon 64
Athlon 64 X2 5 L2 512 SSE3 [Socket 939]

Toledo
SledgeHammer

Athlon 64 X2 5 L2 1 SSE3 [Socket 939]


Opteron 5 L2 [Socket 940]

Palermo

Sempron [Socket 754]

Oakville

Athlon 64 Sempron [Socket 754]

Windsor

Athlon 64 X2 Athlon 64 FX562 [Socket AM2]

Orleans
Manila

Athlon 64 [Socket AM2]


Sempron [Socket AM2]


Intel

Intel

P23

486SX [Socket 1, 2, 3]

P23S
P23N
P4
P4S
P24
P24S
P24D
P24C
P23T
P4T
P24T
P24CT
P5
P5T
P54C
P54CQS
P54CS
P54CTA
P55C
P54CTB
Tillamook

486SX SL5enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]


487SX () [Socket 1]
486DX [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX SL5enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX2 [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX2 SL5enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DX2 ( 5 write5back) [Socket 3]
486DX4 [Socket 3]
486DXODP (486 OverDrive) [Socket 1, 2, 3]
486DXODPR (486 OverDrive) [Socket 1, 2, 3]
PODP5V (Pentium OverDrive 486) [Socket 2, 3]
Pentium OverDrive 486DX4 ( 3,3 ) [Socket 2, 3]
Pentium ( 60/66 ) [Socket 4]
Pentium OverDrive (12055133 ) [Socket 4]
Pentium ( 7555120 ) [Socket 5, 7]
Pentium ( 12055133 ) [Socket 5, 7]
Pentium ( 12055200 ) [Socket 7]
Pentium OverDrive ( 125, 150 166 ) [Socket 5, 7]
Pentium MMX [Socket 7]
Pentium MMX OverDrive [Socket 5, 7]
Pentium MMX

P6
P6T
Klamath
Deschutes
Drake
Tonga
Covington
Mendocino
Dixon
Katmai
Tanner
Coppermine

Pentium Pro [Socket 8]


Pentium II OverDrive [Socket 8]
Pentium II [Slot 1]
0,255 Pentium II [Slot 1 & 2]
Pentium II Xeon [Slot 2]
Pentium II
Celeron (Deschutes ) [Slot 1]
Celeron ( 5 128 ) [Slot 1, Socket 370]
Pentium II ( 5 L2 256 )
Pentium III [Slot 1]
Pentium III Xeon [Slot 2]
0,185 Pentium III 5 256
[Slot 1, Socket 370]
0,135 Pentium III (Socket 370)
0,185 Pentium III Tualatin (Socket 370)
Coppermine Xeon ( 5 256 ) [Slot 2]
Celeron III ( 5 128 ) [Socket 370]

Tualatin
Coppermine5T
Cascades
Coppermine5128

. 139

139

. 3.23

Intel

Intel

Timna

Celeron III

P68

Willamette

Willamette

0,185 Pentium 4 [Socket 423]

Northwood

0,135 Pentium 4 [Socket 478]

Prescott

0,095 Pentium 4 Hyper5Threading


[Socket 478]

Smithfield

Pentium D, Pentium Extreme Edition [Socket 775]

Presler

0,0655 Pentium D

Conroe

0,0655

Banias

0,135 Pentium M 5 L2 1

Yonah

Pentium M () Celeron M ()

Merom

645 Yonah

Foster

Xeon DP [Socket 603]

Foster MP

Xeon MP [Socket 603]

Prestonia

0,135 Xeon DP [Socket 603]

Gallatin

0,135 Xeon MP [Socket 603]

Nocona

0,095 Xeon [Socket 603]

Dothan

0,095 Pentium M 5 L2 2

P7

Merced

Merced

Itanium (IA64) [PAC 418]

McKinley

Itanium [PAC 418] 5


3

Madison

0,135 Itanium 2

Deerfield

Madison

Montecito

0,095 Madison

Shavano

Itanium

, , , 
. , 
. ,
Intel, ,
.
.

"""" P1 (086)
Intel,
. IBM, PC,
Intel, .

8086 8088
1978 Intel , 8086.
16 ; 
8. 8086 16 
, 16 .
16 16 
.
20 , 8086 
20
1 (2 ). ,
8 , 8 16
16
64 (2 ).

140

. 140

3.

8 , 
8 CP/M (Control Program for Microproc
essors ) 
. , , 8. 
16 ,
 .
8086 16
, 8. 8, 
8086 . Intel , ( )
16 , 
8086, 8088. ,
, 8 16 , 8088 
8 . ,
16 20 ,
8088 16
1 .
, IBM 8 8088 IBM PC.
. ( ,
.) IBM , 
, PC 16 . 
, 8088 16 
, 8086, . 
8088 16
, 8088 8086. 
IBM PC, 16 
8 .
IBM PC , Apple II.
IBM PC 16 1 265 ,
Apple II 1 355 .
IBM PC 8088.
1979 , IBM PC 8088 1981 .

; 
, .
IBM PC 8088 4,77 , .. 
4 770 000 . 8088 8086
12 .
, 
640 , 8088
1 . , IBM 384 
BIOS.
640 DOS .

80186 80188
8088 8086 Intel
. 80188 80186
. ,
, , 
286.
80186 80188 . 
. 80186 ( 8086) 16,
80188 ( 8088) 8 16
5555 P1 (086)

. 141

141

. , ,
, 1520 ,
. 80186 80188 
, .

8087
8086 1976 . 8087,
,
, NDP (Numeric Data Processor) 
.
, . 

.

"""" P2 (286)

. ,
16 .

286
80286 ( 286) ,
80186 80188, . 1981 ,
IBM AT. PS/2 50 60 (
PS/2 386 486). 
( IBM),
AT.
286 AT 
8088, .. IBM PC XT
AT. 286 , ,
.
AT 6 
IBM PC (4,77 ). 286 . 3.35.
286
. , 286 
. 8086 8088
12 , 286 4,5. , 286
16 , 8088.
286 .
, 
. 286 8086
8086 8088. (,
, , ,
.)
286 . 
,
1 , 16
. 286 ,
, .. 
.
. 386 
.

142

. 142

3.

. 3.35. 286. Intel

Windows 3.0,
, 286, ,
. 386.
286, 
, .
,
() ( ) . 
.
286
, .

80287
80287 8087.
, .

1
2, 80287 3. , 80287 , /3
2
/3 80286. 
, 8088 8087.

"""" P3 (386)
, , 
. 32 .
, 10 ,
32 .

5555 P3 (386)

. 143

143

386
80386 ( 386) 
.
32 

. Intel 386 1985 , , Compaq
Deskpro 386 , 1986 1987 ;
IBM PS/2 80.
386 8086 8088,
. , 286,
4,5. , 386 286
.
286 , 16 20 
386 . ! 
386
() 
MMU (Memory Management Unit). 386 . 3.36.

. 3.36. 386. Intel

386
. ,
(virtual real mode),
.
386 286.
(native mode), 
OS/2 Windows NT,

144

. 144

3.

.
MMU, 
.
MMU 286, 386
286.
, 386, , 
8086. DOS 
, .
. 
.
386, 
, .. 
.

386DX
386DX .
32 , ,
32. 275 . 
, .. .
132 400 ( , 8086).
,
CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor ,
), .
386, Intel, 16 33 , 
40 .
4 .
, 
64 (1 = 1 024 = 1 099 511 627 776 ).

386SX
386, 
286. 286, 
16 . 
386SX 386DX, .. 
32 . 386SX 24
( 32 386)
16 ( 4 ) , .. , 286. 386 
16 33 .
386SX 286
MMU . 
Windows OS/2 386SX
DOS. , 286 ,
, 386. , Windows 3.1 386SX
, 386DX.

386SL
386. 386SL
,
; 386SX. 386SL
, 
, , 
.
5555 P3 (386)

. 145

145

SMI (System Management


Interrupt), . 386SL
LIM (Lotus Intel Microsoft)
  16 64 .
855 .,
.. , 386DX. 386SL 25 .
Intel  82360SL 
386SL .
, 
, , , 
386SL. 
.

80387
80387 ,
386 , . 80287
( 8087 , ), 80387 
386.
387 CMOS 
. : 387D ( CPU
386D) 387S ( CPU 386S, SL SLC).
Intel 387D 
. 33 
( , , ).
1,5 1 ,
50%. 20%.

Intel 387: 287 5


386. ,
.

387DX ,
, .
387DX  . 
. 387DX
 , Intel .
387, 
Intel. 
.

"""" P4 (486)

PC.
,
. , Intel, AMD
.

486
Intel 80486
. 
. Windows, OS/2
, 486 
, .
146

. 146

3.

486 386 (
) .
. 486 
2 , 4,5, 386.
 . 9095%
(, ,
). 
.
(burst mode). 32 (4)
2 . 32
(.. 12 ),
. 16
. 
8 16 .
() ( ). 
, ,
, 
. 23
80387.
486 , 386, ..
486S 20 , 386D 40 . 486
( ) 
, : D2
D4, 23 . ,
486 386.
486 16
133 . 486 , .
D, D2 S 168 
, OverDrive 168, 169
( 487S). 486
ZIF 486, DX4, 
3,3 5 , .
. 
, 486DX4 100 75
25 . , DX2/OverDrive 
,
, D4 2, 2,5 3. . 3.24 
DX2 DX4
.
3.24. DX2 DX4


,

DX2 ( 2)

DX4 ( 2)

DX4 ( 2,5)

DX4 ( 3)

16

32

32

40

48

20

40

40

50

60

25

50

50

63

75

33

66

66

83

100

40

80

80

100

120

50

5555

100

5555

5555

5555 P4 (486)

. 147

147

DX4 
CLKMUL R17 ( Socket 1) S18 ( Socket 2, Socket 3
Socket 6).
DX4100 :
, 50 , 
100 ( 
33/100 ).
, , VLBus ,
33 40 . VLBus VLBus
. ,
VLBus,
. 50 .
.
!
. 5
D4 5 , !

486DX
486DX Intel 10 1989 ,
1990 . 25 ,
5 . 33 50 . 
168 PGA,
5 196 PQFP (Plastic
Quad Flat Pack), 3,3 208
SQFP (Small Quad Flat Pack). 

SL Enhanced 
, 
.
486 
:
(
, 
);

( 
486 Over
Drive ).
486DX 
CMOS (), 
, 
32, 386.
1,2 .
( , 
386). 
. 
486 . 3.37.
486DX
. 3.37. 486.   , 
, 
Intel
148

. 148

3.

 8 .  
 
486 2 ( 286 386 4,5 ,
8086/8088 12 ). 486
386.
486
Intel, 386, , 
.
386, 486 4 
64 . 
386 : , .
, 8086.

.
DOS 
, 
8086. , Windows OS/2
16 32
. 
, 
.
486DX MCP (Math CoProcessor) FPU
(FloatingPoint Unit). , 
, ,
. , 
486DX, 387,
386, ,
387
.

486SL
,
. SL
486 (SX, DX DX2),
SL Enhanced. SL Enhanced , 
.
SL Enhanced 
, 
. , 
. 
3,3 .
Intel , SMM
(System Management Mode).
. , 
, ,
, .
SMM (System Manage
ment Memory), . 
, ,
SMI (System Management Interrupt).
.
5555 P4 (486)

. 149

149

SMM . , 
, , 
, SMI.
.
SL (suspend)
(resume).
.
,
, . 
,
. .
SL .
, 
. , 
, .

486SX
1991 
486DX .
, 386SX 16 
32 386DX. ,
386DX. 486SX
. 32 ,
486DX ( ).
,
.
486SX , 
. DX
. ,
, , 486SX. 
; SX , 
DX. ( , 
.) 
1,2 . 1,185 .
486SX 16, 20, 25 33 , 486 SX/2
50 66 . 486SX 168 ,
SL .
Intel ,

486SX; , . Intel
486
SX, . 
486 .

Co 487SX
487SX 486DX
25 ,
. 
486SX , . 
169 ,
.

150

. 150

3.

487SX 486SX .
487SX Intel 
OverDrive. DX2/OverDrive
169 ,
487SX. , 487SX, 
DX2/OverDrive.
487SX 486DX ,
487SX 169 . 487SX 
(, 169 !) 
486SX,
487SX . , 487SX.
486SX !
487SX 486DX, 
486DX OverDrive ,
( ,
, 
). 487SX 168 (
169 ), ,
486DX, SX DX.
, .

DX2/OverDrive DX4
1992 Intel DX2
. OverDrive. 
OverDrive 169, .. 
486SX, 169 .
1992 OverDrive 168 ,
486DX. 
, 486 (SX DX), ,
169 . 
!
DX2/OverDrive 
. , 25
50 , 33 66 . 
,
486. 
, , . ,
, , 
.
DX2/OverDrive :
40 16 20 ;
50 25 ;
66 33 .
. 66
40 50 ,
. 
. , 
486SX 16 DX2/OverDrive 40 ( 
16 ) 32 . DX2/OverDrive
100 ( 50 )
5555 P4 (486)

. 151

151

, DX4,
50
( ).
DX2, ( 
) , ,
. 
, .
DX2 , 486DX, .
DX2 , 
0,8 .
486DX. 1,1 . .
 8 . 
(
).
DX2
,
, ,
, .
486DX2 50 486DX50, 
486DX50 50 ,
486DX2 50 ,
25 . 
.
486DX50 ,
25 . ,
.

, , 25 .
486DX2 9095%,
510% . ,
DX2
, 50 , . 
, 33 
486DX2 66 486DX50,
DX2  .
486
()  16 512 ( ). 
. DX2 
. 

, , .
DX2
 . 
, , 
, , ,
, .
50 ? 
Intel DX2/OverDrive 
50 , .. 100 . 
DX4.

152

. 152

3.

DX4 ,
(3,3 ), 
5 ( 
3,3 ). , 
() 2, 2,5 3. DX4 
486DX50 2,
100 !
Intel DX4 OverDrive, 
. , DX4 OverDrive 
DX4 3,3 , 5
. , DX4 OverDrive 
, 2 2,5,
DX4.

Pentium OverDrive DX2 DX4


1995 Pentium OverDrive.
486 Socket 2 Socket 3 c 5 ,
Pentium OverDrive.
Pentium OverDrive ,
Socket 2. Socket 3,
, 5, 3,3 . ,
3,3 , 
, Socket 3 .
3,3 Socket 2 :
.
, ( 
), 32 Pentium ( !),
Pentium ( )  32 .
 , 
. ,
, ( Socket 2), 
.
OverDrive 
DX4100 DX4120 Pentium 60, 66 75. 
Pentium OvrDrive
486. 
DX4100 120 Pen
tium Pentium, Pentium OverDrive.

AMD 486 (5x86)


AMD, 486,
486, 486 Am5x86(TM)P75.
, , 5x86
, Pentium. 486,
(4x), .. , 
486 (33 ).
5x85  16 , 
133 . 
, Pentium 75, P75 
. , 486 , 
.
5555 P4 (486)

. 153

153

5x86. 
, . (
Am5X86, AMDX5, clockquadrupled, 133MHz  .) 
Web AMD.
5x86 486 
.
5x86 3,45 (0,15) . 
,
Socket 3. 486 Socket 1
Socket 2, 5x86 . , 
3,45 , 5
. 5 3,45 ,
, , Kingston, Evergreen AMP.
Kingston Evergreen 5x86 
, .
486, Socket 3.
, ,
BIOS . ,
BIOS.
Socket 3 ,
. 
, .
VOLDET ( S4)
.
VOLDET . 
, 
: , ,
S4 Vss ZIF,
Vcc. 3,45 (0,15) .
, 5x86,
33 . 5x86 133 .
, clock
quadrupled ( ), 4X Clock. 
, CLKMUL ( R17)
( Vss). , 
,
DX2 .
, 
 c (WB) (WT) .
WB/WT ( B13) (Vcc) 
WB (Vss) WT.
WB; ,

( DMA), WT.
5x86 , 
. , . 5x86, 
AMD 486 80,
100 120 A80486DX280SV8B (40 2), A80486DX4100SV8B (33
3) A80486DX4120SV8B (40 3).
154

. 154

3.

Cyrix/TI 486
Cyrix 486DX2/DX4,
100, 80, 75, 66 50 . AMD 486, Cyrix
Intel 486 !
486.
Cx486DX2/DX4 !
8 , , !
SMM. 3,3 .

Cyrix 486 TI, 


TI.

 P5 (586)
(, 486) Intel !
, !
.
Intel, AMD .

Pentium
1992 Intel ,
( 5) Pentium, 586,
. , ,
, Intel
,
. Pentium !
1993 , .
Pentium Intel, !
. : Pentium
, . ( !
.) Intel !
. Pentium
486 .

RISC!. Pentium CISC (Complex Instruction Set
Computer), . !
486, . . 3.25.
3.25. Pentium

22 1993 ( ), 7 1994 ( )

60, 66 ( ); 75, 90, 100, 120, 133, 150, 166, 200 (


)
1 ( ); 1,53 ( )
32
64
32
4
8 ( ), 8 ( )
, ( )

3,1 .
0,8 (60/66 ), 0,6 (75100 ), 0,35 (120 )
273 PGA, 296 SPGA,










 P5 (586)

. 155

155

. 3.25

SMM,

5 ( ), 3,465; 3,3; 3,1 2,9 ( )

PGA Pin Grid Array ( ).


SPGA Staggered Pin Grid Array ( ).

u v. u 
. v

.
. 
, u. 
Pentium, 
, .
,

, Pentium (Branch Target Buffer ),
. 
, 
. 
. 
Pentium . 3.38.
Pentium 32 ( , 386
486), 4 . ,
64, 
, 486. 
, .. 64.
SIMM DIMM.
SIMM 8 32. 
(Error Correction Codes ECC).
Pentium 36 SIMM (32 4 
) . 
, .. . 
Pentium Pentium II 64 DIMM.
64, Pentium
32. 
32 , 486.
, Intel , Pentium 64 
. ,  64. 
Pentium 486.
Pentium 8 ,
486 8 16 .  
.  (
) .  Pentium
, , ,
. ( 486 
.)
;
32 .
() (Translation Lookaside Buffer
156

. 156

3.

TLB), .
 , ,
.. . 
,  ,
, ( 
). 
. 
, ,
. 
 ( ) .

TLB

5
8

DP

256

645.

325.

ROM

,
.
5


U5


V5


ALU
(U5)

64
645.

APIC

Add
Divide

325.

80
32
32

32

ALU
(V5)

32

TLB

80

Multiply

32
32
32

. 3.38. Pentium

Pentium 
 ( ), 512
RAM (
15 ). , 
( ), .
, .
Pentium 
(Bipolar Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor BiCMOS), 
5555 P5 (586)

. 157

157

10% ,
3035% .
Pentium 75 SL Enhanced, ..
SMM, . 
Pentium ( 75 ) 
, 
. 
(
). Pentium
3,3 , , ,
.
3,465 3,3 .
3,465 Intel VRE (Voltage Reduced Extended);
Pentium, , 100 . 
3,3 STD (), 
Pentium . STD
3,135 3,465 , 3,3 .
3,3 , VR (Voltage Reduced ),
3,300 3,465 , 3,38 .
,
. .

STD (Standard)
VR (Voltage Reduced)
VRE (VR Extended)

3,30
3,38
3,50

0,165
0,083
0,100

3,135
3,300
3,400

3,465
3,465
3,600

, Intel 
Pentium. , (Tape Car
rier Packaging TCP). 
, . (
1 , 10 ) 1 . 
. TCP 
, , , 
, . 
, ,
.
Pentium, 486, .
210 , 486 387.
, ,
. 
, 486, , , .

Pentium
Pentium, 
. 60 66 ,
273 PGA 5 .
, , .. 1.
Pentium
BiCMOS, (0,8 ). 
, 3,1 . , 
. .
158

. 158

3.

, IBM Motorola,
,
0,6 .  (5 )
Pentium 66 3,2 ( 16 !),
( ) . 
.
Pentium . ,
, , 

Pentium ,
.

, : 5
. ,
5 .

, Pentium 
. , 486, Intel
OverDrive, Pentium 60
66. , , OverDrive.
Pentium Pen
tium 60/66 Socket 4, OverDrive 
Pentium , 
.
OverDrive
. , , ,
.

Pentium
1994 Intel Pentium . 
90 100 ; ,
75 . , , 120, 133, 150, 166 200 .
BiCMOS,
0,6 (75/90/100 );
. Pentium
, 0,35
BiCMOS. Pentium . 3.39. ,
, 3,3 . ,
100 , 3,25 , 10,725 . 
90 2,95 , 
9,735 . 150 
3 3,3 ( 11,6 ); 
166 4,4 (14,5 ), 200 4,7 (15,5 ).
296 SPGA, 
. 
. 
Pentium 3,3 . , ..
, . ,
( , 
, 
APIC (Advanced Programmable Inter
rupt Controller) DP (Dual Processing)).
5555 P5 (586)

. 159

159

. 3.39. Pentium. Intel

APIC DP 
Pentium ,
. Socket 5
Socket 7, .
, Windows OS/2,
(Symmetric MultiProcessing SMP).
Pentium ;
, . Pentium 90 
, ( 60 ), 100
1,5 66 2 
50 . 200 3 
66 .
Pentium 
: 50, 60 66 . Pentium

, , , , 
.
, , , , ..
, Pentium BF1
BF2. . 3.26 , 
Pentium.

160

. 160

3.

3.26. BF Pentium
BF1

BF2

0
0

1
1

3
3

66
60

200
180

0
0

1
0

3
2,5

50
66

150
166

2,5

60

150

0
1

0
0

2,5
2/4x

50
66

125
133/266*

1
1

0
0

2
2

60
50

120
100

1
1

1
1

1,5/3,5x
1,5

66
60

100/233*
90

1,5

50

75

233 266 1.5x 2x 


3.5x 4x .

BF (Bus Frequency). 
, Pentium
, ,  . 
,
BF
. Pentium 75
133 . , (over
clocking), , ,
, , 
. ,
.
OverDrive Pentium 
. Socket 5
Socket 7 ( 3x),
200 ( 66 ), 
MMX. Pentium, 100, 133
166 , OverDrive
200 . , , Pentium OverDrive
, MMX, 
, .
Socket 7,
OverDrive Pentium 
. Pentium Pentium
.
.

Pentium MMX
Pentium P55C,
1997 , Pentium 
, Intel MMX. Pentium
MMX (. 3.40) 66/166, 66/200 66/233 ;
, 66/266 .
, : 
, , APIC
.
5555 P5 (586)

. 161

161

MMX , 16 (
8 ) 4,5 . . Pentium MMX
0,35 
2,8 . 
, 233 266
0,25 , ,
Pentium MMX 133 .

. 3.40. Pentium MMX

Pentium MMX,
2,8 .

Intel Socket 7 c , 
(Voltage Regulation Module VRM). 

.
, Pentium
MMX  MMX (MultiMedia eXtentions). Intel
MMX 
, .

, . In
tel SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data 
) 
() . , 57
, ,  
.
Pentium
( MMX),
321 Socket 7, VRM. , 
, , Pentium,
, 
.

Pentium
,
(Floating Point Unit FPU) Pentium.
FDIV, FDIV
162

. 162

3.

(floatingpoint divide ),
, . Intel 
Errata No. 23, Slight precision loss for floatingpoint
divides on specific operand pairs. D1
Pentium 60/66 , B5 
Pentium 75/90/100 . 120
, , 
. Pentium
.
, 1994 
. ,
, . Pentium 
, 
.
, , Intel 
, Pentium
60/66 75/90/100 .
Intel
, .
, 
, ,
. .
, ?
,

. , 
, ? ,
. , Pentium
Excel 5.0. 
( 5.0c ).
Intel , , 
. , FPU,
 . ,
Intel. 
. Intel
, .

FPU
Pentium .
.
(
, Lotus 123, Microsoft Excel . .), Microsoft Windows,
, FPU. ,
FPU . 
; , ,
FPU .
, FPU Pentium, 
. .
962 306 957 033 / 11 010 046 = 87 402,6282027341 ( )
962 306 957 033 / 11 010 046 = 87 399,5805831329 (
Pentium)

5555 P5 (586)

. 163

163


, . 5
13 15 .

, . 
5 000 , 5 15 , , , 
FPU Pentium, .
, 
. Intel Pentium,
.

,
Pentium , Intel , 
, 
. Energy Star,
, EPA Energy Star,
green PC ( ).
, , ,
. ,
, SMM.
75/90/100 ,
60/66
, ( 120 ) 
.
STPCLK# HALT. 
, .

, , .
, . ,
, Pentium B1 
75/90/100 B3 .

Pentium
, , 
.
. 
, ,
, . ,
, . 
, , .
.
.
. , , ,
( ).
Intel , , ,
Web, 
Pentium, (Sspec, Sspecification) , 
.
, Pentium,
. 3.27.
Pentium ,
. ,
164

. 164

3.

 , 
.
3.27. Pentium

5555

Std

4,75555,25

5555

5v1

4,90555,25

5555

5v2

4,90555,40

5555

5v3

5,15555,40

2+

B15B5

Std

3,135553,465

2+

C2+

Std

3,135553,600

2+

5555

VR

3,300553,465

2+

B15B5

VRE

3,45553,60

2+

C2+

VRE

3,40553,60

4+

5555

MMX

2,70552,90

Mobile

2,285552,665

Mobile

2,10552,34

Mobile

1,850552,150

Mobile

1,665551,935

Pentium
Model 2 ( ) , 
75 . 2 , 
. 
Pentium  , , .

AMD"K5
Pentium , AMD PR75,
PR90, PR100, PR120, PR133 PR166. ,
Intel Pentium, , 
Intel Pentium, AMDK5.
AMDK5 BIOS. Web AMD 
, . AMDK5 
:
16 , 8 ;
;
RISC
;

;
(1,5x 2x).
K5 (PRating),
.. , .
, , PRating, 
. , PR166 
117 . BIOS.
AMDK5 3,52 (VRE).
3,3 , 
K5, .

5555 P5 (586)

. 165

165

: P6 (686)
P6 (686) , 
. P6 : Pentium Pro Pentium II. 
P5 Pentium. . 3.28 
P6 .
3.28. P6
Pentium Pro

P6 5 256 , 512
1 ,

Pentium II

P6 5 512 ,

Pentium II Xeon

P6 5 512 , 1 2 ,

Celeron

P6 5

Celeron5A

P6 5 128 ,

Pentium III

P6 SSE (MMX2), 5 512


Pentium IIPE

P6 5 256 ,

Pentium III Xeon

P6 SSE (MMX2), 5 512 , 1


2

Pentium 
; .
MMX. 
Intel ?
: ,
(Dual Independent Bus DIB), .



. 
.
. 
.
. , 
, .
.
, , , .


P6 .
: ( ), .
.


P6 
P5: ,
. , CISC 
RISC. RISC ,
.
P5, , P6
() . 

166

. 166

3.

(
).
, P6 
, , 
32 .
Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III . Pentium
,
. RISC,
Intel CISC. CISC
RISC , Intel 
.
Pentium, , P6
32 . P6
32
(, Windows NT/2000). 16
Windows 9 ( 16
) , P6 
. , 
. Windows NT/2000
Pentium Pro, Celeron
Pentium II/III. Windows 9, 
Windows NT/2000/XP P6. 
,
. ,
. 
, 32
Intel. ,

.

Pentium Pro
Pentium MMX Pentium Pro. 
1995 , 1996 . 387
, Socket 8, 
Pentium.
MCM (MultiChip Module), Intel,
Dual Cavity PGA ( PGA). 387
, Pentium Pro (. 3.41),
 256 ( Pentium Pro 
256 . 3.42), 512 1 . 
5,5 . ,  256 15,5 .
,  512 31 ., 
512 36,5 . , 1
68 .! Pentium Pro  1 
: 512 (. 3.43).

16 ( 8 ).
Pentium Pro (DIB),
,
.

: P6 (686)

. 167

167

. 3.41. Pentium Pro. Intel

. 3.42. Pentium Pro 

. 3.43. Pentium Pro 

256
(). 
Intel

1 (
). 
Intel

, DIB,  (
)
.
()  Pentium Pro 
. 
Pentium Pro. DIB
Socket 7,
Pentium.
. 3.29 3.30 Pentium Pro 
Pentium Pro.

168

. 168

3.

3.29. Pentium Pro


1995

150, 166, 180, 200


2,5, 3

32
64

64

36

64

64
8 ( ), 8 ( )

Socket 8

3875 Dual Cavity PGA

6,256,76

SMM (System Management Mode)

3,1 3,3

3.30. Pentium Pro


Pentium Pro (200 ) " 1

18 1997

200 (66 3)

5,5 . (0,355 ) 62 . 5
1 (0,355 )

: 8 2 (16 ), : 1

14,0

Pentium Pro (166/180/200 )


1 1995

166 (66 2,5), 180 (60 3), 200 (66 3)

5,5 . (0,355 ) 15,5 . 5


256 (0,65 ) 31 . 5
512 (0,355 )

: 8 2 (16 ), : 256 512

Pentium Pro (180 )


5

: 8 2 (16 ), : 256

14,0

Pentium Pro (166 )


1 1995

166 (66 2,5)

5,5 . (0,355 ) 31 . 5
512 (0,355 )

: 8 2 (16 ), : 512

14,0

Pentium Pro (150 )


1 1995

150 (60 2,5)

5,5 . (0,65 ) 15,5 . 5


256 (0,65 )

: 8 2 (16 ), : 256

17,6

, ,
iCOMP 2.0, . 
142 Pentium 200 220 Pentium Pro 200
. Pentium MMX 182 . (,
: P6 (686)

. 169

169

16 , Pentium Pro .)


Pentium Pro.
/

Pentium Pro 150

2,5

60

Pentium Pro 166

2,5

66

Pentium Pro 180

60

Pentium Pro 200

66


Pentium Pro. ,
(60
66 ) . 
64 , 64
. 32, Pentium.
, .
,  ( ) Pen
tium Pro ,  .
 , 
. Pentium Pro
MultiProcessor Specification (MPS), 
(SMP), Pentium. MPS Pentium Pro
.
, Pentium Pro .
Pentium Pro PCI ISA. 
Pentium Pro , 450KX/GX (Orion) 440LX
(Natoma). , Intel Pentium Pro
Pentium II, ATX.
, , .
BabyAT , ,
, .
Pentium Pro 
(Voltage Identification VID).
. Pentium Pro
, Pentium,
Pentium Pro . .
. 
, . VID
(VID0, VID1, VID2, VID3). 1 
, 0 (.. ).
(. 3.31).
3.31. Pentium Pro

0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111

3,5
3,4
3,3
3,2
3,1
3,0
2,9
2,8

1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

2,7
2,6
2,5
2,4
2,3
2,2
2,1

170

. 170

3.

Pentium Pro 3,3 , 


3,1 . , 1111 ( )
, .
Pentium Pro ; 
, ,
 , .

Pentium II
Intel 1997 .
Klamath
. Pentium II, , , Pen
tium Pro, MMX ( 
57 MMX). Pentium II . 3.44.

. 3.44. Pentium II. Intel

. Pentium II 
(Single Edge Contact SEC) 
. , 
SIMM  (. 3.45); 
Slot 1 , .
, SECC (Single Edge Contact
Cartridge) SECC2. . 3.46 3.47 .
, SECC2 . 1999 Intel
Pentium II/III. 
, Pentium Pro.

: P6 (686)

. 171

171

. 3.45. Pentium II ( SEC). 

Intel

. 3.46. SECC

. 3.47. SECC2

172

. 172

3.

Intel Pentium II
.
/

Pentium II 233
Pentium II 266

3,5
4

66
66

Pentium II 300

4,5

66

Pentium II 333

66

Pentium II 350

3,5

100

Pentium II 400
Pentium II 450

4
4,5

100
100

Pentium II 7,5 . ; 
P6 Intel. Pentium II 
0,35 . Pentium II 333 
0,25 . , 
. 333
Pentium II 75150% , Pentium MMX 233 , 
50% . 
. iCOMP 2.0 Pentium II
266 , Pentium 200 .
, Pentium II
Pentium Pro MMX. 
, Pentium Pro, MMX 57 
. , Pentium II 
, Pentium Pro ( 16, 32 ).
Pentium II
.

,

( ),

450

27,1

0,25

2,0

400

24,3

0,25

2,0

350

21,5

0,25

2,0

333

23,7

0,25

2,0

300

43,0

0,35

2,8

266

38,2

0,35

2,8

233

34,8

0,35

2,8

Pentium II 450 ,
233 . 0,25
2,0 .
Pentium Pro, Pentium II
.
: , , 
; ,
; , 
, 
, , . 
Pentium II .
Pentium Pro, Pentium II
(Dual Independent Bus DIB).
Pentium II 
,
: P6 (686)

. 173

173

. Pentium II ,
Pentium II , ,
.
 Pen
tium II 333 2,5 . Pentium II
 . , 
, .


Pentium.
Pentium II . 3.32,
Pentium II . 3.33.
3.32. Pentium II

66, 100

3,5, 4, 4,5, 5

233, 266, 300, 333, 350, 400, 450

: 32 (16 16 );
: 512 ( )
32
64
36
64
64

2425 (Single Edge Contact


Cartridge 5555 SECC)

12,826,281,64

SMM (System Management Mode)

3.33. Pentium II
Pentium II MMX (350, 400 450 )

15 1998

350 (1003,5), 400 (1004) 450 (1004,5)

iCOMP 2.0

386, 440 483 (350, 400 450 )

7,5 . (0,255 ) 31 . 5
512

2,0

Slot 2

10,2

Pentium II (266, 300, 333 366 )


25 1999

266, 300, 333 366

27,4 . (0,255 )

3135

1,6

366 5555 9,5 , 333 5555 8,6 , 300 7,7 , 266 5555 7,0

Pentium II MMX (333 )


7 1997

333 (66 5)

iCOMP 2.0

366

7,5 . (0,355 ) 31 . 5
512

174

. 174

3.

. 3.33
Pentium II MMX (333 )

512

2,0

Slot 1

10,2

Pentium II MMX (300 )


7 1997

300 (66 4,5)

iCOMP 2.0

332

7,5 . (0,355 ) 31 . 5
512

512

Slot 1

14,2

Pentium II MMX (266 )


7 1997

266 (66 4)

iCOMP 2.0

303

7,5 . (0,355 ) 31 . 5
512

512

Slot 1

14,2

Pentium II MMX (233 )


7 1997

233 (66 3,5)

iCOMP 2.0

267

7,5 . (0,355 ) 31 . 5
512

512

Slot 1

14,2

 , 
. 
Pentium II ,
. , Pentium II 333 
333 , 
167 . 
, Pentium Pro, 
, 66 (
Socket 7 Pentium). Intel, 
, .
, 
, , Intel 
 .
Pentium Pro 200 , 
.  
, Pentium II 400 , 

: P6 (686)

. 175

175

200 .  Pentium II,


Intel  ( Pentium Pro
256 , Pentium II 512 ).
, ,  , 
512 Pentium II (
233 333 ). 350, 400 ,
4 . ,
 512 . 
350 , .
Pentium II , 
.
, ,

.
Pentium II ,
.
Pentium II (Error Correction Code ECC)
(L2). 
, , 
. Pentium II
, , 
.
Pentium II . 
Slot 1 , 
. .
(, , Intel Boxed AL440FX DK440LX,
.)
Pentium II , 
. (). ,
Pentium II ().
, Intel, Pen
tium II . 

.
. 

( ). 
: 
.
, .
. 3.48 SEC , , ,
, .

Pentium II.
Pentium II, 
SEC.
. . 3.49.
(  ) 
(. 3.34).

176

. 176

3.


(S.E.C.)



Slot 1


. 3.48. Pentium II/III

. 3.49. Pentium II/III SECC

: P6 (686)

. 177

177

3.34. Pentium II
S""

CPUID

"
"
/, ,

"

SL264
SL265

C0
C0

0633h
0633h

233/66
266/66

512
512

ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00

5
5

SL268
SL269

C0
C0

0633h
0633h

233/66
266/66

512
512

ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00

5
5

SL28K

C0

0633h

233/66

512

ECC

SECC 3.00

1, 3, 5

SL28L
SL28R

C0
C0

0633h
0633h

266/66
300/66

512
512

ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00

1, 3, 5
5

SL2MZ
SL2HA

C0
C1

0633h
0634h

300/66
300/66

512
512

ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00

1, 5
5

SL2HC
SL2HD

C1
C1

0634h
0634h

266/66
233/66

512
512

ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00

5
5

SL2HE

C1

0634h

266/66

512

ECC

SECC 3.00

SL2HF

C1

0634h

233/66

512

ECC

SECC 3.00

SL2QA

C1

0634h

233/66

512

ECC

SECC 3.00

1, 3, 5

SL2QB
SL2QC
SL2KA
SL2QF
SL2K9
SL35V
SL2QH
SL2S5
SL2ZP
SL2ZQ
SL2S6
SL2S7
SL2SF
SL2SH
SL2VY
SL33D
SL2YK
SL2WZ
SL2YM
SL37G

C1
C1
dA0
dA0
dA0
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dA1
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0

0634h
0634h
0650h
0650h
0650h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0651h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h

266/66
300/66
333/66
333/66
266/66
300/66
333/66
333/66
333/66
350/100
350/100
400/100
350/100
400/100
300/66
266/66
300/66
350/100
400/100
400/100

512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512

ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC2 OLGA

1, 3, 5
1, 5
5
1

SL2WB
SL37H
SL2KE
SL2W7
SL2W8
SL2TV
SL2U3
SL2U4
SL2U5
SL2U6
SL2U7
SL356
SL357
SL358
SL37F
SL3FN
SL3EE
SL3F9
SL38M
SL38N

dB0
dB0
TdB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB0
dB1
dB1

0652h
0652h
1632h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0652h
0653h
0653h

450/100
450/100
333/66
266/66
300/66
333/66
350/100
350/100
400/100
400/100
450/100
350/100
400/100
450/100
350/100
350/100
400/100
400/100
350/100
400/100

512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512

ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
SECC2 OLGA
PGA
SECC 2.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00
SECC2 PLGA
SECC2 OLGA
SECC2 OLGA
SECC2 PLGA
SECC2 OLGA
SECC2 PLGA
SECC2 PLGA
SECC 3.00
SECC 3.00

1, 2, 5
1, 2
2, 4
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
1, 2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
1, 2
1, 2, 5
1, 2, 5

178

. 178

"

1, 2
1, 2
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
2, 5
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2
1, 2, 5
1, 2, 5
1, 2, 5
1, 2, 5
1, 2, 4

3.

. 3.34
S""

"

CPUID

"
"
/, ,

"

SL36U

dB1

0653h

350/100

512

ECC

SECC 3.00

SL38Z
SL3D5

dB1
dB1

0653h
0653h

400/100
400/100

512
512

ECC
ECC

SECC 3.00
2, 5
SECC2 OLGA 1, 2

2, 5

SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge.


SECC2 Single Edge Contact Cartridge, 2.
PLGA Plastic Land Grid Array.
OLGA Organic Land Grid Array.
ECC Error Correcting Code.
1. Pentium II ().
2.  , 4 
. Pentium II 512 .
3.  .
4. Pentium II OverDrive
Pentium Pro (Socket 8).
5. , .
.

, SL2KA Pentium II
333 ( 66 )  (L2),
. ,
2,0 . ,
, , Intel Pentium II Specification Update
Manual, , .
SECC2. PLGA 
SECC. OLGA. 
,

. . 3.50 SECC2 ( PLGA OLGA),
.

. 3.50. SECC2,

PLGA OLGA
: P6 (686)

. 179

179

Pentium II ,
. Pentium II 
, ,
.
Pentium Pro, Pentium,
: 

(VID). . 3.35 .
3.35. Pentium II
VID4

VID3

VID2

VID1

VID0

1,30

1,35

1,40

1,45

1,50

1,55

1,60

1,65

1,70

1,75

1,80

1,85

1,90

1,95

2,00

2,05

2,1

2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

2,9

3,0

3,1

3,2

3,3

3,4

3,5

0 Vss.
1 .
VID0VID3 Socket 370.
Socket 370 1,302,05 .
VID0VID4 Slot 1.
Slot 1 1,303,5 .

Pentium II 2,8 ; 
2,0 . Pentium II Mobile Module Pentium II 
; 440BX, 
180

. 180

3.

100 .
440BX Pentium II 350 400 .
Pentium IIPE  
256 , .

Celeron
. P6
Pentium II. Pentium III,
Pentium 4, Prescott. 
Celeron ... .
Celeron 
Pentium II/III/4 . 
 .
Celeron SEPP (Single Edge Processor
Package). SECC Slot 1. 
SEPP . , 
Celeron.
Celeron , Pentium II.
Slot 1 
(), ,
 . AMD
Socket 7 Intel
Celeron PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array). 
PGA370 Socket 370 (370 ). PPGA
. 
. 3.51.
PPGA

FC5PGA

SEPP

. 3.51. FCPGA, PPGA SEPP Celeron

: P6 (686)

. 181

181

Celeron 433 SEPP 


Slot 1 242 . 300
PPGA. , Celeron 300433 . 
Celeron 466 PPGA.
Celeron Socket 370 1,4 , Celeron
Socket 478 Pentium 4.
Celeron PPGA
Slot 1? Slot 1Socket 370 (. 3.52).
Socket 370

Slot
. 3.52. Slot 1Socket 370

Celeron.
Celeron 300A,  
128 ; 300 266 
.
4 .
P6 Pentium II ( 266533 ), Pentium III
( 533 ) Pentium 4 ( 1,7 ).
.
66, 100 400 ( ).
.
MMX, Celeron 533A 
SSE; Celeron 1,7 SSE2.
SEP, PPGA, FCPGA FCPGA2.
 , 
. ,  
Celeron Celeron.
,
.
Celeron 300A, 
128 . Celeron (266 300 ) 
. Pentium II (Celeron 300A
533 ) 19 . , Pentium III (
533 ) 28,1 . . 1,7
Pentium 4, 42 . . ,
Celeron, Pentium III/4, 
256 , 128 , ..  128 . 
182

. 182

3.

, Intel Celeron
Pentium III Pentium 4 ,
. Celeron Pentium III
MMX, SSE, Pentium 4 SSE2.
Celeron SEPP PPGA 0,25 
, FCPGA FCPGA2 0,18. 
, 
.
Celeron
Celeron D, Celeron M
Celeron .
Celeron D 0,09 .
Celeron
Celeron Intel
Pentium II. Pentium II  L2,
. , 
Pentium II, .. Celeron 266 300
 L2. , 
, , 300A, Celeron
 L2 128 , ,
 L2 512 Pentium II,
. Celeron 
,  L2.
Pentium III Coppermine, 
L2.
, Celeron . 
, Celeron Pentium II; , 
.
Celeron Pentium II? , Celeron 300
 L2, .
Celeron 266 400 SEPP, 
, Slot 1.
Pentium II, 
Celeron SEPP Pentium II Slot 1.
Celeron 
Pentium II/III/4, .
300A ( Celeron 300  128 ),
PPGA Socket 370.
Pentium III.
Celeron Socket 370 300 1,4 .
PPGA, FCPGA, FCPGA2.
,
.
Celeron Pentium 4. 
FCPGA2 Socket 478, 
Pentium 4; Celeron, Socket 423,
Pentium 4, .
, Celeron
Intel . 
Celeron, , . 
, , Celeron (. 3.36).
: P6 (686)

. 183

183

3.36. Celeron
Celeron

" "
, L2,

Celeron

Pentium II Deschutes

Covington

0,25

MMX

Celeron A

Pentium II Deschutes

Mendocino

0,25

128

MMX

Celeron A5PGA

Pentium II Deschutes

Mendocino

0,25

128

MMX

Celeron III
Celeron IIIA

Pentium III Coppermine


Pentium II Tualatin

Coppermine5128
Tualatin5256

0,18
0,13

128
256

SSE
SSE

Celeron 4
Celeron 4A

Pentium 4 Willamette
Pentium 4 Northwood

Willamette5128
Northwood5128

0,18
0,13

128
128

SSE2
SSE2

Celeron D

Pentium 4 Prescott

Prescott5256

0,09

256

SSE3

Celeron III 800 66 ;


Celeron III 800 1,1 100 .

Socket T 64 EM64T, 


Execute Disable Bit. . 3.37.

SEPP Single Edge Processor Package ( 



).
FCPGA FlipChip Pin Grid Array (
).
FCPGA2 FCPGA with an Integrated Heat Spreader
(IHS) ( FCPGA
).
MMX Multimedia extensions (
); 57
.

SSE Streaming SIMD (single instruction


multiple data, ..
); MMX,
70
.
SSE2 Streaming SIMD; 
SSE, 144 
.
Celeron 
. 
Celeron.

Celeron . 3.53.
Celeron/Celeron A
SEPP (Slot51)

Celeron 4
FC5PGA2 (Socket 478)

Celeron IIIA
FC5PGA2 (Socket 370)

Celeron 4
PPGA (Socket 370)
Celeron III
FC5PGA (Socket 370)

. 3.53. , Celeron. 

Intel

184

. 184

3.

Slot51

SEPP

66

266

300

Slot51
Socket 370

SEPP
PPGA

66
66

300
300

433
533

Socket 370

FC5PGA

66/100

533

1,1

Socket 370
Socket 478

FC5PGA2
FC5PGA2

100
400

900
1,7

1,4
1,8

Socket 478
FC5PGA2
2
Socket 478/Socket T (LGA775) FC5PGA2

400
533

2,0
2,13

2,8
3,33

, Celeron,
Celeron , .
Celeron .
Celeron Socket 370
Pentium II Pentium III. 
Intel Celeron IIIA Socket 370, 
900 1,4 . 100 . 
Celeron IIIA Pentium III Tualatin 
L2 256 , , 
Pentium III Coppermine Pentium II Deschutes, 
L2 128 . Celeron
Pentium III Coppermine Celeron Tualatin 
.
 L2 (256 128 ).
 L2, 
.
FCPGA2, 
, .
Pentium III Tualatin, Celeron
Tualatin ,
Pentium III Celeron. Socket 370 ,
Tualatin 10 ,
. , 
, Celeron IIIA Tualatin, 
, Tualatin.
, Celeron Tualatin
FCPGA2, , ,
.
Celeron Celeron D Socket 478
Celeron Socket 478 (. . 3.36).
Celeron, 1,7 1,8 ,
Pentium 4 Willamette, 400 , 
L2 128 , SSE2.
Celeron, 2 2,8 ,
Pentium 4 Northwood, 400 , 
L2 128 , SSE2.

: P6 (686)

. 185

185

Celeron D, 2,13 3,2 ,


Prescott ( Pentium 4), 533 , 
 L2 256 , 
SSE3.
Celeron D Socket T (LGA 775)
2,13 3,2 , 533 , 
 L2 256 , 
SSE3, Celeron D Socket 478.
Celeron D Socket 478.
Execute Disable Bit, 

, , Windows XP Service Pack 2.
EM64T 
Intel 64 IA32.
, Celeron D EM64T
, 64 
, , Windows XP Professional x64 Edition 64
Linux.
Celeron D ,
Intel 2004 . . 3.37 , 
Celeron D.
3.37. Celeron D

Celeron

, EM64T (64"


Execute Disable Bit

351
350
346
345J
345

Socket T
Socket 478
Socket T
Socket T
Socket 478

3,2
3,2
3,06
3,06
3,06

341
340J
340
336
335J
335
331
330J
330
326
325J
325
320
315
310

Socket T
Socket T
Socket 478
Socket T
Socket T
Socket 478
Socket T
Socket T
Socket 478
Socket T
Socket T
Socket 478
Socket 478
Socket 478
Socket 478

2,93
2,93
2,93
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,66
2,66
2,66
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,40
2,26
2,13

Intel Celeron Celeron D 


, . ,
, .
Web Intel
(developer.intel.com).

186

. 186

3.

Pentium III
. 3.54 Pentium III 1999 . 
, Pentium II SSE 
 . Pentium III
SIMD: 70 , 
, , / .

. 3.54. Pentium III ( FCPGA SECC2)

Pentium III 0,25


9,5 . . 1999 Intel ( Cop
permine), 0,18 256
 , .
28,1 . . Pentium III ( Tualatin) 0,13
44 . ; , 
Tualatin, 
. Pentium III 450 1,4 ;
, (Xeon), 
. Pentium III 32 
512  , 
.  4 
. Pentium III
64 . ,

. 
BIOS .
Pentium III SECC2, 
SEC. SECC2 
, .
Pentium III.
SIMD. 70 ,
, ,
, , , 
.
Intel.
, Intel, ,
. /
. 
,
.
: P6 (686)

. 187

187

, .
; .
. ; 
.
Pentium III SECC2
FCPGA, 
.
FCPGA Socket 370 Slot 1 slotket.
Pentium III 512 256  ,
. Xeon, ,
 512 , 1 2 ,
. Xeon ,
. Pentium III 4
ECC.
Pentium III . 3.55.
. 3.38 Pentium III.

3.38. Pentium III

S" S" CPUID

OEM

"

,

450

100

4,5x

SL3CC

SL364

kB0

0672

512

450

100

4,5x

SL37C

SL35D

kC0

0673

512

500

100

5x

SL3CD

SL365

kB0

0672

512

500

100

5x

SL365

SL365

kB0

0672

512

500

100

5x

SL37D

SL35E

kC0

0673

512

500E

100

5x

SL3R2

SL3Q9

cA2

0681

256

500E

100

5x

SL45R

SL444

cB0

0683

256

533B

133

4x

SL3E9

SL3BN

kC0

0673

512

533EB

133

4x

SL3SX

SL3N6

cA2

0681

256

533EB

133

4x

SL3VA

SL3VF

cA2

0681

256

533EB

133

4x

SL44W

SL3XG

cB0

0683

256

533EB

133

4x

SL45S

SL3XS

cB0

0683

256

550

100

5,5x

SL3FJ

SL3F7

kC0

0673

512

550E

100

5,5x

SL3R3

SL3QA

cA2

0681

256

550E

100

5,5x

SL3V5

SL3N7

cA2

0681

256

550E

100

5,5x

SL44X

SL3XH

cB0

0683

256

550E

100

5,5x

SL45T

N/A

cB0

0683

256

600

100

6x

SL3JT

SL3JM

kC0

0673

512

600E

100

6x

SL3NA

SL3H6

cA2

0681

256

600E

100

6x

SL3NL

SL3VH

cA2

0681

256

600E

100

6x

SL44Y

SL43E

cB0

0683

256

600E

100

6x

SL45U

SL3XU

cB0

0683

256

600B

133

4,5x

SL3JU

SL3JP

kC0

0673

512

600EB

133

4,5x

SL3NB

SL3H7

cA2

0681

256

600EB

133

4,5x

SL3VB

SL3VG

cA2

0681

256

600EB

133

4,5x

SL44Z

SL3XJ

cB0

0683

256

600EB

133

4,5x

SL45V

SL3XT

cB0

0683

256

650

100

6,5x

SL3NR

SL3KV

cA2

0681

256

650

100

6,5x

SL3NM

SL3VJ

cA20

681

256

650

100

6,5x

SL452

SL3XK

cB0

0683

256

650

100

6,5x

SL45W

SL3XV

cB0

0683

256

188

. 188

3.

/ 5/
/

FPO 5
5
S5

. 3.55. Pentium III


" "
,

"
,
"

"
, .

450

225

90

2,00

25,3

0,25

9,5

SECC2

450

225

90

2,00

25,3

0,25

9,5

SECC2

500

250

90

2,00

28,0

0,25

9,5

SECC2

500

250

90

2,00

28,0

0,25

9,5

SECC2

500

250

90

2,00

28,0

0,25

9,5

SECC2

500E

500

85

1,60

13,2

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

500E

500

85

1,60

13,2

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

533B

267

90

2,05

29,7

0,25

9,5

SECC2

533EB

533

85

1,65

14,0

0,18

28,1

SECC2

533EB

533

85

1,65

14,0

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

533EB

533

85

1,65

14,0

0,18

28,1

SECC2

533EB

533

85

1,65

14,0

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

550

275

80

2,00

30,8

0,25

9,5

SECC2

550E

550

85

1,60

14,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

550E

550

85

1,60

14,5

0,18

28,1

SECC2

550E

550

85

1,60

14,5

0,18

28,1

SECC2

550E

550

85

1,60

14,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

600

300

85

2,00

34,5

0,25

9,5

SECC2

600E

600

82

1,65

15,8

0,18

28,1

SECC2

600E

600

82

1,65

15,8

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

600E

600

82

1,65

15,8

0,18

28,1

SECC2

600E

600

82

1,65

15,8

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

600B

300

85

2,05

34,5

0,25

9,5

SECC2

600EB

600

82

1,65

15,8

0,18

28,1

SECC2

600EB

600

82

1,65

15,8

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

600EB

600

82

1,65

15,8

0,18

28,1

SECC2

600EB

600

82

1,65

15,8

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

650

650

82

1,65

17,0

0,18

28,1

SECC2

650

650

82

1,65

17,0

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

650

650

82

1,65

17,0

0,18

28,1

SECC2

650

650

82

1,65

17,0

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

: P6 (686)

. 189

189

S" S" CPUID

OEM

"

,

667

133

5x

SL3ND

SL3KW

cA2

0681

256

667
667

133
133

5x
5x

SL3T2
SL453

SL3VK
SL3XL

cA2
cB0

0681
0683

256
256

667
667

133
133

5x
5x

SL45X

SL3XW
SL4CJ

cB0
cC0

0683
0686

256
256

667

133

5x

SL4C4

cC0

0686

256

700
700

100
100

7x
7x

SL3SY
SL3T3

SL3S9
SL3VL

cA2
cA2

0681
0681

256
256

700
700

100
100

7x
7x

SL454
SL45Y

SL453
SL3XX

cB0
cB0

0683
0683

256
256

700
700

100
100

7x
7x

SL4M7

SL4CH
SL4C3

cC0
cC0

0686
0686

256
256

733

133

5,5x

SL3SZ

SL3SB

cA2

0681

256

733

133

5,5x

SL3T4

SL3VM

cA2

0681

256

733
733
733

133
133
133

5,5x
5,5x
5,5x

SL455
SL45Z
SL4M8

SL3XN
SL3XY
SL4CG

cB0
cB0
cC0

0683
0683
0686

256
256
256

733
733
750
750
750
750
750
750
800
800
800
800
800EB
800EB
800EB
800EB
800EB
850

133
133
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
100

5,5x
5,5x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5x
8x
8x
8x
8x
6x
6x
6x
6x
6x
8,5x

SL4KD
SL4FQ
SL3V6
SL3VC
SL456
SL462
SL4M9
SL4KE
SL457
SL463
SL4MA
SL4KF
SL458
SL464
SL4MB
SL4G7
SL4KG
SL47M

SL4C2
SL4CX
SL3WC
SL3VN
SL3XP
SL3XZ
SL4CF
SL4BZ
SL3XR
SL3Y3
SL4CE
SL4BY
SL3XQ
SL3Y2
SL4CD
SL4XQ
SL4BX
SL43F

cC0
cC0
cA2
cA2
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cC0
cB0

0686
0686
0681
0681
0683
0683
0686
0686
0683
0683
0686
0686
0683
0683
0686
0686
0686
0683

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

850
850
850
866
866
866
866
866
900
933
933
933
933
933
1000B
1000B
1000B
1000

100
100
100
133
133
133
133
133
100
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
100

8,5x
8,5x
8,5x
6,5x
6,5x
6,5x
6,5x
6,5x
9x
7x
7x
7x
7x
7x
7,5x
7,5x
7,5
10

SL49G
SL4MC
SL4KH
SL47N
SL49H
SL4MD
SL4KJ
SL5B5

SL43H
SL4CC
SL4BW
SL43G
SL43J
SL4CB
SL4BV
SL5QE
SL4SD
SL448
SL44J
SL4C9
SL4BT
SL5QF
SL48S
SL4C8

cB0
cC0
cC0
cB0
cB0
cB0
cB0
cD0
cC0
cB0
cB0
cC0
cC0
cD0
cB0
cC0
cB0
cC0

0683
0686
0686
0683
0683
0686
0686
068A
0686
0683
0683
0686
0686
068A
0683
0686
0683
0686

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

190

. 190

SL47Q
SL49J
SL4ME
SL4KK
SL4FP
SL4C8
SL4MF
SL4BR

SL4BR

3.

. 3.38


" "
,

"
,
"

"
, .

667

667

82

1,65

17,5

0,18

28,1

SECC2

667
667

667
667

82
82

1,65
1,65

17,5
17,5

0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1

FCPGA
SECC2

667

667

82

1,65

17,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

667
667

667
667

82
82

1,7
1,7

17,5
17,5

0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1

FCPGA
SECC2

700
700

700
700

80
80

1,65
1,65

18,3
18,3

0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1

SECC2
FCPGA

700
700

700
700

80
80

1,65
1,65

18,3
18,3

0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1

SECC2
FCPGA

700

700

80

1,7

18,3

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

700
733

700
733

80
80

1,7
1,65

18,3
19,1

0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1

SECC2
SECC2

733
733
733
733
733
733
750
750
750
750
750
750
800
800
800
800
800EB

733
733
733
733
733
733
750
750
750
750
750
750
800
800
800
800
800

80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80

1,65
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,65
1,65
1,7
1,7
1,65

19,1
19,1
19,1
19,1
19,1
19,1
19,5
19,5
19,5
19,5
19,5
19,5
20,8
20,8
20,8
20,8
20,8

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1
28,1

FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2
FCPGA
FCPGA
SECC2
SECC2

800EB

800

80

1,65

20,8

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

800EB

800

80

1,7

20,8

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

800EB

800

80

1,7

20,8

0,18

28,1

SECC2

800EB

800

80

1,7

20,8

0,18

28,1

SECC2

850

850

80

1,65

22,5

0,18

28,1

SECC2

850

850

80

1,65

22,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

850

850

80

1,7

22,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

850

850

80

1,7

22,5

0,18

28,1

SECC2

866

866

80

1,65

22,9

0,18

28,1

SECC2

866

866

80

1,65

22,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

866

866

80

1,7

22,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

866

866

80

1,7

22,5

0,18

28,1

SECC2

866

866

80

1,75

26,1

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

900

900

75

1,7

23,2

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

933

933

75

1,65

25,5

0,18

28,1

SECC2

933

933

75

1,65

24,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

933

933

75

1,7

24,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

933

933

75

1,7

25,5

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

933

933

77

1,75

27,3

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

1000B

1000

70

1,7

26,1

0,18

28,1

SECC2

1000B

1000

70

1,7

26,1

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

1000B

1000

70

1,7

26,1

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

: P6 (686)

. 191

191

S" S" CPUID

OEM

"

,

1000

100

10

SL4KL

cC0

0686

256

1000B
1000B

133
133

7,5
7,5

SL4BS
5555

SL4BS
SL5QK

cC0
cD0

0686
068A

256
256

1000B
1000B

133
133

7,5
7,5

SL5DV
SL5B3

5555
SL5B3

cD0
cD0

068A
068A

256
256

1000B

133

7,5

SL52R

SL52R

cD0

068A

256

1000B

133

7,5

SL5FQ

cD0

068A

256

1100

100

11x

SL5QW

cD0

068A

256

1133
1133

133
133

8,5
8,5

SL5LT
SL5GQ

SL5GQ

tA1
tA1

06B1
06B1

256
256

11335S

133

8,5

SL5LV

tA1

06B1

512

11335S

133

8,5

SL5PU

SL5PU

tA1

06B1

512

1200
1200

133
133

9
9

SL5GN
SL5PM

SL5GN

tA1
tA1

06B1
06B1

256
256

12665S
1333

133
133

9,5
10

SL5LW

SL5QL
SL5VX

tA1
tA1

06B1
06B1

512
256

14005S

133

10,5

SL657

SL5XL

tA1

06B1

512

SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge.

SECC2 Single Edge Contact Cartridge (revision 2).

Pentium III . , 
, 
. , 
,
. 
.
, 
.

Pentium II/III Xeon


Xeon
Pentium II III. Xeon, Pentium II, 
1998 . Pentium III
1999 . Xeon 
Pentium II III: ,  .
Pentium II/III Xeon SEC.
 .
Pentium II/III Xeon 
512 , 1 2 . .
 , . 
Xeon  , 
. , 
. 
Pentium II Xeon 7,5 . ,
Pentium III Xeon 9,5 . Pentium III
, 28,1 .
 256 , 84 . 1 140 .
 2 , 
.  
, Xeon 64
ECC (Error checking and correction).
192

. 192

3.

. 3.38


" "
,

"
,
"

"
, .

1000

1000

70

1,7

26,1

0,18

28,1

SECC2

1000

1000

70

1,7

26,1

1000B
1000B

1000
1000

70
64

1,7
1,75

26,1
29,0

0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1

SECC2
FCPGA

1000B

1000

64

1,75

29,0

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

1000B

1000

75

1,75

29,0

0,18

28,1

FCPGA

1000B
1000B

1000
1000

75
75

1,75
1,7

29,0
29,0

0,18
0,18

28,1
28,1

FCPGA
FCPGA

1133
1133

1133
1133

69
69

1,475
1,475

29,1
29,1

0,13
0,13

44
44

FCPGA2
FCPGA2

11335S

1133

69

1,45

27,9

0,13

44

FCPGA2

11335S
1200

1133
1200

69
69

1,45
1,475

27,9
29,9

0,13
0,13

44
44

FCPGA2
FCPGA2

1200
1266

1200
1266

69
69

1,475
1,45

29,9
29,5

0,13
0,13

44
44

FCPGA2
FCPGA2

1333
1400

1333
1133

69
69

1,475
1,45

29,9
29,9

0,13
0,13

44
44

FCPGA2
FCPGA2

SECC2

CPUID ID, CPUID.


ECC Error Correcting Code.

. 3.39 Pentium II Xeon Pentium III


Xeon.
3.39. Intel Pentium II Xeon/Pentium III Xeon

" L2,

PII Xeon

400
450
500
550
600
667
700
733
800
866
900

100
100
100
100
133
133
100
133
133
133
100

512; 1024; 2048


512; 1024; 2048
512; 1024; 2048
512; 1024; 2048
256
256
1024; 2048
256
256
256
2048

SC330
SC330
SC330
SC330
SC330.1
SC330.1
SC330.1
SC330.1 4955 SECC
SC330.1 4955 SECC
SC330.1 4955 SECC
SC330.1

933
1000
700*

133
133
100

256
256
1024

SC330.1 4955 SECC


4955 SECC
SC330.1

PIII Xeon

Xeon

* Intel Xeon, ,
Pentium III Xeon.
PII Xeon = Pentium II Xeon.
PIII Xeon = Pentium III Xeon.

Pentium II Xeon Pentium III Xeon


, .

: P6 (686)

. 193

193


Intel, P6 . 
P5 
. AMD Athlon
Duron, P6.
.

Nexgen Nx586
Nexgen (Thampy Thomas),
486 Pentium Intel. Nexgen Nx586, 
Pentium, . 
( ). Nexgen
; IBM Microelectronics.
Nexgen AMD; Nx586 AMD K5,
AMD K6.
Nx586 : 

 ( 
). ,
16 16 ( Pentium 
8 ). .
Nx586 ,
.
.
Nx586 RISC.
x86 RISC86. RISC86
x86 RISC. RISC86
, x86. ( P6.)
Nx586 AMD,
, Nx686, 
AMDK6.

AMD"K6
,
P5 (Pentium). 
Pentium Pentium II.
Socket 7, ,
,
Socket 7 . AMDK6 
Pentium, 
, Pentium.
AMDK6 
(MMX), AMD K62 
3DNow. AMD K6 Socket 7.
, .
AMDK6:
, ;
RISC, x86 RISC;
();
;

194

. 194

3.

;
;
64 ( 32 
32 );
(FPU);
MMX;
SMM;
Socket 7 Ceramic Pin Grid Array (CPGA);
0,35 0,25 .
K62 :
;
100 ( Super 7);
21 , 3DNow.
63  256 , 
.
63  ,
, . 6
Celeron Pentium
Intel. 3DNow!, 62/3
, 
.
AMDK6 , 
x86, .. Intel, MMX.
 ,
Socket 7, AMD 
64 (.. , Pentium II).
, K6
Pentium, Pentium II.
AMDK5 K6 Socket 7. 
,
BIOS. AMDK6 ,
.
AMDK6166 (200 ) 2,9 , 
3,3 , AMDK6 233 3,2 , 
3,3 . 
2,8 3,3 ; 2,8
AMDK6,
. ,
Socket 7 , : 2,9 3,2
(233 ) (Vcc2); 3,3 
(Vcc3). 7,5 A (9,5 A
233 ). 200 

145 (2,9 145 ). 233 , 
100
(3,2 100 ).
, 
, , .

. 195

195

,
. , K6 . , 
.
BIOS AMDK6. , BIOS
Award 1 1997 . AMI
K6 BIOS
CPU Module 3.31 . BIOS 4.0 ( 6.0 5.1
4/7/97 ) Phoenix AMDK6.
, , Web
AMD ,
AMDK6. , , 
AMDK6, ,
, .
, K6 
. 3.40.
3.40. AMD"K6

",

K653
K653
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652
K652

450
400
475
450
400
380
366
350
333

4,5x
4x
5x
4,5x
4x
4x
5,5x
3,5x
3,5x

100
100
95
100
100
95
66
100
95

2,4
2,4
2,4
2,4
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2

3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3
3,3

K652

333

5,0x

66

2,2

3,3

K652

300

3x

100

2,2

3,3

K652

300

4,5x

66

2,2

3,3

K652

266

4x

66

2,2

3,3

K6

300

4,5x

66

2,2

3,45

K6

266

4x

66

2,2

3,3

K6

233

3,5x

66

3,2

3,3

K6

200

3x

66

2,9

3,3

K6

166

2,5x

66

2,9

3,3

3,5 
1,5x. 
3,5x AMDK6 Intel.
4x , , BF,
BF2. BF. 
. 3.41.
3.41. AMD"K6

BF0

BF1

2,5x

3x

3,5x

4x

4,5x

5x

5,5x

196

. 196

BF2

3.

,
.

.
Cyrix Intel, AMD 
. Intel AMD 0,25
( Athlon XP 0,13 ).
K6 8,8 . 0,35 
2
. 12,7 , 162 .
K6 0,25 .
Socket 7
K6
, Pentium
Pentium MMX. AMDK6 Socket 7, 
Intel 
. BIOS.

AMD Athlon, Duron Athlon XP


Athlon K6 AMD.
Pentium III. AMD 
Slot A, Pentium II/III
(. 3.56). Athlon 512  , 
, 
. 2000 AMD Athlon ( 
Thunderbird),  256 
.
Intel. ,
PGA Socket A, Slot A. 
Athlon, Athlon XP, 
, 3DNow! Professional, 
Intel SSE. Athlon XP  
512 , .
Slot A Slot 1, Socket A (. 3.57) Socket 370,
. AMD 
Intel.

. 3.56. AMD Athlon Slot A

. 197

197

Slot Socket
.

. 3.57. AMD Athlon XP

(Socket A),
0,13 ,
PGA

AMD Athlon 5501 400 , 


EV6 200/266
. Digital Equipment, 
Alpha 21264. EV6 100 133 ,
, ,
3.42. AMD Athlon Slot A

, ,

"
L2,

AMD5K7500MTR51B
AMD5K7550MTR51B
AMD5K7600MTR51B
AMD5K7650MTR51B
AMD5K7700MTR51B
AMD5K7550MTR51B
AMD5K7600MTR51B
AMD5K7650MTR51B
AMD5K7700MTR51B
AMD5K7750MTR52B
AMD5K7800MPR52B
AMD5K7850MPR52B
AMD5K7900MNR53B
AMD5K7950MNR53B
AMD5K7100MNR53B
AMD5A0650MPR24B
AMD5A0700MPR24B
AMD5A0750MPR24B
AMD5A0800MPR24B
AMD5A0850MPR24B
AMD5A0900MMR24B
AMD5A0950MMR24B
AMD5A1000MMR24B

Model 1
Model 1
Model 1
Model 1
Model 2
Model 1
Model 2
Model 2
Model 2
Model 2
Model 2
Model 2
Model 2
Model 2
Model 2
Model 4
Model 4
Model 4
Model 4
Model 4
Model 4
Model 4
Model 4

500
550
600
650
700
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

5x
5,5x
6x
6,5x
7x
5,5x
6x
6,5x
7x
7,5x
8x
8,5x
9x
9,5x
10x
6,5x
7x
7,5x
8x
8,5x
9x
9,5x
10x

512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

198

. 198

100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2
100 x 2

3.

200 266 . 64


(8 64 ), 1,6 2,1 ( 8
200 233 ). 
PC1600 PC2100 DDR,
. EV6
, 
. EV6 Athlon
Duron .
AMD Athlon 
128 ,  512 ,
, . 
 256 , ,
 512 Athlon XP. 
PGA Socket A .
AMD Athlon MMX Enhanced 3DNow,
45 , .
3DNow SSE Intel, 
. Athlon XP 
SSE, 3DNow! Professional. 
, 
SSE ( ) 3DNow! Professional.
Athlon 0,25 , 
0,18 0,13 .

. , 
,
.
Athlon Slot A . 3.42.
"
"
" "
L2, , , ,
, .

250
275
300
325
350
275
300
325
350
300
320
340
300
317
333
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,70
1,70
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,75
1,75
1,75

42
46
50
54
50
31
34
36
39
40
48
50
60
62
65
36,1
38,3
40,4
42,6
44,8
49,7
52,0
54,3

. 199

0,25
0,25
0,25
0,25
0,25
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37

1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
1999 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .
2000 .

199

AMD Athlon Intel Pentium III


, . 1 
AMD Intel, Athlon 1 , Intel 
Pentium III .
. 3.43 AMD Athlon PGA (Socket A).
Model 4.
3.43. Athlon Socket A
"
" " "
,
, " " " "
1
2

,
, , ,

1
2

" , "
"
,

.
,

650
700

3,25x
3,5x

200
200

100
100

256
256

650
700

1,75
1,75

38,5
40,3

0,18
0,18

37
37

750

3,25x

200

100

256

750

1,75

43,8

0,18

37

800
850

4x
4,25x

200
200

100
100

256
256

800
850

1,75
1,75

45,5
47,3

0,18
0,18

37
37

900
950

4,5x
4,75x

200
200

100
100

256
256

900
950

1,75
1,75

50,8
52,5

0,18
0,18

37
37

1000
1000
1100
1133
1200
1200
1300

5x
3,75x
5,5
4,25
6
4,5
6,5

200
266
200
266
200
266
200

100
133
100
133
100
133
100

256
256
256
256
256
256
256

1000
1000
1100
1133
1200
1200
1300

1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75

54,3
54,3
59,5
63,0
66,5
66,5
68,3

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

37
37
37
37
37
37
37

1333
1400

5
5,5

266
266

133
133

256
256

1333
1400

1,75
1,75

70,0
72,0

0,18
0,18

37
37

.
. 
, .

Athlon BIOS 5
, . 3.43. 5
, , .

AMD Duron
2000 AMD Duron ( Spitfire) 
AMD Athlon ,
Celeron Pentium II III. , Duron (. 3.58) 
Athlon  ; 
. AMD Duron 
64 Socket A Slot A.
Duron Celeron
, Athlon Pentium III.
Duron ,
, Duron,
Athlon, Athlon XP.
Duron Athlon, 
Athlon 200 3DNow! (Model 3).
Model 7 3DNow! Professional (
SSE).

200

. 200

3.

. 3.58. AMD Duron

Duron, 1,6 , Model 3,


1,75 Model 7, 
Morgan. AMD Duron Socket A (PGA)
. 3.44.
3.44. Duron

1
2

" " "


2
, " ,
,
1

" "
" "
, ,

" ,
"

"
"
, .
,

550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900

5,5x
6x
6,5x
7x
7,5x
8x
8,5x
9x

200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64

1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6

25,3
27,4
29,4
31,4
33,4
35,4
37,4
39,5

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

950
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1600
1800

9,5x
10x
11x
12x
13x
11x
12x
13,5x

200
200
200
200
200
266
266
266

100
100
100
100
100
133
133
133

64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64

1,6
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,5
1,5
1,5

41,5
46,1
50,3
54,7
60
45,5
48
53

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,13
0,13
0,13

25
27
27
27
27
37,2
37,2
37,2

.
. 
, .

Duron BIOS 5
, . 3.44. 5
, , .

. 201

201

AMD Athlon XP
, Athlon Athlon XP.
, Athlon 
, Intel SSE, 
, Pentium 4.
Athlon XP AMD 
QuantiSpeed, , . 
.
, .


, .
, 
. 
AMD Intel.
. 

,  .
(TLB).
,
 .
, 
, Athlon XP
Pentium 4 
.
Palomino Athlon XP,
Athlon 4 ( ). 
Thoroughbred, 
.
ThoroughbredA ThoroughbredB. Athlon XP Barton
 512 , .
, 
Athlon.
3DNow! Professional ( 70
SSE Pentium III 144 
SSE2 Pentium 4).
FSB 266/333 .
 128 
256 512 , .
( ),
.
Athlon XP
, , 
Intel. . 3.59 Athlon XP Barton.

. Athlon XP 0,13
, , 
,
202

. 202

3.

, . 0,13 
Athlon XP 2 . . 3.45 
Athlon XP.

. 3.59. Athlon XP (

Socket A), 0,13



512

3.45. AMD Athlon XP

"
"
, "
1

(P"Rating)

"
"
,
,
2

"
"
"
,

"

"
,

" ,
"
"
"
,
,
.

1500+
3
1600+
3
1700+
3
1800+
3
1900+
3
2000+
3
2100+

1333
1400
1467
1533
1600
1667
1733

10
10,5
11
11,5
12
12,5
13

133
133
133
133
133
133
133

5
5,25
5,5
5,75
6
6,25
6,5

266
266
266
266
266
266
266

256
256
256
256
256
256
256

1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75
1,75

60,0
62,8
64,0
66,0
68,0
70,0
72,0

0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18
0,18

37,5
37,5
37,5
37,5
37,5
37,5
37,5

1467
1467
1533
1533
1600
1667
1667
1733
1733
1800
1800
2000
1833
2133
2083
2167
2083
2167
2100
2200

11
11
11,5
11,5
12
12,5
12,5
13
13
13,5x
13,5x
14x
11x
16x
12,5x
13x
12,5x
13x
10,5
11x

133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
133
166
133
166
166
166
166
200
200

5,5
5,5
5,75
5,75
6
6,25
6,25
6,5
6,5
6,75x
6,75x
7x
5,5x
8x
6,25x
6,5x
6,25x
6,5x
5,25x
5,5x

266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
266
333
266
333
333
333
333
400
400

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512
256
256
256
512
512
512
512

1,5
1,6
1,5
1,6
1,5
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,65
1,6
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65
1,65

49,4
59,8
51,0
59,8
52,5
60,3
61,3
62,1
62,1
67,9
62,8
68,3
68,3
68,3
68,3
68,3
68,3
74,3
68,3
76,8

0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13

37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
40
54,3
37,2
37,2
37,2
53,3
54,3
54,3
54,3

1700+
5
1700+
4
1800+
5
1800+
4
1900+
4
2000+
5
2000+
4
2100+
5
2100+
4
2200+
5
2200+
5
2400+
5
2500+
5
2600+
6
2600+
6
2700+
7
2800+
7
3000+
7
3000+
7
3200+
1

.
. 
, .
3 Model 6 Athlon XP (Palomino).
4 Model 8 Athlon XP CPUID 680 (Thoroughbred).
5 Model 8 Athlon XP CPUID 681 (Thoroughbred).
6 Model 8 Athlon XP 333 (Thoroughbred).
7 Model 10 Athlon XP (Barton).
2

. 203

203


Athlon XP BIOS 5
, . 3.45.
, , .

Athlon MP
AMD, 
, . 
, Athlon Athlon XP.
Model 6 (1 1,2 ). Athlon Model 4.
Model 6 OPGA ( 1500+ 2100+). Athlon XP Model 6.
Model 8 (2000+, 2200+, 2400+, 2600+). Athlon XP Model 8.
Model 10 (2500+, 2800+, 3000+). Athlon XP Model 8 
512 .
Athlon MP Socket A, 
Athlon, Duron Athlon XP.
Web
AMD.

Sempron (Socket A)
AMD Sempron 2004 
Intel Celeron D. Celeron, 
Sempron , 
Socket A ( Athlon XP), 
Socket 754 ( Athlon 64).
Sempron Socket A; Sempron
Socket 754 .
AMD Sempron Socket A
Athlon XP Thoroughbred (Model 8) ( , , )
Barton (Model 10). Sempron Athlon XP
. Sempron Athlon XP, 
Sempron Athlon XP .
AMD ( Intel),
, 
.
3.46. AMD Sempron (Socket A)
1

2200+3
4
2200+
3
2300+
3
2400+
3
2500+
3
2600+
3
2800+
4
2800+
5
3000+

166
166
166
166
166
166
166
166
166

9x
9x
9.5x
10x
10.5x
11x
12x
12x
12x

333
333
333
333
333
333
333
333
333

1
2

1500
1500
1583
1667
1750
1833
2000
2000
2000

.
. 
, .

204

. 204

,
(P"Rating)

3.

Sempron Socket A . 3.46.

Sempron Socket A BIOS 5


,
. 3.46. , , .

Cyrix/IBM 6x86 (MI) 6x86MX (MII)


Cyrix 6x86 6x86 ( ) 6x86MX.
AMDK5 K6, , 
, Pentium , Socket 7.
Cyrix 6x86 6x86MX ( MII) 

. 
, . , 
, .
6x86MX/MII MMX. 
MMX .
,  64 
6x86MX , .
6x86 .
.
.
. ,
.
. ; 
, , (
).
. 
, , 
.
6x86 : (
) 16 256 .
( )
. 6x86MX (.. 
64 ), .
"
,

"
,

, .

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512

1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6
1,6

62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62

0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13
0,13

37,2
54,3
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
37,2
54,3
54,3

Model 8 Sempron ( Thoroughbred).


Model 10 Sempron  L2 256 ( Thorton).
5 Model 10 Sempron ( Barton).
4

. 205

205

6x86MX 57 MMX, 

.
6x86 System Management Mode (SMM). ,
, 
,
. , 6x86 , 
, .
6x86 x86 
, Windows 95/98, Windows NT/2000, OS/2, DOS, So
laris UNIX. , 6x86 Microsoft 
Windows 95.
AMDK6, 6x86
. ( Web Cyrix 
.) 6x86
.
Cyrix 
, (PRaining).
, 
. , 6x86MXPR300
300, 263 266 ( 
).
6x86 , 
. 
. 6x86 :
3,52 ( VRE), 3,3 ( VR) 2,8 (MMX). MMX 
2,8 ,  3,3 .
Cyrix MII VIA Technologies.

VIA C3
Cyrix III Socket 370,
Pentium III Celeron. C3, 
Joshua Samuel,  128 ,
 . 
, 500 . Cy
rix III/C3 (Joshua) Cyrix, VIA
1998 . Samuel Centaur Winchip
( Centaur VIA 1999 ). Samuel
0,18 , Samuel 2 
64 0,15 . C3,
0,13 , Ezra, ,
C3, Pentium III
(Tualatin). EzraT 1 
Tualatin. C3 
Nehemiah, 1
. C3 100 ( 
750 900 ) 133 ( 733, 800, 866, 933 ).
C3 x86,
Pentium III Celeron. C3 

. C3 
, , , ,
206

. 206

3.

. Nehemiah
11,25 ,
Socket 370.
, 
C3
, .
, .
C3, EBGA (Enhanced Ball Grid Array), 
E. 
MiniITX, VIA.
C3 . 3.2
Web VIA.

"""" P7 (Intel Pentium 4)


Pentium 4, 2000 , 
(. 3.60). ,
786, ,
686. Pentium 4 . 3.61.

. 3.60. Pentium 4 FCPGA2

. 3.61. Pentium 4 (Willamette, Northwood Prescott). 

Intel

5555 P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

. 207

207

Pentium 4.
1,33,8 .
42 ., 0,18 ,
2
217 (Willamette).
55 ., 0,13 ,
2
131 (Northwood).
125 ., 0,09 ,
2
112 (Northwood).
32 Intel.
400, 533, 800 1066 .
 () 
.
(20 31 ).
.
.
 20 (
12 8 ).
128 
256 , .
 4
(ECC).
144 SSE2 .
SSE3. SSE2, 13
( , 
, Pentium 4 Prescott).
.
.
Intel ,
. Pentium 4 
NetBurst, , 
, 400/533/800/1066  
.
Pentium III ( Athlon/Athlon 64) ,
.
.
 ()
, .
400/533/800/1066 , 
100/133/200/266 , 
.  
, 12
. 
, .
, 
.
100/133/200/266 , (4x)

208

. 208

3.

400/533/800/1066 . 64
(.. 64 , 8 ), , 3 200, 4 266, 6 400
8 532 /.
. 3.47 RDRAM DDR SDRAM.
3.47. Pentium 4 RDRAM/DDR SDRAM

Pentium 4,


( ,
8), /

"
RDRAM,
/


DDR
DIMM, /

400
533

3200
4266

3200
4266

3200
4266

800
1066

6400
8532

6400
5555

6400
8600

. 3.47, Pentium 4 
RDRAM DDR SDRAM.
. PC1600,
PC2100 PC3200 DDR SDRAM , , RDRAM.
, 865 (Springdale) 875
(Canterwood) Pentium 4, DDR SDRAM.
20 
, , , RISC. 
, , 
, , , . 
, , ,
Pentium III AMD Athlon
,  Pentium 4. , 
Pentium 4,
.
Pentium 4 Socket 423, 423 
, 3939 SPGA.
Socket 478, , 
. Celeron 4
Socket 423, Socket 478. 
Socket 478, 
.
Pentium 4 . 3.48.
, Pentium 4;
Pentium 4, .
Socket 423.
Socket 478.
HyperThreading Socket 478.
Extreme Edition (  L3) Socket 478.
Socket T (LGA775).
EM64T Socket 775 (64bit extensions).
,
Pentium 4 ; 
, .
 (Socket 423, Socket 478 Socket 775),
Pentium 4 ,
, .
5555 P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

. 209

209

3.48. Pentium 4

, /

" S" S"" CPUID

"
HyperThreading
OEM

1,30

400

3,2

SL4QD

SL4SF

B2

0F07h

1,30

400

3,2

SL4SF

SL4SF

B2

0F07h

1,30

400

3,2

SL5GC

SL5FW

C1

0F0Ah

1,40
1,40

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL4SC
SL4SG

SL4SG
SL4SG

B2
B2

0F07h
0F07h

1,40

400

3,2

SL4X2

SL4WS

C1

0F0Ah

1,40

400

3,2

SL5N7

SL59U

C1

0F0Ah

1,40
1,40

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL59U
SL5UE

SL59U
SL5TG

C1
D0

0F0Ah
0F12h

1,40
1,50

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL5TG
SL4TY

SL5TG
SL4SH

D0
B2

0F12h
0F07h

1,50

400

3,2

SL4SH

SL4SH

B2

0F07h

1,50
1,50

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL4X3
SL4WT

SL4WT
SL4WT

C1
C1

0F0Ah
0F0Ah

1,50
1,50

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL5TN
SL5N8

SL5SX
SL59V

D0
C1

0F12h
0F0Ah

1,50
1,50
1,50
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60

400
400
400
400
400
400
400

3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2

SL5UF
SL5TJ
SL62Y
SL4X4
SL5UL
SL5VL
SL5UW

SL5TJ
SL5TJ
SL62Y
SL4WU
SL5VL
SL5VL
SL5US

D0
D0
D0
C1
D0
D0
C1

0F12h
0F12h
0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F0Ah

1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60
1,60A
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,70
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80
1,80A
1,80A
1,80A
1,80A
1,90
1,90
1,90
1,90

400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400

3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2

SL5UJ
SL5VH
SL6BC
SL679
SL668
SL57V
SL57W
SL5TP
SL5N9
SL5UG
SL5TK
SL62Z
SL6BD
SL67A
SL4X5
SL5UM
SL5VM
SL5UV
SL5UK
SL5VJ
SL6BE
SL67B
SL63X
SL62P
SL68Q
SL66Q
SL5WH
SL5VN
SL5WG
SL5VK

SL5VH
SL5VH
SL679
SL679
SL668
SL57W
SL57W
SL5SY
SL59X
SL5TK
SL5TK
SL62Z
SL67A
SL67A
SL4WV
SL5VM
SL5VM
SL5UT
SL5VJ
SL5VJ
SL67B
SL67B
SL62P
SL62P
SL66Q
SL66Q
SL5VN
SL5VN
SL5VK
SL5VK

D0
D0
E0
E0
B0
C1
C1
D0
C1
D0
D0
D0
E0
E0
C1
D0
D0
C1
D0
D0
E0
E0
B0
B0
B0
B0
D0
D0
D0
D0

0F12h
0F12h
0F13h
0F13h
0F24h
0F0Ah
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F12h
0F13h
0F13h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F0Ah
0F12h
0F12h
0F13h
0F13h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F12h
0F12h
0F12h
0F12h

210

. 210

3.

"

L2

"

L3

, C

, "

, .

256

69

48,9

423

180

42

5555

256

69

48,9

423

180

42

5555

256

70

51,6

423

180

42

5555

256
256

0
0

70
70

51,8
51,8

423
423

180
180

42
42

5555
5555

256
256

0
0

72
72

54,7
55,3

423
478

180
180

42
42

5555
5555

256

72

55,3

478

180

42

5555

256
256

0
0

72
72

55,3
55,3

478
478

180
180

42
42

5555
5555

256
256

0
0

72
72

54,7
54,7

423
423

180
180

42
42

5555
5555

256
256

0
0

73
73

57,8
57,8

423
423

180
180

42
42

5555
5555

256

73

57,8

423

180

42

5555

256
256

0
0

73
73

57,9
57,9

478
478

180
180

42
42

5555
5555

256
256

0
0

73
71

57,9
62,9

478
478

180
180

42
42

5555
5555

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512
512
512
512
256
256
256
256

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
66
76
76
76
76
76
76
73
73
73
78
78
78
77
77
77
77
77
67
67
67
67
73
73
75
75

61,0
61,0
61,0
60,8
60,8
60,8
60,8
60,8
46,8
64,0
64,0
64,0
63,5
63,5
63,5
67,7
67,7
67,7
66,7
66,7
66,7
66,1
66,1
66,1
66,1
66,1
49,6
49,6
49,6
49,6
69,2
69,2
72,8
72,8

423
423
423
478
478
478
478
478
478
423
423
423
478
478
478
478
478
478
423
423
423
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
423
423
478
478

180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
130
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
130
130
130
130
180
180
180
180

42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
55
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
55
55
55
55
42
42
42
42

5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555

5555 P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

. 211

211

, /

" S" S"" CPUID

"
HyperThreading
OEM

1,90

400

3,2

SL6BF

SL67C

E0

1,90

400

3,2

SL67C

SL67C

E0

0F13h

2,0

400

3,2

SL5TQ

SL5SZ

D0

0F12h

2,0
2,0

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL5UH
SL5TL

SL5TL
SL5TL

D0
D0

0F12h
0F12h

2,0A

400

3,2

SL5ZT

SL5YR

B0

0F24h

2,0A

400

3,2

SL5YR

SL5YR

B0

0F24h

2,0A
2,0A

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL68R
SL66R

SL66R
SL66R

B0
B0

0F24h
0F24h

2,0A
2,0A

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL6E7
SL6GQ

SL6GQ
SL6GQ

C1
C1

0F27h
0F27h

2,0A

400

3,2

SL6QM

SL6PK

D1

0F29h

2,20
2,20

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL5ZU
SL5YS

SL5YS
SL5YS

B0
B0

0F24h
0F24h

2,20
2,20

400
400

3,2
3,2

SL68S
SL66S

SL66S
SL66S

B0
B0

0F24h
0F24h

2,20
2,20
2,20
2,26
2,26
2,26
2,26

400
400
400
533
533
533
533

3,2
3,2
3,2
4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3

SL6E8
SL6GR
SL6QN
SL683
SL67Y
SL6ET
SL6EE

SL6GR
SL6GR
SL6PL
SL67Y
SL67Y
SL6D6
SL6DU

C1
C1
D1
B0
B0
B0
C1

0F27h
0F27h
0F29h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F27h

2,26
2,26
2,40
2,40
2,40
2,40
2,40
2,40
2,40A
2,40B
2,40B
2,40B
2,40B
2,40B
2,40B
2,40C
2,40C
2,50
2,50
2,50
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,53
2,60
2,60
2,60
2,60B

533
533
400
400
400
400
400
400
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
800
800
400
400
400
533
533
533
533
533
533
400
400
400
533

4,3
4,3
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3
6,4
6,4
3,2
3,2
3,2
4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3
3,2
3,2
3,2
4,3

SL6DU
SL6Q7
SL67R
SL65R
SL68T
SL66T
SL6E9
SL6GS
SL7E8
SL684
SL67Z
SL6EU
SL6EF
SL6DV
SL6QP
SL6WR
SL6Z3
SL6EB
SL6GT
SL6QQ
SL685
SL682
SL6EV
SL6EG
SL6DW
SL6Q9
SL6HB
SL6GU
SL6QR
SL6S3

SL6DU
SL6PB
SL65R
SL65R
SL66T
SL66T
SL6GS
SL6GS
SL7E8
SL67Z
SL67Z
SL6D7
SL6DV
SL6DV
SL6PM
SL6WF
SL6Z3
SL6GT
SL6GT
SL6QQ
SL682
SL682
SL6D8
SL6DW
SL6DW
SL6PD
SL6GU
SL6GU
SL6QR
SL6S3

C1
D1
B0
B0
B0
B0
C1
C1
C0
B0
B0
B0
C1
C1
D1
D1
M0
C1
C1
D1
B0
B0
B0
C1
C1
D1
C1
C1
D1
C1

0F27h
0F29h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F27h
0F27h
0F33h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F27h
0F27h
0F29h
0F29h
0F25h
0F27h
0F27h
0F29h
0F24h
0F24h
0F24h
0F27h
0F27h
0F29h
0F27h
0F27h
0F29h
0F27h

212

. 212

0F13h

3.

. 3.48
"

L2

"

L3

, C

, "

, .

256

75

72,8

478

180

42

5555

256
256

0
0

75
74

72,8
71,8

478
423

180
180

42
42

5555
5555

256

76

75,3

478

180

42

5555

256
512

0
0

76
68

75,3
52,4

478
478

180
130

42
55

5555
5555

512
512

0
0

68
68

52,4
52,4

478
478

130
130

55
55

5555
5555

512
512

0
0

68
69

52,4
54,3

478
478

130
130

55
55

5555
5555

512

69

54,3

478

130

55

5555

512
512

0
0

74
69

54,3
55,1

478
478

130
130

55
55

5555
5555

512
512
512
512

0
0
0
0

69
69
69
70

55,1
55,1
55,1
57,1

478
478
478
478

130
130
130
130

55
55
55
55

5555
5555
5555
5555

512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
1
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
71
71
69
70
70
70
71
71
74
74
72

57,1
57,1
56,0
56,0
56,0
58,0
58,0
58,0
57,8
57,8
57,8
57,8
59,8
59,8
89,0
57,8
57,8
57,8
59,8
59,8
66,2
66,2
74,5

478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478

130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
90
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130

55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
125
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55

5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555

512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
512

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

72
72
72
71
71
71
72
72
72
72
72
75
74

61,0
61,0
61,0
59,3
59,3
59,3
61,5
61,5
61,5
62,6
62,6
69,0
66,1

478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478

130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130

55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55

5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555

5555 P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

. 213

213

, /

 S S CPUID


HyperThreading
OEM

2,60B

533

4,3

SL6QA

SL6PE

D1

0F29h

2,60C

800

6,4

SL6WS

SL6WH

D1

0F29h

2,60C

800

6,4

SL78X



D1

0F29h

2,66
2,66

533
533

4,3
4,3

SL6DX
SL6EH

SL6DX


C1
C1

0F27h
0F27h

2,66

533

4,3

SL6S3

SL6S3

C1

0F27h

2,66

533

4,3

SL6SK



C1

0F27h

2,66
2,66

533
533

4,3
4,3

SL6PE
SL6QA

SL6PE


D1
D1

0F29h
0F29h

2,66
2,66

533
533

4,3
4,3

SL7E9
SL7YU




C0
D0

0F33h
0f34h

2,66

533

4,3

SL85U



E0

0F41H

2,80
2,80

400
533

3,2
4,3


SL6K6

SL7EY
SL6HL

D1
C1

0F29h
0F27h

2,80
2,80

533
533

4,3
4,3

SL6HL
SL6SL

SL6HL
SL6S4

C1
C1

0F27h
0F27h

2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80

533
533
533
533
800
800
800

4,3
4,3
4,3
4,3
6,4
6,4
6,4

SL6S4
SL6QB
SL88G
SL6WJ
SL6WT
SL6Z5

SL6S4
SL6PF
SL7PK
SL88G
SL6WJ
SL6WT


C1
D1
E0
E0
D1
D1
M0

0F27h
0F29h
0F41h
0F41h
0F29h
0F29h
0F25h

2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80
2,80A
2,80A
2,80C
2,80E
2,93
2,93
3,0
3,0
3,0
3,0
3,0
3,0
3,0
3,0
3,0
3,00
3,00
3,0E
3,06
3,06
3,06

800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
533
533
800
800
533
533
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
533
533
533

6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
4,3
4,3
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
4,3
4,3
4,3

SL7E2
SL7E3

SL7KA




SL8HX
SL7K9
SL7D8
SL78Y
SL79K


SL6WU
SL78Z
SL7BK
SL7E4
SL7KB
SL7PM
SL7PU
SL7Z9
SL88J
SL7KK
SL7J6
SL79L
SL6K7
SL6JJ
SL6SM

SL7E2
SL7E3
SL7J5
SL7KA
SL7J5
SL7PL
SL7PT
SL88H
SL8HX
SL7K9
SL7D8
N/A
SL79K
SL7YV
SL85V
SL6WK


SL7E4
SL7KB
SL7PM
SL7PU
SL7Z9

SL7KK
SL7J6
SL79L
SL6JJ
SL6JJ
SL6S5

D0
D0
D0
D0
D0
E0
E0
E0
E0
D0
C0
D1
C0
D0
E0
D1
D1
M0
D0
D0
E0
E0
N0
E0
D0
D0
C0
C1
C1
C1

0f34h
0f34h
0f34h
0f34h
0f34h
0F41h
0F41h
0F41h
0F41h
0f34h
0F33h
0F29h
0F33h
0f34h
0F41h
0F29h
0F29h
0F25h
0f34h
0f34h
0F41h
0F41h
0F43h
0F41h
0f34h
0f34h
0F33h
0F27h
0F27h
0F27h

214

. 214

3.

. 3.48
"

L2

"

L3

, C

, "

, .

512

74

66,1

478

130

55

5555

512
512

0
0

74
74

66,1
66,1

478
478

130
130

55
55

5555
5555

512

73

66,1

478

130

55

5555

512
512

0
0

73
74

66,1
66,1

478
478

130
130

55
55

5555
5555

512
512

0
0

74
74

66,1
66,1

478
478

130
130

55
55

5555
5555

512
1

0
0

74
73,1

66,1
103

478
478

130
90

55
125

5555
5555

69,1

84

775

90

125

505

1
512

0
0

67,7
75

84
68,4

775
478

90
130

125
55

505
5555

512
512
512
512

0
0
0
0

75
75
75
75

68,4
68,4
68,4
68,4

478
478
478
478

130
130
130
130

55
55
55
55

5555
5555
5555
5555

512
1
1
512
512
512
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
512
1
1
1
512
512

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

75
69,1
69,1
75
75
73
69,1
69,1
67,7
69,1
67,7
69,1
67,7
69,1
67,7
69,1
69
75
69
67,7
67,7
70
70

69,7
89,0
89,0
69,7
69,7
76,0
89,0
89,0
84,0
89,0
84,0
89,0
84,0
89,0
84,0
89,0
89,0
69,7
89,0
84,0
84,0
81,9
81,9

478
478
478
478
478
478
478
478
775
478
775
775
775
478
775
478
478
478
478
775
775
478
478

130
90
90
130
130
130
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
130
90
90
90
130
130

55
125
125
55
55
55
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
55
125
125
125
55
55

5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
520
5555
520
5555
505
5555
1
521
5555
5555
5555
5555
515
515
5555
5555

512
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
512
512
512

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

66
69,1
69,1
69,1
67,7
67,7
69,1
67,7
67,7
69
69
69
69

82,0
89,0
89,0
89,0
84,0
84,0
89,0
84,0
84,0
89,0
81,8
81,8
81,8

478
478
478
478
775
775
478
775
775
478
478
478
478

130
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
130
130
130

55
125
125
125
125
169
125
125
125
125
55
55
55

5555
5555
5555
5555
530J
1
630
5555
530
530
5555
5555
5555
5555

5555 P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

. 215

215

, /

" S" S"" CPUID

"
HyperThreading
OEM

3,06

533

4,3

SL6S5

SL6S5

C1

0F27h

3,06

533

4,3

SL6QC

SL6PG

D1

0F29h

3,06

533

4,3

N/A

SL87L

E0

0F41h

3,20
3,20

800
800

6,4
6,4

SL6WE
SL792

SL6WG
5555

D1
D1

0F29h
0F29h

3,20

800

6,4

SL79M

SL79M

C0

0F33h

3,20

800

6,4

SL7B8

SL7B8

C0

0F33h

3,20
3,20

800
800

6,4
6,4

SL7E5
SL7J7

SL7E5
SL7J7

D0
D0

0f34h
0f34h

3,20
3,20

800
800

6,4
6,4

SL7KC
SL7KL

SL7KC
SL7KL

D0
D0

0f34h
0f34h

3,20

800

6,4

SL7LA

SL7LA

D0

0f34h

3,20
3,20

800
800

6,4
6,4

SL7PN
SL7PW

SL7PN
SL7PW

E0
E0

0F41h
0F41h

3,20
3,20

800
800

6,4
6,4

5555
SL7Z8

SL7PX
SL7Z8

E0
E0

0F41h
0F43h

3,20
3,2EE
3,40
3,40
3,40
3,40
3,40

800
800
800
800
800
800
800

6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4

SL88K
SL7AA
SL793
SL7AJ
SL7B9
SL7E6
SL7J8

5555
SL7AA
SL793
SL7AJ
5555
SL7E6
SL7J8

E0
M0
D1
C0
C0
D0
D0

0F41h
0F25h
0F29h
0F33h
0F33h
0f34h
0f34h

3,40
3,40
3,40
3,40
3,40
3,40
3,40
3,40
3,4EE
3,4EE
3,46EE
3,46EE
3,60
3,60
3,60
3,60
3,60
3,60
3,60
3,80
3,80
3,80
3,80

800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
1066
1066
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800

6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
8,5
8,5
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4

SL7KD
SL7KM
SL7LH
5555
SL7PY
5555
SL7RR
SL7Z7
SL7CH
SL7GD
SL7NF
5555
SL7J9
5555
SL7L9
5555
SL7Q2
SL8J6
SL7Z5
SL7P2
SL82U
5555
5555

SL7KD
SL7KM
SL7LH
SL7PP
SL7PY
SL7PZ
SL7RR
SL7Z7
SL7CH
SL7GD
SL7NF
SL7RT
SL7J9
SL7KN
SL7L9
SL7NZ
SL7Q2
SL8J6
SL7Z5
SL7P2
SL82U
SL8J7
SL7Z3

E0
D0
D0
E0
E0
E0
M0
N0
M0
M0
M0
M0
D0
D0
D0
E0
E0
E0
N0
E0
E0
E0
N0

0F41h
0f34h
0f34h
0F41h
0F41h
0F41h
0F25h
0F43h
0F25h
0F25h
0F25h
0F25h
0f34h
0f34h
0f34h
0F41h
0F41h
0F41h
0F43h
0F41h
0F41h
0F41h
0F43h

180 Willamette.
130 Northwood.
90 Prescott.
HT = HyperThreading; EE = Extreme Edition.

216

. 216

3.

. 3.48


L2

L3

, C

, 

, .

512

69

81,8

478

130

55



512
1

0
0

69
67,7

81,8
84,0

478
775

130
90

55
125


519

512

70

82,0

478

130

55



512
1

0
0

70
73,2

82,0
103,0

478
478

130
90

55
125




1
1

0
0

73,2
69,1

103,0
89,0

478
478

90
90

125
125




1
1

0
0

67,7
69,1

84,0
89,0

775
478

90
90

125
125

540


67,7

84,0

775

90

125

540

1
1

0
0

67,7
73,2

103,0
103,0

775
775

90
90

125
125




1
1
2
1

0
0
0
0

67,7
67,7
67,7
69,1

84,0
84,0
84,0
89,0

775
775
775
478

90
90
90
90

125
125
169
125

540J
2
540
1
640


512
512
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
512
2
512
512
512
512
1
1
1
1
1

2M
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2M
0
2M
2M
2M
2M
0
0
0
0
0

64
70
73
73,2
73,2
72,8
73,2
72,8
72,8
73,2
67,7
67,7
66
67,7
68
66
66
66
72,8
72,8
72,8
72,8
72,8

92,1
89,0
103,0
103,0
103,0
115,0
103,0
115,0
115,0
103,0
84,0
84,0
109,6
84,0
102,9
109,6
110,7
110,7
115,0
115,0
115,0
115,0
115,0

478
478
478
478
478
775
478
775
775
478
775
775
775
775
478
775
775
775
775
775
775
775
775

130
130
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
130
90
130
130
130
130
90
90
90
90
90

178
55
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
169
125
178
178
178
178
125
125
125
125
125






550

550
2


550J
2
550

1
650




560
560
2
560
2
560
560J

1
2
1
1
1
2

0
0
0
0
0
0

72,8
72,8
72,8
72,8
72,8
72,8

115,0
115,0
115,0
115,0
115,0
115,0

775
775
775
775
775
775

90
90
90
90
90
90

125
125
125
125
125
125


1
660
1

570J
1

1
670

Intel Extended Memory 64 Technology (EM64T) Execute


Disable Bit (NX).
2 EM64T.

 P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

. 217

217

Pentium 4 Extreme Edition


2003 Intel Extreme Edition Pentium 4. 
, 
L3. Pentium 4.Extreme Edition ( Pentium 4EE)
Prestonia Xeon (
),  L3 2002 .
Pentium 4EE  L3 2 , 
178 ., .. , Pentium 4. 
0,13 , 
, 
. Pentium 4.Extreme Edition
, . 
  , 
.
2004 Pentium 4 Extreme Edition. 
90 (0,09) Pentium 4 Prescott;
 L2 2 512 , 
Pentium 4 Prescott. Pentium 4 Extreme Edition Prescott
 L3 .
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition Socket 478 Socket T;
3,2 3,4 (Socket 478) 3,4 3,73 (Socket T).
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 
. 3.48.

,
Pentium 4 RDRAM, SDRAM, DDR
SDRAM DDR2 SDRAM, ;
Pentium 4 DDR DDR2.
Intel RAMBUS 2001 , DDR SDRAM DDR2
SDRAM ,
, Intel.

Pentium 4, RDRAM, 5
RAMBUS RDRAM RIMM, 5
Pentium III. RDRAM
. Pentium, RDRAM,
RIMM. 5
, .

Pentium 4
Pentium 4 ,

, 12 3,3 5 , 
. , 3,3 5 , 
, .
, .
,
ATX ,
12 ( 6 ).
12 ,
.

218

. 218

3.

, ATX12V.
20 ATX 
6 (3,3/5 ). , 
, 
. , PC Power and Cooling 
, Molex
ATX12V. , 300 ( ) 

, ATX12V.
300 , , 
.
, Pentium 4, 
. 0,5 ,
.
, ATX 
,
Socket 423 .
. 

. , Asus P4T 
, ATX.
Socket 478,
. ,
, 
. Socket 478
ATX .
Socket T (LGA775) , 
. ,
.
Pentium 4
, , 
, . 
, OEM .
Intel
.

Xeon
Xeon Pentium 4
Socket 603 Socket 604. Xeon DP ( Xeon) 
 .
Xeon DP 400 1,4 3 .
Xeon DP 533 2 3,2 .
Xeon DP 667 ( Pentium 4 
) 3,33 3,66 .
Xeon DP 800 2,8 3,8 .
Xeon MP , 
. 1,4 3 ,
400 .
Xeon DP Xeon MP 
, .
5555 P7 (Intel Pentium 4)

. 219

219

(64"e)
2001 Intel 64 Itanium, 
2002 Itanium 2. 2003 AMD 
64 Athlon 64
64 Opteron. 2004 Intel Pentium 4 
64 , , 2005 64
Xeon , 64
: Pentium Extreme Edition Pentium D.
,
Intel AMD 64 
.

Itanium Itanium 2
Itanium 2001 
Intel,
.
Intel , Itanium
886,
Intel.
386.
Itanium IA64 (64 Intel),
, , 
.
Itanium Itanuim 2 Pentium 4.
,
.
Itanium/Itanium 2 . 3.49.
3.49. Itanium/Itanium 2

"" "


,
, "
(L2),
(L3),

/
, .

Itanium

733 ;
800

96

2 4

Itanium 2

900
4
1 ;
4
1,3
3
1,4

256
256

Itanium 2
Itanium 2
Itanium 2

Itanium 2

Itanium 2

1,66

Itanium 2
Itanium 2

1,6
5
1,66

266

64

2,1

:
25; L3:
300

1,5
2
3

400
400

128
128

6,4
6,4

221
221

256
256
256

1,5
3
2
4

400
128
400; 533 128
400
128

6,4
6,4; 8,5
6,4

221
500
410

256

400

128

6,4

500

256
256
256

6
2
9
2
9

667
400
667

128
128
128

10,6
6,4
10,6

500
592
592

, , 128.

, , 128.

(DP Optimized).

220

. 220

1,6 3
1,4 ;
5
1,5 ;
3
1,6
1,5 ;
5
1,6

3.

. 3.49, Itanium/Itanium 2
, 
.
,  .
Itanium .
16 () (44 ).
32 .
EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing),
20 .
,
.
FMAC (Floatingpoint Multiply Accumulate) 82 .
FMAC
.
MMX,
FP .
FP
(Floatingpoint).
128 , 128 ,
8 , 64 .
Itanium 2 .
400 ( 266 Itanium).
128 ( 64 Itanium).
Itanium Itanium 2 0,18 ;
0,13 , 
.
Itanium Pin Array Cartridge (PAC).
 PAC418
(418 ), .
75125 , 170 . ,
(. 3.62). Itanium ,
.
Itanium 2, McKinley (. 3.63),
2002 . 
(6,4 /),
 ( 
Itanium).
. Itanium 2  ,
, (. . 3.63). Itanium Itanium 2
, .
Itanium Itanium 2 ,
Microsoft Windows XP 64bit Edition 64 Windows Advanced Server
Limited Edition 2002, Linux ( : Red Hat, SuSE, Caldera Turbo Linux),
Unix (HPUX HewlettPackard AIX IBM).

(645e)

. 221

221

. 3.62. Itanium

. 3.63. Itanium 2 Itanium

325 x865 5
Itanium 2, , IA532 EL (IA532 Execu5
tion Layer). IA532 EL 325
Itanium 2. , IA532 EL,
: Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, Windows Server 2003 Data Center, Windows XP

222

. 222

3.

645bit Edition, Linux Itanium 2. 5


IA532 EL Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3
UP5, Red Hat Enterprise 3 UP4, SUSE Enterprise Server 9 SP1, SUSE Enterprise Server Linux SP1, Kernel 2.6
Web- IA532 Execution Layer, : http://www.intel.com/
cd/software/products/asmo-na/eng/219773.htm.

Itanium 2 
, , 
Intel . Intel
Itanium 2, 64 ,
AMD Intel,
. , 32
64 , , 
32, 64 .

AMD Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX


AMD Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX, 2003 
, 64 , .
64 AMD Opteron, 
. Athlon 64 FX . 3.64.

. 3.64. AMD Athlon 64 FX (Socket 939). 

AMD

64 , Athlon 64 Athlon


64 FX , 
.
hub , Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX
. , 
.
, , , 
.
Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX 
, ,
. 
, .
Athlon 64 Athlon 64 64 FX

(645e)

. 223

223

3.50. Athlon 64

, /

ADA2800AEP4AX
ADA2800AEP4AP

2800+
2800+

1,8
1,8

3,2
3,2

CG
C0

ADA2800AEP4AR
ADA3000AIK4BX

2800+
3000+

1,8
2,0

3,2
3,2

CG
E6

ADA3000AEP4AP

3000+

2,0

3,2

C0

ADA3000AEP4AR
ADA3000AEP4AX

3000+
3000+

2,0
2,0

3,2
3,2

CG
CG

ADA3000DAA4BW
ADA3000DAA4BP

3000+
3000+

1,8
1,8

4,0
4,0

E6
E3

ADA3000DIK4BI
ADA3000DEP4AW

3000+
3000+

1,8
1,8

4,0
4,0

D0
CG

ADA3200DKA4CG

3200+

2,0

4,0

E4

ADA3200AI04BX

3200+

2,0

3,2

E6

ADA3200DAA4BW

3200+

2,0

4,0

E6

ADA3200DAA4BP
ADA3200DIK4BI
ADA3200DEP4AW
ADA3200AEP5AP
ADA3200AEP5AR
ADA3200AEP4AX
ADA3400AIK4BO
ADA3400AEP5AP
ADA3400AEP4AX
ADA3400AEP4AR
ADA3400AEP5AR
ADA3500DAA4BN
ADA3500DEP4AS
ADA3500DKA4CG
ADA3500DAA4BW
ADA3500DAA4BP
ADA3500DIK4BI
ADA3500DEP4AW
ADA3700AEP5AR
ADA3700DAA5BN

3200+
3200+
3200+
3200+
3200+
3200+
3400+
3400+
3400+
3400+
3400+
3500+
3500+
3500+
3500+
3500+
3500+
3500+
3700+
3700+

2,0
2,0
2,0
2,0
2,0
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,4
2,2

4,0
4,0
4,0
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
3,2
4,0

E3
D0
CG
C0
CG
CG
E3
C0
CG
CG
CG
E4
CG
E4
E6
E3
D0
CG
CG
E4

ADA3700AEP5AR
ADA3800DEP4AW
ADA3800DAA4BW
ADA3800DEP4AS
ADA3800DAA4BP
ADA4000DEP5AS
ADA4000DKA5CF
ADA4000DAA5BN

3700+
3800+
3800+
3800+
3800+
4000+
4000+
4000+

2,4
2,4
2,4
2,4
2,4
2,4
2,4
2,4

3,2
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0

CG
CG
E6
CG
E3
CG
E6
E4

3.51. Athlon 64 FX

,
/

ADAFX51CEP5AK
ADAFX51CEP5AT
ADAFX53CEP5AT
ADAFX53DEP5AS
ADAFX55DAA5BN
ADAFX55DEI5AS
ADAFX57DAA5BN

FX551
FX551
FX553
FX553
FX555
FX555
FX557

2,2
2,2
2,4
2,4
2,6
2,6
2,8

3,2
3,2
3,2
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0

C0
CG
CG
CG
E4
CG
E4

224

. 224

3.


L2

, C

512

70

1,5

89

754

130

512
512

70
70

1,5
1,5

89
89

754
754

130
130

512

65

1,4

51

754

90

512
512

70
70

1,5
1,5

89
89

754
754

130
130

512
512

70
65

1,5
1,35

89
67

754
939

130
90

512
512

70
70

1,35
1,4

67
67

939
939

90
90

512

70

1,5

89

939

130

512
512

65
69

1,35
1,4

67
59

939
754

90
90

512
512

65
70

1,351,4
1,351,4

67
67

939
939

90
90

512
512
1M
1M
512
512
1M
512
1
1
512
512
512
512
512
512
512
1
1
1
512
512
512
512
1

70
70
70
70
70
65
70
70
70
70
70
70
65
65
65
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70
70

1,4
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,4
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,351,4
1,5
1,35
1,351,4
1,351,4
1,4
1,5
1,5
1,351,4
1,5
1,5
1,351,4
1,5
1,351,4
1,5

67
89
89
89
89
67
89
89
89
89
67
89
67
67
67
67
89
89
89
89
89
89
89
89
89

939
939
754
754
754
754
754
754
754
754
939
939
939
939
939
939
939
754
939
754
939
939
939
939
939

90
130
130
130
130
90
130
130
130
130
90
130
90
90
90
90
130
130
90
130
130
90
130
90
130

1
1

65
65

1,35
1,35

89
89

939
939

90
90


L2

, C

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

70
70
70
70
65
63
65

1,5
1,5
1,5
1,5
1,351,4
1,5
1,351,4

89
89
89
89
104
104
104

940
940
940
939
939
939
939

130
130
130
130
90
130
90

. OEM; .

(64e)

. 225

225

 L2 ( , 
).
Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX.
1,8 2,4 .
105,9 . , 0,13 ( 
2
193 ).
12 .
72 (64 , ECC) 
, (
MCP, ).
 128 .
 512 1 .
AMD64 ( IA32e, x8664 EM64T), 
64 32 x86.
Hypertransport (6,4 8,0 /) 
.
1 , 
, 32 .
SSE2 ( SSE, 144
).
.
130 ( ClawHammer Newcastle) 90 ( Win
chester, Venice San Diego) .
Athlon 64 FX Athlon 64
.
Socket 939 Socket 940 ( ).
DDR ECC.
Socket 940 .
2,2 2,8 .
 L2 1 .
Athlon 64 Socket 939 ,
Athlon 64 FX
Athlon 64. ( 2006 AMD
Athlon 64 FX FX62. . .).
AMD 
Athlon XP, 
Athlon 64. , Athlon XP, 
.
, Athlon 64
. AMD Athlon 64, 

, 
Athlon XP. 4.
Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX . 3.50
3.51.

226

. 226

3.

Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX (. 3.52).


Athlon 64 Socket 754 Socket 939,
Athlon 64 FX Socket 939 Socket 940. Socket 754 
, Socket 939 Socket
940 , .
Socket 939 
DDR SDRAM DIMM, Socket 940
DIMM. 
Socket 940, , 
. Athlon 64 Socket 754 
DDR SDRAM DIMM, .
3.52. Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX

754

Athlon 64

939

Athlon 64

940

Athlon 64 FX
Athlon 64 FX

Athlon 64 . Socket
754 , , , Socket
939 . Athlon 64 FX 
. , Socket 940, 
( ) , , ,
Socket 939 . Athlon
64 Athlon 64 FX Socket 939 
L2, , Athlon 64 FX .
, Athlon 64 3800+ Athlon 64 FX53 2,4 
. Athlon 64 3800+  
L2 512 , Athlon 64 FX53  L2 
1 .
Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX 104 ;
, , Pentium 4.
Pentium 4, 12
Athlon 64 ATX12V.
Athlon 64 0,13 (. 3.65). 
0,09 .

AMD Sempron (Socket 754)


Intel Celeron , 
, Intel , Sempron
AMD . Sempron 
Socket, Athlon XP,
Socket 754, Athlon 64.
Sempron Socket 754 Athlon 64
Socket 754. Sempron 32
. Sempron Socket
754 .
90 ( . 3.53).
 L2 128 256 .
HyperTransport 3,2 /.
(645e)

. 227

227

3.53. Sempron (Socket 754)

1
( )

, /

SDA2500AIO3BX
SDA2600AIO2BO

2500+
2600+

1,4
1,6

3,2
3,2

E6
E3

SDA2600AIO2BX
SDA2600AIO2BA

2600+
2600+

1,6
1,6

3,2
3,2

E6
D0

SDA2800AIO3BX

2800+

1,6

3,2

D0

SDA2800AIO3BO
SDA2800AIO3BX

2800+
2800+

1,6
1,6

3,2
3,2

E3
E6

SDA3000AIO2BA
SDA3000AIO2BX

3000+
3000+

1,8
1,8

3,2
3,2

D0
E6

SDA3000AIO2BO
SDA3000AIO2BA

3000+
3000+

1,8
1,8

3,2
3,2

E3
D0

SDA3100AIP3AX

3100+

1,8

3,2

CG

SDA3100AIO3BX

3100+

1,8

3,2

E6

SDA3100AIO3BO

3100+

1,8

3,2

E3

SDA3100AIO3BA
SDA3300AIO2BA
SDA3300AIO2BX
SDA3300AIO2BO
SDA3400AIO3BX

3100+
3300+
3300+
3300+
3400+

1,8
2,0
2,0
2,0
2,0

3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,2

D0
D0
E6
E3
E6

. 3.65. AMD Athlon 64 (0,13 ; 106 . 

; 193 2). AMD

32 32/64 
AMD64 (IA32e x8664).
63,568,5 . .
SSE3 ( 90 ).
Sempron Socket 754 
Athlon 64 Socket 754.
Sempron Socket 754 . 3.53.

228

. 228

3.

"
L2,

, C

AMD64

256

69

1,4

62

90

128
128

69
69

1,4
1,4

62
62

90
90

256

70

1,4

62

5555

90

256
256

70
69

1,4
1,4

62
62

5555

90
90

256
128

69
70

1,4
1,4

62
62

90
90

128
128

69
69

1,4
1,4

62
62

90
90

128

70

1,4

62

90

256
256

70
69

1,4
1,4

62
62

130
90

256
256

69
70

1,4
1,4

62
62

4
5555

90
90

128
128
128
256

70
69
69
69

1,4
1,4
1,4
1,4

62
62
62
62

5555

90
90
90
90

OEM ;
.
SDA2600CVBOX AMD64,
SDA2600BABOX .
SDA2800CVBOX AMD64,
SDA2800BABOX .
SDA3100CVBOX AMD64, PIB
SDA3100BABOX .
SDA3300CVBOX AMD64,
SDA3300BABOX .

. 3.53, Sempron Socket 754 


64 AMD64. , Intel AMD, 
64 , 64
.

AMD Opteron
Opteron AMD Athlon 64
, x8664. 
2003 .
AMD Opteron.
 128 .
 1 .
1,8 2,8 .
Hypertransport (3,2 /) .
939 940 .
.
1 (40 )
256 (48 ).
AMD64 (x8664).

(645e)

. 229

229

90 130 .
.
Opteron : 100 ( 
), 200 ( ) 800 (,
). 
Opteron.
Itanium, 
Intel, Opteron ( Athlon 64) 
, VIA, SiS, ALi, NVIDIA ATI.

Opteron .



,
. 
, .
. 
,
, .
, 

.

, 5
, .
.
,
.
Intel HT, .

, , 
, Web, ( 
), .., 
.
, Intel AMD, 
,
.
, 
,
. HT 
Intel, ,
. 
,
.
Intel AMD (Pentium D
Pentium Extreme Edition, Opteron Athlon 64 X2 ) 
2005 . ,
. 
, , 
, .
230

. 230

3.

?
,

. . 3.66 ,
.

MP3
Web5





Web5


,


. 3.66. ()
()

, 
. , 
, 
. ,
, 
.
, , 
, , 
/ , 
. ,
, , Doom 3, / 
. , 
, 
.

Intel Pentium D Intel Pentium Extreme Edition


Intel Pentium Extreme Edi
tion Pentium D 2005 .
Smithfield, Pentium 4 Prescott. , 
, Intel 
Prescott.
Pentium D Pentium Extreme Edition. 
MCH ( ) (. 3.67).
Intel 915 Intel 925, 
Pentium 4

. 231

231

Pentium D Pentium Extreme Edition. Intel,


, 945, 955X
975X E7230 . , 
nForce 4 NVIDIA.
Intel 945 Express, Intel 955X Intel 975X 4.

5 L2
1

5 L2
1

. 3.67. Pentium D

Pentium Extreme Edition


MCH ( )

Prescott Intel 
, , 
3,2 ,
3,8 Pentium 4. 3,2 
Pentium Extreme Edition 840 Pentium D 840 130 , 115
Pentium 4 Prescott.
Pentium D .
2,8 3,2 .
800 .
64 EM64T.

3.54. Pentium D Pentium Extreme Edition

Pentium D
Pentium D
Pentium D
Pentium D
Pentium D
Pentium D
Pentium Extreme
Edition

232

. 232


" " "
, , , HT

OEM-
820
820
830
830
840
840
840

2,8
2,8
3,0
3,0
3,2
3,2
3,2

800
800
800
800
800
800
800

6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4
6,4

SL88T
5555
5555
SL8CM
SL8CM
5555
5555

SL88T
SL8CP
SL88S
SL8CM
SL8CM
SL88R
SL8FK

A0
B0
A0
B0
B0
A0
A0

3.

Execute Disable Bit.


90 .
 L2 2 ( 1 ).
Socket T (LGA775).
830 840 Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology,
,
.
Pentium Extreme Edition 840 Pentium D 840, 
.
HT Technology,
, 
.
Enhanced Intel Speed Step Technology .
, .
Pentium D Pentium Extreme Edition 
. 3.54.
Pentium 4, Pentium D Pentium Ex
treme Edition, , 
,
.
2006 , 
65 .
, , . 3.53, 
.
Intel
, Intel
.
, , ,
.
, , 
, . 
,  , 
.
AMD
(),
. 2004 Intel ,
, AMD. AMD
, , 
CPUID

0F44h
0F47h
0F44h
0F47h
0F47h
0F44h
0F44h

"
L2,

2
2
2
2
2
2
2

"
L3,

5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555
5555

. 233

C
,
64,1
64,1
69,8
69,8
69,8
69,8
69,8

95
95
130
130
130
130
130

Socket 775
Socket 775
Socket 775
Socket 775
Socket 775
Socket 775
Socket 775

"

,
90
90
90
90
90
90
90

,
. .
230
230
230
230
230
230
230

233

Pentium 4, Intel ,
BMW: 8xx (Pentium
Extreme Edition Pentium D), 7xx Pentium M,
6xx Pentium 4 , 5xx
Pentium 4 ( Pentium 4) , 3xx 
, , Celeron D Celeron M. 
Intel Xeon 7xxx.
Intel
. Pentium 4,
. 3.48, ,
, .
Intel
, , ,
. , , 
. ,
.
, Pentium Extreme Edition, Pentium D,
Pentium 4 Celeron D , . 3.55.
3.55. Intel

Pentium
840
Extreme Edition

3,2

800

XDB

Pentium D

840
830
820
672
670
662
660
650

3,2
3,0
2,8
3,8
3,8
3,6
3,6
3,4

800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

XDB, EISS
XDB, EISS
XDB
EISS, IVT, XDB
EISS, XDB
EISS, IVT, XDB
EISS, XDB
EISS, XDB

640
630
571
570J
561
560J
560
551
550J
550
541
540J
540
531
530J
530
521
520J
520
506
505J
505

3,2
3
3,8
3,8
3,6
3,6
3,6
3,4
3,4
3,4
3,2
3,2
3,2
3,0
3,0
3,0
2,8
2,8
2,8
2,66
2,66
2,66

800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
533
533
533

2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

EISS, XDB
EISS, XDB
XDB
XDB
XDB
XDB
5555
XDB
XDB
5555
XDB
XDB
5555
XDB
XDB
5555
XDB
XDB
5555
XDB
XDB
5555

Pentium 4

234

. 234

"
"
, , L2 Hyper"Threading EM64T

3.

. 3.55

"
"
, , L2 Hyper"Threading EM64T

Celeron D

351

3,2

533

256

XDB

350

3,2

533

256

5555

346
345J

3,06
3,06

533
533

256
256

XDB
XDB

345

3,06

533

256

5555

341

2,93

533

256

XDB

340J
340

2,93
2,93

533
533

256
256

XDB
5555

336
335J

2,80
2,80

533
533

256
256

XDB
XDB

335

2,80

533

256

5555

331
330J

2,66
2,66

533
533

256
256

XDB
XDB

330
326

2,66
2,53

533
533

256
256

5555
XDB

325J
325
320
315
310

2,53
2,53
2,40
2,26
2,13

533
533
533
533
533

256
256
256
256
256

XDB
5555
5555
5555
5555

EISS (Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology Intel SpeedStep).


.
XDB (Execute Disable Bit) , .
IVT (Intel Virtualization Technology) Intel,
, ,
.

8xx 6xx,
5xx 3xx.
. ,
, BMW, 3
5, 5
7. , ,
. 
. , Pen
tium 4 660 Pentium 4 650 ..
, .
, 2006 Intel
. Intel AMD , 
, ,
,  L2 . 
.

AMD Athlon 64 X2 AMD Opteron


, AMD, 64 Athlon 64 Opteron
,
x86 . 
Opteron AMD , Intel
2005 Pentium Extreme Edition Pentium D,

. 235

235

Athlon 64 X2 2005. Athlon 64 X2 


.
Manchester  L2 1 ( 512 ).
Toledo Systems  L2 2 ( 1 ).
Athlon 64 X2 .
90 .
2 2,4 .
Socket 939.
HyperTransport 1 .
Opteron 
1,8 ( x65) 2,4 ( x80).
100, ,
165, 170, 175 180.
200, ,
265, 270, 275 280.
800, , 
, 265, 270, 275 280.
AMD ,
, ,
Athlon 64 Socket 939 Opteron. 
, 
. 
, ,
Intel.  Athlon 64
X2 . 3.68.
Athlon 64 Socket 939,
Opteron Socket 940
. ,
90 , , 
BIOS.
AMD , 
. 
Athlon 64/Opteron

3.56. Athlon 64 X2

( )*

,
/

ADA3800DAA5BV
ADA3800DAA5CD
ADA4200DAA5BV
ADA4400DAA5CD
ADA4400DAA6CD
ADV4400DAA6CD
ADA4600DAA5BV
ADA4600DAA5CD
ADA4800DAA6CD

3800+
3800+
4200+
4200+
4400+
4400+
4600+
4600+
4800+

2,0
2,0
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,2
2,4
2,4
2,4

4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0
4,0

E4
E6
E4
E6
E6
E6
E4
E6
E6

236

. 236

3.

, ,
, ,
. , Athlon 64 X2
( 2,4 ) 110 130 ,
Pentium Extreme Edition Pentium D. Athlon 64 X2 ( 2,2 ) 
89 ,
Athlon 64, 2,4 .

CPU 0

CPU 1

" L2
CPU 0

" L2
CPU 0

HyperTransport

. 3.68. Athlon 64 X2

( Athlon 64),

Athlon 64 X2 Opteron , Intel Pentium D


Intel Pentium Extreme Edition, 
AMD , , Intel, 
. Athlon
64 X2 . 3.56.

Athlon 64 Socket 939, Opteron Socket 940

" L2,

, C

1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2

71
71
65
65
65
71
65
65
65

1,35551,4
1,35551,4
1,35551,4
1,35551,4
1,35551,4
1,35551,4
1,35551,4
1,35551,4
1,35551,4

89
89
89
89
110
89
110
110
110

Socket 939
Socket 939
Socket 939
Socket 939
Socket 939
Socket 939
Socket 939
Socket 939
Socket 939

90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90

* OEM ;
.

. 237

237

. Intel,
AMD 
. 
; AMD, Athlon 64 FX.


486 , 
, Intel
Socket, . ,
Socket 3, 486, 
Socket 7, Pentium. 
, 
(Pentium III/Celeron/III, Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP, Pen
tium 4/Celeron 4 ..).
,
.
, , 
,
, . ,
,
BIOS.
, Socket 478,
, Pentium 4 3,8 .
, , 
, ;
BIOS. , 
BIOS Web 
.
!
micro5ATX, 5
HP, .
.

,
, Socket 478 
Socket 423, Socket 370 Slot 1 ..
, Evergreen PowerLeap.
.
, Pentium 4,
Athlon XP Athlon 64. 
ATX, ,
, .

. , , 
, . ,
,
, Pentium 4, Athlon XP Athlon 64.

ATX, ,
.

238

. 238

3.

OverDrive
Intel OverDrive. 
,
. ,
, , , 
. 
Intel . 
OverDrive 
,
.


, . 
, (
).
, , 
.

. 
. , ,
, ,
, . ,
, .
: , 
, , , ,
CDROM, ,
, .
. ,
.
, . ,
.

"

Futuremark ( MadOnion.com)

SysMark
PCMark Pro
3DMark

Business Applications Performance


Corporation (BAPCo)

MobileMark

Standard Performance

SPECint

Evaluation Corporation

SPECfp

SiSoftware

Sandra

, , ,


, , , 
. , , 
, , .
, 
. , , 
;  .

. 3.57.

. 239

239

3.57.

,
,

, ,
.
,

,

POST

,
.

,
,



POST

/
;





BIOS







BIOS



POST

POST ( ) 
,
BIOS.
. ,
BIOS .
, , 
. ,
, .

. ,

BIOS. 
.

240

. 240

3.

. 241


(system board), 
(motherboard), (main board).
.
,
. (form factor) 
, . 
(.. ) 
. , ,
, . 
.
:

BabyAT;

BTX;

AT;

microBTX;

LPX;

PicoBTX;

WTX ( 
);

ATX;

ITX (
FlexATX, 
).

FlexATX;

microATX;

:

( 
Compaq, Packard
Bell, HewlettPackard,
/
..).

MiniITX (
FlexATX);
NLX.


BabyAT, IBM PC XT, 
BTX ATX,
. ATX, microATX
( ATX, ) FlexATX
( , 
). BTX 
, ,
. microBTX PicoBTX. 
miniITX, FlexATX,
. NLX 
, WTX 
, . 
. 4.1.
4.1.
"

BTX

Tower Desktop;
2005 ,

microBTX

BTX; .

microBTX BTX

picoPTX

BTX;
.
PicoBTX, microBTX BTX

242

. 242

4.

. 4.1
"

ATX

mini5tower full5tower;
, ,
, .
ATX

Mini5ATX

ATX, , ATX.
ATX Mini5ATX.
Mini5ATX
mini5tower

microATX

FlexATX


mini5tower,

Mini5ITX

FlexATX ,
1
.
PCI.
mini5ITX, FlexATX, microATX ATX

NLX

mini5tower,

BabyAT, AT LPX,
. 
, 
. , ATX
, BTX BTX ..

. 
,
.
, 
, . 
.
, 
, .
PC, 
, 
.
!
PC , 5. ,
60% . 5
( FlexATX microATX ,
LPX), SFX micro5tower,
. , 5
, 5
. , , 5
, .
mini5tower , , , 5
, LPX.
,
, , Dell ( 1996 ).
ATX, 5
5
. , , 5
Dell5 . , ,
.

. 243

243

, , 5
ATX BTX mid5tower ( ), 5
.

PC XT
PC IBM PC,
1981 (. 4.1). 1983 IBM PC XT
(913 , 22,8633,02 ), PC, ,
, 0,8 , 1 , PC.
. 4.2. XT ,
, BASIC, , ( !)
.
8259

85 ISA
J1

J2

J3

J4

J6

J5

J7

1
8

Intel 8087

Intel 8088
2
DIP5

DMA 8237


64 256

P3
1

P4

1 DIP5

. 4.1. IBM PC (1981 )

244

. 244

4.



85 ISA

J1

J2

J3

J4

J5

J6

J7

J8

J9

Intel 8087

Intel 8088
ROM BASIC
ROM BIOS

8259

DIP5

DMA 8237


640

P3

. 4.2. IBM PC XT (1983 )


. , PC XT
, 
, 
, ,
. XT , 
XT .

AT
AT
IBM AT. 1213,8 ( 30,535 ). 
AT 1984 , IBM 
PC AT. 
, 16 286, IBM 
, PC/XT. AT

. 245

245

, 
. IBM PC/XT 
(. 4.3).
8/165 ISA


CMOS RAM/RTC

8042

8259
286

ROM
BIOS

DMA 8237


128

. 4.3. IBM AT (1984 )


,
, IBM , 
XT. 286 (
1986 ). BabyAT.
AT Tower. 

Baby minitower ( ),
.
,
AT XT,
 AT
AT desktop tower.
BabyAT minitower ,


246

. 246

4.

;
.
AT
AT BabyAT, 
.

Baby"AT
IBM AT 1984 

, , .
, 16 , 
,
XT.
, ,
IBM, 1986 XT286. ,
XT :
, . 
XT286 .
AT, XT, 
XT , 8 . 
BabyAT; ,
, AT. 
, IBM, XT286.
, BabyAT , XT. 
. 

, . 
, AT BabyAT
5 DIN. BabyAT 
AT, 
. BabyAT 
1983 1996 . 1996 BabyAT
ATX, .
, 1996 , ATX, mi
croATX NLX, BabyAT .
BabyAT
, USB, DIMM AGP.
, AT,
BabyAT.
BabyAT , 
8088 Pentium III Athlon. , BabyAT 
. BabyAT (. 4.4) ,
ATX . . 4.5
BabyAT, 
USB, SIMM DIMM, ATX.
BabyAT 
. 
90 ; , 
. 
BabyAT 5 DIN,
; , BabyAT 
6 miniDIN (

. 247

247

PS/2) .
, , 
. .
152,4
(6,00")

212,09
(8,35")

95,25
(3,75")

217,68
(8,57")

10,16
(0,40") 16,51
(0,65")

11,43
(0,45")

140,97
(5,55")

8,64
(0,34")

165,1
(6,50")
331,22
(13,04")

. 4.4. BabyAT
LPT


COM

125
LPX

5 IDE
325
PCI
BIOS

ISA/PCI

205 ATX
725 SIMM

1685
DIMM
AGP

VIA Apollo MVP 3
(2 )
5
(2 ,
1 )

Super Socket 7

ISA

. 4.5. Tyan Trinity 100AT (S1590) BabyAT.


Tyan Computer Corporation

248

. 248

4.

BabyAT , , 
, ( ),
. ,
913 (22,8633,02 ), miniAT,
microAT, 2/3Baby 1/2Baby.
BabyAT.

LPX
LPX MiniLPX Western Digital 1987 . 
LPX LP Low Profile ( ). 
,
, , ,
BabyAT.
Western Digital,
. , 
;
. 
. , IBM HP, LPX, 
T , 
, .
, , LPX,
LPX
. , 
.
LPX.
, 
1980 1990 , . 
Compaq Packard Bell, , 
LPX .
LPX Slimline,
tower. , 
, .
LPX (. 4.6) . , 
,
. , 
, . 
, , , 
.
LPX , 
. VGA (15 ),
(25 ), ( 9 ) miniDIN
PS/2. 

. LPX
, SCSI. LPX
, ,
LPX .
LPX MiniLPX . 4.7.

. 249

249


LPX

LPX

SIMM

. 4.6. LPX

330,2
(13,0")
288,93
(11,375")

149,22
(5,875")

9,53
(0,375")

5,56
(0,219")

0,0
0,0
8,89
(0,35")

99,21
(3,906")

190,5
(7,500")

228,6
(9,0")
223,83
(8,8125")

. 4.7. LPX u MiniLPX

250

. 250

4.

, , LPX?
. LPX ,
, ,
NLX. . ,
. , , 
. LPX. , LPX 
. LPX, , 
, 
(. 4.8). , BabyAT,
, PS/2, USB.
ATX .
, , NLX. LPX
, NLX , 
.
. 4.8 LPX. 
: LPX ,
. , USB
( ), .

PS/2
1
2

PS/2


USB 1 USB 2

PS/2
1

PS/2

. 4.8. LPX

. 
.
LPX, , , 
BabyAT. LPX 
, BabyAT, , .
1996 , . 
LPX NLX.

. 251

251

ATX
ATX .
BabyAT LPX .
, ATX BabyAT 
. , , ATX
BabyAT, LPX. ,
ATX .
ATX Intel 1995 
. ATX
1996
BabyAT. 1997 2.01 ATX,
. 2000
( ) ATX ( Engineering
Change Revision PI), 2.03. Intel
ATX, . 
ATX,
Web Desktop Form Factors : www.formfactors.org.
ATX , 
. ,
BabyAT.
ATX BabyAT LPX.
.
 6,25
1,75 .
,
, BabyAT.
.
BabyAT. ATX 
, 
.
3,3 , , ATX
, . 
ATX , 
(3,3 5 ), ATX12V, 
, , 
.
. 
: , ,
.
, 
,
. 
. ,
, 70 (2,8 ).
. 

, .
,
.
252

. 252

4.



5555 .
Intel AMD , 5
. ;
, 100 5
. 5
; 5
5555 5, 5
, 5
.
,
45 C (113 F) Pentium III , 40 C (104 F)
Pentium 4 . ,
Intel AMD . 5
, ,
. OEM5 5
, . , 5
.

. 
, .

(, , ). 

. ATX ,
.
, 
. 
ATX ,
, .
. 
, 
ATX ,
, .. 
. 21.
. ATX
, BabyAT, 
3,3 . 
. ,
.
, , .
. 4.9 , ATX
.
: ,
(, 
, , ), , ,
. , .
ATX, , BabyAT,
90. 
,  (. 4.10). ATX,
Intel miniATX, :
ATX 305244 (129,6 );
miniATX 284208 (11,28,2 ).

. 253

253

3,5" 5,25"


,

USB, ,
,

ATX

. 4.9. ATX, , ,
( , ,
)

, ATX,
microATX FlexATX (
). miniATX ATX 2.1
.
, BabyAT, 
ATX BabyAT . ,
ATX 
Slimline.
BabyAT, 
. 
ATX.
, ,
ATX. . ATX 
. ,
; , LPX NLX.
. , ATX
(. 4.11 . 4.2).
4.2. ATX

PS/2
PS/2
USB

65 mini5DIN
65 mini5DIN
25 USB
255 D5Submini
95 D5Submini

5
5

254

. 254

4.

. 4.2

VGA
/MIDI5

155 HD D5Submini
155 D5Submini

: , /
,
LFE5,

3,5 Mini5Phone

5, 5, ,

TV5 S5Video

45 Mini5DIN

IEEE51394/FireWire
Ethernet 10/100/1000

65 IEEE51394
85 RJ545

S/PDIF
DVI ( )

TOSLINK
DDWG5DVI

S/PDIF ( ) RCA
SCSI ( )
50/685 HD SCSI

( )

45 RJ511

( )

RCA

DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V.


LFE low frequency effects ( ()).
S/PDIF Sony/Philips Digital Interface ( ).
TOSLINK Toshiba optical link ( ).
DDWG Digital Display Working Group.
12,7
(0,500")

10,14
(0,400")

20,32 (0,800")
0,0

131,98
(5,196")
78,74
(3,100")
20,625 (0,812") 5


PCI ISA

157,75 (6,250")

20,32 (0,800")
17,5 (0,689") 5


PCI AGP

15,24
(0,600")
56,69
(2,232")

22,86
(0,900")


31,12
(1,225")
AGP

15,49
(6,100")
227,33
(8,950")
243,84
(9,600")

4 ISA
3 PCI

3,81 (0,15")

16,51
(0,650")

124,46
(4,900")

281,94
(11,100")
304,8
(12,000")

. 4.10. ATX 2.1

. 255

255

USB

PS/2
PS/2
VGA

Ethernet 10/100

PS/2
PS/2

VGA

USB

IEEE51394a

10/100 Ethernet

PS/2

USB

PS/2

. 4.11. ATX 
 , LAN IEEE1394/FireWire legacyfree

ATX
(. . 4.2). 5555
. , , 5
. , ( 65 mini5DIN)

256

. 256

4.

,
. , , 5555
. 5
.

, ATX, mini
ATX, microATX, FlexATX NLX, Web Form Factors (
Platform Developer), : http://www.formfactors.org.

, ,
.

, , 5
ATX, .
ATX 305244 , ATX
305330 . ATX ,
. 5
, , .
Xeon , 5

ATX.

ATX Riser
1999 Intel
ATX. 22 (211) , 
PCI , ,
, , .
PCI. , AGP.
ATX 
,
. ATX PCI 
4,2 , 67 .
Slimline NLX,
.
,
ATX Slimline.
PCI. 14 2000
Peripheral Component Interconnect Special Interest Group (PCI SIG) 
PCI LowProfile, 
( 2,5 ) PCI. PCI 
, Intel ATX Riser,
PCI Slimline.
22 PCI
, ATX Riser,
. PCI 
. ,
ATX Riser, . ATX Riser ,
PCI ; ,
ATX Riser. ATX Riser 
PCI ( AGP ISA). . 4.12 
ATX ATX Riser.
22 PCI
( ). , , , 

. 257

257

, .
ATX Riser . 4.13.

PCI
ATX Riser

PCI

225

. 4.12. ATX Riser microATX

PCI ATX Riser 


PCI 

B1
A1
PCI_GNT1#
.
PCI_ CLK1
B2
A2

, ATX Riser, 

B3
A3
PCI_GNT2#

. PCI AGP,
PCI_REQ1#
A4
B4

A5
B5
PCI_CLK3
. ATX Riser
PCI_CLK2
A6
B6
RISER_ID1


A7
B7

, 
PCI_REQ2#
A8
B8
RISER_ID2
, .

A9
B9
NOGO
, 
PC/PCI_DREQ#
A10
B10
+12
.
PC/PCI_DGNT#
A11
B11
SER_IRQ
, ATX Riser 

. 4.13. . ATX Riser 
ATX Riser
, 
Slimline.
ATX Riser,
Slimline ATX.

microATX
microATX Intel 1997
ATX, .
ATX ,
.
, microATX ATX, 
microATX ATX.
ATX microATX, , . 1999
.
258

. 258

4.

minitower PC,
.
microATX ATX :
244 (9,6 ) 305 (12 ) 284
(11,2 );
;
( SFX/TFX).
microATX 9,69,6
(244244 ) ATX (129,6
305244 ) miniATX (11,28,2 284208 ).
,
.
, 
, , , ,
. 
. USB, 10/100 Ethernet, SCSI 1394
(FireWire) . 
microATX . 4.14.
30,48
(1,200")

20,32
(0,800")

53,24
(2,096")
20,62
(0,812") 5

ISA PCI

10,16
(0,400")

31,12
15,24
(1,225")
(0,600")
56,7
(2,232")
2 ISA

158,75
(6,250")


20,32 (0,800")

22,86
(0,900")

17,51 (0,689") 5

PCI AGP

154,84
(6,100")
227,33
(8,950")
AGP

243,84
(9,800")

2 PCI

9X 3,96
(0,156")

20,32
(0,800")

34,20
(1,350")

45,72
(1,800")

203,2
(8,000")
243,84
(9,600")

. 4.14. microATX 1.1

. 259

259

microATX 
ATX. , , 
, SFX/TFX.
, , 
. 
SFX/TFX 
.
, microATX
ATX, microATX,
Compaq, HP, eMachines ,
SFX TFX.
microATX ATX :
20 ;
;
.
microATX
ATX, ,
microATX, SFX/TFX.
microATX . ,
, : 304,8 355,6 (12
14 ), 177,8 (7 ), 304,8 (12 ),
microtower desktop. microATX . 4.15.

AGP
PCI

. 4.15. microATX

260

. 260

4.

microATX Intel 
. , 
microATX, Web www.formfactors.org.

FlexATX
1999 Intel microATX,
FlexATX. , ATX,
. 
FlexATX , 
, , 
, . FlexATX
USB IEEE1394/FireWire.
FlexATX , 
ATX. 229191 (9,07,5 ). Flex
ATX , , 
. FlexATX
ATX, ,
 (. 4.16).
304,80
(12,000")
243,84
(9,600")

228,60
(9,000")

158,75 (6,250") 5

5

C
F

flex5ATX

190,50
(7,500")

micro5ATX

ATX

243,84
(9,600")


flex5ATX
ATX micro5ATX

. 4.16. ATX, microATX

FlexATX

FlexATX
SFX/TFX, microATX. , 
, ATX.
FlexATX ATX
, . 4.3.

. 261

261

4.3. ATX

, ,
, () ()
( )

ATX
Mini5ATX

305 (12,0)
284 (11,2)

244 (9,6)
208 (8,2)

743 (115)
593 (92)

20%

microATX
FlexATX

244 (9,6)
229 (9,0)

244 (9,6)
191 (7,5)

595 (92)
435 (68)

20%
41%

, . 4.3 .
, 
, 
. 
, .. mini, micro FlexATX 
, ATX. ,
miniATX ATX 
, micro FlexATX.

ITX mini"ITX
FlexATX 
22,8619,05 . , ,
, .
FlexATX ( ) 
, FlexATX 
(C, F, H J). . 4.16.
FlexATX H J 15,74 ,
J 0,63 . 
H 17
(0,63 + 15,74 + 0,63), FlexATX. 
, , 
FlexATX, 170170 .
Platform Solutions VIA Technologies
(, ),
, .
2001 , FlexATX (21,6 22,8 ),
. 6% FlexATX
 FlexATX. 
ITX, 6% 
, ITX .
2002 VIA c , 
,
FlexATX. miniITX. ,
ATX FlexATX 
. , , 
/ 
FlexATX. miniITX.
miniITX VIA
Eden C3 E. 
VIA . C3 
, Celeron 4
AMD Duron, miniITX
, 
. ITX miniITX FlexATX 
. 4.4.
262

. 262

4.

4.4. ITX, mini"ITX FlexATX


2


, ,
, () ()
( )

FlexATX
ITX

229 (9)
215 (8,5)

191 (7,5)
191 (7,5)

435 (68)
411 (64)

6%

Mini5ITX

170 (6,7)

170 (6,7)

290 (45)

34%

, ITX miniITX
FlexATX. miniITX.
ITX
FlexATX ( ITX ), miniITX 
170170 (6,7"6,7"), , 34% ,
FlexATX.
205 ATX

ATA/IDE

BIOS

DIMM

PCI

VIA SouthBridge
VT1612A
0205CD TAIWAN
2IA1012954 C

VIA Eden C3
( )

VIA

/ PS/2

Ethernet 10/100

VGA

S5video

USB

S/PDIF

. 4.17. VIA EPIAV

. 263

263


, miniITX.
, .
miniITX VIA EPIAV . 4.17.
. 4.17, miniITX
. miniITX ATX
.
miniITX , 
.
miniITX TFX, 
, , 
.
TFX ,
240 .
AGP.
miniITX ,
.
, miniITX FlexATX,
FlexATX, microATX ATX
. , miniITX
FlexATX, microATX ATX; , , 
, TFX. miniITX, 
, ;
.
VIA C3 EBGA VIA Eden ESP x86 , , 
, AMD
Intel, Windows Linux. , ,
.
VIA 
MiniITX. 
PLE133 CLE266, VT8231 VT8235.
PLE133 Trident
AGP 4x, PC100 SDRAM PC133 SDRAM. 
, CLE266 S3
Savage 4 4x AGP, MPEG2, 
DVD, DDR266 SDRAM.
4.5. Mini"ITX VPSD


( )


ATA

EPIA
EPIA V
EPIA M
EPIA CL
EPIA TC
EPIA MII

PL133
PL133
CLE266
CLE266
CLE266
CLE266
CLE266

VT8231
VT8231
VT8235
VT8235
VT8235
VT8235
VT8235

PC100, 133 (2)


PC133 (2)
DDR266 (1)
DDR266 (1)
DDR266 (1)
DDR266 (1)
DDR266 (1)

100,66 (1)
100, 66 (1)
133, 100, 66 (2)
133, 100, 66 (2)
133, 100, 66 (2)
133, 100, 66 (2)
133, 100, 66 (2)

VT5310DP

CN400

VT8237R

DD400, 333, 266 (2)

133, 100, 66 (1)

EPIA SP

CN400

VT8237

DD400, 333, 266 (1)

133, 100, 66 (2)

EPIA PD

1
2

EPIA PD ; .

264

. 264

4.

VT8231 AC`97, MC`97,


ATA100, USB 1.1.
. VT8235 
, ATA133, USB 2.0, 10/100 Ethernet, PCI,
MC`97. 8X VLink 
. VIA MiniITX
VEPD (VIA Embedded Platform Division), :
EPIA;

EPIA MII;

EPIA V (. . 4.17);

EPIA PD;

EPIA M;

EPIA ML;

EPIA CL;

VT310DP;

EPIA TC;

EPIA SP.

. 4.5.
VIA, EdenN 
NanoBGA Gigabit Ethernet, VT310DP. 
EPIA SP SATA,
NAS 
. EPIA PD
POS, ( 
POS).
, Celeron 1 ,
MiniITX . ,

, , , ..,
.

, ITX, 5555 www.viaembedded.com/index.jsp.


www.mini-itx.com, 5
, ITX .

ITX NanoITX 
(120120 ), miniPCI, 
. NanoITX
VIA Luke CoreFusion, VIA EdenN
CN400, S3 Graphics UniChrome Pro.
VIA VT8237R ATA/IDE Serial ATA,

USB

FireWire

FDD


Ethernet

SATA

1.1 (4)
1.1 (2)
2.0 (2)
2.0 (4)
2.0 (6)
2.0 (6)
2.0 (6)
2.0 (4)
2.0 (5)

(2)

VT310DP , Gigabit Ethernet.

. 265

265

USB 2.0, 10/100 Ethernet, AC97, TV (S/


/), . 
NanoITX VIA EPIA NL EPIA N.

BTX
BTX (Balanced Technology Extended)
Intel 2003 . 1.0a
2004 . BTX ATX,
; 
. ,
,
, BTX
. ,  BTX
ATX, .
BTX ATX 
. BTX 17% 
ATX, .
, 
ATX, .

ATX12V; ATX, TFX, SFX, CFX
LFX.
BTX.
BTX .
, . 
,
.
.
,
.
SRM (Support and retention module).
.
.
. 

.
.
.
. 
ATX; 
, tower 
ATX12V.
BTX (. 4.6).
4.6. BTX

, , ,
2
()
()
( )

BTX
microBTX
PicoATX

325 (12,8)
264 (10,4)
203 (8,0)

5555
19%
37%

266

. 266

267 (10,5)
267 (10,5)
267 (10,5)

867 (134)
705 (109)
542 (84)

4.

0,000

[12,350"]

313,69

[11,550"]

212,09
[8,350"]
232,41
[9,150"]
262,73
[9,950]
273,05
[10,750"]
293,37

191,77
[7,550"]

6,35 5+ 0,13
[0,250 5+ 0,005"]

0,000

5,08 5+ 0.13
[0,200 5+ 0,005"]


. , , 
BTX, microBTX
PicoBTX (. 4.18). , microBTX PicoBTX,
BTX .

(39,09 )
[1,539"]

(35,04 ) 1
[1,380"]

(50,59 )
[1,992"]

(97,91 )
[3,855"]
F

266,70
[10,500"]

PCI
Express

124,00
[4,882"]
PCI

10 3,96 +0,05
50,03

+0.008
[0,062
"]
50.005

A, B C 5

203,20 picoBTX
[8,000"]
264,16 microBTX
[10,400"]
325,12 BTX
[12,800"]

293,37

[0,156 +0,002
50,001 "]

[11,550"]

1,58 +0,20
50,13

232,41
[9,150"]

[10,000"]

191,77
[7,550"]

254,00

. 4.18. BTX 1.0a

BTX 10 , 7 
, (. 4.7).
4.7. BTX

BTX
microBTX
PicoBTX

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K
A, B, C, D, E, F, G
A, B, C, D

7
4
1

BTX 
, .
, 100 , 
, 
. BTX 

,
.

. 267

267

.
, ,
. 
SRM, 
, ATX (. 4.19).

. 4.19. BTX

BTX ,
ATX, 24
4 ATX12V
. .
BTX . 4.20.
. 4.20, 
, 
. , 
, , .

SRM, . SRM
, .
SRM, . 
, 
.
 BTX
ATX. 
, 
.

NLX
NLX, Intel 1996 , 
, 
LPX. NLX Slimline
, Compaq, HP, Toshiba . 2000
Slimline FlexATX.

268

. 268

4.


ICH

MCH

. 4.20. BTX

, NLX LPX,

. NLX , ,
LPX, .. NLX 
, LPX.
LPX 
, (, AGP).
NLX (. 4.21). 
NLX Pentium III, 
Slot 1.
LPX .
NLX , , LPX, 
. 

. , NLX  
. ,
( , , , 
..), . ,
,
, 
. ;
NLX 30 !
NLX Riser (. 4.22) 
.

. 269

269

. 4.21. NLX

PCI


IDE

PCI/ISA

ISA


IDE

PCI

PCI/ISA

ISA

. 4.22. NLX

270

. 270

4.

,
. 
,
, .
.
. 
, 
.
.

NLX, , 
. , 
NLX , AST,
Digital, Gateway, HewlettPackard, IBM, Micron, NEC .
. 
, AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port), USB (Universal Serial Bus),
RIMM DIMM.
/. 
NLX 
, .
, 
, 
. 
 
, .
NLX . 4.23. 
, , ATX, 
. , 
( LPX ) 
, NLX Riser 
. 
.
AGP (. . 4.23).
, , , PCI ISA, 
. , AGP 
, NLX. NLX
AGP, .
AGP, , , .
, AGP, NLX, , 
NLX (.4.24).
NLX: 13,6 , 11,2
10 (. 4.25). , 
, .
NLX, , 
 .
, . . 4.26 
 NLX. 
,
.

. 271

271

AGP

. 4.23. NLX

. 4.24. AGP,

ATX/BabyAT NLX.
AGP NLX

272

. 272

4.

340, 33
(13,400")

5, 08
(0,200")

158,12
(6,225")
4X 4,01 (0,300")

345, 44
(13,600")

4X 3,00 (0,156")

30,48
(1,200")

223,50
(5,100")
.

31,36
(3,400")

213,20
(4,000")
.

198,12
(7,800")
111,76
(4,400")

. 4.25. NLX. NLX 345,44 (13,6 ). 

NLX 284,48 (11,2 ) 254 (10 )

RJ545

USB5 1

USB5 0


PS/2


PS/2

. 4.26. NLX

. 273

273

, NLX 
.
 , 
( , ,
BabyAT).
NLX , , , ATX,
NLX , 
. 
. NLX ,
. microATX FlexATX 
NLX , 
LPX. , ATX
, ,
. , ,
NLX FlexATX picoBTX.

WTX
WTX 
. WTX ATX /
, , 
.
WTX 1.0 1998 , 1999
(1.1). WTX
Web http://www.wtx.org. , 
, . , 
 .
. 4.27 WTX . :

.
WTX, 14 (356 ),
16,75 (425 ), ATX.
, 
.
WTX 
, .
; WTX
, 
. WTX
.
WTX 
ATX. WTX 24 ,
5 3,3 , 22 
12 . WTX 24
EPS12V ( Superset ATX SSI)
ATXGES. , ATXGES EPS12V, 
3,3, 5 12 , . 
EPS12V 8
12 . 24
ATXGES EPS12V . 4.8.

274

. 274

4.


. 4.27. WTX
4.8. 24" ATX"GES EPS12V
Pin #

ATX"GES

EPS12V

Pin #

ATX"GES

EPS12V

+5 ()

+3,3 ()

13

+5 ()

+3,3 (
)

2
3
4

+5 ()
()
()

+3,3 ()
()
+5 ()

14
15
16

+5 ()
()
+5 SB ()

512 ()
()
PS5On ()

PS5On ()
()
+3,3 ()
+3,3 ()
()
()
+12 ()
+12 ()

()
+5 ()
()
Pwr5OK ()
+5 SB ()
+12 ()
+12 ()
+3,3 ()

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

512 ()
()
+3,3 ()
+3,3 ()
+3,3 ()
()
()
+12 ()

()
()
()
55 ()
+5 ()
+5 ()
+5 ()
()

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

!
, , WTX, ATX5GES EPS12V, 5
245 Molex 3950152240, 2055
, ATX.
. 5
, !


, (
AT, BabyAT, ATX, miniATX, microATX NLX), 
. 
,

. 275

275

, , 
. .
,
. 
. ,
,
. , ,
, , .
, 
, . 
, 
(overdrive) 
(turbo). ,
. , 
, .
LPX 
. . 
Compaq, HewlettPackard ( Vectra)
Packard Bell ( ). 
, .
, , ATX,

. Baby
AT, 
.
, . 
, , 
. , 
, , .
, , Dell, Gateway Micron,
ATX, microATX NLX, 
. ,
,
.


. 
, , 
.
, 
, , .
: 
. ,
.
. , 
. 
,
. , 
.  
, 
286/386
, Zenith Data Systems.
276

. 276

4.

. 
. . 4.28 
Pentium 4. . 4.29 .

1 Pentium 4
2 PICMG
3
DIMM (3)
4 /MCH
5 SiS 315
6 5 ATA/IDE
7 /ICH
8 BIOS
9 JEDEC Disk On Chip
10 5 SATA RAID

11
12
13 VGA
14 10/100 Ethernet
15 10/100 Ethernet
16 PS/2

17 CR52032
18 USB (2)
19
20 (2)

. 4.28. Pentium 4 IPICMG . ,


PCI ISA , AGP
, Ethernet, ATA RAID,
, ATA/IDE, USB

. 4.29.

. 277

277

( ), 
, 
.
. , 
; 
,
. 
PCI/ISA 
CompactPCI, PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group
(PICMG). , , 
Web PICMG : www.picmg.org.

PISA, 5
JUMPtec Kontron. PISA
, , EISA. PISA
PCI ISA. Web http://www.kontron-em.com/?lang=e.


.
, .
, 
, ..
, . 
, . ,
. 

. Compaq IBM
.
, 
. ,
,
. , , ,
.
. 1970
.
Apple IBM , 
. 
,
( ).

, . 
.

. 486, Intel AMD 
,
.
, (
)
.
, 
. 
278

. 278

4.


, .
ATX, .

, , ,
, 5
. 5
.
SO5DIMM AGP.


Socket Slot.
, Intel ( 486), 
. Socket, 
. Socket
Slot . Socket Slot;
,
. 3.
486 ; 
. . 4.9 , 
Socket Slot.
4.9.

"

Intel/AMD 486

Socket 1

169

1717 PGA

486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4 OD

Socket 2

238

1919 PGA

Socket 3

237

1919 PGA

5/3,3

Socket 6*

235

1919 PGA

3.3V

486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4 OD,


486 Pentium OD
486 SX/SX2, DX/DX2, DX4, 486
Pentium OD, AMD 5x86
486 DX4, 486 Pentium OD

Socket 4

273

2121 PGA

Pentium 60/66, OD

Socket 5

320

3737 SPGA

3,3/3,5

Pentium 755133, OD

Socket 7

321

Intel 686 (Pentium II/III)

Socket 8
Slot 1(SC242)
Socket 370

387
242
370

Intel Pentium 4

Socket 423
Socket 478

Intel/AMD 586 (Pentium)

AMD K7

AMD K8

3737 SPGA

VRM

423

Pentium 755233+, MMX, OD,


AMD K5/K6, Cyrix M1/II
Dual5pattern SPGA Auto VRM Pentium Pro, OD
Slot
Auto VRM Pentium II/III, Celeron SECC
Auto VRM Celeron/Pentium III PPGA/FC5PGA
3737 SPGA
Auto VRM Pentium 4 FC5PGA
3939 SPGA

478

2626 mPGA

Auto VRM

Pentium 4/Celeron FC5PGA2

3033 LGA

Auto VRM

Pentium 4/Celeron LGA775

Slot
3737 SPGA

Auto VRM
Auto VRM

Socket T
775
(LGA775)
Slot A
242
Socket A (462) 462
Socket 754

754

2929 mPGA

Auto VRM

AMD Athlon SECC


AMD Athlon/Athlon XP/
Duron PGA/FC5PGA
AMD Athlon 64

Socket 939

939

3131 mPGA

Auto VRM

AMD Athlon 64 v.2

Socket 940

940

3131 mPGA
Slot

Auto VRM

AMD Athlon 64FX, Opteron

Auto VRM

Pentium II/III Xeon


Slot 2 (SC330) 330
Intel/AMD
Socket 603
603

3125 mPGA

Auto VRM

Xeon (P4)

Socket 604

604

3125 mPGA

Auto VRM

Xeon (P4)

Socket
PAC418

18

3822

Auto VRM Itanium


split SPGA

. 279

279

. 4.9

"

Socket
PAC611

611

2528

Auto VRM
mPGA

Itanium 2

Socket 940

940

3131 mPGA

Auto VRM

AMD Athlon 64FX, Opteron

* Socket 6 
.
FCPGA FlipChip Pin Grid Array (
).
FCPGA2 FCPGA with an Integrated Heat Spreader
(IHS) ( FCPGA 
).
OD OverDrive (, 
).
PAC Pin Array Cartridge ( 
).
PGA Pin Grid Array ( ).
PPGA Plastic Pin Grid Array (
).
SC242 Slot connector, 242 pins (242 ).

SC330 Slot connector, 330 pins (330


).
SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge ( 
).
SPGA Staggered Pin Grid Array ( 
).
mPGA Micro Pin Grid Array (
).
VRM Voltage Regulator Module ( 
).
.
Auto VRM , 
, 
VID (Voltage ID
).

( 
). Pentium II Athlon
Intel AMD , ,
 ,
Static RAM (SRAM) . 
, , 
, , , . 
,
, , ,
, . 
, ,
.
Celeron Intel
 , 
 . Pentium III
( Coppermine), K63, Duron ( Spitfire)
Athlon ( Thunderbird) AMD (
Thunderbird Athlon Slot A)  
. 
, .
 , 
, , .
. ,

.



. . , 
.
280

. 280

4.

(
FrontSide Bus FSB), , , 
 .. .
, 
, , . , 

. , , , , ,
, . ,
.
, ,
. , 
.
, 
.

.
, , , . 
, , , 
, , . 
, ,
, .
, .
,
, ,
, .


, IBM PC 
. , 
: , , ,
, CMOS,
. , ,
, , ( 
) . . 4.10 
, PC/XT AT.
4.10.

PC/XT

AT

(
)

8088
8087

80286
80287

8284

82284







CMOS

8288
8253
8259
5555
8237
5555
5555
8255

82288
8254
8259
8259
8237
8237
MC146818
8042

/ / 
.

. 281

281

IBM , 
, DMA CMOS RAM/Realtime
Clock ( ). 
Intel ,
CMOS/Clock, Motorola.
IBM , 
, . 

.
1986 Chips and Technologies ,
82C206,
PC. 
, AT, : 
( 82284), ( 82288), 
( 8254), ( 8259),
( 8237) CMOS
( MC146818). , 
PC .
, 
82C206. . 
Chips and Technologies CS8220. 
PC.
, 
, .
, 82C206, , 
; New Enhanced AT (NEAT) CS8221.
82C836 Single Chip AT
(SCAT), .

. Acer, Erso, Opti, Suntac, UMC, VLSI 
. ,
: , .
, 1993 VLSI ,
. 1994 
Intel.
. 
, Intel.
, Intel
, Intel RDRAM. 1996
Intel Rambus,
RDRAM 2001 .
, Intel . RDRAM, 
 SDRAM,
. , , SDRAM
(DDR), 
. , Intel , DDR SDRAM
( Brookdale), 2002 .
,
AMD, , AMD K6, Athlon Duron.
ALi (Acer Laboratories, Inc.), VIA Technologies SiS (Silicon
integrated Systems).

282

. 282

4.

Intel
Intel 
. , 
Compaq, Intel 
.
, 1989 Compaq EISA, , 
, . 
(.. 
, EISA ).
Intel 
EISA. EISA, , 
, . Intel,
, 
. 286 386 , , 
, 
,
. , 286
, , ,
386 . 
Intel Intel
. Intel 
, . 

.
. 1989
486 Intel 420. 
,
486 . , 
: Intel .
1989 Intel 
, 90% . 
, 
Pentium,
? 1993 Intel Pentium
430LX, .
, , 
. , Intel 
, ( 
), .
1994 Intel , ,
, .
, , Intel 
, .. 
. 
, 
, .
, . 
1993 , .. Pentium,
.
, Intel.
. Intel 

. 283

283

, Intel .
, Intel, 
Intel, . 
, Dell, Gateway Micron
Intel?
, , 
, .
,
Athlon Duron AMD Intel. , ,
, 
AMD, Intel.
, 
microATX, , 
. Intel
, 
, Intel 
OEM .
Intel
. 4.11
Intel.
4.11. Intel

420xx

P4 (486)

430xx

P5 (Pentium)

440xx

P6 (Pentium Pro/Pentium II/Pentium III)

P6 (Pentium II/Pentium III) hub5

450xx

P6 Server (Pentium Pro/Pentium II/III Xeon)

E72xx

Xeon c hub5

E75xx

Xeon hub5

460xx

Itanium

E88xx

Itanium 2 hub5


. , Pentium II/III 
440BX, :
82443BX 82371EX. 845 
Pentium 4 : 82845 Memory Controller Hub (MCH)
82801BA I/O Controller Hub (ICH2). (Intel  
), ,
, .
Intel : 
/ hub, 
800 900.

/GMCH/MCH 5
; , 5
/ICH. , ,
, , 5
, SiSoftware Sandra ( Web-
http://www.sisoftware.co.uk/).

284

. 284

4.

Intel Extreme Graphics


845 ( 845G) 
Intel Extreme Graphics, 
,
.
/. 
 , 8
.
. 
,
.
. 
, . 
, .
.
, .
Extreme Graphics (EG)
Intel ( , 
810/815
). EG 
NVIDIA ATI. EG T &L
(Transform & Lighting), ,
EG NVIDIA GeForce 2 MX200.
Intel , Extreme Graphics
Architecture 2. ,
, 
DirectX 9; Graphics
Media Accelerator 900.
. 915.

Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 950 Graphics Media Accelerator 900,
945 Intel. GMA 950 
400 , 333 GMA 900; 
16:9,
DVD, HDTV (720p 1080i), ; ,
DirectX 9.0 3.0 T&L.

AMD
Athlon, AMD
: , ,
Intel Pentium II/III Celeron.
Intel AMD 
Athlon/Duron.
AMD 750 ( Irongate) 
Socket/Slot A. 751 System Controller ( )
756 Peripheral Bus Controller ( ). AMD
AMD760 Athlon/Duron, 
, DDR SDRAM. 
: AMD761 System Bus Controller ( ) AMD766 Peripheral Bus Controller
( ). AMD 

. 285

285

, ,
VIA Technologies, NVIDIA SIS,
AMD, Slot A, Socket A, Socket 754, Socket 939 Socket 940.

, Athlon 
Intel.

/
Intel ( 
)
: , , Super I/O.
. 
(400/266/200/133/100/66 ) AGP (533/266/133/
66 ) PCI (33 ). 
; , 440BX 
82443BX.
. PCI (66/33 )
ISA (8 ).
Super I/O. , ISA,

, National Semiconductor Standard Microsystems Corp. (SMSC). 
Super I/O , 
.
AMD Socket A,
/ , . 4.30.
PAC (PCI/AGP Controller). ,
, 
, , ( ). 
;
, 
.

. 
. ( , , 
, 
.) 
.
PCI (33 ) ISA (8 ).
, ,
IDE USB (Universal Serial Bus ),
, CMOS .
, ISA,
.
Super I/O, , 
ISA (8 ) , 
. , Super I/O 
, , , 
/. CMOS RAM/Clock,
IDE, . , IEEE
1394 SCSI, .

286

. 286

4.

AC '97 Audio
Codec (
)

AGP Pro

MIDI/

USB

Modem In

Video/Audio In

PS/2

Audio/Modem
Riser (AMR)

Socket A
(Socket 462)

AMD Athlon/Duron

VIA Apollo KT5133

PCI

205

ATX

USB (

USB)

DIMM

Flash BIOS

Flash BIOS

IDE

. 4.30. Socket A (AMD Athlon/Duron)


SuperSouth Bridge ( ), 
Super I/O.

Hub"
800 hub,
Memory Controller Hub (MCH), I/O Controller Hub
(ICH). PCI
/ . hub 
hub,
PCI. Hub 
/ .
. Hub 8
4X () 66 (4 66 1 =
266 /), PCI
(33 32 = 133 /).
PCI. Hub PCI 
PCI
Super I/O. ,
PCI, .
. PCI 
, hub , 8 , 

. 287

287

15 . PCI, , 
64 , 
, ,
.
hub 
PCI, , 
Super I/O PCI. , hub 
, I/O
Controller Hub ( ), 
ATA100 USB 2.0.
hub, 8 , .
, 
. 8 15 , 32
PCI, / , 
64 .
, .
, .
8 , hub
,
66 . 266 /
(466 1 ). PCI,
32 , 33
133 /. 
hub 
.
MCH
(400/133/100/66 ) hub (66 ) AGP (533/266/133/66 );
ICH, , hub (66 ) ATA (IDE)
(66/l00 ) PCI (33 ).
, ICH LowPinCount (LPC),
4 PCI,
ROM BIOS Super I/O.
,
, 13 . 
, ROM BIOS Super I/O. 
:
ISA, 96. 
LPC 6,67 /, 
ISA , ROM BIOS 
Super I/O.
9xx hub,
DMI (direct media interface). DMI
1 /, 
hub AHA (advanced hub architecture), 
Intel 8xx, HI 1.5,
865/875.
. 4.31 Intel,
, Intel D925XBC, Intel Pentium 4
Intel Pentium Extreme Edition. hub
, 925XE, Intel D925XECV2,
.
288

. 288

4.

1 PCI (4)
2 PCI Express x1 (2)
3 PCI Express x16
4
5 ATX12V

6 Socket 775
Pentium 4
7
( ) Intel 82895XE

8 5
Intel ICH65R (82801FR) (
SATA RAID )
9 SATA/SATA RAID (4)
10 ATA/IDE
11
12 245
ATX
13 5
14 DDR2 DIMM

. 4.31. D925XBC Intel.

Intel Corporation



Intel ,
PCI 
, PCI. , 
.
VIA. VLink
, hub
Intel. VLink 8 ,
VLink 4x VLink 8x. VLink 4x
266 (466 ), PCI
hub Intel. , VLink 8x
533 / (4133 ),

. 289

289

hub HI 1.5, 
hub DMI Intel. 
VT82xx VLink
. VLink
VIA 266 Pentium III/4 Athlon.
VIA VLink.
SiS. MuTIOL , VLink 4x.
, MuTIOL, ,
DMA, / .
MuTIOL / 
16 , .
SiS961/962
MuTIOL 533 / (4133 ), 
SiS963/SiS964/SiS965/SiS966 MuTIOL 1G,
1 /.
, MuTIOL,
, SiS Pentium 4 Athlon.
ATI. IGP
ALink. 266 /,
, hub Intel, 
VLink MuTIOL. ALink II 
ATI Pentium 4 Athlon 64.
NVIDIA. nForce, nForce2, nForce3 nForce4
HyperTransport, AMD.

. 4.12.
4.12.
" (

Ali

HyperTransport (1,6 /)

M1687, M1685
M1683

Athlon 64, Opteron


Intel Pentium 4, Celeron

ATI
NVIDIA

A5Link (266 /)
HyperTransport (1 /)
HyperTransport (800 /)
HyperTransport (1 /)
HyperTransport (1 /)

Pentium 4, Celeron
Pentium 4, Athlon 64
Athlon, Athlon XP, Duron
Athlon, Athlon XP, Duron
Athlon 64, 64 FX, Pentium 4

SiS

MuTIOL 1G (1,2 /)

9100 IGP
XPress 200
nForce, nForce2, nForce3
nForce 3 Ultra
1
nForce4 , nForce 4 Ultra, nForce 4 SLI Intel
Edition, nForce 4 SLI (x16)
SiS 656, 655, 648
SiS R659
SiS 661FX
SiS 760, 756, 755
SiS 748, 746, 741
SiS 651, 650, 645
SiS 740
PM880, PT880
K8T800Pro
PT800, PM800, P4X533, P4X400, P4X333
KT800, KT600, KM400, KT400
K8T800, K8M800
P4M266 , P4X266
KT333, KT266

MuTIOL (533/)
VIA

Ultra V5Link (1 /)
8x V5Link (533 /)

4x V5Link (266 /)

290

. 290

Pentium 4, Celeron
Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Opteron
Athlon XP, Duron
Pentium 4, Celeron
Athlon XP, Duron
Pentium 4, Celeron
Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Opteron
Pentium 4, Celeron
Athlon XP, Duron
Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Opteron
Pentium 4, Celeron
Athlon, AthlonXP, Duron

4.

486
Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4, Athlon XP Athlon 64.

386/486 Intel
82350 386DX
486. EISA .
486 
. . 4.13 Intel 486.
4.13. Intel 486

420TX

420EX

Saturn

Aries

420ZX
Saturn II

1992 .

1994 .

1994 .

486 (5 )

486 (5/3,3 )

486 (5/3,3 )

33

50

333

SMP

FPM

FPM

FPM

ECC
,
5
PCI
AGP


128
Async
2.0


128
Async
2.0


160
Async
2.1

AGP Accelerated graphics port ( ).


FPM Fast page mode ( ).
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect ( ).
SMP Symmetric multiprocessing ( ).
: PCI 2.1 PCI.

, / , 
420. .

Pentium (P5)
Pentium 1993 Intel
430LX ( Mercury)
Pentium. Intel 
, .

, , Intel . . 4.14
Intel Pentium.
4.14. Intel Pentium

430LX

430NX

430FX

430MX

430HX

430VX

430TX

Mercury

Neptune

Triton

Mobile
Triton

Triton II

Triton III

1993 .
66
P60/66

FPM

1994 .
66
P75+

FPM

1995 .
66
P75+

FPM/EDO

1995 .
66
P75+

FPM/EDO

1996 .
66
P75+

FPM/EDO

512

1996 .
66
P75+

FPM/EDO/
SDRAM

1997 .
66
P75+

FPM/EDO/
SDRAM

128

128

512

128

256

,

SMP

ECC

, 192

Pentium (P5)

. 291

291

. 4.14

430LX

430NX

430FX

430MX

430HX

430VX

430TX

192

512

64

64

512

64

64

Async

Async

Async/
Pburst

Async/
Pburst

Async/
Pburst

Async/
Pburst

Async/
Pburst

PCI

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

2.1

AGP

SIO

SIO

PIIX

MPIIX

PIIX3

PIIX3

PIIX4

SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic RAM.

Pburst Pipeline Burst.

PCI 2.1 PCI.

. 4.15 , 
Intel.
4.15. Intel

SIO

PIIX

PIIX3

PIIX4

PIIX4E

ICH0

ICH

IDE
USB
CMOS

82378IB/ ZB

SMM

82371FB
BMIDE

SMM

82371SB
BMIDE

SMM

82371AB
UDMA533

SMM

82371EB
UDMA533

SMM/ ACPI

82801AB
UDMA533

SMM/ ACPI

82801AA
UDMA566

SMM/ ACPI

SIO System I/O.


ICH I/O Controller Hub.
UDMA UltraDMA IDE.
ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.

PIIX PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator.


BMIDE Bus Master IDE.
SMM System Management Mode.

Pentium, . 4.14 4.15, 


. , ,
. 16
( 4), .
, Pentium,
AMD Pentium 
K5 K6. K5 ; ,
K6 , 
Pentium. AMD
, . 
,
AMD, K6 , Athlon, Athlon XP Duron,
Intel Pentium MMX Pentium II/III/Celeron.
, , VIA, Acer Laboratories
SiS, AMD.
Pentium :
AMD 640;
VIA Apollo VP1, VP2, VPX, VP3, MVP3 MVP4;
ALi Aladdin 4, Aladdin 5 Aladdin 7;
SiS SiS540, SiS530/5595, SiS5598, SiS5581, SiS5582, SiS5571, SiS5591 SiS5592.
292

. 292

4.

Pentium Pro
Pentium II/III (P6)
Intel Pen
tium, P6 . 
, 1993 Intel (
) . 
 , . , 
, Intel
.
Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III , , , 
, , 
Socket 8 (Pentium Pro)
Socket 370 (Celeron), Slot 1 (Celeron Pentium II/III).
P6.
Slot 1/Socket 370
Socket 8.

PCI 2.1 PCI.

. 4.16 , Pentium Pro.


4.16. Pentium Pro

450KX

450GX

440FX



,
SMP

/ECC
,
5
,
PCI
AGP
AGP

Orion Workstation
1995 .
66

FPM

8

1
2.0

5555

Orion Server
1995 .
66
(4 )
FPM

1

1
2.0

5555

Natoma
1996 .
66

FPM/EDO/BEDO

1

1
2.1

5555
PIIX3

. 4.17 4, 
/ Celeron Pentium II/III.
. 4.18 8 
P6/P7 (Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4 Xeon), 
hub.
4.17. P6
/

440FX

440LX

440EX

440BX

440GX

Natoma

1996 .
82441FX,
82442FX

1997 .

1998 .
82443EX

1998 .
82443BX

1998 . 1998 .
1998 .
82443GX
82451NX,
82443ZX
82452NX,
42453NX,
82454NX

82443LX

440NX

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

. 293

440ZX

293

. 4.17

440FX

440LX

440EX

440BX

440GX

440NX

440ZX

66

66

66

66/100

100

100

66/100*

Pentium II

Pentium II

Celeron

Celeron,
Pentium II/III

Pentium II/III
Xeon

Pentium II/III
Xeon

Celeron,
Pentium II/III

SMP

, 4

FPM/EDO/ FPM/EDO/ SDRAM FPM/EDO/


BEDO
SDRAM

FPM/EDO/
SDRAM

SDRAM

FPM/EDO

SDRAM

/
ECC

1 EDO/
256
512 SDRAM

256

PCI

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.1

AGP

AGP 1x

AGP 1x

AGP 2x

AGP 2x

AGP 2x

82371SB
(PIIX3)

82371AB (PIIX4)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

82371EB
(PIIX4E)

* 440ZX 440ZX66,
66 .
4.18. P6/P7
(Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4, Xeon) hub"

810

810E

815

815E

SMP
( )

Whitney
1999 .
82810
66/100

Whitney
1998 .
82810E
66/100/133

Solano
2000 .
82815
66/100/133

Celeron,
Pentium II/III

Celeron,
Pentium II/III

SDRAM
(PC100), EDO

SDRAM (PC100),
EDO

/ECC

,

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

815EP

820

Solano
2000 .
82815
66/100/133

Solano
2000 .
82815
66/100/133

Camino
1998 .
82820
66/100/133

Celeron,
Pentium II/II

Celeron,
Pentium II/II

Celeron,
Pentium II/II

Pentium II/III,
Celeron

SDRAM
(PC133)

SDRAM
(PC133)

SDRAM
(PC133)

RDRAM
(PC800)

512

512

512

512

512

1000

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

Direct AGP
1
AGP 2x

Direct AGP

AGP 4

AGP 4x

AGP 2x

AGP 2x

82801AA/AB
(ICH/ICH0)

82801AA (ICH)

82801AA (ICH) 82801BA


(ICH2)

AGP 4

AGP 4
2

AGP 2x

82801BA (ICH2) 82801AA (ICH)

810/815 3D AGP 2x AGP


.
2
815/815E 3D AGP 2x
AGP APG 4X.

294

. 294

4.


5 Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III 5
. , 5
, .

Intel :
(MCH GMCH hub) (ICH hub
). ICH 
(MCH GMCH). . 4.19 
P6,
. ICH2 
Intel (Pentium 4/Celeron 4).
P6 Celeron
Pentium III, Intel 800. 
400 16 , 4,
.

820E

840

815P

815EG

815G

SMP
( )

Camino
2000 .
82820
66/100/133

Carmel
1999 .
82840
66/100/133

Solano
2001 .
82815EP
66/100/133

Solano
2001 .
82815G
66/100/133

Solano
2001 .
82815G
66/100/133

Pentium II/III,
Celeron

Pentium II/III Xeon Celeron, Pentium III Celeron, Pentium III Celeron, Pentium III

RDRAM (PC800)

RDRAM (PC800)

/ECC

,

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

SDRAM
(PC100/133)

SDRAM
(PC66/100/133)

SDRAM
(PC66/100/133)

1000

4000

512

512

512

2.2
33/32

2.2
66/64

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

AGP 4

AGP 4x

AGP 4x

1
AGP 2x

82801BA (ICH2)

82801AA (ICH)

82801AA/AB
(ICH/ICH0)

82801BA (ICH2)

82801AA/AB
(ICH/ICH0)

AGP 2x

815 815E 
( ).
AGP Accelerated graphics port (  Pburst Pipeline burst ( ).
).
PCI Peripheral component interconnect (
BEDO Burst EDO.
).

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

. 295

295

EDO DRAM Extended data out DRAM (


).
FPM Fast page mode (
).
ICH I/O controller hub (
).

PIIX PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator.


SDRAM Synchronous dynamic RAM ( 
).
SIO System I/O.
SMP Symmetric multiprocessing ( 
).

4.19. Intel

SIO


IDE
USB
CMOS

PIIX3

PIIX4

PIIX4E

82378IB/ZB 82371FB

82371SB

82371AB

82371EB

82801AB

82801AA

82801BA

BMIDE

BMIDE

UDMA533

UDMA533

UDMA533

UDMA566

UDMA5100

1C/2P

1C/2P

1C/2P

1C/2P

1C/2P

2C/4P

SMM

SMM

SMM

SMM/ACPI

SMM/ACPI

SMM/ACPI

SMM/ACPI

LPC

SMM

PIIX

ICH0

ICH

ICH2

IDE Integrated Drive Electronics (AT Attachment).


BMIDE Bus Master IDE.
UDMA UltraDMA IDE.
SMM System Management Mode.
ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.
1C/2P 1 (controller)/2 (ports).
2C/4P 2 (controller)/4 (ports).

Intel 810, 810E 810E2


1999 Intel 810 ( Whitney)
, 
.
810E, 133 . 
.

810E2 GMCH 82810E, 810E, 5


82801BA I/O Controller Hub (ICH2), 815E.

Intel 810E :
66, 100 133 ;
Intel 3D AGP 2x;

;
4 ( );
Digital Video Out, DVI 
;
MPEG2 DVD Hardware Motion Compensation;
hub 266 /;
UDMA66;
AudioCodec 97 (AC97);
;

296

. 296

4.


;
USB;
ISA.
Intel 810E .
82810E Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) 421 BGA.
82801 Integrated Controller Hub (ICH) 241 BGA.
82802 Firmware Hub (FWH) 32 PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip
Carrier) 40 TSOP (Thin Small Outline Package).

( ) Intel 810 
. 
, PCI .
Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) Integrated Controller Hub (ICH)
Accelerated Hub, 66 .
UDMA66, 
, IDE.
. 4.32  Intel 810E.
:
Intel Pentium III,
Intel Pentium II,
Intel CeleronTM
(66/100/133 )

Intel 810E

Intel 82810E (GMCH)


TV

64 /
100



3D
2D

PCI

PCI

(4 SDRAM,
100/133 )
2 IDE
Ultra5ATA/66
2
USB

ICH
(I/0 Controller Hub)

Super
I/O
AC97

USB

ISA
(.)
LAN
(.)

USB
FWH
(Firmware Hub)

. 4.32.  Intel 810E

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

. 297

297

 AGP
( 82810). DVD, 
. 82810 (GMCH) System
Manageability Bus, Intel 810 .
ACPI.
, GMCH : 82810
82810DC100. DC100 (Display Cache 100 ) 
4 SDRAM, 100 .
GMCH .
GMCH 82801 ICH Accelerated Hub Architecture
(AHA), (266 /) 
PCI 
. AHA 
.
ICH IDE,
33 / (UDMA33 UltraATA/33) 66 /
(UDMA66 UltraATA/66). ,
: 82801AA (ICH), 66 /
PCI, 82801AB (ICH0),
33 / PCI.
ICH AudioCodec 97, USB 
PCI. AudioCodec 97
. .
.
82802 (FWH) BIOS. 
(flash) . , 82802
. 
. , ,
: 82802AB 82802AC. AB 512 (4 ) flash
BIOS, AC 1 (8 ).
Intel 810/810E,
AGP.
, 
.
815 , AGP.
Direct AGP 
/ , 
.
Intel
Intel 8xx RNG (Random Num5
ber Generator). 82802 FWH, ROM BIOS, 5
8.
.
, 5
, , , 5
. 5555 ,
. , 5
, 5
. 5 , 5
Intel RNG , FWH (.. ROM BIOS
8xx). , ,
8xx, .

298

. 298

4.

,
. 810 ,
, Intel 
.
810 .

; AC'97 
. , ICH CMOS, BIOS
FHW. 810 
, , 
.

Intel 815
815 815, 2000 , 
, 
AGP 4x. 815EP, , 
, , . 2001 
815EP 815P.
815G 815EG. ,
G .
815 Celeron Pentium III (Slot 1
Socket 370) , Intel 
PC133 SDRAM. 815,
Intel 8, hub, 
266 /. , 
/ , PCI.
815,
: hub (82815EP MCH 
), hub
(82815 81815G GMCH
) hub  (ICH ICH2). . 4.20 
815.
4.20. 815

82815 GMCH

815
815E
815EP
815P
815G
815EG

*
*

82815G GMCH

82815EP MCH

82801AA ICH

82801BA ICH2

*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

815:
66/100/133 ;
hub Intel (266 /);
ATA100 (815E/EP) ATA66 (815);
SDRAM PC100 PC133CL2;
512 RAM;
AudioCodec 97 (AC97);
;

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

. 299

299

(RNG) 
;
(815) (815E/EP) USB 
;
LPC, Super I/O Firmware Hub (ROM BIOS);
ISA.
815/E/G/EG :
Intel AGP 2x;

;
4 ( );
Digital Video Out, DVI 
;
MPEG2 DVD
.
ICH2, 815E/EP/EG, 
ATA100, 100 /.
, ,
.
USB .
USB , ,
.
Ethernet"
815
Ethernet. (LAN) 

:
Ethernet 10/100 /,
Alert on LAN;
Ethernet 10/100 /;
1 /.

( ) 
, CNR. CNR 
.
AGP
815/815E
AGP 2x, .
Graphics Performance
Accelerator (GPA), . 4.33, AGP 4x. GPA (
AGP Inline Memory Module AIMM), , 
, AGP 4x 
30%. 
AGP 4, 
AGP 4 .

300

. 300

4.

. GPA AGP 4,
, 100% .

AGP 4x
. 4.33. GPA/AIMM (4 ), AGP , 

815 815E

PC133
815 PC133, 
100. PC133, Intel
PC133. ,
.
Intel PC133, 222, 
CAS2 (Column Address Strobe ) CL2.
.
PrechargeActive. 
.
ActiveRead. .
ReadData Out.
.
PC133 
, PC133 333, CAS3
CL3. , CL3 
PC133 CL2, .
PC133 CL2 
30 ( PC133 CL3 45 ).
34%.
815 
PC RDRAM.
, 815 440BX.

Intel 820 820E


800 
hub. Intel 820 Pentium III Celeron (Slot 1
Socket 370), RDRAM, 133 AGP 4.
82820 Memory Controller Hub (MCH) ,
AGP. : (82820)
(82820DP). 82801 I/O Controller Hub (ICH)
800. 82802 Firmware Hub (FWH)
BIOS (Intel Random Number Generator RNG).
Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

. 301

301

MCH ICH Intel


Hub Architecture, PCI, /
.
266 /.
820 RDRAM (Rambus DRAM), , ,
PC100 SDRAM. 820 
RDRAM: PC600, PC700 PC800. PC800
RDRAM 400 16 (2 )
(2 400 2 = 1,6 /). RIMM 1 .
AGP 820 
AGP 4x ( 1 /), AGP 2x.
. 4.34  Intel 820.

PSB 1 /


Intel Pentium III

82820

AGP 4x

AGP 4x
1 /

PC800

Direct RamBus
1, 6 /

HI8 266 /

SMBus

82820 MCH
Memory
Controller Hub
324

AC97

AC97
+

USB 12 /

IDE x 4

82810 ICH
I/O Controller Hub
241
PCI
133 /

ATA566
66x2 /

AOL
SMBus

GPIO
LPC IF 4 /

GPIO

82802 FWH
Firmware Hub

PCI55ISA

ISA

82559 Ethernet5

LPC SIO

FWH IF

USB x 2

PCI

25651 000 /

1510 /

ISA

1285132 /

1 /

. 4.34.  Intel 820

302

. 302

4.

Intel 820 :
100/133 ;
hub Intel (266 /);
RIMM PC800 RDRAM;
AGP 4x;
ATA100 (820E) ATA66;
(Intel Random Number Generator RNG);
Low Pin Count (LPC);
AC97;
(820E) USB.
Intel 820 324 82820
( ) 82820DP ( ) Memory Controller Hub Ball
Grid Array (BGA). 82801 I/O Controller Hub 241
Ball Grid Array (BGA), 82802 Firmware Hub 
Flash ROM BIOS. ISA 
82380AB PCIISA Bridge.
820E 82801BA I/O Controller Hub
(ICH2), ATA100 USB, ..
USB.
820
820 RDRAM (Rambus DRAM).
SDRAM. Intel 
RDRAMSDRAM, Memory Translator Hub (MTH). 
, , Intel 2000
MTH. 
Pentium 1994 .
2000 Intel ,
MTH . 
. ,
SDRAM Intel 820. RDRAM
.
Intel MTH I.D, 
, ,
RDRAM RIMM 128 . Intel 
, . , 
820 RDRAM, ,
, RDRAM, .

Intel 840
Slot 1, Slot 2
( Xeon) Socket 370 
. 840 , 800. . 4.35 
Intel 840.
, Intel 840
.
82806 64 PCI Controller Hub (P64H). 64
PCI, 33 66 . 

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

. 303

303

MCH Intel Hub Architecture. 64


PCI 66 .
82803 RDRAMbased memory repeater hub (MRHR).
, .
82804 SDRAMbased memory repeater hub (MRHS). RDRAM
, SDRAM. 
SDRAM.

. 4.35. 82840 (MCH), 82801 (ICH), 82802 (FWH), 82803 (MRHR), 82804 (MRHS)

82806 (P64H) Intel 840. Intel

. 4.36  Intel 840.


840 :
100/133 ;
RDRAM, 
3,2 /;
16 Intel Hub Architecture (HI16)
PCI;
AGP 4x;
(Intel Random Number Generator RNG);
USB.
840 RAID.
.
304

. 304

4.


Intel Pentium III
Intel Pentium III XeonTM

PSB 1 /

PCI 64 533 /

PCI564
82840

82806
PCI564 Hub

82840 MCH
Memory
Controller Hub
544

HI8 266 /

SMBus

HI16
533 /

AGP 4x 1 /

Direct RamBus
1,6 /
Direct RamBus
1,6 /

AC97

AGP 4x


PC800 RDRAM
(
)

AC97
+

USB 12 /
82801 ICH
I/O Controller Hub
241

ATA566
662 /

IDE x 4

PCI 133
/

AOL
SMBus

GPIO
LPC 4 /

LPC SIO

FWH IF

USB x 2

GPIO

82802 FWH
Firmware Hub

82559 Ethernet5

5
5
RM960

PCI

25651 000 /

1510 /

1285132 /

1 /

. 4.36.  Intel 840


( Intel) (P6)
P6,
ALi Corporation, VIA Technologies SiS.
.
ULi (Acer Labs) P6
ULi Electronics ( Acer Labs) 
P6.
. 4.21.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

. 305

305

4.21. Ali Pent ium Pro/II/III/Celeron


Aladdin Pro II

1999 .

Aladdin Pro 4

Aladdin TNT2

Aladdin Pro 5

2000 .

1999 .

2000 ., 2001 . ( T)

M1621

M1641/M1641B

M1631

M1651, M1651T

60/66/100

100/133/200/266 (B)

66/100/133

66/100/133/200/266

Pentium II/
Pentium Pro

Pentium II/III/Celeron

Slot 1, Socket 370 Slot 1, Socket 370

Pentium II/III/Celeron Pentium II/III/Celeron ( T



Tualatin)
Slot 1, Socket 370
Slot 1, Socket 370

SMP
( )

FPM, EDO, PC100 PC100/133, DDR200/266 (B) PC66/100/133/EDO

/ECC

,
PCI

ECC

ECC

ECC

1 (SDRAM),
2 (EDO)
2.2

1,5

1,5

2.2

2.2

2.2

PCI,
/

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

AGP

1x/2x

1x/2x/4x

TNT2

M1533/M1543

M1535D

M1543C

M1535D

1x/2x/4x

. 4.22 , 
Ali.

, .
VIA Technologies
VIA P6 . 4.23.

4.23. VIA Pentium Pro/II/III/Celeron


Apollo Pro

Apollo Pro Plus

SMP
( )

VT82C691
66/100
Pentium Pro/
Pentium II/ Celeron
Socket 8, Slot 1

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP


1
2

ProSavage PM133

Apollo Pro133

VT82C693
VT8601
66/100
66/100/133
Pentium II/ Celeron Pentium II/III/
Celeron/VIA C3
Slot 1, Socket 370 Slot 1, Socket 370

VT8605
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/
Celeron/VIA C3
Slot 1, Socket 370

VT82C693A
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/
Celeron/VIA C3
Slot 1, Socket 370

FP, EDO, PC66/100


SDRAM

FP, EDO, PC66/100 PC66/100/133


SDRAM
SDRAM

PC66/100/133
SDRAM

PC66/100/133
SDRAM

1,5

1,5

2.1
33/32

2.1
33/32

2.1
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.1
33/32

1x/2x

1x/2x

1x/2x
1

2x/4x

1x/2x

VT82C596
VT82C586B

VT82C596A

VT82C686A

VT8231

VT82C596B
VT82C586A

Trident Blade3D.
S3 Savage 4 (3D) Savage 2000 (2D).

306

. 306

Apollo KLE133
(PM601)

4.

4.22. Ali P6

USB

ATA

Super I/O

M1533

ATA533

M1543

ATA533

M1535D

ATA566

M1535D+

ATA5100

M1543C

ATA566

Sound Blaster 16.


Legacy USB (/).
3
PCI , Direct3D (DirectX), MIDI, SPDIF, SoundBlaster.
2

. 4.24 VIA P6.

Apollo Pro133A

Apollo ProPL133T

Apollo Pro266/266 T

SMP (
)

VT82694X
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/Celeron/VIA C3
Slot 1, Socket 370

VT8605
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/Celeron
(Tualatin)/VIA C3
Slot 1, Socket 370

VT8653
66/100/133
Pentium II/III/Celeron
(Tualatin)/VIA C3
Socket 370

PC66/100/133/EDO

PC100/133 SDRAM

/ECC
,

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

1,5

PC100/133 SDRAM,
DDR200/266

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2x/4x

2x/4x
2

2x/4x

VT82C686A

VT8231

VT8233C

VIA 4x VLink (266 )


.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III (P6)

. 307

307

4.24. VIA P6

USB

ATA

"

"
Super 10/100
I/O
Ethernet

V"Link

VT82C596

ATA533

VT82C596A

ATA533

VT82C686A

ATA566

AC'97

VT82C586B
VT8231

2
4

ATA533
ATA5100

AC'97

VT82C596B
VT82C586A

ATA566
ATA533

AC'97

VT8233(C)

ATA5100

AC'97

Silicon integrated Systems (SiS)


SiS P6 . 4.25.
4.25. SiS Pentium II/III/Celeron

SiS620

SiS630

SiS630E

SiS630ET

SiS630S

66/100
Pentium II

66/100/133
Celeron/
Pentium III

66/100/133
Celeron/
Pentium III

SMP
( )

Slot 1

Socket 370

Socket 370

66/100/133
Celeron/
Pentium III/ PIII
Tualatin
Socket 370

66/100/133
66/100/133
Celeron/ Pentium III Celeron/
Pentium III/ PIII
Tualatin
Socket 370
Socket 370

SDRAM
PC66/100

SDRAM
PC100/133

SDRAM
PC100/133

SDRAM
PC100/133

SDRAM PC100/133 SDRAM


PC100/133

1,5

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

AGP 2.0

ATA533/66
1.1/2

ATA533/66
1.1/5

ATA533/66
1.1/5

ATA533/66/100
1.1/5

ATA533/66/100
1.1/6

ATA533/66/100
1.1/6

SiS 5595

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

ATA
/
USB
10/100 Ethernet

SiS

308

. 308

SiS630ST

4.


10/100 Ethernet

VLink

VT82C596
VT82C596A

VT82C686A
VT82C586B

VT8231

VT82C596B
VT82C586A

VT8233(C)

* 3Com 10/100 Ethernet C.

Pentium 4 (P7)
Intel Pen
tium 4 , Socket 423 ( Pentium 4)
Socket 478 SiS
ALi. .
Pentium 4 Celeron Socket 423 Socket 478 
,
,
. Pentium 4 Socket 775 is 
; , 
9xx Pentium 4 Socket 775.
8xx Intel Pentium 4 Celeron 4
. 4.26 4.27. hub 
Intel, 266 /
MCH/GMCH ICH.

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 309

309

4.26. Intel 8xx Pentium 4/Celeron 4, 2000""2002 .


850E

845

845E

Tehama

850

Tehama5E

Brookdale

Brookdale5E

2000 .

2002 .

2001 . (SDRAM); 2002 .


2002 . (DDR)

2002 .

82850
400

82850E
400/533

82845
400

82845E
400/533

82845GL
400

Pentium 4,
1
Celeron

Pentium 4,
2
Celeron

Pentium 4, Celeron

Pentium 4,
2, 4
Celeron

Pentium 4, Celeron

SMP (
)

RDRAM
(PC800)

RDRAM
(PC800/1066)

PC133 SDRAM,
DDR200/266 SDRAM

DDR200/266

PC133 SDRAM,
DDR200/266
SDRAM

/ECC

ECC

ECC

2 (PC800), 1,5
(PC1066)

2 (PC2100 DDR); 3 (PC133


SDRAM)


PCI

2
2.2

2
2.2

2 (PC2100); 3 (PC133)
2.2

2
2.2

2
2.2

PCI,
/

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

AGP

AGP 4x (1,5 )

AGP 4x (1,5 )

AGP 4x (1,5 )

ICH2

ICH2

ICH2

AGP 4x (1,5 )

Intel Extreme
Graphics 200
ICH4
ICH4

845GL
Brookdale5GL

4.27. Intel 8xx Pentium 4/Celeron 4, 2003 .


848P

865P

865PE

865G

875P

Breeds Hill

Springdale5P

Springdale5PE

Springdale5G

Canterwood

SMP
( )

2004 .
82848P
800/533/400
Pentium 4, Celeron,
Celeron D

2003 .
82865P
533/400
Pentium 4, Celeron,
Celeron D

2003 .
82865PE
800/533
Pentium 4, Celeron,
Celeron D

2003 .
82865G
800/533
Pentium 4, Celeron,
Celeron D

2003 .
82875P
800/533
Pentium 4, Celeron,
Celeron D

DDR266/333/400

DDR266/333

DDR333/400

DDR333/400

DDR333/400
ECC

2
2.3
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

2
2.2
33/32

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

ICH5/ICH5R

ICH5/ICH5R

ICH5/ICH5R

ICH5/ICH5R

ICH5/ICH5R

/ECC

,

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

Gigabit
Ethernet (GbE)*

* GbE MCH/GMCH, PCI.


Gigabit Connection (Intel 82547E1).

310

. 310

4.

845G

845GE

845GV

Brookdale5G

Brookdale5GE

Brookdale5GV

Brookdale5PE

2002 .

2002 .

2002 .

2002 .

82845G
400/533

82845GE
400/533

82845GV
400/533

82845PE
400/533

Pentium 4, Celeron

SMP (
)

PC133 SDRAM, DDR


200/266 SDRAM

DDR 333/266 SDRAM

DDR 200/266 SDRAM

DDR 333/266 SDRAM

/ECC

ECC


PCI

2
2.2

2
2.2

2
2.2

2
2.2

PCI,
/

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

AGP

AGP 4x (1,5 )
Intel Extreme Graphics
200
ICH4

AGP 4x (1,5 )
Intel Extreme Graphics
266
ICH4

Intel Extreme Graphics


200
ICH4

AGP 4x (1,5 )

1
2

2, 3

Pentium 4, Celeron

Socket 423 Socket 478.


Socket 478.

3
4

2, 3

845PE

Pentium 4, Celeron

2, 4

2, 4

Pentium 4, Celeron

ICH4

B1 HyperThreading.
HyperThreading.

. 4.28 ICH, Pentium 4/


Celeron 4 Intel.
4.28. I/O Controller Hub Pentium 4/Celeron 4

ICH0

ICH

ICH2

ICH4

ICH5

ICH5R


ATA
SATA
SATA Raid
USB
USB 2.0
CMOS/
PCI
ISA

82801AB
UDMA533

1C/2P

2.2

82801AA
UDMA566

1C/2P

2.2

82801BA
UDMA5100

2C/4P

2.2

828201DB
UDMA5100

3C/6P

2.2

828201EB
UDMA5100
SATA5150

4C/8P

2.3

828201ER
UDMA5100
SATA5150
RAID 0
4C/8P

2.3

LPC

10/100 Ethernet

SMM/ACPI 1.0 SMM/ACPI 1.0

SMM/ACPI 1.0 SMM/ACPI 2.0 SMM/ACPI 2.0

SMM/ACPI 2.0

ICH I/O controller hub ( ).


xC/xP / .
ISA Industrystandard architecture bus ( ).
LPC Low Pin Count.
ACPI Advanced configuration and power interface ( 
).

2004 Intel 9xx


Pentium 4 Celeron 4. Grantsdale
Alderwood Pentium 4 Prescott,
Pentium 4 (P7)

. 311

311

2004 . Intel,
, DDRII PCIExpress 
 (,
Gigabit Ethernet). , LGA775 (
SocketT).

910GL Express Socket 478


Socket 775.

2005 Intel
(Pentium D), (Pentium Extreme Edition).
, Pentium 4 HT
Socket 775 945, 955 975.

, 9xx hub
HI 1.5, 8xx. 
, DMI (Direct Media Interface),
1 / ,
(. . 4.12). . 4.29 9xx
Pentium 4, . 4.30 9xx Pentium D Pentium
Extreme Edition ( Pentium 4), . 4.31 
 ICH6 ICH7, 9xx.
4.29. Intel 9xx Pentium 4
" 910GL

915PL

915G

915G

915GV

915GL

925X

925XE

Grantsdale5 Grantsdale5 Grantsdale5 Grantsdale5 Grantsdale5 Grantsdale5 Grantsdale5 Alderwood AlderwoodE


GL
P
PL
G
G
GV
GL

,
5

SMP (
5
)

828910GL

828915P

828915PL

828915G

828915G

828915GV

828915GL

82925X

82925XE

533

800/533

800/533

800/533

800/533

800/533

533

800/533

1066/800

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

Pentium 4,
Celeron,
Celeron D

DDR333/
400

DDR333/
400, DDR2

DDR333/
400, DDR2

DDR333/
400

DDR333/
400, DDR2

DDR333/
400, DDR2

DDR333/
400

DDR2

DDR2
533/400

/
ECC

ECC

5

,

PCI

312

. 312

915P

PCI5
PCI5
PCI5
PCI5
PCI5
PCI5
PCI5
PCI5
PCI5
Express x1, Express x1, Express x1, Express x1, Express x1, Express x1, Express x1, Express x1, Express x1,
PCI 2.3
x16, PCI 2.2 x16, PCI 2.2 x16, PCI 2.3 x16, PCI 2.2 x16, PCI 2.2 x16, PCI 2.2 x16, PCI 2.2 x16, PCI 2.3

4.

. 4.29
" 910GL

915P

915PL

915G

915G

915GV

915GL

PCI,
/5

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

Extreme
Graphics 3

33/32


PCI5
Express x16
AGP
5

(hub)

Intel GMA
900

925X

925XE

33/32

33/32

33/32

Extreme
Graphics 3

Extreme
Graphics 3

Extreme
Graphics 3

5
ICH6
ICH6
ICH6
ICH6
ICH6
ICH6
ICH6
ICH6

ICH6

915GL HyperThreading.
ECC B2 .
GMA 900 Graphics Media Accelerator 900.

4.30. Intel 9xx Pentium D, Pentium Extreme


Edition Pentium 4

975X

955X

945G

945P

945PL

Glenwood

Glenwood

Lakeport5G

Lakeport5P

Lakeport5PL

82975X
1066/800

82955X
1066/800

82945G
1066/800/533

82945P
1066/800/533

82945PL
800/533

Pentium Extreme
Edition, Pentium D,
Pentium 4 with HT
Tech (Socket 775)

Pentium Extreme
Edition, Pentium D,
Pentium 4 with HT
Tech (Socket 775)

Pentium Extreme
Edition, Pentium D,
Pentium 4 with HT
Tech (Socket 775)

Pentium Extreme
Edition, Pentium D,
Pentium 4 with HT
Tech (Socket 775)

DDR2 667/533
ECC

DDR2 667/533/400l DDR2 667/533/400 DDR2 533/400


5555
5555
5555

PCI5Express x1,
x16, PCI 2.3
33/32

PCI5Express x1, x16, PCI5Express x1,


PCI 2.3
x16, PCI 2.3
33/32
33/32

PCI5Express x1,
x16, PCI 2.3
33/32

Intel GMA 900

ICH7

ICH7

ICH7

ICH7

ICH7

Pentium Extreme
Edition, Pentium D,
Pentium 4 with HT
Tech (Socket 775)
SMP (
)

DDR2 667/533

ECC
/ECC

8
,

2

PCI
PCI5Express x1,
x16, PCI 2.3
PCI,
33/32
/

PCI5Express x16
AGP

(hub)

4.31. " 9xx


Pentium 4 Intel

ATA

SATA5150
SATA RAID

ICH6

ICH6R

ICH7

ICH7R

UDMA5100

UDMA5100

UDMA5100

UDMA5100

0, 1, 0+1

0, 1, 0+1, 5

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 313

313

. 4.31

ICH6

ICH6R

ICH7

ICH7R

USB
USB 2.0

4C/8P

4C/8P

4C/8P

4C/8P

CMOS/

PCI
PCI-Express

2.3, PCI5Express
4

2.3, PCI5Express
4

2.3, PCI5Express
4

2.3, PCI5Express
6

LPC

SMM/ACPI 1.0

SMM/ACPI 1.0

SMM/ACPI 3.0

SMM/ACPI 3.0

10/100 Ethernet
High5Definition
Audio (Dolby Pro Logic IIx55
7.15 )

ICH I/O controller hub.


USB Universal serial bus ( ).
ATA AT attachment (IDE).
UDMA UltraDMA ATA.
ISA Industrystandard architecture bus ( ).
LPC Low pin count bus ( ).
SMM System management mode ( ).
ACPI Advanced configuration and power interface ( 
).
Matrix storage RAID, (0 1)
.
* ATA ATA/IDE.

Intel 850
, Intel
Pentium 4 NetBurst. 850 (. 4.37),
,
hub , 
Intel 8xx.

. 4.37. Intel 850. Intel

314

. 314

4.

Intel 850 , 
800.
82850 Memory Controller Hub.
RDRAM 400 3,2 /, 
100 . 82850 MCH 1.5V AGP 4x
, 1 /.
82801BA I/O Controller Hub 2. ICH2 ( 82801, 
800) 32 PCI, 
UDMA 33/66/100 IDE, USB,
LAN,  AC97, FWH, SMBus,
Alert on LAN Alert on LAN 2.
10BASET Fast Ethernet 850
Intel 82562ET/82562EM Platform LAN,
LAN 82801BA ICH2.
850 , 
CNR. . 4.38 
Intel 850.
Pentium 4
3,2 /
RDRAM
> 1 /
AGP 4x

MCH

3,2 /

RDRAM
RDRAM
RDRAM

Hub5 Intel

ATA 100 /
2 IDE
ICH2

133 /

LAN

PCI

4 USB

Flash BIOS
. 4.38.  Intel 850

850E 850. 
82850E MCH 850
Pentium 4 (P7)

. 315

315

Rambus RDRAM 533 PC1066 RIMM.


ICH2.

Intel 845
850 850E, 
845 Intel .
Pentium 4, 2001 2003 , 
845. 845
Brookdale, Pentium 4,
RDRAM SDRAM. 845 
DDR SDRAM DDR333, ATA100 USB 2.0.
Intel 845 :
845;
845GL;
845GV;
845G;
845GE;
845E;
845PE.
845 hub 
, CNR Ethernet 10/100.
,
, AGP ICH.
845 PC133
SDRAM, 845D (,
Web, Intel) DDR SDRAM 
200/266 . Intel 845 82845 MCH 
Celeron/Pentium 4, Socket 478, 
DDR SDRAM SDRAM ( ).
DDR SDRAM 200
(PC2100) 266 (PC2700), (FSB) 400 . 
(ECC) AGP 4x, 
.
845 ICH2 I/O Controller Hub
(82801BA), Intel 850/850E ( Rambus) 815EP
( SDRAM). ICH2 
ATA100, AC'97 USB 1.1.
845 G 
Intel Extreme Graphics, 
, 
810/815. 845G 845GE
AGP 4x .
845E 845,
ECC 533 ,
845PE 533 , DDR
266/333 ,
ECC. 845 ( 845D) ICH4 I/O Controller
Hub 82801DB, USB 2.0 Ethernet. 
( 845 845GL) 20 .
316

. 316

4.

. 4.39 845 845GE.


845

845GE

Pentium 4

Celeron

Pentium 4

Celeron

400 FSB
AGP 4x

MCH
65

ATA5100

533/400 FSB

AGP 4x

RAM PC5133
DDR200 DDR266

DDR333/266
RAM
GMCH

Dolby Digital

ATA5100
PCI

ICH2

LAN

USB 1.1

PCI
LAN

Flash BIOS

ICH4

USB 2.0

Flash BIOS

. 4.39. 845GE ()

,
845 (), USB 2.0

Intel 865
865 ( Springdale) 
2003 . 865 845

(communications streaming architecture CSV). CSV 
, 
( Gigabit Ethernet
Serial ATA). 865/875 . 4.28.
865 865P, 865PE 845G. 865P
865PE  DDR266,
DDR333/400 800 . 
, 
. 845P DDR266/333
533 . 856 AGP
8x, G Intel Extreme Graphics 2,
Intel Extreme Graphics, 
845 G.
865 ICH5 I/O controller hub.

Intel 848P
Intel 848P ( Breeds Hill)
2004 865 (Springdale). ,

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 317

317

865, ,
2 . , 848P
Gigabit Ethernet.
845 848P
AGP 8x, ( DDR400),
 ICH5 I ( ) Hub Link 1.5 (HL 1.5 HI 1.5)
MCH/ICH. ,
, , 
.
ICH5 ICH5R
ICH5 ICH5R (RAID) 
I/O Controller Hub, hub Intel, 
8xx.
USB 2.0 
, ATA/100 Serial ATA/150. ICH5R 
RAID 0 ( ) SATA. ,
PCI 2.3 Ethernet 10/100.

RAID 1 () ,
ICH5R, Intel Application Accelerator
RAID Edition. Intel RAID
Option ROM.
Web- http://support.intel.com/support/chipsets/iaa_raid/.

Intel 875P
Intel 875P ( Canterwood)
2003 . Intel HP (HyperThreading), Pentium 4
3,06 , Prescott,
90 .
875P (
ECC) DDR333/400 ( 4 ),
, Turbo, 
DDR400 MCH. 
, 875P
,
. Serial ATA RAID,
ICH5 I/O Controller Hub, 865.

Intel 915
Intel 915, Grantsdale,
2004 . (915P,
915G, 915GV 915GL), Pentium 4
Prescott, 0,09 . 
LGA 775 (Socket T), 3.
Intel 865 (Springdale).
915P, 915G 915GV HyperThreading,
Pentium 4, 800 .
DDR 400 ,
DDRII, PCIExpress x1 PCI 2.3.
915P 915PL PCIExpress x16
, 915G, ,
318

. 318

4.

Intel Extreme Graphics 3. 915GV 


Intel Extreme Graphics 3, 
PCIExpress x16. Extreme Graphics 3
DirectX 9, , DirectX
ATI NVIDIA.
910GL ,
DDR2, 800 , HyperThreading,
PCIExpress x16.
Intel Celeron Celeron D.
MCH/GMCH 915 
ICH6 (. . 4.31). ,
ICH6 (ICH6W ICH6WR), 
, .
(ICH6) RAID (ICH6R).

Intel 925X
Intel 925X,
Alderwood, 2004 .
875P (Canterwood). 915, 
DDR, 925X DDRII.
925X ECC,
. 
.
925X PCIExpress x1 PCIExpress
x16 (), PCI 2.3. LGA 775
Intel Prescott Pentium 4, ICH6, 
. 4.31.

Intel 945 Express


Intel 945 Express ( Lakeport) 
2005 945G, 945P 945PL. 955X
975X, Intel, 
Pentium D; Pentium 4
HT Socket 775.
945G 945P , Intel 
. 1 066 4
DDR2 667 ( ). 
PCI Express x16, 945G
Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 950.
945PL ; 
( ) 533
2 . PCIExpress x16.
945  ICH7 (.
. 4.31). ICH7 ICH6.
Serial ATA 300 /.
SATA RAID 5 Matrix RAID ( ICH7R).
PCIExpress x1 ( ICH7R).
945G 915G . 4.40.

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 319

319


Intelfi Pentium 4

HT

915G

6,4 /

DDR/DDR2

Intel GMA 900


TM

82915G
GMCH

PCI Express x16

8,5 /

8,5

DDR/DDR2

/
2 /

DMI

Intel High
Definition Audio
TM

150
/

4
PCI Express x1

8
Hi5Speed USB 2.0

500

ICH6R

4
Serial ATA
8
PCI

135
/

60

Intel Matrix
Storage Technology
TM

BIOS
HT

Intel fi Pentium fi D
5

8,5 /

DDR2

Intel GMA 950


TM

PCI Express x16

82945G
GMCH

DDR2
2 /

6
PCI Express x1

Intelfi PRO/1000
Intel Active
Management Technology

10,7 /

8
/
DMI

Intel fi High
Definition Audio
8
Hi5Speed USB 2.0

945G

4
Serial ATA

3
/
60
/

Intel fi Matrix
Storage Technology

82801GR
ICH7R

500
/

135
/

6 PCI

LPC SPI

BIOS

. 4.40. 915G () Intel PCI


Express x16 . 945G () 
, , SATA,
PCIExpress x1

320

. 320

4.

Intel 955X Intel 975X


Intel Glenwood 2005
955X 975X. 945
Intel Pentium D,
Pentium Extreme Edition 
Pentium 4 HT Socket 775. Intel
.
, 
. 800 1066 , 
DDR2 667/533 ( ) 
8 . ECC ( 
), ICH7
 (. . 4.31).
955X 975X . 
955X PCIExpress x16, 975X 
PCIExpress x8. 
975X ATI CrossFire, , 
, NVIDIA
SLI, .


Pentium 4 (P7)
SiS, Ali Corporation, ATI NVIDIA
Intel Pentium 4/Celeron 4.
Intel 
,
, .

SiS Pentium 4 Pentium D


SiS Pentium 4, 
,
RDRAM. . 4.324.35 SiS.
, Pentium II/III/Celeron, 
Pentium 4
( Media I/O SiS96x), / 
. Pentium 4
16 MuTIOL (MultiThreaded I/O Link), 
PCI, .
4.32. SiS Pentium 4 (Socket 478)
533

SiS650

SiS651

SiS645

SiS645DX

SiS648

SiS655

SiS R658 SiS 661GX

400

400/533

400

400/533

400/533

400/533

400/533

400/533

PC100/133,
DDR200/
266/333

PC133,
DDR200/
266

PC133,
DDR200/
DDR266/333 266/333

HyperThreading
SMP
( 5
)

PC133,
DDR266

DDR266/ 333, 1066/800 DDR400/333/


266
5
RDRAM

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 321

321

. 4.32

SiS650

SiS651

SiS645

SiS645DX

SiS648

SiS655

SiS R658 SiS 661GX

/ECC

PCI

PCI, /

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

AGP
5
5

4x

4x

4x

4x

8x

8x

8x

8x
Mirage (DirectX
7.0; 64 )

SiS961

SiS962

SiS961

SiS961

SiS963

SiS963

SiS963

SiS963, Sis964

5
MuTIOL,
/

533

533

533

533

1000

1000

1000

1000

* B.
^ PCI 2.2 SiS963, PCI 2.3 SiS964.
4.33. SiS Pentium 4 (Socket 478)
800

SiS648FX

SiS655FX

SiS655TX

SiS656

SiSR59

SiS661FX

HyperThreading
SMP (
)

800/400/533

800/400/533

800/400/533

800/400/533

800/400/533

800/400/533

DDR400/33

DDR400/33

5

DDR400/33
ECC

5

DDR400/33
ECC

DDR266/ 333/400

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/

DDR400/33

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

AGP 8x

MuTIOL, /

PCI5Express
16x

Sis Mirage Graphics


32/64

SiS963L
1000

SiS964/694L
1000

SiS964/694L
1000

SiS965/695L
1000

SiS964/694L
1000

SiS964/694L
1000

4.34. SiS Pentium D


Pentium 4 (Socket 775)
SiS649

SiS649FX

SiS656

SiS656FX

, 800/533/ 400

HyperThreading
SMP (5
5
)

1066

800/533/ 400

1066/800/ 533/400 800/400/533

322

. 322

SiS661FX

4.

. 4.34
SiS649

SiS649FX

DDR2 533/ 400,


DDR 400/222/266

DDR2 667/ DDR 400 DDR2 667/ 533/400 DDR2 667/ 533/400 DDR 400/222/266

/ECC

5555

5555

ECC

ECC

5555

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

PCI Express x16

PCI Express x16

PCI5Express x16

PCI5Express x16

AGP 8x

SiS Mirage
Graphics 64MB

(South SiS965, 966 series


Bridge)

SiS965, 966 series

SiS965, 966 series

SiS965, 966 series

SiS964/964L

MuTIOL, /

PCI
PCI,
/

SiS656

SiS656FX

SiS661FX

. 4.35 SiS Media I/O,


. 4.324.34.
SiS650/651
SiS650/651 
Pentium 4, 
AGP 4x.
DVD, SiS301B, TV
DVI .


(266 /533 /).
SiS650/651 SDRAM/DDR SDRAM.
, SiS651 DDR333,
533 Pentium 4 HyperThreading B.
SiS961 USB 1.1, ATA100 ( ATA133
961B), AC'97,
Ethernet/HomePNA. 651 SiS962, 
ATA133 USB 2.0.
SiS645/645DX
645, 65x, 
, : SDRAM
DDR SDRAM, AGP 4x MuTIOL 
. 645DX DDR333,
533 HT, Pentium 4.
645/645DX SiS961.
SiS648/648FX/655/655FX/655TX
SiS648 SiS645DX
:
DDR ( DDR333);
AGP 8x;
SiS963 (USB 2.0, IEEE1394a).
Pentium 4 (P7)

. 323

323

4.35. SiS Media I/O ( ) Pentium 4

USB

USB ATA


SATA RAID

SiS961

1.1

33/66/100

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS961B

1.1

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS962

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS962L

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS963

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS963L

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

SiS964

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

0, 1, 0+1, JBOD

AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS964L

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

SiS965

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

0, 1, 0+1, JBOD

SiS965L

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

0, 1, JBOD

SiS966

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

4*

0, 0+1, 1, JBOD

SiS966L

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

0, 1, JBOD

AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
7.1
AC'97, ,
7.1
AC'97, ,
7.1 HDA
AC'97, ,
7.1 HDA

* AHCI.

SiS648FX SIS648,
Pentium 4 800 .
655 SiS648 
DDR266/333 4 .
SiS655FX SiS655, 
:
DDR400;
Pentium 4 800 ;
HyperStreaming Technology ( 
SiS 
);
SiS964 ( USB 2.0, , SATA, RAID).
SiS655TX SiS655FX, 
Advanced HyperStreaming Technology .
SiS R658/R659
R658 Rambus. 
:
Pentium 4 533
HT ( B);
1 066/800 RDRAM ( 
);
4 ;
AGP 8x;

324

. 324

4.

10/100 Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet

HomePNA 1.0/2.0

IEEE"1394


MuTIOL,

SiS961

266

SiS961B

266

SiS962

266

SiS962L

266

SiS963

533

SiS963L

533

SiS964

1000

SiS964L

1000

SiS965

1000

SiS965L

1000

SiS966

1000

SiS966L

1000

HDA Highdefinition audio ( )

JBOD Just a Bunch Of Disks ( ).

MuTIOL 1G ( 533
1 /) SiS963.
R658 655 RDRAM 
SiS963.
R659 R658, 
:
Pentium 4 800 ;
SiS HyperStreaming;
PC1200 RDRAM;
SiS964.
SiS661GX/SiS661FX
SiS661GX :
Pentium 4 533 
HT;
2 DDR400 ( DIMM) 3
DDR333/266 ( DIMMs);
AGP 8x;
SiS Mirage Graphics (
DirectX9) CRT, TV LCD; DVD;
32 64 ;
SiS964/964L.

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 325

325

SiS661FX , SiS661GX, 
Pentium D Pentium 4
HT 800 .
SiS656/SiS656 FX
SiS656 SiS PCIExpress
DDR2. Intel 915 Pentium 4
( ). :
Pentium 4 800 , 
Prescott Pentium D;
DDR400/333 DDR2 533/400;
4 ;
ECC;
PCIExpress x16;
SiS965/965L SiS966/966L.
SiS656FX SiS656, 1 066 .
SiS649/SiS649FX
SiS649 SiS656
:
Pentium 4 800 , 
Prescott Pentium D;
DDR400/333 DDR2 533/400;
2 ;
PCIExpress x16;
SiS965/965L SiS966/966L.
SiS649FX SiS649,
1 066 DDR2 667 DDR 400.

ULI Pentium 4
ULI ( Ali Corporation Acer Laboratories) 
Pentium 4/Celeron 4. . 4.36 4.37 
.
4.36. Ali Pentium 4

M1681

M1683

M1685

1671

ALADDiN"P4

1681

1683

1683

,

HyperThreading
SMP (
)

400

400/533*

800/533/400

800/533/400

PC100/133,
DDR200/266/333/400

PC100/133,
DDR200/266/333/400

DDR200/266/333/400,
DDR5II

3,5

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

PC100/133,
DDR200/266/333
/ECC

3
,
PCI
2.2
PCI,
33/32
/

326

. 326

4.

. 4.36

ALADDiN"P4

M1681

M1683

M1685

APG 4x

APG 8x

APG 8x

PCI5Express 16x

M1535

M1563

M1563

M1563

HyperTransport

400 /

400 /

400 /

* HyperThreading.

. 4.37 ,
ALi Corporation Pentium 4;
ALi Athlon XP Athlon 64.
4.37. Ali Pentium 4/Athlon XP
" USB

ATA
USB

M1535D
M1535D+

1.1
1.1

4
6

33/66
33/66/100/133

2.0

66/100/133

2.0
2.0
2.0

8
8
8

66/100/133
66/100/133
66/100/133

150
150

300

0, 1, 0+1,
5, JBOD

M1563
M1567

M1573
2
M1575

SATA SATA RAID

AC97

AC97

AC97, SPDIF

" 10/100
Super PCI"

Ethernet I/O
Express

7.1- HDA
7.1- HDA
7.1- HDA

Memory Stick SD (Secure Digital), AMD Athlon 64/Opteron/Mobile


Athlon 64.
2
Pentium 4 AMD Athlon 64, , 
ATI Radeon Xpress 200.

Aladdin P4 (M1671)
ALi, Pentium 4.
M1535,
Pentium II/III, P4 /
. , /
PCI (133 /).
P4 :
400 ;
PC100/133 DDR200/266/333;
ATA133 ( M1535D+);
AGP 4x;
USB 1.1;
ACPI.
P4 ALADDiNP4M, 
D1535+.
M1681/M1683
M1681/M1683 Pentium 4
. PCI

HyperTransport.
Pentium 4 (P7)

. 327

327

:
HT 533 ;
DDR (DDR400) PC100/133 SDRAM;
ATA133;
USB 2.0;
AGP 8x;
 Memory Stick SD (Secure Digital);
ACPI;
HyperTransport 
, 400 / 
( 800 /);
M1563.
M1683 M1681, 
800 .
M1685
M1685 Ali
Pentium 4, 
M1681/M1683. ALi Pentium 4, 
PCIExpress DDRII. 
:
800 ;
HyperThreading;
DDR266/333/400 DDRII;
PCIExpress x16 ;
3,5 ;
M1563.
M1685 DDRII PCIExpress x16,
Intel SiS, M1653 
, , Serial ATA ATA RAID. ,
M1685/M1563 
, SATA.

ATI Pentium 4
ATI Pentium 4 ( 
/ ) Radeon
VE, DVD . 

ALink;
PCI.
Radeon IGP Pentium 4
:
Radeon IGP 330;
Radeon IGP 340.
Radeon 9x00 IGP ATI
Pentium 4. 9x00 IGP Radeon 9200 

328

. 328

4.

DirectX 8.1 . IXP 300


Serial ATA USB 2.0, . Radeon 9x00 IGP
:
Radeon 9100 IGP;
Radeon 9100 Pro IGP;
Radeon 9000 Pro IGP.
ATI :
IXP 150;
IXP 200;
IXP 250;
IXP 300;
IXP 400;
IXP 450.
. 4.38 , . 4.39
, ATI Pentium 4.
Radeon IGP 330 Radeon IGP 340 
.
4.38. Radeon IGP ( ) Pentium 4

Radeon IGP
330

Radeon IGP
340

Radeon 9100/
1
Pro IGP

Radeon 9000 Radeon XPress


Pro IGP
200 (RS 400)

Radeon XPress
200 (RC 410)

HyperThreading

400

400/533

400/533/800

400/533/800

400/533/800

400/533/800

DDR333/400

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP
PCI5Express x16

DDR333/400,

DDR333/400,
DDR2
400/533/667

DDR333/400,
DDR2
400/533/667

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.3
33/32

4x

2
Radeon VE

4x

8x

8x

Radeon VE

Radeon 9200

Radeon 9200

Radeon X300

Radeon X300

266

266

266

266

800

800

A5Link

A5Link

A5Link

A5Link

HyperTransport

HyperTransport

NB/SB,
/

NB/SB

DDR200/266 DDR200/266/
333

3,4

3,4

PRO AGP 8x, 


, DDR400.
2
ATI Radeon 7000 .
3

; Radeon 9200 .

ATI SurroundView,
ATI AGP. .

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 329

329

4.39. ATI Pentium 4 Athlon

USB

USB

ATA

10/100 Ethernet NB/SB

IXP 150
IXP 200/250*

2.0
2.0

6
6

ATA100
ATA100

AC97, 2.3; 6- 3Com


AC97, 2.3; 6- 3Com

A5Link
A5Link

IXP 300
IXP 400 (SB400)

2.0
2.0

8
8

ATA133, 2 SATA
ATA133, 4 SATA

A5Link
A5Link

IXP 450

2.0

ATA133, 2 SATA

AC97, 2.3; 6- 3Com


AC97, 2.3; 6- 3Com
AC97, 2.3; 8- Realtek 8101L

HyperTransport 800

IXP 250 IXP 200, WOL (Wake On LAN), DMI (Desktop


Management Interface), MBA (manage boot agent) ASF (Alert Standards Forum).

VIA Pentium 4
VIA 
Pentium 4, Intel Socket 478. VIA 
Socket 478, 
, Intel. 
VIA VPSD (VIA Platform Solutions
Division), .
. 4.40 4.41 VIA Pentium 4,
ProSavage.
. 4.42 , 
VIA Pentium 4. , 
VIA Athlon.
VIA VLink 
, VT1211 LPC
Super I/O. ,
, .

4.41. VIA Pentium 4 800


PT800

PM800

PM800 Pro

PT880


,

HyperThreading
SMP (
)

PT800
400/533/800

PM800
400/533/800

PM800 Pro
400/533/800

PT880
400/533/800

DDR266/333/400

DDR266/333/400

/ECC
,

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP
PCI5Express
c

V5Link,
/

ECC
16

ECC
16

DDR266/333/400;
DDR2 533/400
ECC
16

DDR266/333/400,

ECC
16

2.2
33/321

2.2
33/321

2.2
33/321

2.2
33/321

8x

VT8237
533

8x

S3 UniChrome Pro2
VT8237
533

8x

S3 UniChrome Pro2
VT8237
1066

8x

VT8237
1066

PCI 66/64 VPX64 (VT8101).

330

. 330

4.

4.40. VIA Pentium 4 533


P4X266

P4X266A

P4X266E

P4M266

P4X400

P4X400A

P4X533

VT8753A

VT8753E

VT8751

VT8754

VT8754CE

P4X533

, 400

400

400/533

400

400/533

400/533

400/533

HyperThreading
SMP
( )

PC100/133, PC100/133, DDR200/266 PC100/133, DDR200/266/ DDR200/266/ DDR200/266/


DDR200/266 DDR200/266
DDR200/266 333/400
333/400
333/400

ECC
ECC
ECC

/ECC

,
PCI

VT8753

32

32

32

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

PCI,
/

33/32*

33/32*

33/32*

33/32*

33/32*

33/32*

33/32*

AGP

4x

4x

4x

8x

8x

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A,
VT8235

4x
8x
S3 Graphics
ProSavage8
3D
VT8233,
VT8235
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8235

VT8237

V5Link, /

266

266

266

266

533

533

533

* 64 PCI, 66 
VPX64 (VT8101).

PT880 Ultra

PT894

PT894 Pro


,

HyperThreading
SMP (
)

PT880 Ultra
533/800/1066

PT894
400/533/800/1066

PT894 Pro
400/533/800/1066

DDR266/333/400, DDR2 400/


533,
ECC
16

DDR266/333/400, DDR2 400/


533,
ECC
16

DDR266/333/400, DDR2 400/


533,
ECC
16

2.2
33/321

2.2
33/321

2.2
33/321

8x
x4

VT8237R
1066

x16

VT8237R
1066

x16, x4

VT8237R
1066

/ECC
,

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP
PCI5Express
c

V5Link,
/
2

The UniChrome Pro , RAMDAC 350 ,


DVD, DirectX 7/8/9.

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 331

331

4.42. VIA Pentium 4


"

USB ATA
USB

" " PCI"


10/100 HomePNA "
SATA
RAID
Express
Ethernet

SATA
V"Link,
/

VT8233

1.1

33/66/
100

5555

AC'97, 655
1

266

VT8233A

1.1

33/66/
100/133

5555

AC'97, 655
1

266

VT8233C

1.1

33/66/
100/133

5555

AC'97, 655
1

266

VT8235

2.0

33/66/
100

5555

AC'97, 5
,
1
5.1

533

VT8237R

2.0

33/66/
100

SATA5150

0,1

AC'97, 5
,
1,6
5.1

1066

VT8251

2.0

33/66/
100

SATA5300

AC'97, 5
,
7.1

1066

3,4

0,1, 0+1, 5

x2
2 X1

;
MC'97.
2 3Com 10/100 Ethernet.
3 ,
533 /. SATALite RAID 0+1.
4 VT8237.
5 RAID 0+1 SATALite.
6 8 (7.1) VIA Envy 24PT 
PCI.
7 NCQ (native command queuing).

V"MAP Pentium 4
VIA Pentium 4
VMAP (VIA Modular Architectural Platform),
,
. ,
P4X266, 266A, 266E, P4M266 P4X400, 

8233/8235. ,
. 
VLink .
VIA Apollo P4X266
VIA Apollo P4X266 Pentium 4/Celeron 4,
AGP 4x, 400 , 
Pentium 4/Celeron 4, 
4 . P4X266 
12,
.
P4X266E 533 ,
Pentium 4 ( 2,53 ). ,
VT8233 VT8235.
ProSavage P4M266
VIA ProSavage P4M266
S3 Graphics ProSavage8 2D/3D P4X266.

332

. 332

4.

, P4M266 
AGP 4x, .
ProSavage8 32 , 
AGP 8x 128
, DVD
DVD DXVA Motion Compensation.
8233/8235.
Apollo P4X400, P4X400A P4X433
Apollo P4X400
P4X333. /
, P4X400 32 ECC,
400/533 DDR 333 . 
VT8235
 (USB 2.0 ATA133).
Apollo P4X400A ,
DDR400 VT8235.
P4X533 P4X400A, , 
VT8237, SATA RAID,
USB 2.0 7.1.
8x VLink (533 /)
.
PT800/PM800/PT880/PM880
PT8xx VIA Technologies, 
Pentium 4 800 . 
VT8237, SATA RAID,
USB 2.0 7.
.
PT800 DDR 400
AGP 8x;
8x VLink (533 /).
PM800 PT800, 
S3 UniChrome Pro.
PT880 PT800 .
, 
Ultra VLink (1066 /).
PM880 PT880, 
S3 UniChrome Pro.
PT880 Ultra/PT894/PT894 Pro
PT880 Ultra, PT894 PT894 Pro VIA
PT880, .
DDR2 533 ; DDR .
PT880 Ultra AGP 8x PCIExpress x4.
PT894 PT894 Pro PCIExpress x16
AGP 8x; PT894 Pro PCIExpress x4.
PT894 PT894 Pro 1066 .

Pentium 4 (P7)

. 333

333

VT8237R (
USB 2.0, SATA, RAID, 7.1 ()) VT8251 (SATA 300
NCQ, RAID 5, 7.1).
 PT894 Pro . 4.41.

Pentium 4

1066/800/533


DDR 266/333/400
DDR2 400/533/667

PCI5Express

2D/3D

PT894 Pro

PCI5Express

2D/3D

V Map

855

Via
Eight5TRAC


Via Envy24PT PCI

SATA
RAID


HD Audio

VIA Vinyl Audio

855


Via Six5TRAC AC 97
65
96 /20

VIA DriveStation

Ultra V5Link
VT8251

PATA
133/100
VIA Connectivity

8 USB 2.0

PCI

2 PCI5Express x1


MC597

VT6103L

10/100 Fast Ethernet

LPC

EPROM

VIA Gigabit
Ethernet

VT1211
LPC
Super
I/O

. 4.41. PT894 Pro VIA Pentium 4

DDR/DDR2, PCIExpress, VT8251

334

. 334

4.


Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP
Athlon Duron, AMD,
Slot A Socket A. Pentium III Celeron, AMD 
.
Athlon AMD, VIA Technology, ALi Corpora
tion, SiS, NVIDIA ATI ,
. .

AMD
Athlon/Duron
AMD
Athlon Duron: AMD750 AMD760/MP/MPX. . 4.43,
.
4.43. AMD Athlon/Duron
/

AMD"750

AMD"760

Irongate
1999 .
AMD5751
200
Athlon/Duron

2000 .
AMD5761
200/266
Athlon/Duron

SMP ( )


/

PCI
AGP

ATA/IDE
USB
CMOS/
ISA
LPC

SDRAM
PC100

768
2.2
AGP 2x
AMD5756
ATA566
1C/4P

SMM/ACPI

DDR SDRAM
PC1600/PC2100

2 4
2.2
AGP 4x
AMD5766
ATA5100
1C/4P

SMM/ACPI

AMD"750
Athlon/Duron AMD
Slot A Socket A AMD750.
/ , Athlon Duron.
AMD750 AMD751 ( ) AMD756 ( ).
AMD751 , ,
AGP PCI. AMD756 PCItoISA,
USB ATA33/66.
AMD750 :
AMD Athlon 200 ;
PCI 2.2;
AGP 2x;
PC100 SDRAM ;
768 ;
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 335

335

ACPI;
ATA33/66;
USB;
256 CMOS RAM ;
.
AMD"760
AMD760, 2000 , 
, DDR SDRAM. ,
PBGA (Pin Plastic BallGrid Array): 569 
AMD761 ( ) 272 AMD766
( ).  AMD760 . 4.42.

AMD Athlon

325

AMD5761
SERR#
SBREQ#
SBGNT#
WSC#
DCSTOP#

AGP 4x

AGP 4x

DDR SDRAM

645
+
85 ECC
325 PCI
SMBus

645 +
85 ECC
135 SADDIN +
135 SADDOUT

AMD5766

LAN

,
, ,

SCSI

SM
ISA
USB
EIDE
LPC

BIOS
SIO

. 4.42.  AMD760

AMD761 AMD Athlon,


DDR SDRAM PC1600 PC2100, AGP 4x, 
PCI. 761 
200 266 , Athlon, 
266 .
AMD766 USB,
UDMA/100 ATA/IDE, LPC, Super I/O,
ROM BIOS.

336

. 336

4.

AMD760 :
AMD Athlon 200/266 ;
;
PCI 2.2, ;
AGP 2.0, 4x;
PC1600 PC2100 DDR SDRAM ECC;
2 4
DDR SDRAM;
ACPI;
ATA100;
USB;
LPC, Super I/O.
AMD760MP, AMD762, 
AMD760, 
Athlon MP. AMD760MP 
AMD760 :
AMD Athlon MP 200/266 ;
4 PC2100 DDR ( );
32 64 PCI 33 .
AMD760MPX
AMD762 Athlon MP, AMD760MPX
AMD768 ( ).
AMD760MPX 760MP :
32/64 PCI 66 
AMD762;
32 PCI 33
AMD768.
64 PCI 66
760MPX ,
760MP .
USB 2.0,
ATA133, DDR333 . 
Athlon, Duron Athlon XP 
. 760MP 760MPX 
. 

Athlon, Duron Athlon XP.

VIA Athlon, Duron


Athlon XP
VIA Technologies, Inc.
Intel AMD. 1987
, 
. VIA Technologies 
, .. , 
. 1999 VIA
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 337

337

National Semiconductor Cyrix, IDT


Centaur, , 
. VIA
Technologies SonicBLUE ( S3). 
S3 Graphics, Inc.
VIA Technologies 
Intel, AMD Cyrix (VIA). . 4.44 
Athlon/Duron, .
.
4.44. VIA Athlon/Duron ( / )

Apollo KX133 Apollo KT133

Apollo KT133A Apollo KLE133

Apollo KM133

1999 . 2000 .
VT8371
VT8363

2000 .
VT8363A

2001 .
VT8361

2000 .
VT8365

Athlon

Athlon/Duron

Athlon/Duron

Athlon/Duron

Athlon/Duron

Slot A
200

Socket A (462)
200

Socket A (462)
200/266

Socket A (462)
200/266

Socket A (462)
200/266

AGP

PCI


,


ATA/IDE
USB

Super I/O
CMOS/

4x

4x

4x

2.2
SDRAM
PC 133
1,5

2.2
SDRAM
PC 133
1,5

2.2
SDRAM
PC 100/133
1,5

2.2
SDRAM
PC 100/133
1,5

4x
S3 Savage 4
2.2
SDRAM
PC 100/133
1,5

VT82C686A
ATA566
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

552

VT82C686A
ATA566
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

552

VT82C686B
ATA5100
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

552

VT82C686B
ATA5100
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

552

VT8231
ATA5100
1C4P
SMM/ACPI

552

4.45. VIA V"Link Duron/Athlon XP


Apollo KT266

Apollo KT266A Apollo KT333

ProSavage KM266

Apollo KT400


,
SMP (
)

VT8366
200/266

VT8633A
200/266

VT8753E
200/266/333

VT8375
200/266

VT8377
200/266/333

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

DDR200/266/333 PC100/133, DDR200/266 DDR200/266/333

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

4x

4x

4x

4x
8x
S3 Graphics ProSavage8 3D

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A

VT8235

266

266

VT8233,
VT8233C,
VT8233A,
VT8235
266

266

533

552

552

552

552

664

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

V5Link,
/

338

. 338

4.

VIA VLink,
.
VLink hub Intel, HyperTransport
( Ali, NVIDIA ATI) ALink (ATI). VLink
VIA, Pentium 4. . 4.45
4.46 , VLink
VMAP (VIA Modular Architecture Platform). VIA Pentium 4
VMAP , 
VLink. , 
, .

Unicchrome KM400

Apollo KT400A

Apollo KT600

Apollo KT880


,
SMP (
)

KM400
200/266/333

VT8377A
200/266/333

KT600
266/333/400

KT600
266/333/400

DDR200/266/333

DDR200/266/ 333/400

DDR200/266/333/400

/ECC

,
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

DDR200/266/333/400,

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

8x
S3 Graphicss
UniChrome
VT8235CE,
VT8237

8x

8x

8x

VT8235CE,
VT8237

VT8237

VT8237

533

533

533

533

552

664

664

806

V5Link,
/

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 339

339

4.46. VIA Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP


USB ATA

USB

VT8233
VT8233A

1.1
1.1

6
6

33/66/100
33/66/100/133

AC'97, 65
1
AC'97, 65

VT8233C
VT8235CE

1.1
2.0

6
6

33/66/100/133
33/66/100

AC'97, 65
1
AC'97, 65

2.0

33/66/100/133;
AC'97, 65
Serial ATA; 5
SATA RAID

1,4

VT8237

10/100 HomePNA V"Link,


Ethernet
/ (
SATA RAID,
)

266 (376)
266 (376)

266 (376)
533 (539)

533 (0, 1, JBOD , 539)

;
MC'97.
2 3Com 10/100 Ethernet.
3 SATA SATALite. 
, Ultra VLink (1066 /).
4 8 (7.1) VIA Envy 24PT 
PCI.5 RAID 0+1 SATALite.

VIA Apollo KX133


VIA Apollo KX133 :
200 ;
AGP 4x;
PC133 SDRAM;
2 ;
ATA66;
USB;
AC97;
;
.
VIA Apollo KX133 : VT8371 ( ) VT82C686A
( ).
Apollo KT133 KT133A
VIA Apollo KT133 KT133A 
AMD Athlon Duron Socket A (462).
KX133 (Slot A) 
Socket A (462).
VIA Apollo KT133 KT133A : VT8363
( ) VT82C686A ( ) (KT133) VT8363A ( )
VT82C686B ( ) (KT133A).
KT133 KT133A:
Athlon/Duron Socket A (462);
200 ;
AGP 4x;
2 RAM;
PC100/PC133 SDRAM;

340

. 340

4.

PCI 2.2;
ATA66;
USB;
AC97;
Super I/O;
;
ACPI.
KT133A ( VT8363A VT82C686B) 
:
266 ;
ATA100.
ProSavage PM133
VIA ProSavage PM133  S3
Savage 4 S3 Savage 2000 S3 Graphics Apollo Pro 133A. 
Apollo Pro 133A :
2 32 , 
Savage 4 3D Savage 2000 2D;
Z, 32 , 
, .;
DVD,
DVI, TV;
PCI 2.2.
AGP 4x 
AGP 4x . ProSavage PM133 
VT8365 VT8231.
VT8231 Super I/O LPC.
Apollo KT266 KT266A
KT266, Athlon, 
VLink. VLink 552 
VT8366 376
VT8233 266 /, .. 
, PCI.
KT266 200/266 , 
AGP 2x/4x 4 DDR200/266 PC100/133. 
(VT8233, VT8233A VT8233C).
KT266A
KT266. VT8366A ( KT266A)
VIA Performance Driving ( , ),
, 
. KT266A KT266.
ProSavage KM266
ProSavage KM266
KT266 ProSavage 8 2D/3D S3 Graphics.
,
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 341

341

KM266 AGP 4x, 


.
ProSavage8 32 , 
AGP 8x 128
, DVD
DVD DXVA Motion Compensation.
VT8233,
4x VLink 266 /.
Apollo KT333
Apollo KT333 KT266A 

333 (DDR333). KT266A, KT333
PC100/133, KT8233.
Apollo KT400/KM400
Apollo KT400 Athlon XP
AGP 8x, VLink 
(VT8235), 533 /. VT8235
USB 2.0 ATA133.
, , VLink
KT400 
Athlon XP.
KM400 , KT400,
UniChrome,
 , S3 Graphics. 
KM400 VT8235CE VT8237, 
KT400A ( ).
Apollo KT400A/KT600
A 
, .
KT400A (VT8377A) (VT8237) .
KT400A:

333 ;
DDR SDRAM
DDR400;
4 ;




( FastStream64);
AGP 8x;

AC'97

;
USB 2.0;

MC'97;
10/100 Ethernet;
Serial ATA;
ATA 33/66/100/133;

ACPI/OnNow.

VT8235CE
(. . 4.46) VT8377A.
VT8237 KT400A :

342

. 342

4.

Surround Sound AC97;


;
USB 2.0;
MC97;
10/100 Ethernet;
Serial ATA;
ATA RAID 0, 1 ( 0+1 VIA SATAlite, 
SATA);
ATA 33/66/100/133;
ACPI/OnNow;
VIA Velocity Gigabit Ethernet ( PCI).
FastStream64 / 
3,2 / .
. 4.43 KT400A.

AMD
Athlon XP
Duron
200/266/333

200/266/
333/400

AGP 8X

KT400A

PHY
6X V5Link

VT6103

10/100 Ethernet
Serial ATA

PCI
PCI

VT8237

ATA 133
EPR03

8X USB 2.0

AC5Link

LPC

VT1211
LPC
Super
I/O

VT1616 AC97

MC597

LPC
/

. 4.43.  VIA VT400A

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 343

343

VIA KT600 KT400A/VT3237


Athlon XP 400 . 
, KT600 
VT8235CE, KT600/
VT8237, Serial ATA, SATA RAID .
KT880
VIA Athlon XP.

. :
400 ;
DDR DDR400;
8 ;
DualStream 64,
, , 
;
AGP 8x;
4.47. SiS Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

SiS730S

SiS740

SiS733

SiS735

SiS745

SiS746

,
SMP (
)

/ECC

,

HyperStreaming
PCI

200/266

266

200/266/333

200/266

266

266

PC133 SDRAM

1,5

PC133, DDR266 PC133

1,5
1,5

PC133, DDR266 DDR266/ 333 DDR266/333

1,5
3
3

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

PCI,
/
AGP

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

33/32

4x
1

4x

4x

4x

8x

SiS96x
533

SiS963
4
1000

MuTIOL, /

ATA

ATA5100

ATA5100

ATA5100

ATA5100

USB/

1.1/4

1.1/6

1.1/6

1.1/6

AC'97 5 AC'97 5 AC'97


S/PDIF
S/PDIF

10/100 Ethernet

IEEE51394a

2D/3D DVD SiS301 Video


Bridge TV .
2 , DirectX 7.0,
.

344

. 344

4.

Surround Sound AC97 


;
USB 2.0;
MC97;
10/100 Ethernet;
Serial ATA;
ATA RAID 0, 1 ( 0+1 VIA SATAlite, 
SATA);
ATA 33/66/100/133;
ACPI/OnNow.

SiS AMD
Athlon/Duron
SiS Athlon Duron
(. 4.47 4.48), .

SiS746FX

SiS741GX

SiS748

SiS741

,
SMP
( )

/ECC

,

HyperStreaming
PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

MuTIOL, /

266/333

4266/333

266/333/400

266/333/400

DDR266/333/400

DDR266/333

DDR266/333/400

DDR266/333/400

2.2
33/32

2.3
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.3
33/32

8x

8x
SiS Mirage Graphics

8x

8x
SiS Mirage Graphics

SiS963
4
1000

SiS964

SiS963

1000

1000

1000

ATA

USB/

10/100 Ethernet

IEEE51394a

SiS964
4

( / ).
MuTIOL.
5 HyperStreaming MuTIOL.
4

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 345

345

4.48. MuTIOL Athlon XP

USB

USB

ATA

SATA


RAID

SiS961

1.1

33/66/100

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS961B

1.1

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS962

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS962L

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS963

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS963L

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

SiS964

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

0, 1, JBOD*

AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
5.1

SiS964L

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

5555

5555

SiS965

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

0, 1, 0+1, JBOD*

SiS965

1.1, 2.0

33/66/100/133

0, 1, JBOD*

AC'97, ,
5.1
AC'97, ,
7.1
AC'97, ,
7.1

SiS MuTIOL

SiS96x
MuTIOL, .
MuTIOL ( SiS961/962) 16 
266 533 /,
hub Intel, 
Intel 800.
SiS963
MuTIOL, Mu
TIOL 1G. 16 533
1 /.
SiS748 SiS963 Mu
TIOL HyperStreaming,
.
.
, 543%.

.
. , 

.
. 
, IP 
.
.
.

346

. 346

4.

10/100
Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet

HomePNA
1.0/2.0

IEEE"1394

PCI"Express x16


MuTIOL,

SiS961

266

SiS961B

266

SiS962

266

SiS962L

266

SiS963

533

SiS963L

533

SiS964

1000

SiS964L

1000

SiS965

1000

SiS965L

1000

* JBOD just a bunch of disks ( ).


.

SiS730S

2D/3D, AMD Athlon Duron (Socket A).
, 128
AGP 4x, 
, . 
S1S301 Video Bridge TV NTSC/PAL.
S1S730S, , AGP 4x,
AGP.
SiS730S 10/100 Fast Ethernet,
AC97, ,
, , 
DMA. SiS730S , , LPC, 
Super I/O,  
USB USB. 
LPC/ISA SiS730S ISA.
SiS730S:
AMD Athlon/Duron 200/266 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
PC99;
PCI 2.2;
PCI;
Ultra DMA 100;
AGP 2x 2D/3D ;
;
DVD;
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 347

347

CRT CRT, LCD TV


;
LPC;
PCI H/W ( Sound Blaster 16
DirectSound 3D), ;
ACPI 1.0 APM 1.2;
PCI 1.0;
;
USB USB;
10/100 / Ethernet.
SiS733 SiS735
, AMD
Athlon Duron Socket A. SiS733 SiS735, 
SiS, , Super I/O 
.
SiS733, 682 BGA,
PC133 SDRAM. SiS735 PC133 DDR266 SDRAM, 
10/100 Fast Ethernet HomePNA 1/10 / Home
Network. SiS735 682 BGA.
SiS733 SiS735:
AGP 4x;
PCI;
UDMA/100 IDE;
1,5 RAM;
AC97 AMR;
RTC (RealTime Clock);
Low Pin Count, MIDI, 
BIOS;
PC2001.
SiS740
SiS740 
Athlon. 
MuTIOL. SiS740 :
Real256 2D/3D DirectX 7;
128 ;
DVD;
DDR266.
SiS961
SiS962.
SiS745
SiS745
IEEE1395a (FireWire 400)  
legacyfree. :

348

. 348

4.

DDR266/333 3 ;
Athlon XP ;
USB 1.1;
IEEE1394a;
, , , MIDI ;
ATA100;
AC'97 AMR (audio modem riser) 
V.90.
SiS746 746FX
SiS746 Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP 
, AGP 8x.
SiS963. 
:
266 ;
DDR266/333 ( FX DDR400);
AGP 8x;
MuTIOL 1 /, 
;
SiS963L.
SiS963L : ATA
133 USB 2.0, AC'97 MII 
HomePNA 10/100 Ethernet.
SiS963 IEEE1394a (FireWire 400).
SiS746FX SiS746,
333 DDR400.
SiS963.
SiS748
SiS746, SiS748 
SiS963,
HyperStreaming. :
400 ;
DDR266/333/400;
AGP 8x.
. 4.44 SiS748, 
SiS963L. SiS963
SiS963L IEEE1394a.
SiS741/741GX
SiS741 SiS Mirage Graphics. 
SiS748. 
SiS741 :
400 ;
DDR400;
3 ;

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 349

349


AGP 8x Fast Write

DIMM
,

DDR 1

AMD

AMD Athlon XP
Duron FSB 400
165
MuTIOL 533

SIS
748


AC3
6

IDE ATA 66/100/133

MuTIOL 1G

SIS

6 USB 2.0/1.1

V.90

AC link

963L

10 / HPNA
MII

PHY

6 PCI
PHY

LPC ROM
()

,
MIDI,

LPC 5/10

BIOS/Legacy

RJ 45
10/100 / LAN

PC2001

. 4.44. SiS748 SiS963L

AGP 8x;
SiS Mirage Graphics DirectX 8.1, 
32 64 ;
SiS963 SiS964.
SiS741GX SiS Mirage Graphics.
SiS746FX, 
SiS964.
SiS964 SiS741GX 
:
Serial ATA ( );
Serial ATA RAID;
PCI 2.3;
USB 2.0.

(ALiMagik 1) AMD Athlon


Acer Labs ALiMagik 1 : M1647
528 BGA M1535D+ ( 
Pentium III/Celeron).
M1647 SDRAM 
66/100/133 , DDR SDRAM 200 266 .
350

. 350

4.

RAM 3 , 
(). SDRAM 
x1111111. M1647 ,
DDR SDRAM, 
.
M1647 AGP 4x, PCI 2.2, 
PCI, PCI, ACPI,
. ,
PCI Mobile CLKRUN# AGP Mobile BUSY#/STOP#.
MobileMagik 1, 1535+, 
, Athlon Duron.
, , 
DDR, 
PCI 133 , AliMagik1
Athlon.

NVIDIA
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP
NVIDIA, 
GeForce, 
AMD Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP, nForce nForce2.
nForce.
HyperTransport ,
400 /.
nForce.
,
, .
64.
NView ( 420 )
.
AGP 4x.
DASP (Dynamic adaptive speculative preproces
sor), 
.
StreamThru, () 
10/100 Ethernet,
.
GeForce2 MX ( 420) c
DVI.

Dolby Digital (AC3) 5.1 ( 
SoundStorm).
nForce2 .
DualDDR DDR400
DIMM.
IEEE1394a.
GeForce 4x.
AGP 8x.
Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 351

351

. 4.49 nForce nForce2,


. 4.50 . 
, NVIDIA 
Pentium 4. nForce 
Xbox Microsoft.

IGP (Integrated Graphics Processor), , 
AGP, SPP (System Platform Processor).
MCP (Media and Communications Processor). IGP/SPP
MCP HyperTransport
800 /.
, , 
HyperTransport 
MCPD MCPT nForce2 
Athlon XP.
4.49. IGP/SPP ( ) nForce/nForce2

nForce 420

nForce 415

NForce2 IGP

nForce2 SPP

,
SMP
( )

200/266

266

200/266/333

200/266/333

PC100/133,
DDR200/266

PC100/133, DDR200/266 DDR200/266/333/400

DDR200/266/ 333/400

/ECC
,

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

4x
GeForce2 MX

4x

8x
GeForce4 MX

8x

400

400

800

800

PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

HyperTransport, /

1

nForce MCP, MCP5D nForce MCP, MCP5D

nForce2 MCP, MCP5T, nForce2 MCP, MCP5T,


Gigabit MCP
Gigabit MCP

DDR400 AGP.

4.50. nForce/nForce2 MCP ( )

USB

USB

ATA

SATA ATA/SATA RAID

nForce MCP

1.1

33/66/100

1.1

33/66/100

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/133

nForce2 MCP5T

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/133

nForce2 Gigabit MCP

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/133

nForce2 RAID MCP

1.1/2.0

33/66/100/133

NForce MCP5D

nForce2 MCP
1

NVIDIA SoundStorm.

352

. 352

4.

. 4.45 nForce2 IGP MCP, 


. IGP 
SPP, . ,
MCPT MCP IEEE1394a, Dolby Digi
tal 5.1 .

ATI Radeon IGP


ATI Athlon 
Radeon VE, DVD
,
. 
ALink, ,
PCI. Radeon IGP 
, Ali VIA.

nForce2 400

nForce2 Ultra 400

NForce2 Ultra 400R

NForce2 Ultra 400 Gb

,
SMP
( )

200/266/333/400

200/266/333/400

200/266/333/400

200/266/333/400

DDR200/266/
1
333/400

DDR200/266/
1
333/400

DDR200/266/ 333/400

DDR200/266/ 333/400

/ECC
,


PCI
PCI,
/
AGP

HyperTransport, /

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

2.2
33/32

8x

8x

8x

8x

800

800

800

800

nForce2 MCP, MCP5T, nForce2 MCP, MCP5T, nForce2 RAID MCP


Gigabit MCP
Gigabit MCP

nForce2 Gigabit MCP

10/100
Gigabit
IEEE"
Ethernet Ethernet 1394

nForce MCP

AC'97, , 5.1

nForce IGP, SPP

NForce MCP5D1

NVIDIA Audio Processing


Unit, Dolby Digital 5.1,
DirectX 8, S/PDIF
AC'97, 65

nForce IGP, SPP,


400, Ultra 400

nForce IGP, SPP,


400, Ultra 400

nForce IGP, SPP,


400, Ultra 400
nForce2 Ultra
400Gb
nForce2 Ultra
400R

nForce2 MCP
nForce2 MCP5T1

NVIDIA Audio Processing

Unit, Dolby Digital 5.1,


(NVIDIA
2
DirectX 8, S/PDIF
3Com)

nForce2 Gigabit MCP AC'97, 65,


S/PDIF
nForce2 RAID MCP
AC'97, 65,
S/PDIF

HomePNA.

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 353

353

Athlon Radeon IGP


320. ATI Radeon
IGP 320 IXP 200 IXP 250,
USB 2.0 ATA33/66/100.
Radeon 320M IGP , Radeon 320 IGP 
. . 4.51 Radeon IGP 320, . 4.52
IXP 200 IXP 250.

Athlon XP


DDR DIMM
nView
GPU

MC0

AGP

MC1

DDR DIMM

AGP8X

IGP2

HyperTransport
HyperTransport
800 /

10/100 Ethernet

HyperTransport

NVIDIA 802.3

2X 10/100
Ethernet

USB 2.0

3Com
Mz0

1324z

2x ATA 133

PCI

USB 2.0

IEEE 1394a

APU (Audio
Processing
Unit)

MCP2

LPC

. 4.45. NVIDIA nForce2 IGP/MCP2

4.51. Radeon IGP ( ) Athlon


Radeon IGP 320

Radeon IGP 320

,
SMP ( )

/ECC
,

200/266

DDR200/266

PCI
PCI, /
AGP

A5Link, /

2.2
33/32
4x
Radeon VE*
266

* ATI Radeon 700 .

354

. 354

4.

4.52. ATI Athlon


IXP 200/250*

USB

6 USB 2.0

ATA

ATA5100

AC'97, S/PDIF

Ethernet

3Com 10/100

Super I/O

A5Link

* IXP 250 IXP 200 WOL (Wake On LAN), DMI (Desktop Man
agement Interface), MBA (Manage Boot Agent) ASF (Alert Standards Forum).

Intel
Pentium 4 Xeon
Intel
Pentium 4 Xeon. 
(. 4.53).
4.53. Intel

860

E7205

E7505

E7525

Colusa
2001 .
82860
400
Xeon

Granite Bay
2002 .
E7205
400/533
1
Pentium 4

Tumwater
2004 .
E7525
800

SMP
( )

Placer
2002 .
E7505
400/533
Xeon
533 5
1
512

/ECC

,

4 (

MRHR)
3

DDR200/266 SDRAM
( )

DDR200/266
( )

16

DDR333 DDR2 400


( )

16

(
)
(
)

4 RDRAM PC800

Xeon
800

PCI
PCI,
/

2.2
4
33/32

2.2

2.2

33/32

33/32

33/32

2.2

AGP

2x/4x

1x/2x/4x/5x

1x/2x/4x/8x

PCI-Express x16

ICH2

ICH4

ICH4

ICH5R 6300ESB7

HT.
MRHR.
3
MRHR.
4
64 33/66 P64H.
5
HT.
6
64 33/66 PCIX
P64H2.
7
6300ESB SATA RAID 0,1, USB 2.0, PCIX 64
/66 (64/66) 4 PCIX 64/66.
2

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP

. 355

355

Intel 860
,
Socket 6032 Xeon, DP.
860 82801BA ICH 2 ( , Intel 850) 82860 MCH
(Memory Controller Hub), Socket 602 Xeon
( Foster). 82860 MCH
RDRAM 400 3,2 /,
100 . 
1.5V AGP 4x 1 /.
Intel 860
82860AA (P64H) PCI Controller Hub (6 ) 82803AA MRHR.
82860AA 64 PCI 33 66 ,
82803AA RDRAM, 
.

Intel E7205
Intel E7205, Granite Bay, 

. Pentium 4 
HT 3,06 , DDR200/266 SDRAM, 
533 ICH4 I/O Controller Hub (
845). Intel E7205 
/ECC, ,
, AGP 1x8x 
AGP Pro ( AGP 3,5 , 
3dfx, ).

Intel E7505
Intel E7505, Placer, 
Intel 860, 
.
Intel E7505 533 , 
Xeon  
512 HT. , 
DDR200/266, 16 (
, 860 E7205).
ECC . SDDC
(singledevice data correction) Intel 
, 
.
AGP Pro AGP
1x8x ( AGP 3,5 )
ICH4 I/O Controller Hub. 64 PCI
66 PCIX 133 
P64H2 (82807P2)
P64H, Intel 860.

Intel E7525
Intel E7525,
Tumwate, Intel 9xx 
Xeon 800 ,
64 Xeon  L2 2 . 
356

. 356

4.

E7525 16 DDR2 400 (


DIMM ) DDR333 ( DIMM ),
ECC, SDDC (singledevice data correction) Intel, 
DIMM, . DIMM 
,
.
.
E7525 Intel 
PCIExpress x16. ICH5R ESB6300 I/O
Controller Hub. PCI 66 /64 PCIX 133
E7525 6700 PXH (64
PCI).

Athlon 64
Athlon 64 , 
64 
( 
). ,
(North Bridge), , 
AGP.
Athlon 64 , AMD,
VIA Technologies, NVIDIA, ATI, SiS ULi Electronics ( ALi Corporation).
Athlon 64 . 4.54. 
Sempron Socket 754.

Athlon 64

. 357

357

4.54. Athlon 64
"

Opteron

8131 PCI5X

AMD

8151

HyperTransport (16 /
2
800)

8111

ALi

M1687

HyperTransport (16 /
800 )

M1653

ALi

M1689

HyperTransport (16 /
800 )

5555

HyperTransport (16 /
1 )

M1567

HyperTransport (16 /
1 ); Ultra V5Link

VT8251 ( Velocity Gigabit Ethernet (PCI);


VIA Vinyl Gold 85 audio
17
VT8237R )

1,6

5555

5555

ULi

M1695

VIA

K8T800 Pro

VIA

K8T800

HyperTransport (16 /
800 ; 8x V5Link

VT8237R

VIA

K8M800

HyperTransport (16 /
800 ; 8x V5Link

VIA

K8T890

VIA

K8M890

VIA

AMD 8132 PCI5X

17

Velocity Gigabit Ethernet (PCI);


SATAlite SATA/SATA RAID 0+1;
VIA Vinyl Gold (85 )

VT8237R

17

Velocity Gigabit Ethernet; SATAlite


SATA/SATA RAID 0+1; VIA Vinyl
Gold (85 )

HyperTransport (16 /
1 ; Ultra V5Link

VT8237R17
VT825117

Velocity Gigabit Ethernet (PCI);


VIA Vinyl Gold(85 )

HyperTransport (16 /
1 ; Ultra V5Link

VT8237R17
VT825117

Velocity Gigabit Ethernet (PCI);


VIA Vinyl Gold(85 )

K8T900

HyperTransport (16 /
1 ; Ultra V5Link

VT8251

Velocity Gigabit Ethernet (PCI);


VIA Vinyl Gold(85 )

NVIDIA

nForce3 150

HyperTransport (8 /
5555
2
600 ; 16 /800 )

5555

NVIDIA

nForce3 150 Pro

10

HyperTransport (8 /
5555
2
600 ; 16 /800 )

5555

NVIDIA

nForce3 250

HyperTransport (16 /
800 )

5555

5555

NVIDIA

nForce3 250 Gb

HyperTransport (16 /
800 )

5555

5555

NVIDIA

nForce3 250 Pro

10

HyperTransport (16 /
800 )

5555

5555

NVIDIA

nForce3 250 Ultra

13

HyperTransport (16 /
2
1 )

5555

5555

NVIDIA

22

nForce4

HyperTransport (16 /
800 )

5555

5555

NVIDIA

22

nForce4 Ultra

HyperTransport (16 /
1 )

5555

5555

NVIDIA

22

nForce4 SLI

HyperTransport (16 /
1 )

5555

5555

NVIDIA

22

nForce4 SLI x 16

HyperTransport (16 /
1 )

5555

5555

358

. 358

4.

"

PCI"Express ATA/Serial ATA


x1

USB
(
)

AMD

AGP 8x

ATA5133

1.1/2.0 (6)

AC97 2.2
(65)

10/100 Ethernet

ALi

AGP 8x

ATA5133

1.1/2.0 (6)

AC97 2.2 655


); SPDIF

10/100 Ethernet

ALi

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.3 (655


; 20 )

10/100 Ethernet

ULi

PCI-Express 1 x16
14,15
2 x8; AGP 8x

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.3 (655


; 20 )

10/100 Ethernet

VIA

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA,
SATA RAID 0, 1,
JBOD
ATA5133, SATA,
SATA RAID 0, 1,
7
0+1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.2 (655


10/100 Ethernet
); Intel HDA

VIA

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA,
SATA RAID 0, 1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.2 (655


)

10/100 Ethernet

VIA


UniChrome Pro; AGP
8x
PCI5 Express x16
4

ATA5133, SATA,
SATA RAID 0, 1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.2 (655


)

10/100 Ethernet

ATA5133, SATA,
SATA RAID 0, 1,
7
0+1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.2 (655


10/100 Ethernet
); Intel HDA

ATA5133, SATA,
SATA RAID 0, 1,
0+17

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.2 (655


10/100 Ethernet
); Intel HDA

ATA5133, SATA,
1.1/2.0 (8)
SATA RAID 3Gbs 0,
1, 0+1, 5, JBOD
ATA5133, RAID 0, 1, 1.1/2.0 (6)
0+1

AC97 2.2 (655


10/100 Ethernet
); Intel HDA

VIA

VIA

VIA

AGP 8x; PCI5 Express 4


x16; 5

DeltaChrome
PCI5 Express x16
4

NVIDIA

AGP 8x

NVIDIA

AGP 8x

ATA5133, RAID 0, 1, 1.1/2.0 (6)


0+1

NVIDIA

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA,
ATA/SATA RAID 0,
1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (8)

NVIDIA

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA,
ATA/SATA RAID 0,
1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (6)

AC97 2.1 (655


; 20 ;
SPDIF)

10/100/1000
8
Ethernet

NVIDIA

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA,
ATA/SATA RAID 0,
1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (6)

AC97 2.1 (655


; 20 ;
SPDIF)

10/100/1000
8
Ethernet

NVIDIA

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA,
ATA/SATA RAID 0,
1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.1 (655


; 20 ;
SPDIF)

10/100/1000
8
Ethernet

ATA5133, SATA,
ATA/SATA RAID 0,
1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (10)

AC97 2.1 (655


; 20 ;
SPDIF)

10/100/1000
8
Ethernet

20

ATA5133, SATA 3
/, ATA/SATA
RAID 0, 1, 0+1, 5

1.1/2.0 (10)

AC97 2.1 (655


; 20 ;
SPDIF)

10/100/1000
8, 19
Ethernet

20

ATA5133, SATA 3
/, ATA/SATA
RAID 0, 1, 0+1, 5

1.1/2.0 (10)

AC97 2.1 (655


; 20 ;
SPDIF)

10/100/1000
8, 19
Ethernet

21

ATA5133, SATA 3
/, ATA/SATA
RAID 0, 1, 0+1, 5

1.1/2.0 (10)

AC97 2.1 (655


; 20 ;
SPDIF)

10/100/1000
8, 19
Ethernet

NVIDIA

22

PCI-Express x16

NVIDIA

22

PCI-Express x16

NVIDIA

22

PCI-Express x16
20
2 x8

NVIDIA

22

PCI-Express x16

20

21

Athlon 64

. 359

AC97 2.1 (655


; 20 ;
SPDIF)
AC97 2.1 (655
; 20 ;
SPDIF)
AC97 2.1 (655
; 20 ;
SPDIF)

10/100 Ethernet

10/100 Ethernet

10/100 Ethernet

359

"

Opteron

SiS

755

HyperTransport (800
CPU5NB); MuTIOL 1G

HyperStreaming (NB/SB)

SiS964

5555

SiS

755FX

10

HyperTransport (1
CPU5NB); MuTIOL 1G

HyperStreaming (NB/SB)

SiS965 (

SiS964)

5555

SiS

756

10

HyperTransport (1
CPU5NB); MuTIOL 1G

HyperStreaming (NB/SB)

SiS965

5555

SiS

760

SiS964

5555

SiS

760GX

HyperTransport (800
CPU5NB); MuTIOL 1G

HyperStreaming (NB/SB)
HyperTransport (800
CPU5NB); MuTIOL 1G

HyperStreaming (NB/SB)

SiS966 (

SiS965/L)

5555

SiS

761

SiS966 (

SiS965/L)

5555

SiS

761GL

SiS966 (

SiS965/L)

5555

SiS

761GX

HyperTransport (1 CPU5
NB); MuTIOL 1G 5

HyperStreaming (NB/SB)
HyperTransport (800
CPU5NB); MuTIOL 1G

HyperStreaming (NB/SB)
HyperTransport (1
CPU5NB); MuTIOL 1G

HyperStreaming (NB/SB)

SiS966 (

SiS965/L)

5555

ATI

RS480

ATI

RX480

10

23

HyperTransport (16 /
800 ); A5Link II

SB400

5555

23

HyperTransport (16 /
800); A5Link II

SB400

5555

24

HyperTransport (16 /
800); A5Link II
HyperTransport (16 /
800); A5Link II

SB450

5555

SB600

5555

ATI

RD482

ATI

RD580

1 8000. 8151 (AGP 3.0 Graphics Tunnel) 


, 
.
2 8 HyperTransport 8 ; 16 HyperTransport 
16 .
3 PCIX HyperTransport.
4 M1653 . 4.35.
5 .
6 , AGP PCI
FSB .
7 RAID 0+1 SATAlite PHY .
8 .
9 SiS965.
10 Athlon 64 FX Opteron.
11 SiS966.
12 Athlon 64 FX.

360

. 360

4.

. 4.54
"

PCI"Express ATA/Serial ATA


x1

USB
(
)

SiS

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA,
RAID 0, 1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.3 (655


)

10/100 Ethernet;
HomePNA 2.0

SiS

AGP 8x

ATA5133, SATA,
9
RAID 0, 1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.3 (855


)

10/100/1000
Ethernet;
HomePNA 2.0

SiS

PCI5Express x16

ATA5133, SATA,
9
RAID 0, 1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.3 (855


)

10/100/1000
Ethernet;
HomePNA 2.0

SiS

AGP 8x; 5

Mirage 2

ATA5133, SATA,
RAID 0, 1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.3 (655


)

10/100 Ethernet;
HomePNA 2.0

SiS

AGP 8x; 5 4

Mirage 1

11

ATA5133, SATA,
13
RAID 0, 1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (10)

SiS

PCI5Express x16;


Mirage 3

11

ATA5133, SATA,
13
RAID 0, 1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (10)

SiS


Mirage 1

11

ATA5133, SATA,
13
RAID 0, 1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (10)

SiS

PCI5Express x16;


Mirage 1

411

ATA5133, SATA,
13
RAID 0, 1, 0+1

ATI

PCI5Express x16;


Radeon X300
PCI5Express x16

ATI
ATI
ATI

PCI5Express x8 ( 2
)
PCI5Express x16 ( 2
)

13

AC97 2.3 (655


10/100/1000
); Intel HDA Ethernet;
HomePNA 2.0

13

AC97 2.3 (655


); Intel
13
HDA

10/100/1000
Ethernet;
HomePNA 2.0

13

AC97 2.3 (655


); Intel
13
HDA

10/100/1000
Ethernet;
HomePNA 2.0

1.1/2.0 (10)

13

AC97 2.3 (655


); Intel
13
HDA

10/100/1000
Ethernet;
HomePNA 2.0

ATA5133, SATA,
RAID 0, 1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.2 (655


5555
); Intel HDA

ATA5133, SATA,
RAID 0, 1, 0+1
ATA5133, SATA,
RAID 0, 1, 0+1
ATA5133, SATA,
RAID 0, 1, 0+1

1.1/2.0 (8)

AC97 2.2 (655


5555
); Intel HDA
AC97 2.2 (655
5555
); Intel HDA
AC97 2.2 (655
5555
); Intel HDA

1.1/2.0 (8)
1.1/2.0 (8)

13

13

13

13

13

Athlon 64 (Socket 939);


Opteron (Socket 940).
14 AGP 8x M1567.
15 Uli TGI (Triple Graphics Interface),
PCIExpress, AGP PCI .
16 AP9507A M1695 M1567.
17 VT8237.
18 VT8237R. ATA/SATA PCIExpress x1 
VT8251 . K8T900.
19 ActiveArmor.
20 PCIExpress 20; 
.
21 PCIExpress 38; 
.
22 NVIDIA Sempron 
.

Athlon 64

. 361

361

23

Radeon Xpress 200.


Radeon Xpress 200 CrossFire Edition.
HDA HighDefinition Audio ( Azalia); 32 
192 ; Dolby Pro Logic IIx ( 7.1), 
.
JBOD Just a bunch of disks ( );
.

24

AMD 8000 (8151)


AMD, Athlon 64 Opteron.
/
hub, Pentium II/III/4/Celeron AMD Athlon/
Athlon XP/Duron.
AMD8000 AMD8151, AMD
8151 Athlon 64 Opteron AGP.

MCH. MCH
. AMD AMD8151
AGP (AGP Graphics Tunnel),
AGP.
AMD8000 AMD8111 HyperTransport I/O hub ( )
AMD8131 PCIX Tunnel. AMD8151 AGP
Graphics Tunnel 2003 AMD8111
HyperTransport I/O hub AMD8131 PCIX Tunnel 
PCI PCIX .
AMD8151,
AGP, AMD8000 
, .
AMD8151 AGP Graphics Tunnel :
AGP 2.0/3.0 (AGP 1x8x);
HyperTransport 16 
;
HyperTransport 8
.
AMD8111 HyperTransport I/O hub ( ) 
:
PCI 2.2 PCI (32; 33 ),
;
AC97 2.2;
USB 1.1/2.0 ( );
 ATA/IDE, ATA133;
RTC;
LPC;
10/100 Ethernet;
HyperTransport 8
.

362

. 362

4.

AMD8131 HyperTransport PCIX Tunnel


:
PCIX (A B), PCI 
;
PCIX 133 ;
PCI 2.2 PCI 33 66 ;
;
HyperTransport 8
.
. 4.46 AMD 8151 Athlon 64.

AMD
Athlon 64

DDR333

2,66 /

165
HyperTransport
6,4 /

AGP 8x

2,1 /

AMD"8151
AGP
Tunnel

85
HyperTransport
800 /
ATA/133
325
PCI 33

AMD"8111
I/O
Hub

Ethernet
USB 2.0
AC 97

LPC

Flash5

Super I/O

. 4.46.  AMD 8151 Athlon 64

ULi Athlon 64
ALi 
Athlon XP, Athlon 64 Opteron:
M1687 M1689. M1687 ,
M1689 . 
SiS, NVIDIA.

Athlon 64

. 363

363

ALi M1687
M1687 M1563,
AMD8151/AMD8111, :
AGP 2.0/3.0 (AGP 1x8x);
HyperTransport 16 ;
HyperTransport 8 
(M1687) (M1563) ;
PCI 2.2 PCI (32; 33 ),
;
AC97 2.2;
USB 1.1/2.0 ( );
 ATA/IDE, ATA133;
RTC;
LPC;
10/100 Ethernet.
AMD8151/AMD8111 ALi
M1687 Secure Digital Sony Memory Stick, 
M1563.
ALi M1689
Athlon 64 Opteron,
; Mobile Athlon 64.
, Serial ATA,
USB 2.0/1.1, AC97 2.3 (20 ).
ALi M1689 :
AGP 2.0/3.0 (AGP 1x8x);
PCI 2.3 PCI, 
;
 ATA133, 48 LBA;
 USB USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100 Ethernet;
AC97 2.3 20 ;
 Serial ATA.
ULi M1695
Athlon 64, 
PCIExpress x16 AGP 8x (
M1567). TGI (Triple Graphics Interface )
PCI.
PCIExpress, AGP PCI ( )
. M1695 PCIExpress x8, 
NVIDIA SLI. M1695 
M1567 Uli
Athlon 64. :
PCIExpress x16 x8; 
AGP 8x M1567;

364

. 364

4.

PCIExpress x1;
PCI 2.3 (bus master);
ATA133 48 LBA;
USB USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100 Ethernet;
AC`97 2.3 c 20 ;
Serial ATA SATA RAID 0, 1 JBOD.
 ULi M1695/M1567 . 4.47. ,
Uli M1695/M1567 PCIX 
, AMD8132.

AMD
Athlon
64 X2

HyperTransport 16 x16

PCI

EXPRESS
1 x16

ULi
Express
Power
M1695

PCI

EXPRESS

1 x4 2 x1

HyperTransport 16 x16

PCI

AMD58132
PCI5X

PCI

HyperTransport

AGP 8X

ULi
M1567

SERIAL
ATA

USB

. 4.47. ULi M1695/M1567 PCI

Express x16 AGP 8x. PCIX AMD8132

VIA Athlon 64
VIA Technologies
AMD; 
Athlon 64 Opteron.
VIA :
K8T800 Pro;
K8T800;
Athlon 64

. 365

365

K8M800;
K8T890;
K8M890.
.
K8T800, K8T800 Pro K8M800
VIA Athlon 64 Opteron K8T800 (
K8T400).
AMD ALi, VIA 8x
VLink (533 /) HyperTransport (,
, ). K8T800 
VT8237. :
HyperTransport (16 /800 ) ;
AGP 4x/8x;
PCI 2.3 PCI, 
;
 ATA133;
USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100 Ethernet;
5.1 AC97 2.3;
 Serial ATA/SATA RAID (RAID 0, 1, JBOD).
K8T800 
:
SATAlite SATA ( ; RAID 0+1);
VPX2 ( PCIX);
VIA Vinyl Gold (7.1 , PCI);
Gigabit Ethernet ( PCI).
K8T800 Pro K8T800, 
:
HyperTransport (16 /1 ) ;
PCI AGP;
Ultra VLink (1 /) .
PCI
AGP. 
, 
.
K8M800 K8T800, ,
S3 UniChrome Pro. 128
2D/3D,
MPEG2 MPEG4, 
, HDTV 1080 .
K8T890, K8M890 K8T900
VIA Athlon 64/Opteron, 
PCIExpress x16 .

366

. 366

4.

HyperTransport (16 /1 )
, Ultra VLink (1 /) .
20 PCIExpress, 
PCIExpress x1.
VT8251, 

:
 Serial ATA, SATA RAID 0, 1 0+1;
HighDefinition Audio Intel (HDA; 
Azalia); HDA Dolby Digital Iifx 7.1 
24 /192 ;
PCIExpress x1. (
, ).

K8T890 K8M890 VT8237R, VT8251. 
, ,
.
K8M800 K8T800, 
S3 Graphics DeltaChrome. 2D/3D 
DirectX 9.
K8T900 K8T890,
PCIExpress 2 x8, PCIExpress.

NVIDIA Athlon 64
NVIDIA Athlon 64,
:
nForce3 150;

nForce3 250 Ultra;

nForce4 Ultra;

nForce3 250;

nForce4;

nForce 4 SLI.

nForce3 250Gb;

Sempron:
nForce 410 with GeForce 6100;
nForce 430 with GeForce 6100;
nForce 430 with GeForce 6150.
, NVIDIA Opteron,
:
nForce3 Pro 150;
nForce3 Pro 250;
nForce Professional 2050;
nForce Professional 2200.
NVIDIA
MCP (media and communications processor), 
.
NVIDIA .

Athlon 64

. 367

367

nForce3 150 nForce3 Pro 150


Athlon 64
NVIDIA nForce3 150 MCP. 
, Athlon 64;
. ,
, ,
. nForce3 150 :
HyperTransport ; 
16 /800
.
8 /600 ;
AGP 1x 8x;
 ATA133 ATA/IDE;
RAID 0, 1 0+1;
AC97 2.1 (20 ), SPDIF;
USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100 Ethernet.
nForce3 Pro 150 ,
Opteron NVIDIA
Quadro .

nForce3 150 nForce3Pro 150 5


SATA SATA RAID, ,
SATA RAID.

nForce3 250, nForce3 250Gb, nForce3 250 Ultra nForce3 250 Pro
nForce3 250 MCP , 
, nForce3 150 nForce3 150 Pro. nForce3
250 :
HyperTransport (16 /800 ) MCP 
;
AGP 8x;
 ATA133 ATA/IDE, RAID
0, 1 0+1;
SATA, SATA RAID 0, 1 0+1;
USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100 Ethernet ;
AC97 2.1 (20 ), SPDIF.
250Gb 250, 10/100/1000
Ethernet . 250 Pro
250 Gb Opteron, 
NVIDIA Quadro.
250 Ultra 250, 10/100/1000
Ethernet Advanced HyperTrans
port (16 /1 ) MCP .

368

. 368

4.


, nForce3 250, 5
.
, ,
.

nForce4 nForce Professional


nForce4 NVIDIA
PCIExpress nForce3. 
nForce4 : nForce4, nForce Ultra, nForce4 SLI nForce4 SLI x16.
nForce4 :
HyperTransport 16 /800 , 
MCP;
PCIExpress x16;
ATA133 ATA/IDE RAID 0, 1 0+1;
SATA SATA RAID 0, 1, 0+1;
10 USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100/1000 Ethernet ;
AC97 2.1 20 SPDIF.
nForce4 Ultra SATA 3 / (SATA II) 
ActiveArmor.
nForce4 SLI PCIExpress 
x16 NVIDIA x8. 
nForce4 Ultra RAID 5.
nForce4 SLI x16
NVIDIA PCIExpress x16, 38 PCIExpress. 
nForce4 SLI.
nForce4 Professional Opteron nForce4,
.
nForce Professional 2050 PCIExpress x16
PCIExpress x1, Gigabit Ethernet, SATA 3 /
RAID 0,1 0+1. PATA, 32
PCI, , LPC .
nForce Professional 2200 20 PCIExpress 
, Gigabit Ethernet; SATA 3 / 
RAID 0,1 0+1. 32 PCI, 10
USB 2.0, LPC, AC97 2.3 PATA. 
2200 ;
Opteron.
nForce 410 nForce 430
NVIDIA AMD
Sempron, Athlon 64. nForce 410 nForce
430 GeForce 6100, , nForce 430
GeForce 6150.
. 4.55 nForce 4xx 
.

Athlon 64

. 369

369

4.55. nForce 4xx


AMD Sempron
"
MCP

PCI"Express ATA/Serial ATA


x1

RAID

USB
(
)

410

GeForce 6100

PCI5Express x16 1

ATA5133 (4), SATA


3Gbps (2)

0,1

1.1/2.0 (8)

HDA, AC97

430

GeForce 6100

PCI5Express x16 1

0,1, 0+1, 5 1.1/2.0 (8)

HDA, AC97

430

GeForce 6100

PCI5Express x16 1

ATA5133 (4), SATA


3 / (4)
ATA5133 (4), SATA
3 / (4)

0,1, 0+1, 5 1.1/2.0 (8)

HDA, AC97

HDA HighDefinition Audio ( Azalia); CD


(192 , 32 ), Dolby Pro Logic IIx ( 7.1) 
.

SiS Athlon 64
SiS 64 AMD. 
:
755;
755FX;
756.
,
64 AMD:
760;
760GX;
761;
761GX.
.
SiS755 SiS755FX
SiS Athlon 64, Opteron Athlon 64 FX 
SiS755.
SiS964. SiS755 :
HyperTransport (16 /800 )
HyperStreaming;
AGP 8x;
MuTIOL 1G 
HyperStreaming;
 ATA133;
Serial ATA SATA RAID 0 1;
USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100 Ethernet;
AC97 2.3.
SiS755FX SiS755;
SiS965, 
588 , SiS964, 505 .
755/964 755FX/965 :

370

. 370

4.

LAN

DirectX 9.0
Shader Model 3

TV"

TDM

S/DVI

1080i/p MPEG"2,
,
WMA

10/100 Ethernet

425

2x2 (
)

10/100/1000
Ethernet*
10/100/1000
Ethernet*

425

475

2x2 (
)
5x4 (
)

* ActiveArmor.

HyperTransport (16 /1 )
HyperStreaming;
PCIExpress x1;
Serial ATA SATA RAID 0, 1, 0+1 JBOD (
);
10/100/1000 Ethernet.
SiS756
SiS756 
Athlon 64 FX. SiS, 
PCIExpress x16. SiS756
SiS965. SiS756:
HyperTransport (16 /1 )
HyperStreaming;
PCIExpress x16;
PCIExpress x1;
Serial ATA SATA RAID 0 1;
USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100 Ethernet;
AC97 2.3.

SiS965 SiS965L, 5
SATA SATA RAID 0 1. .

PCIExpress x16 AGP 8x, 


SiS.
 SiS756 SiS965 . 4.48.
SiS760 Sis760GX
SiS Athlon 64
Opteron SiS760. SiS755.
, SiS964. 
SiS760 :
HyperTransport (16 /800 )
HyperStreaming;
Athlon 64

. 371

371

AMD Athlon 64FX


(FSB 2000MT/s)

HyperTransport

PCI5Express

SiS
706
PCI5Express 16x

IDE/ATA133/100/66

MuTIOLR 1G

4 SATA

8 USB 2.0/1.1

6 PCI 2.3
PCI5Express 1x
/

85

SiS
965

AC97 2.3

V.90

MII
LPC ROM

/MIDI/

LAN 10/100 /

GMII/RGMII
10/100/1000Mb LAN PHY
LPC
S/IO

BIOS

RJ545

LAN 10/100 /100 /

RJ545

. 4.48. Athlon 64, SiS756

(
PCIExpress),

AGP 8x;
MuTIOL 1G 
HyperStreaming;
 ATA133;
Serial ATA SATA RAID 0 1;
USB 1.1/2.0;
10/100 Ethernet;
AC97 2.3.
SiS Mirage 2 (Ultra256) 
:
DirectX 8.1 3D;
256 3D;
128 2D;
TV 
;
128 .
SiS760GX 128
Mirage 1.
SiS760GX SiS966, 
:
PCIExpress x1;
SATA, SATA RAID 0, 1 0+1;
USB 1.1/2.0;

372

. 372

4.

AC97 2.3 7.1 High


Definition Audio, Intel;
10/100/1000 Ethernet.
SiS761GL SiS761GX
SiS761GL SiS761GX SiS760
Athlon 64, Opteron Sempron ( 32 
). SiS966.

SiS966, SiS965 SiS965L . 5


SiS965 SiS965L SiS966.

SiS761GX :
HyperTransport (16 /800 )
HyperStreaming;
PCIExpress x16;
MuTIOL 1G 
HyperStreaming;
Mirage ( DirectX 7.0) 
128 .
SiS761GL :
HyperTransport 16 /800 ;
PCIExpress x16;
Mirage 1 ( DirectX 7.0) 
128 .
SiS966
:
PCIExpress x1;
SATA, SATA RAID 0, 1 0+1;
USB 1.1/2.0;
AC97 2.3 7.1 High
Definition Audio, Intel;
10/100/1000 Ethernet.

HDA ( Azalia) Dolby Pro Logic Iix5


7.15 CE5 (192 , 32 ).

ATI Athlon 64
ATI
Athlon 64: RS480 ( Radeon 9200, DirectX 8.1)
RX480. SB400 (
IXP400). RS480 ,
:
HyperTransport (16 /800 ) ;

Athlon 64

. 373

373

PCIExpress x16;
ALink II ;
PCIExpress x1.
RS480 :
Radeon X300 DirectX 9.0 /
2.0;
( 128 );
ATI;
DVI.
CrossFire Radeon Express 200 RD482
PCIExpress x8 ; RD580
PCIExpress x16.
SB400 :
ATA133;
Serial ATA host SATA RAID 0, 1;
USB 2.0;
AC97 2.3.
SB450, RD482,
HDA RAID 0+1 SB400.
RD580 SB600. 
( ULi), ,
M1573 M1575, ATI.

Super I/O
Super I/O.
, 
.
Super I/O ( ) :
;
;
.
Super I/O 
, .
.
, 
. Super I/O 
. , , 
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
). UART. 
UART NS16550A, 
National Semiconductor. Super I/O
, , , , .
Super I/O 
. :
(), EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port
) ECP (Enhanced Capabilities Port ).
374

. 374

4.

ECP , ,
8 ISA ( 3 
). 
(, ), ECP .
, 
, ECP, HewlettPackard.
Super I/O . , 
Intel VC820 ( ATX) Super
I/O LPC47V102 SMC (Standard Microsystems Corp.). 
:
;
;
(ECP/EPP) ;
8042 .
;
Super I/O.
Super I/O . ,
Intel Super I/O IDE
, ,
PCI, ISA. Super I/O
ISA, 
, 8 . IDE PCI,
IDE, ,
PCI (33 ), .
Super I/O LPC,
Intel ( 6,67 /) 
, 13 . ISA 
LPC , ,
Super I/O.

. , USB
IEEE1394 ,
, Super I/O
.
,
Super I/O ( 
Super South Bridge). , SiS 
, , Super I/O.

CMOS"
Motorola 146818 
RTC RAM Complementary MetalOxide Semiconductor (CMOS).
, 10 RAM 54 
RAM,  . IBM
.
Motorola
( )
Super I/O. ,
NVRAM, Dallas Benchmarq.
CMOS5 5.

Super I/O

. 375

375


. . 4.49
. ,
, , , 
.

PCI5Express x1

PCI 32 /
33

PCI5Express x16

PCI5Express x16

IEEE51394a

ATX12V

USB

(COM)

DIMM

SATA SATA RAID

ATA/IDE

245

ATX 2.x

. 4.49.

, 
, .
. , 
, .
2000 Intel Front Panel I/O Connectivity
Design Guide. ,
Web www.formfactors.org.

( , ).
, ,
(, Dell, Gateway, MicronPC ( 
MPC) ..) , ,
. , Intel 

376

. 376

4.

, , 
Intel.
10
, 10 
USB, 10 IEEE 1394 (FireWire/i.LINK), 10
, 6
. . 4.50 
.

LED5

LED5

LED5

(+5 DC)

( )

. 4.50.


. 4.56.
4.56.

/ /

HD_LED+

PWR_LED GRN+

LED5

HD_LED5

PWR_LED_YEL+

LED5

Reset
GND
FP_RESET

+5V

5
7

6
8

FP_PWR
GND

10

10 
, 
2 .
, . 4.51.

. 4.57.
LED, 
Power LED.

. 377

377

.  
. 4.58.
C

10

2
D

10

. 4.51. 


4.57.

A
B

13
24

C
D

57
68

4.58. Power LED


LED"

LED"

S1, S3, S5


;

;

ACPI

S0
S0
S5
S0
S0
S1, S3
S1, S3


.
. . 4.52.
LED5

LED5

. 4.52. 

378

. 378

4.

SPKR
PIEZO_IN
Key
GND
FP_RESET
GND
Key
PWR_LED1
Key
PWR_LED2
Key
HD_LED+
HD_LED5
Key
HD_LED+
Key
+5V
Ir_TX
GND
Ir_RX
Key
+5V
Key
GND
SLEEP_REQ
GND
SW_ON

Intel,
, (. 4.53).

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

. 4.53. 

. 4.59 
.
4.59.

Speaker ()

27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9

PIEZO_IN
Key ( )
GND
FP_RESET
GND
Key ( )
PWR_LED1 ()
Key ( )
PWR_LED2 ()
Key ( )
HD_LED+
HD_LED5
Key ( )
HD_LED+
Key ( )
+5
Ir_TX
GND

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Ir_RX

+5

GND
SLEEP_REQ
GND
SW_ON

Reset ()
None ()
Sleep/Power LED ( / )

None ()
Hard Drive LED ( )

None ()
IrDA ( )

None ()
Sleep/Resume ( / )
Power On ( )

SPKR


. , , 
3 Power LED,
. ,
. , :
.
USB
. 10
.
USB . 4.54 . 4.60.

. 379

379

USB 0

(+5 DC)

(+5 DC)

10

USB 1

( )

. 4.54. USB
4.60. USB

+ 5 ( 0)

USB0_PWR

USB1_PWR

+ 5 ( 1)

5 ( 0)
+ ( 0)
( 0)

USB_D05
USB_D0+
GND
Key

3
5
7
9

4
6
8
10

USB_D15
USB_D1+
GND
NC/Shield

+ ( 1)
( 1)
/

5 ( 1)


USB. . 4.55.
2

+5V

2 "
D

2 +D

2 GROUND
1 +5V

1 +D

1 "D
LD
SHIE

RO
1 G

UND

. 4.55. USB

, 
. USB 5 ; 
. 
.

380

. 380

4.

!
, 5
. , 5
/ , USB. 5
, 5
.

IEEE 1394 (FireWire/i.LINK). FireWire


.
IEEE 1394 . 4.56 . 4.61.
TPA+

TPA5

TPB+

TPB5

(+12 DC)

(+12 DC)

10

( )

. 4.56. IEEE 1394


(FireWire/i.LINK)
4.61.
IEEE 1394 (FireWire/i.LINK)

TPA+

TPB+
+12
( )

1
3
5
7
9

2
4
6
8
10

TPA5

TPB5
+12

, Fire
Wire USB. , USB
FireWire . .
!
USB FireWire, FireWire USB. 5
, 5
. 5
, .

, , 
.

. 4.57 . 4.62.
4.62.

AUD_MIC
AUD_MIC_BIAS

1
3

2
4

AUD_GND
AUD_VCC

+5 ( )

. 381

381

. 4.62

AUD_FPOUT_R

AUD_RET_R

GND/HP_ON

KEY

AUD_FPOUT_L

10

AUD_RET_L

9
9

10

10

. 4.57. 


, , ,
, , IrDA.

. 4.58 . 4.63.
5
5

2
6

. 4.58.
4.63.

1
2
3

+5

IrRx

4
5
6

IrTX
CONIR (Consumer IR)

. 4.644.72 .
4.64.

1
2

3
4

+4556

4.65. (LED)
(Keylock)

1
2
3

LED (+5 )

4
5

382

. 382

4.

4.66.

4.67.

1
2

CHS_SEC

4.68. Wake On LAN

+5

2
3

WOL

4.69.

1
2

RINGA

4.70. CD"ROM

1
2

CD5IN ( )

3
4

CD5IN ( )

4.71.

1
2

3
4

4.72.

1
2

( )

3
4

( )

.
3 4, 5
. , 5
.


, , 
(. 4.73).
, 3 ; 
, .
, 
, 
.

. 383

383

4.73.

+12

!
! .

,
,
. (bus) ,
.
, ,
.
, . 
 , ( ) 
.
.
. 
 . 
Pentium 66, 100, 133, 200, 266,
400, 533, 800 64 (8 ).
AGP. 32 66 (AGP 1), 133 (AGP 2), 266
(AGP 4) 533 (AGP 8x) .
Memory Controller Hub (MCH) 
.
PCIExpress. PCI. PCIExpres
,
. PCIExpress . 
2,5 / 
( 2 /). 
PCIExpress x1. PCI
Express x4, 10 / 
. PCIExpress x16, 
40 / .
PCIX. PCI, 
, PCI. 
. PCIX 64
, 64 32 PCI. PCIX 
1 133 , PCIX 2.0
533 . PCIX 2.0 
PCIX PCI. PCIX,
.
PCI. 32 33 ;
486.
66 . PCI 
MCH . , 
, , SCSI ,
, . PCI 
, IDE USB.
384

. 384

4.

ISA. 16 , 8 ; 
AT 1984 ( 8 5 ).
, PC99 .
. Super I/O.
,
Audio Modem Riser (AMR) Communications and Networking Riser (CNR).
, 
. , 
,
AMR CNR . ,
 .
, , 
. , 
, PCI,
AMR/CNR . AMR CNR 
. 4.59, . 4.60.

CNR

PCI

AMR
. 4.59. AMR CNR PCI. AMR 

PCI

. 4.60. AMR Riser (),


10/100 Ethernet. CNR Riser (),
SPDIF

. 385

385

, 
. ,
, hub LPC. Hub
(4x) 8 66 ,
MCH ICH (hub
). hub 266 /,
.
LPC, 4 
6,67 / 
ISA . LPC
Super I/O ROM BIOS .
LPC , .
ISA .
,
, .
. 4.74 , 
.
4.74. (/)


, /

85 ISA (PC/XT)
85 ISA (AT)
LPC
165 ISA (AT5Bus)

8
8
4
16

4,7
8,33
33
8,33

1/3

1/3

2,39
4,17
6,67
8,33

DD
HD
ED
EISA Bus
VL5Bus
MCA516
MCA532
MCA516 Streaming
MCA532 Streaming
MCA564 Streaming
MCA564 Streaming
PC5Card (PCMCIA)
CardBus
Hub Interface ( )
PCI
PCI 66
645 PCI
645 PCI 66
PCI5X 66
PCI5X 133
PCI5X 266
PCI5X 533
PCI Express 1.0 15
PCI Express 1.0 325
85 Hub5 Intel
165 Hub5 Intel
AMD HyperTransport 2x2
AMD HyperTransport 4x2
AMD HyperTransport 8x2
AMD HyperTransport 16x2

1
1
1
32
32
16
32
16
32
64
64
16
32
8
32
32
64
64
64
64
64
64
1
32
8
8
2
4
8
16

0,25
0,5
1
8,33
33
5
5
10
10
10
20
10
33
66
33
66
33
66
66
133
266
533
2,500
2,500
66
66
200
200
200
200

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0,8
0,8
4
4
2
2
2
2

0,03125
0,0625
0,125
33
133
10
20
20
40
80
160
20
133
266
133
266
266
533
533
1 066
2,133
4 266
250
8 000
266
533
100
200
400
800

386

. 386

4.

. 4.74


, /

AMD HyperTransport 32x2

32

200

1 600

AMD HyperTransport 2x4


AMD HyperTransport 4x4

2
4

400
400

2
2

200
400

AMD HyperTransport 8x4


AMD HyperTransport 16x4

8
16

400
400

2
2

800
1 600

AMD HyperTransport 32x4

32

400

3 200

AMD HyperTransport 2x8


AMD HyperTransport 4x8

2
4

800
800

2
2

400
800

AMD HyperTransport 8x8


AMD HyperTransport 16x8

8
16

800
800

2
2

1 600
3 200

AMD HyperTransport 32x8


VIA V5Link 4x

32
8

800
66

2
4

6 400
266

VIA V5Link 8x

66

533

SiS MuTIOL

16

133

533

SiS MuTIOL 1G

16

266

1 066

AGP
AGP 2x

32
32

66
66

1
2

266
533

AGP 4x
AGP 8x
ATI A5Link
RS5232 Serial
RS5232 Serial HS
IEEE51284 Parallel
IEEE51284 EPP/ECP
USB 1.1
USB 2.0
IEEE51394a S100
IEEE51394a S200
IEEE51394a S400
IEEE51394b S800
IEEE51394b S1600
ATA PIO54
ATA5UDMA/33
ATA5UDMA/66
ATA5UDMA/100

32
32
16
1
1
8
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
16
16
16
16

66
66
66
0,1152
0,2304
8,33
8,33
12
480
100
200
400
800
1600
8,33
8,33
16,67
25

4
8
2
1/10
1/10
1/6
1/3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2

1066
2133
266
0,01152
0,02304
1,38
2,77
1,5
60
12,5
25
50
100
200
16,67
33
66
100

ATA5UDMA/133
SATA5150
SATA5300
SATA5600
SCSI
SCSI Wide
SCSI Fast
SCSI Fast/Wide
SCSI Ultra
SCSI Ultra/Wide
SCSI Ultra2
SCSI Ultra/Wide2
SCSI Ultra3 (Ultra160)
SCSI Ultra4 (Ultra320)
SCSI Ultra5 (Ultra640)
FPM DRAM
EDO DRAM
PC66 SDRAM

16
1
1
1
8
16
8
16
8
16
8
16
16
16
16
64
64
64

33
1500
3000
6000
5
5
10
10
20
20
40
40
40
80
160
22
33
66

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1

133
150
300
600
5
10
10
20
20
40
40
80
160
320
640
177
266
533

. 387

387

. 4.74


, /

PC100 SDRAM

64

100

800

PC133 SDRAM
PC1600 DDR DIMM (DDR200)

64
64

133
100

1
2

1066
1600

PC2100 DDR DIMM (DDR266)


PC2400 DDR DIMM (DDR300)

64
64

133
150

2
2

2133
2 400

PC2700 DDR DIMM (DDR333)

64

167

2 666

PC3200 DDR DIMM (DDR400)


PC3500 DDR (DDR433)

64
64

200
216

2
2

3 200
3 466

PC3700 DDR (DDR466)


PC4000 DDR (DDR500)

64
64

233
250

2
2

3 733
4 000

PC253200 DDR2 (DDR25400)


PC254300 DDR2 (DDR25533)

64
64

200
267

2
2

3 200
4 266

PC255400 DDR2 (DDR25667)

64

333

5 3330

PC256400 DDR2 (DDR25800)

64

400

6 400

RIMM1200 RDRAM (PC600)

16

300

1 200

RIMM1400 RDRAM (PC700)


RIMM1600 RDRAM (PC800)

16
16

350
400

2
2

1 400
1 600

RIMM2100 RDRAM (PC1066)


RIMM2400 RDRAM (PC1200)
RIMM3200 RDRAM (PC800)
RIMM4200 RDRAM (PC1066)
RIMM4800 RDRAM (PC1200)
486 CPU FSB 33
FSB Pentium I/II/III, 66
FSB Pentium I/II/III, 100
FSB Pentium I/II/III, 133
FSB Athlon, 200
FSB Athlon, 266
FSB Athlon, 333
FSB Athlon, 400
FSB Athlon, 533
FSB Pentium 4, 400
FSB Pentium 4, 533
FSB Pentium 4, 800
FSB Itanium, 266

16
16
32
32
32
32
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64
64

533
600
400
533
600
33
66
100
133
100
133
167
200
267
100
133
200
133

2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
2

2 133
2 400
3 200
4 266
4 800
133
53
800
1 066
1 600
2 133
2 666
3 200
4 266
3 200
4 266
6 400
2 133

FSB Itanium 2, 400

128

100

6 400

ISA, EISA, VLBus MCA .


/ .
ISA Industry Standard Architecture, 8 PC/XT 16 ATBus.
LPC Low Pin Count.
DD Floppy DoubleDensity (360/720 ) Floppy ( ).
HD Floppy HighDensity (1,2/1,44 ) Floppy ( ).
ED Floppy Extrahigh Density (2,88 ) Floppy ( ).
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture (32 ISA).
VLBus VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) Local Bus ( ISA).
MCA MicroChannel Architecture ( IBM PS/2).
PCCard 16 PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association).
CardBus 32 PCCard.
Hub Interface Intel 8xx.
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect.
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port.

388

. 388

4.

RS232 , 115,2 /.
RS232 HS , 230,4 /.
IEEE1284 Parallel .
IEEE1284 EPP/ECP Enhanced Parallel Port/Extended Capabilities Port.
USB Universal Serial Bus.
IEEE1394 FireWire, i.Link.
ATA PIO AT Attachment ( IDE) Programmed I/O.
ATAUDMA AT Attachment Ultra DMA.
SCSI Small Computer System Interface.
FPM Fast Page Mode ( ).
EDO Extended Data Out ( ).
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic RAM.
RDRAM Rambus Dynamic RAM.
RDRAM Dual RDRAM ( ).
DDRSDRAM DoubleData Rate SDRAM.
CPU FSB ( FrontSide Bus).
Hub Intel 8xx.
HyperTransport AMD.
VLink VIA Technologies.
MuTIOL SiS.
DDR2 DDR.

, ,
( ). , 
, . 
.
, 
, .


Memory Controller
Hub. 66200 . 

. 
Pentium (Socket 7) . 4.61.
, Socket 7, 
,
( 66 100 ). , 
Socket 7 ,  
. , 
Intel Socket 7 233 ,
3,5 66 . , 
66 . , , Socket 7, 
AMD K62 550, 550 : 5,5
100 . , 
100 .
 P6,
, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Celeron, Pentium III, AMD Athlon Duron.
Socket 8, Slot 1, Slot 2, Slot A, Socket A Socket 370.
, 
.

. 389

389

Socket 7
CPU
5
L1 233

533 /

L1

Pentium MMX,
233

Socket 7


66
L2

5 L2
66 , 15
EDO
SDMMS
60
16

North
Bridge

PCI
()

PCI
33

PCI
133 /c

533 /

USB

South
Bridge

ISA
8 /

ATA1

16 /

ATA2

ISA
8

ISA
()

Flash
ROM
BIOS
CMOS RAM

Super
I/O

Com1
Com2
LPT1

. 4.61. Pentium (Socket 7)


. 
, .. . 
, , 
, 1/2, 2/5 1/3 . 
 , , 
Socket 7.
Slot 1  ,
. 66 100
800 /. ,
AGP. AGP 66
(.. PCI), AGP 2x, 
AGP,
533 /. ,
PC100 SDRAM DIMM, 800 /.

390

. 390

4.

Pentium III Celeron Slot 1 Socket 370.


, 
 ( ), , 
, .
133 ,
1 066 /. AGP 4x
1 066 /. . 4.62 Socket 370.
Socket 370
CPU
5 L1
1,13

L1

5 L2
1,13

Socket 370


1066 /

AGP
Video

L2

Pentium III
1,13

AGP 4x
Memory
1066 / Controller
Hub

Hub5
266 /


133


1066 /

133 /

1066 /

SDRAM
DIMMS
PC5133

PCI
()

PCI
33
USB1

I/C
Controller
Hub

USB2
ATA1
ATA2

100 /

CMOS RAM
Flash
ROM
Firmware Hub
(BIOS)

Low Pin Count


(LPC)
6 /
Super
I/O

Com1
Com2

LPT1

. 4.62. Pentium III/Celeron (Socket 370)

hub Intel, 
/ . 
hub 
266 / ( , PCI), PCI 
, , PCI. ,
Flash ROM BIOS, Firmware Hub, 
LPC. , / 
Super I/O. Super I/O
,

. 391

391

ISA LPC. hub 


Super I/O. , Super I/O, 
(legacy), Super I/O 
(legacyfree) . ,
, USB.
(
USB).
, AMD, Socket A, 
Socket 370 ,
/ . 
, 333 (
2 664 /), DDR SDRAM DIMM, 
(.. 2 664 /). ,
, Super
I/O. Super South Bridge.
Pentium 4 (Socket 423 Socket 478), hub, 
. 4.63. 
400/533/800 3 200/4 266/6 400 /.
.
PC3200 (DDR400), (3 200 /)
, 
. , 
6 400 /, DDR400
400 ,
6 400 /. 533 
(PC2100/DDR266 PC2700/DDR333) 
4 266 /. 
.
Athlon 64, (Socket 754, Socket 939 Socket 940),
HyperTransport
AGP Graphics Tunnel
Athlon 64 HyperTransport 16 /800 ,
, Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX
Socket 939, HyperTransport 
16 /1 .
Athlon 64
. 
( MCH/GMCH) Athlon 64/FX/Opteron
!
, ,
. , 
, DDR2,
.
. 4.64  Athlon
64 FX53, PCIExpress x1 PCIExpress x16.

,
. ( ), , 
,
. Pentium 64 ,
64 (8 ).

392

. 392

4.

Socket 478
CPU
5 L1
3,6

L1

5 L2
3,6

Socket 423


6,4 /

AGP
Video

L2

Pentium 4
3,6

AGP 8x
Memory
2,133 / Controller
Hub

Hub5
266 /


800


6,4 /

133 /

DDR
DDR5DIMM
PC53200/DDR400

PCI
()

PCI
33
USB1
USB2

I/C
Controller
Hub

ATA1
ATA2

100 /

CMOS RAM
Flash
ROM
Firmware Hub
(BIOS)

Low Pin Count


(LPC)
16 /
Super
I/O

Com1
Com2

LPT1

. 4.63. Pentium 4 (Socket 478)

, ,
. ,
, , 
. , AMD Athlon 64 6400+
2,4 , 400 , Pentium 4
3,4 , 800 . 
(2x, 2,5x, 3x ).
, , 
. ,
64 .

(64 , 8 , Celeron/Pentium III/4 Athlon/
Duron/Athlon XP/Athlon 64) ( () 
).

. 393

393

Socket 939
2,4

Athlon 64 FX53 (2,4 )


CPU
L1 L2 2,4
Socket 939

3200 /

PCI5Express
x16

4000 /
Hyper Transport
4000 /
PCI5Exp ress x1 6

Ultra V5Link
(1066 /)

AC'97

Flash
ROM
BIOS

1000 /16
Hyper Transport

6400 /

133 /c; 33
PCI
USB2.0 (2)
USB2.0 (2)
USB2.0 (2)
USB2.0 (2)

10/100
Ethernet
HD
Audio

400

LPC
16,67 /c


DDR SDRAM PC3200

PCI
()
60 /
ATA1 133 /c
ATA2
PCI5Exp ress
250 /c
x1
PCI5Exp ress
250 /c
x1

0, 625 /c
COM1
0,01152 /c
COM2
LPT1 2,77 /c

Super
I/O

. 4.64.  Athlon 64 FX53 (Socket 939)

, Pentium 4 3,6 , 
, 800 ,
6 400 /.
, :
800 8 (64 ) = 6 400 /.
Pentium 4:
533,33 8 (64 ) = 4 266 /;
400 8 (64 ) = 3 200 /.
Athlon XP (Socket A) :
400 8 (64 ) = 3 200 /;
333 8 (64 ) = 2 667 /;
266,66 8 (64 ) = 2 133 /.
Pentium III (Socket 370):
133,33 8 (64 ) = 1 066 /;
100 8 (64 ) = 800 /.
, (bandwidth)
, . 
, , . 4.72.
394

. 394

4.



. Memory Con
troller Hub. , ( 
, ), . 
, .
, PC133 SDRAM, 1 066 /,
, 133 .
: Athlon Pentium III
266 PC2100 DDR SDRAM, 
2 133 / , . Pentium 4 
400 , RDRAM 
1 600 3 200 / 
,
Pentium 4. Pentium 4, 533 ,
PC2100 PC2700, 
, 4 266 /.
, , ,
 .  
.
, Itanium, Itanium 2, Intel Pen
tium Extreme Edition,  24 ,
.
.

, . 5
. 6.


 
. ,
.  
.
, 
;
, , , SCSI .

5
. IDE ( ), USB, 5
, , ,
. Super I/O, 5
5 .
, 5 , 5
SCSI, IEEE51394a. 5
Super I/O, .
5.
, , , 5
, .

. 395

395

"
, PC, , 
. : 
.
:
;
;
.
, 
, PC, ,
, . PC 
,
. , 
, .
, .
 .
.

() ().
ISA
ISA (Industrial Standard Architecture )
IBM PC, 1981 , 1984
16 IBM PC/AT. , 
. , 
, 
1990 , ,
. 
!

ISA , ,
ISA, . ISA
(PICMG).

ISA, :
8 16. 4,77
PC XT. AT 
6 8 .
8,33 , .
, 
. 
. ISA 8,33 /:
8,33 16 = 133,28 /;
133,28 / : 2 = 66,64 /;
66,64 / : 8 = 8,33 /.
8 (4,17 /). ,
 
( ). ISA 
, .
396

. 396

4.

8" ISA
IBM PC. ,
,
286 386.
62 . 8 20
, 1 .
8 ISA . 4.65, . 4.66.

RESET DRV
+5
IRQ 2
55
DRQ 2
512
5CARD SLCTD
+12

5SMEMW
5SMEMR
5IOW
5IOR
5DACK 3
DRQ 3
5DACK 1
DRQ 1
5
CLK (4,77 )
IRQ 7
IRQ 6
IRQ 5
IRQ 4
IRQ 3
5DACK 2
T/C
BALE
+5
OSC (14,3 )

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
B16
B17
B18
B19
B20
B21
B22
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31

A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
A26
A27
A28
A29
A30
A31

5I/O CH CHK
, 7
, 6
, 5
, 4
, 3
, 2
, 1
, 0
5I/O CH RDY
AEN
, 19
, 18
, 17
, 16
, 15
, 14
, 13
, 12
, 11
, 10
, 9
, 8
, 7
, 6
, 5
, 4
, 3
, 2
, 1
, 0

. 4.65. 8

B1
A1

B31
A31

. 4.66. 8 ISA

ISA

, IBM 1987
.
IBM
. IBM 
.
8 ISA :
4,2 (106,68 );
13,13 (333,5 );
0,5 (12,7 ).
16" ISA
IBM , 1984 AT, 
286. 16 , 
, 
5

. 397

397

16, 8 .
8 ,
, .
, IBM 
8 16 , 8 ,

RESET DRV
+5
IRQ 9
55
DRQ 2
512 Vdc
50 WAIT
+12

5SMEMW
5SMEMR
5IOW
5IOR
5DACK 3
DRQ 3
5DACK 1
DRQ 1
5
CLK (8,33 )
IRQ 7
IRQ 6
IRQ 5
IRQ 4
IRQ 3
5DACK 2
T/C
BALE
+5
OSC (14,3 )

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
B16
B17
B18
B19
B20
B21
B22
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31

A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
A26
A27
A28
A29
A30
A31

5I/O CH CHK
, 7
, 6
, 5
, 4
, 3
, 2
, 1
, 0
5I/O CH RDY
AEN
, 19
, 18
, 17
, 16
, 15
, 14
, 13
, 12
, 11
, 10
, 9
, 8
, 7
, 6
, 5
, 4
, 3
, 2
, 1
, 0

5MEM CS16
5I/O CS16
IRQ 10
IRQ 11
IRQ 12
IRQ 15
IRQ 14
5DACK 0
DRQ 0
5DACK 5
DRQ5
5DACK 6
DRQ 6
5DACK 7
DRQ 7
+5
5Master

D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
D11
D12
D13
D14
D15
D16
D17
D18

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18

5SBHE
, 23
, 22
, 21
, 20
, 19
, 18
, 17
5MEMR
5MEMW
, 8
, 9
, 10
, 11
, 12
, 13
, 14
, 15

. 4.67. 16 ISA

398

. 398

B1

A1

B31

A31

D1

C1

D18

C18

. 4.68. 16 ISA

4.

; 
16 . PC/AT
1984 , 16 ISA AT.
16 36 
( 98), 
. , 
8 . 
8 .
. 4.67 16 ISA,
. 4.68 .
AT :
4,8 (121,92 );
13,13 (333,5 );
0,5 (12,7 ).
AT 4,8 , 4,2
( PC/XT).
XT 286.
, AT,
XT, 4,2 .

, .
32" ISA
32 
.
EISA , 
ISA. 
, .

. 
.


32 , ISA 
. 386
32 , ISA 16 .
ISA, IBM .
(Micro Channel Architecture ),
ISA .
IBM ISA ,
: ,
, ISA
. 
EISA, .
, , ISA,
.
, ; 
, . 
, . 
Reference, ,
Option, . 
5

. 399

399

, Option Reference, Option


. Reference BIOS
MCA,
.

EISA
EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture 
) 1988 IBM 
.
ISA , IBM, 
.
EISA Compaq, 
IBM , ,
, . Compaq
. 
EISA , 
EISA.
95% , Compaq
. ,
EISA,
.
EISA. , .
EISA 32 ISA.
MCA IBM, 32 EISA 8 16
ISA, .
MCA, EISA EISA
.
EISA ISA 90 (55 ),
. , 32 EISA 
, 16 ISA. EISA
. 16 ISA, 
EISA. ,
EISA, , ISA .
EISA 16 
32 . 
, ISA, 
EISA. ,
, , , 
. EISA :
5 (127 );
13,13 (333,5 );
0,5 (12,7 ).
EISA, 32 
8,33 .
, (
). 33 /:
8,33 4 (32 ) = 33,32 /.
. 4.69 EISA. . 4.70
; : , 
EISA ISA. . 4.71 EISA.
400

. 400

4.

+5
+5

+12
M5IO
5LOCK

5BE 3

5BE 2
5BE 0

+5
, 29

, 26
, 24

, 16
, 14
+5
+5

, 10

RESET DRV
+5
IRQ 9
55
DRQ 2
512
50 WAIT
+12

5SMEMW
5SMEMR
5IOW
5IOR
5DACK 3
DRQ 3
5DACK 1
DRQ 1
5
CLK (8,33 )
IRQ 7
IRQ 6
IRQ 5
IRQ 4
IRQ 3
5DACK 2
T/C
BALE
+5
OSC (14,3 )

B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
B16
B17
B18
B19
B20
B21
B22
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31

A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
A26
A27
A28
A29
A30
A31

5I/O CH CHK
, 7
, 6
, 5
, 4
, 3
, 2
, 1
, 0
5I/O CH RDY
AEN
, 19
, 18
, 17
, 16
, 15
, 14
, 13
, 12
, 11
, 10
, 9
, 8
, 7
, 6
, 5
, 4
, 3
, 2
, 1
, 0

5CMD
5START
EXRDY
5EX32

5EX16
5SLBURST
5MSBURST
W5R

5BE 1
, 31

5, 30
5, 28
5, 27
5, 25

, 15
, 13
, 12
, 11

, 9

, 8
, 6
, 5
+5
, 4
KEY
, 16
, 18

, 21
, 23
, 24

, 27

, 29
+5
+5
5MAKx

5MEM CS16
5I/O CS16
IRQ 10
IRQ 11
IRQ 12
IRQ 15
IRQ 14
5DACK 0
DRQ 0
5DACK 5
DRQ5
5DACK 6
DRQ 6
5DACK 7
DRQ 7
+5
5Master

D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
D11
D12
D13
D14
D15
D16
D17
D18
D19

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19

5SBHE
, 23
, 22
, 21
, 20
, 19
, 18
, 17
5MEMR
5MEMW
, 8
, 9
, 10
, 11
, 12
, 13
, 14
, 15

, 7

, 4
, 3

, 17
, 19
, 20
, 22

, 25
, 26
, 28

, 30
, 31
5MREQx

. 4.69. EISA

. 401

401

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

F
1

10

10

11

11

12

12

13

13

14

14

15

15

17

17

18

18

19

19

20

20

21

21

22

22

23

23

24

24

26

26

27

27

28

28

29

29

30

30

31

31

1
2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
19

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

B
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

2
3
4
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
18
19

F1/B1

E1/A1

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

F19/B19

1
1

E19/A19
G1/C1

H1/D1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

G19/C19

H19/D19

18

. 4.70.

. 4.71. EISA

EISA

402

. 402

4.


ISA, MCA EISA 
. .
, , :
VLBus ( VESA);
PCI;
AGP.
PC, 
, . 
, 
. , 
.
. 4.72 ,
.

()

5
()

5
()

()

. 4.72.

, ,
.  .
, , 
.
, 
, .
, , 
(, Windows). 
, 
. , , 66 450 

. 403

403

,  
( 8 ).
, 
,
.
 , .. (
).  
. 4.73.

()

5
()

5
()

()

. 4.73.

(Local Bus),
( ) (
). , ,
.
, 8 16 ISA .

. ISA 8 ,
,
. 1992 ISA,
VESA Local Bus ( VLBus), . 
PCI AGP.

5
: , ,
. .

404

. 404

4.

, . 
, , ISA EISA,
. 
, , 
. ,
AGP, PCI ISA.
, AGP PCI 
. ISA 
LPC ISA , 
.
Windows Linux (KDE
GNOME) , ISA
PCI AGP.

VESA

1992 1994 . VESA 
, NEC 
. NEC VLBus,
, ,
. 
. ,
NEC ,
. 1991 
.
VLBus 32 
, ..
486. VLBus 128132 /.
 
, 
.
, VLBus . VLBus 
486. ,
. 
VLBus 486. 
486.
.
VLBus ,
, .
VLBus , , 386 Pentium,
486.
, , PCI, VLBus 
. Pentium, 
VLBus .
VLBus .
, ISA VLBus 
16 ISA.

PCI
1992 Intel , 
, VESA: ,
ISA EISA.
5

. 405

405

1992 PCI 1.0,


. PCI . 4.75.
4.75. PCI
PCI

PCI 1.0

1992 .

32/645

PCI 2.0

1993 .

PCI 2.1

1995 .

PCI 2.2

1999 .

66 , ,

PCIX 1.0
Mini5PCI

1999 .
1999 .

133 , 2.2
, 2.2

PCI 2.3

2002 .

3,3 ,

PCI5X 2.0

2002 .

266 533 , 645


325 165
, 3,3/1,5

PCI5Express 1.0

2002 .

2,5 /, 0,8 , 250 /


. PCI 2.x

PCI , 
.
, (
), 
(. 4.74).

DRAM

PCI

SCSI

ISA/EISA

. 4.74. PCI

PCI .
 , 
, .
406

. 406

4.

PCI 1993 ,
.
PCI 33,33 ,
. 32 
132 /:
33,33 4 (32 ) = 133 /.
PCI , . 4.76.
4.76. PCI
PCI

/
, /

PCI

32

33

PCI 66

32

66

266

645 PCI

64

33

266

645 PCI 66 64
1
PCI5X 64
64

66
133

1
1

533
533

133

1 066

133
133
2 500
2 500

2
4
0,8
0,8

2 132
4 266
250
8 000

PCI5X 133

64

PCI5X 266
PCI5X 533
2
PCI5Express
2
PCI5Express

64
1
64
1
32

133

PCIX 32 16 .


PCIExpress 8b/10b, 8 
10 ,
1 32 .

64 66 133 
.
PCI ,
.  
PCI .
PCI (. 4.75).
PCI , .

AGP

PCI

ISA EISA

. 4.75. PCI ISA/EISA AGP

. 407

407

PCI , 
.
32 64 PCI. 5
(PCI 2.2 ),
3,3 ( PCI 2.3),
, 
. 64 PCI 5 
. PCIX 2.0
266/533 3,3 1,5 ,
PCI 2.3 3,3 .
32 64 PCI (5 ) 64
PCI . 4.76. . 4.77 
64 PCI 64 PCI.

325
PCI, 33
(

)

645
PCI, 33
(
)

B94

B62

B49

B1

B62

B49

B1

B94

B62

B49

B11

B1

645

PCI,
66/33
(
)

. 4.76. 32 PCI 64 PCI


64 PCI

. 4.77. 64 PCI ()

64 PCI ()

, PCI , 
. , 
, , + I/O. 
, .
PCI ,
Plug and Play Intel. , PCI
. Plug and
Play , , 
408

. 408

4.

Plug and Play, PCI,


Setup BIOS. 1995
BIOS, Plug and Play,
.

PCI"Express
2001 , Arapahoe Work
Group ( Intel), 
, 3GIO (ThirdGeneration
I/O  ). 2001 PCI
SIG (PCI Special Interest Group) , 
3GIO PCI .
3GIO 1.0 2002 ,
PCISIG, PCI Express.
(3GIO),
ISA/ATBus
( ) PCI ( ), 
. 10
15 . PCI Express, 
PCISIG, , , ,

1015 .
PCI Express :
PCI
;
, ,
;
,
, , , 
, ;
, (
) , ;
( ), 
() ;
, , 
( ) , , , 
;
(.. 
);
.
PCI Express 
. 
,
.
, . 
( ) , 
.
PCI AGP 32 ,

. 409

409

, 
 .
, , 
1 , , 
, .
. 

, .
PCI Express 
PCI.
PCI Express (..
) ,
.
250 /, 1 2, 4, 8, 16 32 . 
, 8 , ,
8 , 
2 000 / 40
(32 8 ). 

8 000 / 40 . 
PCI, 100 , 
133 / (
). PCI Express 
, 
PCI. . 4.78 PCI Express
x1x16. , PCI Express x4 PCI Express x8 
.
x1

x4

x8

x16

. 4.78. PCI Express x1, PCI Express x4, PCI Express x8 PCI Express x16

PCI Express IBM 810, 


. ,
2,5 , 10 ,
.

410

. 410

4.

32
PCI Express 32 /.
PCI Express , 
. 
,
Intel Hub AMD Hypertransport,
. , PCI Express , 
(, AGP),
( ) , ,
Serial ATA, USB 2.0, 1394b (FireWire iLink), Gigabit Ethernet ..
PCI Express, ,
, .
, , 
, , , 
, ,
. 
.
PCIExpress PCI. 
PCI, AGP , .
PCI ISA/ATBus, 
. PCI 
, PCIExpress .
PCIExpress, PCI,
.
PCI PCIExpress.
, PCIExpress PCI, PCI
Express x16 AGP 8x. 
PCIExpress x16 AGP 8x, AGP , 
PCIExpress.
PCI, PCI
Express x1 PCIExpress x16;
PCIExpress, PCIX PCI. PCI
Express PCI Express Bridge 1.0
Mini PCIExpress Card.
PCIExpress Web PCISIG
(www.pcisig.org).

(AGP)
Intel 
(Accelerated Graphics Port AGP).
PCI, . , ,
PCI. , AGP PCI,
. PCI,
, AGP , 
, 
AGP. AGP 1.0 
Intel 1996 . 
66 1 2 3,3 . AGP 2.0
1998 , 4, 1,5 .
AGP AGP 4x 8x,
1,5 .
AGP 2x 3,3 .
5

. 411

411

1,5 3,3
, .
AGP . , , 
1,5 3,3 1,5 3,3
. , 
. 
AGP AGP (. 4.79).

AGP 4x/8x (1,5 )


AGP 3,3
()
AGP 1,5

AGP 2X 3,3
AGP
1,5 3,3
AGP 4X/8X 1,5
. 4.79. AGP 4x/8x (1,5 ), AGP 3,3 , 

. 4.79, AGP 4x 8x (1,5 )


AGP 1,5 3,3/1,5 .
1,5 3,3 .
, AGP 
, ,
. 
AGP 4x/8x, 1,5 .
!
AGP 4x5 AGP 4x
1,5 . AGP 5
. , AGP 4x5 5
(. . 4.51). AGP 1x/2x , 5
AGP 4x.

AGP Pro 1.0 


AGP,
25 ( 110 ). AGP Pro 
. AGP Pro
, .. AGP. AGP Pro
AGP 1/2, AGP 1/2,
. , AGP Pro,
, . 
AGP Pro .
AGP 1x/2x, AGP 4x AGP Pro . 4.80.

412

. 412

4.

AGP 1x/2x
AGP
4x5only
AGP 4x/AGP Pro
AGP 4x

AGP 4x

AGP Pro5only

AGP Pro

AGP Pro
AGP
4x5only
AGP 4x/AGP Pro

. 4.80. AGP 1x/2x, AGP 4x AGP Pro .

AGP 4x AGP Pro AGP 1x, 2x 4x. AGP 4x AGP Pro


AGP 8x

AGP , 66
( 66,66 ), , PCI. AGP, 
1, . AGP
32 (4 ), 66 . 
266 . /! AGP 
2, ,
533 /.
. AGP 2.0 4
, .. . 
1 066 /. AGP 
, , 4. . 4.77
AGP. AGP
4x, NVIDIA ATI 
AGP 8x.
4.77. AGP
AGP

, ,


, /

AGP
AGP 2x
AGP 4x
AGP 8x

32
32
32
32

1
2
4
8

266
533
1066
2133

66
66
66
66

AGP PCI, AGP


PCI ,
IDE/ATA, SCSI USB, .
, AGP 
. 
AGP , 
. AGP
( 256 ).

, . AGP 
, .

. 413

413

AGP 8x (2 133 /) 16 32 PCI, 


33 (133 /), PCI Express x16 (4 000 /).
Pentium 4 Athlon 64
PCI Express x16. , ,
AGP .

PCI Express x16, 5


AGP, , : AGP 8x, PCI Express
x16. Pentium 4, AMD
Athlon 64.


, , 
. 
:
;
(IRQ);
(DMA);
.

 . 
, 
.
6. . ,
, IRQ, DMA,
.
IRQ. DMA , . 
, 64 , 
, , .
, ( )
, 
.
.

. . ,
IRQ , 
DMA.
16 , IRQ .
,
.
, IRQ . 
,
, IRQ .. 
Windows 9, Plug and Play,
. 
, ,
.

414

. 414

4.


(IRQ), , 
() 
.

. IRQ
,
. 
, , 
() . ,
, .
, 
, . , 
, ;
BIOS, .
, 
,
( ) , 
.
.
, , 
, 
. , ,
(, UART 16550 ), 
, .
: ,
.
.
.

. Internal stack overflow system halted.
DOS, ,
Stacks ( ) Config.sys.
ISA ,
, .
.
, , 
, 
. , , 
() () .
. 
PCI. 
BIOS .
PCI PCI
IRQ Steering , Windows 95 OSR 2.x,
BIOS . Windows 
Plug and Play PCI
( PCI INTA#), 
PCI.
, .. 
() , .

. 415

415

ISA ,
. 
IRQ, .
8" ISA
PC XT 8 8088 
. , 0
7, . 4.78.
4.78. 8" ISA

85

3
4

2 (COM2)
1 (1)

85
85

5
6

85
85

1 (LPT1)

85

8 ISA ()
. PC/XT ,
, ,

.
16" ISA EISA
AT 286 
. 
, , , 
IRQ 2 . 15 IRQ, IRQ 2 
.

IRQ 2, IRQ 1 IRQ 3. , IRQ 15
, IRQ 3. . 4.81 
8259, .

8259 PIC (#1)

INT

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

IRQ
IRQ

0
1

IRQ
IRQ
IRQ
IRQ
IRQ

3
4
5
6
7

85




/CMOS5
8259 PIC (#2)

INT

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

IRQ
IRQ
IRQ
IRQ
IRQ
IRQ
IRQ
IRQ

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

165
85 , IRQ 2

. 4.81.

416

. 416

4.

IRQ 2,
IRQ 9
. , , 
IRQ 2, IRQ 9. 
, IRQ 9 .
. 4.79 16 32
PCI/AGP; .
EISA MCA.
4.79. 16/32" ISA, PCI AGP
IRQ

0
1

5555
5555

5555
5555

5555

5555

8
9

( IRQ2 IRQ9)

5555
85 165

10
11

165
165

5555

USB

12
13
14
15
3
4
5

IDE
IDE
2 (COM2)
1 (1)
2 (LPT2)

165
5555
165
165
85 165
85 165
85 165


5555
IDE ( )
IDE (CD5ROM)
COM2:/
COM1:

6
7


1 (LPT1)

85 165
85 165


LPT1:

SCSI5

, 0, 1, 2, 8 13 
. 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 15
. 16 
, . IRQ 9
8 IRQ 2 8 ,
IRQ 2.

165 ISA , 85,


, 165 .

IRQ 16 ISA ,


.
IRQ. ,
,
. IRQ, 
, .
PCI
PCI , 
, . INTA#, INTB#, INTC# INTD#. 
INTx# , 
PCI. PCI ,
INTA#, PCI. 
INTB#, INTC# INTD#.

. 417

417

PCI 
ISA. 
, 
PCI, INTA# PCI, , 
ISA. ,
PCI PCI, 
INTA#. 
ISA, IRQ9, IRQ10, IRQ11 IRQ5.
ISA PCI .
ISA . ,
? 

PCI. BIOS, Plug and Play, 
, Windows 95b (OSR 2), 
. . 
, Windows 95, Windows 95a .
BIOS PCI. 
, 
. , ,
, BIOS.
,
PCI. 
, .
, , 
.
1. (Start)
(Settings Control Panel).
2. (System).
3. (Device Manager).
4. + (System Devices).
5. PCI (PCI Bus). 
IRQ (IRQ Steering). .
Windows 2000/XP , IRQ (IRQ Steering) (Device Manager).
. 
, Get IRQ Table Using 
, 
. Windows 
IRQ:
ACPI BIOS;

PCIBIOS 2.1 ;

MS;

PCIBIOS 2.1 .


IRQ. 
IRQ ACPI BIOS, IRQ
PCIBIOS 2.1 . :
Windows 98; Windows 95 .
,
. 
418

. 418

4.

PCI (INTx#) ( ),
, PCI,
IRQ ISA, , ,
. IRQ ISA PCI
:
IRQ ISA;
BIOS IRQ PCI;
IRQ PCI .
PCI IRQ Steering ( IRQ PCI) 
PCI , 
IRQ PCIISA . PCI IRQ
Steering , ISA IRQ .
PCI IRQ Steering , PCI
IRQ,
, IRQ
. PCI IRQ Steering 
Windows 98 ,
, Windows 95 OSR1.
, ,
Device Manager ( ) Windows 9x, PCIISA 
ISA.
,
(, USB), 
IRQ , IRQ Holder for PCI Steering. , 
,
; , 
 .
PCI Plug and Play
. Windows 2000/XP
, IRQ Holder .
PCI ,
PCI. , IDE USB,
, PCI.
PCI IDE ISA 14 ( IDE) 15 ( IDE).
USB 9, 10, 11 5.
USB (
USB), USB ISA.
PCI bus master () slave
(). bus master
slave. PC 97, PCI 
, .
PCI .
PCI , PCI
. 
. Bus Master
. : 
,
.

. 419

419

APIC
8259 Intel
1990 
APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller). ,
Pentium, APIC, ;
, BIOS APIC. APIC 
; APIC 
Windows, Windows 2000. APIC
, BIOS Setup.
APIC , 
. APIC 
IRQ 15. 
APIC IRQ 24. Windows 2000 
PCI IRQ ISA 0...15,
APIC, Windows XP 
APIC. Windows XP APIC
IRQ, 
. , Windows XP APIC
PCI IRQ , .
PCI IRQ 16: / AGP ( 
).
PCI IRQ 17: USB 1.1 ( ).
PCI IRQ 18: USB 1.1 ( ).
PCI IRQ 19: 10/100 Ethernet/ USB 2.0 (
).
PCI IRQ 21: USB 1.1 (3)/ USB 2.0
( ).
ISA IRQ 0...15 
ISA, ISAPCI.
APIC BIOS Windows
2000/XP, APIC.

APIC BIOS Windows XP Professional x64


Edition Windows Server 2003 for x64.


, (IRQ) 
COM2, ,
( PC, 
, WinModem). , 
, 
. 2.
2, 
(IRQ) .
: BIOS Setup
COM2. , COM1, 
.
(IRQ) .

420

. 420

4.

IRQ .
, IRQ 3 2, IRQ 4 1. 
,
, .
IRQ 
. IRQ 3 , IRQ 4
. 2 4
IRQ 3, 1 3 IRQ 4. ,
1 COM3 ; 2 4. ,
, IRQ ,
. DOS ,
, Windows OS/2
.

COM, , , 3 4, 
.
 ,
(IRQ 12) 2 (IRQ 5),
. , 
IRQ 5
.

Windows 9 Windows NT/2000/XP. Computer
Properties () Device Manager () System Properties
(: ), .
Microsoft HWDIAG Windows 95B ;
. Windows XP 
MSInfo32.

ISA, BIOS .
1. BIOS. ,
USB,
.
IRQ.
2. IRQ, . 1,
PCI/PnP. BIOS, 
PnP/PCI Resource Exclusion PnP/PCI Con
figuration.
3. Reset Configuration Data, 
IRQ CMOS.
4. BIOS Setup.


,
. , , 
(DMA), SCSI.
DMA , . ,
DMA 1 , ,
.
DMA.

. 421

421

DMA 8" ISA


 
DMA. 
. 4.80.
4.80. DMA 8" ISA
DMA

0
|
2

85
85

85

, 
, DMA.
DMA 16" ISA
286 DMA ISA
, , . 
IRQ, DMA .
DMA 4 DMA 03. 03
8 , 57 16.
DMA . 4.81.
4.81. DMA 16" ISA, EISA MCA

DMA

0
1
2
3

165
85 165
85 165
85 165

85
85
85
85

4
5
6
7

DMA

5555
165
165
165

165
165
165
165




LPT1:

5555

5555
5555

: PCI ISA,
ISA. PCI (, 
) DMA .
DMA
DMA 2, . DMA 4
. DMA 1 DMA 5
, Sound Blaster 16.
8, 16 . DMA 3 ,
ECP EPP/ECP. ,
Packard Bell,
DMA 1 DMA 3. DMA 3
,
, DMA 1.

, , DMA 0 165 5
165 , 85 . 5
DMA 0 165 ,
85 . 165 ( SCSI), 5
DMA, 5557.

422

. 422

4.

"

. , 
.
IRQ , 
. 65 535 , 0000h
FFFFh, , , Intel.
, . 
, .
, Plug and Play,
 ,
.
 , 
, , . , ,
1000h, SIMM DIMM.
1000h ,
, , .
, 
.
,
. , 
, . , 
, , .

 0h FFh, 100h FFFFh. . 4.82 
, 
.
4.82. ,

()

0005000F

16

5555 8237 DMA 1

002050021

5555 8259 (1)

002E5002F

Super I/O

004050043

5555 / 1

00485004B

5555 / 2

0060

5555 Reset IRQ

0061

5555 NMI,

0064

CMD/STAT

0070, 7

5555 Enable NMI

0070, 6:0

MC146818 5555 ,

0071

MC146818 5555 ,

0078

5555

0079

5555

00805008F

16

5555

00A0500A1

5555 8259 (2)

00B2

APM

00B3

APM

00C0500DE

31

5555 8237 DMA 2

00F0

, ,
Windows.

. 423

423

, , , 100h. . 4.83 
, .
4.83.
()

013050133

Adaptec SCSI ()

013450137

Adaptec SCSI ()

01685016F

IDE

017050177
01E8501EF

8
8

IDE
IDE

01F0501F7
020050207

8
8

IDE/AT (16 )

021050217

IBM XT Expansion Chassis

022050233
023050233

20
4

Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 Audio ( )


Adaptec SCSI ()

023450237
02385023B

4
4

Adaptec SCSI ()
MS ()

023C5023F
02405024F
024050253
02585025F
02605026F
026050273
027050273

4
16
20
8
16
20
4

MS ( )
SMC Ethernet ( )
Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 ()
Intel Above Board
SMC Ethernet ()
Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 ()
5 ( ) Plug and Play

02785027F
02805028F
028050293
02A0502AF
02C0502CF
02E0502EF
02E8502EF
02EC502EF
02F8502FF
030050301
03005030F
032050323
03205032F
033050331
033050333
033450337
03405034F
03605036F
0366
0367, 6:0
037050375

8
16
19
16
16
16
8
4
8
2
16
4
16
2
4
4
16
16
1
7
6

2 (LPT2)
SMC Ethernet ()
Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 ()
SMC Ethernet ()
SMC Ethernet ()
SMC Ethernet ()
4 (COM4)
, 8514 ATI
2 (COM2)
MPU5401 MIDI ()
SMC Ethernet ()
XT (8 )
SMC Ethernet ()
MPU5401 MIDI ( )
Adaptec SCSI ( )
Adaptec SCSI ()
SMC Ethernet ()
SMC Ethernet ()
IDE ()
IDE ()

0376

IDE ()

0377, 7

()

0377, 6:0

IDE ()

03785037F

1 (LPT1)

03805038F

16

SMC Ethernet ()

03885038B

FM5

03B0503BB

12

, Mono/EGA/VGA

03BC503BF

1 (LPT1)

03BC503BF

3 (LPT3)

03C0503CF

16

, EGA/VGA

03D0503DF

16

, CGA/EGA/VGA

424

. 424

4.

. 4.83
()

03E6

IDE ()

03E7, 6:0

IDE ()

03E8503EF

3 (COM3)

03F0503F5

03F6

IDE ()

03F7, 7

()

03F7, 6:0

IDE

03F8503FF

1 (COM1)

04D0504D1

PCI

053050537

Windows ( )

06045060B

Windows ()

06785067F

LPT2 ECP

07785077F

LPT1 ECP

0A2050A23

IBM Token Ring ( )

0A2450A27

IBM Token Ring ()

0CF850CFB

PCI

0CF9

Turbo (Reset Control Register)

0CFC50CFF

PCI

FF005FF07

Bus Master IDE

FF805FF9F

32

Universal Serial Bus (USB)

FFA05FFA7

Bus Master IDE

FFA85FFAF

Bus Master IDE

, , 

Windows.

. , , , 
.

,

, . 
, 
. Plug
and Play, .
, ?
 . 
, :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Windows 9 
Windows 2000/XP.

. 425

425

Windows 2000/XP
. .
.
!
, . , (5
) , .
, . , 5
5 , 5
5555 , , .


. ,
. ISA PCI AGP, 

.
, . 
,
, . 
Plug and Play (PnP) 
IRQ, 
.

, PS/2, 5
, ISA, 5
. ,
:

BIOS;

BIOS ,
PnP; 5
.


BIOS Setup. , 
, Plug and Play (, Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP), 
, BIOS. (,
Windows NT) PnP.

, , , , 
, CDROM DVD.
.
 
, . 

.

, .
: , ,
,
. , , 
.

426

. 426

4.


(
(Start) (Settings) (Control Panel) (System) (Device
Manger)). ,
.

.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , MPEG, 3D ..
5. SCSI.
6. .

.




. , PnP, 
(Device Manager) 
. PnP
, , 
ISA PnP.
 , ,
.
. , 
.
. ,
( ).
? ,
, , ; ,
,  ,  
.
, ? , 
, , ,  .
?
, .
,
. , , .
. 
.
, , 
, 
.

. 427

427


.
, . 
 ,
.
, : 
, , DMA.
IRQ DMA,  
. ,
.
,
, .
, . 
, 
. ,
.
.
1. , 
, 
.
2. , ,
SCSI, , .
3. ,
. 
( ) . 
, 
.
, , 
. . 
 , 
.

Plug and Play (PnP)


. , "
, " DMA. "
.
, , PCI , "
PCI ISA. , "
PCI, , ,
ISA.

. 430 , , 
PSI ISA.

428

. 428

4.



5: __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
:

__________________________________________________________________
:
(IRQs):
":
0

5 _________________________

1 5

____________

040504B ____________________________
060 & 064 __________________________

2 5

_______________

0A050A1 ___________________________

8 5

/CMOS _______________

0705071 ____________________________

9 5

____________________________________

____________________________________

10

____________________________________

____________________________________

11

____________________________________

____________________________________

12

____________________________________

____________________________________

13

5 _____________________

0F0 ________________________________

14

____________________________________

15

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

3 5

____________________________________

____________________________________

4 5

____________________________________

____________________________________

5 5

____________________________________

____________________________________

6 5

____________________________________

____________________________________

7 5

____________________________________

____________________________________

, :

":

Mono/EGA/VGA ________

3B053BB ____________________________

EGA/VGA______________

3C053CF ___________________________

CGA/EGA/VGA ________

3D053DF ___________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

DMA:
0 5

_____________________________________

1 5

_____________________________________

2 5

_____________________________________

3 5

_____________________________________

4 5

DMA 053 ____________

5 5

_____________________________________

6 5

_____________________________________

7 5

_____________________________________

. 429

429



5: Intel SE440BX52 ____________________________________________________
:

100000 __________________________________________________________


:
06/09/99________________________________________________________
(IRQs):
":
0 5

_________________________

040504B ____________________________

1 5

____________

060 & 064 __________________________

2 5

_______________

0A050A1 ___________________________

8 5

/CMOS _____________________________

0705071 ____________________________

9 5

EtherEZ Ethernet_____________

340535F ____________________________

10

5 ____________________________________

11

5 Adaptec 1542CF SCSI () _

3345337* ___________________________

12

5 _______________

060 064

13

5 _____________________

0F0 ________________________________

____________________________________
________________________

14

5 IDE ( 1 2)_________

1F051F7, 3F6________________________

15

5 IDE (CD5ROM) _________

1705177, 376 _______________________

5 2 () _________

3F853FF ____________________________

5 1 (COM 1) _________

2F852FF ____________________________

5 Sound Blaster 16 ________________

6 5
7

2205233 ____________________________

______________________

3F053F5 ____________________________

5 1 () _________________

378537F ____________________________

, :

":

Mono/EGA/VGA ________

3B053BB ____________________________

EGA/VGA______________

3C053CF ___________________________

CGA/EGA/VGA ________

3D053DF ___________________________

ATI Mayh 64 SVGA _

102,1CE51CF , 2EC52EF _______________

MIDI Sound Blaster 16

_____________

3305331 ____________________________

Sound Blaster 16
( ) ____
FM Sound Blaster 16 () __
_____________________________________
DMA:

2005207 ____________________________

0 5
1

388538B ____________________________
____________________________________

_____________________________________

5 Sound Blaster 16 (85 DMA) ___________

2 5

______________________

5 1 ( EPP/ECP)____________

5 DMA 053

5 Sound Blaster 16 (165 DMA) __________

5 Adaptec 1542CF SCSI* _________

7 5

____________

_____________________________________

* , .

430

. 430

4.

,
IRQ
DMA. , 
. 
:
;
;
.
,
, 
. , 
.
. :
SVGA (ATI Mach 64);
(Creative Sound Blaster 16);
SCSI (Adaptec AHA1542CF);
(SMC EtherEZ).
, . 
, . 
, . ,
.
SCSI. 
(330331) DMA (DMA 5) 
. , , 
.
, 
. , IRQ 3,
2. ,
IRQ.
, 
, . 

. , 
,
. , 
,
.

(, Msd.exe),
IRQ 5 .
. 5
. 5
Plug and Play, , 5
. , Plug and Play, 5
.
Windows 9. 5
, .

. 431

431

:
IRQ
DMA, . 
, . 
, .
. 
IRQ DMA.
, ROM RAM .

PCI5 , DMA,
, . , , 5
PCI, , . ,
IRQ3 IRQ4 ( COM2 COM1) COM
PCI/PnP, PCI.
, PCI/PnP IRQ9, IRQ10 IRQ11,
. , 5
IRQ PCI.

,
. ,
, 
, SCSI .

:
IRQ, DMA . , , 
.
Sound Blaster 16, Creative Labs.
. 4.84 Creative Labs
SB512. , 
Device Manager ( ) Windows .
4.84. Creative Labs SB512

"

Sound Blaster 16

Creative
Creative
Creative SB512

3
9

02205022F 033050331
2
03885038B
D4005D407
020050207
C8605C87F

16" 8"
DMA
DMA
5

MIDI.
FM.
3
PCI.
2

, 
Sound Blaster . SB 
( , DOS),
. 

, IRQ DMA, 
. ,
. ,
. , 

432

. 432

4.

PnP. 
, 
.

,
. 5
,
. 5 , 5
, . 5 , 5
, ,
.
.
,
. , PnP ,
.

Sound Blaster 16 
Adaptec SCSI. DMA 5
 330331. 
SCSI , 
.
(Sound Blaster 16 AHA1542CF) ,
, ,
.
PCI,
DMA.
DMA ,
PCI, , , 
Windows 95/3.x PCI ISA.
PCI,
Windows 98 ( IRQ Steering)
BIOS. 
.
ISA, , 
.

PCI 5
(, DOS), , ISA, DMA.
325
. PCI ,
DMA5 ,
.
, PC/PCI,
PC/PCI5 .
DMA ISA 5
.

SCSI

, , , . 
: 
 . 
, SCSI IRQ, DMA,

. 433

433

 16
ROM , , RAM ( ). , 
SCSI , .
SCSI, 
, IRQ, DMA, 
. ,
, . 

.

SCSI ISA ,
Plug and Play. , Plug and Play , 5
(, , DIP
).


.
, , 
.  .
16 ,
. ,
, 
.


. 
. 
, 
. .
3
4 1 2 . 

, Windows OS/2.  , ,
, .

, ,
 .
SVGA , S3, Inc. ATI, 
 ( , 4).
, ATI 2EC2EF ,
, 4 
2E82EF, .
4,
.
, , , , 
 , , , 
, 
4.
USB 10/100 Ethernet 
, . , 
,
434

. 434

4.

BIOS AGP/PCI.
.
(Universal Serial Bus "" USB)
USB 1.1/2.0 , 
Windows Me/2000/XP . , USB
, !
(, COM LPT).
IRQ, .
USB , ,
( 127),
(IRQ).
USB, .
USB,
CMOS , IRQ, 
. , USB , ,
, ., IRQ . ,
ISA.
,
CD/DVD , , 
, USB 2.0. 
USB 1.1 
USB. , 
USB 2.0 .


, (, 
), , 
.. , 
, .
,
.
MPEG, 
. 
, DVD.

Plug and Play



. 1995 , 
.

, .
Plug and Play ,
, MCA EISA, 
. , 
DMA IRQ. Plug and Play
ISA, PCI, SCSI, IDE PCMCIA.
Plug and Play, :
Plug and Play;
Plug and Play BIOS;
Plug and Play .
,

. 435

435

Plug and Play, .. 


.

, .
, , Plug and
Play, ISA. , , ,
, , .
Plug and Play BIOS
. , BIOS

. .
BIOS
BIOS
BIOS, Plug and Play. BIOS 13 
, 
, Plug and Play. BIOS
, Compaq, Intel Phoenix Technologies.
Plug and Play BIOS
POST . BIOS
, Plug and Play. 
.
1. .
2. ISA Plug and Play.
3. : , IRQ,
DMA .
4. .
5. ROM ISA.
6. , 
.
7. .
8. .
9. .

,
Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP, ,
. 
. , 
.
,
BIOS. , 
( ) 
. 
( ) . 
, , .

436

. 436

4.


Plug and Play ACPI , 5
BIOS . Flash ROM,
Plug and Play, BIOS
Web5 / BIOS.



, ,  . 
, . 
, 
, .
, .
( ) . 
? ?

PC . ,
, .
, . 
( , !).
. 
, DDR
SDRAM DDR2 SDRAM DIMM ( , 
). , PCIExpress 16 
Serial ATA. , ,
. , ,
,
.
.
 . 
, 
. ;
 . ,
 (
). Athlon XP, Pentium 4, Pentium D, Celeron 4,
Sempron Athlon 64 .
Intel AMD,
, ,
.
1218 64 , 
Pentium D, Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Athlon 64 X2 Pentium Extreme Edition.
.
, ,
. 
Socket A (Socket 462) Athlon XP Sempron,
Socket 775 Pentium 4 Pentium D, Socket 754
Athlon 64 Sempron, Socket 939 Athlon 64 Athlon 64FX.
,
.

. 437

437

.
, , , 400 1 066
Pentium 4 200/400
Duron/Athlon/Athlon XP. ,
, .
. 
, ,
. ,
 . ,
 , 
, 
. 
 .
SIMM/DIMM/RIMM. SIMM 
, ,
. DDR DIMM RIMM,
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM. 
,
, ,
. DDR SDRAM RDRAM 
, RDRAM .
, , 
(), , 
. , 
, , 
. .
, 
DIMM  RIMM.
, .
. ISA.
PCI ( ), 
PCIExpress. , PCI 
PCI 2.1. , ,

. 
AGP 4x/8x PCIExpress x16.
, AMR (Audio Modem Riser) CNR
(Communications Networking Riser), ,
.
BIOS. BIOS 
AMI, Award Phoenix. BIOS 
FlashROM EEPROM.
BIOS ,
Flash ROM.
. ATX
( microATX FlexATX), Baby
AT LPX.
NLX FlexATX.
.
( ,
438

. 438

4.

, ).
, Super I/O , ,
USB.
, ,
, . 
, Super I/O.
Ethernet 10/100,
DSL .
.
, .
. 
Sound Blaster, ,
.
IDE. , ,
IDE, IDE . 
, , UDMA/66 (ATA66), 
IDE. 
UDMA/66/100/133 ,
,
. ,
IDE RAID. 
/, 
, , , 
, IDE.
,
RAID, AMI,
HighPoint Promise. Se
rial ATA, RAID. SATA
, ATA133 
SATA .

, ,
. Motherboard
Homeworld's Mobot, 5
, , , , , 5
, .. , :
http://iceberg.pchomeworld.com/cgi-win/mobotGen/mobot.asp.

. 
SL Enhanced APM (Advanced Power Management) SMM (System
Management Mode),
.
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface).
, EnergyStar, 
30 .
.
, 
, , ,
SIMM, DIMM, RIMM ,
. BIOS,
,

. 439

439

. ,
.
,
( , 
!). , ,
, 
, .
, Intel,
Acer, ABIT, AsusTek, SuperMicro, Tyan, FIC (First International Computer) ..
, :
, , , 
. ,
.


. 
, 
.
, Intel, VIA, ALI, SiS . 
.
, Setup BIOS. 
, , (advanced chipset
setup) , . 
BIOS, . 
, 
. , 
, ,
, .

, , 
, , . 
.
!
, 5
, . 5
, . 5
, , . 5
, !



.
. ,  
. ,
2,4 ,
, 2 . , 
? , , 
, , .. 
, .
,
. ,
440

. 440

4.

. , 
, , ,
.
,
30%.
, 
, Intel . 
Pentium 2,4 
2,6 . , , 
. , ,
2 , , 2 600 ,
.
Intel AMD , 
.
, , ,
.
(FSB).
,
FSB.
Web . 
, .
, , 
, Intel AMD, 
, .
, , , 
, .

( 3).

, !
, , ,
. Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility, 5
, . 5
, Intel, , , 5
Pentium III, Celeron (
Coppermine), . Intel Processor Frequency
ID Utility : http://developer.intel.com/support/processors/
tools/frequencyid/download.htm.
. 5
, !
.
Norton Utilities Symantec,
. 5
, 3.

. 441

441

442

. 442

4.

5
BIOS:
"

. 443

BIOS

. .

BIOS.
BIOS . ,
BIOS
. BIOS .
, BIOS , .
, BIOS
, ,
.
.
POST (Power On Self Test 
) . 
, . 
( 
) BIOS, .
BIOS , 
, MDA/CGA, 
, , , ..

, .
, , ,
. . 
, , .
,

BIOS. , 
, ,
.
, 
,
. BIOS, ,
MDA IBM, CGA.
, ,
. , ,
, BIOS 
.
,
BIOS. , 
(IO.SYS) (CONFIG.SYS),
. CONFIG.SYS 
.
IO.SYS , 
BIOS. , BIOS,
.
BIOS ,
, . ,
BIOS , ,
, 

444

. 444

5. BIOS: 5

BIOS.  
(, ) 
, 
BIOS (. . ),
. ,
, .
,  BIOS, 
. BIOS,
, firmware (  
BIOS ).
.
.
, 
, . PC
128 , 
, POST, 
BIOS Setup, .
, 128 ,
32 .
, .
, 
, , . , Win
dows 95 32 , 
16 , . 16
,
32 , 
. Windows 95/98/Me 16, 32 .
32 , 
. , 
Windows NT/2000/XP, 16
, (ROM) .
32 
, .
64 Windows,
64 , 32 16
. 64
, 
64 Windows.
, , 32 Windows XP 
. 
, . 
BIOS , Win
dows XP .
. 
,
, , 
.
.

, .
, . 
. 5.1.
BIOS

. 445

445

: ROM BIOS

: ROM BIOS

(API)

. 5.1. PC

,
BIOS
. , 
(, , .), 
. 
API (Application Programming Interface).
, , ,
. ,
, 
.
, , BIOS 
. . , 
.

, , , . , 
, DOS, Win
dows 9x/NT/2000/XP, OS/2, Linux .
, 
. , Windows Me Windows 98/95, 
Windows 98 Windows 2000/NT.
BIOS , 
, .
, Windows XP ,
, .., , 
.
. 5.1, 
, .
BIOS , 
, BIOS, ,
, .
.
BIOS , 
.
BIOS .

446

. 446

5. BIOS: 5

BIOS
, BIOS 
. BIOS , 
, .
BIOS :
;
(, );
, ( ).
BIOS (, , 
, ..),
. (, CD
ROM, SCSI, USB ..)
BIOS.
,
. , , , 
PC Card (PCMCIA) ..
,
. , , ,
,
? ,
(readonly memory ROM) .
. , 
,
BIOS. , 
, BIOS.
BIOS .
BIOS BIOS 
. , IBM .

. , 
,
.
BIOS 
BIOS ,
. BIOS, , :
BIOS;
SCSI , BIOS
SCSI, ..
CDROM, , Zip SCSI;
SCSI SCSI CDROM, 
CDROM;
,
; IPL (Initial program
load ), 

;
IDE 
.

BIOS

. 447

447

BIOS CMOS RAM


BIOS CMOS RAM . ,
Setup BIOS CMOS RAM. 5
, .
BIOS . , 5
RTC/NVRAM,
. , 5
. CMOS, 5
(complementary metal5oxide semiconductor CMOS).
Motorola MC146818, RTC/NVRAM, 64 5
, 10 .
, / , 5
, . , Complementary Metal5Oxide Semi5
conductor (CMOS), , 5
. CMOS RAM, ,
, RTC/NVRAM. , 5
RTC/NVRAM, ( ),
.
, .
Dallas Semiconductor RTC/NVRAM (, DS12885
DS12887), .
BIOS Setup /

RTC/NVRAM ( CMOS RAM).
, CMOS RAM. 5
BIOS CMOS RAM, .

BIOS
, ,
BIOS ROM BIOS. 
, 
. POST ( )
. CMOS,
, . CMOS 
NVRAM (NonVolatile RAM).
, BIOS ,
.
. BIOS PC 
.
POST , , 
, , , ,
.
BIOS (Setup BIOS)
. ( 
) POST.
286 386 .
,
. ,
( 
55AAh), .
MBR ,
, (Volume Boot Record
VBR). VBR 
448

. 448

5. BIOS: 5

, IO.SYS (DOS/Windows 9x/Me) NTLDR (Windows NT/


2000/XP), .
BIOS , 
. DOS Windows
BIOS.

ROM
ROM (ReadOnly Memory) ( )
. .
, ( BIOS) ROM.
BIOS,
.
, ROM .
ROM . , 
ROM.
, .
, 
() FFFF0h; , ,
. 16
ROM. 
, , , 
. ,
ROM, 
.
ROM F0000h, 64
128 . ROM 128 ,
ROM 128 , 
FFFF0h . ROM
256 512 . 
.
. 5.2 .
, , 
16 ROM, . 
JMP,
; F0000h, 
64 . 16 
; , 
. ROM.
BIOS ROM ,
. 
BIOS , , , 
, 
. , ,
ROM,
.
, ,
ROM. , SCSI (Small Computer Systems In
terface), ATA . ROM
,
. , ROM ,
ROM ( C0000DFFFFh) 
(55AAh), ROM.
BIOS

. 449

449

. 5.2.

55AAh;
. , 512
, ,
. .
, 
. 100h.
, 
. ,
POST.

ROM , .

POST.

ROM
ROM : 150
DRAM 60 . ROM 
, ..

450

. 450

5. BIOS: 5

, . 
ROM , , 
ROM, .
. , 
BIOS , , .
16
DOS Windows 3.x. 32 
Windows 9 Windows NT/2000, ,
16 ROM.
32 , 16 BIOS, 
. 
Setup BIOS.


ROM.
ROM (Read Only Memory).
PROM (Programmable ROM). ROM.
EPROM (Erasable PROM). ROM.
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable PROM).  ROM,
Flash ROM.
ROM, ,
.
. 5.1 , 
ROM .
5.1. ROM

ROM

PROM
EPROM
EEPROM

27nnnn
27nnnn
28xxxx 29xxxx

ROM
ROM 
0 1, .. ROM ,
.
().
, ,
. 
.
, , 
. ROM .
. 
,  ,
. . 
(); ,
.
PROM
PROM . 
1970 Texas Instruments 1 (8 )
BIOS

. 451

451

2 (16 ) .
27nnnn , 27 PROM TI, nnnn
() . , PROM 
27512 271000, 512 (64 ) 1 M
(128 ).

1981 , ,
ROM, . 5
, Pontiac Turbo Trans Am 1989
, 2732 PROM (Electronic Control
Module 5555 ECM) 32 ( 4 ). 5
, ,
. PROM,
, .

, 
, . 
, PROM 1 1 ( 1 048 576).
PROM . 
(. 5.3).

. 1 

. 
5 , 
PROM 
( 12 ) 
, 
.
0, 
,
1 0.
1 0, , ..
0 1. 
. 5.3.  , 
() PROM
, 
1 0
, . PROM 
OTP (One Time Programmable ). 
. PROM , 
3 . PROM ,
.
PROM ,
. . 5.3
, . 
, 
. .
Andromeda
Research. , 
; 
. , . 
, . 

452

. 452

5. BIOS: 5

,
; ,
.
PROM
PROM Turbo Trans Am 1989 5
, 5
, , ,
, ! ,
,
. , ,
36 / 5
35 / . ,
, 5
. 5
5555 5
, . 5
5 Turbo Trans Am
Buick Grand National, Casper's Electronics (. Vendor List,
5). , Fastchip, Su5
perchips, Hypertech Mopar Performance, PROM, 5
.
5.9l Jeep Grand Cherokee Mopar Performance PCM, 5
.

EPROM
PROM, . 
EPROM . EPROM , 
(. 5.4). !
EPROM 27nnnn, PROM, 
, .
.
() EPROM. ,
. ( 
!) EPROM.
, .
, 
, () . , 
0 1. , 
2,537 , 
2
(12 000 / ). 
23 ( 1 ), 5
15 . EPROM
( ), 
, .
. 5.5 , 50 
. Walling Co,
DataRase, .
EPROM , 
. ,
, ,  
, , . 
, .

BIOS

. 453

453

. 5.4.

EPROM

. 5.5.
EPROM

EEPROM, Flash ROM


ROM 
. Flash ROM, ,
, , .
Flash ROM, ROM ,
.
Flash ROM EEPROM 
. , ,
1994 , . ,
Chevy Impala SS 1994 PCM
Flash ROM.
Flash ROM 28xxxx 29xxxx 
. Flash ROM ROM,
. , 
Web , .
Web ,
BIOS . BIOS
,
. , BIOS, 
LS120 ( 120 ) USB.

, , 5
. , ROM .
, ,
, ROM , 5

. GM 5
BIOS Vehicle Calibration General Motors 5
: http://calid.gm.com/vci/.
(Vehicle Identification Number 5555 VIN) Web5
Flash ROM,
. , VIN Impala 1994 , 5
, Flash ROM,
.. . , 5

454

. 454

5. BIOS: 5

.
, , ,
, check engine ..
Flash ROM , 5
. , Flash ROM Impala
Comoro. , ,
. Flash ROM
, Fastchip (http://www.fastchip.com) Superchips
(http://www.superchips.com). ( Vendor List 5
5.) 5
Flash ROM Web5 http://www.diy-efi.org.

, ,
Flash ROM. , , ! ,
Flash ROM ISDN Motorola
Kodak. , 
ROM. , 
, Web
.
Flash ROM
, CD/DVD . 
, X2 K56Flex V.90/V.92 
CDROM .

ROM BIOS
BIOS 
. 
BIOS.
PC ROM BIOS 
, American Megatrends, Inc. (AMI), Phoenix Software Award Software ( 
Phoenix Software).
ROM BIOS, ,
. ROM
BIOS, ,
. ROM BIOS
. ROM BIOS . AMI, Award,
Microid Research Phoenix BIOS, 
.
BIOS .
Intel BIOS Phoenix AMI,
Phoenix AMI. 1995 Intel BIOS
Phoenix. , 1997 BIOS AMI
Phoenix. , 1999 Intel 
AMI. Intel BIOS ,
. Intel 
, BIOS
. , 
BIOS AMI.
1998 Phoenix Award,
Phoenix. ,
Phoenix AMI. 
BIOS AMI,
BIOS Phoenix. BIOS 
BIOS

. 455

455

, . BIOS,
Phoenix BIOS 4.0, FirstBIOS Pro, Phoenix BIOS
Award BIOS FirstBIOS.
BIOS
, 32 64 ,
. BIOS .
BIOS, , 
, BIOS 
64 PCI.
BIOS
, .
BIOS OEM"
OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturers) 
ROM. , Compaq, AT&T Acer BIOS, 
BIOS AMI, Phoenix Award, 
BIOS,
. ROM BIOS,
, , 
( , , ).
OEM BIOS, 
. , HewlettPackard ,
BIOS. HewlettPackard ;
Phoenix BIOS. ,
Vectra PC HewlettPackard BIOS Phoenix. 
: BIOS Phoenix, 
HewlettPackard.
BIOS AMI
AMI BIOS ,
 BIOS:
. ( ) 
, , .
AMI BIOS HiFlex (High Flexibility). AMI HiFlex BIOS 
. AMI BIOS,
.
AMI BIOS 
,
.

, ( !)
5 . 5
, .

POST <Insert>,
AMI HiFlex BIOS
, BIOS.
AMI BIOS , . 5.2.
, AMI HiFlex BIOS . 5.35.5
.

456

. 456

5. BIOS: 5

5.2. ABBB"NNNN"mmddyy"KK AMI BIOS

BIOS:
D 5555 ;
S 5555 ;
E 5555

BBB

5555 :
C&T 5555 Chips & Technologies;
NET 5555 NEAT 286 C&T;
286 5555 286;
SUN 5555 Suntac;
PAQ 5555 Compaq;
INT 5555 Intel;
AMI 5555 AMI;
G23 5555 386 G2

NNNN

mmddyy

BIOS: //

KK

BIOS AMI

5.3. AB"CCcc"DDDDDD"EFGHIJKL"mmddyy"MMMMMMMM"N
AMI Hi"Flex BIOS

:
0 5555 8086 8088;
2 5555 286;
3 5555 386;
4 5555 486;
5 5555 Pentium;
6 5555 Pentium Pro/II

BIOS:
0 5555 64 ;
1 5555 128

CCcc

BIOS

DDDDDD

:
0036xx 5555 AMI 386;
0046xx 5555 AMI 486;
0056xx 5555 AMI Pentium;
0066xx 5555 AMI Pentium Pro

1 5555 POST

1 5555 CMOS5

1 5555 22 23

1 5555 BIOS5

1 5555 <F1> POST

1 5555 POST

(xx 5555 )

1 5555 POST

1 5555 POST

mmddyy

BIOS: //

MMMMMMMM

BIOS

. 457

457

5.4. AAB"C"DDDD"EE"FF"GGGG"HH"II"JJJ AMI Hi"Flex BIOS

AA

:
H 5555 ;

L 5555
:
0 5555 ;
1 5555

DDDD

EE

FF

GGGG

HH

II

JJJ

Turbo

5.5. AAB"C"DDD"EE"FF"GGGG"HH"II"JJ"K"L AMI Hi"Flex BIOS

AA

5:
H 5555 5;
L 5555 5

1 5555

DDD

5 :
0 5555 ;
1 5555

EE

FF

GGGG

HH

II

JJ

82335

BIOS:
0 5555 BIOS ;
1559, A55Z 5555 BIOS

AMI BIOS . , 
<Delete> <Esc>
. BIOS , .
, 
IDE ESDI. 1995 BIOS 
EIDE (Enhanced IDE) 
.
AMI BIOS 
AMIDIAG. ,
, .
, , ; 
BIOS, . 
BIOS .
AMI BIOS; , 
, BIOS . AMI
Programmers Guide to the AMIBIOS
458

. 458

5. BIOS: 5

( AMIBIOS), Windcrest/McGrawHill
(ISBN 0070015619). , AMI,
BIOS, , ..
 AMI ,
Web : http://www.ami.com. ,
AMI.
BIOS Award
Phoenix Award BIOS FirstBIOS.
, ,
<Ctrl+Alt+Esc> 
( , , ).
, 
ATA ESDI. POST 
,
POST. Phoenix Web
www.phoenix.com.
BIOS Phoenix
( Phoenix 
FirstBIOS Pro) ,
. Phoenix IBM BIOS
, . IBM BIOS 
, 
. , IBM
BIOS. , BIOS. 
IBM BIOS, 
. ,
, ,
BIOS.
Phoenix BIOS 
. POST.
, 
, .
, , .
. , ,
Phoenix , 
BIOS. : System BIOS for IBM PC/XT/AT
Computers and Compatibles, CBIOS for IBM PS/2 Computers and Compatibles ABIOS for IBM
PS/2 Computers and Compatibles. Phoenix 
Phoenix BIOS, BIOS PC .
Phoenix :
http://www.phoenix.com;
Micro Firmware, Inc. (http://www.firmware.com). Micro Firmware
 Phoenix,
Packard Bell, Gateway ( Micronics), Micron Technologies .
BIOS Microid Research (MR)
BIOS 486 Pentium
, BIOS
.
BIOS .

BIOS

. 459

459

BIOS
ROM BIOS . 
,
ROM.
ROM BIOS .
BIOS 
.
BIOS
PC , . BIOS
, .
BIOS,
, American Megatrends, Inc. (AMI), Award Software (
Phoenix), Microid Research Phoenix Technologies Ltd. , 
BIOS, ,
BIOS, . BIOS 
ROM 
. , BIOS
.
BIOS, 
. , 
IDE LS120 ( 120 ) 
, BIOS. 
, BIOS,
8 .
ROM BIOS :
LS120 (SuperDisk) Iomega Zip;
USB;
8,4 137 (48 
LBA);
UltraDMA/33, UltraDMA/66 UDMA/
100 IDE;
CDROM ( El Torito);
Plug and Play;
, 2000 
;

;
;

(Advanced System Configuration and Power Interface ACPI);
/ 
;
USB;
.
PC 2001, Intel Micro
soft, Fast POST. ,
, 
460

. 460

5. BIOS: 5

, 12 ( , SCSI
). ,
ATA. , ROM,
4 . , Intel Rapid Bios Boot
(RBB), , 2001 .
6 .

, ,
BIOS, . 
Plug and Play Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP BIOS. 
, 
Web .

, , 
, BIOS .
BIOS 
BIOS, Zip/LS120, ACPI,
PCI IRQ .., BIOS Wizard, 
Web eSupport.com ( Unicore) : http://www.esupport.
com/techsupport/award/awardutils.htm.

BIOS
BIOS
. BIOS ,
BIOS. 
Phoenix, AMI Award! 
.

BIOS
BIOS :
;
BIOS;
(, Pentium MMX, AMD K6, Cyrix/IBM 6x86MX, MII, Pen
tium II, Pentium III/4, AMD Athlon, Athlon XP ..).
BIOS , 
. , BIOS .
CMOS.

5
POST.
( splash screen). 5
BIOS Setup 5 (5
BIOS).
Setup BIOS. , , , 5
5 POST (quiet
boot). BIOS, , 5
. , 5
, , Intel, 5
Web5 http://developer.intel.com/design/motherbd/ gen_indx.htm.

BIOS

. 461

461


5
. (POST)
<Pause>. , . POST
.

, BIOS
BIOS Setup. , 
Super I/O, , 
BIOS Agent.
Web, BIOS.
, BIOS
. ,

. ,
.
, <Pause>, .
.

BIOS
BIOS
. BIOS 
8 FFFF5h. 
, BIOS
. BIOS , 
.
DEBUG,
Windows DOS. DEBUG 
, . , 
?. 
BIOS ( DOS ),
DEBUG. DEBUG
D FFFF:5 L 8; DEBUG
FFFF5 8 . DEBUG
ASCII. Q 
DEBUG. DEBUG . 5.6.

. 5.6. DEBUG BIOS

BIOS 07/11/03.
BIOS
EPROM, ,
, 
.
, 

.
462

. 462

5. BIOS: 5

EPROM ROM, . 
, . ,
,
..
BIOS
EPROM, . , 
DEBUG BIOS . 
, DEBUG.
128 64 : E0000
EFFFF F0000FFFFF. BIOS C0000
CFFFF D0000DFFFF. DEBUG
64 .
DEBUG E000 F000, 
.
C:\>DEBUG
-R BX
BX 0000
:1
-N SEG-E.ROM
-M E000:0 FFFF CS:0
-W 0
Writing 10000 bytes
-N SEG-F.ROM
-M F000:0 FFFF CS:0
-W 0
Writing 10000 bytes
-Q

;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;

DEBUG
BX ( )
0
1 ( 64 )

64 BIOS
0
10000h = 64K

64 BIOS
0
10000h = 64K
DEBUG

DEBUG Windows XP 
. 5.7.

64 E0000EFFFF F0000
FFFFF , , 
BIOS.
.
. 5.7. DEBUG 

E0000EFFFF F0000FFFFF

, BIOS
, ,
DEBUG C000:0 D000:0. 
. , BIOS
C0000; , C0000 D0000
; Windows 
.
, 
. , Name Move;
.

CMOS BIOS
BIOS BIOS
Setup ( ROM) CMOS. , ,
,

BIOS

. 463

463

. , Norton Utilities, ,
, BIOS. ,
BIOS 
CMOS RAM, .
, CMOS
RAM, .
BIOS Setup
<Shift+Prtsc> 
. , (
) ,
CMOS. , 
BIOS, CMOS RAM, BIOS
.
286/386, Plug and Play
.

,
BIOS. 5
, , .


( 2865) ,
, ( (ROM) ), 5
. Super I/O
South Bridge . 405
Intel 8042, , , 5
. ,
BIOS. ,
Super I/O South Bridge, , , 8042 .
A20,
. A20
.
. 5
, DOS Windows 95/98/NT/2000.
, , 19905
, . ,
BIOS .

Flash BIOS
1996 BIOS Flash ROM.

.
PROM 
, Flash ROM 
.
Flash ROM BIOS ,
, Flash ROM
. Web ; 

BIOS. ,
, 
.
, .
464

. 464

5. BIOS: 5

Flash ROM ; , 
, . 
, ROM. 
ROM , . 
 ROM BIOS
. BIOS 
Flash ROM , 
. Intel .
: ,
BIOS . Web.
.
BIOS 
BIOS. Web 
Vendor List, 
.

Flash BIOS
, . ,
. 5
Web5 .

BIOS ,
, 
. 
Flash ROM, 
, . 
Intel.
BIOS Intel ;
BIOS Intel
Windows. Flash BIOS ,
BIOS, BIOS
Setup BIOS.

Flash BIOS USB, . 5


BIOS .
, BIOS Byte Merge Award
BIOS FirstBIOS.
BIOS . .

BIOS 
CMOS, . 
DOS (.. ) 
BIOS . 
.
iFlash, , BIOS, 
, 
, Windows 95, MS DOS , , Linux.
Express BIOS Intel ( Windows 98, Windows NT 4,
) BIOS 
GUI ( ) 
InstallShield, Windows. 
BIOS

. 465

465


Intel iFlash BIOS.
1. , CMOS. 
(<F1> BIOS AMI,
<F2> BIOS Phoenix) CMOS.
BIOS, 
.
. : , 
.
2. BIOS .
DOS.
3. :.
 , :
C:\>FORMAT A:
, (Windows
Explorer).
4. , Web Intel, 
, .
. ,
. ( <Enter>.) 
. , CB-P06.EXE (
Intel D810E2CB),
C:\TEMP>CB-P06
<Enter>.
5. ,
BIOS. Intel Flash BIOS 
: Desc.txt, License.txt, Readme.txt, Run.bat (
) SW.EXE ( BIOS).
6. Run.bat. 
SW.EXE 
, A:.
7. , .
iFLASH,
, BIOS .
8. BIOS 
<Enter> .
9. Setup BIOS, <F1> <F2>
. BIOS
, .
10. Setup BIOS, BIOS ,
. AMI BIOS <F5>.
Phoenix BIOS Exit, Load Setup Defaults (
) <Enter>.
!
BIOS , .

466

. 466

5. BIOS: 5

11. , , 
. <F10>,
Setup BIOS . 
BIOS.


CMOS, . BIOS, 5
.

Intel BIOS .
, BIOS BIOS.EXE, 5
, 125 ,
5.

Flash BIOS
Flash BIOS
:
The BIOS is currently being updated. DO NOT REBOOT OR POWER DOWN until the
update is completed (typically within three minutes)...

( BIOS.
( ) .)

BIOS  , . 
,
Flash BIOS , 
, BIOSWorld (www.biosworld.com).
BIOS, , 
. , 
, ROM.
; ,
Flash BIOS,
. 
Andromeda Research (. Vendor List 
).
Flash BIOS
, .
,
. , Flash
BIOS, Recovery BIOS.
,  
BIOS. BIOS 
. , ,
, , 
:.
1. Flash Recovery Recovery.
Intel . 
Recovery/Normal. . 5.8
.

BIOS

. 467

467

8A
"J

1"

3
"J8A1"

. 5.8. Flash Recovery Intel

2. BIOS (
. 5 ) .
BIOS , 
. , .
BIOS 
. ,
.
3. , 
. 
; .
, ,
.
4. Flash Recovery .
.
A: BIOS , 
BIOS.

BIOS .
BIOS
.

468

. 468

5. BIOS: 5

IML
IBM Compaq Flash BIOS 
IML (Initial Microcode Load ).
BIOS
. , BIOS . 
BIOS .
, BIOS, , 
(Setup, Diagnostics Reference Disk), 
. 
.
, BIOS ;

. ,
, Reference Disk.
(
), , , . HPA
, .
BIOS, BIOS Setup, (flash ROM).

CMOS"
AT Motorola 146818 (10 )
(54 ), 
. 54 IBM AT .
Motorola 146818 . 
( ) Super I/O,
NVRAM
(NonVolatile RAM) , Dallas Benchmarq.
. 5.6 64 CMOS.
, . 
Setup BIOS.
5.6. CMOS" AT

HEX

DEC

00h
01h
02h

0
1
2

1
1
1

5 ( BCD)
BCD
BCD

03h
04h
05h
06h
07h
08h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
12h

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

BCD
BCD
BCD
BCD
( BCD)
BCD
BCD



D


BIOS

. 469

469

. 5.6

HEX

DEC

13h

19

14h
15h

20
21

1
1

16h
17h

22
23

1
1


(extended)

18h

24

(extended)

19h
1Ah

25
26

1
1

0 (055255)
1 (055255)

1Bh
2Eh

27
46

9
1

CMOS5

2Fh
30h

47
48

1
1

CMOS5

31h

49

(extended)

32h
33h

50
51

1
1

BCD
POST

34h
36h

52
54

2
1

BIOS Setup,

37h
3Eh
3Fh

55
62
63

7
1
1

( )
(extended) CMOS5
(extended) CMOS5

BCD Binarycoded decimal ( ).


POST Power on self test ( ).

,
CMOS 2 4 . 
Plug and Play. . 5.6
, CMOS ,
, BIOS.
,
CMOS RAM.
BIOS , 
.
. 5.7 ,
BIOS CMOS.
, ,
.
5.7.

7

HEX

80

40

CMOS

20

POST

10


POST

08

04

02

01

00

()

470

. 470

5. BIOS: 5

, 0,
CMOS. 
, Setup BIOS.

ROM BIOS
Flash ROM 1995 . 
EPROM. BIOS
EPROM ,
BIOS. BIOS ,
Flash ROM, . ,
BIOS , 1995 .
50 BIOS , 
Pentium Pentium II, Flash BIOS, 
75 ?
BIOS . 
ROM BIOS, .
1. CMOS.
2. .
3. .
4. ,
ROM BIOS. ! 
, .
5. , 
ROM BIOS .
6. ROM BIOS .
7. .
8. , .
9. BIOS.
10. .

2000
XXI ; 
BIOS . ,
1999 , 2000 . 
12 , .


Phoenix FirstBIOS, Pro
, 
BIOS Setup, , 
, .
( BIOS Setup) HPA
, . ,
, , 
. . 5.9 
Phoenix FirstBIOS Pro IBM.
<Enter> POST.

. 471

471

. 5.9. Phoenix FirstBIOS Pro IBM


. ,
OEM , , 
Windows, 
, ,
. , ,
, , 
. , , , DVD
, ..
, 
, 
, , , ..
, ,
. 
. , BIOS, Phoenix FirstBIOS,
,
BIOS.
,

, .
HPA, , 
PARTIES (Protected Area Run Time Interface Extension Services), 
ATA4, . 
,
SET MAX ADDRESS. 
HPA 3 .
, , SET MAX ADDRESS,
, HPA, 
472

. 472

5. BIOS: 5

PARTIES. HPA,
, , . 5.10.

HPA

BEER
DOS

HPA

C:>

. 5.10. HPA

HPA , ,
, , ,
, , Partition Magic Partition Commander.
HPA SET
MAX ADDRESS , . 
, 
 ( 
), , 
. ,
, HPA, .
HPA ,
.
, Phoenix FirstBIOS, 
,
HPA, Phoenix
FirstBIOS (cME),
2003 .

. 473

473

CMOS
CMOS RAM 
.
Setup, , .

Setup BIOS

. 
BIOS , 
POST.
AMI BIOS <Delete>.
Phoenix BIOS (FirstBIOS Pro) <F2>.
Award BIOS (FirstBIOS) <Delete> <Ctrl+Alt+Esc>.
Microid Research BIOS <Esc>.
Setup BIOS,
.
Setup BIOS .
IBM Aptiva/Valuepoint <F1> ( POST).
Toshiba <Esc> ; <F1>.
Phoenix BIOS <Ctrl+Alt+Esc> <Ctrl+Alt+S> ( 
).
Compaq <F10> ( POST).
. 
Setup BIOS Intel D845PEBT2.
,
.

Setup BIOS
Setup BIOS ,
. 5.8.

BIOS , Setup, 
Intel. 
 , .. BIOS 
.
5.8. Setup BIOS

Maintenance ()

.
Configure,

( )

Main ( )
Advanced (
)
Security ()
Power ()
Boot ()
Exit ()

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

474

. 474

5. BIOS: 

Maintenance

. 
. Intel
, Configure
Maintenance BIOS.
,
. 
Normal Configure (. . 5.6). Intel
, .
BIOS Setup, 
Maintenance, . 5.9. 
, Normal.
5.9. Maintenance

Clear All Passwords ( )

OK [ ]
Cancel ()

Clear BIOS ( BIOS)

OK [ ] BiS (Boot Integrity Service)


Cancel ()
CPU Stepping Signature ( 5
5
)

CPU Microcode Update Revision ( 5


5
)

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

: Intel 
( ),
( ).
, 
Configure, Setup BIOS
Clear All Passwords ( )
Maintenance (). , ,
, 
.
Extended Configuration
Intel ,
.

Main
Setup BIOS .
, ,
. Setup BIOS 
, BIOS, , 
(Error Correcting Code ECC).
. 5.10 Main.
5.10. Main

BIOS Version ( BIOS)


Processor Type ( 5 )

BIOS

CMOS

. 475

475

. 5.10

Hyper-Threading Technology
( Hyper5Threading)

Enabled (default) (
( )); Disabled
()

Hyper5Threading.

Hyper5Threading

Processor Speed (
)
System Memory Speed (
)
Cache RAM (5)

5 (L2),


Total Memory (
)

Memory Mode ( )

(
)

Memory Channel A Slot 0 (


A, 0);
Memory Channel A Slot 1 (
A, 1);
Memory Channel B Slot 0 (
B, 0);
Memory Channel B Slot 1 (
B, 1)
Memory Configuration
( )

,
DIMM

Language ()

System Time ( )
System Date ( )

Non5ECC (default) ( ECC


( )); ECC

ECC .
,
ECC
English (default) ( ,
( )); BIOS

::

, ,

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

() 
. 
DIMM. 
: 
DIMM .
, 
.
64256 
. , 
.
, 
. ,
. 

, , . 
, , 
.
BIOS 
. ,
(conventional), 640 . ,
1024 , .
Setup BIOS
, . ,
.
476

. 476

5. BIOS: 5

Advanced
,
. . . 5.11
Advanced.
5.11. Advanced

PCI Configuration ( PCI)

(IRQ) PCI.
PCI Configuration

Boot Configuration (
)

Numlock Plug and Play,


.
Boot Configuration

Peripheral Configuration (
)

Drive Configuration ( )
ATA
Floppy Configuration ( ) Diskette Configuration
Event Log Configuration ( )

.
Event Log Configuration

Video Configuration
( )
USB Configuration ( USB)

.
Video Configuration

Chipset Configuration (
)
Fan Control Configuration (
)
Hardware Monitoring (
)

USB.
USB Configuration
.
Chipset Configuration
.
Fan Control Configuration
,

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

PCI Configuration
PCI Configuration (IRQ)
, PCI. Auto (the default)
 IRQ
, PCI,
. PCI Configuration . 5.12.
5.12. PCI Configuration

PCI Slot 1 IRQ Priority (


PCI #1)
PCI Slot 2 IRQ Priority

Auto () ( ), 3, 5, 9, 10, 11
PCI 1
Auto () ( ), 3, 5, 9, 10, 11
PCI 2
Auto () ( ), 3, 5, 9, 10, 11
PCI 3
Auto () ( ), 3, 5, 9, 10, 11
PCI 4


PCI 5

PCI Slot 3 IRQ Priority


PCI Slot 4 IRQ Priority
PCI Slot 5 IRQ Priority

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

Boot Configuration
. 5.13 Plug and Play ,
.

CMOS

. 477

477

5.13. Boot Configuration

Plug and Play O/S


(
Plug and Play)

No (default) ( ( ))

Yes
Plug and Play. No
BIOS

Numlock

On (default) ( (
))
Off ()

Yes ()

Num Lock

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.



. ,
, Auto. DIMM/RIMM
ROM, 
. ,
, 
. 
; , , , 
, .
. 5.14 Chipset Configuration.
5.14. Chipset Configuration

ISA Enable bit (


ISA)

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) ( (
))

PCI55PCI
165 5
, 105
ISA ( 5,
)

PCI Latency Timer (


PCI)

32 ( )
64
96
128
160
192
224
248


( PCI),
PCI

Burn-in Mode (
)
Extended Configuration
(
)
SDRAM Frequency (
1
SDRAM)
SDRAM Timing Control
(
1
SDRAM)

CPC Override ( CPC)

SDRAM RAS Active to


Precharge Time (

5
SDRAM RAS)

478

. 478

User Defined

Default ( )
User Defined (
)
Auto () ( ) 266
2
333
3
400
Auto () ( )
Manual (Aggressive) (
( ))
Manual (User Defined) (
( ))
Auto () ( )
Enabled ()
Disabled ()
8
7
6 ( )
5

;
,
4

Auto
. Manual
(Aggressive)
. Manual (User Defined)

CPC/1n. Enabled
DRAM

tRAS

5. BIOS: 5

. 5.14

SDRAM CAS# Latency ( 2.0


5
SDRAM CAS)
2.5 ( )

3.0
SDRAM RAS#-to-CAS# Delay
( SDRAM RAS5to5
5
CAS)
SDRAM RAS# Precharge
5
( SDRAM RAS)

4
3

2 ( )
4

3
2 ( )

, Extended Configuration Userdefined.


, , 533 .
3 , , 800 .
4 SDRAM , .
System Memory Speed Main .
5 SPD, DIMM , 
SDRAM Timing Control Manual (User Defined).
2

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

. 5.15 Advanced.
5.15. Advanced

System BIOS Cacheable (5 BIOS F0000h55FFFFFh, 5


BIOS)
.
,
Video BIOS Cacheable
BIOS C0000h55C7FFFh, 5
( BIOS)
.
,
Video RAM Cacheable
Enabled A0000h55AFFFFh,
( )
. 5
,
8/16 Bit I/O Recovery Time
5
( 85 ISA PCI
165 5)
Memory Hole at 15M16M
1 15 16 5
( 5 , ,
155516 )
16 .
Passive Release ( 5 Enabled PCI
)

Delayed Transaction ( 325 5
)
. Enabled PCI 2.1

Overclocking/Burn"in Test Features


, 
( , ) .
. 
, BIOS Setup, . 5.16.
5.16. Overclocking/Burn-in Test Settings

Do you wish to continue? No () (


( 5
)
?)
Continue ()

CMOS

. 479

. 5
, ,

479

. 5.16

Host and I/O Burn-In


Mode (
)

Default ( )
2.0%

( ) 5
(AGP PCI) .
, Default, AGP/PCI Burn-In Mode
( AGP/PCI) ( )
Default ( )

51.0%
+1.0%
+2.0%
+3.0%
+4.0%

AGP/PCI Burn-In Mode


(
AGP/PCI)

Default ( )
63.88/31.94
68.05/34.02
69.44/34.72

Default AGP/PCI 66,66/33,33 .


AGP/PCI,
,

70.83/35.41
72.22/36.11
73.60/36.80

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.


PCI AGP . AGP
PCI 
AGP/PCI . 
, ,
. 
.
Peripheral Configuration
(. 5.17) , 
, , 
USB.
5.17. Peripheral Configuration

Serial port A
(
)

Disabled ()
Enabled ()
Auto () ( ))

A. 5
Auto
COM5, COM 1, 3F8h IRQ4.
* , 5

Base I/O address


( 5
)

3F8 ( )
2F8
3E8
2E8
IRQ 3
IRQ 4 ( )
Auto ( ( ))
Disabled ()
Enabled ()

5 5
A

Interrupt
()
Parallel port
( )

Mode
()

Base I/O address


( 5
)

480

. 480

Output Only ( )
Bi-directional (default) (5
( ))
EPP
ECP
378 (default) ( )
278

A
. LPT1 5
378h IRQ7.
* , 5

. EPP 5555 5
Extended Parallel
Port; ECP 5555
Enhanced Capabilities Port
5 5
B

5. BIOS: 5

. 5.17

Interrupt
()

IRQ 7 (default) ( )
IRQ 5
DMA 1
DMA 3 (default) ( )

Enabled (default) ( ( 5
))
Disabled ()

DMA ( DMA)
Audio
()

Onboard LAN ( Enabled (default) ( (


)
))
Disabled ()

DMA
( ECP)

LAN
( )

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

ATA Configuration
(. 5.18) ATA, 
, CDROM LS120 (SuperDisk), 
..
,
.
.
5.18. ATA Configuration

Enhanced
Serial ATA (SATA) Parallel ATA (PATA). 5
Disabled ATA .
Legacy ATA 5
,
ATA 5

Legacy ATA Channels
PATA SATA 5
PATA Pri Only ( PATA)
( ATA) PATA Sec Only ( PATA)
,
PATA Pri and Sec ( ATA .
, 5
PATA)
ATA Configuration Legacy
SATA P0/P1 Only ( SATA P0/P1)
SATA P0/P1, PATA Sec (SATA P0/P1, 5
PATA)
SATA P0/P1, PATA Pri (SATA P0/P1, 5
PATA)
PCI ATA Bus Master
Enabled () ( )

( PCI 5 Disabled ()
DMA
ATA)
INT13
Hard Disk Pre-Delay
Disabled () ( ))

( 5 3 Seconds (3 )

)
6 Seconds (6 )
9 Seconds (9 )
12 Seconds (12 )
15 Seconds (15 )
21 Seconds (21 )
30 Seconds (30 )
SoftRAID Support
Disabled () ( ))
SoftRAID
( SoftRAID)
Enabled ()
SATA Port-0 (50 SATA) 5555
5
( )
SATA Port-1 (50 SATA) 5555
5
( )
ATA Configuration
( ATA)

CMOS

. 481

Enhanced () ( )
Disabled ()
Legacy ()

481

. 5.18

PATA Primary Master (5


PATA)

5555

5
( )

PATA Primary Slave (5


5555
PATA)
PATA Secondary Master
5555
( PATA)

5
( )

PATA Secondary Slave (5 5555


PATA)

5
( )

PATA Parallel ATA.


SATA Serial ATA.
Pri Primary ().

5
( )

Sec Secondary ().


P0 Serial ATA connector 0 ( 0 Serial ATA).
P1 Serial ATA connector 1 ( 1 Serial ATA).

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.


, . 
, ;
Fixed Disk Failure ( ).
, ,
. , , 
, .
ATA Configuration
ATA.
Setup BIOS .
ATA,
. BIOS 
.
.
BIOS Identify Drive. 
.
. Auto , 
.
IDE.
Auto, BIOS
47 .
, , . 
.
BIOS User User Defined.
( ).
, Standard
LBA. Standard
528 . , 1998 , 
136,9 . , , 2002
, 137 ,
BIOS. IDE
, , , 
, .
. 5.19 IDE, BIOS
.
482

. 482

5. BIOS: 5

5.19. IDE

Drive Installed
( )

Type ()

Auto () ( )
User ( )

IDE5.
Auto
.

Maximum Capacity

Disabled ()

LBA

( )
LBA/Large Mode
(
LBA)
Block Mode (
)
PIO Mode (

5)
DMA Mode
( DMA)
SMART

Enabled ()

,

5
(PIO)

DMA

Auto ()
Disabled ()
Enabled ()

SMART (Self5
Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology 5555

). Auto
SMART,

,
IDE: 405 805
( Ultra ATA566/100/133)

LS5120 SuperDisk. ,
Floppy

Cable Detected
( )

ARMD Emulation Type


( ARMD)

Floppy ()

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

Auto 
. , 
. 
BIOS .
, 
User . 
: ,
, .
Floppy Configuration
(. 5.20).
5.20. Floppy Configuration

Diskette Controller
( )

Disabled ()
Enabled ( ( )
Auto ()
Disabled ()
360KB, 5 1/4-inch (360 ; 5,25 )
1.2MB, 5 1/4-inch (1,2 ; 5,25 )
720KB, 3 1/2-inch (720 ; 3,5 )
1.44MB, 3 1/2-inch (default) (1,44 ; 3,5 (
))
2.88MB, 3 1/2-inch (2,88 ; 3,5 )

Diskette A:
( A:)

CMOS

. 483


A:

483

. 5.20

Diskette Write Protect

Disabled () ( )
Enabled ()


A:

( )

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

, 
,
.
Event Logging

System Management (SMBIOS), DMI
. DMI (Desktop Management Interface)
,
.
SMBIOS,
. Intel LANDesk Client Man
ager, DMI:
BIOS, ;
, ;
, , 
;
,
.
. 5.21 Event Logging.
5.21. DMI Event Logging

Event Log (
)

View event log (


)
Clear all event logs
( )
Event Logging

<Enter>

( )
Mark event as read (
)

No () ( )
Yes ()
Disabled ()
Enabled ( ( )
<Enter>

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

, (), 
. ,
( ) , View Log.
Video Configuration
(. 5.22).

484

. 484

5. BIOS: 5

5.22. Video Configuration

AGP Aperture Size


(
AGP)

4MB (4 )

AGP

8MB (8 )
16MB (16 )
32MB (32 )
64MB (default) (64 ( ))
256MB (256 )

Default Primary Video Adapter


( ,
)

AGP (default) (AGP) ))


PCI

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

 
, . 5.23.
5.23. Video Configuration
Palette Snooping
( )

Disabled () (
))
Enabled ()

PCI5

, ISA

AGP Hardware Detected


( AGP)

, AGP 1, 2, 3
4.

Windows 98 Win
dows 2000/XP.
, .. .
USB Configuration
USB Configuration USB. . 5.24 
BIOS.
5.24. USB Configuration

High-Speed USB
( USB)

Disabled () Enabled
() ( )

Disabled, USB 2.0


; USB
USB 1.1

Legacy USB Support (


Legacy USB)
USB 2.0 Legacy Support
(
USB 2.0)

Disabled () Enabled
() ( )
FullSpeed ( )
HiSpeed

/ Legacy USB

USB 2.0: HiSpeed 5555 480 /; FullSpeed 5555
12 /

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

, USB 1.1 USB 2.0, 


.
Legacy USB USB.
,
, USB. DOS,
, Win
dows 98/Me/2000/XP. Legacy USB
BIOS.
Legacy USB,
USB, BIOS POST. Legacy
CMOS

. 485

485

USB ( ),
.
1. Legacy USB.
2. POST.
3. Legacy USB BIOS,
USB Setup BIOS Maintenance.
4. POST Legacy USB ( Setup
BIOS Enabled ()).
5. , USB 
. 
USB.
, USB, BIOS 
Legacy USB 
. USB Leg
acy USB USB .
Legacy USB, USB
DOS ,
USB.
Legacy USB 
USB PS/2. , PS/2 USB 
USB PS/2. , Legacy USB 
USB  
. USB
, USB .
Fan Control Configuration

. . 5.25 Fan Control Configuration
BIOS .
5.25. Fan Control Configuration

Fan Control (
)
Lowest Fan Speed
(
)

Disabled () Enabled ()
( )
Slow () ( )
Off ()

Slow

. Off
,

. ,
. BIOS 
30 , .
, BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 
Intel Corporation.

,
, 
. BIOS Setup.
, 
, Win
dows (. 5.26).

486

. 486

5. BIOS: 5

5.26.

Processor Zone Temperature ( 5


)

System Zone 1 Temperature ( 5


1)

System Zone 2 Temperature ( 5


2)

Processor Fan Speed ( 5


)

Rear Fan Speed (


)

Front Fan Speed ( 5


)

Voltage Regulator Fan Speed ( 5


)

+1.5V in ( +1,5 )
Vccp ( )

+1,5

+3.3V in ( +3,3 )
+5V in ( +5 )

+3,3
+5

+12V in ( +12 )

+12

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

Resource Configuration/PnP Configuration


ISA, 
Plug and Play.
12 , .

Security
BIOS Supervisor ()
User (). Supervisor Setup BIOS,
User .
Supervisor, Setup BIOS 
.
BIOS. , 
BIOS .
User, 
. 
. , 
. .
, , ,
BIOS.
, . 
Maintenance, 
Setup BIOS.
, , , BIOS Setup, 
Clear All Passwords ( ). 
, , Set Password ( ) 
<Enter> .
. 5.27 Security.
, , 
.
Intel , Maintenance 
BIOS Setup Clear Password.
CMOS

. 487

487

, 
1520 . CMOS, 
, , .
5.27. Security

Supervisor Password
( Supervisor)
User Password

Supervisor

User

( User)
Set Supervisor Password

5 Supervisor
( Supervisor)1 5
User Access Level ( 5
2
)

Set User Password


( User)1
Clear User Password
( User)3
Chassis Intrusion
(
)

No access ( )

Setup BIOS
View Only ( )
Limited Full (default) ( (
))
5 User
5

User

Disabled (default) ( ( ))
5
Log ( )
Log, notify once ( , 5
)
Log, notify until cleared ( , 5
)

 , AZ, az 19.
.
3
.
, BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 
Intel Corporation.
2

Power

. 
: APM (Advanced Power Management),
, 386 486; ACPI (Advanced Configura
tion and Power Interface), 1998 . 
: APM 
, ACPI BIOS, , ,
.
BIOS Setup ACPI 
Windows 98/Me/2000/XP.
. 5.28 5.29 BIOS 
.
5.28. , BIOS

ACPI
After power failure
( 5
)

Stay off ( )
Last state (default) (
( ))
Power On ()

ACPI (. . 5.23)

488

. 488

5
. Stay off 5555
. Last state 5555
5
(/). Power On 5555

5. BIOS: 5

. 5.28

Wake on PCI PME


Stay off (default) ( (
( 5 ))
PCI PME) Power On ()

5
PCI

5.29. ACPI

ACPI Suspend State (


ACPI)

S1 (default) ( )
S3

ACPI.
S1,
USB,
ACPI

Wake on LAN from S5 ( Wake Stay off (default) ( ( 5


on LAN, 5 ))
S5)
Power On ()

5
ACPI,

Wake on LAN

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

BIOS (
) ( 
VESA DPMS Display Power Management Signaling). 
, .. , ,
 . 
.

, BIOS.
, , 
, ACPI.

Boot
(. 5.30). 
 (, Windows XP),
CDROM 
.
5.30. Boot

Silent Boot ( )

Disabled () Enabled (default)


( ( ))
POST;

Add5On ROM Display Mode


Enabled (default) (
( 5 ( ))
)
Disabled ()
Intel Rapid BIOS Boot (
Disabled () Enabled
BIOS)
(default) ( ( ))
PXE Boot to LAN
Disabled ()
( 5 Enabled (default) (
)
( ))
USB Boot ( USB)

Boot device priority (


)

CMOS

. 489

Disabled ()
Enabled (default) (
( ))




POST
/ 5
. 5
, 5
Intel Boot Agent Boot Device
/ 5
USB

. 5

Boot Device Priority

489

. 5.30

Hard disk Drives (


)*

Removable Devices (
)*
ATAPI CD-ROM Drives
( ATAPI CD5ROM)

* CDROM ATAPI.
, BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 
Intel Corporation.

BIOS 
, Hard Drive Removable De
vices. ;
, ,
,
, . , 
.

USB, Zip LS120 SuperDisk.
Boot Device Priority
, 
.
. 5.31 .
5.31. Boot Device Priority

1nd boot device (15 Removable (Floppy) ( ())


)
Hard Drive device ( )
2nd boot device (25 ATAPI CD-ROM device ( ATAPI
)
CD5ROM)
3rd boot device (35 Disabled ()
)
4th boot device (45
)


.
5
: 1. Removable
( ), 2. Hard Drive
( ), 3. ATAPI CD-ROM, 4. Disabled
()

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

Hard Disk Drives ( ) Setup


BIOS Intel D875PBZ 12 
, .
, .
Hard Disk Drives
, BIOS, 
. 
.
Removable Devices ATAPI CD-ROM Drives (
) ,
. 
. Zip SCSI
.

490

. 490

5. BIOS: 5

Exit
(. 5.32) 
.
5.32. Exit

Exit Saving Changes


( )
Exit Discarding Changes
( )
Load Setup Defaults
( )
Load Custom Defaults
( )
Save Custom Defaults
( )
Discard Changes
( )

CMOS5
5

Setup
BIOS

. , BIOS Intel D875PBZ. 


Intel Corporation.

, 
. , .
. BIOS 
CMOS, , .

Setup BIOS
Setup BIOS 
, . 5.33.
5.33. Setup BIOS

CPU Hyper-threading
( HT)

BIOS , Intel Pentium 4 5


3,06 HT. 5
5

PC Health

, , 5
3,3, 5 12 , 5
, .
, 5

5
Serial ATA
IEEE51394a
DV,
ATA
RAID ATA
5 5
Enabled, 5
.
. ,
. , 5
(, FDISK), 5

Serial ATA Controller


( Serial ATA)
IEEE-1394a Port ( 5
IEEE51394a)
ATA RAID Controller
( ATA RAID)
Virus Warning
( )

CPU Internal Cache/External Cache


(/ 5
)
Quick Power On Self Test
( )

CMOS

. 491

5 . 5
,
Enabled POST.
Disabled POST

491

. 5.33

Swap Floppy Drive

.
Enabled B: A,
A: 5555 B

( )

Enabled BIOS
( 5 (40 80 ). 40 ,
Disabled
)
Boot Up System Speed
High ,
( Low 8 .
. 5
)

Gate A20 Option
A20 . 5
Fast (
( A20)
), Normal
. Fast 5
, ( Windows 9x/2000/XP)
Typematic Rate Setting
Disabled (Typematic Rate Typematic
Delay) . Enabled
( )

Typematic Rate (Chars/Sec)
: 6, 8, 10, 12, 15,
( , 5 20, 24 30
)
Typematic Delay (Msec)
: 250, 500, 750
1 000
( , )
Security Option ( 5
,
)
Setup
PS/2 Mouse Function Control
PS/2, , 5
( , Disabled
PS/2)
HDD S.M.A.R.T. capability
S.M.A.R.T. . ,

(
S.M.A.R.T. )
Report No FDD For WIN 95
Yes, ,
( Windows 95 IRQ6. Disabled Onboard FDC Controller, 5

)
ROM Shadowing
ROM, , (
150 ) 8 ,
( ROM)
RAM (325 645) 60 10
. (shadowing) BIOS
ROM RAM, BIOS, 5
RAM
Operating Frequency ( BIOS
)
DIP 5
.
CPU Clock Multiplier CPU Frequency
CPU Frequency ( 5 5
)
(66, 100 133 ),
CPU Clock Multiplier (5
5
, . 5
)
Intel , 5
AMD Athlon Duron
CPU Vcore Setting (5 5
)
, 5

Boot Up Floppy Seek

Plug and Play BIOS


PC 
. , 
DMA, .. , 
.

492

. 492

5. BIOS: 5

. ,
: , .
Plug and Play
. , 
.
Plug and Play :
Plug and Play BIOS;
Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD);
Plug and Play.
, Plug and Play, BIOS 
, Plug and Play.
, BIOS
ESCD, .
, BIOS ESCD . , 
. 
, BIOS , 
.
ESCD.

,
Plug and Play
, Plug and Play, 
, 
.
.
Plug and Play 
(ID). , 
.

( ).

, Plug and Play,


5.

ACPI
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) 
,
. APM
(Advanced Power Management) 
, . ACPI , 
Plug and Play. ACPI
Plug and Play
, BIOS.
ACPI
( CDROM, , ). ,
, ,
, .
ACPI Windows 98/ME, Windows 2000/XP.


Plug and Play BIOS

. 493

493

ACPI.  ACPI, 
APM.
ACPI
( BIOS) (
) . ACPI . 5.34.
5.34. ACPI

1xxx5

ACPI;
ACPI

2xxx5

ACPI

3xxx5
4xxx5

ACPI

5xxx5


ACPI BIOS . 
ACPI, BIOS.

Plug and Play


POST BIOS , 
Plug and Play,
Card Select Number (CSN). BIOS
. BIOS
, .
( POST) Plug and Play BIOS
.
1. .
2. Plug and Play.
3. .
4. .
5. ROM ISA.
6. .
7. ISA Plug and Play.
8. .
Plug and Play,
. ,
.

Plug and Play. , (Device
Manager), Plug and Play.

BIOS
POST. 
, . 
, . , 
 80h. 
, (. 5.11).
POST , 
.
494

. 494

5. BIOS: 5


. , , 
, 
.

. 5.11.

,
EGA VGA. , ,
, , 
.
, (, 
0) . 
POST.
, POST, 
. BIOS POST,
. POST ISA
PCI JDR Microdevices .
BIOS ,
, ,
. POST ,
, .
, ,
BIOS, .
, 5
Phoenix, AMI, Award IBM 22.

BIOS
, ROM
BIOS , 
, : 0, 0, 1 CHS
0 LBA. RAM,

55AAh. ROM MBR, ..
ROM .
, ROM 
,
MBR. 
, MBR, , ROM 18h,
. 
ROM. .
BIOS

. 495

495

ROM BIOS

, BIOS IBM
ROM BASIC.
The IBM Personal Computer Basic
Version C1.10 Copyright IBM Corp 1981
62940 Bytes free
Ok
IBM ROM BASIC

IBM, Cassette BASIC ( ROM BASIC). 5
, IBM
. 5 .
,
. ,
IBM .
16 .
,
.
BASIC (Beginner's All5purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) 5
. IBM BASIC,
ROM BIOS, ,
.
, IBM ROM BASIC 19905 !
. ROM BASIC IBM 5
, , 5
.
5 ROM BASIC, IBM
. 5
IBM ( 1981 ) ROM BASIC.
ROM BASIC, , , 5
, . , 5
IBM, Cassette BASIC , 5
, IBM
. , BIOS AMI, , ,
:
NO ROM BASIC SYSTEM HALTED

, IBM
BIOS , (. 5.12).

. 5.12. IBM , 

496

. 496

5. BIOS: 5

. 5.12 ,
A: <F1>.
AMI BIOS MBR 
:
NO ROM BASIC SYSTEM HALTED

, , ROM BIOS,
! AMI ROM 
BASIC ( ROM, 
IBM). , BASIC

. 
, , 
(MBR)
( ,  ..).
, Compaq BIOS :
Non-System disk or disk error replace and strike any key when ready

, ( ) 

(VBR) DOS/Windows 9x/Me. , 
Compaq, , MBR, VBR 
.
Award BIOS MBR 
:
DISK BOOT FAILURE, INSERT SYSTEM DISK AND PRESS ENTER

, Phoenix BIOS,
:
No boot device available - strike F1 to retry boot, F2 for setup utility

No boot sector on fixed disk - strike F1 to retry boot, F2 for setup utility


BIOS, . ,
, 
, .
,
.
( )
FDISK DOS.
,
55AAh. ,
ROM , 
, .
,
. ,  
, , ,
.
446 (1BEh), 462 (1CEh), 478 (1DEh) 494 (1EEh) .
,
() . 80h ,

BIOS

. 497

497

, 00h.
, 80h (
) 80h 00h,
:
Invalid partition table

00h, 
() , 
, BIOS.
FDISK
(
() ) .

8,4 , CHS.
BIOS 8,4 . 
528 8,4
CHS , 
DOS Windows (8,4 ).
, : ( 
Normal ()), CHS LBA.
CHS BIOS Large, LBA
LBA. 
LBA CHS (Large), 
BIOS , .

(MBR) MBR (VBR). 
MBR :
Missing operating system

,
528 8,4 (7,9 ),
BIOS. BIOS HiFlex WinBIOS AMI 
,
Advanced Built-in Peripherals.
BIOS.
!
325 Windows
LBA Normal, , 528
(504 ) MS DOS LBA, .
1 024 ( , Normal)
, !
, MBR .

498

. 498

5. BIOS: 5

. 499

:
, .
, . 
, , .
, 
.
.
. 
, 
(reset).
, ,
, (
).
.

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, , 
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.
RAM (Random Access Memory) 
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(). (Static
RAM SRAM), . ,
.

DRAM SRAM , .
5 . 5 5
, USB5 . 5 5
( ), 5555
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(RAM), ..
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, .
, 
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, 
, ,
. 
. (
) .
,
 .
500

. 500

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.
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: ,

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.
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. 
, , . 
,
. (Save) 
.

, , .
,
, , .
, , 
. DDR DDR2 DRAM
256 1
, 1
100 . ( 
) , .
1996
40 ; 16 ( )
600 . 1996 
: , ,
. ,
.
, , 
.
, .

. 501

501

1996 4 
. 1997 ,
50 1 . 1998 ,
. Intel, 
Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) 
. 
,
, SDRAM. 
. .

20 . , 2001 
, 
. 

.
, ,
. 
, ,
, . 
.

, ( ).
.
ROM (Read Only Memory). , 
.
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory).
.
SRAM (Static RAM). .

ROM
ROM (Read Only Memory), ( 
), , . 
. ROM 
, , , 
. ROM , .. 
, .
, ROM .
ROM . , 
ROM.
, .
BIOS ROM , 
.
BIOS , , ,
, . ,
, ROM,
.
, 
(Electrically
Erasable Programmable Readonly Memory EEPROM).  
, 

502

. 502

6.

ROM,  (,
, SCSI, ..).
ROM 5.

DRAM
(Dynamic RAM DRAM) 
.
, , ..
, , .
DRAM , 
. ( ) . ,
, , , .. ,

. ,
.
( ,
, Athlon 64 Opteron), 
, 15 . ,
15 .
, , : 
. 
10% ( ) ,
, , , 
1% ( ) . 
CMOS.
tREF ,
(. 6.1).

tREF ( )
. 6.1. , 

BIOS Setup
:

. 503

503

,
(tREF) , 
(soft memory).
, 
. 
.
1%, 
. 

, Setup BIOS. 
,
. 
(serial presence de
tect SPD) 
.
DRAM
, , 
.
1 . , 
! Pentium D 230 . . ?
, 
, , ,
, ,
, .
DRAM 
. , 1;
0. ,
. 
DRAM, , 
. ,
, .
;
, , ,
. ,
, 
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.

" """" SRAM


, , 
(Static RAM SRAM). , , 
(DRAM), 
. . SRAM ,
DRAM, , .
SRAM 2 ; , 
500 .
SRAM . 
 , . (
, .) , SRAM
, . SRAM
? . 6.1.

504

. 504

6.

6.1. DRAM SRAM

5555 DRAM

5555 SRAM

DRAM SRAM , 
, . , SRAM
, . 
SRAM,

DRAM. , DRAM
64 , SRAM
2 , . ,
SRAM 30 DRAM, .
SRAM 
.
,  SRAM 
. 
SRAM, 
.  , 
,
.  
, .. DRAM.
DRAM 60 (
16 ). 
:
1/ 1000 = .
:
1/ 1000 = .
16 , DRAM
, . ,
16 ,
DRAM , 
SRAM . 198687 , 
386, 16 20 .
, .. ,
SRAM,
.
,
.

, , .
 , 
.
. , , 
;
, . 
,
, . 
, 
, .
:

. 505

505

,  
, , 
.  3 400
(3,4 ), 
0,29 , 8,5
, .. 2,5 5
(Double Data Rate DDR). ,
400 . , , 3,4
, 8,5 ,
400 . (wait state).
, () 
; , , ,
.  .

, : 
(L1),  (L2) 
(L3).  ; 
.
486  . 
;
. . (
386, 486 Pentium.) 
, . 
.
1999  ,
 .
 ,
, 
( 1999 ), . 
, 
. 
, , 
, , .
 , 
. , 
 ,
, 
 .
 , ( ), 
, . 
.
 
, , Xeon Itanium, 2001 .
, , 2003
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition;
2 . Pentium 4 Extreme
Edition,  L3, ,
, Pentium 4 Extreme Edition
( , Pentium Extreme Edition)  
.  .

506

. 506

6.

 ,
, .
Pentium 4 4.
. 6.2 
.
6.2. " () ()
"
"
"

Pentium

"
"
,

233

"
"

,
()
4,3 (233)

""

16

"

""
"
"


"
/ ""
"

"

"

,
()

""

"

"
"
,

"
"

SIMM/
DIMM,
()

15 (66)

5
1

66

60 (16)

Pentium
Pro

200

5,0 (200)

32

1/1

5 (200)

256

66

60 (16)

Pentium II

450

2,2 (450)

32

1/2

4,4 (225)

512

100

10 (100)

AMD K652

550

1,8 (550)

64

10 (100)

5
1

100

10 (100)

AMD K653

450

2,2 (450)

64

1/1

2,2 (450)

256

100

10 (100)

Duron

1 300

0,77 (1 300)

128

1/1

0,77 (1 300)

64

200

5 (200)

Athlon

1 400

0,71 (1 400)

128

1/1

0,71 (1 400)

256

266

3,8 (266)

Athlon XP

2 200

0,45 (2 200)

128

1/1

0,45 (2 200)

512

400

2,5 (400)

Pentium III

1 400

0,71 (1 400)

32

1/1

0,71 (1 400)

512

133

7,5 (133)

Celeron/
370
Celeron/
478
Pentium 4

1 400

0,71 (1 400)

32

1/1

0,71 (1 400)

256

100

10 (100)

2 400

0,42 (2 400)

20

1/1

0,42 (2 400)

128

400

2,5 (400)

3 600

0,28 (3 600)

20

1/1

0,28 (3 600)

1000

800

1,25 (800)

1
2

 .
Pentium Pro 512 1 024  .

 , .. 
.
430FX 1995 
. , 
. pipeline burst mode (
). 
. 
. 
20%.
 North Bridge
PC Pentium 
, Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III .
 .
, 
. , 
430TX Pentium.
64 . 

. 507

507

, ,
64 
,
. , 
. , 32 Windows 
, 96 ,
, 32 , 
. .
, 64 . 
, ,
.
Pentium II 
 , . 
Pentium II
.
, 512 4 , 
Pentium III Pentium 4 4 .

, 1, 2 4 ,
. , Xeon
64 , 
RAM, .
, .
, 
, ( 
Pentium, 
, ) 
( Pentium II, 
, ).


(), 
().
, .. .
, 299 792 /.
, 29,98 , .. !
(), ..
, (), .. .
, 2005 5 
, .
24 , 
, 
.
, , , , 
. . 6.3 
, () ().
, 
, , 60 DRAM,
, , 400 .
, DRAM, 
, 60 ,

508

. 508

6.

16,7 ! ,
300 , 
. 2000 PC100 PC133, 
100 133 . 2001 
DDR (200 266 ) RDRAM (800 ) .
2002 DDR 333 , 2003
400 . 2004 DDR2 400 533 .
6.3.

, "

, "

4,77

210

500

2,0

2 300

0,43

6
8

167
125

533
550

1,88
1,82

2 400
2 500

0,42
0,40

10
12

100
83

566
600

1,77
1,67

2 600
2 700

0,38
0,37

16
20
25

63
50
40

633
650
667

1,58
1,54
1,5

2 800
2 900
3 000

0,36
0,34
0,33

33
40
50
60
66
75
80
100
120
133
150
166
180
200
225
233
250
266
300
333
350
366

30
25
20
17
15
13
13
10
8,3
7,5
6,7
6,0
5,6
5,0
4,4
4,3
4,0
3,8
3,3
3,0
2,9
2,7

700
733
750
766
800
833
850
866
900
933
950
966
1000
1100
1133
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800

1,43
1,36
1,33
1,31
1,25
1,20
1,18
1,15
1,11
1,07
1,05
1,04
1,0
0,91
0,88
0,83
0,77
0,71
0,67
0,63
0,59
0,56

3 100
3 200
3 300
3 400
3 500
3 600
3 700
3 800
3 900
4 000
4 100
4 200
4 300
4 400
4 500
4 600
4 700
4 800
4 900
5 000

0,32
0,31
0,30
0,29
0,29
0,28
0,27
0,26
0,26
0,25
0,24
0,24
0,23
0,23
0,22
0,21
0,21
0,21
0,20
0,20

400
433
450
466

2,5
2,3
2,2
2,1

1900
2000
2 100
2 200

0,53
0,5
0,48
0,45


, ,
. , , , .
, 
. 
.
7,5 (133 ), 1 (1 ),
6 17

. 509

509

, .. . ,
, 133 .
. 

. . 6.4 

, .
6.4. DRAM /
(, )

, ,
,



, /

FPM

SIMM

60ns

22

22

177

EDO
PC66

SIMM
SDR DIMM

60ns
10ns

33
67

1
1

33
66

8
8

266
533

PC100

SDR DIMM

8ns

100

100

800

PC133
PC1600
PC2100
PC2400
PC2700
PC3000
PC3200
PC3500
PC3700

SDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM

7,5ns
DDR200
DDR266
DDR300
DDR333
DDR366
DDR400
DDR433
DDR466

PC4000
PC4300

DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM

DDR500
DDR533

133
100
133
150
167
183
200
216
233
250
267

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

133
200
266
300
333
366
400
433
466
500
533

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

1 066
1 600
2 133
2 400
2 666
2 933
3 200
3 466
3 733
4 000
4 266

PC253200
PC254300
PC255400
PC256400
RIMM1200
RIMM1400
RIMM1600
RIMM2100
RIMM2400
RIMM3200
RIMM4200
RIMM4800

DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
RIMM516
RIMM516
RIMM516
RIMM516
RIMM516
RIMM532
RIMM532
RIMM532

DDR25400
DDR25533
DDR25667
DDR25800
PC600
PC700
PC800
PC1066
PC1200
PC800
PC1066
PC1200

200
266
333
400
300
350
400
533
600
400
533
600

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

400
533
667
800
600
700
800
1066
1200
800
1066
1200

8
8
8
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3 200
4 266
5 333
6 400
1 200
1 400
1 600
2 133
2 400
3 200
4 266
4 800

ns () .
EDO Extended Data Out ( ).
DIMM Dual Inline Memory Module ( ).
DDR Double Data Rate ( ).
FPM Fast Page Mode ( ).
SIMM Single Inline Memory Module ( ).
RIMM Rambus Inline Memory Module ( Rambus).

, ,
.
(. 6.5), ,
. ,
, 
, .

, 
510

. 510

6.

. , ,
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM,
. ,
.
6.5.

" "
,


,
"

"
,
/

FSB* 468, 33

33

33

133

FSB Pentium I/II/III, 66

66

66

533

FSB Pentium I/II/III, 100

100

100

800

FSB Pentium I/II/III, 133


FSB Athlon, 200

133
100

1
2

133
200

8
8

1 066
1 600

FSB Athlon, 266


FSB Athlon, 333

133
167

2
2

266
333

8
8

2 133
2 666

FSB Athlon, 400

200

400

3 200

FSB Pentium 4, 400


FSB Pentium 4, 533

100
133

4
4

400
533

8
8

3 200
4 266

FSB Pentium 4, 800


FSB Pentium 4, 1066

200
266

4
4

800
1066

8
8

6 400
8 528

*FSB Front Side Bus.


, DRAM .
, 
.
, .. ,
.
(Fast Page Mode), Fast Page Mode. 
Static Column Nibble Mode.
: 
512 . 

. , 
, .
.
(burst) 
486 . 
. ,
. 
.
. , 
. 

: xyyy, x
( ), y , 
.
DRAM
60 : 5333. ,
66 , 75 (515 ;
15 ),

. 511

511

(315 = 45 ). , 
5555,
.
DRAM, ,
(Fast Page Memory FPM). ,

. 486 FPM, 
.
FPM .
, .
,
.
. ,
.
( ) 
. ,
,
SIMM DIMM. 
32 486,
64 Pentium.
Pentium, 128 , .. SIMM 72
DIMM.

EDO
1995 Pentium 
EDO (Extended Data Out). FPM; 
Hyper Page Mode. EDO
Micron Technology ( ).
EDO , 
.
Extended Data Out, , FPM, 
, .
( ) , 
10 .
, EDO 
, .
, , ,
.
EDO 5222,
5333, Fast Page Mode. ,
EDO 11 ( 14
FPM).
22%, EDO
5%.
, EDO , 

, FPM. 
FPM. EDO , FPM.
EDO, 
. , 
430FX (Triton), Intel 1995 , EDO. 
EDO , , Intel,
512

. 512

6.

EDO 
.
EDO 66 . 
1997 ; 1998
EDO SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM 
DRAM). .

SDRAM
(DRAM),
. SDRAM ,
. SDRAM 
, DRAM, 
, , 
.
EDO,
. 430VX 430TX, 1997 ,
Intel SDRAM.
, 2000 2001 .
SDRAM FPM
EDO. SDRAM ,
, FPM EDO, 
. SDRAM : 5111, .. 
( 11 
EDO 14 FPM).
, SDRAM 133 (7,5 ) ,
1998 . 
, 1998 2000 , SDRAM.
SDRAM DIMM , ,
, . DIMM
.
1999 JEDEC (Joint Electron Device Engineering Council 
) PC133. 133

PC100. PC133 ,
133 . PC133
7,5 133 ,
7 143 . PC133 
CAS (column address strob 
), .

JEDEC EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance 5555 5


), , 1960 5
, . 5
JEDEC 300 , , 5
, ,
.
JEDEC . ,
. , 5
5 (, , 5
). , 5
. , , , 5
, 5.

. 513

513

JEDEC 5
. , JEDEC, 5
5. 5
. JEDEC 5
, , FPM, SDRAM, DDR SDRAM DDR2 SDRAM. EDO
RDRAM . JEDEC 5
Web5 www.jedec.org.

SDRAM DIMM . 6.6.


6.6. SDRAM
,

15

66

PC66

10
8

100
125

PC66
PC100

7,5

133

PC133

7,0

143

PC133

, PC150
PC166, JEDEC Intel , , 
, 
. ,
7,5 (133 ) 7,0 (143 ),
150 166 . PC150 PC166
PC133, 
. ,
, , . . 6.7
SDRAM.
6.7. SDRAM

"
"
,
,

,
" ,

,
/

PC66
PC100
PC133

SDR DIMM
SDR DIMM
SDR DIMM

10
8
7/7,5

1
1
1

533
800
1 066

66
100
133

66
100
133

8
8
8

( ).
DIMM Dual inline memory module ( ).
SDR Single data rate ( ).

!
PC133 PC100. 5
PC133 , 5
PC100. , 5
PC100, , 5
PC133.
.

DDR SDRAM
DDR (Double Data Rate )
SDRAM,
. ,
: , (. 6.2). 

514

. 514

6.

(
).

SDR
1

100
100

DDR
2

100
200

. 6.2. SDR DDR

DDR 
. DDR SDRAM 
, 
.

Intel DDR2,
AMD Athlon 64 Opteron ( )
DDR 2005 , 2006 . , ,
DDR , , 2006 .

DDR SDRAM 2000 , 2001 


. 
DDR 184 (
).
DIMM DDR SDRAM , 
2,5 . ,
, SDRAM DIMM, 
, , SDRAM, 
, .. . 
, SDRAM
(Single Data Rate SDR).
SDRAM DDR SDRAM . 6.8.
6.8. DDR SDRAM

"

"

, ,

/

PC1600
PC2100
PC2400
PC2700
PC3000
PC3200

DDR200
DDR266
DDR300
DDR333
DDR366
DDR400

100
133
150
166
183
200

2
2
2
2
2
2

200
266
300
333
366
400

DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM
DDR DIMM

. 515

8
8
8
8
8
8

1 600
2 133
2 400
2 667
2 933
3 200

515

. 6.8

"

"

, ,

/

PC3500

DDR DIMM

DDR433

PC3700

DDR DIMM

DDR466

216
233

2
2

433
466

8
8

3 466
3 733

PC4000

DDR DIMM

DDR500

PC4200

DDR DIMM

DDR533

250
266

2
2

500
533

8
8

4 000
4 266

. 
DDR;
DDR DIMM 
. , Intel 865 875 
DDR.
Pentium 4 FSB 800 , 8
(64 ) , 6 400 /
(800 8 = 6 400). FSB 800 
PC3200,
6 400 / (3 200 / 2 = 6 400 /).
, 
.
, ( 
, ) ,
.

DDR2 SDRAM
JEDEC
DDR2, .
DDR2 2003 , 
, DDR2,
2004 .
DDR2 SDRAM 
DDR SDRAM 
, 
/. 
, DDR2 ,
, 
. 
DDR 533 , DDR2
400 , 800 . . 6.9
DDR2 .
6.9. DDR2 SDRAM

"


,
,

,
/

PC253200
PC254300
PC255400
PC256400
PC257200
PC258000

DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM
DDR2 DIMM

DDR25400
DDR25533
DDR25667
DDR25800
DDR25900
DDR251000

200
266
333
400
450
500

8
8
8
8
8
8

3 200
4 266
5 333
6 400
7 200
8 000

516

. 516

2
2
2
2
2
2

400
533
667
800
900
1000

6.

,
DDR2 . 
DDR (1,8 2,5 ), DDR2 
. DDR2,
, FBGA (Finepitch Ball Grid Array)
TSOP (Thin Small Outline Package),
DDR SDRAM. FBGA ( ,
) , 
.
DDR2 2003 , 
2004 . ,
DDR2, ,
GDDR2 (Graphics DDR2 DDR2 ).
Intel DDR2 ,
Athlon 64 Opteron AMD 2005
DDR.
2006 AMD
DDR2 Athlon 64, Sempron Opteron.
DDR2 DIMM DDR DIMM, 
,
DDR2. , 
DDR2
DDR ( SDR). DDR2 240 , ..
, DDR SDRAM DIMM.

RDRAM
Rambus DRAM (RDRAM)
, 1999
2002 . Intel Rambus 1996 ,
Intel RDRAM
2001 . Intel RDRAM,
, 
DDR SDRAM. ,
Intel 
DDR DDR2. , RDRAM
2006 .
Intel 
, 2003 ,
RDRAM.
, RDRAM
.
RDRAM ,

. ,
,
Nintendo 64 GameCube Sony Playstation 2.
(FPM/RDO SDRAM)
. ( Pentium
64 ). SDRAM DIMM
1008 ( ), 800 /.
, RDRAM 
. , , 16 (2 ), 

. 517

517

,
.
, ,
.
16 RIMM
800 , 8002,
1,6 /, , PC1600 DDR
SDRAM. Pentium 4 , 
3,2 /,
Pentium 4. 
RDRAM . 
,
.
RIMM 800 ,
1 066 1 200 16,
32 64 , 
9,6 /.