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1.

, ,
, .

.
:
. 1 n1
. 2 n2
. 1,
2n n1*n2*nk /
: .
1 n1 .
2 n2 .
(1 2 n)
n1+n2++nk .
n k: n k

, n

Ank =

n!
(n k )!

A = n!
,
n
k
n

C nk =
1)

n!
k!(n k )!

C =C
k
n

n k
n

2) C n0

=1

2. , ,
.





(
)
-- ( )

,


, . A = \ A
()

+= w A+B w A V w B
AB=A B w ABw A w B
:
1)

+=+ 2) *=* 3) + A = 4)
*= 5) 6) A *= 7) A = 8) =* B 9) A + B = A * B 10) A * B = A + B

3. ,
.
,

P(A)
=0,
=1.
[0,1].

,

. P(A)=na/n, na , n-


,
P(A+B)=P(A)+P(B)-P(AB)
:
P(A+B)=P(A)+P(B)
3-: P(A)+P(B)+P(C)-P(AC)-P(AB)-P(BC)
+P(ABC)
P( A )=1-P(A)

4. ,
.
n ,
m .
,
n m/n,
, .

,
,

n.


,
,
()
R3 .
,
D ,
D
: P(A)=V(D)/V().
,

.
,
,
.

5. .
={} --
F={A/A c }
1: 1, 2n F => A1+A2+
+An+ F
2: F => F
,
1 2 -
n

Ai i 0 : Ai0
i =1

,
-.

F(A c )
P(A), :
P()=1 P(A)>=0
1, 2n
, .. Ai*Aj=,
P(A1+A2++An+)=P(A1)+P(A2)++P(An)+

- ,
, F --
.
1)
2)

6. .
,


. B,

PB(A), :
B. B

.
PB(A) (
P(B) >0):
P( A * B)
PB(A)= P( B) (1)

(1) :
P(A*B)= PB(A) P(B), P(B)>0, (2)
:
P(A*B)= PA(B)P(A), P(A)>0 (3)
,
PB(A)=P(A)
(2) :
,
P(A*B)=P(A)P(B) (4)
(4)
, ,

.
PB
.

7. .
,
P(AB)=P(A)P(B)
:
1. P(B)>0,
: PB(A)=P(A)

2. ,

3. 1 , 2
, 12=, 1 2 .
1+2 .
4.
,
.
.
P(A)>0, P(B)>0, .
1, 2,, n
, k(2kn)

P(Ai1, Ai2,, Aik)= P( A ) (1)


(1) k=2,
1,2,,n
.

.
K

j =1

ij

8. , ,
.
1,2,,n ,
,
, ..
Hi*Hj=, ij H1+H2++Hn=
.

.
,

P(H1)+P(H2)++P(Hn)=1
i, i=1, n ,
.
1,2,, n .

:
n

P(A)= PHk ( A) P( H )
k =11

P(H1),
P(H2), P(Hn), .
, .
PA(H1),PA(H2),,PA(Hn).
:

PHk ( A) P( H k )
PH 1 ( A) P( H 1 )
= n
PA(H1)=
P( A)
PH 1 ( A) P( H i )
i =1

9. , ,
.
n ,

p q,
p+q=1.

.
X- n
. {X=m}
( m n )
:
Pn(m)=P{X=m}=Cnmpmqn-m
n
m
(n+1)p-1 m < (n+1)p

10. -
.
n Pn(m)
m n
1
* ( x) ,
-: Pn(m)
npq
=

m np
npq

( x) =

1
2

* e x 2 / 2 -

,
.
, m
: amb,
n :
1 b np 1 a np
) (
) ,
P(amb) 2 (
2
npq
npq

( x) =

t 2 / 2
e
dt - ,

2 0
.
m/n n
: P

p
pq
n

: P ( m np )

npq

11. ,

- ( - () >=0 ):

[0;+] () 0 1.
- :
:
. -

-:

F(x)
1 -- - - - - - - - - - - - 1/2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _

N(a;),

x
a- , - .
. . : F(x)= 1/2 + (1/2)*(( a)/)
- - (=0,=1),
:

(x)=2F(x) 1

:
N(a;) F(x) ():
, - . (x1;x2):
P(x1<X<x2)= F((x2-a)/) F((x1-a)/)
P(x1<X<x2)= (1/2)*((x2-a)/) (1/2)*((x1-a)/)

12.
,

(=n), :
npn --> n -->,
, m=0,1,2, .


(Pn(m)):
n- , pn=,
:
, m=0,1,2, .
m
p(m).

13.

.

-,
:

-
:
1. .
(p)

2. . (m) (np):

,
np -
m -

14. .
, -
.
. () . . , , ,
. . .
-,
.
. .
:

R
X
-x

R
-x
=
=
=

(X=x)={|X()=x}, x R

(X=x)={ | X()<x}

R - -,
xR (X<x) .

={ 1, , n }
, - .
, - .
. - Fx: R R
x P(X<x)

FX(x)= P{X<x}, xR
{ {X<x} , , .
, }

15. (),
,

.
.(:
- . ).
, .
. 1, 2n,
: k =(=xk), k=1,n.
:
1. . -:

k 1 2 n
k 1 2 n
2.

-,
-
x=xk

- pk:
-
- .

:
3.

:
1. 0<=F(x)<=1
2. :
x1<x2 F(x1)<=F(x2)
3. F(-)=0, F(+)=1
4. :

5.

F(x1<=X<=x2) = F(x2)-F(x1)

16.
.
Z=X+Y,
zk=xi+yj

pk=(xi+yj=zk)pij, pij= P((X=xi)*(Y=yj))



,
pij= P((X=xi)*(Y=yj))=piqj
Z=X-Y ,

pk=P(Z=zk)= (xi-yj=zk)pij
pij= P((X=xi)*(Y=yj))
Z=XY Z,
zk=xiyj

pk=(xi+yj=zk)pij, pij= P((X=xi)*(Y=yj))

17. ,
, .
. :
=xkpk
.
n, ,
x1, x2,, xn :
=1/n k
. :
1)MC=C, C=const
2)M(CX)=C*MX, =const
3)M(X+-Y)=MX+-MY,
4)M(X*Y)=MX*MY, .
5)M(X-MX)=0
( )
. X-MX:
DX=M(X-MX)2=(xk-MX)2pk
DX=MX2-(MX)2

1)DC=0, C=const
2) D(CX)=C2DX, =const
3)D(X+-Y)=DX+-DY, .
B X=DX
.

18. , , ,
.

n p q,
+ q = 1.

k
n k
k
pk= ( = k) = C n p q , k =0,1, 2,,n.
p q.
,
n

p
k =0

=
k =0

n k

C p q =(p+q)n=1
k

c C :
= n, DX = npq.
k oca k = [n - q]+1
,
k=1,2,3,( )
pk= ( = k)=pqk-1, k=1,2,3,,
0<p<1, q=1-p
,

p = pq
k =1

k 1

=p

k =1

1
=1
1 q

, ,
.
: MX=1/p, DX=q/p2.
,
m
m

nm

N M
n

p = P( X = M ) = c c
c
m

m=1,2,,k; k=min(n,M); MN; nN. pm


m , , n
, ( ) N ,
M .
,
n,M,N:
M

MX=nM/N; DX=n N 1 (1

M
n
)(1 )
N
N

19
C ,
0,1,2,

pk= ( = k) =

; k = 0,1,2,...

k!

> 0 .

p
k =0

=e

k! = e e

=1

k =0


:
MX= ;DX=.

20. ,

X, Fx(X)=P(X<x)
X-; Fx-
X -
- p(x),

Fx(X)=

p (t ) dt

P(ax<b)=F(b)-F(a)
- :
1) P(X=xo)=0

Lim xo a
P(ax<)=F()-F(a)

d
( (1)dt ) = p ( x)
dx

/
x

( x) = p ( x)

( x)dt

P(ax<b)=

xo a

21. .
[a;b],
()
, .. ()= ,,,1-. , -0, <,

>
.. ( , .
)
- ,
, : f(x)=

. :
=

; DX=

22. , -.
X
-
>0

23. .

, p(x)=
, 0 ( . ). , ,
F(x)=

. :
MX= ; DX=

24. .
,
,
(: ).
( ) a (),
: p(x)=

- :

MX=a; DX=
:

a=0

, -

=1.

0.

25.
.
, ,
,

( ),
:
[
]

32. ,
.

Y , :
cov(X,Y)=M[(X-ax)(Y-ay)] = (XY)-MX*MY.
cov(X,Y)=
.
.
corr(X,Y)=

. cov:

1.
2.
3.
4.

: cov(X,Y)= cov(Y,)
cov(X,)=DX
X,Y , cov(X,Y)=0

5.
6.
7.

cov(CX,Y)=C cov(X,Y)
cov(X+C,Y)= cov(X,Y)

corr(r):
1.

X Y ,
.
.
3.

, X Y
4.
Y=aX+b,
,
2.

,
X Y.

33. .


,


, , , , ,
:

:
X Y
.
,
.
.

34. ,

.
X, X(x1,,
xn) P(p1, ..., pn)
. y=

Y=
,

,
.
:
X ,
Y
.
. :
,
.
,
,
(
).

35.

( )
X Y,
(..
PX,Y(x,y).
Z=X+Y,
Pz. Fz(z)=P(Z<z)=P(X+Y<z).

x+y=z, y=z-x.

.
: X, Y
PX,Y(x,y). Z=X+Y
, S

37. .


= , >0
( ) 1 a/

( > ) < a/

.

DX, :
(| a| ) 1 DX/2

(| a| > ) < DX/2

38. .( )

X1, X2, X3, , Xn,
MXi = a
DXi = DX,
:
1 n
DX
( X i a ) 1 2
n i =1
n

n
:
1 n
( X i a ) = 1
lim
n i =1
n


,

n .

,
, n .
,

n.

39.
:

,

, ,
.
, ,
. MXi = a,
DXi = 2
n

Zn =

x na
i =1

:
x

t2

1
FZ n ( x) = P( Z n < x) n
( x) =
e dt

2
X1, X2, ..., Xn, ...

MXi =
a, DXi = 2, n

.

Z n N (na, n ) ( )

40.

,


,
.

,

.
(
),
.


() ,
.

,

.

. ()
.

,
.
,
,

.

,
()
.


()
(,
).

,
().
,

.
2 :
1. , ,
,

;
2. ,
.

41. .
X, (x1, x2,, xn) n
. X. , ..
x1, x2,, xn .
- .
xi - mi, ,
.
( / ) - wi=mi/n.
- . x ..
mx, . x, , .. mx= mi (xi<x).
n : wx=mx/n=1/n*

m .

xi <
x

,
, .
. .-
, ()
:
xi x1 x2 xn
- mi m1 m2 mn

[a1, ai+1) , .. . - -

k - k=1+1,4ln n.
=(xmax-xmin)/k. mi, i= 1, k , [a1, ai+1).
xi [a1, a2) [a2, a3) [ak, k+1)
mi m1
m2
mn
,
.
. - , -
(xi, mi), i= 1, n .
, - (i, mi), i=(a1+ai+1)/2, i= 1, k . -
. -
,
, , mi
. - , -
(xi, mxi) ( mxi - )
, (ai, mai)
.

42. - , -
- .
. - (- - ) Fn(x)
-, . x
, .. Fn(x)=wx=mx/n.
,
. . -
.
,
(ai,Fn(ai)), i= 1, k . -
. -

mi
fn =
n

, ai x ai+1,

i= 1, k ; 0, x<a x>ak+1.- fn

( 1). -
F(x)
. - . .
Fn(x) . F(x) - ,
F(x) - , Fn(x)-.
. Fn(x) - F(x). -
Fn(x):
1. Fn(x) [0;1]; 2. Fn(x)- -; 3. x1 , xk-, Fn(x)=0
xx1, Fn(x)=1 x xk; 4. Fn(x) -.
. - Fn(x)

. - F(x) . -.
43. ,

( ):
:

1 n
x = xi ,
n i =1
k
1 k
x = xi mi = xi wi ,
n i =1
i =1

xi - i- .
: 1) xi = ,

x x = 0; 4)

x = ; 2) kx = k x ; 3)

x y ; 5)

mi
x =
xi
,

n
i=
1

xi

. , mi- ,l-

. R: R=xmax-xmin. . .

mi
xi
x
d=
n
i=
1

- -

: S2=

k
m
2
i
(
x

x
)
= ( xi x) wi .

i
n
i =1
i =1


S 2

1
=
n

()

S =x x
2

(x

i=
1

x )

- :1)
;2)
, ;3)
k,
k2;4)
: ni, i= 1, l -
i- , ij j-
. i- {i1 ,xi2,...,xi,ni },
i=

1, l

xi

, ij ij .
:

ni

xi = xij
j =1

2
i

nij
ni

. :

=
xij xi

nij
ni

=
S

2
(i )

2
i

i=
1

ni
*
.
n

=
xi
x

i=
1

ni
n

S 2 = S (2i ) + 2
. . . - -
:

(
n

S=

i =1

ni
xi x
n
2

-
.
:

v=

S
x

*100 % x 0

44.
, .

n - , . .

. - (). : .
{x 1 ,x 2 ,...x n } - . - X, X1,2,...,
, MX = a, DX = 2 .
-.
. .

- :

1 n
1 n
1. M x = M
xi = MX i =

n i =1 n i =1
n

1
= a = a
n i =1

. .. - .

1 n

P X i a < 1 n,
n i =1

. x -,
2

.
X2 =
n

n 1 2
. .,
2. . . : MS =
n
2

S2 . ,
, . . -

n
1
S2 =
xi x

n 1 i =1

- :

S2 S 2 - 2.
. - . -
-,
2

N
2
x =
1 , N . .
n
n

N . :

2
x

2
X

. .

- , - ,
M
p
=
.
. .
N
m
. - . w = ,
n
, - .

pq
. : =
,
n
2
w

2
. w =

pq
n
1

.
n
N

N, . - .
. = N, = .
- = -, w2 = 0.
( > 30)

.

45.,
.
.

- ,

Mn =

, .

. .
. . . .

,
,
- - .
> lim P n < =1 ,
n

n - . ,

n P ( n

), .

.. -- .
.

- ,

D n = M ( n ) 2
,
.

46. ,
: 1,2,,n
, MX = a = MXi,
=

1
( X 1 + ... + X n )
n

. .
,
.

MX =

1
M X 1 + ... + X n = a
n

1. ,
, .
2. ( ), ..
, ,
, -.
: 1,2,,n
,

MX 1 = MX = a,

DX i = DX = 2 ,

1 n
S =
Xi X
n 1 i =1
2

n 1
DB
n

2 .

n 1 2
MDB =
x,
n
n 30
S 2 DB
, , n
A

n -

nA = m

m

n
: n
,
.

m
p
n
: n . p- .
m ,

M ( X = m ) = np

D( X = m) = npq,
n
M ( ) = p.
m
.
.

47. . -,
.

.

- (1;2),
,

.
(1;2)

, -

,
:

-
.
:
, (t)
,
( n>40)

48. . . -

{x1, x2, xn}
N, - ,
,
-
,
-
.

:

n>30

t (t)= - -
n<30,

-
,
- n-1
- - .
-
w-

<

w+ , n>30

.

{x1, xn}
N(a,), a , Z=

(- n-1 ).


-

=, z1,z2

P{z1<

<z2}=.

P(x)

Z1

Z2

Z1 Z2 ,
= , -z1 z2

49. 2-

(- n
).
, i=
, -
, ,
:
- n
.
,
Pn(x)
n

Pn(x)

n=1

Pn(x)

n=1
n=6

n=2
X

tn.

0, 1 n
.

n
:
tn=0, Dtn=
n() tn

Pn(x)

N(0;1)
n
Pn(x)
, n>30

.