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815

.., ..
,



.

, .
-



[1].
,

. , ,
.

, .
,
, .
--

-
- -,
. .. ..
[2], . [3], .. [4] .
,
,
.1.

. / . 2007. .7. .5

816

. 1
,
. , ,
,
, , ,
.

, -

.
,
[2,3]

dci
z e d J i
dJ i
= i ci
,
= 0, (i = 1,2)
dx
Di
dx
kT
dx
,
d 2
2 = F ( z1c1 + z 2 c 2 )
dx

x [0, ],

(i = 1,2)
(1)

z i , Di , J i , ci - , ,

i- ; -
; - ; e = 1.6010-19 , k =1.3810-23 / , T
, ; F = 9.65104 / .
.
, ,
,
, ,

x = 0:

ci (0) = ci0 (i = 1,2) ,

(0) = 0 .

0
i

(2)

(i=1,2)

c0

, i
,

z1c10 + z 2 c 20 = 0 .
,
- ,
.
,
, ,

. / . 2007. .7. .5

817
,
. ,
,
i- .

, , ,

x = :

n i j0
(i = 1,2) ,
zi F

Ji =

() = 0
.

> 0

(3)

0
0 - -;

0 .

0 , j0


, (1)
,

j0 .
j

, 0 ,
, (3.2) .
[5].
(1) ,

, (3.1)

Ji =

n i j0
(i = 1,2)
zi F
. (4)

, ,

dci
z e d
n i j0
= i ci

dx
kT dx z i FDi

(i = 1,2)

d 2
= F ( z1c1 + z 2 c2 )
dx 2

(5)

x = 0:

ci (0) = ci0 (i = 1,2) ; (0) = 0

x = :

() = 0

. (6)
(5)-(6)
,

X =

j* =

;
z1 FD* c10

p=

c1
c10

n=
,

c2
c20

=
;

J0 = 0
0 ;
j* ,

n1 t1 - , [2].

,

(1.3) ,
;
m

. / . 2007. .7. .5

818

D* =

(z1 z 2 )D1 D2
z1 D1 z 2 D2 - ,

t1m =

z1 D1
z1 D1 z 2 D2 -

- [6].
(5)-(6)

d
dp
= p
p J0
dX
dX
, (7)

dn
d
=n
+ n J0
dX
dX
, (8)

d 2
= p + n
dX 2
,
(9)

X = 0:

p (0) = 1,

X = 1:

(1) = 1.

n(0) = 1, (0) = 0 , (10)

(11)
(7) - (9) ,

kT
e , z1 = 1 , z 2 = 1 .
n1 D*
(1 n1 ) D*

p =
n =
2 = 0 20
m
m
D2 (n1 t1 ) ,
D1 (n1 t1 ) ,
C1 F .

(9) = ( X )
0 ~

2,

, (7) (8) ,
. ,
,
.
, .. [6].
(7)-(11)
[7],

1 + Ke
p( X ) = 1 J 0 X + (1 J 0 )

1 Ke

1
1 X
2 (1 J )

(12)
2
1 X

2 (1 J )


1 Ke

n( X ) = 1 J 0 X (1 J 0 )1
1 X

2 (1 J )

1 + Ke

1 X
2 (1 J 0 )

(13)

( X ) =

p +n
2

1 Ke
ln 1 J 0 X + 2 ln
1 + Ke

1 X

)

.

1 X
2 (1 J 0 )


2 (1 J 0

(14)

K=

1 e2
1

1+ e2

0 ( 0 )
0 ( 0 )

. (15)
, (12) - (15)

J 0 ,

. / . 2007. .7. .5

819
0 ( 0 ) = 1

1
( p + n ) ln 1 J 0
2
,


, -,

J0 .

0 [8]
,
[9]. ,

dp
dn
A
1
dX dX
1 dX
p + An
0
=0
J0 B
1
dX
0 p + An
. (15)

A=

D2 C 20
FD1C10
B
=
j* .
D1C10 ,

(15),
2

n + p

0, 1 e

J0

f (J 0 ) = 0 ,

, [9].

f (J

0 .
f =
, 10 /3 NaCl,
.2.

. 2.

f (J 0 )

,
J
0 , f ( J 0 ) = 0 , [0.2, 0.4] .


.
, ,

. / . 2007. .7. .5

820
J

0 ,

.
. 1
.
1.

C0, /3
NaCl
NaF
10
0,305151
0,302319
1
0,288867
0,284302
0,5
0,279932
0,274561

J 0


MgSO4
0,304907
0,288452
0,279443

AgNO3
0,302588
0,284717
0,275037

NaNO3
0,304565
0,287866
0,278748

. 3. () ()

. / . 2007. .7. .5

821


, , NaCl 10
/3.

,
, . ,
,
.
, .
[10].

. 4.

,
,
10-3.
.

. ,
z1 = z 2 = 1

0 ( 0 )

1 e2
ln
e =

1
2 p 0 (1) 1 + e 2 0 ( 0 )

+1 +1
p0 (1)

+ 1 1
p0 (1)
.

(16)

(16) p 0 (1)

p 0 (1) = 1

1
( p n )J 0 = 10 3
2
,
.

.5 .6

NaCl, 10 160 /3. ,
(.5),
, (.6).

. / . 2007. .7. .5

822

. 5.
NaCl

. 6.
NaCl

. ,

.
..

.


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2. .., .. . .: , 1996. 396 .
3. Rubinstein I., Shtilman L. Voltage against current curves of cation exchange membranes.// J.
Phys. Chem. 1978. v.75, pp.231-246.
4. ..
// , 1990. .12, 8. . 675-680.

. / . 2007. .7. .5

823
5. Strygin V.V., Korzhov E.N. Asymptotical solution of boundary value problem for
electromembrane systems // Methods and Application of Analysis: Abstr. Intern. Symposium.
Hong Kong, 1994. p. 138.
6. .., ..
. .: , 1973. 272 .
7. .., ..
// , , :
- : 4- . :
, 2006 .4, . 306-311.
8. .., ..
// :
- : 4- . : ,
2007 .2, . 224 235.
9. Banasiak L.J., Kruttschnitt T.W., Schafer A.I. Desalination using electrodialysis as a function
of voltage and salt concentration // Desalination, 2007. v.205, pp.38-46.
10. .,
//
. : , 1999. . 135-143

. / . 2007. .7. .5

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