You are on page 1of 81

Gas turbine control system

Control of gas turbine is done by Startup control Acceleration control Speed control Temperature control Shut down control Manual control

How to determine operating condition

The sensors ,( detected turbine speed, exhaust thermocouple ,compressor discharge pressure,and other parameter)are used to determine the operating condition of the gas turbine

Fuel stroke reference (FSR)


FSR is the command signal for fuel flow Control of gas turbine is done by the lowest FSR(FSR SU, FSR ACC ,FSRN, FSRT,FSR SD,FSR MAN) The lowest FSR value of the six control loop is allowed to fuel control system

Simplify control schematic

Control shem. block diagram

Start up/Shut down sequence and control

Start up function objective Bring the gas turbine from zero speed to full speed safely by providing proper fuel to established flame and accelerate the turbine safely

Minimize the low cycle fatigue of the hot gas parts during the sequence

Speed detector

Speed is the important parameter during start up because the sequence of start up is the relation of speed

Turbine speed is measured by magnetic pick up


Speed detector sent signal to Mark V to convert electrical signal to be the turbine speed in percent or rpm.

Speed converter

Speed relay

The speed relay that are used to control the sequence of start up L14HR Zero speed L14HM Minimum speed L14HA Acceleration speed L14HS Full speed

0.06 % 0.31% 18% 19%

L14HR Zero Speed

L14HP Spare speed signal

95%
90% 18% 15% L14HM Minimum Firing Speed L14HF At field flashing speed

50% 46% 96.4% 94.8% 60% 50% 8.4% 3.2% L14HS Min operating speed L14HA Accelerating speed

L14HC Auxiliary Cranking Speed Relay

L14HT Cool down Slow Roll Start Speed Relay

Start up control

Operate as an open loop control using preset level of the fuel command signal FSR(Zero , Fire ,Warm up,Accelerate,) FSR level are set as control constant and calculation in the Mark V

17.5%

14.4% 30.6%

0.05%/s 5%/s

1 sec

Start up FSR

Start up curve

Fire shut down

Fire shut down is an improvement over the former fuel shut off at L14HS drop out by maintaining flame down to lower speed to reduction the strain develop on hot gas path part

100 % FSRMAX -- Max Fuel Reference L83SDSET-- Preset FSRSD to Existing FSR L83SDMIN-- Set FSRSD to FSRMIN FSR -- Fuel Stroke Reference % FSRMIN -- FSR: Minimum % FSKSDn -- Shutdown FSR Ramp n L83JSDn -- Set FSRSD Ramp Rate to FSK SDn L83SDL-- FSRSD Lower Logic FSRSD -- Shut down FSR Signal %

L83SDR -- FSRSD Raise Logic FSRMIN-- FSR: Minimum %


FSKSDB -- Shutdown FSR Ramp Dead band 0.1% L60SDM -- FSRSD at Min FSR

L83SDSET

0.25 s

L94SDY

-- T.D. L94SD

L94SD
L83SDSET

-- Shutdown with Breaker Open


-- Preset FSRSD to Existing FSR

L83SDMIN

L60SDM L83SDMIN L28CAN L83RB L94SD L4

-- FSRSD at Min FSR -- Set FSRSD to FSRMIN -- Any Can Flamed Out -- Ramp to Blowout Selected -- Shutdown with Breaker Open -- Master protective signal

FSR Shut down ramp rate


0.1 %/sec 5 %/sec 0.05 %/sec 0.1 %/sec 1 %/sec 0.1 %/sec

0.1 %

L83JSD1

L94X L83SDR L4 L83JSD1

-- Turbine Shutdown -- FSRSD Raise Logic -- Master protective signal -- Set FSRSD Ramp Rate to FSK SD1

L83SDL FSR Lower logic

L83 SDL will be logic true in the case of below - L60SDM logic false when FSRSD-FSRMIN >0.1 % - L83RB logic true when Flame out >1 sec or Flame ON but TNH <30% - One can out(L28CAN)

L83JSD2 to 5 logic
GT. Trip

FSRSD-FSRMIN >0.1 %

Flame ON TNH<30%

1 Can off

Speed control

The speed control system control the speed and load of the gas turbine to maintain speed at 100% at any load Speed control software will change FSR in proportion to the difference between TNH(turbine speed)and TNR(speed ref.) Turbine drive generator operating speed range normally from 95%-107% Start up reference speed is 100.3%

Speed droop

Droop speed control is the proportional control changing the FSR in proportion to the difference between actual turbine speed and turbine speed reference as the equation below (TNR-TNH)x Droop gain+FSRNL =FSRN

Droop control algorithm


100 %

10.5 1sec

14.7 %

Droop control curve

Synchronizing control

TNR for synchronizing is 100.3% to keep the generator faster than the grid If frequency has varied enough the speed matching circuit adjust TNR to maintain turbine speed 0.2 to 0.4 % faster than the grid

Turbine speed reference TNR

Speed control schematic

Auto synch logic

Synch permissive logic


System line voltage 109% 86.5% Generator volts 109% 86.5% Line Frequency 50.5Hz 49.5Hz

Generator frequency
50.5Hz 49.5Hz

Synch speed matching permissive

Auto synch permissive logic

Temperature control

The temperature control system will limit fuel flow to gas turbine to maintain internal operating temperature within gas turbine limitation of turbine hot gas path parts. Firing temperature is the temperature exists at first stage nozzle. This temperature must be limited by control system

Firing temperature

It is impractical to measure temperature direct to the combustion chamber or at the turbine inlet So, the control system control the exhaust temperature instead. Firing temperature as a function of fuel flow (FSR) FSR temp. control curve are used as back up to primary CPD. Bias temp.

Exhaust temperature control

18 Chromel alumel TC are installed at exhaust plenum to sent signal to Mark V Exhaust temperature control soft ware 1.Temperature control command 2.Temp control bias calculation 3.Temp reference selection

Temperature control FSR.

Exhaust temp control command

Is the temperature control command (TTRXB)compare the exhaust temperature control set point(TTXM).The soft ware program converts the temperature error to fuel stroke reference signal FSRT

Temperature control bias

Firing temperature limit by linearized function of exhaust temperature and CPD backed up by linearized function of exhaust temperature and FSR

Temperature control Bias


Exhaust temperature (TX) Isothermal Exhaust temperature (TX) Isothermal

Compressor discharge pressure(CPD)

Fuel stroke reference(FSR)

Temperature control bias

Temperature control bias

GT. Operate by FG. or FO. If CPD bias >FSR bias Alarm will show GT.Operate by heavy oil(monitor nozzle plugging) if FSR bias >CPD bias alarm will show

CPD & FSR bias temp control

Temperature reference select program

For temperature reference select,three digital input signal are decode (L83JTN) to select one set of constant i.e. Base load open cycle select Base load combined cycle select Peak load select

Temperature reference select program

Fuel control system

Fuel control system will change fuel flow to the combustion in response to the fuel stroke reference signal(FSR) FSR1 call for liquid fuel flow FSR2 call for gas fuel flow FSR =

FSR1 + FSR2

Liquid fuel control system

Liquid fuel bypass servo valve

Liquid fuel control system

When liquid fuel is selected and start. The control system will check L4 logic(1). At minimum speed L20FLX(FO. trip valve) and L20CF(fuel oil clutch) will energized. When GT. Firing FSRSU will go to control turbine through fuel splitter and liquid fuel flow command FQROUT will demand to fuel oil by pass valve to control liquid fuel flow to combustion chamber.

Liquid fuel flow diagram


FSRSU FSRSD FSRT FSRN FSRMAN

Min sel

FSR

Fuel Splitter

FSR1

Fuel flow Command

FQROUT Bypass Servo Command

DC mA

Servo valve

Liquid fuel flow control

FSR1V1 Fuel splitter


Mixed Fuel Operation Completely on Liquid Fuel

Completely on Gas Fuel Fuel change permissive Fuel Split Transfer Rate

3.3 %SP/s

Fraction of Liquid Fuel

Fraction of Liq Fuel Set point Command Increase Liquid Fuel Increase Gas Fuel Fuel Stroke Reference Fuel Splitter Liquid Fuel Purge Level
0.5 %

Liquid Fuel Stroke Ref from Fuel Splitter

Fuel Splitter Gas Fuel Purge Level

Gas Fuel Stroke Ref from Fuel Splitter


0.5 %

Liquid Fuel Stroke Ref from Fuel Splitter % Turbine Speed % Liquid Fuel Stop Valve Control Signal Master protective signal Calibration position reference % Calib selection command pass code Flow divider mag pickup speed Excessive Liq Fuel Startup Liq Fuel Bypass Valve Flow Detection Trouble Set point Liq fuel bypass valve servo current 30 % 10 sec

Liq Fuel Flow Reference Angle % Liquid fuel bypass valve servo command[65FP-1]

Liquid Fuel Flow High (trip )


8.5 %

3%

Liq Fuel Bypass Valve Flow Detected Trouble Alarm

LF. Byp. Vlv. Servo Current Trouble Alarm

Master reset
ALM171:'LIQUID FUEL CONTROL FAULT'

System check from flow divider and servo valve

Excessive flow on start up (trip GT. If excessive flow exist during warm up period) L60FFLH LVDT. Position feed back Bypass valve is not fully open when stop valve is close Loss of flow divider feed back

Fuel gas control system

Fuel gas flow is controlled by the gas speed ratio stop valve (SRV) and Gas control valve (GCV) SRV is designed to maintain a predetermined pressure(P2)at the inlet of gas control valve as a function of gas turbine speed GCV plug is intended to be proportional to FSR2 for fuel gas flow

GVC & SRV control block diagram


FSRSU FSRSD FSRT FSRN FSRMAN

Min sel

FSR

Fuel Splitter

FSR2

GCV. Command

FSROUT

Gas Servo Command

DC mA

Servo valve 96GC

FG. Flow Control

SRV. SRV. FPRGOUT Servo ComCommand mand

DC mA

Servo valve 90SR

FG. Press Control

GCV. Schematic diagram

Gas control valve out put

Gas Fuel Stroke Ref from Fuel Splitter

GCV servo command [65GC-1] %

Gas Fuel Stop Valve Open Master protective signal Calibration selection command pass code

Calibration position reference %

SRV. Schematic
Turbine Speed

Master protective Gas Ratio Valve Open

SRV. Out put signal


Stop/Speed Ratio Valve Shutdown Command Set point
-40 psi

Gas Ratio Valve Control Press Ref (psi)


Fuel Gas Press Ratio Control Gain 3.5146 psi/% Fuel Gas Press Ratio Control Offset

-17.88 psi

Stop/speed ratio valve servo


command [90SR-1] psi

Gas Ratio Valve Control Press Ref psi

Fuel gas control and monitor alarm


Excessive fuel flow during start up Loss of LVDT feed back on SRV and GCV

Servo current to SRV. detected prior to permissive to open


Servo current to GCV. detected prior to permissive to open Inter valve pressure low

Gas Fuel Stroke Ref from Fuel Splitter % Position fdbck gas controlvalve [96GC-1] % Gas control valve not following reference
3% 3 sec

5% 5 sec

Gas control valve not following reference trip

Position fdbck gas controlvalve [96GC-1] %

-5 %

Gas Control Valve Position Feedback Fault

5%

Gas Control Valve Open Trouble Alarm

Gas control valve servo current %

37.5 %

Gas Control Valve Servo Current Fault

Gas Fuel Stop Valve Open


COMMAND PB Master reset

3 sec

ALM133:'GAS CONTROL VALVE SERVO TROUBLE'

Position fdbck srv [96SR-1] %


33.3 %

Startup Gas Fuel Stroke High

-6.67 %

Stop/Ratio Valve Position FeedbackTrouble Alarm Lo

6.67 %

Stop/Ratio Valve Open Trouble Alarm

Speed ratio valve

servo current %
15 %

Gas Ratio Valve Open


Interstage fuel gas press xmitter [96FG-2A] psi
-5 psi 2 sec

Stop/Ratio Valve Servo Current Trouble Alarm

ALM134:'GAS FUEL INTERVALVE PRESSURE TROUBLE'

COMMAND PB Master reset

ALM132:'GAS RATIO VALVE POSITION SERVO TROUBLE'

Dual fuel control

Gas turbine are designed to operate by both FG & FO. The control has provide the following feature Transfer from one fuel to another Allow time for filling the line Mix fuel operation

operation of liquid fuel nozzle purge when operating totally on Gas fuel.

Fuel splitter schematic

Fuel transfer

Mix Fuel operation

Limit on the fuel mixture are required to ensure Proper combustion Liquid fuel distribution Liquid fuel flow velocity Combustion ratio

Fuel transfer limit (For GE.9E)


Transfer(select one fuel)prior to startup Do not transfer fuel below 30 MW. Do not operate mix below 30% rated gas flow or 60% gas at 30MW.(to avoid nozzle pressure ratio dropping below 1.25 and possibly causing combustion chamber pulsation.)

Fuel transfer limit (For GE.9E)

Do not mixed below 10% rated liquid flow(to avoid excessive liquid fuel recalculation flow resulting in fuel over heating and possibly causing fuel oil pump damage.)

Mix fuel Allowable range curve


Rated

MW LOAD NO MIXED MIXED OK No MIX

30 MW NO MIXED

0 100

30 70

60 40

90 10

100 % GAS % LIQ 0

Modulate Inlet Guide Vane

Protect compressor pulsation by modulate during the acceleration of gas turbine to rated speed.

IGV modulation maintain proper flow and pressure to combustion.


Maintain high exhaust temperature at low load when combined cycle application.

Modulate IGV control scheme.

IGV. Control control reference (CSRGV)


L83GVMAX 86 DGA CSRGV (IGV CONTROL REFERENCE) IGV part Speed

CPD. TNH. 57 DGA CLOSE OPEN L83GVMAN TTRX L83GVSS 371 c 1120 c TTXM MIN SEL IGV TEMP CON TROL IGV MAN

MIN SEL MAX SEL

CSRGVX

IGV. Control Algorithm from Mark V


Temp Control and Manual Control Ref Airflow Control Reference %
1 DGA/%

IGV on Temperature Control

Stator 17 IGV Gain VIGV Temp Control Airflow Ref Offset IGV Manual Control Permissive

0 DGA

57 DGA 57 DGA Permissive Inlet Guide Vane Ref IGV Part speed control 86 DGA CPRS. OFF Line washing IGV at Maximum Position Turb inlet guide vane servo vlv command [90TV-1] DGA VIGV. Reference Angle (DGA) IGV at Minimum Position

Calibration position reference % Calibration selection command pass code

IGV. Part speed reference


Compressor Temperature Ratio
519 o F

Speed Correction Factor

Max Comp Inlet Flange Temp

oF

HP Turbine Speed % VIGV Part Speed HP Corr Speed Offset % VIGV Part Speed HP Corr Speed Gain Open IGV Position VIGV Part Speed Ref Min Setpoint
77.320 %

Turbine Speed HP, Iso Corrected

6.786
86 DGA

DGA/% Part Speed VIGV Reference

34 DGA

IGV. Control control reference (CSRGV)


L83GVMAX 86 DGA CSRGV (IGV CONTROL REFERENCE) IGV part Speed

CPD. TNH. 57 DGA CLOSE OPEN L83GVMAN TTRX L83GVSS 371 c 1120 c TTXM MIN SEL IGV TEMP CON TROL IGV MAN

MIN SEL MAX SEL

CSRGVX

From Where ?

CSRGVX
TTXM TTRX CSKGVDB L83GVDB TTRXGVB 700 F 2048 F L83GVSS TNGV CSKGVTPG CSKGVTC CSRGV L83GVMAN_CMD
2 deg F 4 sec T 2 deg F

X
Min SEL

X X
V = OUT 1+TS V

CSRGVX
X
IGV MAN

RESET OUT =V

TTRX
L83REC TTRXC TTRXR1 1.5 F/sec TTRXR2 -1 F/sec

TTRMINSEL

MED SEL

TTRX

X
Z-1

IGV Temperature control (CSRGVX) Bias by FSR. , CPD.


FSR Conner
42.707 %

+X

X
A A<B B

L60TRF

TTRMINSEL

Slope4.987 F/% ISO thermal


1140 deg F

MIN SEL

CPD
8.058 prs_R

+X

Conner Slope

27.342 F/ prs

L83JTN

L83JTN = Temperature select logic(by damper&fuel) N = 0 Operate open cycle mode on Gas fuel N = 1 Operate Combined cycle mode on Gas fuel N = 2 Operate open cycle on mode Liquid fuel N = 3 Operate Combined cycle mode on Liquid fuel For example show value of curve N= 1

IGV. Operation curve

IGV. Fault detection


Position feedback IGV [96TV-1] DGA
31 DGA

IGV - Loss of Feedback Alarm

35 DGA

IGV - Vanes Open Alarm

TCQA-REG-CUR IGV control servo current

%
-30 %

IGV Control Permissive


5 sec

IGV - Servo Current Alarm - Neg. Saturation

COMMAND PB Master reset

IGV. Not following CSRGV.


Position feedback IGV [96TV-1] DGA VIGV Reference Angle DGA
7.5 DGA 5 SEC

ALM108:'INLET GUIDE VANE CONTROL TROUBLE ALARM'

7.5 DGA 5 SEC

IGV Not Following CSRGV Trip