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2002 .


1
1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8
10

2 ()
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
11
13
14
16
18
19

3
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 (F) - () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5
3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20
20
20
21
22
23
23

4 .
4.1 - . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 ""
4.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 "" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 . . . . . . . . . .
4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24
24
26
28

3
3
4
4
6
7

31
33
34
36
37
38
42
43

5 . .
5.1 () . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6 . . . . . . . . . .
5.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44
44
46
46
47
50
52
55
57
59

6
6.1 . . . . .
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 . . .
6.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

60
61

7
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 .
7.4 . . . .
7.5
7.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69
69
70
70
71
72
73

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63
64
66
68

: .., , ., , 1983; ..,


. , ., , 1983.
,
,

(. 3).

1.1
- . , ,
- .
. (E)
. E :
dE = dQ dW + dZ

(1)

dE = dQ dW

(2)

- ,
- ,
dE = 0,

E = const

(3)

- , dQ- , dW - , dZ- , .
. (S) . :
dQ
,
(4)
T
T - .
. S
 
S
lim
= 0,
(5)
T 0 K X T
dS =

X - .
1- 2-
(6)
dE = T dS Ada + dN,
dW = Ada, A - a ; dZ = dN, -
dN.

dE = T dS j dN j .
j

(7)

1.2 .
.
()
(8)

bi = bi (a1 , a2 , ..., an , T ) ,

bi - , a j - .
,
(9)

E = E (a1 , a2 , ..., T ) .

(10)

A j = A j (a1 , a2 , ..., T )

, E = E (a, T ) A = A (a, T ).
,
. .
. ,
dE = T dS Ada

E = E (a, T ) ,

A = A (a, T ) .

(11)

, ,
, ..
. . a T . , ,
,
, .
.

1.3
, 1- 2-
.
,
dQ = dE + Ada.
(12)
a T .
:
 
 

dE + Ada
1 E
1
E
dS =
=
dT +
+A
(13)
T
T T a
T
a T

S
T

1
=
T

E
T


,
a

S
a

1
=
T



E
a


+A .

(14)

S,
 
 
A
E
=
+ A.
T
T a
a T

(15)

. Ca CA
 
 
dQ
dE
Ca =
=
,
 dT a dT a  
 
(16)
dQ
E
E
A
CA =
=
+
+A
dT A
T a
A T
T A
,
   
A
a
CA Ca = T
.
T a T A

(17)

(Cv , C p )
 
1 v
=
(18)
v0 T p
,
1
=
v0

v
T


(19)
T

.
     
v
T
p
= 1
T P p v v T

(20)

(18) (19)
 
   
p
v
p

=
= .
T v
T p v T

(21)

, CA Ca ,
C p CV = V0 T

2
.

(22)


Z2
1


Ca =

E
T

dE = E2 E1 =

Z2

Z2 

Ca dT +
1


.
a

E
a


da,
T

(23)


Z2
1

dS = S2 S1 =

Z2

dT
Ca
+
T

Z 

A
T


da.

(24)

,
.

1.4

dE = T dS Ada.

(25)

1. S a. ,
E = E (S, a).
 
 
E
E
T=
, A=
.
(26)
S a
a S
E
 
 
T
A
=
.
a S
S a

(27)

E (S, a)

 2 
 
E
T
T
=
=
,
2
S
S
C
a
a
a
 2 
 
,
(28)
E
P
KS
=
= ,
V 2 S
V S
V
 
P
KS = V
- . E = E (S, a)
V S
- .
2. F
F = E T S, dF = SdT Ada, ..
F = F (a, T ).
, .
 
 
F
F
S=
, A=
.
(29)
T a
a T
F
 
 
S
A
=
a T
T a

(30)

F
 2 
 
F
1 V
1
Ca = T
, =
=  2  .
(31)
2
T a
V0 P T
F
V0
V 2 T
7

3.
= (E T S) + Aa. d = SdT + adA, ..
= (T, A).
 
 

S=
, a=
.
(32)
T A
A T
= (T, A)
 2 

CA = T
,
T 2 A

(33)


1
=
V0

V
P


T

1
=
V0

2
P2


.

(34)

4. H
H = E + Aa. dH = T dS + adA, .. H = H (S, A).
 
 
H
H
T=
, a=
,
 2 S A
 2A S  
H
T
H
V
V
(35)
=
,
=
=

,
2
2
S
C
P
P
K
A
S
A
S
S
 
 
T
a
=
.
A S
S A
, . , E(S, a),
F(a, T ), (T, A), H(S, A). , ,
(. . 1.2), , . ,

1.5

dE = T dS Ada + dN.

(36)

( . . 1.4)
- ( S, a, N), .. E = E(S, a, N).
F - , F = E T S,

dF = SdT Ada + dN,
(37)
F = F(T, a, N).
- , = F + Aa,

d = SdT + adA + dN,


(38)
8

= (T, A, N).
H - , H = E + Aa,

(39)

dH = T dS + adA + dN,

H = H(S, A, N).
, .
( . 1.1).
,
 
 
 
 
E
F

H
=
=
=
=
.
(40)
N ,s
N ,T
N A,T
N A,S
. ,
.

E = N f1 (a/N, S/N) ,

= N f3 (A, T ),

F = N f2 (a/N, T ) ,



=

H = N f4 (A, S/N).

(41)


(42)

= f3 (A, T ),
A,T

.. = vN, v
.
, N . = F
- .
= SdT Ada Nd,

(43)

= N.
S=

d
,
dT

A=

d
,
da

N=

d
d

(44)

, = (T, a, )
N .

1.6
:
() , ;

T dS > dE + Ada dN.
(45)
9

.
1. ( E, a, N) -). (45)
dS > 0. S = 0, 2 S < 0.
2. T , a, N. dF < SdT Ada
dF < 0.
F = 0, 2 F > 0.
3. T , A, N. < SdT + adA
d < 0.
4. S, A, N. dH < 0.
H = 0 2 H > 0.
( E ).
, .
.
() S = S1 + S2 , Si , S = 0 .
dE1 + A1 da1 1 dN1 dE2 + A2 da2 2 dN2
+
= 0.
T1
T2

(46)

, , dE1 = dE2 , da1 = da2 , dN1 = dN2 ,


T1 = T2 , A1 = A2 , 1 = 2 .
,
, .
, , .. ""
" ".

. S Q.
E(S, a). 2 E > 0.

 2 
 2 
E
2 E
E
2
dS + 2
dSda +
da2 > 0
(47)
2
2
S a
Sa
a S

2 E
S2

  2   2 
E
E

> 0.
2
a
Sa
a

(48)


 
 2 
 

2E
E
T

T




S2


aS   S a   a S 
a 
2
(49)
,
E
= (A)
(A)
E



Sa
S
a
a2 S
a
S
 
 
E
E

= T,
= A.
S a
a S
S, a a, T
(T, A)
(T, A)
(T, A) (a, T )
=
=

.
(S, a)
(S, a)
(a, T ) (S, a)
10

(50)

,
   
A
T

< 0.
(51)
a T
S a
A - p, a - V ,

     
p
T
p
T

< 0,
(52)
V T
S V V T CV
CV - .

1.7
1.
dQ ( V , T ); ( p, T ); ( p, V ).
2. F
, dE = T dS + Ai dai .
i

3.
= aT (1 lnT ) + bT lnp cT , a, b, c - .
.
4. S ,
.
5. , S T 0 ( ) CV C p , .
6. , ~E
a) dE = T dS + ~Ed ~D/4,
b) dE = T dS + ~Ed ~P,
c) dE = T dS ~Pd ~E.

(53)

.
7.
,  
V


~ p,T

H
!
~
M
.
p ~
H,T

8. H = Const S = Const.
dT
, =

dp

 
 
V
V
T
V
T
T p
T p
H =
, S =
.
(54)
Cp
Cp
11

9. , ..
. , , ,
!
~
M
T


T ~
dT
H
S =
=
.
(55)
~
CH
dH S
~

()

. ,
H(X), X , . , () , . . .
.
, , P(A1 ,t1 ; A2 ,t2 ; . . . ), Ai ti .
,
. . ,
, , .. P(A), A ,
, .
, , .. ,
(. .., .. , ., ,
1976.)

2.1

S = k lnW ;
S , W , k . W ,
( ).
W . , W
. , W = W (A), A , , .
W = W (A, a1 , a2 , . . . , T ), ai , T
12

. ""
. .
W .
. , m V . ,

Z
Z
W = dxdydzd px d py d pz = V d px d py d pz .
, , E = p2 /2m, E E0
W (E E0 ) = V

3
3
4
4p2 d p = (2m) 2 V E02 .
3


En =

h2 2
n ,
2mL2

V = L, n (n = 1, 2, . . .)
gn = 1.
W n, ..
1
L
W (E E0 ) = (2mE0 ) 2 .
h

Wn
E E0 . , , . , E = E0 E = E0 E,
W < Wn , W .
W S.
W , . ,
. , lnW
, S . , . , ., , ., ,
1988.
C1 C2 ,
E1 E2 . , ,
E. , . W1 (E1 ) 1 E1 + E1 , W2 (E2 ) 2 E2 + E2 .
, , . : E = E1 + E2 ,
. P(E1 ) , 1 E1 , .. E E + E?
P(E1 ) =

WC (E1 )
= Const WC (E1 )
WC
13

Wc , 1 E1 .
.
W(1 ) , C1 C2
WC (E1 ) = W1 (E1 ) W2 (E2 ) = W1 (E1 ) W2 (E E1 ).
, C1 E1
P(E1 ) = ConstW1 (E1 )W2 (E E1 ).
W1 (E1 ) W2 (E2 )
. P(E1 ) W1 (E1 ) , W2 (E E1 ) .
P(E1 ) E1 .
P(E1 )
ln P(E1 ) = lnConst + lnW1 (E1 ) + lnW2 (E2 ).
E1
ln P 1 P
=
= 0.
E1
P E1

lnW1 (E1 ) lnW1 (E2 )
+
(1) = 0
E1
E2

lnW1 (E1 ) lnW1 (E2 )


=
= ,
E1
E2

.
, , , , .. T1 =
T2 .(. . 1.6.). T = E
S , , S1 = k lnW1 S2 = k lnW2 . S = k lnW
, .

2.2


, . . , , . ,
, .
1
H(X, a1 , a2 , . . .), X , ai (),
1

, , ,

14

. , , ,
f (X, a1 , a2 , . . .), X .
,
H(X, a1 , a2 , . . .)
En (a1 , a2 , . . .), n . , n (a1 , a2 , . . .),
n.
X n , ().
.
, , . . E = const. H = H(X, a), a .
W (a, E) (. . 2.1).
, ,
, .
,

f (X, a, E) = C[H (X, a) E]

f (X, a, E)dX = 1,
. C
Z
1
C = [ [H(X, a) E]dX]1 =
W (a, E)
E = const

(a, E) = CEn E ,

n(a, E) = 1,
n

. C
1
C = [ En E ]1
,
W (a, E)
n
W (a, E) gn .

2.3
(. . 1.1),
dE = T ds Ada
, .
T (T = const).
15

, ( ) .
, .

f (X1 , X2 , E) = C[H(X1 ) + H(X2 ) + H(X1 , X2 ) E]

f (X1 , X2 , E)dX1 dX2 = 1,


X1 , X2 , H(X1 , X2 ) ,
E .
f (X1 , X2 , E) , . H(X1 ), H(X2 )
, H(X1 , X2 ).
Z

f (X1 ) =

f (X1 , X2 , E)dX2 .

, ,
H(X2 ) >> H(X1 ).
Z

f (X1 ) = C

[H(X2 ) E]dX2 = C

[H(X2 ) E]g(E2 )dE2 ,

,
g(E2 ) =

dX2
dE2

.
, 1 << E2 , E E2 , .. E2 = E = const. g(2 ), ,
f (X1 )
f (X1 ) = Cg(E E1 ),
, 2 = 1 , 1
.

(..2.1).
1
g(E E1 ) = exp[ S(E E1 )].
k

 
S
S(E E1 ) = S(E) E1
+ ...,
E

S
E


=

1
1
= .
T2 T1

16

1 = 2 .
, 1 2 ,
.



E1
f (X1 ) = C1 exp
.
kT1
, .



H(X, a)
f (X, a, T ) = Const exp
,
kT
Z

f (X, a, T )dX = 1,
E1 (X, a).



1
H(X, a)
f (X, a, T ) = exp
,
z
kT

z=


H(X, a)
exp
dX
kT

.



1
En
n (a, T ) = exp
,
z
kT

En
z = exp
kT
n
.

2.4
(. .1.1), ,
dE = T dS Ada + dN.

N. H = H(X, a, N),
X N . , a, T, .
f (X, N, a, T, ).
. ( 1 , 2 ).
f (X1 , X2 , N1 , N2 ) = [H(X1 , N1 ) + H(X2 , N2 ) E] ,
17

N = N1 +N2 , E = E1 +E2 , .. , H(X1 , N1 , X2 , N2 ) = 0.


:

f (X1 , X2 , N1 , N2 )dXN1 dXN2 = 1.

N1 N2

f (X1 , N1 )
f (X1 , N1 , X2 , N2 ):
Z

f (X1 , N1 ) =

f (X1 , X2 , N1 , N2 )dXN2

N1 << N2
E1 << E2 .
f (X1 , N1 ) =

[H (X1 , N2 ) E]dXN2 =

[H (X2 , N2 ) E]g (EN2 ) dEN2 ,

g (EN2 ) = g (E2 , N2 ) =

dXN2
dEN2

( 2 N2 ). g (EN2 ) ,
f (X1 , N1 ) = g (E2 , N2 ) ,
- . (. . 2.1.)


1
g (E2 , N2 ) = exp S (E2 , N2 ) .
k
S
 
 
S
S
S2 (E E1 , N N1 ) = S (E, N)
E1
N1 + ...,
E
N

S
E


a,N

1
= ,
T2

S
N


=
a,E

2
.
T2

2 = 1 2 = 1 . ,
f (X1 , N1 ) = const e

1 N1 EN
1
kT

, , a, .

f (X, N, a, T, ) =

1 NH(X,N,a)
kT
e
,
Z
18

f (X, N, a, T, )dXN = 1,

Z=

NH(X,N,a)
kT

dXN

. n,N (a, T, )
n,N (a, T, ) =

1 NEn,N (a)
e kT ,
Z

Z = e

n,N = 1,
N n

NEn,N (a)
kT

N n

.2

2.5

. . . (n) R

...dX , ,
dX = d~r1 d~p1 ...d~rs d~ps , s .
,
, .
r p
() ri pi h, h .
:

...

...

dX
.
hS

N S = 3N.
2. .
, .
, , n

ni ,
"" .
.
. : a b. ,
. .
Ea,x1 Eb,x2 , xi = (~ri ,~pi ). ,
Ea,x1 Eb,x2 . , ..
Ea,x1 Eb,x2 . , - . , . ,
. ,
2

, , : .., , ., .81

19


R
. , dX
N
. , N! ( N ).

...
n

1
N!

dX
....
h3N


Z = e

En
kT

N!

H(X)
kT

dX
.
h3N

NEn,N (a)
kT

N n

2.6

N N!

NH(X,N,a)
kT

dXN
.
h3N

1. 1/2 ~0 ~B. .
, . 0 B, +0 B.
N , .
N = 1, 2, 3, 4.
N = 4 20 B.
.
: N = 1, W = 2; N = 4, W = 16W ; Wg (Em = 20 B) = 4;
5 gm1 = 1, gm2 = 4 ..

2. V W
1
3
2
2
g(E) = dW
dE W V E g(E) V E ,
.2.1.
W g(E) N
. ,
"" .
3. m V = L3 , L .

En =

h2 2 2
(n + n22 + n23 ),
2mL2 1

gni = 1, ni = 1, 2, . . ., n = (n1 , n2 , n3 ).
= 300 . n . ( m
, L = 1 ).
, n ,
: W = 18 ( 43 n3 ), n =

1
L
2

h (2mE) ;

g(E) V E 2 .

20

(), , .

3.1
, f (X, a, T ).

h
i
R
Z
H(X, a) exp H(X,a)
dX
kT
h
i
E(a, T ) = H (X, a) f (X, a, T ) dX =
(56)
R
exp H(X,a)
dX
kT

E(a, T ) = kT 2

Z(a, T ) =

d
ln Z(a, T ),
dT



H(X, a)
exp
dX
kT

E
h
i
En (a)
E
(a)
exp

n
kT
h
i
E(a, T ) = En (a)n (a, T ) = n
En (a)
n
exp

kT

(57)

(58)

(59)

(58),


En (a)
Z(a, T ) = exp
dX.
kT
n

(60)

3.2
, .
h
i
R
NH(X,N,a)
dXn
Z
N exp
kT
h
i
N (a, T, ) = N f (X, N, a, T, ) dXn = n R
(61)
NH(X,N,a)
n
dXn
exp
kT
n


N(a, T, ) = kT

Z0 (a, T, ) = n

d
ln Z0 (a, T, ),
dT



N H(X, N, a)
exp
dXn .
kT
21

(62)

(63)


h
i
NEn,N (a)
N exp
Z
kT
n N
h
i
N (a, T, ) = Nn,N (X, N, a, T, ) =
NEn,N (a)
n
N
exp
kT

(64)

n N

(62),


N En,N (a)
Z0 (a, T, ) = exp
.
kT
n N

(65)

3.3 (F) - ()
F , S = k lnW (. . 3.1).
W E
. f [H (X)] X, H (X) = E. f [H (X)]
h
iZ
h
i
f H (X)
dX = 1
f H (X) W = 1.
(66)

h
i
S = k lnW = k ln f H (X) .

(67)

()
H(X) ln f [H (X)].
Z
S = kln f [H (X)] = k

ln f (x, a, T ) f (x, a, T )dx.

(68)

S = k ln n n .
(69)
n

. (67),


H (X)
f [H (X)] = C exp
,
(70)
kT
C .
"
#


H(X)
E
S = k lnC
=, k lnC
kT
kT

(71)

E .
(??). (71)
F(a, T ) = kT ln Z(a, T ),
22

(72)

Z(a, T ) .
F , Z . F
n (a, T ) = exp [F(a, T ) En (a)kT ] .

f (x, a, T ) = exp [F(a, T ) H(x, a)kT ] ,

(73)


f (X, N) = C exp [N H(X, N)kT ] ,
= 1/Z0 . f (X, N) (67)


N E
S = k lnC
.
kT

(74)

(75)

E N c E N. - = E T S N (. .1.5).
S
(a, T, ) = kT ln Z0 (a, T, ).
(76)
.
f (x, N, a, T, ) = exp [F(a, T ) H(x, a)kT ] ,

n (a, T ) = exp [F(a, T ) En (a)kT ] .

(77)

S ,
. ST = E F,

F = kT ln Z E = kT 2 T
ln Z.
S=k

(T ln Z) .
T

(78)

3.4
(1)
, , .
.

E(a, T ) = kT 2
ln Z(a, T ).
(79)
T

F(a, T )
,
(80)
a
F(a, T ) = kT ln Z(a, T ). , E = E(a, T ) A = A(a, T )
(a, T ), () (. . 1.2).
F(a, T ) = kT ln Z(a, T ) (a, T, ) = kT ln Z0 (a, T, )
F . . , (. , 2.??). ,
Z Z0 .
().
A(a, T ) =

23

3.5


Z


Z
F(a, T )
H(x, a)
f (x)dx = exp
exp
dx = 1.
kT
kT

(81)

, , T a
   Z


 Z


 
F
F
H
E
H
1 H
1
exp
d
exp
dx exp
exp
da + Hd
dx = 1.
kT
kT
kT
kT
kT
kT a
kT
(82)
,
 
 
1
F
1 H
d

da +Hd
= 0,
(83)
kT
kT a
kT
H = E ,

H
da = dW
a
.
 
 
F
1
Td
T Ed
= dW.
T
T

 


 
E F
F
1
Td
T Ed
= dE T d
= dE T dS,
T
T
T

(84)

(85)

(86)

(E F)/T = S -. dE = T dS + dW (. 2).

(78), Z =

En
n gn exp kT . , kT << E1 E0 , E1 
 E0
. Z = Z0 n = g0 exp kT
, limS = S0 = k ln g0 = const,
(.5).

3.6

1. A, B, C,... ,

Z = ZA ZB ZC , ZA , ZB , ZC ,...
A, B, C,...
2. - - ( ) .
3. E1 E2 (E2 >
E1 ) c g1 g2 . Q , T0 T1 .
24

Q . (Q = 0 ) W , E2
E20 = E2 + E. W .
4. g(E) ) g(E) exp(E), )
g(E) exp(+E), - .
.


H.
N

H (X) = H (xi ),
i=1

X = (x1 , x2 , ..., xN ) ,
N , xi = (~ri ,~pi ) , .
H(Xi )
H (xi ) = Ek (~pi ) + E (~ri ) ,
Ek (~p) , En (~r)
.
H (X) .
.
, , , , , .
( ).

4.1 -
, N "", T V . . ,
. (. . 2.3.).
1 H(X)
f (X) = e kT ,
z
z = e
R

H(X)
kT

dX;

f (X) dX = 1
N

H(xi )
1 kT1 i=1
f (X) = e
,
z

H (xi ) =

Px2i +Py2i +Pz2i


2m

+ E (xi , yi , zi ) =

~p2i
2m

+ E (~ri ), m .
25

xxx , ,
.
Z

E = H (X) =

H (X) f (X) dX

,
 Z


Ek = H X~p = H X~p f (X) dX


,
Z

E = H (X~r ) =

H (X~r ) f (X) dX

,
~p2i
=
2m

~p2i
f (X) dX
2m

,
E (~ri ) =

E (~ri ) f (X) dX

.

. , .
""
f (xi ).

N

f (X) = f (xi ).
i=1

f (xi ) =

f (X) dXN1 ,

.

, f (xi ). .
R kT1 H(xi )

f (xi ) =

1
kT

dx1 dx2 ...dxN1

H(xi )
i

dx1 dx2 ...dxN


f (x) = R

e
e

26

H(x)
kT

H(x)
kT

,
dx

"i", .. .
f (x) ( ).
f (x) =

zMB

1
kT

zMB =

1
kT

2 2
p2
x +py +pz
+E(x,y,z)
2m

2 2
p2
x +py +pz
+E(x,y,z)
2m

-.
:
1.
Z

f (px, py, pz ) =

f (x) dxdydz

1 p2x +p2y +p2z


f (px, py, pz ) =
e 2mkT , zM =
zM
2.

2 2
p2
x +py +pz
2mkT

d px d py d pz .

f (px ) =

f (px ) =

f (px , py , pz ) d py d pz ,
p2
x

e 2mkT ,

zM1 = (2mkT ) 2 ,

z M1
zM1 < px < +,
.
4.1.1
1. f (~p) f (~v)

Z

In =

ex xn dx,

> 0. n = 0

I0 =

1
2.
2

n = 1

1
I1 = 1 .
2
n 2 (n ) I0 I1 ,


n1
In =
In2
2
27

I0
3
I2 =
=
2
2
4
2. , .. f (E),
(z) =

xz1 ex dx

-, x , z .
(1) =

ex dx = 1

  Z

1
1

= x 2 ex dx =
2
0


(z + 1) = z (z) .
3.
Z

f (x, y, z) =

f (x) d px d py d pz

1 E(x,y,z)
f (x, y, z) = e kT
z
E(x,y,z)

, z = e kT dxdydz.
E (x, y, z) = 0
R

z=

E(x,y,z)
kT

dxdydz

-
1
kT

f (~r,~p) =

2 2
p2
x +py +pz
+E(x,y,z)
2m

(2mkT ) 2 e
R

E(x,y,z)
kT

.
dxdydz

. ,
- .
. ,
H (X) =
i

~p2i
+ E (~r1 ,~r2 , ....) ,
2m
28

E ( ).

f (X) = f X~p f (X~r ) ,
X~r X~p .

f X~g = f (~pi ),
i=1

f (~pi ) .
- , .

4.2

""

, N m V T .
-.
, :
1. (px )
Z+

px f (px ) d px =

px =

Z+

1
1

p2
x

px e 2mkT d px = 0,

(2mkT ) 2

,
0.
2.
.1
3. ~p
Z

p =

p F (p) d p, F (p) = f (~p) 4p2

p =

(2mkT )

3
2

p
3 2mkT

p e
0

dp =

8mkT

1

().
4. ~v
Z

v =

F (v) = f (~v) 4v2

v F (v) dv,

f (~v) =

2 2
 m 3
m(v2
x +vy +vz )
2
e 2mkT
2kT

29



v =

8kT
m

1
2

5.
dF (p)
= 0,
dp

pB = (2mkT ) 2 .

6. , Ek =
2
Ek = mv2 . , , :
Ek =

p2
2m

Z 2
p

3
F (p) d p = kT,
2m
2

( 4.1.1).
, Ek f (Ek ):
Z

Ek =

Ek f (Ek ) dEk ,
0

E
2
1
kT
f (Ek ) =
e
E 1/2
3/2
(kT )

F (p) F (v).
E k (. 4.1).
7.
. E (z) = mgz, g = const. :
Z

E=

mgz f (z)dz,

f (z) .
mgz

f (z) = R

e kT

mgz
e kT dz

En En =
kT . .
( III),
. :
N

z=

1
kT
H(xi )

i=1

dx1 dx2 ...dxN

z = zN
30

z=

H(x)
kT

dx

, z -.
, .
.
Z ( III). :
1
z = zN ,
N!

Z H(x)
e kT
dx,
z=
h3
h .
, E (~r) = 0, :
3N

(2mkT ) 2 V N
z=
N!h3N
F - :


V 3N
3
F = kT lnz = kT Nln +
ln (2mkT ) Nlnh + N ,
N
2
lnN! = NlnN N ( ).
:
 
F
NKT
p=
=
.
V T,N
V

E = F + T S,

F
S=
T



.
V,N

:
E = kT 2

3
lnz = N kT.
T
2

:
 
F
Nh3
=
= kT ln
.
N V,T
(2mkT )3/2 V
( ):
Z

W=

dX
1
=
3N
h N! N!h3N
31

dx1 dx2 ...dxN


Z

1
W=
N!

dx
h3

N
=

1 N
W
N! i

Wi , :
Z

Wi =

dx
1
= 3
3
h
h

Wi =

dxdydz 4p d p =

4
3
3V p
h3

4V
(2mE)3/2 ,
3h3

p2
.
2m
:

4 2m3/2V 1/2
g(E) =
E
h3
E=

4.3
, .
N En Eni :
N

En = Emi ,
i=1

mi - , i- , n -
, .
, , , .. n =
(m1 , m2 , ..., mN ).
, .
:
1 EN
n = e kT ,
z
z = e kT .
En

, mi .

32

mi r ,
p ). f (
r ,
p ) (.
- f (
.1):

H( r , p )

kT
f ( r , p ) = C1 e
C1 - .
m :
Em

m = C2 e kT

C2 - m , .. ,
.
C2 :

m = 1,
m

C2 =

Em

e kT

:
1 Em
m = e kT
z

z = e kT .
Em

m , z .
, . , , . , , . ,
, .
( , ) 5. .
, .
Z
z.
:
En
1
z = e kT = e kT [Em1 +Em2 +...]
n

m1 ,m2 ,...

EkTm

z = zN , Z = e
, .
m
, :
z=

1 N
z ,
N!
33

N - .
() . ,
() . ,
.

4.4

""

N "", V
T . :
Em1 ,m2 ,m3


h2
2
2
2
=
m
+
m
+
m
,
1
2
3
8m0 L2

mi = 1, 2, 3, ... , gEmi = 1.
, :



h2
2
2
2
z = exp
m1 + m2 + m3
8m0 L2 kT
m1 m2 m3

"

h2
z = exp
m2
2 kT
8m
L
0
m=1


# 3
.

, , .. :
"

#3N

1
h2
z=
.
exp 8m0L2kT m2
N! m=1
Z . , - z
3 .
, . , () :
h2 1
T=
.
8m0 L2 k
L = 1 . m . Tx = 1010 K 2
8mh L2
= 1027
= 1015 . T 0
" " kT (, ). Em . Em kT , , , T
3 , , : .. , .. , -

, , , ., 1977.

34

300 K, Em 0.025 . m
(m1 , m2 , m3 ).
, ,
. (~r,~p) ,
H(~r,~p), 2,
. ,
,
.
, g(E) m
. m1 , m2 , m3 ,
h2
Em =
m2
2
8mL
m.
dW (m, m + dm)
dW =

4m2 dm
,
8

m2

3
4 2m 2 V 1
dW = g(E)dE =
E 2 dE
h3
(. 2).

4.5

, , .
, N , . . , . T .
. ,
1
Em = h(m

+ );
2

gEm = 1,

m = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , gm .

z=

1
2kT
(m
+
exp[
)]
=
e
e kT m

kT
2
m=0
m=0

35

, , z

e 2kT
z=
h
.
1 e kT

1

z=
e

2kT

2kT

= [2sh( )]1
kT


z=

1
[2sh( )]1
N!
kT
h

kT >> h.
e 2kT e kT
.
z=

1 2kT
+...

1 (1 h
kT

+ . . .)

= (1

kT
kT
)

.
2kT h


.
Z+

z=

exp[

1 p2x x2 d px dx
(
+
)]
.
kT 2m
2
h


z=

2kT  m  12
.
h

1
kT
2
1 = 2 m
, , = 2. z = h

, kT >> h.
,
h

T = k , T >> T
.
N ,
.
Em =

h2 m(m + 1)
2J

gEm = 2m + 1,

J , m (m = 0, 1, 2, . . . ).

z=

(2m + 1) exp[

?=0

1 h2 m(m + 1)
(
)].
kT
2J

, z N N! .
36

h
z T >> Tx = 2Jk
.

Z=

TX
m(m + 1)]dm.
T

(2m + 1) exp[
0

m(m + 1) = x,
Z

z=

2JkT
T
= 2 .
Tx
h

Tx

e T x dx =

.
P2

P2 + sin2

H(, , P , P ) =

2J

, P P .

1
z= 2
h

d
0

Z+

Z2

dP

P2

Z+

dP exp[

P2 + sin2

2J

];

, P , P ,
z=

82 JkT
2JkT
= 2 ,
2
h
h

, . ,
, T >> T
.
,
T , kT >> Ei E j , Ei , E j
.
.

4.6
, .
, .
.
1 Em
m = e kT .
z
, m.
Nm =

N Em
e kT ,
z?
37

Nm = N.
m

.
1 H(x)
f (x) = e kT .
z
N(x)
N H(x)
N(x) =
e kT ,
z??

N(x)dx = N.

N(x) N(Px , Py , Pz )
N(x, y, z)
R

N(Px , Py , Pz ) = N(x)dxdydz =
R

N(x, y, z) = N(x)dPx dPy dPz =

H(P ,P ,Pz )

N xkTy
zm e
N H(x,y,z)
kT .
z? e

. . .

 
F
1
zN
=
, F = kT ln z = kT ln .
N T,a
N!
N!

N
,
z?
z () .
Nm , N(x)
= kT ln

Nm = e

Em
kT

, N(x) = e

H(x)
kT

Nm N(x) . N
, ( )
.

4.7
,
N , E1 E2
(E1 < E2 , E1 =0) g1 g2 .

N
N(E1 ) = g1 ,
Z

N E2
N(E2 ) = g2 e KT ,
Z

E2

Z = g1 + g2 e KT .
N(E1 ) + N(E2 ) = N.
E2

g1 e KT + g2 e KT = N.
38


= KT ln

N
E2

g1 + g2 e KT

E = N(E1 ) E1 + N(E2 ) E2

E = N(E2 ) E2 =

NE2 g2

E2

E2

g1 + g2 e RN

e KT .

V
V

=(

E2 2
E2
Ng1 g2 ( KT
)
E
e KT
)V =
E2
T
(g1 + g2 e KT )2

, CV 0 T 0 T ,
.

4.8

, , , .
m =

1 Em
e KT
Z?

m , , .
, ,
.

2
p
r ) + E ,
+ E(
Em =
i
2m

r ,
p ), E i.
(
i
m

2
p

r ,
p ) = 1 exp[ 2m + E( r ) + Ei ],
i (
Z
kT

Z=
.

2
p

r d
p
d
2m + E( r ) + Ei
exp[
]
h3
kT
i

Nm

2
p

p ) E
2m E(
i

Ni ( r , p ) = exp[
],
kT
39

2
p
r ) E

2m E(
drdp
i
exp
=N

3
h
kT
i

,

(- ).
r ,
p ) , i (
, . , , , r ,
p ) - i (

2
p

2m + E ( r )
r ,
p ) = 1 (
r ,
p ) = 1 exp
f (

,
i
h3
Z
kT
i


r ) 
3/ Z
E (
r .
Z = (2mkT ) 2 exp
d
kT

.

Z=

1 N
Z ,
N!

N m V . ,
r ) = 0).
(E (
Z
3
E
(2mkT ) 2
EkTm
kTi
Z = e
=
e
.

h3
m
i
, Ei
.
Ei = Ei1 + Ei2 + Ei3 ,
Ei1 ,Ei2 ,Ei3 , .
Z
3

(2mkT ) 2 V
Z1 Z2 Z3 ,
Z=
h3
Ei1

Ei3

Ei2

Z1 = e kT , Z2 = e kT , Z3 = e kT
i

.
, Z
3N

(2mkT ) 2 V N N N N
Z1 Z2 Z3 .
Z=
N!h3N
40

.
F


V 3N
3
F = kT ln Z = kT N ln +
ln (2mkT ) N ln h + N NkT ln Z1 NkT ln Z2 NkT ln Z3 ,
N
2

(. .4.2). ,

 
F
NkT
P=
=
,
V T,N
V
, F , , .

"". , (, , ).

.
, TX , TX = E
k E -
. TX TX 10K , TX 103 K , TX 105 K.
, .4.4., TX 1010 K .
,
.4.5, , , .
, .



1
Ei = h

i+
, gEi = 1 .
2

h

Z=

e 2kT
h

1 e 2kT


E = kT 2

ln Z =
+ h

T
2
e kT 1

T >> Tx = h
k

E=

+
=
+ kT
h

2
2
1 (1 kT + . . .)

E(T ) = kT .
41

T << Tx
E=


h

h

1 + 2e kT
2


 E = NkT
h

T >> Tx E = N h
1
+
2
exp

T << Tx .
2
kT
CV = Nk,
N = NA CV = R ( ),
 2
h

e kT
CV = Nk
kT

,
. , (. )
 2


h
Z = (2i + 1) exp
i (i + 1)
.
2JkT
i=0
2

h
T >> Tx = 2Jk
Z = TTX .
E(T ) = kT ,
E = NkT CV = Nk R ( ).
T << Tx TX
i. ,
i = 0, 1 Z = 1 + 32 T .

TX
TX
ln Z ln 1 + 32 T
= 32 T .
TX
E = 6kTX e2 T .

E = N E
h2
CV = 12Nk
2JkT


2

h2

e JkT .

, ,
,

CV = Cv +Cv +Cv .
, TX + TX + TX , T > TX
3
7
CV = R + R + R = R.
2
2
. , ,
(T < TX ), .

42

, . , , Tx 104 105 K ( ),
. ,

E0

E0

E1

Z = g0 e kT + g1 e kT + ... = g0 e kT [1 +

E1 E0
E0
g1
g0 e kT + ...] g0 e kT ,
g0

0
>> T .
, Tx = E1 E
k
E = NE0 , E0
, .

4.9

T
.
, . , .. T = E
S . , ,
.
, .
,
, .
.
,
E = E(a, T ) .

, ,
0 , , ..
0 n < . () Z .
, -
, .. 0 n < max . Z
Z , .
, , .
.
, ,
. , , . 1 2 (2 > 1 0).
(. .4.7.)
T=

E2 E1
,
1
k ln N
N2

N1 N2 1 2 , g1 = g2 , N1 + N2 = N = Const.
N1 > N2 , , T > 0. ,
43

, N2 > N1 , , < 0.
N ~
(S = 1/2) H.
( = 0),
~ H +H.
.
Z = ZN ,
Ei

Z = gi e kT = e kT + e kT = 2ch x, x =
i

H
kT .


F = NkT ln(2ch x),
S = N[ln(2ch x) x],
E = NH th x.

T +, E 0, S Nln2,
T , E +0, S Nln2,
T +0, E NH, S 0,
T 0, E +NH, S 0.
,
. T > 0 T < 0 T , ..
.

4.10
1. . 4.2.
"".
2. i-

p2i
1 H
= pi
,
2m 2 pi
H .
H
, 12 pi p
= 12 kT,
i
.
H
. 12 pi p

i
.

3. . N ,
~p. ~E. ,
~P


pE kT
P = N p cth

.
kT
pE
. , ,
E = ~p ~E.

44

4. . , (A0 = A+ + e ). V T . ,
I.
a) T 300 K .
b) , T
NA + Ne
= V K(T ),
NA 0

mA + me kT
K(T ) = 2
2
mA 0
h

3
2

e kT

.
c) Cv (T ).
Cv ( ) ( ).
n
d) (T ) = nA+0 + nA+ , nA0 =
NA0
N , nA+

= NA+ , N = NA0 + NA+ + Ne .


(T ) (T ) =

1
1+K(T )

. .2 A 0 = A + + e .

. (
N2 ) T . ,
,
.
.
Cv . Cv (T )
(0 < T < +).

. .

5.1 ()
(. .2.4 .3.3)


+ N En,N
n,N = exp
, n,N = 1,
kT
n,N
N , n En,N .
, . , n ni

n = (n1 , n2 , . . . ni . . . nN ) ,
45

En,N = En1 ,n2 ,...ni ...nN ,N = Eni .


i=1

, En,N Eni , ni . ni
mi

ni = mi1 , mi2 , . . . mij . . . mis ,
s .

n,N = m1 ,...m1 ,...m1 ,...mN .
1

s1

sN

, . ni
m j , 1 j s. . ,
n,N N s- . , ,
s- . ,
"", , m j
Nm j , n1 , n2 , . . . ni . . . nN .


+ sj=1 Nm j sj=1 Em j Nm j
,
m1 ,...,ms ,N = exp
kT
, m j ,
s

j=1

j=1

Nm j = 1, Em j Nm j ,

Nm j s.
n,N
!

+ sj=1 Em j Nm j
m1 ,...,ms ,N = exp
.
kT
- , (a, T, ).
!

s
Em j Nm j
m1 ,...,ms ,N = exp
,
kT
j=1
C . , m j
Nm j


( Em ) Nm
m,Nm = onst exp
,
kT
" j", .. .



( Em ) Nm
,
m,Nm = Const exp
kT
Nm
Nm
46

"

( Em ) Nm
Const = exp
kT
Nm

#1
;

Z=

1
.
Const

m , .. m.
m1 ,...,ms ,N

m j ,Nm j = m j ,Nm j = 1.
Nm j

5.2

j=1 Nm

m


(Em )Nm


Nm Nm exp
kT

( Em ) Nm
Nm = Nm m,Nm =
= kT ln exp
.
Em
Nm
kT
Nm exp
m
kT

Nm = 0, 1.




( Em )
Nm = kT ln 1 + exp

kT

1


; Nm = N
Nm =
(Em )
m
exp
+1
kT
.
Nm = 0, 1, . . . N.







( Em )
( Em )
Nm = kT ln 1 + exp
+ exp 2
+... .

kT
kT
( 0),
1

Nm =
exp

(Em )
kT

Nm = N

;
1

5.3

,
1

Nm =
exp
exp

(Em )
kT

(Em )
kT

.
1

>> 1


( Em )
Nm = exp
kT

( 4). : 1. Nm << 1, 2. < 0 >> kT .


47

5.4 -
N ""- V
T . T 0 K ( ).

Nm = N, EmNm = E,
m

m (nx , ny , nz ) s. V ,
gs = (2s+1).
. , , (. . 4.5),
(~r,~p) N E .

"
N~p = gs

~p2
2m

exp
kT

#1
,

N
2
R V d~p
g [exp ~p /2m
+ 1]1 = N
kT
h3 s
R
~p2 /2m
V d~p
11

E(~p)

h3

gs [exp

kT

+ 1]

= E.

f (E) 0

E
1, E 0
1
f (E) = [exp
+ 1] =
kT
0, E  0
N E
ZPF

ZPF

V d~p
gS = N,
h3

E(~p)

V d~p
gS = E,
h3

PF ( ). p2
E(~p) = 2m
, d~p = 4p2 d p.
4V gS
N=
h3

ZPF

p2 d p, =

4V gS 3
p
3h3 F

(PF )
pF = (

3N 1/3
) h,
4V gS

(EF = 0 )
0 = EF =

p2F
3N 2/3 h2
=(
)
2m
4V gS
2m
48


V gS
E=
mh3

ZpF

p4 d p =

2V gs 5
p
5mh3 F

, ( 0)

0 , , >> k.
> 0 ( ).
Z
E n dE
In =
E
e kT + 1
0

kT

<< 1 I 4
In =

n+1
2 n(n + 1) kT 2
[1 +
( ) ]
n+1
6

N
2(2m)3/2 gSV
N=
h3

E 1/2 dE

E
kT

+1

2
2 kT
I1/2 = 3/2 [1 + ( )2
3
8

N=

2(2m)3/2 gSV 2 3/2


2 kT 2

[1
+
( ) ]
h3
3
8

0 0
0 = (

3N 2/3 h2
)
,
4V gS
2m

. NT >0 NT 0


2 kT
3/2
0 =
1+ ( ) .
8
,


2 kT 2
(T ) = 0 1 ( ) ,
12 0
(1 x)M = 1 mx + ..., 0 .
4

.. , .. , , , .,
.,1977.

49

.
52 kT 2
3
E(T ) = N0 [1 +
( ) ].
5
12 0

2
kT
cV = Nk( ).
2
0


. .
.5.2.
Em
= kT ln(1 + exp
)
kT
m
(~r,~p),

Z
4 2(m)2/3 gSV
E 1/2
= kT
ln(1 + exp
)E dE
3
h
kT
0

E 1/2
2
E 3/2
2
ln(1 + exp
)E dE = ln(1 + exp
)E |0 +
kT
3
kT
3kT

E 3/2 dE
e E
kT + 1

,
E.
2
= E,
3

Z
3/2
4 2m3/2 gSV EP dE p
E=
E p
h3
e kT + 1

. pV = 23 E, = pV . I3/2 .
.


2N
52 kT 2
p=
0 1 +
( ) ,
5V
12 0
= 0
1
p0 =
5

3
8

2  5
3
N 3
V

, (.3.3),
. < 0 || >> ( .5.3).
50

EF = 0 0 = .
, 0
TB =

3N 2/3
h2
(
)
2mk 4V gS

. <
. >> , . ,
, . ,
(. .4.2)
= kT ln

Nh3
(2mkT )3/2V

< 0 || >> kT
Nh3 = (2mkT )3/2V

  f rac32
h2
N
TB =
2mk V
, , , .

. , D = hp ,
. r0 .
r0 >> D . rD0  1.
1

p = (2mkT ) 2
1
1
, r0 = VN 3 = n 3 , n . , ,
1

h n 3 << 1.
2mkT
, .

5.5 -
N - V
T . (. . 5.2)
1

N=
e

Em
kT

, Nm = N,
m

m (n1 ,n2 ,n3 ) s.


-
( ). T
51

Em (0 Em < ). T 0 K N Em (Em = 0). ,


0 < T < TB , 0 ( = 0). , Nm
(Em = 0) , kT
N T 0 0. ,
(. . 4.2) (T ). Nm


1

T < TB
Nm = exp EkTm 1
h
i1
Nm = exp EmkT
T > TB ,
TB ,
(. . 5.4).
TB . Nm
(~r,~p), , (Tx ) .
1
3
Z
E p2 dE
4 2m 2 gsV
N(T ) =
,
E p
h3
e kT 1

gs , E p .
T = TB = 0 TB , NT
=N
1
3
Z
E p2 dx
4 2m 2 gsV
N(T ) =
.
Ep
h3
kT
0 e B 1

,
Z

xn dx
,
ex 1

TB

x 2 dx
= 2, 33;
ex 1

x 2 dx
= 1.78.
ex 1

2 2
3
N
h

TB =

,
mk
4 2gsV 2, 33
(. . 5.4).
N(T ) E(T ), T , T < TB .


N(T ) =
E(T ) =

3
1
4 2m 2 gsV R E p2 dE
Ep
h3
0 e kT 1
3
3
4 2m 2 gsV R E p2 dE
Ep
h3
0 e kT 1

52

3
3
4 2m 2 gsV
= 2, 33
(kT ) 2 ,
h3
3
5
4 2m 2 gsV
= 1, 78
(kT ) 2 ,
h3

E(T ) ( T < TB ).
(. . 5.2.), - = 32 E, E . = V , pV = 23 E.
- T < TB
3
5
2 4 2m 2 gs
p = 1.78
(kT ) 2 .
3
3
h
p V 0 . ,
E0 = 0 , .

5.6

. ( ). , . - (. . 5.4) s = 1/2 gs = 2.
TB
h2
TB =
2m k

3N
8V

2
3

m . m n = VN ,
TB = 104 K.
.
EF = 0 . 0 (. . 5.4),
0 = 5 . , (T )
 
kT
T = 300 K , .. 0 =
102 kT = 0.025 .
 
2
, kT
0 = 10
T = 0
K.

- (T = 0 K) p 104 105 .,
- v 108 c/c.
(T > 0) . (
).
3 Z
1
8 2m 2 V
E 2 dE
,
NT =
E+E0
h3
e kT + 1
0

53

, gs = 2, E0
, .. E = E0 0
. EkT
>> 1,
3
3 3
Z
3 (E0 )
E
1
8 2m 2 V E0
4 2 2 m 2

2 e kT
kT
kT E 2 dE =
NT =
e
e
(kT
)
h3
h3
0

, ex x 2 dx =
0

(. .4.2).

(E0 ) = AB
.
-.
,
, .
. , (V-) (C-) .
N=
i

gi
e

Ei
kT

+1

+
j

gj
e

E j
kT

+1

= gi ,
i

i V-, j C, gi g j .
, , T 300 K C (Ge, Si, GaAs)
(Nec << N) . , Nev V-
.
N=
i

gi
e

Ei
kT

+1

+ g je

E j
kT

,
.

, V-.
V- , C-
.
, .

!
gj
gi
1
.
= Ei
E j = gi 1 Ei
i e kT + 1
j e kT + 1
i
e kT + 1

1

Ni =
e

Ei
kT

,
+1
54


0 Ni 1 ,

exp

Ei
kT

>> 1
Ni = e

Ei
kT

Nec C- Nhv V-
. .
ZEC

2V
NeC = 3
h

2V
NhV = 3
h

1
e

E
kT

E
Z
EV

p ,
d
+1

1
e

E
kT

p ,
d
+1

. g(E) . ,
p2
E = 2m
.

3
1
Z
E 2 dE
8 2 (me ) 2 V
C
,
Ne =
E
h3
e kT + 1
0

3 Z
1
2 V E
8
2
m
(E E) 2 dE
h
V
Nh =
,
E
h3
kT + 1
e

Ec Ev + , me mh
.
E
v
, Nec E
kT >> 1, Nh kT >> 1.
.
E
x = kT
x = EE
kT .
3

Z 1
2
3

8 2 (me ) V
2
C
(kT ) e kT x 2 ex dx,
Ne =
3
h

 32
Z

3
1
8 2 mh V
2 +E
V
x 2
kT
Nh =
(kT
)
e
e
x
dx,
h3
0

ex x f rac12 dx =
0

(. .4.1).

Nce Nvh
NeC
NhV

2me kT
=2
h2


2mh kT
=2
h2


55

3
2

e kT ,

3
2

+E
kT

Nec Nhv
 
mh
E 3kT
.
=
+
ln
2
4
me

. (. . .7.).

5.7
. "", .
, , ,
, . , , . , , , .
. ,
(m0 = 0). E = pc, . , . -.
, , . . ().
, -(. . 5.5.). (TB ) m0 . m0 = 0
TB . , ,
= 0.
1

N~k =
e

E~
k
kT 1

~k = 2
~n0 , ~n0 . ~p ~p = h~k. V ~k .
, E = h

2
,
N () = h

e kT 1
"2" (g = 2).
+ d , (. . 5.5.)
d~r d~p
.
3
1 h

gs

dN (~r,~p) =
e

E
kT

56


dN (~p) =

V gs d~p
,
h3 e kTE 1

d~p = 4p2 d p. ~p
dN () =

V 2 d
.

2 c3 e h
kT 1

N V T
 3
Z 2
V
d
V
kT
N= 2 3
= 2, 40 2 3
,
h

c
c
h
e kT 1
0

x2 dx
= 2, 40.
ex 1


dE () = h
dN () =

Vh 3 d
.

2 c3 e h
kT 1

max = Const T ,
Const
= 2, 82.
() () .
h
<< kT . , eX = 1 + X + ...,
dE () = kT

V 2
d
2 c3

-.
h
>> kT . , ,
dE () =

Vh 3 h
e kT d
2
3
c

.

Vh
E= 2 3
c

2V k4 4
=
T
3
1 15c3h

3 d
e kT

-,
Z

x3 dx
4
=
.
ex 1 15

.
57

, -
1
= E
3
(. . . 3).
1
pV = E
3
.
1 2 k 4 4

T .
3 15c3h3

p=

5.8
.
S = k lnW , S , W
( ). (. . 2.1.). S
(. . 1.). S
, .
, , , . W .
. Ei "
", gi .
"". N
, , "" "", "W".
(, ,
). . (Ni = 2,
gi = 3). a b .
- .
- .
, W , N
""i ""gi . :

i
gN
W = N! i ,
i Ni !

W =

(Ni + gi 1)!
,
Ni !(gi 1)!

W =

gi !
,
Ni !(gi Ni )!

58

Ni - Ei .
. S . . , , .. Ni = N, Ni Ei = E.
i

, ( ).
, .
( )
i
gN
S = lnW = ln N! + ln i = ln N! + (Ni ln gi ln Ni !) =N ln N + (Ni ln gi Ni ln Ni ),
Ni !
i
i
i

( )
ln N! = N ln N N
= N ln N.
, (N, E )
= SNE,
.

= N ln N + (Ni ln gi Ni Ni Ei ).

d
= [ln gi ln Ni + (1 ) Ei ] = 0.
dNi

ln Ni ln gi = (1 ) Ei
59

Ni
= CeEi ,
gi

C = exp(1 ). C , ( N E).
,

Z
N = N(~r,~p)dxdydz4p2 d p,
Z

E=

p2
N(~r,~p)dxdydz4p2 d p,
2m

p2

N(~r,~p) = Ce 2m .
, E = 23 NkT .
1
= kT

N
C=
.
(2mkT )3/2V

5.9
1. , -
d =

h
,
2mkT

m , T , r0
1
n 3 , n . d r0 .
) (T = 300 K) = 760 . . .
) , .
, . 1.1.
()
r0 >> d , .
2. -. -
= m , m N. (. . 5.2.), m =
m

m
kT ln(1 exp E
kT ). . 5.4., ,
= (2/3), . ,
= 0.
3. . ,
- ,
= (1/3)E. . . 2.
4. , . () , , ,
1 E2 , E2 > E1 , g1 = g2
- -.

60

5. (T ) E(T ) - -
(T) .
6. (T) (n
19
10 3 ) n 1022 3 () n 1010 3 (, Si 300 ).
7. . 5.6., V .
8. Nd = 1010 3 ; 1020 3
g >> Ed , Eg >> , >> d , g , d
.
9. V , . ,

. , n 1019 c3 .
10. ( . 5.8.). N . , i- i
(i = 1, 2, . . . , N), i = 1. (i

) , , ,

S = k ln i i ,
i

1 = 2 = . . . = N = 1/N


S = Smax = k ln N.

,
N ,

N

H (X) =

i=1


~p2i
+ E0 (~ri ) + E (~r1 ,~r2 , ...~rN ) ,
2m

(87)


, .

(), ,
(. . 2)
61

1 H(X)
1 En
f (X) = e kT
n = e kT .
(88)
z
z
, H (X)
En .

6.1 .
, N ""
V , E0 (~r) = 0. Z
.
Z

Z=

H(X)
kT

dX
.
N!h3N

(89)

H(X),
1
z = z N QN ,
V

QN =

E (~r1 ,~r2 ,...~rN )


kT

d~r1 ...d~rN ,

(90)

3N

(2mkT ) 2 V N
z=
.
(91)
N!h3N
QN .
Z QN . ,
F F = kT ln z.
(92)

F = F+ F,

F 
, , F =

QN
kT ln V N , .
s-, E (~r1 , ...~rs ).

N

N

~p2i
+ Ei j ~ri ,~r j ,
H (X) =
i, j=1
i=1 2m

(i 6= j) ,

(93)


Ei j ~ri ,~r j - i- j- .
fs (x1 , x2 , ...xs ), xi =
(~ri ,~pi ).
s . , . .
62

, .
, . ().
fs (x1 , ...xs ) = V s

f (X) dxs+1 ...dxN ,

1
fs dx1 ...dxs = 1.
Vs

Z
1
fs+1 dxs+1 .
fs =
V

Z

(94)
(95)

(96)

f (X) = f (~r1 ,~r2 ...~rN ) f (~pi ),

(97)

i=1

f (~pi ) ,
1 E (~r1 ,~r2 ...~rN )
kT
e
QN
.
f (~r1 ,~r2 , ...~rN ) =

f (~r1 ,~r2 , ...~rs ) = V

f (~r1 ,~r2 , ...~rN ) d~rs+1 ...d~rN

(98)

(99)

1
fs (~r1 ,~r2 , ...~rs ) d~r1 ...d~rs = 1.
(100)
Vs
, , f2 (x1 , x2 ) .
Z

E12

f2 (x1 , x2 ) = Ce kT f1 (~p1 ) f2 (~p2 ) ,

(101)

E12 (~r1 ,~r2 ) , f1 (~p1 ) f2 (~p2 ) .


Z
1
f2 (x1 , x2 ) dx1 dx2 = 1.
(102)
V2

 Z
1
E12
1
kT
C=
e
d~r1 d~r2
.
(103)
V2
f1 (x1 ) f2 (x1 , x2 ) . ,

N
Ek = H X~p f (X) dX =
V

Z

E=

H (X~r ) f (X) dX =

Ei j f (X) dX =

i, j=1

63

~p2
f1 (x) dx.
2m

N (N 1)
2V 2

(104)

E12 f2 (x1 , x2 ) dx1 dx2 . (105)

6.2

N  V , . E ~ri ,~r j -
.

E = E ~ri ,~r j .
i< j

,
(. . 6.1)
Z
E
1
F = kT ln N e kT d~r1 ...d~rN .
(106)
V

h E
i
E
(107)
e kT = 1 + e kT 1 .



Z 

E
1
kT
F = kT ln 1 + N
e
1 d~r1 ...d~rN .
(108)
V
,
( .. ., . ,
.,, 1973. .. , .. , , . ,
.,,1977.).
"
#
E (~ri ,~r j )
E
e kT 1 = e kT 1 .
(109)
i< j



Z  E (~r ,~r )
1 2
N (N 1)
kT
F = kT ln 1 +
e
1 d~r1 d~r2 .
(110)
2V 2
, r- (r = |~r1 ~r2 |). F

Z
 
N 2  E(~r)
F = kT ln 1 +
e kT 1 d~r .
(111)
2V

A (T ) =

1
2

Z 

1 e

E(~r)
kT

d~r.

(112)




N2
F = kT ln 1 A (T ) .
(113)
V
, (|E (r)| << kT ) .
,
N2
A (T ) .
V

 


F
N2
N
N
p=
= kT + kT 2 A (T ) = kT
1 + A (T ) .
V T
V
V
V
F = kT

(114)

(115)

.
p(T,V )
A(T ), (. 6).
64

6.3
, , (, , ).
, - .
(. . 5.6).
. . ( ), ( )
( ).
(.6).
.
, (, , ),
, .
, . () . N- 3N. , N
= 1022 cm3 , .
, . .
, , ..
Z

E=

E () g () d,

(116)

(117)
E () =
+ h

2
e kT 1
(. . 4.). g ()
.
( ) g ()
g () =

3V 2
,
22 v30

(118)

V , v0 () .
, ( ),
vd0 , d .

Zmax

g () d = 3N.
0

65

(119)


3Vh
E = E0 + 2 3
2 v0

Zmax

3 d
h

e kT 1

(120)

E0 ().
( )
h
max
TD =
.
(121)
k
E. kT >> h
max . , h

e kT = 1 + kT + ...,
3Vh kT
E(T ) = 2 3
2 v0 h

Zmax

2 d

(122)

E (T ) = 3NkT.

(123)

, kT >> h
max .
E (T ) =

34 NkT 4
,
5TD

(124)

x3 dx
h4
= .
ex 1 15

(125)

 3
4
CV = 3R (T > TD ) CV = 125 R TTD (T < TD ), R .
TD ( )
200 400 .
. , .. kT
0 << 1 (.. 5.5).
:
- . , , .,1966.,
- . , , .,1978,
- . , , .,1962.
, - , . , - , (m0 ) "", (v0 ). ,
66


/kT 1 1 N () = eh
, - (.. 5.7).

. N 3N max . , , ..
Z = Z i ,

(126)

Zi =

2kTi

1e

h
kT

- i (.4). -

F
F = kT lnz = kT lnzi = Fi ,
i

(127)



h

kT

+ kT ln 1 e
.

Fi = kT lnzi = h
2

Zmax

Zmax

F g () d = F0 + kT

F=



h

ln 1 e kT g () d

p
 
F
p=
.
V T

(128)

(129)

6.4

E , .
ET Eq
E = ET + Eq ,

(130)

,
(, ) 32 kT .
Eq ,
Eq =

1
Niqii.
2 i=1

(131)

,
|+q| = |q| = q N0+ = N0 . . ,
Eq , . .
67

, ,
, ( ). i .
,
2 = 4, (r) - , (r) - . , .
2 = 4 qi ni ,

(132)

i=1

ni (r) i- .
, .. ,
qi

ni = n0i e kT ,

(133)

n0i .
ni (r)
h
i
h
i
(+q)
(q)
q
q
kT

2
+ kT
+ kT
kT
= 4 (+q) n0 e
+ (q) n0 e
= 4 qn0 e
qn0 e , (134)
q q.
, q << kT , .. q
q
. , e kT = 1 kT
+ ...,
 + 2
2
n0 q
n
2
0q
= 4
+
= 2 .
(135)
kT
kT
2

2 =

4 n0i q2i
i=1

kT

.
(r) =

qi r
e .
r

(136)


h
qi i
i = lim (r)
.
r0
r

(137)

r 0 er = 1 r + .... i i = qi .

 1/2
1
1
Eq = Ni qi i = Ni q2i =

2 i
2 i
kTV

Niq2i

!3/2
(138)

(. .. , , . ,
1983). Fq
!3/2
r
2

Fq =
Ni q2i
.
(139)
3 V kT
i
68

, ,
Fq
pq =
V



T

1
= 32
3V /

kT

Niq2i

!3/2
.

(140)


. , , (, ). , , ., ., , ., ,1979.

6.5
1. , N
d~r1 ~r1 ,
d~r2 ~r2


Z
Z
N (N 1)
EN
f2 (~r1 ,~r2 ) d~r1 d~r2 =
d~r1 d~r2 ... d~r3 ... d~rN exp
,
(141)
QN
kT
EN N , QN .
. , .

2. A (. .6.2.)


Z 
E (r)
1
A (T ) =
1 exp
d~r,
(142)
2
kT
E(r) , E(r)

, r d
E (r) =
(143)
c
rn , r > d,
d , , d = 2R, R
- , c - , n > 0. . E(r) << kT . n > 3 n = 1.

3. N , . . ,
Cv = 3R, R .
4. .3. , ,
.

. T < T = h
k T > T,
T ( ).
5. , .4. , i , 1 i N. ,
, (. .
6.3.).
6. , ,
T 105 K.
69

7. (. .1.),
, , .
8. .6.4.
) ,
q ()
n (r) = n0 +

q2
(r) .
4qe

(144)

)
.
) q .
) .

7.1
,
(.2.3.).
() .
E 2 = E 2 E 2 .

(145)






1
E
E
n
n
E = En n = En exp
,
Z = exp
Z n
kT
kT
n
n

1 Z
E =
,
Z

1
;
kT


1
En
2
2
2
E = En n = En exp
Z n
kT
n

E2 =

1 2 Z
.
Z 2

(146)

(147)
(148)

(149)


E 2

1 2 Z
1
=
2
2
Z
Z

2
.

(150)




 
E

1 Z
1 2 Z
1 Z 2
=

=
+
.

Z
Z 2 Z 2

E 2 =

E
T

E 2 = kT 2

= CV .
70

E
,
T

(151)

(152)

7.2
,
(.2.4.).
() .
N 2 = N 2 N 2 .

(153)




N

E
1
n
n,N
N = Nn n,N =
,
Nnexp
Z0
kT
N n
N n


Nn En,N
Z0 = Nn exp
.
kT

(154)

N n

kT Z0
N =

.
Z0

(155)

N 2
N2



Nn En,N
1
2
=
Nn exp
Z0
kT
N n

Nn2 n,N

N n

N2

(156)

(kT )2 2 Z0
=
2 .
Z0

(157)


"
N 2 = (kT )

1 2 Z0
1
2
2
Z0
Z0

Z0

2 #
(158)

kT Z0

Z0

"

1 2 Z0
1
= kT
2 2
Z0
Z0


N 2 = kT

Z0

2 #
.

N
.

(159)

(160)

E 2 N 2 .

7.3
(N , V )
. .
E = N 32 kT . E 2 = 32 N (kT )2 ,
p
E 2
1
E =

(161)

E
N
71


(2mkT )3/2 V

N=
exp .
3
h
kT

(162)


N 2 N 2 = N,
p
N 2
1

E =

N
N

(163)

,
, (. . 1.1.) . .
(.2.) . .

7.4
, f (A) A,
, ..
. f (A)
Z

(164)

f (A) dA = 1.
f (A) 5
f (A) = C eS(A) ,

C= R

1
eS(A) dA

(165)

S(A) A.
, S(A) A
,
.
 


dS
1 d2S
S (A) = S0 +
A+
+ ... ,
(166)
dA 0
2 dA2 0
"" . (. . 1..)
 
 2 
dS
d S
=0
< 0.
(167)
dA 0
dA2 0
f (A)
A2

f (A) = C e

1
=
2

d2S
dA2


> 0.

(168)

5 : .. " -

", ., , 1983.; .. " ", ., , 1983.

72

C
Z+

Z+

f (A) dA = C

A2

r
dA = C

= 1.

(169)

A2
A2 =

Z+

A f (A) dA =

, =

Z+

2 A2

A e

r
dA =

1
.
2A2

1
1
=
.
2 3/2 2

(170)

f (A) = p

A2
2A2

(171)

2A2

(A = 0).

7.5
, S E V , .. S = S(E,V ). S E V . S
S (E,V
) = S (E0 ,V0 ) + [SE0 (E0 ,V0 ) E + SV0 (E0 ,V0 ) V ] + 

00 (E ,V ) EV + S00 (E ,V ) V 2 + ...
+ 12 SE00 (E0 ,V0 ) E 2 + 2SEV
0 0
0 0
V

(172)

SE0
SV0 .


1 2 S 2
2 S
2 S 2
pV T S
E + 2
EV + 2 V =
,
(173)
2
2 E
EV
V
2T

dE = T dS pdV .
(..7.4.) 6
pV T S
f (p,V, T, S) = C exp
.
(174)
2kT
.
V T .
 
 
p
p
p =
V +
T ,
(175)
V T
T V
S =
6

S
V

S
V +
T
T


T =

p
T


V

V +

CV
T.
T

k .

73

(176)

f (V, T )


1
f (V, T ) = Cexp
2kT

p
V


CV
2
V
T .
2kT 2
T
2

(177)


p
1
V 2
h 2kT V Ti
CV
2 .
(T ) = C2 exp 2kT
2 T

f (V ) = C1 exp
f

,
(178)



 
V
kT 2
V 2 = kT
, T 2 =
(179)
p T
CV
V T = 0.

. , P S

 

1
V
1
2
2
f (P, S) = Cexp
p
S .
(180)
2kT p S
2kC p

p2 =

kT
  ,
V p S

S2 = kC p ,

p S = 0.

(181)

7.6
1. :
) n-
2
Vn =

2kT
m

n/2 

n+3

,
2

n - , n>-1, - -.
)


kT
8
V2 =
3
.
m

(182)

(183)

)


1
m
2

2 

v2 v2

2

3
(kT )2 .
2

(184)

) . ) ) .
2. , , , N,
EN2 = NE 2 , E 2 .
3. .7.1. ) (
74

), ) N 2
0
. ) ) kT >> h0 . : ) E
= exph
kT ; kT >> h0
E 2
E 2 = (kT )2 , E
= 1.
E 2 

2
E
h

1
N
) EN2 = NE12 ;
= N 1 + E 0 .
2
2

E = kT,

EN

4. (.5.3.), (V = Const) .
:

E 2
E 2

= kTE 2CV =

NA - ).

16

12 4
5 N


T 3
T , CV

4
= 12
5 R

 3
T
T

4 T4
, E = 12
5 R 4T 3 , R - (R = NA k,

5. ,
n,N =

Nn En,N
1
exp
.
Z0
kT

(185)

,
 
EN = kT E
,
  T
 
E
E 2 = kT 2 E
+
kT

.
T

(186)

. E ??? T = Const.
E T ? = Const ).

6. .7.2. , - . : N 2 = N N 2 ; N 2 = N + N 2 .

75