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Sedra/Smith Microelectronic Circuits 5/e

2004 Oxford University Press.

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ISBN 0195172671

Printing number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States of America

Introduction to Electronics

Figure 1.1 Two alternative representations of a signal source: (a) the Thvenin form, and (b) the Norton form.

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Figure 1.2 An arbitrary voltage signal vs(t).

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Figure 1.3 Sine-wave voltage signal of amplitude Va and frequency f = 1/T Hz. The angular frequency v = 2pf rad/s.

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Figure 1.4 A symmetrical square-wave signal of amplitude V.

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Figure 1.5 The frequency spectrum (also known as the line spectrum) of the periodic square wave of Fig. 1.4.

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Figure 1.6 The frequency spectrum of an arbitrary waveform such as that in Fig. 1.2.

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Figure 1.7 Sampling the continuous-time analog signal in (a) results in the discrete-time signal in (b).

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Figure 1.8 Variation of a particular binary digital signal with time.

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Figure 1.9 Block-diagram representation of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

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Figure 1.10 (a) Circuit symbol for amplifier. (b) An amplifier with a common terminal (ground) between the input and output ports.

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Figure 1.11 (a) A voltage amplifier fed with a signal vI(t) and connected to a load resistance RL. (b) Transfer characteristic of a linear voltage amplifier with voltage gain Av.
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Figure 1.12 An amplifier that requires two dc supplies (shown as batteries) for operation.

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Figure 1.13 An amplifier transfer characteristic that is linear except for output saturation.

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Figure 1.14 (a) An amplifier transfer characteristic that shows considerable nonlinearity. (b) To obtain linear operation the amplifier is biased as shown, and the signal amplitude is kept small. Observe that this amplifier is operated from a single power supply, VDD.
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Figure 1.15 A sketch of the transfer characteristic of the amplifier of Example 1.2. Note that this amplifier is inverting (i.e., with a gain that is negative).

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Figure 1.16 Symbol convention employed throughout the book.

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Figure 1.17 (a) Circuit model for the voltage amplifier. (b) The voltage amplifier with input signal source and load.

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Figure 1.18 Three-stage amplifier for Example 1.3.

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Figure 1.19 (a) Small-signal circuit model for a bipolar junction transistor (BJT). (b) The BJT connected as an amplifier with the emitter as a common terminal between input and output (called a common-emitter amplifier). (c) An alternative small-signal circuit model for the BJT.
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Figure E1.20

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Figure 1.20 Measuring the frequency response of a linear amplifier. At the test frequency v, the amplifier gain is characterized by its magnitude (Vo/Vi) and phase f.

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Figure 1.21 Typical magnitude response of an amplifier. |T(v)| is the magnitude of the amplifier transfer functionthat is, the ratio of the output Vo(v) to the input Vi(v).
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Figure 1.22 Two examples of STC networks: (a) a low-pass network and (b) a high-pass network.

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Figure 1.23 (a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the low-pass type.

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Figure 1.24 (a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the high-pass type.

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Figure 1.25 Circuit for Example 1.5.

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Figure 1.26 Frequency response for (a) a capacitively coupled amplifier, (b) a direct-coupled amplifier, and (c) a tuned or bandpass amplifier.

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Figure 1.27 Use of a capacitor to couple amplifier stages.

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Figure E1.23

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Figure 1.28 A logic inverter operating from a dc supply VDD.

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Figure 1.29 Voltage transfer characteristic of an inverter. The VTC is approximated by three straightline segments. Note the four parameters of the VTC (VOH, VOL, VIL, and VIH) and their use in determining the noise margins (NMH and NML).
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Figure 1.30 The VTC of an ideal inverter.

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Figure 1.31 (a) The simplest implementation of a logic inverter using a voltage-controlled switch; (b) equivalent circuit when vI is low; and (c) equivalent circuit when vI is high. Note that the switch is assumed to close when vI is high.
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Figure 1.32 A more elaborate implementation of the logic inverter utilizing two complementary switches. This is the basis of the CMOS inverter studied in Section 4.10.
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Figure 1.33 Another inverter implementation utilizing a double-throw switch to steer the constant current IEE to RC1 (when vI is high) or RC2 (when vI is low). This is the basis of the emitter-coupled logic (ECL) studied in Chapters 7 and 11.
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Figure 1.34 Example 1.6: (a) The inverter circuit after the switch opens (i.e., for t 0). (b) Waveforms of vI and vO. Observe that the switch is assumed to operate instantaneously. vO rises exponentially, starting at VOL and heading toward VOH .
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Figure 1.35 Definitions of propagation delays and transition times of the logic inverter.

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Figure P1.6

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Figure P1.10

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Figure P1.14

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Figure P1.15

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Figure P1.16

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Figure P1.17

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Figure P1.18

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Figure P1.37

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Figure P1.58

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Figure P1.63

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Figure P1.65

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Figure P1.67

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Figure P1.68

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Figure P1.72

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Figure P1.77

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Figure P1.79

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Table 1.1 The Four Amplifier Types

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