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Alcatel-Lucent 7302 Alcatel-Lucent 7330 Alcatel-Lucent 7356

INTELLIGENT SERVICES ACCESS MANAGER | RELEASE 4.2 INTELLIGENT SERVICES ACCESS MANAGER FIBER TO THE NODE | RELEASE 4.2 INTELLIGENT SERVICES ACCESS MANAGER FIBER TO THE BUILDING | RELEASE 4.2
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION FOR FD 24GBPS NT

3 HH - 0 8871- AAAA-T QZZA E d itio n 0 1 Re le ase d


Alcatel-Lucent Proprietary This document contains proprietary information of Alcatel-Lucent and is not to be disclosed or used except in accordance with applicable agreements. Copyright 2010 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.

Alcatel-Lucent assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the information presented, which is subject to change without notice. Alcatel, Lucent and the Alcatel-Lucent logo are registered trademarks of Alcatel-Lucent. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Copyright 2010 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
Disclaimers

Alcatel-Lucent products are intended for commercial uses. Without the appropriate network design engineering, they must not be sold, licensed or otherwise distributed for use in any hazardous environments requiring fail-safe performance, such as in the operation of nuclear facilities, aircraft navigation or communication systems, air traffic control, direct life-support machines, or weapons systems, in which the failure of products could lead directly to death, personal injury, or severe physical or environmental damage. The customer hereby agrees that the use, sale, license or other distribution of the products for any such application without the prior written consent of Alcatel-Lucent, shall be at the customer's sole risk. The customer hereby agrees to defend and hold Alcatel-Lucent harmless from any claims for loss, cost, damage, expense or liability that may arise out of or in connection with the use, sale, license or other distribution of the products in such applications. This document may contain information regarding the use and installation of non-Alcatel-Lucent products. Please note that this information is provided as a courtesy to assist you. While Alcatel-Lucent tries to ensure that this information accurately reflects information provided by the supplier, please refer to the materials provided with any non-Alcatel-Lucent product and contact the supplier for confirmation. Alcatel-Lucent assumes no responsibility or liability for incorrect or incomplete information provided about non-Alcatel-Lucent products. However, this does not constitute a representation or warranty. The warranties provided for Alcatel-Lucent products, if any, are set forth in contractual documentation entered into by Alcatel-Lucent and its customers. This document was originally written in English. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the English version and any other version of a document, the English version shall prevail.

When printed by Alcatel-Lucent, this document is printed on recycled paper.

Preface

This preface provides general information about the documentation set for the 7302 Intelligent Services Access Manager (7302 ISAM), the 7330 Intelligent Services Access Manager Fiber to the Node (7330 ISAM FTTN) and the 7356 Intelligent Services Access Manager Fiber to the Building (7356 ISAM FTTB).

Scope
This documentation set provides information about safety, features and functionality, ordering, hardware installation and maintenance, CLI and TL1 commands, and software upgrade and migration procedures.

Audience
This documentation set is intended for planners, administrators, operators, and maintenance personnel involved in installing, upgrading, or maintaining the 7302 ISAM, the 7330 ISAM FTTN or the 7356 ISAM FTTB. Readers must be familiar with general telecommunications principles.

Acronyms and initialisms


The expansions and optional descriptions of most acronyms and initialisms appear in the glossary.

Assistance and ordering phone numbers


Alcatel-Lucent provides global technical support through regional call centers. Phone numbers for the regional call centers are available at the following URL: http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/myaccess.
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Preface

For ordering information, contact your Alcatel-Lucent sales representative.

Safety information
For safety information, see the Safety Manual for your product.

Documents
Refer to the Product Information document for your product to see a list of all the relevant customer documents and their part numbers for the current release. Customer documentation is available for download from the Alcatel-Lucent Support Service website at http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/myaccess.

Product Naming
When the term ISAM is used alone, then the 7302 ISAM, the 7330 ISAM FTTN and the 7356 ISAM FTTB are meant. If a feature is valid for only one of the products, the applicability will be explicitly stated.

Special information
The following are examples of how special information is presented in this document.
Danger Danger indicates that the described activity or situation

may result in serious personal injury or death; for example, high voltage or electric shock hazards.
Warning Warning indicates that the described activity or situation

may, or will, cause equipment damage or serious performance problems.


Caution Caution indicates that the described activity or situation may, or will, cause service interruption.

Note A note provides information that is, or may be, of special

interest.

Procedures with options or substeps


When there are options in a procedure, they are identified by letters. When there are required substeps in a procedure, they are identified by roman numerals.

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Preface

Procedure 1 Example of options in a procedure


At step 1, you can choose option a or b. At step 2, you must do what the step indicates. 1 This step offers two options. You must choose one of the following: a b 2 This is one option. This is another option.

You must perform this step.

Procedure 2 Example of required substeps in a procedure


At step 1, you must perform a series of substeps within a step. At step 2, you must do what the step indicates. 1 This step has a series of substeps that you must perform to complete the step. You must perform the following substeps: i ii iii 2 This is the first substep. This is the second substep. This is the third substep.

You must perform this step.

Release notes
Be sure to refer to the release notes (such as the Customer Release Notes or Emergency Fix Release Note) issued for software loads of your product before you install or use the product. The release notes provide important information about the software load.

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Preface

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Contents

Preface

iii

Scope ............................................................................................... iii Audience ............................................................................................... iii Acronyms and initialisms ............................................................................. iii Assistance and ordering phone numbers ........................................................... iii Safety information ..................................................................................... iv Documents .............................................................................................. iv Product Naming ........................................................................................ iv Special information.................................................................................... iv Release notes............................................................................................ v

Introduction
1.1 1.2 1.3

1-1

General ................................................................................... 1-2 Supported User Interfaces ............................................................. 1-2 Document Structure .................................................................... 1-3

System interface overview


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

2-1

General ................................................................................... 2-2 Overview ................................................................................. 2-2 Multi-ADSL................................................................................ 2-4 VDSL ....................................................................................... 2-8 SHDSL .................................................................................... 2-10 Ethernet ................................................................................. 2-11 Inverse multiplexing for ATM......................................................... 2-12 ATM/PTM bonding...................................................................... 2-13 Overview of ISAM Voice interfaces .................................................. 2-13 Overview of ISAM support for remote management of third-party equipment. ....................................................................... 2-14

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Contents

Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

3-1

Overview ................................................................................. 3-2 ISAM single shelf configurations ...................................................... 3-5 ISAM subtending system protection ................................................. 3-12 Failure protection at layer 3 ......................................................... 3-15 Network path connectivity protection .............................................. 3-15

Management
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

4-1

Overview ................................................................................. 4-2 Management interfaces ................................................................ 4-3 Management interfaces security..................................................... 4-12 Management access models .......................................................... 4-14 Counters and statistics ................................................................ 4-17 Alarm management .................................................................... 4-17 Software and database management ............................................... 4-22 Equipment monitoring................................................................. 4-25 Access node control protocol ........................................................ 4-26

Line testing features


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9

5-1

Overview ................................................................................. 5-2 Metallic test access ..................................................................... 5-4 Single-Ended Line Testing ............................................................. 5-7 Dual-ended line testing ................................................................ 5-8 Metallic-Ended Line Testing ........................................................... 5-9 ATM F5 ................................................................................... 5-10 Link Related Ethernet OAM ........................................................... 5-10 Narrowband Line Testing ............................................................. 5-12 SFP diagnostics ......................................................................... 5-14

Network timing reference support in ISAM


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4

6-1

Introduction .............................................................................. 6-2 ISAM clock system and NTR extraction .............................................. 6-6 Downstream NTR clock distribution ................................................. 6-15 Applicable standards .................................................................. 6-16

xDSL features
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12

7-1

Overview ................................................................................. 7-2 Configurable impulse noise protection .............................................. 7-3 RFI Notching ............................................................................. 7-4 Low-power modes....................................................................... 7-4 Seamless rate adaptation .............................................................. 7-6 Upstream power back-off.............................................................. 7-7 Downstream power back-off .......................................................... 7-8 Impulse noise monitor ................................................................. 7-10 Virtual noise ............................................................................ 7-10 Artificial noise .......................................................................... 7-11 Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX) ................................................ 7-12 Per-line configuration overrule ...................................................... 7-13
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Contents

Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice


8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22 8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27

8-1

Introduction .............................................................................. 8-3 Overall network topology .............................................................. 8-3 Product and market applicability.................................................... 8-11 Overall network support .............................................................. 8-14 VLAN / user-to-user communication applicability ................................ 8-14 Traffic types ............................................................................ 8-16 Traffic forwarding methods .......................................................... 8-17 Layer 2/layer 3 addressing topologies .............................................. 8-44 Protocol stacks ......................................................................... 8-77 Management interface ................................................................ 8-86 Permanent data storage .............................................................. 8-91 Management model .................................................................... 8-92 CDE profile management ........................................................... 8-105 Service profile management ....................................................... 8-105 Performance monitoring ............................................................ 8-106 Reliability, Equipment / Connectivity / Overload Protection................. 8-115 Quality of Service .................................................................... 8-120 DHCP interworking ................................................................... 8-121 DNS interworking ..................................................................... 8-122 Basic call handling and supplementary services................................. 8-123 BITS Support .......................................................................... 8-134 Narrowband Line Testing ........................................................... 8-135 Termination local loop unbundling ................................................ 8-135 Subscriber Line Showering .......................................................... 8-136 Lawful Intercept...................................................................... 8-136 Compliancy to standards ............................................................ 8-138 ISAM Voice migration ................................................................ 8-140

Layer 2 forwarding
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13

9-1

Introduction .............................................................................. 9-2 The concept of Virtual LAN (VLAN)................................................... 9-2 ISAM Internal Architecture............................................................. 9-8 Support for Jumbo frames ............................................................ 9-13 Subscriber access interface on the LT board ...................................... 9-13 iBridge mode............................................................................ 9-16 VLAN cross-connect mode ............................................................ 9-29 Protocol-aware cross-connect mode ................................................ 9-40 IPoA cross-connect mode ............................................................. 9-44 Secure forwarding in iBridge and VLAN cross-connect ........................... 9-46 Virtual MAC.............................................................................. 9-49 PPP Cross-connect mode .............................................................. 9-54 IP-aware bridge mode ................................................................. 9-57

10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model


10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

10-1

Introduction ............................................................................. 10-2 Link aggregation........................................................................ 10-3 RSTP and MSTP ......................................................................... 10-5 Connectivity Fault Management ..................................................... 10-7 802.1x support........................................................................ 10-10
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Contents

10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11

ARP ..................................................................................... VBAS.................................................................................... DHCP ................................................................................... IGMP.................................................................................... PPPoE .................................................................................. DHCPv6 ................................................................................

10-11 10-12 10-13 10-19 10-19 10-24

11 IP routing
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

11-1

Introduction ............................................................................. 11-2 IP routing features ..................................................................... 11-2 IP routing model........................................................................ 11-5 Routing in case of subtended ISAMs ................................................. 11-7

12 Protocol handling in a Layer 3 forwarding model


12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5

12-1

Introduction ............................................................................. 12-2 IPv4 Routing Protocols................................................................. 12-2 ARP ....................................................................................... 12-3 DHCP relay agent....................................................................... 12-4 DHCP snooping.......................................................................... 12-7

13 Multicast and IGMP


13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4

13-1

Overview ................................................................................ 13-2 Advanced capabilities ................................................................. 13-5 System decomposition............................................................... 13-13 Multicast and forwarding models .................................................. 13-13

14 Quality of Service
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5

14-1

Introduction ............................................................................. 14-2 Upstream QoS handling ............................................................... 14-2 Downstream QoS ....................................................................... 14-8 Hardware mapping of QoS functions .............................................. 14-10 Configuration of QoS................................................................. 14-15

15 Resource Management and Authentication


15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6

15-1

Introduction ............................................................................. 15-2 RADIUS features ........................................................................ 15-2 802.1x authentication via RADIUS ................................................... 15-2 Operator authentication via RADIUS ................................................ 15-2 Encryption of authentication data .................................................. 15-3 Lawful interception .................................................................... 15-3

A.

Cross-domain solutions
A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4

A-1

Overview ................................................................................. A-2 Mobile backhaul ......................................................................... A-3 E1/T1 Leased Line Replacement ....................................................A-10 ISAM Backhaul (Rural DSL, Ultra-high Broadband) ................................A-14
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Contents

A.5 A.6

Hospitality solution ....................................................................A-20 Open Community Broadband for Smart Communities ............................A-26

B.

RADIUS Attributes
B.1 B.2

B-1

RADIUS Attributes ....................................................................... B-2 Vendor specific RADIUS attributes.................................................... B-2

Glossary

Index

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Introduction

1.1 General

1-2 1-2

1.2 Supported User Interfaces 1.3 Document Structure 1-3

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1-1

1 Introduction

1.1

General
This document provides the system description for the following products:

7302 Intelligent Services Access Manager (ISAM) 7330 ISAM Fiber To The Node (FTTN) 7356 and 7357 ISAM Fiber To The Building (FTTB)
For specific product details on each of these systems, see the:

7302 ISAM Product Information 7330 ISAM FTTN Product Information


Note This document also covers the 7356/7357 ISAM FTTB.

The ISAM is a frame-based Multi Service Access Platform, offering high-density copper and fibre connections for multimedia, high-speed internet access, voice and business services. The position of the ISAM in the network is visualized in Figure 1-1, showing on the left side the different types of user interfaces that terminate on the Line Termination (LT) boards in the system. The ISAM can be deployed with numerous interfaces and in different network environments.

1.2

Supported User Interfaces


The ISAM network architecture is shown in Figure 1-1.

1-2

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1 Introduction Figure 1-1 ISAM Network Architecture


IP Edge Router / BRAS Ethernet Switch xDSL Ethernet Voice ISAM FE/GE

NSP IP backbone

EMAN
FE/GE

NSP IP backbone

NSP IP backbone

xDSL Ethernet Voice

xDSL LT Eth LT Voice LT NT


FE/GE

FE/GE

Depending on the type of LTs plugged into the system, three types of user interfaces are available:

a number of different DSL interfaces (depending on the related DSL line board
family),

Ethernet interfaces voice interfaces


The three types of user interfaces can be implemented simultaneously in one system. More details on every of these interfaces is available in chapter System interface overview.

1.3

Document Structure
Following a general chapter about all of the system interfaces, this document is organized in a number of functional areas providing an end-to-end view of the different ISAM feature domains.

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1-3

1 Introduction

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System interface overview

2.1 General 2.2 Overview 2.3 Multi-ADSL 2.4 VDSL 2.5 SHDSL 2.6 Ethernet

2-2 2-2 2-4

2-8 2-10 2-11 2-12

2.7 Inverse multiplexing for ATM 2.8 ATM/PTM bonding 2-13

2.9 Overview of ISAM Voice interfaces

2-13

2.10 Overview of ISAM support for remote management of third-party equipment. 2-14

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2-1

2 System interface overview

2.1

General
This chapter provides a general description of the system interfaces. The ISAM can be deployed with numerous interfaces and in different network environments. The basic deployment uses it for providing High-Speed Internet (HSI), Video, and Voice over IP (VoIP) services to subscribers. A specific use of the ISAM is to provide classic telephony services to subscribers being connected with classic Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) lines, and to convert within the ISAM the corresponding signals to VoIP signaling and data packets. This specific use of the ISAM is known as ISAM Voice.

2.2

Overview
The following section provides an overview of the different relevant aspects for subscriber links.
Note For ease of understanding, the ISAM Voice links are described separately, see section Overview of ISAM Voice interfaces.

Link transmission technology


In general, the subscriber links are terminated on the Line Termination (LT) boards. The ISAM supports LT boards with various transmission types:

ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+, and READSL2 (ITU-T G.992) VDSL1, VDSL2 (ITU-T G.993) SHDSL (ITU-T 991.2, YD/T1185-2002, IEEE 802.3) Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)

The Ethernet subscriber links can also be terminated on the Network Termination (NT) boards or the NT I/O boards. The network links (ISAM uplinks), subtending links (to the subtended ISAM) or inter-shelf links (ISAM downlinks from the host shelf to remote shelves, Remote Expansion Modules (REMs) or Sealed Expansion Modules (SEMs)) are terminated by the Network Termination (NT) boards, by the NT I/O boards, or by an Ethernet LT board operating in Network-to-Network-Interfacing (NNI) modus:

Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)


Figure 2-1 shows a diagram of approximate achievable downstream bit rates for the preceding DSL transmission types as a function of the line length for a 0.4 mm diameter (26 AWG) twisted pair.

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2 System interface overview Figure 2-1 DSL types: downstream bit rate as a function of line length
100 90 80 70

VDSL2

Do wn s tre a m b it ra te (Mb /s)

60 50 40 30 20

VDSL

ADSL2+ ADSL2

10

ADSL
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Lin e le n g th (km)

Transfer modes
The ISAM supports the following transfer modes for the preceding transmission types:

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is supported for all ADSL types and
SHDSL. Packet Transfer Mode (PTM) with 64/65 octet encapsulation/Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) is supported for SHDSL, VDSL1, VDSL2, and some ADSL2/2+ LT boards. This transfer mode uses 64/65 byte block coding of variable size frames or frame fragments at the transmission convergence sublayer in the modem. For VDSL1, HDLC will be used if VTU-R is not able to support 64/65 encapsulation. For PTM over ADSL2/2+, preemption is supported in the upstream direction and enabled by default (not configurable). IEEE 802.3 Ethernet frame transfer

Bonding
A number of methods exist to combine multiple physical links that apply the preceding transmission types and transfer modes to a single logical subscriber interface. This allows increasing either:

the available service bandwidth for a subscriber the distance across which a standard service bandwidth package can be offered,
in case of transmission types for which the achievable link bandwidth depends strongly on the length of the local loop a combination of the preceding two methods.

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2 System interface overview

Bonding of multiple links is possible at different levels in the ISAM, where the traffic of DSL links is aggregated. The broader the scope of the bonding capability, the more flexibility an operator has to configure bonding groups. The following bonding methods are defined within the standards:

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA): ATM Forum Specification


af-phy-0086.001

ATM Bonding: ITU-T G.998.1 PTM Bonding: ITU-T G.998.2 M-pair operation for SHDSL: ITU-T G.991.2

2.3

Multi-ADSL
The ISAM supports multi-ADSL subscriber lines. This section describes the different supported ADSL types.

ADSL1
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is used on existing metallic twisted pairs (one per subscriber) between the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) and a Central Office (CO) exchange. A Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) technique allows the simultaneous use of high-speed data services and the existing Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Other advantages of ADSL are:

The existing network is used by the network operator (reducing costs). The existing telephone service, including equipment, is retained by the customer.
Asymmetric nature of ADSL

The digital transmission capacity of the ADSL system is asymmetric in that the downstream and upstream bit rates are different:

The downstream bit rate can range from 32 kb/s up to 8 Mb/s (or 15 Mb/s with
the optional S=0.5). The bit rate granularity is 32 kb/s.

The upstream bit rate can range from 32 kb/s to 1.5 Mb/s. The bit rate granularity
is 32 kb/s.
Note In practice, the maximum achievable upstream bit rate is

typically below 1.5 Mb/s. For example, the maximum achievable upstream bit rate for Annex A is 1.2 Mb/s. The chosen rate depends on the bidirectional services to be supported and the loop characteristics. This transmission type allows high-bandwidth services, for example, digital audio and video (multimedia), Ethernet interconnection to the customer, and so on.

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2 System interface overview

Bidirectional transport

With ADSL, the transport system provides bidirectional asymmetric communication over a single twisted pair without repeaters.
ADSL services

The multi-ADSL mode and maximum physical bit rate is automatically determined during initialization of the modem, based on line conditions and the line configuration. Modem initialization is done using a predefined noise margin and within the constraints of the transmit power spectral density. This allows various levels of service, for example, offering the highest bit rates at a premium or ensuring a guaranteed bit rate.
Operational modes

Table 2-1 lists the supported ADSL1 operational modes.


Table 2-1 ADSL operational modes
Operation Mode T1.413 Issue 2 DTS/TM-06006 G.992.1 Annex A G.992.1 Annex B G.992.2 Annex A Description ANSI standard; operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum ETSI standard; operation over ISDN non-overlapped spectrum Also known as G.dmt; operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum Operation over ISDN non-overlapped spectrum Also known as G.lite; operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum. This standard is a medium bandwidth version of ADSL that allows Internet access at up to 1.5 Mb/s downstream and up to 512 kb/s upstream.

ADSL2
The ADSL2 family of ADSL standards adds features and functionality that boost the performance, improve interoperability, and support new applications, services, and deployment scenarios. ADSL2 includes the following:

Better rate and reach:


Improved modulation efficiency, improved initialization state machine, enhanced signal processing algorithms, reduced framing overhead, and framing extension allowing higher coding gain. Loop diagnostics: Real-time performance-monitoring capabilities provide information regarding line quality and noise conditions at both ends of the line (see chapter Line testing features, section Single-Ended Line Testing). In addition, ADSL2 provides Carrier Loop diagnostics based on Dual-Ended Line Testing (DELT) (see chapter Line testing features, section Dual-ended line testing). Packet-based services: ADSL2 amendment 1 brings native transport of packets such as Ethernet
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2 System interface overview

Impulse Noise Protection (INP):


See chapter xDSL features, section Configurable impulse noise protection. Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX): See chapter xDSL features, section Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX). Bonding: ADSL2 also specifies IMA. However, this has been replaced by bonding support as per G.998.1; see section 2.8 ATM/PTM bonding. Low-power modes (L2/L3): See chapter xDSL features, section Low-power modes. Seamless Rate Adaptation (SRA): See chapter xDSL features, section Seamless rate adaptation. Carrier masking: The carrier mask allows the suppression of each individual carrier in the upstream and downstream direction. Mandatory receiver support of bit swapping: Bit swapping reallocates data and power (that is, margin) among the allocated subcarriers without modification of the higher layer features of the physical layer. After a bit swapping reconfiguration, the total data rate is unchanged and the data rate on each latency path is unchanged. Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) egress control and means for RFI ingress control: To minimize the impact of radio frequency interference from and with AM radio and radio amateurs, multi-ADSL provides RFI egress control and means for RFI ingress control.

Operational modes

Table 2-2 lists the supported ADSL2 operational modes.


Table 2-2 ADSL2 operational modes
Operation Mode G.992.3 Annex A G.992.3 Annex B G.992.3 Annex M G.992.3 Annex J Description Operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum Operation over ISDN non-overlapped spectrum Extended upstream operation (up to 3 Mb/s) over POTS non-overlapped spectrum All Digital Mode operation with non-overlapped spectrum and extended upstream band (spectrally compatible with ADSLx over ISDN)

A license counter keeps track of all the installed lines on which G.992.3 or G.992.5 Annex M is enabled. A license counter keeps track of all the installed lines on which G.992.3 or G.992.5 Annex J is enabled.

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2 System interface overview

ADSL2+
A number of applications, such as some video streams or combinations of video and data streams, can benefit from higher downstream rates than are currently possible with ADSL2. By doubling the ADSL frequency range up to 2.2 MHz, downstream bit rates of up to about 25 Mb/s can be provided.
Operational modes

Table 2-3 lists the supported ADSL2+ operational modes.


Table 2-3 ADSL2+ operational modes
Operation Mode G.992.5 Annex A G.992.5 Annex B G.992.5 Annex M G.992.5 Annex J Description Operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum Operation over ISDN non-overlapped spectrum Extended upstream operation (up to 3 Mb/s) over POTS non-overlapped spectrum All Digital Mode operation with non-overlapped spectrum and extended upstream band (spectrally compatible with ADSLx over ISDN)

A license counter keeps track of all the installed lines on which G.992.3 or G.992.5 Annex M is enabled. A license counter keeps track of all the installed lines on which G.992.3 or G.992.5 Annex J is enabled.

Reach Extended ADSL2


Reach Extended ADSL2 (READSL2) is specified by ADSL2 Annex L, proposing new Power Spectral Density (PSD) masks that can result in a significant increase in ADSL reach.
Operational modes

Table 2-4 lists the READSL2 operational modes.


Table 2-4 READSL2 operational modes
Operation Mode G.992.3 Annex L (WIDE) G.992.3 Annex L (NARROW) Description Operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum, Range-Extended Mode 1 Operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum, Range-Extended Mode 2

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2 System interface overview

2.4

VDSL
Very high bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) allows very high speed data transmission on a metallic twisted pair between the operator network and the customer premises. This service is provisioned by using the existing unshielded copper twisted pairs, without requiring repeaters. By using a Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) technique, the existing POTS or ISDN services can still be provided on the same wires. VDSL transceivers use Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) to separate upstream and downstream transmission.

VDSL1
VDSL1 mode is not supported.

VDSL2
The VDSL2 standard (G.993.2) is an enhancement to VDSL1. VDSL2 specifies Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation and is reusing concepts of G.993.1 (VDSL1) and G.992.3 (ADSL2) recommendations, using also the G.994.1 handshake procedure.
VDSL2 features

The main features of VDSL2 are:

VDSL2 offers Packet Transport Mode (PTM) with 64/65B encapsulation: The definition of profiles supports a wide range of deployment scenarios: deployment from the exchange (Fiber To The Exchange (FTTEx)) deployment from the cabinet (Fiber To The Cabinet (FTTCab)) deployment from the building (Fiber To the Building (FTTB)) VDSL2 supports higher bit rates than VDSL1; up to 100 Mb/ symmetrical.
The attainable maximum data rate depends on the VDSL2 profile used. Support of 100 Mb/s requires the 30 MHz profile. Other profiles are better suited for operation on longer loops, but with reduced maximum bit rate. VDSL2 offers improved performance over VDSL1:

addition of Trellis coding increased maximum allowable transmit power VDSL2 features provide better support for triple play over VDSL improved Impulse Noise Protection (INP) physical layer retransmission (RTX) virtual noise (optional) VDSL2 has some ADSL2-like features: similar: loop diagnostics improved: PSD shaping improved management with regard to VDSL1

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2 System interface overview

VDSL2 Operational Modes

Table 2-5 lists the supported VDSL2 operational modes.


Table 2-5 VDSL2 operational modes
Operation Mode G.993.2 profile 8A G.993.2 profile 8B G.993.2 profile 8C G.993.2 profile 8D G.993.2 profile 12A G.993.2 profile 12B G.993.2 profile 17A Description VDSL2 profile 8A VDSL2 profile 8B VDSL2 profile 8C VDSL2 profile 8D VDSL2 profile 12A VDSL2 profile 12B VDSL2 profile 17A

VDSL2 profile parameter overview

VDSL2 profiles mainly define variants with different bandwidths and transmit powers. Table 2-6 provides a VDSL2 profile parameter overview.
Table 2-6 VDSL2 profile parameter overview
VDSL2 profile Parameter Max. aggregate DS transmit power (dBm) Max. aggregate US transmit power (dBm) US0 support(2) Annex A (998) Annex B (997) Annex B (997E) Annex B (998E) Annex B (998ADE) DS upper frequency (MHz) US upper frequency (MHz) DS upper frequency (MHz) US upper frequency (MHz) DS upper frequency (MHz) US upper frequency (MHz) DS upper frequency (MHz) US upper frequency (MHz) DS upper frequency (MHz) US upper frequency (MHz) 8A 17.5 14.5 M 8.5 5.2 7.05 8.83 7.05 8.832 8.5 5.2 8.5 5.2 8B 20.5 14.5 M 8.5 5.2 7.05 8.83 7.05 8.832 8.5 5.2 8.5 5.2 8C 11.5 14.5 M 8.5 5.2 7.05 5.1 7.05 5.1 8.5 5.2 8.5 5.2 8D 14.5 14.5 M 8.5 5.2 7.05 8.83 7.05 8.832 8.5 5.2 8.5 5.2 12A 14.5 14.5 M 8.5 12 7.05 12 7.05 12 8.5 12 8.5 12 12B 14.5 14.5 O 8.5 12 7.05 12 7.05 12 8.5 12 8.5 12 17A 14.5 14.5 O 17.664 12 N/A N/A 14 17.664 17.664 14 17.664 12

Notes (1) US=upstream; DS=downstream (2) M=Mandatory; O=Optional; N=Not supported

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2.5

SHDSL
The Symmetric High-speed Digital Subscriber Line (SHDSL) technology is a physical layer standard based on the ITU-T Recommendation G.991.2 (G.shdsl). The recommendation describes a versatile transmission method for data transport in the telecommunication access networks. SHDSL supports ATM, PTM, and EFM transport. SHDSL transceivers are designed primarily for duplex operation over mixed gauges of two-wire twisted metallic pairs. Four-wire and M-pair operations can be used for extended reach or bit rate. M-pair operation is supported for up to 4 pairs. The use of signal regenerators for both the two-wire and multi-wire operations is optional. Multiple SHDSL circuits may be combined to support higher bandwidth using Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) interface or the payload can be shared by multiple circuits (using the M-pair mode). IMA and M-pair do not work simultaneously over the same port or circuit. Generally, an SHDSL LT in the system can support ATM or IMA, or ITU-T G.991.2 PTM, or IEEE 802.3ah EFM on a per-port basis. SHDSL transceivers are capable of supporting selected symmetric user data rates ranging from 192 kb/s to 2312 kb/s, and optional up to 5696 kb/s, using Trellis Coded Pulse Amplitude Modulation (TCPAM) line code. For spectral compatibility with legacy services (including ADSLx), reach limitations can be imposed (typically by the national regulator) in function of the SHDSL bit rate. SHDSL transceivers do not support the use of analogue splitting technology for coexistence with either POTS or ISDN.

Regional settings
Table 2-7 lists the supported regional settings.
Table 2-7 SHDSL regional settings
Standards G.991.2 Annex A/F G.991.2 Annex B/G Description Standards applicable for North America (region 1) (ANSI) Standards applicable for Europe (region 2) (ETSI)

Payload rates
The following payload rates are supported:

192 to 2304 kb/s in 64 kb/s steps for Annex A/B 192 to 5696 kb/s in 64 kb/s steps for Annex F/G

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2.6

Ethernet
The ISAM supports the following Ethernet interfaces:

Fast Ethernet (FE): supported on NT, NT I/O, and LT boards. Gigabit Ethernet (GE): supported on NT, NT I/O, and LT boards.
Note 1 The 7330 ISAM FTTN supports additional optical uplinks

through the expander unit, as well as optical expansion links (downlinks).


Note 2 For Ethernet features supported by the Ethernet Line

Termination (LT) board, refer to the Unit Data Sheet (UDS) of the relevant board. Ethernet offers the following advantages:

high network reliability general availability of management and troubleshooting tools scalable to fit future needs low cost both in purchase and support easy migration from Ethernet or FE to GE flexible network design

Half and full duplex mode


Ethernet can operate in two modes:

Half duplex: In half duplex mode, a station can only send or receive at one time. Full duplex: In full duplex mode, send and receive channels are separated on the
link so that a station can send and receive simultaneously. The ISAM supports both modes and can adapt to either mode by way of auto-negotiation or manual configuration.

Hardware auto-negotiation
Hardware auto-negotiation provides the capability for a device at one end of the link segment to:

advertise its abilities to the device at the other end (its link partner) detect information defining the abilities of the link partner determine if the two devices are compatible.
Auto-negotiation provides hands-free configuration of the two attached devices. Using auto-negotiation, the ISAM can determine the operational mode (full or half duplex) and speed to be applied to the link.

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Note 1 It is also possible to manually configure the transmission

mode and speed on the link.


Note 2 Auto-negotiation is supported for both optical and electrical

GE.

Software auto-negotiation
Software auto-negotiation institutes a propriety protocol to negotiate a higher communication bandwidth between two auto-negotiation-capable boards (NT board on one side and LT board on the other side, both residing in the main shelf). The operator can configure the highest possible bandwidth between two capable boards via the regular management channels. The software auto-negotiation protocol will, based on the configured values, bring the bandwidth between two auto-negotiation-capable boards to the configured maximum speed.

2.7

Inverse multiplexing for ATM


Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) is specified by ATM Forum Specification af-phy-0086.001. IMA allows an ATM cell stream to be transported on a number of lower-rate physical links. This is done by grouping these physical links into a single logical transport channel. The bandwidth of this logical channel is approximately equal to the sum of the transmission rates of the individual links in the IMA group.
Figure 2-2 IMA

IMA Group
Physical link #0 PHY PHY

IMA Group

Physical link #1 PHY PHY

Single ATM Cell stream from ATM layer


Physical link #2 PHY PHY

Original ATM Cell stream to ATM layer

IMA Virtual Link

IMA requires that all bonded links operate at the same nominal rate. The original cells are not modified, and control (ICP) cells are inserted for OAM communication between the two ends.

In the Tx direction, the ATM cells are distributed across the links in a round robin
sequence.

In the Rx direction, the ATM cells are recombined into a single ATM stream.
The IMA type of bonding is supported on SHDSL LT boards.
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2 System interface overview

2.8

ATM/PTM bonding

ATM bonding
ATM bonding is specified by ITU-T G.998.1. ATM bonding is applied to combine ATM-based transmission links with limited or reach-dependent bandwidth, which do not exhibit an identical transmission speed, specifically all types of ADSL. This technique does add sequence information to ATM cells, and thus allows resequencing, that is, delay variation due to speed variation across multiple physical links in one bonding group.

PTM bonding
PTM bonding is specified by ITU-T G.998.2. PTM bonding applies to DSL links with or without identical transmission speed, because PTM implies the use of variable size PDUs, which make the use of IMA techniques impossible. PTM bonding is applied to combine EFM-based transmission links with limited or reach-dependent bandwidth, specifically VDSL2, SHDSL, and (possibly) ADSL2(+). This technique also adds sequence information to transmitted frames or frame fragments, and thus allows resequencing, that is, delay variation due to speed variations or PDU size variations, or both, across multiple physical links in one bonding group.

2.9

Overview of ISAM Voice interfaces


This section provides an overview of the different links of the ISAM Voice. ISAM Voice supports LT boards with various types of Narrow Band (NB) subscriber links:

Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) link Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Access (BA) link
ISAM Voice is connected to the network through Ethernet links as documented for the ISAM. See section Ethernet.

POTS
The POTS interface is the Z interface, that is, an analog subscriber line for connecting, for example, a POTS line. However, also other equipment such as faxes can be connected. The principles of this interface are as standardized in ITU-T Q.551 and Q.552. The Z interface carries signals such as speech, voice band analog data, multi-frequency push button signals, and so on. In addition, the Z interface must provide for DC feeding of the subscriber set and ordinary functions such as DC signaling, ringing, metering, and so on, where appropriate.

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The characteristics of this interface are as standardized in ITU-T Q.551 and Q.552. It is recognized that the characteristics of analog interfaces vary considerably from country to country and therefore the characteristics other than those defined in Recommendations Q.551 and Q.552 are not subject to ITU-T Recommendations. Within the ISAM, these are typically handled with the concept of a CDE profile.

ISDN BA
The ISDN BA interface corresponds to the U reference point of the Digital Transmission System. The interface provides full-duplex and bit-independent transmission via two wires at a net bit rate of 144 kb/s. The net bit rate of 144 kb/s offers 1 D-channel of 16 kb/s and 2 B-channels of 64 kb/s. The ISDN BA layer 1 specification is given in ITU-T I.430. Both 2B1Q and 4B3T encoding are applied through the use of different HW variants. The D-channel signaling procedures are defined in the Q.920 and Q.930-Series, for the basis particularly in Q.921 and Q.931.

2.10

Overview of ISAM support for remote management of third-party equipment.

Purpose
ISAM supports dedicated interfaces for the remote management of co-located third-party equipment through Ethernet connections. Examples are power supplies, timing supplies, Automatic Distribution Frames, environment monitoring and conditioning equipment.

Assumptions made on third-party equipment management traffic


The following assumptions are made about the third-party equipment management traffic:

The equipment uses an Ethernet interface with untagged frames for remote
management.

The third-party equipment can be identified in the network through either: a pre-configured IP address, for which a destination MAC address can be retrieved The third-party equipment traffic is conveyed in a dedicated VLAN. This VLAN
is configurable by the operator
through use of the ARP protocol. a public MAC address.

The communication protocol used for remote managing of the third-party


equipment allows detection of communication corruption or disruption.

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2 System interface overview

Stand-alone ISAM with NT functions

Physical interface

In this case, the third-party equipment can be connected to a free Ethernet port of the NT function. This port has to be configured as a direct user port. The different ISAM NT board types either:

provide a combo electrical 100/1000 Base-T and optical 1 GE interface as direct


user port support the use of electrical 100/1000 Base-T SFPs in external port SFP cages.
Third-party management traffic handling and security

The applied NT port has to be configured for:

VLAN-port tagging, with a dedicated third-party equipment management VLAN


value VLAN cross-connect.

Remote LT equipment without NT functions


In the case of ISAM REM and SEM equipment, the third-party equipment can be connected to:

any REM/SEM equipment by means of a DSL modem with 10/100Base-T


subscriber port connected to one of the REM/SEM ports. VLAN tagging/stripping and destination MAC address filtering are configured on the bridge port associated to the REM/SEM DSL line used for this purpose. FD-REM equipment by means of a 10/100Base-T electrical interface, provided on the REM control board NRCD-x. In this configuration, the average traffic load must not exceed 50 kb/s, or 50 packets/s.

Third-party management traffic handling and security


The FD-REM external equipment management port has to be configured for VLAN-port tagging, with a dedicated third-party equipment management VLAN value. VLAN cross-connect behavior is default and not configurable on this port. For enhanced security in remote cabinets, it is possible to restrict allowed destination MAC addresses in upstream Ethernet traffic on this port to a white-list of 20 MAC address ranges. Each entry of this list consists of:

an Original manufacturer Unique Identifier (OUI) value, covering the three Most
Significant Bytes (MSB) of the public MAC address a start value and an end value of a single consecutive range of MAC addresses for the above OUI, covering at maximum the full three Least Significant Bytes (LSB) of the public MAC address.
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The ISAM itself does not support detection of malfunctions on the FD-REM external equipment management port, and will not generate alarms related to usage of this port

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Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

3.1 Overview

3-2 3-5 3-12

3.2 ISAM single shelf configurations

3.3 ISAM subtending system protection 3.4 Failure protection at layer 3 3-15

3.5 Network path connectivity protection

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

3.1

Overview
When you provide protection for system functions and subsystems by use of redundancy, you improve the reliability of those parts of the ISAM, and hence the availability of the whole ISAM.

Redundancy aspects
Redundancy has different aspects, and each aspect has its advantages and disadvantages which must be taken into account. The following aspects are described:

relation between essential and redundant resources operational mode of the additional redundant resources the scope of the protection - the impact of a failure the average duration of an outage - time to repair the number of simultaneous failures that have to be coped with

Relation between essential and redundant resources

Bilateral:
One redundant resource can back up only a single dedicated essential resource (notation 1:1 or 1+1). The advantage is that the redundant resource can be fully preconfigured, and that protection normally takes a minimal time. Also, the configuration data (static, or dynamic, or both) necessary for the redundant resource can be kept on the redundant resource itself. The disadvantage is that each essential resource has to be duplicated, which adds to the cost, the space requirements, and the power consumption. Dynamic: A redundant resource can replace any one resource out of a group of identical essential resources (notation N:1 or N+1, or N:M or N+M in general). Because each essential resource does not have to be duplicated, one or a few additional resources can protect a much larger group of identical essential resources. The disadvantage is that this scheme only is applicable when multiple identical essential resources are present in the ISAM. In many cases, the redundant resource cannot be fully preconfigured. The redundant resource can only be configured after the failing resource has been identified, which means the time for protection has to be increased by the configuration time. Also, an up-to-date copy of the configuration data (static, or dynamic, or both) for the multiple essential resources has to be kept in a place that is not affected by failure of the related resource. This requires either additional storage on the redundant resource, or a more complex data storage mechanism across all the protected resources.

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

Operational mode of the additional redundant resources

Standby:
One or more redundant resources are kept inactive or on standby while one or more essential resources perform all the required processing (notation 1:1, N:1,N:M in general). The advantages are that the ISAM architecture is relatively simple, and the configuration and initialization of the redundant resource(s) starts from a well-known state at the time of activation of the redundant resource(s) in case of a protection switchover. The standby state can apply on the data path, the control path and/or the management path (see Redundancy provision for more information and practical examples). The disadvantages are that the redundant resource does not contribute to the operation (performance) of the ISAM for 99.9% or more of the time, while requiring an additional, up to 100% investment in cost, space and power consumption. Also, in many cases the redundant resource cannot be monitored or tested for 100% of the functions that it has to perform, so a certain risk of dormant faults exists. Active and load sharing: All resources (reflected in the data path, control path and/or management path) are active or operational, normally in a load-sharing mode, but the number of resources in the ISAM exceeds the minimum needed to perform all the necessary processing by one, or more (notation 1+1, N+1, or N+M in general). Some resources can be implemented in load-sharing mode, while others are implemented in active/standby mode (see Redundancy provision for more information and practical examples). If one or more of the active resources fail, the remaining resources take over the whole processing load. Also, all the resources can be monitored in operational conditions, and dormant faults cannot occur. The advantage of this type of redundancy is that the ISAM performance increases while no faults occur, by virtue of the more-than-necessary active resources. The disadvantages are that the ISAM usually becomes more complex. A dispatching or processing load distribution function is necessary, which must be fair (that is, the load must be shared evenly over all the resources) and must be able to recognize resource failures in time and to respond to them. Also, this function must not constitute a (significant) single-point-of-failure in itself.
The scope of the protection - the impact of a failure

Usually, it is not economical to protect functions or sub-systems that affect only a limited number of subscribers, interfaces or a limited amount of traffic. An often applied principle is that central resources or aggregation resources (that is, resources whose availability determines the availability of the whole ISAM) are protected, while tributary resources are not protected. However, it depends on the specifics of each individual case whether this principle is economically viable, in either direction.

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

The average duration of an outage - time to repair

Redundancy of a resource nearly always should be optional. In many cases the need for providing redundancy or not for a given resource is determined by the average time to repair. A resource in a system may be reliable enough (that is, its Mean time Between Failure (MTBF) is high enough) to operate in a non-protected way. This is the case, for example, in an attended CO environment, where a stock of spare parts and skilled staff are available and where short detection and intervention times can be guaranteed. However, the same resource may require redundancy when deployed in an unattended outdoor cabinet, in order to meet the same availability as in the CO.
The number of simultaneous failures that have to be coped with

Individual Replaceable Items (RI) in modern, carrier-grade telecommunication equipment are already highly reliable, and provide an intrinsic availability of 99.99% or even 99.999%, within the boundaries of the specified environmental operating conditions. In order to achieve the generally required 99.9999% availability, coping with a single resource failure (that is, providing at most one redundant resource) is sufficient in all circumstances. The probability of dual simultaneous failures, affecting the same type of resource, is low enough, and does not have to be taken into account for protection.

Redundancy provision
The ISAM basically provides redundancy as an option for essential central or aggregation functions and resources. These include:

External link protection for: network links links with sub-tended ISAMs Equipment protection for the ISAM: Data path: the Ethernet switch fabric Control path: the Network Termination (NT) board processor Management path: the NT board processor
The ISAM does not protect all the central functions or resources by default. Essential functions and resources reside on the NT board, which can be made redundant. In practice, a number of different configurations with single, redundant NT and single NT IO board are possible, each supporting a different amount or type of protection. The ISAM can be configured in active/standby mode by means of an optional standby NT board. The standby NT board is synchronized with the active NT board. In order to speed-up the reconfiguration of the data plane after switchover and to facilitate the rebuilding of the control plane, the dynamic switch configuration (L1 and L2) is also synchronized between the active NT board and the standby NT board. The management plane is fully restored at the moment the new active NT board is initialized.

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

3.2

ISAM single shelf configurations

Single NT
When using a single NT board only in the ISAM shelf, only redundancy for external (network or subtending) links is available, and hence only external link protection is possible. None of the central functions and resources are duplicated, except for the external Ethernet interfaces on the faceplate of the NT board itself. The actual number of these interfaces may vary with the NT type, but equals at least two. This implies that one or more external network or subtending links can be configured to protect other network or subtending links on the same NT board. It must be clear that this link-only protection model does not protect equipment. If the NT board fails, connectivity on all the links will be lost. The supported mechanisms are described below.
External link protection: active/standby NT links

External NT links of the ISAM can be configured in active/standby mode on the single NT board of the ISAM. In case an active NT link fails, all traffic will be switched to the designated standby NT link as shown in Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1 Link protection with active/standby external NT link
LT1

NT
Active PHY P PHY Standby

LTn

Link failure on the active NT link is detected by either:

detection of Loss of Signal on the NT link the (Rapid) Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) or Multiple Instances Spanning Tree
Protocol (MSTP). Normally, xSTP will allow only one network link to be active, while all other network links will be forced to standby, in order to avoid loops in the Ethernet network.
External link protection: Link aggregation

A set of N (1 N 8) physical NT interfaces can be configured in load-sharing mode (link aggregation) as shown in Figure 3-2. Apart from increasing the capacity of the resulting ISAM single network interface, this configuration also provides link protection.
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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM Figure 3-2 Link protection with load-sharing external NT links
LT1

NT
PHY P PHY 1 2

LTn

If an external link for a single NT with multiple external links in a load-sharing group is lost, the traffic is redistributed across the remaining links of the load-sharing group, by means of the link failure detection capability of the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).

Single NT, with NTIO


When extending the preceding configuration with an additional NTIO board in the ISAM shelf, only the number of external Ethernet interfaces is increased by the number available on the NTIO board faceplate. This number may vary with the NTIO board type. Still none of the central functions and resources are duplicated beyond what is available on the NT + NTIO board itself. Again, one or more external network or subtending links can be configured to protect others on the same NT board, by either (R)STP, MSTP or by LACP.
Figure 3-3 Link protection with load-sharing external NT links
LT1

NT
PHY P PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY LTn PHY PHY PHY PHY

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

Dual NT (active/standby), no NTIO


When providing a second NT board in the same ISAM shelf, you can provide equipment protection for the NT board. The duplication provides redundancy for all the central functions and resources of the ISAM.
Note In practice, the redundancy is limited to the central functions and resources of the ISAM which are located on the NT board. The central functions and resources located on the NTIO board, for example, do not benefit of such equipment protection.

The ISAM supports active/standby NT equipment protection. Only one of the two NT boards (and all its functions and resources) can be active at a time. NT switchover is not revertive after the repair of a failed NT board. The protection capabilities exist:
Combined external link and NT equipment protection, common link set

Figure 3-4 illustrates the simplest configuration with a redundant NT pair, supporting an active/standby external link configuration. The active external link is connected to the active NT, while the standby external link is connected to the standby NT. The operator can:

configure a number of external link groups on the NT board designate any external link of the NT board to be a member of one of the groups configure a threshold for the minimum number of operational external links in
each group.
Figure 3-4 Combined link and NT protection with a shared set of active/standby external interfaces
LT1

NT
PHY P PHY Active

LTn LT1

NT
PHY P PHY Active

LTn

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

NT protection, that is, switchover of traffic from the active NT to the standby NT, and a related status change for both NT boards, is triggered by either of the following two events:

unavailability of a network interface, which brings the number of operational


network interfaces in any configured group below the configurable minimum.

failure or removal of the NT board itself, detected by means of a dedicated


protection interface between both NT boards. This configuration implies that when the active external NT link fails, the only remedy is to trigger an NT switchover, by proper configuration of the original active link in a link group of 1, and a minimum threshold of 1. Also, when the NT itself fails and an NT switchover is triggered, an external link switchover is imposed. It must be noted that in all cases the standby NT board will not support traffic on its external links, and hence will not support xSTP processing while in standby mode.
Combined external link and NT equipment protection, separate link sets

Figure 3-5 shows a configuration with active and standby external links on the same NT board, in which a failure of the active external NT link does not have to lead to NT switchover. However, in case of NT board failure, its active external link cannot be kept operational, and traffic has to be switched to an additional standby link on the standby NT. This configuration is expensive in the number of required external standby links.
Figure 3-5 Combined link and NT protection with a separate set of active/standby network interfaces on each
LT1

NT
PHY P PHY Standby Active

LTn LT1

NT
PHY P PHY Standby Standby

LTn

3-8

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

Combined external link and NT equipment protection, load aggregation link sets

Figure 3-6 shows a configuration with multiple external links that are grouped in a load aggregation group on the same NT board. Failure of the active external NT link does not have to lead to NT switchover, as long as the number of operational external links in the group does not drop below the configured minimum for the group.
Figure 3-6 Combined link and NT protection with network link and aggregation
LT1

NT
PHY P PHY 1 2

LTn LT1

NT
PHY P PHY 1 2

LTn

In case of NT board failure, when this external link group cannot be kept operational, or in case the number of operational links on the active NT drops below the configured minimum, all traffic will be switched to a standby link group on the standby NT.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

External link and NT equipment protection using passive optical splitters

Figure 3-7 and Figure 3-8 show redundant NT configurations that apply a passive optical splitter to interconnect a same external optical link to ports of both the active and standby NT board. These configurations are only possible for the 7302 ISAM shelves, and only for optical interfaces (not for electrical interfaces). The presence of the splitter consumes an extra 3 dB optical power of the optical link transmission budget. Use of such splitters enables the following:

NT board equipment protection without external link protection (Figure 3-7


without standby external link) NT board equipment protection without external link protection is not possible in the preceding redundant NT configurations. Traffic can only be sent or received by the active one of the redundant NT pair, as the optical transmitters of the standby NT are physically disabled, to protect the optical signal sent out by the active NT on the shared fiber. Independent active/standby external link and NT board equipment protection A single pair of external links in active/standby mode can be used, as shown in Figure 3-7. It is possible to support external link protection without NT switchover, and NT board protection without external link switchover, that is, without making the peer ISAM switch traffic to the standby link. Independent load sharing external link group and NT board equipment protection: see Figure 3-8.
Figure 3-7 Independent active/standby external link and NT protection with optical splitters
LT1

NT
PHY P PHY Active Standby

LTn LT1

NT
PHY P PHY

LTn

3-10

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM Figure 3-8 Independent load sharing external link and NT protection with optical splitters
LT1

NT
PHY P PHY 1 2

LTn LT1

NT
PHY P PHY

LTn

Dual NT, with NTIO


Figure 3-9 shows a redundant NT pair configuration with NTIO. The NTIO enables independent external link protection and NT board equipment protection, for external links connected to the NTIO. The NTIO replaces the passive optical splitter(s) in Figure 3-7 and Figure 3-8 with an active board. The NTIO eliminates the optical power budget reduction caused by the use of an optical splitter, and enables independent external link protection and NT board equipment protection, for electrical external links, if connected to the NTIO. The external links on the NTIO can be configured in active/standby mode, or in load aggregation group mode, as already discussed above. In a redundant NT pair configuration with NTIO, the external links on the faceplate of each NT, and the external links on the face plate of the common NTIO in practice cannot be combined as such in a same group, for example for constructing a bigger load aggregation group. The reason is that in case of NT switchover, the NTIO external links will be reconnected automatically to the new active NT, while the same is not possible for external links plugged directly to the NT faceplate. It is possible to combine both types of external links in a same load aggregation group when an optical splitter is used for connecting the external links to the NT faceplate(s), as discussed for previous configurations.

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

It should be noted that the NTIO board is not duplicated, and, therefore, not protected. However, the probability of an NTIO failure that affects all of its external interfaces is low, so in case of a failure, outage for all of its external links will be limited to the actual duration of the board replacement.
Figure 3-9 Independent load sharing external link and NT protection with NT
LT1

NT
PHY P PHY
NTIO
PHY PHY PHY PHY

Active

1 2

LTn LT1

NT
PHY P PHY

PHY PHY

LTn

3.3

ISAM subtending system protection


You can cascade multiple single-shelf ISAM systems using standard Ethernet subtending links. ISAM shelves can be connected together to provide a consolidated interface to the network. In principle, all of the above protection techniques and configurations can be applied, for either network type links and subtending type links, or both. This depends on the required link capacity for each type, and on the interface capacity of the applied NT and NTIO board types. (R)STP, MSTP and LACP are supported on ISAM external interfaces for subtending. The following topologies show some examples for cascading of ISAM equipment with protection:

star topology; see Figure 3-10 daisy-chain topology; see Figure 3-11 ring topology: daisy chain with the last node connected to the first; see
Figure 3-12.

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

Up to three levels of cascading can be supported by the ISAM. It depends on the operator network requirements what the actual appropriate number can be in practice. The last ISAM in the cascaded system can be any DSLAM, such as:

a 7302 ISAM a 7300 ASAM with a FENT or GENT a 7325 Remote Unit a 7330 ISAM FTTN
Figure 3-10 Example of an ISAM subtending star topology
P NT
PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

LAG

Subtending links

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

NT

PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

Network links

NT

PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

LAG
Subtending links

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM Figure 3-11 Example of an ISAM subtending daisy chain topology
P NT
PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

Subtending links active

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

LAG

NT

PHY PHY

P NTIO
PHY PHY

NT

LAG

PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

NT

Network links
PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

NT

PHY

LAG

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

Figure 3-12 Example of an ISAM subtending ring topology


P NT
PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

Subtending links active

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

NT

PHY PHY

P NTIO
PHY PHY

NT

PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

Network links

NT

PHY PHY

NTIO
PHY PHY

NT

PHY

N PHY PHY T

PHY PHY PHY

3-14

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

3.4

Failure protection at layer 3


When the ISAM xHub is configured as a router in an layer 3 network, then connectivity protection can be achieved by enabling one or more of the following layer 3 features:

Routing protocols: RIP, OSPF ECMP (supported on static routes and OSPF routes)
An example is given below whereby the ISAM is used as a router in an layer 3 network and connected to more than one edge router on different subnets and physical ports. Layer 3 packets will be routed over the best route selected by OSPF.
Figure 3-13 Example of layer3-based protection
LT 1

NT
PHY P PHY

Subnet 1

Edge router 1 Edge router 2


Subnet 2

L3 switching and OSPF enabled

LT n

3.5

Network path connectivity protection


Network path connectivity protection technique consolidates the path connectivity between an ISAM and an upstream network device, typically the default gateway. The feature supports both hub-only ISAMs and Hub with subtending ISAM topologies connected by means of either a layer 2 or a layer 3 aggregation network, to a redundant pair of layer 3 edge devices. The network path connectivity protection applies to ISAM Voice access nodes that offer the Megaco service and the SIP-based integrated voice service (with the exception of the internally distributed SIP User Agent topology). It does not apply to ISAM access nodes offering data services. A configured path connectivity protection group is composed of a minimum of two external network links or network Link Aggregation Groups (LAGs). One of these external network links or LAGs is the active link and carries the traffic exchanged between the ISAM and the L3 gateway. The other network link(s) is the passive link. A periodic path connectivity check may reveal a potential connectivity disruption on the actual active network link or LAG. Upon the detection of such a connectivity disruption, the ISAM triggers a switchover from the active network link or LAG to (one of) the passive network link(s) or LAG(s)). Traffic that is exchanged between the ISAM and the layer 3 gateway is now switched to the new active network link or LAG.

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

The path connectivity check relies on periodically initiating ICMP echo request packets to the target layer 3 device and listening for the ICMP echo response replies. The ISAM decides that a connectivity disruption has occurred when either a layer 1 down event for the current network link is received or when there has been no reply to three consecutive ICMP echo requests. In case a path connectivity protection group is composed of LAGs, the ISAM attempts to recover from a connectivity disruption by relying on the redundancy provided by the LAG concept, where possible. A switchover to another LAG in the path connectivity protection group is performed if the internal LAG redundancy cannot resolve the connectivity disruption. Figure 3-14, Figure 3-15 and Figure 3-16 show the different types of network path connectivity protection topologies.
Figure 3-14 Network path connectivity protection - Network topology 1
L3 network device L3 network device

L2/L3 switch

VRRP

L2/L3 switch

active external link

passive external link

ISAM

connectivity protection group

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM Figure 3-15 Network path connectivity protection - Network topology 2
L3 network device VRRP L3 network device

L2 switch

L2 switch

active external link

passive external link

ISAM

connectivity protection group

Figure 3-16 Network path connectivity protection - Network topology 3


L3 network device VRRP L3 network device

L2 switch

L2 switch

L2 switch

L2 switch

L2 switch

active external link

passive external link connectivity protection group

ISAM

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

3-18

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Management

4.1 Overview

4-2 4-3 4-12

4.2 Management interfaces

4.3 Management interfaces security 4.4 Management access models 4.5 Counters and statistics 4.6 Alarm management 4-17 4-14

4-17 4-22

4.7 Software and database management 4.8 Equipment monitoring 4-25 4-26

4.9 Access node control protocol

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4-1

4 Management

4.1

Overview
This chapter describes various management related topics of the ISAM. Table 4-1 below lists the information available in this chapter.
Table 4-1 Contents
Contents Management interfaces Management interfaces security Management access models Counters and statistics Alarm management Software and database management Equipment monitoring Access node control protocol Section 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

The Alcatel-Lucent-recommended management architecture is shown in Figure 4-1.


Figure 4-1 ISAM management
OSS

SOAP XML xFTP 5530 CT 5529 CT

TL1 TL1 GW TL1 xFTP 5529 IDM

SOAP XML 5529 OAD 5520 AMS xFTP SNMP PBMT 5529 APC

Remote CT TL1 CLI

SNMP

CLI xFTP

CLI SNMP TL1 xFTP Local CT TL1 CLI ISAM

In fact Alcatel-Lucent has an extensive management suite of products available (5520, 5529, 5530 range of Alcatel-Lucent products) to allow an efficient management of an ISAM network. Southbound, towards the ISAM, it takes care of all ISAM specifics and related protocols, while northbound it provides standard SOAP/XML interfaces for an easy and smooth integration with any other OSS applications, shielding from the DSLAM complexity.
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4 Management

Of course a direct interaction with the ISAM itself, using CLI or TL1, remains possible, either directly connected to the ISAM or using a remote Craft terminal.

4.2

Management interfaces
The ISAM supports the following management interfaces:

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Command Line Interface (CLI) Transaction Language 1 (TL1) File Transfer Protocols: TFTP, SFTP, and FTP Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Secure Shell (SSH) System logging (Syslog) Debug port for troubleshooting

These management interfaces are all supported inband. This means that the management interface is supported on top of an Ethernet / IP stack for which the Ethernet links are the Ethernet network links as mentioned in chapter System interface overview. If one such network link or uplink is dedicated only for management traffic, outband management can be realized as well. Only the CLI and TL1 management interfaces can also be realized with a dedicated RS232 interface.
Note When a firewall is in place between the network management stations and the ISAM network, it is required that the following UDP ports are opened on the firewall (for troubleshooting and migration reasons):

UDP port 23 as destination port UDP ports 928 939 (928 and 939 included) as source and
destination ports Not opening these ports on the firewall may lead to a reduced or failed troubleshooting access, or a failure to perform an ISAM migration, or both.

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4-3

4 Management Figure 4-2 ISAM management interfaces

Individual security control per management channel


RS232 serial interface

CLI

TL1
TL1 Agent

SNMP
SNMP SNMP v1/v2 v3 SNMP Client TFTP

File transfer
Server Client Server Client FTP SFTP

CLI Agent

Telnet server
23

SSH server
22

Telnet server
1023

SSH server
1022

161/162 13001 69 115 20

TCP

TCP

UDP

UDP

UDP

TCP

Secure Insecure Insecure

Secure Insecure Insecure

Secure Insecure

Secure

Insecure

Mutually exclusive

SNMP
The Simple Network Manager Protocol (SNMP) is used by network management applications like the 5520 AMS, the 5529 Statistics and Data Collector, or the 5530 Network Analyser to manage the ISAM. Three versions of SNMP exist:

SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1) uses a community string (that is, a plain-text


password in the SNMP messages) to verify if a request may be executed or not. This is very insecure. SNMP version2 (SNMPv2) has the same syntax and security level as SNMPv1, but has more commands, more error codes, different trap, and improved response SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3) provides authentication, privacy and administration for safe configuration and control operation. SNMPv3 also offers transaction-by-transaction security configuration settings.
Note SNMPv3 is supported by default. but also SNMPv2 and SNMPv1 messages can be processed.

SNMPv3

The security mechanisms defined in SNMPv3 protect against threats such as masquerade, modification of information, message stream modification, and disclosure and provide. The SNMPv3 security mechanisms provide:


4-4

data origin authentication data integrity checks timeliness indicator encryption

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4 Management

SNMPv3 allows for three different security levels in that messages between agent and manager can be:

unauthenticated and unencrypted authenticated but unencrypted both authenticated and encrypted
Two security-related capabilities are defined in SNMPv3: 1 User-based Security Model (USM): The USM provides authentication and privacy (encryption) functions and operates at the message level. In addition, the USM includes a key management capability that provides for key localization and key updates. The USM is used to authenticate entities, and provides encryption services to secure communication between agents and managers. Each agent keeps track of the authorized user access via an internal table of user/secrets/access entries. Both authentication and encryption utilize symmetric keys, which can be generated from a password. Localization of the authentication, and encryption of keys by hashing the generated key with the ID of each agent entity is strongly recommended. 2 View-based Access Control Model (VACM): The VACM verifies whether a given user is allowed to access a particular MIB object and perform particular functions (MIB views: read, write or notify access). The VACM makes an access control decision on the basis of:

TL1

the principal asking for access the security model and security level used for communicating the request the context to which access is requested the type of access requested (read, write, notify) the actual object to which access is requested.

The ISAM supports Transaction Language 1 (TL1) as management interface. This cross-vendor, cross-technology man-machine language is supported over UDP, telnet and SSH. Please check the following documents for the full list and details of all the supported TL1 commands and events in the ISAM:

7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN Operations and Maintenance Using TL1 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN TL1 Commands and Messages Guide
The ISAM supports up to:

five parallel TL1 sessions, when using TL1 over telnet or SHH ten parallel sessions are possible when using UDP
In total, a maximum of ten TL1 parallel sessions are supported. When using TL1 scripts, it is recommended to strictly limit the number of active, parallel TL1 scripts to two. Anyway the TL1 response should be awaited before launching a new TL1 command to the ISAM.
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4 Management

The TL1 login banner is configurable.

CLI
The ISAM supports a Command Line Interface (CLI) as management interface. This interface is primarily intended as a man-machine interface for the ISAM and is supported over telnet, SHH, and using the serial interface (Craft). Please check the following documents for the full list and details of all the supported CLI commands and events in the ISAM:

7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN Operations and Maintenance using CLI 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN CLI Command Guide
The ISAM supports up to ten parallel CLI sessions, be it over telnet or over SSH. There can only be 1 local Craft session.

xFTP

File Transfer Protocols

The ISAM supports 3 file transfer protocols: FTP, TFTP and SFTP. TFTP is the simplest of the 3 file transfer protocols, but lacks reliability and security capabilities. It runs on top of UDP and does not require any username-password combination. There is also no encryption of data. The ISAM supports both a TFTP client and server. In server mode, the ISAM can handle up to 14 TFTP sessions. FTP also lacks any encryption, but requires a username-password identification (anonymous access is not allowed) and runs on top of TCP/IP. The ISAM only supports an FTP client. SFTP has been introduced as part of the SSH implementation. When the ISAM acts as a SFTP client towards an external SFTP server, the ISAM uses an operator-configured username & password. The security settings like encryption, hashing and signature protocols can be configured by the operator via CLI or SNMPv3. The ISAM supports both a SFTP client and server. In server mode, the ISAM supports one SFTP session at a time. Also, in SFTP server mode, the user authentication coincides with the SSH authentication, that is, the same username/password or username/key-pair combinations apply. This means that once the operator has been configured for CLI or TL1 with a username/password or for SSH with a username/key pair, the same username can be used for setting up an SFTP session with the ISAM.
External xFTP servers

External (software download, backup/restore) xFTP servers can be configured in the ISAM. One and the same external server machine can be used as software download and backup/restore server, but they can be different machines as well. The servers might also be used in a redundant mode: if the first server cannot be reached, automatically the redundant one is tried. Multiple configurations are possible, depending on the situation and/or requirement of the customer.

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4 Management

Only one account (name, password) can be defined in the ISAM per external server:

Even in case of multiple applications (software download, backup) on one and


the same server, only one account can be specified The account data is stored in encrypted format The account data is not readable from any management interface, not even from the SNMP manager.
xFTP Protocol selection

The xFTP protocol to be used for example for software download/backup/restore/ operations can be configured in the ISAM as a system-wide selection. That is, only one xFTP protocol can be selected at a time per ISAM. The selected xFTP protocol will be used for all applications requiring xFTP, independent of the used xFTP server or application. Note however that as an FTP server is not supported in the ISAM (see section below), selecting FTP as protocol still allows to use the TFTP or SFTP server. When SFTP is selected as protocol though, the TFTP server will be disabled in the ISAM. Likewise, when selecting TFTP as protocol, the SFTP server will be disabled in the ISAM.

xNTP
The ISAM system time can be set in two ways:

the system time can be retrieved from a time server using the Simple Network
Time Protocol (SNTP) the system time can be set manually by the operator
SNTP Client

Typically, the ISAM system time is retrieved using SNTP. Although the ISAM only supports an SNTP client, the ISAM can cope both with SNTP servers and with NTP servers, using the SNTP protocol in both cases. Up to one (S)NTP server can be configured in the ISAM, specifying:

The IP@ of the server The port to be used The polling rate
This data can be set using SNMP, CLI or TL1. Apart from defining the (S)NTP server, using SNTP must be explicitly enabled/disabled at operator request. The (S)NTP server will always provide the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) time. No time zone or daylight savings settings are passed over the SNTP protocol.
Manual setting

The ISAM system time can also be set manually by the operator, using SNMP, CLI or TL1. Note however that if SNTP is enabled (see above), the set system time will be overwritten at the next SNTP poll by the UTC time.

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4 Management

Time zone offset

Using CLI or TL1 (not possible via SNMP), an operator can also specify a time zone offset in the ISAM, allowing the operator to mimic local time. This time zone offset:

Is taken into account once the ISAM system time is set for the first time, be it via
SNTP (at the first synchronization with the (S)NTP server), or manually (time set by the operator)

As long as the ISAM system time has not been set, the system time will remain fixed
to January 1, 1970

Is independent of the fact whether SNTP is enabled or not, that is, it will also be
applied when SNTP is disabled Has an allowed range of -780 to +780 minutes, with a default value of 0 minutes Is stored persistently The time zone offset is applied consistently for all applications in the ISAM, including SNMP, Syslog etc., i.e. the time applied by an application is always ISAM system time + time zone offset (note the default value being 0, even in case the operator did not specify any time zone offset value, the above statement still is correct).
Additional notes

Daylight savings can not be specified nor are applied automatically in the ISAM. ISAM management applications (5520 AMS, 5529 SDC, 5530 NA, ) typically
expect UTC timestamps from the managed nodes: the ISAM management application machine will typically apply a time zone and daylight savings correction on the timestamps received from the nodes, before displaying on the GUI, just like a with a PC. This also implies that if a time zone offset is set in the ISAM, different from 0, the timestamps on the GUI will be wrong as time corrections will be applied twice (once in the ISAM with the time zone offset and again on the management application itself). The ISAM management application typically will not take into account any time (zone) correction done in the node itself. Please check on the management applications for this aspect. The granularity of the ISAM time information, as provided by the ISAM applications exposing ISAM time information to external applications (Syslog, 5520 AMS, OSS, ), is seconds and has following format "yyyymmdd-hh:mm:ss".

SSH
Secure Shell (SSH) is a protocol that provides authentication, encryption, and data integrity to secure network communications. On top of this protocol, SSH implementations offer secure replacements for rsh, rlogin, rcp, ftp, and telnet, all of which transmit data over the network as clear text. In addition, it offers secure data-tunneling services for TCP/IP-based applications. SSH has a client-server architecture. The ISAM acts as the SSH server toward the manager; see Figure 4-3.

4-8

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4 Management Figure 4-3 SSH and SFTP client-server architecture


SSH CLI client appl ssh client

SSH Appl. protocol SSH transport


authentication, connnection NE
SSH Server

SSH CLI server appl ssh server - DB of client - Public keys or passwords

EMS SSH Client

Server authentication Secure link for CLI/TL1 Client authentication

SFTP Client

Secure link for SFTP

InterPeak

SFTP Server

- NE public key - NE private key - Supported algorithms

File SFTP Server

SFTP Client

- SFTP client - Username/password

Secure link for SW&DB

Secure link for the transfer from FileServer to NE (SW&DB)

SFTP server application

SFTP Appl. protocol SSH transport, authentic, connection protocol

SFTP client application

SSH server

SSH client

System logging
System logging (SYSLOG) allows you to trace and audit system behavior related to operator and /or system activities. System log entries are issued by actions such as CLI and TL1 user logins, but also by alarms and video CDR records, for example. With system logging, you can do the following:

create up to 64 custom system logs that can be saved locally or to a remote server
location

create filters to determine which messages are sent to the system log files monitor system logs
You can configure system logs using CLI, TL1 or an EMS.
File sets

The system logging works with file sets consisting of 2 log files. The operator can:

Trigger the wrap-around from file1 to file2 in order to upload a stable file1.
Note The ISAM will also automatically copy file 1 to file 2 when

file 1 is full. Both actions (automatic by system / manual by operator) are performed independently of each other.

Assign a name to this file set Specify the maximum size of the file set

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Configuring system logs

You can configure the following for each system log file:

system log filename (local only), entered using up to eight alphanumeric


characters followed by a dot separator and a three-alphanumeric character extension. Example: Alrmhigh.txt destination server type:

all active TL1 and CLI terminals (all-users) all active CLI terminals (all-CLI) all active TL1 terminals (all-TL1) single active TL1 terminal (TL1-user) local file (file:name:size) remote host (udp:port:serv-ip-addr)

destination server address, entered as an alphanumeric host name or in standard


dot format (maximum value 255.255.255.255); where 0.0.0.0 is entered for local files enable or disable logging delete a system log file When a system log file is full, the ISAM will automatically copy the file (file1) to a backup file (file2) and start overwriting the oldest entries in file1 again. You can also view system-wide information for system logs. This system-wide information includes the maximum message size allowed and statistics on the amount of combined disk space used by the local system logs. The combined maximum size of all locally saved system log files is 2 Mb.
System log filters

You can configure filters to define which messages get logged to which system log files, based on the message type; by default, all message types are logged to the system log files. Table 4-2 lists the possible message type and log severity parameters. You can select which messages are sent to specific system log files using filters and can group multiple message types.

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4 Management Table 4-2 Message type and log severity parameters


Item Message type Description Authentication actions CLI commands TL1 commands CLI messages TL1 messages All message types Parameter AUTH CLI_CONFIG TL1_CONFIG CLI_MSG TL1_MSG ALL

Log severity

Emergency Alert Critical Error Warning Notice Information Debug

EM AL CR ER WN NO IN DBG

Note Besides these message types, the alarms and the errors encountered in the system are also logged in the system log files.

Operator access to the system logs

The operator access to the log file is determined by the allowed priority (access control). Different users have different access rights to the system log file, that is, some users only have read priority, while other users with higher priority have read and write (=delete) priority. The local log files can only be retrieved via TFTP or SFTP. The removal of the files must be done via the management interface. The operator can access the log file only after successful authentication. The authentication is done via the transfer protocol:

no authentication for TFTP user authentication for SFTP


System log files are to be deleted explicitly by operator command.
Viewing and monitoring system logs

The contents of a system log can be viewed either dynamically or statically.

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You can monitor remote system logs dynamically on your CLI or TL1 terminal. Setting the destination server type for the system log file to all active CLI or all active TL1 terminals sends all messages to the active terminals that have a management session with the ISAM. When you are finished monitoring the system log, deactivate system logging for that server. You can view the static contents of a system log file that is saved to a remote server location using any text-based editor.

4.3

Management interfaces security


In order to make the ISAM securely managed, the operator must make sure that:

A dedicated management access model is applied. The secure variants of the used management channels are used. A secure operator authentication method is used Unused management interfaces are closed. The debug port for troubleshooting is closed.

Management interfaces
The following management interfaces can be secured (refer to Figure 4-2):

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)


Can be secured by way of SNMPv3:

Command Line Interface (CLI):


Can be secured by way of Secure Shell (SSH)

Transaction Language 1 (TL1):


Can be secured by way of SSH

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP):
Can be secured by way of Secured File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) Apart from xFTP, which is a system-wide, exclusive setting, the system allows both the secure and the insecure variant of a management interface to coexist, so that the operator is still able to contact the system in case the security setup would fail. Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) does not have a secure variant. It is configured to listen to a single SNTP server (for example the Element Management System). This configuration is done via one of the management interfaces listed above. Since the operator can secure these interfaces, the SNTP configuration can be secured.

Encryption and authentication


SSH, SFTP and SNMPv3 support encryption and authentication. Table 4-3 shows the supported combinations.

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4 Management Table 4-3 Supported SSH and SNMP Authentication and Encryption Schemes
Security protocol SSH, SFTP Encryption algorithm 3DES, blowfish, AES, DES-56 Authentication algorithm Hmac-sha-1, hmac-sha-1-96 Authentication mechanism Username/password(1) Username/public and private Key Combinations

Nothing Encryption only Authorization only Encryption and authorization Nothing Authorization only Encryption and authorization

SNMPv3

DES-56

Hmac-sha-1, hmac-md5

Username/password(1) Note: Different password per SNMP engine.

Note
(1)

The username/password combinations of SSH and SNMPv3 can not be reused.

Security configuration
The configuration of the initial security parameters and user names in the system is only possible via CLI. Only the operator with security administrator rights has the authorization to change the security configuration and to add or remove users. Once the secure channel has been setup, the SNMPv3 parameters can also be configured by way of the secured SNMPv3. For TL1 and CLI, the security configuration remains a privilege of the security administrator (concept known in both TL1 and CLI).

Default username and password


Two command session interfaces (CLI and TL1) are available to the operator to configure the system. To access these interfaces for the first time, the operator has to use the default username and password. However, for security purposes, the default username and password must be changed as soon as possible. For CLI the system prompts the operator to do this when he or she logs in for the first time.

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4.4

Management access models

Introduction
In most deployment models, the ISAM will use a specific management VLAN for management. Management access security in this case is guaranteed as follows:

Any management access to the ISAM via a VLAN which is not the management
VLAN is not possible. Such traffic will be dropped.

There is a clear separation between management traffic and user traffic. Management access is only possible via network ports. The aggregation and core
network should be designed in such a way that non-authorized users cannot get access to the management VLAN on the network port. The management access policy will always be a combination of access checks on different layers:

Layer 1: specific serial connector (for example, CRAFT cable) Layer 2: a dedicated management VLAN. Layer 3: specific IP ACLs (checks on traffic received via ingress ports) Layer 4 - 7: authentication on protocol level

Using SSH: user password or private public key Using Telnet: user password Using UDP: user password
The ISAM can support different management models to secure the access to the management plane depending on the system configuration:

Management via a single management IP address and a specific management


VLAN Management via the IP loopback address

Management via a single management IP address


A dedicated external management VLAN (4093) is used. The management IP address and management protocols are only accessible via the external management VLAN.

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4 Management Figure 4-4 Management via a single management IP address


Management traffic User traffic

ACL

IACM

Management IP stack

default-route 10.177.127.254

Management IP Address 10.177.0.122/17

Phy
External management VLAN 4093

Phy LAG Phy


VLAN 11

iBridge VLAN 23

NT ISAM

LT

Access Control List (ACL)-based filtering on the ingress ports is possible. The filtering can be on source IP address/mask and destination port number/range. This allows to protect management against DOS attacks

Management via the IP loopback address


ISAM management via loopback interface provides a management interfacing capability in an IP routing forwarding model. The IP loopback address is used as management IP address. This mode is required when the ISAM has to be managed via an IP address reachable through the NT router. The advantage of such an interface is that the management IP address of the ISAM is decoupled from the IP subnet configured between the ISAM and the attached IP edge router. This allows a network configuration where the aggregation network contains several IP edge routers all reusing the same IP subnet addresses towards the ISAMs they aggregate (see Figure 4-5) and minimizes router configuration. The forwarding tables of the edge routers are updated by a routing protocol such as RIP.

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4 Management Figure 4-5 Management loopback interface


Intermediate Subnet C allocated per IP edge, shared over multiple ISAMs

ISAM1 FIB (SHub) ISAM1 RIP {IP_A1}(*)


0.0.0.0/0 IP_C2;next-hop=IP_C1 Subnet C IP_C2; dir attached

AMS FIB
IP_A1/32 ... IP_B1;next-hop=IP_B2

RIP {IP_A1,IP_A2}(*) IP Edge1 IP_C1

IP_C2

VRF

IP_A1

IP_B2 AMS IP_B1

ISAM2 RIP {IP_A2} IP_C3 VRF EMAN ISAM3 RIP {IP_A3}

Loopback interface with 32 IP addresses allocated for management

IP_A2

IP Edge 1 FIB
Subnet B Subnet C IP_A1/32 IP_A2/32 ... IP_B1; dir attached IP_C1; dir attached IP_C1;next-hop=IP_C2 IP_C1;next-hop=IP_C3

(*) IP_Cx not advertised IP_A3

RIP {IP_A3,IP_A4}(*) IP_B3 IP Edge2 IP_C1

IP_C2

VRF

ISAM4 RIP {IP_A4}

host routes installed via RIP

IP_C3 VRF

IP_A4

Reusing the same IP subnet on all IP edge routers simplifies their configuration on the ISAM side. Of course it is required that the IP edge router does not advertise this shared IP subnet to the network. In order to save addressing space, the loopback IP address is configured as a /32 subnet mask.
Figure 4-6 Management via the IP loopback address
Management traffic User traffic

IACM

Management IP stack

default-route: network interface IP address

Loopback IP address /32

Phy

Internal management VLAN 4093

Unnumbered interface

VRF Phy LAG Phy


VLAN 11
External management network interface VLAN IP address 600 /18

iBridge VLAN 23

NT ISAM

LT

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4 Management

The security in this case is based on:

Layer 2 + Layer 3 combined: A specific external management VLAN ACL rules which limited the access to the management loopback IP address to this
external management VLAN

Optional ACL rules which limits the access to specific management stations
identified by IP address

Layer 4-7: specific authentication mechanisms on application level

4.5

Counters and statistics


Counters and statistics serve various purposes in the ISAM, like troubleshooting, network dimensioning and SLA adherence and are defined on both the network and subscriber side of the ISAM. They can be retrieved from the ISAM using CLI, TL1, or an Element Management System (EMS). See the following documents for detailed information and the detailed command definitions for retrieving the ISAM counters and/or statistics using CLI or TL1:

7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN Operations and Maintenance Using CLI for FD
24Gbps NT

7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN TL1 Commands and Messages for FD 24Gbps NT

4.6

Alarm management
Alarm management enables you to manage alarm reporting for the ISAM. You can manage the following alarm attributes and alarm reporting functions for all basic system alarms, interface related alarms, derived alarms, and Threshold Crossing Alarm (TCA) alarm indications:

alarm category and definition (fixed per release) alarm severity (intermediate, warning, minor, major, and critical) alarm is service affecting (yes, no) alarm must be reported (yes, no) alarm must be logged (yes, no) alarm lists and logs severity thresholds, that is, the minimum severity of an alarm in order to be logged or reported in the alarm snapshot and the alarm-changed trap) alarm filters: affect the way in which the ISAM reports its own alarms, as well as the alarms from connected remote expansion units. See the 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN CLI Commands for FD 24Gbps NT and the 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN TL1 Commands and Messages for FD 24Gbps NT documents for alarm management command definitions.

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Alarm categories and definition


There are four alarm categories:

non-interface related alarms: these alarms include basic system alarms such as
equipment failure alarms.

interface related alarms: these alarms involve ATM and xDSL interfaces. derived alarms: these alarms are raised in the system when programmed temporal
or spatial alarm filters are used (that is, alarms generated when the conditions set in an alarm filter are met). See section Programmable alarm filters for more information about programmable alarm filters and derived alarms. TCA alarms: these alarms are generated when a Performance Monitoring (PM) counter crosses a defined threshold value. Alarms use the same definition method that consists of two main parts:

the alarm type, which provides a general definition of the type of alarm; for
example, an xDSL alarm. the alarm number, which identifies a specific alarm within that type; for example, a near-end LOS alarm You can view alarm types and definitions as they are recorded in alarm lists and logs using the TL1, CLI or an EMS like the 5520 AMS. See the 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN Operation and Maintenance Using CLI for FD 24Gbps NT document for a complete listing of all alarms, along with their definitions. Alarm definitions are not user configurable.

Alarm severity
Managed alarms are assigned a default minimum alarm severity level. There are five alarm severity levels listed in ascending order of severity:

indeterminate warning minor major critical

When the severity level of an alarm equals or exceeds the (system-wide) minimum severity level, that particular alarm is forwarded to the alarm reporting and logging filters where it is reported and logged as defined for that particular alarm. For TCA alarms, when the TCA feature is enabled for an xDSL subscriber line, alarm indications are always sent to the alarm reporting and logging filters. Whenever a minor, major, or critical alarm is received, the corresponding alarm LED on the faceplate of the alarm control unit installed in the shelf is activated. You can configure the (system-wide) minimum alarm severity level and the individual severity level of an alarm using the CLI or an EMS. See the 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN CLI Commands for FD 24Gbps NT for alarm management command definitions. Changing the severity level for an alarm only affects new alarm events and does not affect alarm indications that have already passed through the alarm reporting and logging filters.

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4 Management

Alarm lists and logs


You can set the alarm logging and reporting mode for individual alarms. When alarm logging and reporting are enabled, alarm indications are always sent to the appropriate alarm list and alarm log when the minimum alarm severity level for the alarm is reached. Alarm logging and reporting are enabled by default. There are three types of alarm list:

current alarm list snapshot alarm list alarm severity delta logging list
The current alarm list and the snapshot alarm list display only the currently active alarms. When the alarm reporting mode is enabled, alarm indications are sent to the current alarm list. The alarm severity delta logging list is a log (one for each alarm severity) of alarm indications that can be accessed at any time and contains a historic record of alarm events (start and end of active alarm). Only alarms that have their alarm logging mode enabled appear on these alarm severity delta lists.

Current and snapshot alarm lists


The current alarm list changes dynamically as alarms are detected and pass through the alarm filters. Because the list changes dynamically, it is impossible to get a consistent view of the active alarm status. Therefore, if a stable view of the alarms is preferred, the snapshot alarm list captures a momentary view of the active alarm status at the time it is requested by the user. You can configure the minimum severity level of the active alarms in the snapshot list and you have access to the snapshot alarm list for a maximum time period of up to 120 seconds. The snapshot alarm list provides the active alarms ordered first by severity (high to low), and then on time-of-occurrence.

Alarm severity delta logging list


A separate alarm severity delta logging list exists for each of the five alarm severity levels. Each change in the alarm condition, such as a change of alarm state from alarm-on to alarm-off, is logged. Alarm state changes are logged in order of occurrence. You can define the maximum size of each alarm severity delta logging list, in addition to setting a maximum total sum of all logs kept by the system. You can set the action to be taken when the alarm severity delta logging list reaches the configured maximum size:

continuous wrap entries, where newer entries overwrite the oldest ones. An flag
is set to indicate that there was a wrap-around

halt alarm logging when the logging list is full. In this case, alarm logging
resumes only after the alarm logging list is manually reset by the operator. Resetting an alarm severity delta logging list empties the contents of that list. This step is required before reducing the size of a logging list and when resuming alarm logging after the logging has been halted as the logging list was full.

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Alarm filters
There are three types of filters:

alarm logging filter: determines if the alarm indication should be processed and
recorded in one of the five alarm severity delta logging lists.

alarm reporting filter: determines if the alarm indication should be processed for
a current view or snapshot list. programmable alarm filters: enable you to customize how alarm reporting occurs for specific diagnostic and monitoring scenarios. Alarm filtering applies to both non-interface related alarms, such as equipment failure alarms, and to interface related alarms, such as ATM and xDSL interfaces. It is possible to enable and disable alarm filtering for individual alarms.

Programmable alarm filters


There are two types of programmable alarm filters: temporal alarm filters and spatial alarm filters. You can define a maximum of 31 temporal alarm filters and 31 spatial alarm filters. See the 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN TL1 Commands and Messages for FD 24Gbps NT document for programmable alarm filter command definitions. The filters can also be configured using an EMS. There is no CLI support. When you use programmable temporal or spatial alarm filters, the ISAM raises a derived alarm whenever the conditions of the alarm filter are met. The resulting derived alarm has the same identification parameters as the alarm filter that generated the derived alarm.
Temporal and spatial alarm filters

Using temporal alarm filters, you can limit the number of alarm state changes that are reported for a particular alarm. For alarms that are frequently raised, you can create a temporal alarm filter that will report only one alarm state change for a set number of state changes that occur over a specified length of time. You can configure the threshold for the number of state changes, and the time period of the filtering window. Since temporal alarm filters are severity based, only alarm indications that equal or exceed the alarm severity level are counted. In other words, it makes no sense to configure a temporal alarm filter on an alarm that has a severity below the global alarm severity level. A derived alarm is raised in the ISAM when the number of alarm events reaches the set threshold during the filtering window time period. Figure 4-7 shows how a temporal alarm filter raises a derived alarm after the configured threshold is reached. In this example, the threshold is set to three. When three alarm conditions occur during the configured alarm filter time period, a derived alarm is raised.

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4 Management Figure 4-7 Temporal alarm filter raising a derived alarm


Alarm severity 15 minutes Set level 15 minutes 15 minutes 15 minutes

Time

Alarm ON

Alarm ON Alarm OFF

Alarm ON

Alarm ON Alarm OFF

Alarm OFF

Alarm OFF

CONFIGURED ALARM FILTER TIME PERIOD 1 2 3 Derived alarm ON Derived alarm OFF

The derived alarm condition remains on until the end of the filtering window and is cleared at the end of each filtering window time period. Temporal alarm filters are useful for TCA alarms that can be raised frequently. Using temporal alarm filters, you can filter out minor TCA alarm indications and provide better visibility of major TCA alarm conditions. Using spatial alarm filters, you can create a unique alarm condition such that when a specified group of individual alarms are raised, a derived alarm is reported. This is used to identify alarm conditions that are characterized by a certain set of alarm conditions occurring simultaneously. Say, for example, that 100 objects in the system can experience the same alarm condition. A spatial alarm can be configured on top of the basic alarm. The spatial alarm is generated (that is, derived alarm ON condition) at the moment that a predefined number of these objects are in alarm (that is, basic alarm ON condition). Identification of alarm filters and derived alarms consists of two main parts: a type identifier and a number. Temporal and spatial alarm filters have a unique filter type identifier. Derived alarms have a unique alarm type identifier. The number used in the identification of derived alarms matches the number assigned to the alarm filter that generates the derived alarm. Additionally, each derived alarm entry recorded in alarm reporting and logging lists contains the identification of the affected component. In the case of an interface related derived alarm, the identification of the affected interface is provided. The state change of a derived alarm must pass through the alarm reporting and logging filters before being added to the alarm reporting lists (current and snapshot alarm lists) and the alarm severity delta logging lists respectively. A derived alarm that is generated from a temporal filter is identified as an interface-related alarm if the basic alarm, referenced by the filter, is also an interface-related alarm. The derived alarms generated from spatial alarm filters are always identified as non-interface-related alarms.

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Configuring programmable alarm filters and derived alarms

You can activate and deactivate alarm filters after they are created using TL1 and/or an EMS like the 5520 AMS. When you create a temporal or spatial alarm filter, the ISAM automatically copies the parameter settings of the basic alarm to which the alarm filter applies, and uses those parameter settings as default settings for the derived alarm. The settings include:

alarm category severity level service affecting or non-service affecting reporting mode logging mode

You can change these settings for the derived alarm, but not if the alarm filter is active. You must first deactivate the alarm filter. After the filter is deactivated, you can configure the filtering threshold, filtering window, and the alarm to which the filter applies. Once configured, you must manually reactivate the alarm filter.
Alarm reporting

Alarm reporting of the basic and derived alarms occurs differently, depending on whether or not alarm filters are configured for the basic alarm. If no alarm filters are configured for the basic alarm, then alarm state changes of the basic alarm are always reported to the appropriate alarm reporting and logging lists when the alarm conditions are met. If a temporal alarm filter is configured for a basic alarm, only state changes of the derived alarm are recorded in the appropriate alarm reporting and logging lists during the time period when the derived alarm is on. During the off period, state changes of the basic alarm are recorded in the appropriate alarm reporting and logging lists. With spatial alarm filters, both the derived alarm state changes and the basic alarm state changes are recorded in the appropriate alarm reporting and logging lists.

4.7

Software and database management


Software and database management is all about controlling the software versions and databases on the system. On the ISAM a set of software and database management features are available, that are both powerful and efficient from an operational point of view.

OSWP and databases


The ISAM is capable of hosting an active (operational) and a non-active (stand-by) Operational SoftWare Package (OSWP). Each package consists of a software version and a set of system databases. Only one of the 2 OSWP packages can be active in the ISAM, but the operator can switch between packages, making the one operational, and the other stand-by.

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4 Management

Each package also consists of a set of system databases, more in particular the SHub database, the IACM database and the xVPS databases (one physical database per xVPS pair). From an operational point of view, if not mentioned otherwise explicitly, the actions (backup, restore, migrate) will be executed on the set as a whole, not on an individual database of the set.

Software upgrade and migration


Of course there are rules on compatibility between software and databases: a package can only become active, when the software version and the system databases in the package are compatible with one another. In this context, we make a distinction between:

Software upgrade is the process to upgrade a network element to a higher


software release not involving a migration of the system databases - there is no system database change This procedure is typically to be used when upgrading to a release in the same software stream, for example, from R3.6.01 to R3.6.03c Migration is the process to upgrade a network element to a higher software release requiring a migration of the system databases This procedure is normally to be used when upgrading to a release from a higher software stream, for example, from R3.6.01 to R4.0.02 A complete software upgrade/migration activity comprises of a sequence of actions: 1 The operator demands the system to download a new OSWP. This demand is the trigger for the system to initiate a file transfer session with the external file server specified by the operator. So it is not the operator who puts the software on the system disk. The operator starts an off-line conversion of the DB from the source release to the destination release. It is the responsibility of the off-line migration tool to upload the complete DB, convert it to the destination release and the download it to the node again. When the new OSWP is downloaded, the operator activates this new software and database set. The system will restart and come up with an upgraded software version. All persistent configuration data remains available. Once the upgrade is successful, the operator can remove the former software and database package from the system in order to free space for the next upgrade.

Note that migrations and software upgrades do not have to be between consecutive software releases/streams: the necessary functionality has been provided to be able to 'skip' intermediate upgrade/migration steps. While no point for software upgrades, this is less evident for migrations. Also, in case of a failure to upgrade, the ISAM will automatically switch back to the old software and database package and resume services.

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Backup and restore


Next to a software upgrade and/or migration, DB management also requires the regular creation of backups in order to minimize the configuration loss in case of a system crash. This can be done either manually or automatically on a periodic basis. These ISAM backups can afterwards be restored on the ISAM if needed. Basically there is a distinction between 2 kinds of backup files:

dm_complete<something>.tar
This is a backup of the complete ISAM database, -including- all management data, like the IP address, the SNMP community strings and so on, required to make remote management of the ISAM possible dm<something>.tar This is the same as the 'dm_complete.tar' kind of file, but -without- all management data Typically only the 'dm.tar' kind of file is restored as otherwise the management data, required to have remote management of the ISAM, would be overwritten as well. The <something> can be any text suitable for a file name, and, in case of automatic backup enabled, this specifies the system IP address and the timestamp of creation. The configuration data of the ISAM is autonomously saved to the ISAM database on the NT CF at different criteria:

IACM: the database changes are cached in the system and autonomously saved
to the CF

Every 30 seconds, and/or Whenever the cache of 5K is full (corresponds to 22 database updates), and/or On request of an IACM application e.g. to safeguard some critical data (software
steered), and/or

As part of an ISAM database backup request xVPS: the database changes are autonomously saved to CF Every 10 minutes if the xVPS configuration has changed indeed and the last xVPS SHub: the database changes are autonomously saved to CF Every 10 minutes if the SHub configuration has changed indeed and the last SHUB
configuration change is at least 1 minute ago, and/or configuration change is at least 1 minute ago, and/or As part of an ISAM database backup request

As part of an ISAM database backup request


The SHub configuration data can be saved to NT CF (database) at operator request as well, e.g. at the end of a SHub configuration script. This is however not possible for the IACM data.

Active load
And last but not least, the release name of the current active ISAM software package (e.g. R3.6.01) can be consulted via SNMP, TL1 and CLI.

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4.8

Equipment monitoring

NT CPU load
The average NT CPU load can be monitored using CLI, TL1 and/or an Element Management System. For SHub-based systems, both the IACM and SHub CPU loads are monitored. The CPU load is expressed as a percentage, ranging from 0% (no load at all) to 100% (full load), and represents the average CPU load over the monitored period. The monitoring is to be started and stopped explicitly at operator request. By default (at ISAM start-up), the monitoring is not active. Once started at operator request, the monitoring of the CPU load continues until the operator explicitly stops the monitoring.

NT memory usage
The actual NT memory usage can be polled using CLI, TL1 and/or an Element Management System. For SHub-based systems, both the actual memory usage of the SHub and IACM is counted. Both the absolute value (expressed in Mbytes) as well as the relative value (used percentage of the total available memory) is returned: always the actual values as of the moment of the request are returned.

Thermal sensor data


Thermal sensor data can be retrieved from each board equipped with thermal sensors and running software (so, for example, not from a passive splitter board). The data of all the thermal sensors on a particular board in an ISAM can be retrieved on-line at request of the operator. Per thermal sensor, the following data can be retrieved (all expressed in degrees Celsius):

actual temperature low threshold temperature for TCA (T0_low) high threshold temperature for TCA (T0_high) low threshold temperature for shutdown (T1_low) high threshold temperature for shutdown (T1_high)

Only read access is provided for these parameters and none of the threshold temperature parameters can be changed by the operator. They are fine-tuned by Alcatel-Lucent in function of the actual board type and board variant. The thermal sensor data as specified above can be retrieved via CLI, TL1 and/or using an Element Management System, and are always the actual values as measured at the moment of the request.

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4 Management

4.9

Access node control protocol


The purpose of the Access Node Control Protocol (ANCP) (also known as Layer 2 Control Protocol (L2CP)) is to allow a Broadband Network Gateway (BNG) to manage service related parameters of a DSLAM. The relevant standard is still under definition in IETF. In the ISAM a pre-standard is implemented. In the draft ANCP standard some basic capabilities are defined, of which 2 are currently supported on the ISAM:

Access Topology Discovery:


Provides dynamic discovery of access topology by the BNG to provide tight QOS control in the access network (that is, the Ethernet Aggregation network up to and including the xDSL access loops). This can be done, for example, by shaping the traffic towards the user at the bitrate currently available in the xDSL line of the user. Layer 2 Operations and Maintenance: BNG controlled, on-demand xDSL access loop test capability. In the ISAM up to 32 ANCP partitions can be configured, each partition grouping a number of xDSL subscriber lines (excluding SHDSL lines and bonding interfaces). One particular xDSL subscriber line can only belong to maximum 1 ANCP partition and each partition is managed by a dedicated set of BRASs via an ANCP session. The partitions are created and identified by the ISAM operator: the BNG/BRAS cannot set its own partition ID. Up to 64 different ANCP sessions are supported, where for each ANCP partition, multiple sessions can be defined. But it is not allowed for one session to manage multiple partitions. The BRAS and aggregation switches are directly attached to the ISAM via a L2 EMAN, through a dedicated VLAN, distinct from the VLAN used for ISAM management. The VLAN used for ANCP is hard coded to 6 and cannot be modified. An alarm is raised whenever the ANCP connection between BRAS and ISAM is lost for some reason.

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Line testing features

5.1 Overview

5-2 5-4 5-7 5-8 5-9

5.2 Metallic test access

5.3 Single-Ended Line Testing 5.4 Dual-ended line testing

5.5 Metallic-Ended Line Testing 5.6 ATM F5 5-10

5.7 Link Related Ethernet OAM 5.8 Narrowband Line Testing 5.9 SFP diagnostics 5-14

5-10 5-12

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5 Line testing features

5.1

Overview
This chapter describes the various line testing features within the ISAM and ISAM Voice. All line testing capabilities provide a means to execute pro-active and/or re-active measurements to diagnose (potential) issues with the deployed equipment. As such they can:

bring OPEX savings such as the ability to save on buying external test equipment,
avoiding truck rolls increase customer satisfaction due to decreased service degradations or interrupts. The line testing capabilities depend upon the type of interface. For an overview of the different types of interfaces (both for ISAM and ISAM Voice), see chapter System interface overview. ISAM and ISAM Voice support testing for Ethernet network and subtending interfaces. The ISAM supports various types of DSL interfaces (ATM or PTM mode) at the subscriber side, as well as Ethernet interfaces. The ISAM Voice supports POTS and ISDN lines at the subscriber side. The ISAM and ISAM Voice support line testing capabilities on all these types of interfaces. But before considering the line test capabilities of these lines, we have to consider the nature of DSL versus POTS and ISDN. DSL is a transmission technology that works in overlay with POTS or ISDN lines:

narrowband is used for the POTS or ISDN signals broadband is used for the DSL signal.
Both narrowband and broadband signals can be transported simultaneously on one physical line and a splitter technology is used to multiplex or split these signals. The part of the ISAM processing broadband is named the DSL line. The part of the ISAM Voice processing narrowband is named the POTS line or the ISDN line. Therefore, although a DSL line and a POTS or ISDN line are distinct lines from the perspective of the ISAM or the ISAM Voice, they can correspond to one physical line. Therefore, some tests will test the DSL line (broadband), other tests will test the POTS or ISDN line (narrowband), but some tests will affect both. The splitter technology can be integrated or can be outside of the ISAM or the ISAM Voice (refer to the 7302 ISAM Product Information or the 7330 ISAM FTTN Product Information). If integrated, this technology is supported by dedicated boards (appliques) that are managed from the ISAM. The splitter boards work in conjunction with the DSL LT boards. The physical lines, carrying both broadband and narrowband, are identified with the same identifier as the DSL line. The overview of the line testing features:

tests for the physical subscriber line: Metallic Test Access (MTA)
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5 Line testing features

tests for a DSL line: MTA Single-Ended Line Test (SELT) Dual-Ended Line Test (DELT) the DSL line can be of ATM or of PTM mode: For DSL lines of ATM mode: ATM F5 For DSL lines of PTM mode: Link related Ethernet OAM tests for a POTS or ISDN line: MTA Narrowband Line testing tests for an Ethernet subscriber line: Link related Ethernet OAM tests for an Ethernet network or subtending interface: SFP diagnostics
Note that MTA appears on the list of test capabilities for the physical line, the DSL line, and for the POTS/ISDN line. This reflects that some MTA tests are for broadband, some for narrowband, some are outward toward the subscriber line, and some are inward to the MODEM/SLIC.
Figure 5-1 Position line testing capabilities for DSL - POTS/ISDN lines

DSL applique RTU


(MTA)

Relays

Subscriber line

DSL LT

(SELT, DELT)

Modem

DSL line

LPF
Towards PSTN or ISAM Voice

Voice LT
SLIC
(Narrowband line testing) POTS/ISDN line

Relays

Voice applique

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5 Line testing features

5.2

Metallic test access


MTA provides a set of subscriber line tests both for narrowband and for broadband. MTA is performed on a line-by-line basis using TL1 or AMS. MTA is a partially integrated test facility:

MTA relies on a non-integrated Remote Test Unit (RTU) that is connected to the
ISAM or ISAM Voice.

MTA requires MTA-capable appliques terminating the subscriber line.


MTA can be used to set the relays so that the RTU gets outward access to, for example, the narrowband physical line, the broadband physical line, or the full physical line. MTA also allows setting the relays so the RTU gets inward access to test, for example, the narrowband towards the LT board terminating the POTS or ISDN line, or the broadband towards the LT board terminating the DSL line. Note that it is possible to test the narrowband of a line from two different places:

the narrowband line can be tested outward from the Voice applique, in which case
it is managed as a test of the POTS line. Although the MTA technology applies in principle to POTS and ISDN, it must be noted that it is supported only for POTS. the narrowband line can be tested outward from the splitter board (DSL applique) that is associated with a DSL LT board, in which case it is managed as a test of the DSL line. In this way the MTA technology is supported for POTS and for ISDN lines. It is also possible to equip collocated expansion shelves with MTA-capable appliques and to connect them to the host shelf with a cable, to support the same tests from the RTU connected to the host shelf. Some tests can be executed during turn-up of a subscriber line, for example, the operator can test the line to verify whether it is suited to carry the promised xDSL service. After the service has been established, the operator can also perform a variety of tests during routine or diagnostic tests. Testing using MTA can be either single-ended or dual-ended.

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5 Line testing features

Test access modes


The following test access modes are supported for each Test Access Port (TAP):

Released mode: releases all test connections and frees all TAP resources. Loop around mode: characterizes the TAP so that its influence can be deducted
from the parameters measured during the split access mode. Split access mode: provides a breaking connection that allows the test system testing outwards toward the line and testing inward towards the LT equipment.
Note Only full MTA requires all the test access modes.

Figure 5-2 shows the test access modes.


Figure 5-2 Test access modes
Released
Line Facility pair RTU xTU-C Equipment pair DSLAM PSTN LPF Equipment pair DSLAM LPF PSTN Line Facility pair RTU xTU-C Equipment pair DSLAM LPF PSTN RTU Facility pair xTU-C

Loop around
Line

Split access

The two following access modes are partial implementations of the split-access mode and are called limited test access:

Limited outward access mode: provides a breaking connection that allows testing
outward toward the line. The Low Pass Filter (LPF) and the line to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) remain connected to the line. This limits the number of measurements that the test system is capable of. Undisturbed outward access mode: provides a breaking connection that allows testing outward toward the line. The LPF and the line to the PSTN are either not present or they have been removed from the line. This ensures that the measurements are not disturbed by the presence of the LPF or the DC battery voltage that is put on the line. Figure 5-3 shows the partial implementations of split-access mode.

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5 Line testing features Figure 5-3 Partial implementations of split-access mode

Limited outward access


Line Facility pair
RTU RTU

Undisturbed outward access


Line Facility pair

x-TU-C Equipment pair DSLAM LPF PSTN Equipment pair DSLAM LPF

x-TU-C

PSTN

MTA support in the 7302 ISAM


Full test access scenarios are supported, using the Metallic Test Access Unit (MTAU) function. The MTAU function is implemented using a test applique and LT appliques, which are present in the splitter shelf. Using this function, a test head or Remote Test Unit (RTU) can get metallic access to a line in the 7302 ISAM by way of a TAP, to perform the necessary tests.

MTA support in the 7330 ISAM FTTN


Full test access scenarios are supported in the 7330 ISAM FTTN. The expansion nodes (expansion shelf and REM/SEM) do not support MTA.

The 7330 ISAM FTTN shelf supports MTA through an MTAU function
implemented by the test access board (or NTIO board with MTA function), in conjunction with the multi-ADSL and POTS splitter appliques. All units must be present in their respective shelf for the MTAU function to operate. Using this MTAU function, a test head or RTU can use a single TAP on the test access board to get metallic access to any subscriber line connected to the 7330 ISAM FTTN. The 7330 ISAM FTTN shelf uses an RJ-45 MTA connector on the test access board as the TAP for the test in and test out signals between the testhead and the shelf. The 7330 ISAM FTTN shelf uses these boards to provide a relay-based matrix to connect the test in and test out signals with the backplane for connection to the appropriate applique installed in the shelf. The 7330 ISAM FTTN shelf supports MTA on the multi-ADSL and POTS splitter appliques. On-board relays are used to connect the test in and test out signals to the appropriate connected subscriber line.
Note 1 The MTA test bus may be interconnected / daisy chained

for up to 8 collocated FTTN host nodes using a maximum cable length of 10 m.


Note 2 Since MTA is currently supported on host nodes only, the

Test Operating System must insure that only one port in this daisy chain configuration is enabled at any one time

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5 Line testing features

Test Access Control


Test Access Control (TAC) is done with TL1 commands, which are sent using the TL1 agent of the 7302 ISAM or 7330 ISAM FTTN shelves in response to the test head.

5.3

Single-Ended Line Testing


Single-Ended Line Testing (SELT) tests the DSL line from the DSL LT board. SELT does not require CPE to be connected to the peer side of the line. SELT can be used as a base for a DSL service level agreement between provider and customer, and for fault detection, and monitoring of line degradation. SELT works together with external data analysis software, such as the Alcatel-Lucent 5530 Network Analyzer (5530 NA), to provide loop prequalification and maintenance of the network.
Note See the 5530 Network Analyzer User Guide for more information about SELT using the 5530 NA.

SELT can be performed from the DSL LT board without need for support by the CPE or for a craftsman to be present at the customer premises. SELT is based on Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR). An excitation signal is sent on the line and its echo response is analyzed. Processing of the echo response is done in the 5530 NA. The polarity and position of the reflections indicate the loop length, attenuation, presence of a gauge wire change, and an open, short, or bridged tap and its distance from the DSL LT board of the line under test. SELT provides a line test tool built inside the xDSL modem to measure the loop characteristics between the U-C and the U-R interface and allows for:

detection and location of metallic faults (open/short). detection, location and length of bridge taps. noise measurement and detection of interferences. measurement of the line attenuation. estimation of the maximum achievable bit rate. estimation of the line length.

The operator can check the presence and quality of, for example, a wire termination Main Distribution Frame (MDF) or SAI / DFI (Service Area / Feeder Distribution Interface). This feature can be of help in situations where this interconnection is being provisioned by a third party.

SELT support
SELT measurements are supported on the following boards:

multi-ADSL LT boards VDSL LT boards


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5 Line testing features

SELT measurements
The following SELT measurements and tests are supported:

uncalibrated echo response echo variance noise


The ISAM allows up to 5 simultaneous SELT measurements per LT board.

5.4

Dual-ended line testing


Dual-Ended Line Testing (DELT) tests the DSL line from the DSL LT board. DELT requires a CPE to be connected to the peer side of the line. This loop diagnostics function enables the immediate measurement of line conditions at both ends of the line without dispatching maintenance technicians to attach test equipment to the line. The resulting information helps to isolate the location (inside the premises, near the customer end of the line, or near the network end of the line) and the sources (cross-talk, radio frequency interference, and bridged tap) of impairments.

DELT support
DELT measurements are supported on the following boards:

multi-ADSL LT boards VDSL LT boards DELT measurements


The following diagnostic measurement data are collected during a test using DELT:

actual operational mode operational mode capabilities (ATU-C/ATU-R) SNR margin (US/DS) loop attenuation (US/DS) signal attenuation (US/DS) aggregate output power (US/DS) actual PSD (US/DS) attainable bit rate (US/DS) modem identification parameter: ATU-R ModemVendorID carrier-related data: Hlog (US/DS), Hlin (US/DS), QLN PSD (US/DS), SNR (US/DS)

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5 Line testing features

5.5

Metallic-Ended Line Testing


Metallic-Ended Line Testing (MELT) tests the DSL line from the DSL LT board. MELT does not require the CPE to be connected to the peer side of the line. MELT can be used as a base for fault detection and monitoring of line degradation. MELT works together with external data analysis software, such as the Alcatel-Lucent 5530 Network Analyzer (5530 NA), to provide loop prequalification and maintenance of the network. Also basic management to start measurements and report results is provided through CLI.
Note See the 5530 Network Analyzer User Guide for more information about MELT using the 5530 NA.

MELT is performed from the DSL LT board without need for support by the CPE or for a craftsman to be present at the customer premises. The MELT functionality is based on the technology for the narrowband POTS subscriber lines. MELT provides a line test tool built inside the ISAM to measure the loop characteristics between the U-C and the U-R interface and allows for:

detection and location of metallic faults (open/short/bad contacts) detection of cable degradation (e.g. due to cable moisture) detection of external voltages line pair identification detection of signature topologies

The MELT function also allows providing wetting current to dry DSL lines.

MELT support
MELT measurements are supported on the following boards:

multi-ADSL LT boards VDSL LT boards SHDSL boards MELT measurements


The following MELT measurements and tests are supported:

Foreign voltage (AC/DC): measures foreign voltage of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b Capacitance: measures capacitance of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b Insulating resistance: measures insulating resistance of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b Termination detection: detects whether a termination circuit connects to the line Pair identification tone generation

The ISAM allows up to one simultaneous MELT measurement per LT board.


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5 Line testing features

5.6

ATM F5
On ATM based DSL interfaces it is possible to use ATM F5 loopback. The following functionality, as is specified in ITU-T I.610, is supported:

active: the operator asks for a loopback test passive: the CPE triggers a loopback test and the ISAM responds

5.7

Link Related Ethernet OAM

Introduction
Link-Related Ethernet OAM (IEEE 802.3 clause 57 standard) enables network operators to monitor the health of the network and quickly determine the location of failing links or fault conditions. The feature allows remote side information to be retrieved for a link connected with a node for which SNMP may not be available as default. The feature does not include functions such as station management, bandwidth allocation or provisioning functions, which are considered outside the scope of this standard. Figure 5-4 shows a typical Link Related Ethernet OAM configuration.
Figure 5-4 Typical Link Related Ethernet OAM Configuration
7302 ISAM or 7330 FTTN CPE IEEE802.3 clause 57 (Link Ethernet OAM)

General description
Link-Related Ethernet OAM information is conveyed in Slow Protocol frames called OAM Protocol Data Units (PDUs). Link-Related Ethernet OAM PDUs contain the appropriate control and status information used to monitor, test, and troubleshoot OAM-enabled links. Link-Related Ethernet OAM PDUs traverse a single link, and as such, are not forwarded by MAC clients (for example, bridges or switches).

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5 Line testing features

Link-Related Ethernet OAM provides a mechanism, called discovery, to detect the presence of an OAM sub layer at the remote DTE. During the Discovery process, the NE and the CPE exchange their respective configuration information and evaluate the remote information to determine compatibility. The decision for accepting remote configuration is based on the remote system OAM mode, version, maximum PDU size, Parser Action, Multiplexer Action, and functions supported information. If these parameters are accepted, the discovery will complete and-Link Related Ethernet OAM will be operational. Otherwise, the remote configuration is rejected and requires operator intervention to rectify the conflicting parameters. Link-Related Ethernet OAM has provision to retrieve one or more MIB variables, also referred to as attributes, from the CPE. The operator can retrieve MAC layer counters and PME counters from the CPE after successful completion of discovery. Link Related Ethernet OAM is supported on most of the EFM, EFM Bonding and Native Ethernet LT boards and some of the compatible CPEs.

Link-Related Ethernet OAM procedures


The following subsections describe the different Link-Related OAM phases as defined in the standard IEEE 802.3-clause 57, and its support within the ISAM.
Discovery

The first phase of Link Related Ethernet OAM is discovery. This phase is started when the operator enables the Link Related Ethernet OAM feature. Discovery has 3 main functions:

provide a mechanism to detect the presence of an OAM sub layer identify the devices in the network, along with OAM capabilities setup of the OAM link
During this discovery procedure the ISAM always negotiates to become the active DTE. The ISAM never accepts to become the passive DTE. The ISAM never accepts the peer DTE to become active (the standard allows both sides to be active).
Link monitoring

The standard defines link monitoring tools for detecting and indicating link faults under a variety of circumstances. Both Event Notification and Variable Retrieve are part of link monitoring. 1 Link monitoring uses the Event Notification OAM PDU, and sends events to the peer OAM entity when the number of problems detected on the link crosses a threshold. The manager can initiate a Variable Request to retrieve data about the link from the peer side. This capability allows emulating a non-intrusive loopback. It behaves like a L2 ping as each Variable Request shall be replied with a Variable Response.

The ISAM does not support Event notifications: it does not generate Event Notifications and ignores received Event Notifications.

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5 Line testing features

The ISAM allows the manager to initiate a Variable Request to retrieve remote CPE data to know the current link status. It support to retrieve:

Physical Medium Entity (PME) data PME Aggregation Function (PAF) data
By forcing the peer side to be in passive mode, the ISAM does not support the peer side to retrieve data from the ISAM through Variable Requests / Responses.
Remote failure indication

A set of flags in the header of any OAM PDU allows an OAM entity to convey severe error conditions to its peer. The ISAM does not report critical events to the peer side, and does not report the reception of critical events from the peer side to the operator.
Remote Loopback

Link-Related Ethernet OAM provides an optional data link layer frame-level loopback mode, which is controlled remotely. This means: one side forces the peer side to go in a loop mode and to send back the received frames. The ISAM does not support a method to force a loop at the peer side. By nature by forcing the peer side to be in passive mode, the ISAM does not support to be forced in loop mode by the peer side.

5.8

Narrowband Line Testing


Narrowband Line Testing provides a set of tests for the narrowband on POTS subscriber lines, to tests the line from the SLIC on the Voice LT board. Narrowband line testing support is LT board hardware and software dependant. Management of the narrowband line test feature for ISAM Voice is supported by the 5530 Network Analyzer. Also basic management to start measurements and report results is provided through CLI. Narrowband line testing is supported for POTS LT boards operating in the H.248 and SIP environment.

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5 Line testing features

The following test can be performed with the narrowband line testing feature:

Electrical measurement tests:


The purpose of these tests is the measurement of electrical parameters. These tests do not require customer assistance. Any or all of these tests can be invoked in the same test request for a given user port. Electrical measurement tests are:

Group test:

Foreign voltage (AC/DC): measures foreign voltage between wires. Capacitance: measures capacitance between wires. Insulating resistance: measures insulating resistance between wires. Impedance: measures the impedance between wires. Termination (M Socket detection): detects whether a phone, or just a resistance connects the line. Feeding voltage: measures voltage over wires in open circuit and verifies that the voltage remains within thresholds. Feeding current: connects a resistor, loading the wires and measuring the current in limiting mode. Noise level: detects abnormal noise level, for example, crosstalk

This test consists of a combination of the predefined electrical measurements requested by the OS in previous electrical measurement tests. The test combines voltage, capacitance and insulating resistance measurements.

AC foreign voltage: a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b DC foreign voltage: a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b capacitance: a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b insulation resistance: a/Earth, b/Earth, a/b, and b/a

Dial tone test:


This test checks the ability of the line circuit to detect an off-hook and to check the provision of the dial tone from the MGC. An off-hook condition is simulated in the ISAM. This off-hook must be detected by the line circuit and is further processed by call-handling software; the MGC then interprets it as a real off-hook and sends a dial tone. The time is measured and compared with a predefined threshold. Returned result is the delay-to-dial tone. Howler tone test: This test lets the user know that the handset is not on-hook and restores the user state from parking to idle after the handset goes on-hook. If the user does not go on-hook, the howler tone is stopped after a predefined timeout. The howler tone level and frequency depend on the specifications in different countries. Status monitor: This test lets the operator know the status of the indicated user. Status monitor: This test lets the operator know the status of the indicated user. Block Reading Mode: One extended new test mode (only for Foreign Voltage AC/DC, Capacitance, Insulation Resistance) for the basic electrical test types, it will return 20 reading results of one electrical test item in each session.

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5 Line testing features

Continuous Reading Mode:


Another extended new test mode (only for Foreign Voltage AC/DC, Capacitance, Insulation Resistance) for the basic electrical test types, in one test session, operator can repeat test item after last test result is reported to it. This mode also accept only one electrical test item in each session.

5.9

SFP diagnostics
SFP diagnostics are used to terminate network, subtending, inter-shelf, or line board Ethernet interfaces. When isolating a data path problem, for example, fiber degradation, the operator can use the management interface to retrieve the instantaneous received optical power level and transmitted optical power level from an SFP.

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Network timing reference support in ISAM

6.1 Introduction

6-2 6-6 6-15

6.2 ISAM clock system and NTR extraction 6.3 Downstream NTR clock distribution 6.4 Applicable standards 6-16

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

6.1

Introduction

Scope
This chapter describes the different clock systems and Network Timing Reference (NTR) capabilities of the ISAM. A specific ISAM board will not support all of these capabilities. To know which of these functions are supported on a specific ISAM board, refer to the Product Information document and/or the Unit Data Sheet (UDS) of that board. Contrary to most of the other chapters in this system description, this section is not focused on only the 24Gbps NT family, or, only the 100Gbps/320Gbps NT family, since both families will be covered in this chapter. If an NTR function is supported or not is board-dependent, and less family-dependent. Example: SyncE is supported on some board variants in the 100Gbps/320Gbps NT family. And while SyncE is not supported on most boards in the 24Gbps NT family, it is supported on NRNT-A (that is, the NT board for Standalone REM). A summary of NTR capabilities of the most advanced board variants in each family is given in Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2. In many cases, less advanced board variants with less or no NTR capabilities are available, and this for deployments where these features are not needed. The following section clarifies at a high level when such features are needed or not.

Applications as driver for specific clock or NTR requirements


This section discusses high-end NTR capabilities on the ISAM such as BITS, SyncE, NTR on DSL, and so on. However, many applications such as High Speed Internet (HSI), Video, Packet Voice, Data Offload in Mobile Backhaul do not require such high-end clock system (see Table 6-1). So, for these applications the usual and less complex NTs and LTs are sufficient for network deployments. Each access technology (ADSL, VDSL2, SHDSL, Ethernet, GPON) may have its specific clock requirements to guarantee synchronization and proper functioning between both ends (CO and end-user). However, in general, these clock requirements are taken care of in the design of line boards (LTs) for that specific access technology, and do not impose any restrictions on the specific NTs which can be used. Some exceptions exist (for example, voice over POTS line) and they will be covered in the section on that access technology. Clock requirements or restrictions related to a specific access technology, are in general not in the scope of this chapter.
Table 6-1 Specific clock requirements per application
Application (over DSL, Ethernet or GPON) High Speed Internet (HSI), Video, Packet Voice (1 of 2) Required on NT External NTR source: not required Local Clock Accuracy: low (32 or 50 ppm is sufficient) Required on LT All LTs are suited, i.e. no specific clock requirements on LT.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Application (over DSL, Ethernet or GPON) Voice via POTS line

Required on NT External NTR source: not required Local Clock Accuracy: 4.6 ppm is required

Required on LT All voice LTs are suited, i.e. no specific clock requirements on LT. All voice LTs are suited, i.e. no specific clock requirements on LT. NT or NTIO output can be used, and then no requirements on LT. Alternatively, SyncE output on an Ethernet LT. All LTs are suited, i.e. no specific clock requirements on LT.

Long fax or modem calls via POTS line NTR distribution from network node to network node (for example, to other DSLAMs)

External NTR source: SyncE In or BITS In

External NTR source: SyncE In or BITS In NTR Out: SyncE Out or BITS Out

Mobile backhaul data offload

External NTR source: not required Local Clock Accuracy: low (32 or 50 ppm is sufficient)

Full mobile backhaul (with frequency synchronization)

External NTR source: SyncE In or BITS In

DSL LTs: NTR on VDSL2 or SHDSL (Note: NTR on ADSL is not supported on DSL-LTs) Ethernet LTs: SyncE out GPON LTs: no specific clock requirements on LT (Note: ONT with BITS out or SyncE out needed)

Full mobile backhaul with phase synchronization or ToD requirement

Not supported. Note: Phase synchronization or ToD is only required for some mobile applications, and even then in most cases an alternative option exist which does not require these features. Alternative solution: Provide Mobile Backhaul data offload only, with phase sync or ToD via a different channel (for example, GPS receiver)

Not supported.

Packet-based Business applications Business applications with NTR requirements (for example, TDM leased lines)

External NTR source: not required Local Clock Accuracy: low (32 or 50 ppm is sufficient) External NTR source: SyncE In or BITS In

All LTs are suited, i.e. no specific requirements on LT.

DSL LTs: NTR over SHDSL or VDSL2 Ethernet LTs: SyncE out GPON LT: no specific clock requirements on LT

(2 of 2)

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Only some applications such as Full Mobile Backhaul (with frequency synchronization) and some Business Applications (for example, TDM leased lines) will require NTR support (see Table 6-1). This then means that NT boards are required which either support BITS inputs or SyncE inputs, and LT boards supporting NTR over DSL in case of SHDSL or VDSL2, and SyncE out on Ethernet lines. For GPON LTs, there are no specific requirements, since the framing of GPON has inherent sufficient high clock quality (assuming the appropriate NT is used). But, an ONT needs to be selected with an NTR output (for example, SyncE on an Ethernet output port, or a BITS out). For NTR in mobile applications, and especially in mobile backhaul, frequency synchronization has always been sufficient in the past, and phase synchronization or ToD was not required. With new mobile generations (for example, LTE) also the latter requirements may appear. However, in general, different options exist in the new mobile standards, and only some of these options (for example, TDD technology) require ToD, while mostly alternative options (for example, FDD) exist which do not require this. So, it depends very much on the selected technology which will be used in a mobile network of a particular operator, if phase synchronization or ToD will be possibly required there. And even if the latter is the case, the ISAM is then still capable to transport the mobile data, if the phase synchronization or ToD timing signal is transported in parallel via an alternative way (for example, via GPS). To know which NT boards and LT boards in the ISAM portfolio support the specific NTR requirements for a certain application (according to for example, Table 6-1), one needs to consult the Product Information document and/or the UDS of that board. The ISAM NTR features support a very wide range of applications. On the market still other clock solutions are available, which in most cases are just alternatives, that is, they just support the same applications in a different way. In some cases, they may be transparent to the ISAM, and could therefore also be used. Such an example is Adaptive Clock Recovery (ACR). ACR requires larger buffers and a better local oscillator in the end-receiver, and will therefore be more expensive. An investment in a bit more expensive ISAM NT board with SyncE or BITS support will then probably be better than having to deploy a more expensive receiver with ACR at every end-user. Secondly, the larger buffers needed for ACR increase the end-to-end delay, so echo-cancellation may be required for interactive services (for example, voice or video calls).

Overview of NTR support on ISAM


Table 6-1 made clear that NTR is not required for all applications. However, in some cases it is required, and Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 give a high-level view on the supported options on NT boards and LT boards for the 24Gbps and 100Gbps/320Gbps NT family, respectively.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM Figure 6-1 Overview of possible NTR support on some LTs and some NTs in the 24Gbps NT ISAM family
8 kHz kHz NRNT -A
backplane backplane

DSL Voice DSL LT LT

Sync Eth Optional GE network GE PHY

NTR DSL

8 kHz kHz
backplane backplane

POTS/ISDN

Eth

8 kHz backplane

Sync Eth CTRL GE PHY NTR DSL

8 kHz kHz
backplane backplane

DSL Voice DSL LT LT

BITS G.703

Sync Eth GE PHY

Standalone REM NTR DSL

NTIO

NT

DSL LT

8 kHz backplane 8 kHz backplane

8 kHz kHz backplane backplane

POTS/ISDN

Voice

POTS/ISDN

SEM/Distributed REM

NTIO

Hub ISAM

Eth

8 kHz backplane

Sync Eth GE PHY NTR DSL

8 kHz backplane 8 kHz

G.703

NT

BITS

Sync Eth GE PHY 7330 RA Optional PDH/SDH network BITS G.703

Voice

DSL LT
GPON DSL LT Eth

NT

backplane

POTS/ISDN

Outdoor ISAM

Note To know which NT boards and which LT boards support the required synchronization functions, refer to the Product Information document and/or the Unit Data Sheet (UDS) of that board.

Figure 6-2 Overview of possible NTR support on some LT's and some NT's in the 100G/320G NT ISAM family
BITS G.703 8 kHz backplane 8 kHz backplane

GPON

GPON PHY GPON Sync Eth GE PHY NTR DSL 8 kHz backplane 8 kHz backplane

DSL LT

NTIO

Voice

8 kHz backplane 8 kHz backplane

DSL LT

NT

Sync Eth GE PHY

CTRL

NTR DSL

Eth

POTS/ISDN

Voice

POTS/ISDN Sync Eth GE PHY Sync Eth GE PHY

SEM/Distributed REM 8 kHz backplane GPON PHY GPON Sync Eth GE PHY NTR DSL

BITS or Sync Eth G.703 GE PHY

NTIO

Sync Eth GE PHY Hub ISAM Sync Eth GE PHY Optional GE network

8 kHz backplane 8 kHz backplane 8 kHz backplane

NT

NT

Voice

Optional PDH/SDH network

BITS G.703 Outdoor ISAM

POTS/ISDN Sync Eth GE PHY

Collocated ISAM shelves

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NT

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Although not shown in these figures, it is obvious that also deployments are possible with a mix of nodes from both figures. For example, a standalone REM connected via SyncE to an Ethernet output on an Hub ISAM with NT from the 100Gbps/320Gbps family.

6.2

ISAM clock system and NTR extraction

High level description of the external port selection for NTR


Figure 6-3 gives a high level description on how the external port is selected that will be used for NTR extraction. This is valid for BITS and SyncE which both are linked to physical ports. An ISAM hardware configuration has a number of external ports RJ45-a, RJ45-b, SFP-1,, SFP-n, XFP-1,, XFP-m available on NT-A, and possibly also on NT-B, and NTIO, in case the latter are also present. Not every port can be used for synchronization input. Hardware design of the specific ISAM boards determine which ports can be used for SyncE input (some Ethernet ports) or BITS input (some RJ45 ports), and this will be then a subset of the total number of external ports (see Figure 6-3).
Figure 6-3 Port selection for external NTR (SyncE and BITS)
External ports on NT-A, (NT-B and NTIO) Ports which support synchronisation input (BITS or SyncE) Static selection of 2 ports for NTR input Dynamic selection of 1 port for NTR
R ef e renc e =R

RJ45-a RJ45-b SFP-1 SFP-n XFP-1 XFP-m HW design of specific card RJ45-a RJ45-b SFP-f SFP-g XFP-r ... XFP-s

Static configuration on ISAM

T U

ISAM clock system operation

Clock distribution on ISAM backplane to LTs and then to access lines

The operator needs to configure which of these ports are valid inputs for NTR in his network deployment. Maximum 2 ports can be configured for this (T and U in Figure 6-3). The ISAM clock subsystem will then dynamically select one of these 2 ports as NTR reference, according to the actual quality of the NTR signals on these ports, configured priority of these ports, and so on, according to the ITU Rec G.871 section 5.6 criteria and selection algorithm.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Possible External NTR sources


The ISAM supports the following external NTR clock sources:

One BITS / SSU interface per NT faceplate:


This interface supports a 2.048 MHz plain clock signal, an E1 framed signal, or a DS1 framed signal. For ETSI markets, the default expected input is an E1 framed signal. SSM is not supported on this interface. BITS has been a very common way of clock distribution in PDH/SDH networks for already a long time, and is therefore available in many COs. Even after migration from PDH/SDH networks to Metro Ethernet, it is still available in many cases for clock distribution. And because Synchronous Ethernet requires new specific hardware not yet available on first generations of Metro Ethernet networks, BITS is still an important option for providing NTR to ISAMs in COs. One or more Synchronous Ethernet interfaces on the NT or NTIO faceplates: This can be only supported on optical 1 GE, 2.5 GE and 10 GE interfaces, and not at other speeds (for example, 100 Mbps), nor on any electrical interface. SSM reception and processing can be enabled on these interfaces. Further network rationalization is the driver to move all functions to the Metro Ethernet, so the PDH/SDH network becomes completely obsolete. Consequently, over time, SyncE will become the more important solution for NTR. Since SyncE-support requires specific hardware, upgrades of some nodes in the Metro Ethernet network may be required. Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 give a high-level view of the possible interfaces to external NTR sources for both the 24Gbps and the 100Gbps/320Gbps NT family, respectively. More detailed information on the actual capabilities of specific boards is available in the Product Information document and/or the UDS. Also there one can find which ports on these boards can be used as external NTR sources (and which ones not).

Single NT clock operation


Figure 6-4 shows the NTR configuration with a single NT board, and with an NTIO board added as a possible option. The internal system NTR clock can be synchronized to any of the external NTR sources described in the previous subsection: BITS, SyncE.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM Figure 6-4 ISAM configuration for NTR provisioning with single NT.
Active NT Front plate 1 GE Ethernet Sync Eth out 1 / 10 GE Sync Eth in Sync Eth out
SFP SFP

LT 1

P
SFP SFP+

Sync Eth out

NTIO Front plate 1 GE Sync Eth out


SFP PHY PHY

LT 18
Sync Eth out

NTIO Front plate 1 GE Sync Eth in Sync Eth out T3 : BITS /SSU 1 in

SFP SFP

NTR clock generation

1 GE NTIO

Loc Osc

T4 : BITS/SSU 1 out T0 8 kHz NTR 1 to LT 1 -18

NTR clock source selection

10 GE NTIO
NTIO Front plate 10 GE Sync Eth in Sync Eth out
XFP

XFP

Single NT

The 8 kHz NTR signal generated by the internal system NTR clock is distributed to the subscriber interface logic on the LT boards. Up to two ports can be configured as valid external NTR input ports (see High level description of the external port selection for NTR). One will be the reference, and the other one is for protection (see Clock protection: Overview). If all available external NTR clock sources fail, then this clock will switch to Hold-over mode, if locking to the external NTR clock source was completed at the time of failure. In case no valid external NTR clock source is connected during system start-up, the internal NTR clock will remain in free-running mode, that is, it will adapt to the output frequency of its local oscillator.

Clock protection: Overview


When applications are running on equipment connected to ISAM which require NTR, it is important that this NTR signal is provided uninterrupted, and that protection is available against degradation or failure of selected external NTR sources. This is supported in the following ways:

Switching to another redundant external NTR clock source, if available (see


Clock protection: External NTR source protection). An internal NTR clock hold-over function (see Figure 6-5), which continues to apply the last known clock correction data to the internal NTR clock, in order to keep the NTR clock to dependent equipment as stable as possible during absence of external references. Switching to a second NT with identical NTR clock system when the active NT fails (see Clock protection: NT redundancy)

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM Figure 6-5 States and state transitions for the internal NTR clock

AUTONOMOUS MODE
Holdover mode
- freeze holdover memory - lock clock to holdover memory
No valid reference nor memory available

Free-run mode
- rest holdover memory - free-run clock
Valid reference available No valid reference nor memory available

Configure autonomous mode

Locked mode
- update holdover memory - lock clock to selected reference

FORCED FREE-RUN MODE


Free-run mode
Configure forced free-run mode

- rest holdover memory - free-run clock

Clock protection: External NTR source protection


Up to two ports can be configured as valid external NTR input ports (see High level description of the external port selection for NTR). One port will be the reference, the other port is for protection. If the reference fails, then the other selected NTR input port will be used for clock synchronization. NTR clock source failure is detected from:

Loss of Signal A signal frequency that falls outside the capture range of the internal system NTR
clock

Failure to receive SSM messages on an SSM enabled Synchronous Ethernet link


during more than 5 seconds Reception of SSM messages with a QL value below the configured threshold value. Per external NTR source type, the following protection is supported:

BITS input redundancy always requires 2 NT boards, since maximum one BITS
input interface is available on NT boards. If the reference BITS input fails, then the BITS input on the other NT will be used as NTR, even if this other NT board is in standby mode. The ISAM is in general HW-ready to support this type of BITS input redundancy, but up to this release, SW support for this has been implemented on NANT-A only. BITS input redundancy is not supported on other NTs, but this will be planned in a future release. SyncE source redundancy is supported with all input ports either on one NT board, or on one NT board and NTIO board. Furthermore, also any mix is supported when both inputs are on the same NT, or on one NT and NTIO. Example, BITS as the
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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

reference for NTR, while SyncE as NTR source protection. However, such combinations are expected to be less common in the field, since either the long-existing BITS on the PDH/SDH network is used, or else this network has been completely outphased and the network has moved fully to metro Ethernet aggregation and uses SyncE.

Clock protection: NT redundancy


Also in ISAM configurations with NT redundancy, the NTR function should restore and this to the same quality, when an NT fails and the redundant NT takes over. This is supported when the next restrictions are taken into account:

In case SSU / BITS is applied, a valid signal has to be provided to both NT board
front plates. This will guarantee that the system NTR clock on the stand-by NT board can be synchronized to the network in case the active NT board HW fails or is removed. The BITS signal on the stand-by NT board cannot be configured independently, it will take the same configuration as the former active NT board BITS signal in case of NT board switch-over. This BITS signal cannot be monitored while the NT is in stand-by mode (Note: Although some NT's support active/active operation, this only refers to the data plane, since the control plane is still active/standby.) Note that this configuration does not support redundancy of BITS input (see previous subsection on external NTR sources), except for NANT-A. In case NT redundancy needs to be provided with SyncE for NTR, the SyncE input(s) should be connected to the NTIO board which has connections to both NTs. Note that in this way, also SyncE input redundancy can be supported. Once the redundant NT has taken over from the failing NT and has arrived in a stable state, the NTR function will be compliant to the typical related standards. These standards also define the maximum allowed phase jump during a transient effect. Switch-over from a failing NT to a redundant NT is one of these transient effects, and ISAM does exceed in that case the maximum allowed phase jump. Since such NT switch-overs are exceptional, and since phase jumps may be filtered to some extent by end-user equipment, the impact on services is expected to be limited. Future SW releases will improve the NTR functions of this subsection and relax the restrictions.

Detailed behavior of internal system NTR


The operator can configure the following elements regarding NTR:

The external NTR source(s) to be used: BITS/SSU Synchronous Ethernet interfaces Enabling and disabling of the reception of SSMs that carry a QL, on the one or
two external NTR clock sources that have been configured as nominated for network synchronization purposes by the operator. The default setting is DISABLE. For the BITS/SSU interface, this setting cannot be changed

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

The QL value applied for an external NTR clock source, in the algorithm that
performs the selection of one external NTR clock source from up to two configured as nominated, and in case reception of SSM for that NTR clock source is disabled. The default setting for the value is equal to QL-PRC (code 0010b) for ETSI, and QL-PRS (code point 0000b) for ANSI. The target QL value that is applied as minimum threshold for eligibility of an external NTR clock source, in the algorithm that performs the selection of one external NTR clock source from up to two configured as nominated, and in case reception of SSM for that NTR clock source is enabled. The default setting for the value is equal to QL- DNU (code 1111b). The static relative priority to be applied for an external NTR clock source, in the algorithm that performs the selection of one external NTR clock source from up to two configured as nominated, in case the respective Quality Levels (QL) of the two sources are identical. The QL for each of both NTR clock sources can be either communicated via the Synchronization status Messages, or is fixed to a default value. Revertive or non-revertive operation of the external NTR clock signal selection. The default setting is Revertive mode Override of synchronization to any external NTR clock source, and forcing of free-running or hold-over mode for the internal NTR clock function. The target QL to be applied as minimum threshold for the internal system NTR clock, for generating an SSU / BITS out signal. The default setting for this target QL value is equal to QL- DNU (code 1111b).

The system performs the following autonomous NTR clock management functions

Monitoring of the signal status (signal present, frequency within the capture
range) and the QL of up to two external NTR clock sources that are configured by the operator as nominated. Selection of the external NTR clock source that fits best the selection criteria, from up to two sources configured as nominated. Selection happens as specified further. Disabling of the SSU / BITS output signal(s) in case the QL, which can be attributed to the internal system NTR clock, drops below the configured threshold. The operator can retrieve the following information

The status of BITS / SSU and / or Synchronous Ethernet interfaces nominated as


external NTR source(s): not available, available but not used, used.

The number of switch-over actions between nominated external NTR clock


sources. In revertive mode, switch-over between nominated external NTR clock sources may happen without further alarm generation.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

The operator can receive the following alarms

Unavailability of any nominated external NTR clock source for reasons that
include:

Frequency out of range Loss of Signal Time-out for SSM reception, if enabled Received SSM-QL below the target QL, default or configured

Unavailability as described above of all nominated external NTR clock sources,


with defaulting to hold-over mode for the internal NTR clock

BITS output signal disabled Internal system NTR clock QL drops below the output threshold QL, default or
configured.

The ISAM selects the most appropriate NTR clock source for synchronizing its output NTR signals to, and for protecting against failure of external NTR clock sources, as follows:

In case two external NTR clock sources have been configured by the operator as
nominated, and both are active, then selection of the external NTR clock source, to which the internal system NTR clock will synchronize, is subject to the following rules:

The external NTR clock with highest Quality Level (QL), is selected as actual
reference for the internal NTR clock. The QL of an external NTR clock source is communicated by means of SSM messages received on the interface related to the source. If SSM reception is not supported, or disabled on that interface, then a QL value configured by the operator, or a default QL value is applied, as described above. In case both external NTR clock sources exhibit the same QL, then their relative priority is determined by the external NTR clock source priority list as configured by the operator.

After restoration or upgrading of an external NTR clock source, the selection


depends on revertive or non-revertive mode setting, as configured by the operator. In case only one external NTR clock source has been configured by the operator as nominated, or in case only one is active, then the internal system NTR clock will switch to hold-over mode when this external NTR clock source fails, or is removed. In hold-over mode, the internal system NTR clock maintains application of the last stored correction values which describe the deviation of the own free-running oscillator signal relative to the external NTR clock source signal which was applied last.

NTR management

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Configuration: external NTR clock source priority list

This command allows the operator to configure two NTR clock sources, with an operator assigned priority between them, as nominated references for the internal system NTR clock. Each of these two sources can be independently designated to be:

The BITS interface on the faceplate of an NT board. The 1GE /10GE interface on the faceplate of an NT board. One of the two dedicated 1GE interfaces on the faceplate of a 1GE NTIO board.
The system factory default is none: no external clocks are selected. In this case the system automatically selects the internal free-run system NTR clock for downstream NTR timing.
Configuration: SSU/BITS input interface(s)

This command allows the operator to configure the BITS mode of the external clock source to E1, DS1, 2048Khz or auto-select. The BITS mode applies for the system, that is, any configured BITS clock source. The system factory default is auto-select. In this case, the system automatically selects E1 for the system with the NT capabilities for clock device type of E1, or DS1 for clock device type of T1. This setting can be viewed in the clock status command. When the BITS mode is configured to auto-select, the actual BITS mode will display E1 or DS1 depending on the NT capabilities. However, the system does not restrict the manual configuration of DS1 or E1 to a specific NT capability of the clock device type.
Configuration: Synchronous Ethernet input interface(s)

This command allows the operator to configure the Ethernet interface(s) which can provide(s) their extracted data clock as external NTR clock source. As mentioned above, 1 or 2 external NTR sources can be configured as clocks for synchronizing the internal system NTR clock to. Therefore, between 0 and 2 synchronous Ethernet links can be designated as external NTR clock sources. The selected Ethernet interface(s) is (are) identified by means of:

The board slot: NT-A, NT-B, NTIO slot, or none The port type: SFP, XFP or none The port number on the board: depends on SyncE port supported, or none
The system factory default is none.
Configuration: NTR Switching Mode

This command allows the operator to configure the external NTR selection mode to be either:

Revertive:
the system NTR clock always selects as reference the external NTR clock source with highest QL, or the one configured as preferred by the operator if the QLs of both nominated external NTR clock sources are equal, whenever this clock source is available.
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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Non-revertive:
the system NTR clock keeps the currently selected external NTR clock source as a reference, until it is no longer available for selection, for reasons listed above, or until it is disabled by the operator. This is the case even if another external NTR clock source, with better QL or higher preference as configured by the operator, has become available since the selection of the currently selected external NTR clock source. The system factory default is revertive
Configuration: enabling of Synchronization Status Messaging (SSM)

This command allows the operator to enable or disable the support of Synchronous Status Message (SSM) for the configured NTR clock source(s). At this time, this configuration is subject to the following restrictions in ISAM:

SSM support for Synchronous Ethernet interfaces applies only to the reception of
SSM frames on Synchronous Ethernet links at the network side. SSM frame transmission on Synchronous Ethernet links is not supported. In particular, sending of SSM frames with Do Not Use (DNU) indication on the transmission side of a Synchronous Ethernet link of which the incoming data clock is applied as external NTR source, is not yet supported. This limitation implies that the ISAM cannot be deployed in ring networks that rely on Synchronous Ethernet for NTR distribution. SSM support for BITS-A and BITS-B cannot be enabled yet. The system factory default is disable
Configuration: forcing selection of the internal system NTR clock

This command allows the operator to force the transmitted downstream NTR clock to be synchronous to the internal system NTR clock, without synchronization to any external NTR clock source. The internal NTR clock can be in free-running, or in hold-over mode, when it had been synchronized previously to an external NTR clock source.
Status: nominated NTR clock status

This command allows the operator to query the status of the NTR clock source(s) configured for selection (nominated). The following items are shown:

the NTR clock source: BITS-A, BITS-B, Sync Eth 1, Sync Eth 2, local the Quality Level (QL) of the source: code points 0000b - 1111b (0 15) the operator configured priority of the source: 1 3

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

The operational status of the source: REFERENCE: the clock source is selected as the reference clock. VALID: the clock source is available for selection FAILED: the clock source failed or is not available for selection DO_NOT_USE: the clock must not be used as indicated by SSM (or timeout) UNKNOWN: the clock status is unknown (startup, system fault) FORCED: the clock is manually selected (only possible for the local NTR clock) NO_SYNCE_CONFIG: the synchronization source is not bound to a physical port
for clock recovery.

NO_SYNCE_SUPPORT: the synchronization source is bound to a port that does


not support synchronization clock recovery.

ON_PEERNT_NOT_READY: the clock is configured on the faceplate of a peer NT


that is not ready to participate in clock management.

SYNCE_NOT_AVAILABLE: the synchronization source is not available because


the required equipment is not available.

MISSING: No SSM packets received for 5 seconds INVALID: Incoming signal is valid on the hardware level, but the source is rejected
for quality reasons (below target QL)

6.3

Downstream NTR clock distribution


In the introduction of this chapter the drivers for NTR where explained, and include distribution of NTR to other network nodes, as well as distribution of NTR over access lines to the end-user or business user.
Figure 6-6 NTR distribution over access lines for different services
Mobile backhauling ISAM
Network Timing Reference High-stability clock on NT BITS interface on NT NTR support on LTs
Accurate synchronization of base stations

Network Timing Reference

Leased lines
Cost-effective central clock for synchronization of all CPEs

Voice
High-stability clock for long-lasting fax and modem calls

GPON
NTR required for synchronization-sensitive services (for example, Voice, DS1, E1)

The typical options provided for delivering NTR to other network nodes are:

BITS out on some NT boards SyncE out on some Ethernet interfaces on some NT, NTIO and Ethernet LT
boards. This can be supported on optical Ethernet interfaces only, and not on electrical ones. Secondly, it can be supported at speeds of 1 Gbps, 2.5 Gbps and 10 Gbps, but not at for example, 100 Mbps.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

The typical options provided for delivering NTR to access lines or end-users are:

NTR on VDSL2 NTR on ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ is not supported NTR on SHDSL SyncE out on some Ethernet interfaces on some NT, NTIO and Ethernet LT boards. This can be supported on optical Ethernet interfaces only, and not on electrical ones. Secondly, it can be supported at speeds of 1 Gbps, 2.5 Gbps and 10 Gbps, but not at for example, 100 Mbps. GPON To know which specific NT, NTIO, or LT boards do support the above NTR distribution on their outgoing interfaces, refer to the Product Information document and/or the UDS. A high-level view of the capabilities of the 24Gbps and 100Gbps /320Gbos NT family is represented in Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2, respectively.

6.4

Applicable standards

Output NTR clock support on ADSL(2)(plus) lines: The NTR section in ITU Rec
G.992.1 / G.992.3 / G.992.5 is not supported. NTR for ADSL is not supported. Output NTR clock support on SHDSL lines: ITU Rec G.991.2 NTR for SHDSL is supported on selected ISAM SHDSL Line Termination board types. Output NTR clock support on VDSL2 lines: ITU Rec G.993.2 NTR for VDSL is supported on selected ISAM VDSL Line Termination board types. Output NTR clock support on POTS lines: Not Applicable An analogue POTS interface does not provide a clock signal in downstream direction Output NTR clock support on Synchronous Ethernet lines: ITU Rec G.8261/Y.1361 NTR by means of Synchronous Ethernet is supported on selected ISAM Ethernet Line Termination board types. Output NTR clock quality on ISAM NT:

Output NTR clock free running accuracy, hold-over frequency accuracy, Jitter and
wander generation, phase variation in case of interruptions on synchronization input signals: - ETSI SSU: ITU-T G.813 Option 1 (Note: As explained above, ISAM is not fully compliant in case of transient behavior.) - ETSI Synchronous Ethernet: ITU-T G.8262 Option 1 Output NTR clock jitter and wander transfer - ETSI SSU: ITU-T G.813 Option 1 - ETSI Synchronous Ethernet: ITU-T G.8262 Option 1

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Input external NTR clock source quality on ISAM NT Input NTR signal clock pull-in & pull-out ranges:
- ETSI SSU: ITU-T G.813 Option 1 - ETSI Synchronous Ethernet: ITU-T G.8262 Option 1 Input NTR signal jitter and wander tolerance: - ETSI SSU: ITU-T G. 813 Option 1, G.823 - ETSI Synchronous Ethernet: ITU-T G.8262 Option 1

NTR management, including SSM: ITU-T G.781 Annex A SSM transport BITS / SSU: ITU-T G.704 (1998)
ISAM currently does not support SSM reception or generation on BITS / SSU interfaces. Synchronous Ethernet: IEEE 802.3 Organization Specific Slow Protocol (OSSP) Annex 43B (2005), ITU-T G.8264

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

6-18

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xDSL features

7.1 Overview

7-2 7-3

7.2 Configurable impulse noise protection 7.4 Low-power modes 7-4 7-6 7-7 7-8

7.5 Seamless rate adaptation 7.6 Upstream power back-off 7.7 Downstream power back-off 7.8 Impulse noise monitor 7.9 Virtual noise 7.10 Artificial noise 7-10 7-11

7-10

7.12 Per-line configuration overrule

7-13

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7-1

7 xDSL features

7.1

Overview
Table 7-1 lists the different features described in this chapter, indicating for which xDSL mode the feature is supported on xDSL LT boards.
Table 7-1 Supported xDSL features
Feature Configurable impulse noise protection RFI Notching Low-power modes L2 low-power mode L3 idle mode Seamless rate adaptation Upstream power back-off UPBO policing Equal RXPSD UPBO Equal FEXT UPBO Downstream power back-off Impulse noise monitor Virtual noise Artificial noise Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX) Per-line configuration overrule X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ADSL X ADSL2 X ADSL2+ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X READSL2 X VDSL2 X X X

Table 7-2 gives an overview of the supported VDSL2 profiles. Each profile defines normative values for a set of parameters, as defined by G.993.2.
Table 7-2 Supported VDSL2 profiles
VDSL2 Profile 8a, 8b, 8c, 8d 12a, 12b 17a xDSL LT X X X

Table 7-3 gives an overview of the supported VDSL2 bandplans. A bandplan is a partitioning of the frequency spectrum into non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is allocated for either upstream or downstream transmission.

7-2

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7 xDSL features Table 7-3 Supported VDSL2 bandplans


VDSL2 Bandplan Region A(1) 998 Region B(2) 998 Region B 998E Region B 998ADE Region B 997 Region B 997E xDSL LT X X X X X X

Notes (1) Region A = North America (2) Region B = Europe

7.2

Configurable impulse noise protection


Standards specify that a DSL link must comply with a Bit Error Ratio (BER) < 10-7, in the presence of a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) margin of 6 dB. For some types of service (for example IPTV, when using codecs with insufficient error concealing), subscriber comfort requires even higher line quality, that is, BER < 10-10 or better. DSL link modems are trained at initialization to achieve these quality levels in the presence of background noise. Impulse Noise Protection (INP) is the ability to protect the transmission against impulse noises. These impulse noises differ from the stationary noise in the sense that they are transitory noises and that their power levels are high enough to be able to cause data errors on the xDSL lines. INP is important in the IPTV network. With the general evolution from pure High-Speed Internet (HSI) to triple play service offering, there is an increasing need for techniques that help to improve and assure the stability of the DSL line. Configuring INP provides the ability to configure the upstream and downstream minimum INP parameters in the service profile. The standards include several provisions to reduce the number of errors that occur due to impulse noise. The primary one is interleaving combined with Forward Error Correction (FEC) using Reed-Solomon (RS) error correcting codes.

Reed-Solomon
Reed-Solomon (RS) adds extra bytes to a group of data bytes when it is sent. These bytes are also known as the RS word. When data corruption is detected at reception, the RS decoder is able to use the extra bytes to locate the errors and to recover the original message. However, this only is effective up to a certain maximum number of errored bytes. In order to correct impulse noise errors, RS needs to be combined with interleaving.

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7 xDSL features

Interleaving
Instead of transmitting the RS words directly on the line, the different RS words are first mixed and spread over time. This process is called interleaving. This has the advantage that when a burst of errors occurs on the line, it will hit bytes of different RS words. After reconstruction of the original RS words (by the de-interleaver), the errors will be spread over multiple RS words, such that each RS word is only affected by a small amount of errors and is therefore much easier to correct. The RS word can be corrected if its number of errors is within the RS correction boundaries. The main disadvantage of interleaving is an extra interleaving delay. Constructing the blocks that will finally be transmitted over the line takes time, as the modems have to wait for a while before they can actually start transmitting. At the receiving side, it also costs extra time to reconstruct the original RS word. The first original RS word cannot be reconstructed before all of its bytes have been received. Using smaller interleaving depths, that is, by taking bigger chunks of the original RS words, can lead to a lower interleaving delay. This has the disadvantage that errors will be spread over less RS words on the receiving side, with the possibility that they cannot be corrected. In the case that a high INP together with a low delay is required, extra RS bytes will have to be added to increase the RS correction capability. This however can lead to reduced bit rates. It becomes clear from the above that when configuring the INP, a trade-off has to be made between:

robustness of the line against impulse noise interleaving delay achievable bit rate

7.3

RFI Notching
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) notching is used to alleviate signal interference in certain frequency bands. VDSL2 and ADSL2Plus provide the capability to reduce the Power Spectral Density (PSD) within certain frequency bands and thus notch the PSD in areas to reduce egress into certain services such as HAM radio. HAM radio is an Amateur Radio service enjoyed by radio enthusiasts. Shortwave radio can broadcast over long distances aided by relay signals.

7.4

Low-power modes

L2 low-power mode
First-generation ADSL transceivers operate in full-power mode day and night, even when not in use. With several millions of deployed ADSL modems, a significant amount of electricity can be saved if the modems engage in a stand-by mode or sleep mode just like computers. This would also save power for ADSL transceivers operating in small remote units and Digital Loop Carrier (DLC) cabinets that operate under very strict heat dissipation requirements.
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7 xDSL features

To address these concerns, the ADSL2/ADSL2+ standards define two power management modes in addition to the full power mode (called L0 power mode). These power management modes help reduce the overall power consumption while maintaining the ADSL always-on functionality for the subscriber. These modes include: This mode enables statistical powers savings at the ADSL transceiver unit in the central office (ATU-C) by rapidly entering and exiting low power mode based on the subscriber traffic running over the ADSL connection. By enabling the L2 low-power mode, the average power consumption and dissipation of a line is reduced because the modem reduces dynamically the downstream transmit Power Spectral Density (PSD) in case there is no subscriber data to transmit in the downstream direction. A low-rate connection is however always assured for minimum keep-alive data. The DSL line automatically returns to the full PSD/full data rate if subscriber data arrives, without loss of data. The L2 entry and exit mechanisms and resulting data rate adaptations are accomplished without any service interruption or even a single bit error, and as such, are not noticed by the subscriber. However, L2 low-power modes will lead to time varying crosstalk which might impact the stability of customers sharing the same binder. Exit out of L2 mode into L0 mode can also be triggered from the CPE end, in case of significantly changed channel conditions.

L3 idle mode
This mode enables overall power savings at both the ATU-C and the remote ADSL transceiver unit (ATU-R) by entering into sleep/stand-by mode when the connection is not being used for extended periods of time (that is, subscriber asleep, modem asleep). The L3 power mode is a total sleep mode where no traffic can be communicated over the ADSL connection. When the subscriber goes back on-line, the line has to be re-initialized to enter the L0 state again. In case of L3 idle mode, the CPE decides whether or not to enter the L3 idle mode. It is also the responsibility of the CPE to trigger a re-initialization of the line once the subscriber gets on-line again. The modem can enter the L3 state upon guided power removal (L3 Request exchange between xTU-R and xTU-C, also known as orderly shutdown), power loss or persistent link failures during Showtime (also known as disorderly shutdown). During the L3 state, power savings at the XTU-C are realized independent of the used ADSLx or VDSL2 mode by putting certain Analog Front End (AFE) blocks and line drivers in power down mode. This power saving mechanism is also available in case no xTU-R is attached but the ports are in listening mode and configured in admin-up. Figure 7-1 illustrates the L2/L3 power modes.

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7-5

7 xDSL features Figure 7-1 L2/L3 power modes


Initialization Resynchronisation or L3 Power mode

Showtime (L0)
Resynchronisation or

Low traffic causes switch to L2 High traffic causes switchback to L0

IDLE (L3)

L3 Power mode

Low Power Low Power Showtime (L2) (L2) Showtime

7.5

Seamless rate adaptation


ITU-T G.997.1 defines 3 types of Rate Adaptation (RA) modes:

RA Mode 1 (Operator Controlled):


Bit rate is configured by operator, no rate adaptation

RA Mode 2 (Rate adaptive at startup):


At startup, the bit rate is selected between a configured minimum and a configured maximum. The actual bit rate remains fixed while the modem is in showtime. RA Mode 3 (Dynamic rate adaptive): The bit rate dynamically changes between a configured minimum and a configured maximum, even while the modem is in showtime. The dynamic rate adaptive mode is also called Seamless Rate Adaptation (SRA). This feature is supported in all ADSL2x (ADSL2, ADSL2+, READSL2) modes of operation and in VDSL2 mode of operation. SRA improves the stability of the line (that is, reduces the number of spontaneous retrains) by dynamically reducing the bit rate, without loss of data and without bit errors, in case of a slow decrease of the SNR to an SNR under a below a preset value. SRA can also assure that at any moment in time the line operates at the maximum achievable bit rate by dynamically increasing the bit rate, without loss of data and without bit errors, in case the SNR increases above a preset value. SRA enables the modem to change the data rate of the connection while in operation without any service interruption. The modem detects changes in the channel conditions (for example, increase in noise level) and adapts the data rate to the new channel condition without a need to resynchronize the line. SRA uses the online reconfiguration (OLR) procedures defined in the standards to seamlessly change the bit rate of the connection. The upshift and downshift noise margin thresholds and time intervals for SRA are configurable. Figure 7-2 illustrates SRA.

7-6

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7 xDSL features Figure 7-2 Seamless Rate Adaptation


Maximum Noise Margin Increase data rate if Upshift time interval has elapsed Upshift Noise Margin Increase data rate

Target Noise Margin Downshift Noise Margin Decrease data rate if Downshift time interval has elapsed Minimum Noise Margin Decrease data rate

0 dB Margin

The upshift and downshift rate adaptation events due to SRA are counted in 15 minute and 24 hour Performance Monitoring (PM) intervals. The following restrictions apply for SRA:

SRA does not work well in interleaved mode, since SRA adaptations can violate
the configured minimum impulse noise protection and maximum interleaving delay. large, sudden noise increases may still lead to bit errors or even re-initialization.

7.6

Upstream power back-off


Upstream Power Back-off (UPBO) is a remedy to the upstream far-end cross-talk (FEXT) problem, see Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3 Far end cross-talk

NE
short loop

CPE

FEXT

long loop

CPE

weak Rx signal; strong FEXT signal from short loop

It allows to reduce the upstream transmit PSD on short lines in order not to impact the upstream performance on longer lines unreasonably. Without UPBO, the nearby CPE would transmit at full power and would inject excessive FEXT in the upstream receiver of the long line.

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7-7

7 xDSL features

UPBO policing
The main purpose of VDSL2 UPBO policing is to avoid the usage of a CPE not complying with the UPBO configuration. When the CO modem detects such a non-compliant CPE, an alarm is raised and optionally the line is automatically shutdown. The expected behavior is configurable. A line that has been automatically shut down because of policing can be triggered to re-initialize by toggling its administrative state (down/up).

Equal RXPSD UPBO


This is the form of UPBO first standardized in G.993.2. The goal of this UPBO is to equalize the upstream received signal PSD. The support of this form of UPBO is mandatory at both DSLAM and CPE.

Equal FEXT UPBO


The goal of this second form of UPBO is to equalize the level of FEXT VDSL2 self-crosstalk noise. This results in available upstream bitrates that are further optimized compared to the bitrates obtained with Equal RXPSD UPBO. This form of UPBO is introduced because the equal RXPSD UPBO does not exactly equalize the impact of all lines to each other, but gives a different FEXT level impact proportional to the loop length, i.e. the short lines give a lower FEXT impact to long lines then vice versa. As a consequence, the equal RXPSD UPBO is actually implying too much power cutback on the short lines. The Equal FEXT UPBO can be explained as first applying the equal RXPSD method but adding a loop-length-dependent delta FEXT factor, thereby equalizing the impact among the lines. This equalization is executed with respect to a reference FEXT level, characterized by a reference electrical length (kl0_ref). This parameter is configurable for each upstream band. Alternatively an automatic configuration mode is available: if the Equal FEXT parameters for all bands are all set to automatic, the modem uses a dedicated mechanism to automatically calculate good values for the Equal FEXT parameters, without manual configuration by the operator. The equal FEXT UPBO method is standardized in G.993.2 Amendment 2, and is supported in the ISAM.

7.7

Downstream power back-off


With the introduction of remote cabinets, one can have deployment of DSL lines from different locations: some from the central office (CO), some from the remote terminals (RT). In case lines deployed from the CO and lines deployed from the RT share the same cable binder, a near-far crosstalk problem occurs. The crosstalk from the near-end disturbers can be much higher than before, such that the signal from the far-end transmitter is completely degraded. Very often this results in a loss of the service on the line deployed from the CO.

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7 xDSL features

This near-far effect both occurs in upstream and in downstream direction. In upstream direction however, the typical services from the CO (ADSL2/2+) only use lower frequencies, where the coupling is much lower than on higher frequencies. That is why this problem mainly affects downstream communication (for the CO lines). In order to give equal priority both to CO and RT, the RT applies downstream power reduction (also called Downstream Power Back-Off (DPBO)) on the frequencies that it has in common with the lines from the CO. As such, the lines from the CO can be protected, and also the RT can still have a decent bit rate on those overlapping frequencies. See Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-4 Crosstalk in mixed CO-RT deployment
PSD

Remote Terminal Central Office


RT

Customer Premises
frequency

NT

Remote Terminal

PSD

frequency

PSD

frequency

Initially, it was only possible to configure downstream PSD shaping by configuration of a PSD Mask using a list of breakpoints, as part of the xDSL spectrum profile. Although such a list of breakpoints allows for a high degree of flexibility, it lacks user friendliness. Within ITU-T, the so-called E-side Model for Downstream PSD Shaping has been defined, which provides several high-level parameters that are used to configure the PSD shape at the RT. The E-side parameters are configurable via a special DPBO profile, which can be assigned either to an xDSL LT board or to an xDSL port. Since DPBO PSD shapes can be configured in several ways, a number of priority rules apply:

The DPBO profile parameters take precedence upon the downstream PSD shape
configured via the xDSL spectrum profile.

The DPBO profile parameters configured at LT board level apply, unless


port-specific DPBO parameters are configured as well. The DPBO profile parameters apply to ADSL1, ADSL2, ADSL2+ and VDSL2. Shaped DPBO is not defined in the ADSL1 (G.992.1) and ADSL2 (G.992.3) standards. However, if ADSL1 or ADSL2 are deployed from a remote location (for example, from a remote VDSL2 LT board), the ADSL1 or ADSL2 downstream PSD needs to be shaped for ensuring spectral compatibility with CO deployed xDSL.

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PSD

CO

NT

7-9

7 xDSL features

7.8

Impulse noise monitor


The Impulse Noise Monitor (INM) collects data characterizing the impulse noise on a particular line. This data can eventually be used to optimize the line configuration for triple play (for example, minimum INP and maximum delay). An impulse noise measurement can be started or stopped on a particular line for the upstream direction, for the downstream direction, or for both. The upstream measurements are performed by the XTU-C (CO side) and the downstream measurements are performed by the XTU-R (CPE side), as illustrated in Figure 7-5. The collected data is eventually represented as a set of impulse noise histograms, both for the 15 minute and 24 hour PM intervals:

Impulse Noise Inter arrival time histogram Impulse Noise Equivalent INP histogram
Figure 7-5 Impulse Noise Monitor in XTU-R and XTU-C
US xTU-C Impulse Noise Sensor INM Anomaly Counters INM PM counters 15min and 24h

Indication of xTU-R Severely Degraded Data DS Symbols EOC Impulse Noise anomalies INM Anomaly

Sensor

Counters

INM PM counters 15min and 24h

Impulse noise measurements can be performed without service interruption.

7.9

Virtual noise
By configuring virtual noise, it is possible to minimize the impact of time varying crosstalk on the stability of a DSL line. Virtual noise is an operator specified noise PSD, using a piecewise linear model with breakpoints and a special SNRM mode. It can be configured as a transmitter-referred noise PSD (TxRefVN, supported for downstream and upstream) or as a receiver-referred noise PSD (RxRefVN, supported for upstream only). The transmitter-referred virtual noise PSD (TxRefVN) is converted by the receiver to a receiver virtual noise PSD. The receiver determines its bitloading based on the maximum of the received virtual noise and the received real noise. For a given transmit signal PSD, the definition of a transmit virtual noise PSD can also be seen as equivalent with setting a limit to the SNR that can be used by the receiver in the bitloading process. In downstream, when protecting a fixed data rate for all lines against VDSL2 self FEXT crosstalk, the VN configuration is loop length independent. For more elaborate cases, the TxRefVN can be configured using a limited set of profiles (for example, to cover data rate with the loop length dependency, non FEXT noise, and so on).

7-10

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7 xDSL features

Transmitter referred virtual noise can also be used with a single or a limited set of profiles in upstream if no UPBO is enabled. When UPBO is enabled or in the presence of other noise (non FEXT), the TxRefVN becomes highly loop length dependent. To cope with this loop length dependency, the per line overrule mechanism can be used. For the case the operator does not wish to use a per line management, an alternative for upstream (where UPBO is applied) is to use the receiver referred virtual noise (RxRefVN) configuration option that can be configured with a unique VN profile setting independently of the loop length. As indicated in Figure 7-6, during initialization, the DSLAM forwards the virtual noise downstream (DS) breakpoints to the CPE. The CPE calculates the DS virtual noise based on the DS loop attenuation and takes the maximum of this virtual noise and the actual received DS noise. The DSLAM does the same in upstream (US) direction, based on the received US noise, the US virtual noise and the US loop attenuation (in case of TxREFVN). Transmitter-referred virtual noise is included in the VDSL2 standard (G.993.2) as an optional feature. The upstream receiver-referred virtual noise solution is not standardized but does not pose any interoperability issue.
Figure 7-6 Virtual noise concept
VN Breakpoints DS/US VDSL2
Loop attenuation

[Loop attenuation]

CPE

DSLAM

Received Noise US

Received Noise DS

7.10

Artificial noise
Since ADSL is widely deployed, changing the standard to support virtual noise is not an effective solution. To overcome this limitation, for ADSL lines the ISAM has the ability to physically inject additional noise on the line, that is, artificial noise, as shown in Figure 7-7. This injection is executed during initialization as well as during showtime. The artificial noise behaves similar as the transmitter referred virtual noise in the sense that it improves the stability and limits the SNR. The breakpoints also define the noise at the transmit side and this noise and the transmit signal are attenuated by the loop. The difference with virtual noise is that the CPE will see the power summation of the attenuated artificial noise and the normal receive noise. Artificial noise is only implemented in downstream, and it can be used on top of any ADSL flavor.

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7-11

7 xDSL features Figure 7-7 Artificial noise concept


ADSL Artificial noise DS

+
Loop

CPE

DSLAM

Received Noise DS

7.11

Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX)


The Bit Error Rate (BER) requirements for providing High Speed Internet (HSI) service are not too stringent. Transmission errors on the line are effectively hidden by retransmissions at the TCP-IP layer. With the evolution towards IPTV, much lower BER figures are required. Impulse noise is the common cause for errors on the DSL line. Two types of impulse noise are defined:

Single High Impulse Noise Environment (SHINE): impulse noise occurring at


random time instants Repetitive Electrical Impulse Noise (REIN): periodic impulse noise, occurring at near equidistant time instants Forward Error Correction (FEC) is the traditional error correction technique to deal with impulse noise, as defined in the ADSL, ADSL2(Plus) and VDSL2 standards. FEC is very well suited to protect against REIN, but due to the fixed overhead, FEC is not very efficient to protect against SHINE. An alternative technique for impulse noise protection is to use retransmission. Because there is no fixed overhead, retransmission is best suited to protect against SHINE. Retransmission is available at the higher layers (TCP-IP retransmission for HSI, End-to-end retransmission for video), but is now also defined for the DSL physical layer. ITU-T recommendation G.998.4 (G.inp) specifies techniques beyond those defined in the existing DSL recommendations to provide enhanced protection against impulse noise or to increase the efficiency of providing impulse noise protection. Both REIN and SHINE are handled efficiently on the DSL physical layer. G.998.4 defines downstream retransmission both for VDSL2 mode and ADSL2(Plus) mode. Support of retransmission in upstream is optional and only defined for VDSL2 mode. The concept of DSL physical layer retransmission is illustrated in Figure 7-8:

The transmitter groups user data in Data Transfer Units (DTUs) and adds a Cyclic
Redundancy Check (CRC) and sequence number.

The receiver uses the CRC to detect errors and requests a retransmission of a DTU
when in error.
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7 xDSL features Figure 7-8 DSL physical layer retransmission concept

??
DTU DTU DSLAM

CPE

The configuration parameters for retransmission are defined within a separate RTX profile. The RTX profile is optional when configuring an xDSL port. If no RTX profile is assigned, retransmission will be disabled. A specific set of Performance Monitoring (PM) parameters is defined, monitoring the quality of the line when retransmission is enabled.

7.12

Per-line configuration overrule


The configuration parameters for xDSL lines are provisioned by means of profiles. Typically, the same configuration profile is used on multiple lines that share similar line characteristics and offer the same type of service. If some deviation is required for the configuration of a particular line, then a completely new profile has to be assigned to this line. The per-line configuration overrule feature allows to overrule part of the xDSL configuration parameters on a per-line basis, as shown in Figure 7-9.
Figure 7-9 Per-line configuration overrule

XDSL Profiles

Parameter 1 Parameter 2

Parameter 3

Actual configuration
Parameter 1 Parameter 2

Parameter N

merge XDSL per-line overrule parameters


Parameter 2 Parameter N

Parameter 3

Parameter N

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7 xDSL features

This feature allows fine-tuning the configuration of individual lines, deviating from the overall settings configured via the profiles. When using this feature, one should take care that the overruled parameter values do not result in an inconsistency with the parameters that are configured via the profiles.

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Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.1 Introduction

8-3 8-3 8-11

8.2 Overall network topology

8.3 Product and market applicability 8.4 Overall network support 8-14

8.5 VLAN / user-to-user communication applicability 8.6 Traffic types 8-16 8-17 8-44

8-14

8.7 Traffic forwarding methods

8.8 Layer 2/layer 3 addressing topologies 8.9 Protocol stacks 8-77 8-86 8-91

8.10 Management interface 8.11 Permanent data storage 8.12 Management model

8-92 8-105 8-105

8.13 CDE profile management

8.14 Service profile management 8.15 Performance monitoring

8-106

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.16 Reliability, Equipment / Connectivity / Overload Protection 8-115 8.17 Quality of Service 8.18 DHCP interworking 8.19 DNS interworking 8-120 8-121 8-122 8-123

8.20 Basic call handling and supplementary services 8.21 BITS Support 8-134 8-135 8-135

8.22 Narrowband Line Testing

8.23 Termination local loop unbundling 8.24 Subscriber Line Showering 8.25 Lawful Intercept 8-136 8-138 8-136

8.26 Compliancy to standards 8.27 ISAM Voice migration

8-140

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.1

Introduction
A specific use of the ISAM is to provide classic telephony services to subscribers being connected with classic POTS/ISDN BRI lines, and to convert the corresponding signals to VoIP signaling/data packets. An ISAM supporting the integrated voice service is called ISAM Voice The integrated voice service provides POTS or ISDN BRI service to subscribers over copper pairs together or without xDSL service. The voice information is converted to VoIP in the ISAM Voice access node and forwarded to/from the service provider's Ethernet/IP network over optical fibers along with the HSI and IPTV services carried by the access node. VoIP networks are subject to standardization. Within standardization there are two different approaches for the signaling:

A set of standards driven by ITU-T, centered around ITU-T document H.248. In


a nutshell: a network based on this standard uses RTP for the voice and Megaco for the signaling. A set of standards driven by IETF SIP. In a nutshell: a network based on this standard uses RTP for the voice and SIP for the signaling. VoIP SIP is supported by TISPAN compliant mode and non-IMS compliant mode. ISAM Voice supports both signaling methods and can be deployed in the corresponding network topologies. However, ISAM Voice does not support both methods to run concurrently in the same access node.

8.2

Overall network topology


This section describes the overall network topology for:

Megaco ISAM Voice situated in a Next Generation Voice Network (NVGN). SIP ISAM Voice situated in a TISPAN-compliant NGN-IMS network. SIP ISAM Voice situated in a non-IMS-compliant network. Megaco ISAM Voice situated in a NGVN network
Megaco ISAM Voice supports Narrowband (NB) services and provides the connection to the NVGN for legacy Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN) users via Voice over IP (VoIP). It plays the role of Media Gateway (MG), also called Access Media Gateway (AG).

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-1 Megaco ISAM Voice situated in a NGVN network
Subtending ISAM Voice

Softswitch

PSTN
TGW

RTP

MGC

ASP

P O T S

I S D N
POTS / ISDN

Central Office ISAM Voice

Servers

IP Network
H.248 / SIGTRAN .
P O T S

BAS

IP edge

L2 Aggregation Network

M G

POTS/ ISDN

Remote ISAM Voice

P O T S

I S D N
POTS/ ISDN

P O T S

I S D N
POTS/ ISDN

Remote ISAM Voice

Megaco ISAM Voice connects legacy Narrow Band (NB) user interfaces, including Plain Old Telephone Services (POTS) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) BRI, to the NGVN. Megaco ISAM Voice supports centralized configurations, where the NB user interfaces and MG are integrated in the same node, and distributed configurations, where the MG is located in a hub node and the NB user interfaces in remote nodes. The remote nodes can be subtended by the ISAM Voice acting as a MG, or located within the layer 2 aggregation or IP network. A voice cluster is the aggregation of one Voice server pair, residing in the hub node, together with its voice associated ISAM nodes, that is, together with the ISAM nodes that contain Voice Line Termination (LT) boards that are managed by that particular Voice server pair. A voice cluster can support a maximum of 5K subscribers. These subscribers may be scattered over a maximum of 32 ISAM nodes and a maximum of 104 Voice LT boards. A hub node may contain up to 8 Voice server pairs. In other words a hub node may host up to 8 different Voice Clusters. The hub ISAM Voice, combined with the subtending/remote ISAM Voice, provides the view of a unique centralized MG. In subtending or remote configurations, the connection to the hub is via Fast or Gigabit Ethernet (optical or electrical). The Trunk MG links the NGVN with a legacy PSTN network. The Softswitch is responsible for call control and charging, and communicates with the Media Gateways (Megaco ISAM Voice) via the Media Gateway Control (Megaco) protocol H.248. SIGTRAN is used for ISDN BRI users, that is, Q921 is terminated in ISAM Voice and SIGTRAN is implemented to transfer Q931 messages between ISAM Voice and ASP.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

SIP ISAM Voice situated in a TISPAN-compliant NGN-IMS network


SIP ISAM Voice supports Narrowband (NB) services and provides the connection to Next Generation Networks (NGN) for legacy PSTN users via Voice over IP (VoIP). ISAM Voice plays the role as Voice Gateway (VGW) and communicates with the IMS core via the SIP protocol.
Figure 8-2 SIP ISAM Voice situated in a TISPAN compliant NGN-IMS network
DHCP Se r ve r DN S Se r ve r

PSTN
SG F/ T-MG F
S_CSCF

Mgmt Pla tfo r m

MG CF
I_CSCF

ISAM Voice

AS

P_CSCF

RTP

P O T S

P U O A T S
POTS

HSS

ISAM Voice

SIP

MRF

IMS Co r e

SBC

IP N e two r k
Vo ice G a te wa y

ER

P O T S

P U O A T S
POTS

x- CSCF/ BG CF IBCF/ IBGF

L2 Ag g r e g a tio n N e two r k ISAM Voice

ER

O th e r IP Networks

Se rve rs

P O T S

P U O T A S
POTS

ISAM Voice

BAS

P O T S

P O U T A S
POTS

ISAM Voice connects legacy Narrow Band (NB) user interfaces, the Plain Old Telephone Services (POTS), to the NGN/IMS. Each of the nodes connected to the layer 2 aggregation or IP network has the SIP UA locally integrated on the Voice LT. The local SIP UA serves all NB user interfaces connected to a Voice LT. The Call Session Control Function (CSCF) establishes, monitors, supports and releases multimedia sessions and manages the user's service interactions. The CSCF can act as Proxy CSCF (P-CSCF), Serving CSCF (S-CSCF) or Interrogating CSCF (I-CSCF):

The P-CSCF is the first contact point for the ISAM Voice within the IM
subsystem (IMS).

The S-CSCF fulfils the role of registrar and handles the session states in the
network. The I-CSCF is mainly the contact point within an operator's network for all IMS connections destined to a subscriber of that network operator, or a roaming subscriber currently located within that network operator's service area.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is a master user database that supports the IMS network entities that handle calls. It contains the subscription-related information (user profiles), performs authentication and authorization of the user, and can provide information about the user's physical location. Interconnection with legacy PSTN networks is guaranteed at the signaling level via the Signaling Gateway Function (SGF) (transport) and the Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) (call/service control). Interconnection at the media level is provided by the Trunk Media Gateway Function (T-MGF). Interconnection with other IP-based service subsystems (including other IMS subsystems) is performed via the Interconnection Breakout Control function (IBCF) at the signaling level and the Interconnection-Border Gateway Function (I-BGF) at the media level. Very often, to support lawful intercept, Voice traffic is switched along the Legal Intercept gateway.

SIP ISAM Voice situated in a non-IMS-compliant network


SIP ISAM Voice supports the Narrowband (NB) services and provides the connection to an IMS-like New Generation Network (NGN) for legacy PSTN users via Voice over IP (VoIP). ISAM Voice plays the role as Voice Gateway (VGW) and can interfaces with voice feature servers acting as back-to-back SIP Servers via the SIP protocol.
Figure 8-3 SIP ISAM Voice situated in a non-IMS-compliant network
Management Platform DHCP server

ISAM Voice

SNMP/ CLI/TL1

DHCP
P O T S

IP
SIP RTP / RTCP
Media Gateway Back-to-back server

POTS

ISAM Voice connects legacy Narrow Band (NB) user interfaces, the Plain Old Telephone Services (POTS), to a NGN/IMS network. Each of the nodes connected to the IP network has the SIP UA locally integrated on the Voice LT. The local instance of the SIP User Agent (UA) serves all NB user interfaces connected to a Voice LT.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The role of the SIP ISAM Voice is twofold:

Access Gateway. Access Gateway Controller (maintains AG states, manages AG features,


implements SIP UA).

Access network L2/L3 topologies

Megaco ISAM Voice

ISAM Voice access nodes belonging to a Voice cluster may be connected by layer 2, layer 3 or even a mixture of a layer 2 aggregation network and a layer 3 aggregation network. Different Voice clusters may be connected by layer 2, layer 3 or even a mixture of a layer 2 aggregation network and a layer 3 aggregation networks. The supported ISAM Voice Cluster topologies are shown in Figure 8-4, Figure 8-5, Figure 8-6, Figure 8-7, Figure 8-8 and Figure 8-9.
Figure 8-4 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology A

xVPS pair 1

xVPS pair 2
Main shelf

xVPS pair 8

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 1 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 2 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair2

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 8 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 8

Voice LT 16

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-5 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology B

xVPS pair 1

xVPS pair 2
Main shelf

xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 1 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 2 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 2

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 3 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 16

Figure 8-6 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology C

xVPS pair 1

xVPS pair 2
Main shelf

xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT 10

Voice LTs belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 1 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 2 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 2

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 3 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 16

8-8

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-7 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology D

xVPS pair 1

xVPS pair 2
Main shelf

xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT 10

Voice LTs belong to different voice clusters supervised by xVPS pair 1, 2 or 3

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 1 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 2 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 2

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 3 Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 16

Figure 8-8 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology E

xVPS pair 1

xVPS pair 2
Main shelf
Voice LTs in shelf 1 belong to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 2

xVPS pair 8

Voice LT 1

Voice LTs in shelf 1 belong to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT N

Voice LT N+1

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LTs in shelf 2 belong to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 2

Voice LT M

Voice LT M+1

Voice LTs in shelf 2 belong to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 8 (multiple) Belongs to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 8

Voice LT 16

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-9 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology F

xVPS pair 1

xVPS pair 2
Main shelf

xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT 10

Voice LTs belong to different voice clusters supervised by xVPS pair 1, 2 or 3 Voice LTs in shelf 1 belong to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 1

Voice LTs in shelf 1 belong to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT N

Voice LT N+1

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LTs in shelf 2 belong to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 2

Voice LT M

Voice LT M+1

Voice LTs in shelf 2 belong to voice cluster supervised by xVPS pair 3

Voice LT 16

Voice LT 1

Voice LT 2

Voice LT shelf 3 Belongs to different voice clusters supervised by xVPS pair 1, 2 or 3

Voice LT 16

SIP ISAM Voice

ISAM Voice access nodes may be connected by layer 2, layer 3 or even a mixture of a layer 2 aggregation network and a layer 3 aggregation network.
Figure 8-10 ISAM Voice access nodes connected to a layer 2 Aggregation Network

Iv Iv
L3 Aggrega tion Network L2 Aggrega tion Network

Iv Iv Iv

Iv = ISAM Voice

Iv

Iv

8-10

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-11 ISAM Voice access nodes connected to a layer 3 Aggregation Network

Iv Iv
L3 Aggrega tion Network

Iv Iv Iv

IV= ISAM Voice

Iv

IV

Figure 8-12 ISAM Voice access nodes connected to a layer 2/layer 3 Aggregation Network

Iv Iv
L3 Aggrega tion Network L2 Aggrega tion Network

Iv Iv Iv

Iv = ISAM Voice

Iv

Iv

8.3

Product and market applicability

SIP
The SIP-signaling-based integrated voice services are supported in:

7302 ISAM FD: POTS service supported. 18 LT slot positions can be planned
with the Voice LT board.

7330 ISAM FTTN FD: POTS service supported. 10 LT slot positions can be
planned with Voice LT.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

7356 SB-REM (FD) ETSI: POTS service supported. The Voice LT board can be
planned for both the master (72-lines LT board only) and the non-master (48and 72-lines LT board) slot position. ERAM-A (AGNT-A): POTS service supported. Maximum 24 LT slot positions can be planned with the Voice LT board.

IMS
In an IMS network topology, the SIP signaling POTS service and the H.248 (Megaco) signaling based ISDN BRI service can be mixed in the same 7302 / 7330 ISAM shelf. In an IMS network topology, H.248 ISDN-BRI subscribers register to their Media Gateway Controller and are managed by the local Media Gateway (Voice Server) while SIP POTS subscribers register to their registrar and are managed by the local SIP User Agent. Any VLAN topology for this mixed SIP/H.248 voice services is allowed, on the condition that not more than 2 VLANS (Public or Private) of type Voice-VLAN are configured per shelf.

SIP centralised architecture: BOTH signaling and RTP/RTCP traffic MUST be


carried by a VLAN of the type voice-VLAN.

SIP distributed architecture: NEITHER signaling NOR RTP/RTCP traffic MUST


be carried by a VLAN of the type voice-VLAN. H.248 architecture: XLES/RTP/RTCP traffic MUST be carried in a VLAN of the type voice-VLAN. SIGNALING traffic MAY NOT be carried in a VLAN of the type voice-VLAN. Following VLAN topologies are supported:

SIP POTS Centralised Architecture + H.248 ISDN-BRI: SIP signaling traffic + (SIP related) RTP/RTCP traffic and H.248 signaling traffic +
(H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic, all traffic sharing the same VLAN (only one VLAN that carries all signaling and all RTP/RTCP traffic). VLAN ID (shared SIP signaling + H.248 signaling + SIP related RTP/RTCP + H.248 related RTP/RTCP). Distinct VLAN for SIP signaling traffic, distinct VLAN for H.248 signaling traffic, distinct VLAN shared by (SIP related) RTP/RTCP and (H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic. VLAN ID (SIP signaling) different from VLAN ID (H.248 signaling different from VLAN ID (Shared SIP related and H.248 related RTP/RTCP). Distinct VLAN shared by SIP signaling traffic and (SIP related) RTP/RTCP traffic. Distinct VLAN for H.248 signaling traffic. Distinct VLAN for (H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic. VLAN ID (Shared SIP traffic) different from VLAN ID (H.248 signaling) different from VLAN ID (H.248 related RTP/RTCP). Distinct VLAN shared by SIP signaling traffic + (SIP related) RTP/RTCP traffic. Distinct VLAN shared by H.248 signaling traffic + (H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic. VLAN ID (Shared SIP traffic) different from VLAN ID (Shared H.248 traffic).

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

SIP POTS Distributed Architecture + H.248 ISDN BRI: SIP signaling traffic + (SIP related) RTP/RTCP traffic and H.248 signaling traffic +
(H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic, all traffic sharing the same VLAN (only one VLAN that carries all signaling and all RTP/RTCP traffic). VLAN ID (shared SIP signaling + H.248 signaling + SIP related RTP/RTCP + H.248 related RTP/RTCP). Distinct VLAN for SIP signaling traffic, distinct VLAN for H.248 signaling traffic, distinct VLAN shared by (SIP related) RTP/RTCP and (H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic. VLAN ID (SIP signaling) different from VLAN ID (H.248 signaling different from VLAN ID (Shared SIP related and H.248 related RTP/RTCP). Distinct VLAN shared by SIP signaling traffic and (SIP related) RTP/RTCP traffic. Distinct VLAN for H.248 signaling traffic. Distinct VLAN for (H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic. VLAN ID (Shared SIP traffic) different from VLAN ID (H.248 signaling) different from VLAN ID (H.248 related RTP/RTCP). Distinct VLAN shared by SIP signaling traffic + (SIP related) RTP/RTCP traffic. Distinct VLAN shared by H.248 signaling traffic + (H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic. VLAN ID (Shared SIP traffic) different from VLAN ID (Shared H.248 traffic). Distinct VLAN for SIP signaling traffic. Distinct VLAN for (SIP related) RTP/RTCP traffic. Distinct VLAN for H.248 signaling traffic. Distinct VLAN for (H.248 related) RTP/RTCP traffic. VLAN ID (SIP signaling) different from VLAN ID (H.248 signaling) different from VLAN ID (SIP related RTP/RTCP) different from VLAN ID (H.248 related RTP/RTCP).

IP Address/subnet reduction configuration by means of private VLAN. IP Address/subnet reduction applies to the H.248 ISDN BRI service only The Private VLAN must always be of type voice-VLAN. Any VLAN topology for this mixed SIP/H.248 voice services is allowed, on the
condition that not more than 2 VLANS of type Voice-VLAN are configured per shelf.

External packet forwarding


See section Megaco ISAM Voice: External Packet Forwarding (EPF).

SIP POTS Centralised Architecture + H.248 ISDN-BRI: supported for POTS and
ISDN-BRI terminations.

SIP POTS Distributed Architecture + H.248 ISDN-BRI: supported for ISDN-BRI


terminations only.

Other The mixed SIP signaling POTS and H.248 (Megaco) signaling based ISDN BRI
service is supported for both, the switched as well as the routed voice model.

H.248 clustering is supported (Hub/Subtending/Remote ISAM Voice node). Integrated Line Test is supported for SIP signaling POTS terminations.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

MTA is supported for both SIP signaling POTS and H.248 ISDN BRI
terminations.

Basic call service and Supplementary services are supported for both SIP
signaling POTS and H.248 ISDN BRI

8.4

Overall network support

Megaco ISAM Voice situated in a Next Generation Voice Network (NGVN):


supported SIP ISAM Voice situated in a TISPAN-compliant NGN-IMS network: supported SIP ISAM Voice situated in a non-IMS-compliant network: supported

8.5

VLAN / user-to-user communication applicability


The integrated voice service requires that user-to-user communication is enabled for RTP/XLES traffic. Two VLAN types are applicable to the deployment of the integrated Voice service:

iBridge VLAN type Voice VLAN type


The VLAN type that needs to be applied depends on the downstream signaling/voice traffic forwarding behavior being required at the SHub:

Downstream forwarding behavior is L4 forwarding: only the Voice VLAN type


can be used.

Downstream forwarding behavior is L2 forwarding: both the Voice VLAN type


and the iBridge VLAN type may be used. If the iBridge VLAN type is used then L2/L3 user-to-user communication must be enabled for this VLAN. If the Voice VLAN type is used, then L2/L3 user-to-user communication is autonomously enabled by the system. In addition, the configuration of an IP interface on top of this VLAN (at the SHub side) autonomously enables the L4 forwarding behavior in downstream direction at the ASAM port(s). In practice, this means the following: For H.248:

NT is used as a switching device: the signaling VLAN is of the iBridge VLAN type the RTP/XLES VLAN is of the Voice VLAN type NT is used as a routing device (at the VRF user side): the signaling VLAN is of the iBridge VLAN type the RTP/XLES VLAN is of the Voice VLAN type

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

For SIP Distributed Architecture:

NT is used as a switching device: the signaling VLAN is of the iBridge VLAN type the RTP VLAN is of the iBridge VLAN type NT is used as a routing device (at the VRF user side): the signaling VLAN is of the iBridge VLAN type the RTP VLAN is of the iBridge VLAN type
For SIP Centralized Architecture:

NT is used as a switching device: the signaling VLAN is of the Voice VLAN type the RTP VLAN is of the Voice VLAN type NT is used as a routing device (at the VRF user side): the signaling VLAN is of the Voice VLAN type the RTP VLAN is of the Voice VLAN type

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.6

Traffic types

Megaco ISAM Voice


Four main traffic types can be distinguished:

Management traffic (SNMP, CLI, TL1 (alarm display only)) exchanged between
the external management platform and the Network termination (NT) and Voice server. Signaling traffic (Megaco, SIGTRAN) exchanged between the Media Gateway Controller (MGC)/Application Server Process (ASP) and the Voice server. Internal signaling traffic (XLES) exchanged between the Voice server and its underlying Voice LT boards hosted in either the hub, subtending or remote access nodes. Voice data traffic (RTP, RTCP, T.38, T.30, Voice Band data) exchanged between Voice terminations. Management traffic is exchanged in the external communication VLAN and as such kept separated from the other traffic types. This is done for security reasons. Voice data traffic and internal signaling traffic always share the same VLAN. External signaling traffic may be exchanged in a dedicated signaling VLAN or may even share the same VLAN as the Voice data and Internal signaling traffic. The latter situation occurs when IP address/IP subnet optimization is preferred above signaling and voice data traffic isolation.

SIP ISAM Voice


Three main traffic types can be distinguished:

Management traffic (SNMP, CLI, TL1) exchanged between the external


management platform and the Network termination (NT).

Signaling traffic (SIP) exchanged between the SIP Server and the SIP User Agent
residing at the Voice LT. Voice data traffic (RTP, RTCP, T.38, T.30, Voice Band data) exchanged between voice terminations. Management traffic is exchanged in the external communication VLAN and as such kept separated from the other traffic types. This is done for security reasons. External signaling traffic may be exchanged in a dedicated signaling VLAN or may even share the same VLAN as the Voice data signaling traffic. The latter situation occurs when IP address/IP subnet optimization is preferred above signaling and voice data traffic isolation.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.7

Traffic forwarding methods


The internal forwarding is frame based. Frame based forwarding is done either based on layer 2 (Ethernet), layer 3 (IP) or layer 4 (UDP/TCP) information carried in the frames. The applied forwarding methods may be different for upstream and downstream traffic forwarding. For layer 2 forwarding, see chapter Layer 2 forwarding. For layer 3 forwarding, see chapter IP routing. The basic concept of layer 4 forwarding is explained in the following section.

Conceptual models

MEGACO switched model

Figure 8-13 shows the MEGACO ISAM Voice switched model.


Figure 8-13 Megaco ISAM Voice: switched model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

Voice LT

IP address voice

Voice VLAN

Signaling VLAN

IP address XLES

Voice server
IP address signalling

NT

The network signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice server The network RTP/RTCP (XLES) VLAN terminates at the voice LT board/Voice
server The signaling VLAN is configured as type Voice-VLAN or RB-VLAN The RTP/RTCP/XLES VLAN is configured as type Voice-VLAN The source/destination IP address for H.248 signaling traffic is configured at the Voice server The source/destination IP address for XLES traffic is configured at the Voice server The source/destination IP address for RTP/RTCP traffic is configured at the SHub and is shared by all the Voice LT boards The SHub performs L4 forwarding for RTP/RTCP/XLES traffic destined to the voice LT board The SHub performs L2 forwarding for upstream/downstream signaling traffic
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The SHub performs L3 forwarding for upstream RTP/RTCP/XLES traffic.


MEGACO routed model

Figure 8-14 shows the MEGACO ISAM Voice routed model.


Figure 8-14 Megaco ISAM Voice: routed model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

Voice LT
Internal Voice VLAN

IP address Voice IP address User 1

IP address network 1 IP address network 2

Network VLAN 1

Network VLAN 2

IP address XLES

Voice server
IP address signalling

Internal signaling VLAN

NT

The conceptual architecture shows different VLANs carrying H.248 signaling and RTP/RTCP/XLES traffic at the network side than at the user side of the VRF. The internal VLAN that carries RTP/RTCP/XLES traffic must be of type voice-VLAN as to perform L4 forwarding in downstream direction. The internal VLAN that carries the signaling traffic may be of type Voice-VLAN or RB-VLAN.

SHub VRF user side: a numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal
voice VLAN for the following reasons:

This IP interface is used as the destination IP address for RTP/RTCP/XLES packets


addressed to the voice LT board. For this purpose, the Voice subnet is advertised (as host subnet) to the upstream network. The SHub is considered as the first next hop for the RTP/XLES packets sent in the upstream direction by the Voice server.

SHub VRF user side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal
signaling VLAN. The SHub is seen as the first next hop for the H.248 signaling traffic that originates from the Media Gateway running at the Voice server. The signaling subnet is advertised (as host subnet) to the upstream network. SHub network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the network-side signaling VLAN. SHub network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the network-side TP/RTCP/XLES VLAN. In the upstream direction, the selection of the network interface/VLAN will happen as the result of the IP DA look-up in the L3 forwarding table, and this for all the voice service related traffic (H.248 signaling, XLES, RTP and RTCP).

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

In the downstream direction, voice-service-related traffic (H.248 signaling, XLES, RTP and RTCP) may be received at any network interface/VLAN. The SHub must perform the further L3 forwarding to:

the appropriate internal VLAN and to the destined xVPS and to the destined voice LT board (by L4 forwarding)
From a downstream forwarding perspective, seen from the edge router, the ISAM Voice access node is configured as the next-hop.
SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture): switched model

Figure 8-15 shows the SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture) switched model.
Figure 8-15 SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture): switched model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

Voice LT

IP address voice

Voice VLAN

Signaling VLAN
IP address signalling

NT

The network signaling VLAN terminates at the voice LT board The network RTP/RTCP VLAN terminates at the voice LT board At the SHub, both VLANs are configured as type Voice-VLAN The source/destination IP address for SIP signaling traffic is configured at the SHub. It is shared by all the voice LT boards The source/destination IP address for RTP/RTCP traffic is configured at the SHub. It is shared by all the voice LT boards The SHub performs L4 forwarding for SIP signaling/RTP/RTCP traffic destined to the voice LT board The SHub performs L3 forwarding for upstream SIP signaling/RTP/RTCP traffic.
SIP ISAM Voice - centralized architecture: routed model

Figure 8-16 shows the SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture) routed model.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-16 SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture): routed model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

Voice LT

Internal Voice VLAN

IP address Voice IP address signaling

IP address network 1 IP address network 2

Network VLAN 1

Internal signaling VLAN

Network VLAN 2

NT

The conceptual architecture shows different VLANs carrying SIP signaling and RTP/RTCP traffic at the network and the user side of the VRF. Both internal VLANs must be of type Voice VLAN as to perform L4 forwarding in downstream direction.

SHub VRF user side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal
voice VLAN. This IP address is used as destination IP address for RTP/RTCP packets addressed to the voice LT board. For this purpose, the Voice subnet is advertised (as host subnet) to the upstream network. SHub VRF user side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal signaling VLAN. This IP address is used as destination IP address for SIP signaling packets addressed to the voice LT board. For this purpose, the signaling subnet is advertised (as host subnet) to the upstream network. SHub VRF network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the network voice VLAN SHub VRF network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the network signaling VLAN. In the upstream direction, the selection of the network interface/VLAN will happen as the result of the IP DA look-up in the L3 forwarding table. And this for all the voice service related traffic (SIP signaling, RTP and RTCP). In the downstream direction, voice service related traffic (SIP signaling, RTP and RTCP) may be received at any network interface/VLAN. The SHub must perform the further L3 forwarding to the appropriate internal VLAN - and to the destined voice LT board (by L4 forwarding) - and to the destined voice LT board (by L4 forwarding) From a downstream forwarding perspective, seen from the edge router, the ISAM Voice access node is configured as the next-hop.
SIP ISAM Voice - distributed architecture: switched model

Figure 8-17 shows the SIP ISAM Voice (distributed architecture) switched model.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-17 SIP ISAM Voice (distributed architecture): switched model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF IP address voice IP address signalling

Voice VLAN

Signaling VLAN

Voice LT NT

The network signaling VLAN terminates at the voice LT board The network RTP/RTCP VLAN terminates at the voice LT board At the SHub, both VLANs are configured as type iBridge or Voice VLAN The source/destination IP address for SIP signaling traffic is configured at the voice LT boards The source/destination IP address for RTP/RTCP traffic is configured at the voice LT boards The SHub performs L2 forwarding for SIP signaling/RTP/RTCP traffic destined to the voice LT board
SIP ISAM Voice - distributed architecture: routed model

Figure 8-18 shows the SIP ISAM Voice (distributed architecture) routed model.
Figure 8-18 SIP ISAM Voice (distributed architecture): routed model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF
IP address Voice IP address signaling
Internal Voice VLAN

IP address User 1 IP address User 2

IP address network 1 IP address network 2

Network VLAN 1

Internal signaling VLAN

Network VLAN 2

Voice LT NT

The conceptual architecture shows different VLANs carrying SIP signaling and RTP/RTCP traffic at the network and the user side of the VRF. At the VRF user side, internal VLANs are configured as type iBridge or Voice VLAN. Both the Voice subnet and the signaling subnet are advertised (as host subnet) to the upstream network.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The SHub will be considered as the first next hop for the SIP signaling and for the RTP/RTCP traffic that originates from the voice LT board. For this reason, a numbered IP interface is configured on both the internal signaling VLAN and the internal RTP/RTCP VLAN at the VRF user side. In the upstream direction, the selection of the network interface/VLAN will happen as the result of the IP DA look-up in the L3 forwarding table. And this for all the voice service related traffic (SIP signaling, RTP and RTCP). In the downstream direction, voice-service-related traffic (SIP signaling, RTP and RTCP) may be received at any network interface/VLAN. The SHub must perform the further L3 forwarding to the appropriate internal VLAN and to the destined voice LT board. From a downstream forwarding perspective, seen from the edge router, the ISAM Voice access node is configured as the next-hop.
Subtended topology: switched model

Figure 8-19 shows the MEGACO/SIP ISAM voice subtended topology for the switched model.
Figure 8-19 Subtended topology: switched model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

Voice VLAN

Signaling VLAN

NT

Subtending ISAM
Fast path VRF

NT

The subtending ISAM Voice access node remains configured as a switching device. Only the main ISAM Voice access node fulfills the routing service.
Subtended topology: routed model

Figure 8-20 shows the MEGACO/SIP ISAM voice subtended topology for the routed model.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-20 Subtended topology: routed model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF
IP address User 1 IP address User 2 IP address network 1 IP address network 2

Network VLAN 1

Network VLAN 2

NT

IP address sub 1

IP address sub 2

Main ISAM Voice


Fast path VRF

NT

The subtending ISAM Voice access node remains configured as a switching device. Only the main ISAM Voice access node fulfills the routing service.

Layer 4 forwarding
The layer 4 forwarding applies to downstream traffic only and is installed at the SHub on a per-VLAN basis. This forwarding method uses the contents of the destination port field in the transport protocol header of the packet to forward a packet to a voice LT. The configuration of an IP interface on top of a VLAN configured as Voice-VLAN automatically installs the layer 4 forwarding property. Each voice LT gets assigned a fixed transport protocol port range. The SHub port that connects the voice LT inherits this port range mapping. The transport protocol port range for free usage (IANA) that is, 49153 - 65535 is divided in 24 equal portions and the lower part of each portion is mapped to the different SHub ports. The mapping algorithm is fixed to achieve the same range to SHub port mapping. Upon receipt of a downstream packet within a layer 4 forwarding capable VLAN and with the destination IP address configured on top of this VLAN, the destination port value of the transport protocol header included in the packet is compared against all defined transport protocol ranges. When a match is found, the corresponding SHub port mapping is read and the packet is forwarded to the voice LT that connects to this SHub port. As described, the layer 4 forwarding uses the combination {VLAN + destination IP address + destination Transport Protocol port} to decide about the further downstream forwarding of an IP packet. Layer 4 forwarding may be applied to external signaling, internal signaling and voice data traffic. Layer 4 forwarding supports packet fragmentation at IP layer because unlike Voice traffic, SIP signaling traffic may be fragmented at the IP layer.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The transport protocol port range to SHub mapping is the same in every ISAM Voice node. The described algorithm is schematically shown in Figure 8-21.
Figure 8-21 Layer 4 forwarding approach
SHub
ARP ARP

Ingress

Match (VLAN ID + own MAC address/ IP address)?


N

(Transport Prot port range1, port a1 ) (Transport Prot portrange2, port a 2 ) (Transport Prot port rangeN, port an )

Layer 4 forwarding
Layer 3 IP table Layer 2 VLAN/MAC table

Egress

Layer 2/layer 3 forwarding

Megaco ISAM Voice as switching device

Signaling traffic

Signaling traffic originates and terminates at the Voice server. In the upstream direction, the Voice server determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The local SHub and any potential intermediate SHub perform layer 2 forwarding. In the downstream direction: The local SHub and any potential intermediate SHub perform layer 2 forwarding.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-22 Megaco ISAM Voice (switched): signaling forwarding
L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board

L3 forwarding

Main node NT board


Signaling IP address Voice

L2 forwarding

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board

L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board


L3 aggregation network

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L4 forwarding

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

XLES traffic

XLES traffic originates at the Voice server or at the Voice LT board and terminates respectively at the Voice LT board or the Voice server.

XLES traffic originating at the Voice server and destined to the Voice LT board
(see Figure 8-23): The destined Voice LT board is connected either to the local access node, to an access node subtending to the local access node, or to an access node connected via a layer 2 aggregation network with the local access node. The destination (Shub) IP address of the packet can directly be reached in the local subnet: the Voice server performs ARP for the destination (Shub) IP address and forwards the IP packet to this (Shub) IP address. The destined Voice LT board is reachable via a layer 3 aggregation network. The Voice server determines the IP next hop for the destination (Shub) IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The (destined) SHub that connects the destined Voice LT performs layer 4 forwarding. Any potential intermediate Shub in between the Voice Server and the destined Shub performs layer 2 forwarding.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT board and destined to the Voice server
(see Figure 8-24): The Voice LT board forwards the XLES packet to the local SHub.

The access node of the Voice LT board and the access node of the Voice server are
the same or

The Voice LT's access node subtends to the access node of the Voice server or The Voice LT's access node is connected via a layer 2 aggregation network with the
access node of the Voice server:

The local SHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet can directly be reached via the local subnet. The local Shub performs ARP for the destination IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The destined Voice Server is reachable via layer 3 aggregation network: The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The SHub that connects the Voice server performs layer 2 forwarding. Any potential intermediate SHub in between the Voice LT's local Shub and the Voice Server L2 forwarding.
Figure 8-23 Megaco ISAM Voice (switched): XLES packet originating at the Voice server
L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board

L3 forwarding

Main node NT board


Signaling IP address Voice

L2 forwarding

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board

L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board


L3 aggregation network

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L4 forwarding

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-24 Megaco ISAM Voice (switched): XLES packet originating at the Voice LT board
L3 forwarding

Remote node NT board


L2 forwarding

Main node NT board


Signaling IP address Voice

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board

L3 forwarding

Remote node NT board


L3 aggregation network

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L3 forwarding

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

Voice traffic

Voice traffic originates at the Voice LT board and is destined to a voice termination point either at the same Voice LT board, another Voice LT board in the same Voice cluster or outside the voice cluster. In some cases the voice traffic is sent along the Voice server (as to support some supplementary services or an optimized IP addressing scheme). Voice traffic is relayed to the SHub prior to the forwarding to the destined voice termination point. This relay is either done by the Voice LT board (voice traffic that may not pass the Voice server) or the Voice server (voice traffic that must pass the voice server). Voice traffic not passing the Voice server:

Voice traffic destined to an external termination point: The voice LT board forwards the voice packet to the local SHub. The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the voice traffic destination IP
address The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the voice traffic destination IP address Any potential intermediate SHub between the local Shub and the next hop performs layer 2 forwarding.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination point at the same Voice LT board: The voice LT board forwards the voice packet to the local SHub. The local SHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet is identical to
the own Voice IP address and treats the voice traffic locally.

The local SHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board from which the
packet originated.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination point residing at a Voice LT board


in the same access node:

The voice LT board forwards the upstream voice packet to the local SHub. The local SHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet is identical to
the own Voice IP address and treats the voice traffic locally. The local SHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board to which the destined voice termination point is connected.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination point residing at a Voice LT in


another access node of the voice cluster:

The voice LT forwards the upstream voice packet to the local SHub. One of the following takes place:
1. The destined Voice termination point is reachable via a layer 3 aggregation network: The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet and forwards the IP packet appropriately. 2. The destined Voice termination point reachable via a layer 2 aggregation network: The local SHub detects that the destination of the packet is reachable via the local subnet and forwards the IP packet appropriately. Any potential intermediate SHub between the local Shub and the destined SHub performs layer 2 forwarding. The SHub that connects the destined voice termination point (Voice LT board) performs layer 4 forwarding.

Voice traffic passing the Voice server:

Voice traffic destined to the Voice server: The voice LT forwards the voice packet to the local SHub. One of the following takes place:
1. The destined Voice Server is reachable via layer 3 aggregation network: The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the Voice server, performs ARP for the next-hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately. 2. The destined Voice Server is reachable via layer 2 aggregation network (in case the access node of the Voice LT board is either equal to the access node of the Voice server, or to an access node that subtends to the access node of the Voice server or to an access node connected via a layer 2 aggregation network with the access node of the Voice server): the local SHub detects that the Voice server is reachable within the local subnet. The local Shub performs ARP for the IP address of the Voice server and forwards the IP packet appropriately The SHub that connects the Voice server performs layer 2 forwarding. Any potential intermediate SHub between the local Shub and the SHub that connects the Voice server performs layer 2 forwarding.

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination point connected
to a Voice LT board in the same access node:

The Voice server invokes the NAPT facility and forwards the packet along the local
SHub to itself (this is a basic forwarding condition to allow the support of External packet forwarding serving Lawful Intercept). The Voice server detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable via the local subnet and forwards the voice traffic to the IP address of the local SHub. The local SHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board that connects the Voice termination point.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination point connected
to a Voice LT board in another access node of the voice cluster:

The destined Voice Termination point is reachable via layer 3 aggregation network.
The Voice server determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately. The destined Voice Termination point is reachable via layer 2 aggregation network (in case the Voice Termination point is connected to an access node subtending to the local access node or an access node connected via a layer 2 aggregation network with the local access node): The Voice server invokes the NAPT facility and forwards the voice traffic along the local SHub to itself (this is a basic forwarding condition to allow the support of External packet forwarding serving Lawful Intercept). The Voice Server detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable via the local subnet, performs ARP for the destination IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately. The SHub that connects the Voice termination point (Voice LT board) performs layer 4 forwarding. Any potential intermediate SHub between the Voice server and the SHub connecting the destined voice termination performs layer 2 forwarding.

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to an external voice termination point: The Voice Server determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic,
performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately. Any potential intermediate SHub in between the Voice server and the next hop performs layer 2 forwarding.

Figure 8-25 Megaco ISAM Voice (switched): Voice packet originating at the Voice LT board
L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board


L2 forwarding

Main node NT board


Signaling IP address Voice

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board

L3 forwarding

Remote node NT board


L3 aggregation network

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L4 forwarding

L3 forwarding

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-26 Megaco ISAM Voice (switched): Voice packet originating at the Voice server
L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board

L3 forwarding

Main node NT board


Signaling IP address Voice

L2 forwarding

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board
L2 forwarding

Remote node NT board


L3 aggregation network

Subtending node NT board

L2 forwarding

Voice LT board

SHub Voice IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L3 forwarding

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

OAM traffic

The management platform of the customer forwards the Voice OAM traffic to the public OAM IP address of the ISAM access node hosting the Voice server. Voice OAM traffic is distinguishable by a Voice specific SNMP community string/context identifier from non-Voice OAM traffic and in addition distinguishable through the same SNMP community string/context identifier amongst the Voice server pairs (maximum 8) that may be hosted in the same ISAM access node. Internally, the voice-specific OAM traffic is relayed to the Voice server. Voice OAM responses generated by the Voice server are internally passed to the ISAM SNMP agent that forwards them to the management platform of the customer. Any potential intermediate SHub performs layer 2 forwarding and this in both directions. Refer also to chapter Management interface functions.

Megaco ISAM Voice as routing device


The following routing topologies are supported:

Single ISAM-V access node topology:


in this topology, only the main shelf is present. The main shelf behaves as a routing device. Subtending ISAM-V access node topology: in this topology, the main shelf and one or more subtending shelves are present. Only the main shelf behaves as routing device. The subtending shelves behave as switching device.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Summarized: An ISAM-V access node that is directly connected to the upstream voice network can be configured as a routing device. An ISAM-V access node that is not directly connected to the upstream voice network must be configured as switching device.
Security considerations

The ISAM supports only a single fast path VRF. As a result, access nodes that are deployed in mixed mode (that is, narrowband services and broadband services are concurrently deployed by the same access node) must include protections that guarantee that data is kept secret against unwanted, unintended and malicious listeners and this for both the narrowband services and the broadband services. This can be achieved as follows:

At the network side of the VRF, the broadband data path is separated from the
narrowband data path by configuring different VLANs for these different data paths (= different IP subnets). In this respect, path protection can be guaranteed by the routing protocols (different areas). At the user side of the VRF, ACLs need to be installed at the ports connection the LT boards to block broadband traffic from interfering with narrowband traffic and vice versa (that is, traffic received in the broadband path is not allowed to be destined to a narrowband user and, vice versa, traffic received in the narrowband path is not allowed to be destined to a broadband user). The ACLs will be built upon destination IP address/subnet and/or source IP address/subnet.
Signaling traffic

Signaling traffic originates and terminates at the Voice server. In the upstream direction, the Voice server determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The local SHub is configured as the next hop for signaling packets originating at the Voice server. The local SHub performs layer 3 forwarding in upstream and downstream direction.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-27 Megaco ISAM Voice (routed): signaling forwarding
Remote node NT board
SHub network IP address

L3 forwarding L3 forwarding

Main node NT board


SHub signaling user IP address

Signaling IP address Voice

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

SHub network IP address

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice user IP address

L3 aggregation network

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address Signaling

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

XLES traffic

XLES traffic originates at the Voice server or at the Voice LT board and terminates respectively at the Voice LT board or the Voice server.

XLES traffic originating at the Voice server and destined to the Voice LT board:
The destined Voice LT is connected to the local access node, to an access node subtending to the local access node or to an access node connected via a L3 aggregation network with the local access node. In the upstream direction, the Voice server determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address / destination IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The local SHub is configured as the next hop for the XLES packets originating at the Voice server (in case the destined voice LT board connects to the local access node, the local SHub IP address is equal to the destination IP address). The (destined) SHub that connects the destined Voice LT board performs layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding. XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT board and destined to the Voice server: The Voice LT board relays the XLES packet to the local SHub.

The access node of the Voice LT board and the access node of the Voice Server are
the same: The local SHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet can directly be reached via the local subnet. The local Shub performs ARP for the destination IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The access node of the Voice LT board subtends to the access node of the Voice Server: The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The access node of the Voice LT board is connected via a layer 3 aggregation network with the access node of the Voice Server:

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately.

The SHub that connects the Voice server performs layer 3 forwarding.
Figure 8-28 Megaco ISAM Voice - Routed: XLES packet originating at the Voice Server
L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

L3 forwarding L3 forwarding L3 forwarding


SHub network IP address

Main node NT board


SHub signaling user IP address

Signaling IP address Voice

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice user IP address

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

L3 aggregation network

L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L4 forwarding L3 forwarding MGC ASP

SoftSwitch

Figure 8-29 Megaco ISAM Voice - Routed: XLES packet forwarding at the Voice LT board.
L3 forwarding

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

L3 forwarding L3 forwarding

Main node NT board


SHub signaling user IP address

Signaling IP address Voice

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

SHub network IP address

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice user IP address

L3 aggregation network

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L3 forwarding

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

Voice traffic

Voice traffic originates at the Voice LT board and is destined to a voice termination at the same Voice LT board, a voice termination at another Voice LT board in the Voice cluster or a voice termination outside the voice cluster.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

In some cases the voice traffic must be sent along the Voice server (as to support some supplementary services or an optimized IP addressing scheme). From R3.7V onwards, in all cases, voice traffic is relayed to the SHub prior to the forwarding to the destined voice termination. This relay is either done by the Voice LT board (voice traffic that does not pass the Voice server) or the Voice server (voice traffic that passes the voice server). A) Voice traffic not passing the Voice server.

Voice traffic destined to a termination outside the voice cluster: The voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local SHub. The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the voice traffic destination. The local Shub performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet
appropriately.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination connected to the same Voice LT


board in the local access node:

The Voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local SHub. The local SHub detects that the destination of the voice traffic equals the local Voice
IP address and treats the voice traffic locally.

The local SHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT voice from which the
voice traffic originated.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination connected to a different Voice LT


board in the local access node:

The voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local SHub. The local SHub detects that the destination of the voice traffic equals the local Voice
IP address and treats the voice traffic locally.

The local SHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board to which the
destined voice termination is connected.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination connected to a Voice LT board in


another access node of the voice cluster:

The voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local SHub. The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic.
The local SHub performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately. The SHub that connects the destined voice termination (Voice LT board) performs layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding.

B) Voice traffic passing the Voice server.

Voice traffic destined to the Voice server: The voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local SHub. The local SHub determines the IP next hop for the Voice server, performs ARP for
the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately. In case the access node of the Voice LT board and the access node of the Voice Server are the same, the local Shub performs ARP for the Voice server IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately.

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November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination connected to a


Voice LT board in the same access node:

The Voice server invokes the NAPT facility and forwards the voice traffic along the
local SHub to itself (this is a basic forwarding condition to allow the support of External packet forwarding serving Lawful Intercept). The Voice server detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable within the local subnet, performs ARP for the destination IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. The local SHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board that connects the Voice termination point.

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination connected to a


Voice LT board in another access node of the voice cluster:

The Voice Server determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic,
performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately. The Voice termination is connected to an access node subtending to the local access node: The Voice server invokes the NAPT facility and forwards the voice traffic along the local SHub to itself (this is a basic forwarding condition to allow the support of External packet forwarding serving Lawful Intercept). The Voice Server detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable within the local subnet, performs ARP for the destination IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately. The SHub that connects the Voice termination (Voice LT board) performs layer 4 forwarding.

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination outside the voice
cluster:

The Voice Server determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic,
performs ARP the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately.
Figure 8-30 Megaco ISAM Voice (routed): Voice packet originating at the LT board
L4 forwarding L3 forwarding L3 forwarding

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

Main node NT board


SHub signaling user IP address SHub network IP address

Signaling IP address Voice

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice user IP address

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

L3 aggregation network

SHub subtended IP address

L3 forwarding

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L4 forwarding

L3 forwarding

L3 forwarding

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-31 Megaco ISAM Voice (routed): Voice packet originating at the Voice server
L4 forwarding

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

Main node
L3 forwarding L3 forwarding
SHub network IP address

NT board
SHub signaling user IP address

Signaling IP address Voice

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice user IP address

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

L3 aggregation network

SHub subtended IP address

L3 forwarding

Remote node NT board


SHub network IP address

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice user IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

L3 forwarding

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

OAM traffic

The management platform of the customer forwards the Voice OAM traffic to the public OAM IP address of the ISAM access node hosting the Voice server. Voice OAM traffic is distinguishable by a Voice specific SNMP community string/context identifier from non-Voice OAM traffic and in addition distinguishable through the same SNMP community string /context identifier amongst the Voice server pairs (maximum 8) that may be hosted in the same ISAM access node. Internally, the voice specific OAM traffic is relayed to the Voice server. Voice OAM responses generated by the Voice server are internally passed to the ISAM SNMP agent that forwards them to the customer's management platform. Refer also to chapter Management interface functions.

SIP ISAM Voice as switching device

Signaling traffic

Signaling traffic originates at the Voice LT.

Centralized SIP architecture = Single IP address: In upstream direction: the Voice LT board forwards the signaling packet to the local
SHub. The Local SHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. In downstream direction: upon the receipt of a signaling packet, the local SHub performs layer 3 forwarding followed by layer 4 forwarding to the destined Voice LT board.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-32 SIP ISAM Voice (switched, centralized): Signaling packet originating at the Voice LT/Upstream layer 3 forwarding at the SHub
Remote node NT board
SHub Voice IP address

L3 forwarding

Main node NT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub signaling IP address

L2 forwarding

Signaling IP address Voice

server XLES IP address Voice LT board

Voice LT board

SHub signaling IP address

L2 aggregation network

Remote node NT board


SHub Voice IP address

Subtending node
L3 aggregation network

NT board
SHub Voice IP address SHub signaling IP address

Voice LT board

SHub signaling IP address

Voice LT board

S-CSCF I-CSCF AS

L3 forwarding

IP
HSS MRF
IMS Core

Figure 8-33 SIP ISAM Voice (switched, centralized): Signaling packet destined to the Voice LT/Downstream layer 4 forwarding at the SHub
Remote node NT board
SHub Voice IP address

L4 forwarding L2 forwarding

Main node NT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub signaling IP address

Voice LT board

SHub signaling IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board

Remote node NT board


SHub Voice IP address

Subtending node
L3 aggregation network

NT board
SHub Voice IP address SHub signaling IP address

Voice LT board

SHub signaling IP address

Voice LT board
L4 forwarding

S-CSCF I-CSCF AS

IP
HSS MRF
IMS Core

Distributed SIP architecture = Multiple IP address: In upstream direction: the Voice LT board determines the IP next hop for the
destination IP address of the packet and forwards the IP packet appropriately. Any potential intermediate SHub performs layer 2 forwarding. In downstream direction: upon the receipt of a signaling packet, the local SHub performs layer 2 forwarding to the destined Voice LT board.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-34 SIP ISAM Voice (switched, distributed): Signaling packet originating at the Voice LT/Upstream layer 3 forwarding at the Voice LT
Remote node NT board
Signaling IP address

L3 forwarding L2 forwarding L2 forwarding

Main node NT board

Signaling IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

Remote node NT board


Signaling IP address

Subtending node
L3 aggregation network

NT board
Signaling IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

S-CSCF I-CSCF AS

L2 forwarding L3 forwarding

IP
HSS MRF
IMS Core

Figure 8-35 SIP ISAM Voice (switched, distributed): Signaling packet destined to the Voice LT/Downstream layer 2 forwarding at the SHub
Remote node NT board
Signaling IP address

Main node
L2 forwarding L2 forwarding
Signaling IP address

NT board

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

Remote node NT board


Signaling IP address

Subtending node
L3 aggregation network

NT board
Signaling IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

S-CSCF I-CSCF AS

L2 forwarding

IP
HSS MRF
IMS Core

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November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice traffic

For both the centralized as well as the distributed architecture, the forwarding of the voice traffic in upstream as well as in downstream direction is identical as shown above for the signaling traffic.

Voice traffic exchanged between a local and a remote voice termination:


The forwarding behavior is identical to signaling traffic. Voice traffic exchanged between two voice termination connected to the same voice LT board: The forwarding behavior depends on the destination IP address been received from the IMS core, for example, all the voice traffic might be forced to be forwarded along a voice gateway. Should the IMS core have decided that the voice traffic may be switched internally in the access node then this voice traffic will be switched either internally on the Voice LT board or along the local Shub depending on the Voice LT board type being planned. Voice traffic exchanged between two voice termination connected to different voice LT boards in the same access node: The forwarding behavior depends on the destination IP address been received from the IMS core, for example, all the voice traffic might be forced to be forwarded along a voice gateway. Anyhow, switching voice traffic between Voice Terminations, connected to the same Voice LT board, along the local SHub is only possible in the centralized SIP architecture, not in the distributed SIP architecture. Centralized SIP architecture:

The voice LT board forwards the voice packet to the local SHub. The local SHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet is identical to
the own Voice IP address. As such the packet is treated locally. The local SHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board to which the destined voice termination point is connected (that is, the Voice LT board from which the voice packet originated). Summarized, the SIP ISAM Voice forwards the voice traffic in accordance with the destination IP address dictated by the SIP signaling and the Voice LT board type. The External Packet Forwarding facility serving Lawful Intercept is not supported, neither for the Distributed, nor for the Centralized SIP architecture.
OAM traffic

The management platform of the customer forwards the Voice OAM traffic to the management IP address of the ISAM access node hosting the Voice server. Voice OAM responses generated by the Voice server are internally passed to the ISAM SNMP agent that forwards them to the management platform of the customer. Any potential intermediate SHub performs layer 2 forwarding and this in both directions. Refer also to chapter Management interface functions.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

SIP ISAM Voice as routing device

Security considerations

The ISAM supports only a single fast path VRF. As a result, access nodes that are deployed in mixed mode (that is, narrowband services and broadband services are concurrently deployed by the same access node) must include protections that guarantee that data is kept secret against unwanted, unintended and malicious listeners and this for both the narrowband services and the broadband services. This can be achieved as follows:

At the network side of the VRF, the broadband data path is separated from the
narrowband data path by configuring different VLANs for these different data paths (= different IP subnets). In this respect, path protection can be guaranteed by the routing protocols (different areas). At the user side of the VRF, ACLs need to be installed at the ports connection the LT boards to block broadband traffic from interfering with narrowband traffic and vice versa (that is, traffic received in the broadband path is not allowed to be destined to a narrowband user and, vice versa, traffic received in the narrowband path is not allowed to be destined to a broadband user). The ACLs will be built upon destination IP address/subnet and/or source IP address/subnet.
Signaling traffic

Signaling traffic originates at the Voice LT.

Centralized SIP architecture = Single IP address: In upstream direction: the Voice LT board forwards the signaling packet to the local
SHub. The Local SHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately. In downstream direction: upon the receipt of a signaling packet, the local SHub performs layer 3 forwarding followed by layer 4 forwarding to the destined Voice LT board.

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November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-36 SIP ISAM Voice (routed, centralized): Signaling packet originating at the Voice LT/Upstream layer 3 forwarding at the SHub
Remote node
SHub user Signaling IP address

L3 forwarding L3 forwarding
SHub netw. Signaling IP address SHub netw. Signaling IP address

Main node NT board


SHub user Signaling IP address

NT board

Voice LT board

SHub user Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

L3 aggregation network

SHub subtending IP address

SHub user Voice IP address

Voice LT board

Remote node NT board


SHub user Signaling IP address SHub netw. Signaling IP address

Subtending node NT board


SHub dignaling IP address SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board
SHub user Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

Voice LT board

S-CSCF I-CSCF AS

L3 forwarding

IP
HSS MRF
IMS Core

Figure 8-37 SIP ISAM Voice (routed, centralized): Signaling packet destined to the Voice LT/Downstream layer 4 forwarding at the SHub
Remote node
SHub user Signaling IP address

L3 forwarding L3 forwarding
SHub netw. Signaling IP address SHub netw. Signaling IP address

Main node NT board


SHub user Signaling IP address

NT board

Voice LT board

SHub user Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

L3 aggregation network

SHub subtending IP address

SHub user Voice IP address

Voice LT board

Remote node NT board


SHub user Signaling IP address SHub netw. Signaling IP address

Subtending node NT board


SHub dignaling IP address SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board
SHub user Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

Voice LT board

S-CSCF I-CSCF AS

L4 forwarding

IP
HSS MRF
IMS Core

Distributed SIP architecture = Multiple IP address: In upstream direction: the Voice LT board determines the IP next hop for the
destination IP address of the packet and forwards the IP packet appropriately. Any potential intermediate SHub performs layer 2 forwarding. In downstream direction: upon the receipt of a signaling packet, the local SHub performs layer 2 forwarding to the destined Voice LT board.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-38 SIP ISAM Voice (routed, distributed): Signaling packet originating at the Voice LT/Upstream layer 3 forwarding at the Voice LT
Remote node
SHub user Signaling IP address Signaling IP address

L3 forwarding L3 forwarding
SHub netw. Signaling IP address SHub netw. Signaling IP address

Main node NT board


SHub user Signaling IP address Signaling IP address

NT board

Voice LT board
SHub user Voice Voice IP address IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

L3 aggregation network

SHub subtending IP address

SHub user Voice Voice IP address IP address

Voice LT board

Remote node
SHub user Signaling IP address Signaling IP address

Subtending node
SHub netw. Signaling IP address

NT board

NT board
Signaling IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address SHub user Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

S-CSCF I-CSCF AS

L2 forwarding

L3 forwarding

IP
HSS MRF
IMS Core

Figure 8-39 SIP ISAM Voice (routed, distributed): Signaling packet destined to the Voice LT/Downstream layer 2 forwarding at the SHub
Remote node
SHub user Signaling IP address Signaling IP address

L3 forwarding L3 forwarding
SHub netw. Signaling IP address SHub netw. Signaling IP address

Main node NT board


SHub user Signaling IP address Signaling IP address

NT board

Voice LT board
Voice IP address SHub user Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

L3 aggregation network

SHub subtending IP address

SHub user Voice Voice IP address IP address

Voice LT board

Remote node
SHub user Signaling IP address Signaling IP address

Subtending node
SHub netw. Signaling IP address

NT board

NT board
Signaling IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address SHub user Voice IP address

SHub netw. Voice IP address

Voice LT board
Voice IP address

S-CSCF I-CSCF AS

L2 forwarding

IP
HSS MRF
IMS Core

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November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice traffic

For both the centralized as well as the distributed architecture, the forwarding of the voice traffic in upstream as well as in downstream direction is identical as shown above for the signaling traffic.

Voice traffic exchanged between a local and a remote voice termination:


The forwarding behavior is identical to signaling traffic. Voice traffic exchanged between two voice termination connected to the same voice LT board: The forwarding behavior depends on the destination IP address been received from the IMS core, for example, all the voice traffic might be forced to be forwarded along a voice gateway. Should the IMS core have decided that the voice traffic may be switched internally in the access node then this voice traffic will be switched either internally on the Voice LT board or along the local Shub depending on the Voice LT board type being planned. Voice traffic exchanged between two voice termination connected to different voice LT boards in the same access node: The forwarding behavior depends on the destination IP address been received from the IMS core, for example, all the voice traffic might be forced to be forwarded along a voice gateway. Anyhow, switching voice traffic between Voice Terminations, connected to the same Voice LT board, along the local SHub is only possible in the centralized SIP architecture, not in the distributed SIP architecture. Centralized SIP architecture:

The voice LT board forwards the voice packet to the local SHub. The local SHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet is identical to
the own Voice IP address. As such the packet is treated locally. The local SHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board to which the destined voice termination point is connected (that is, the Voice LT board from which the voice packet originated). Summarized, the SIP ISAM Voice forwards the voice traffic in accordance with the destination IP address dictated by the SIP signaling and the Voice LT board type. The External Packet Forwarding facility serving Lawful Intercept is not supported, neither for the Distributed, nor for the Centralized SIP architecture.
OAM traffic

The management platform of the customer forwards the Voice OAM traffic to the management IP address of the ISAM access node hosting the Voice server. Voice OAM responses generated by the Voice server are internally passed to the ISAM SNMP agent that forwards them to the management platform of the customer. Any potential intermediate SHub performs layer 2 forwarding and this in both directions. Refer also to chapter Management interface functions.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.8

Layer 2/layer 3 addressing topologies

Megaco ISAM Voice as switching device


Three forwarding models can be distinguished for Megaco ISAM Voice:

Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology IP subnet reduction IP subnet and IP address reduction
The following is common to all three forwarding models:

Equipment and platform management entity is hosted at the NT Voice service Management entity is hosted at the Voice server Media gateway is hosted at the Voice server External communication VLAN carries the external management traffic Public OAM IP interface is configured at the NT External communication VLAN: see chapter Management interface functions Public OAM IP address: see chapter Management interface functions

Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology

The following applies for the basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology:

A distinct VLAN is used for signaling and Voice/XLES traffic. The public Voice IP interface is configured at the SHub. The public signaling IP interface is configured at the Voice server. The public XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server. Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling traffic: layer 3 forwarding at the Voice server and layer 2 forwarding at
the SHub.

Voice/XLES traffic: Voice/XLES packet internally relayed from the Voice LT to


the SHub and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

Downstream packet forwarding: Signaling traffic is layer 2 forwarded at the SHub. Voice/XLES traffic is layer 4 forwarded from the SHub to the Voice LT. Signaling VLAN:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice server and the network port(s). The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice server and carries the Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice/XLES VLAN:
The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode, configurable and allows layer 2 and layer 3 user-to-user communication. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice server, the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, subtending port(s), and network port(s). The VLAN terminates at both the Voice server and the Voice LT and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users. RTCP traffic. XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT.

The basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-40 For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-41 For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-42
Figure 8-40 Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - hub ISAM Voice (switching)
MG
In te r n a l O AM VLAN
Vo ice Se r ve r 1

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

MG
IACM Vo ice Se r ve r N

SIG N ALIN G VLAN

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

VO ICE VLAN
Public O AM IP Address Public Signa ling IP Address Public Voice / XLES IP Address Priva te O AM IP Address Public Voice IP Address

Vo ice LT M

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-41 Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - subtending ISAM Voice (switching)

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

VO ICE VLAN

Public O AM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Vo ice LT M

Figure 8-42 Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - remote ISAM Voice (switching)

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

VO ICE VLAN

Public O AM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Vo ice LT M

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme looks then as follows:

Public signaling IP address: Residing at the Voice server. Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable Public Voice IP address: Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Residing at the SHub. Configurable Public XLES IP address: Residing at the Voice server. Shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

IP subnet reduction

This model intends to reduce the number of IP subnets (that is, the total amount of reserved IP addresses), required for the voice service.

A shared VLAN is used for signaling and Voice/XLES traffic. The public Voice IP interface is configured at the SHub. A shared public signaling/XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server. Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling traffic: layer 3 forwarding at the Voice server and layer 2 forwarding at
the SHub.

Voice/XLES traffic: Voice/XLES packet internally relayed from Voice LT to SHub


and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

Downstream packet forwarding: Signaling traffic is layer 2 forwarded at the SHub. Voice/XLES traffic is layer 4 forwarded from the SHub to the Voice LT. Shared signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN:
The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode, configurable and allows layer 2 and layer 3 user-to-user communication. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice server, the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, Subtending port(s) and the network port(s). The shared VLAN terminates at the Voice server and the Voice LT and carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call
Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice)

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT.

The basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology with IP subnet reduction is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-43. For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-44. For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-45.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-43 IP subnet reduction - hub ISAM Voice (switching)
MG
In te r n a l O AM VLAN
Vo ice Se r ve r 1

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

MG
IACM Vo ice Se r ve r N

Shared SIG N ALIN G/VOICE VLAN

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

Public O AM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Public shared Signaling/Voice/XLES IP Address Priva te O AM IP Address

Vo ice LT M

Figure 8-44 IP subnet reduction - subtending ISAM Voice (switching)


Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

Shared SIG N ALIN G/VOICE VLAN

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Vo ice LT M

Figure 8-45 IP subnet reduction - remote ISAM Voice (switching)


Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

Shared SIG N ALIN G/VOICE VLAN

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Vo ice LT M

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/XLES IP address: Residing at the Voice server. Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Public Voice IP address: Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Residing at the SHub. Configurable.
IP subnet and IP address reduction

This model further reduces the total amount of public IP addresses, required for the integrated voice service.
Note For topologies that contain remote ISAM Voice access nodes, 2 options are possible:

Case A: the remote ISAM Voice is associated with the public


signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN. In this case a public voice IP interface is configured at the SHub of the remote ISAM Voice access node. Case B: the remote ISAM Voice is associated with the private Voice/XLES VLAN. In this case a private voice IP interface is configured at the SHub of the remote ISAM Voice access node.

A shared public VLAN is used for (case A) signaling/Voice/XLES or (case B)


signaling/Voice traffic. A shared private VLAN is used for Voice/XLES traffic. A shared public (case A) signaling/Voice/XLES or (case B) signaling/Voice IP interface is configured at the Voice server. A private voice IP interface is configured at the SHub. A private XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server. Upstream packet forwarding in shared VLAN for signaling and Voice/XLES traffic:

Signaling traffic: layer 3 forwarding at the Voice server and layer 2 forwarding at
the SHub.

Voice/XLES traffic for a hub ISAM Voice: layer 3 forwarding at the Voice server
and layer 2 forwarding at the SHub.

Voice/XLES traffic for a remote ISAM Voice (Figure 8-48 - CASE A):
Voice/XLES packet internally relayed from the Voice LT to the SHub and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

Downstream packet forwarding in shared VLAN for signaling and Voice/XLES


traffic:

Signaling traffic: layer 2 forwarding at the SHub. Voice/XLES traffic for a hub ISAM Voice: layer 2 forwarding at the SHub. Voice/XLES traffic for a remote ISAM Voice (Figure 8-48 - CASE A): layer 4
forwarding from the SHub to the Voice LT.

Upstream packet forwarding in the private Voice VLAN:


Voice/XLES traffic: Voice/XLES packet internally relayed from Voice LT to the SHub and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Case A: Shared public signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN:


The VLAN is of Residential Bridge mode in the Hub ISAM Voice and of Voice-VLAN mode in the Remote ISAM Voice, and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice server in the Hub ISAM Voice, the ASAM port(s) connecting the voice LT boards in the remote ISAM Voice, and the network port(s). The shared VLAN terminates at the Voice server and at the Voice LT in the Remote ISAM Voice nodes. It carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call
Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).

RTP traffic originated from or destined to end users connected to a remote ISAM
Voice node.

RTP traffic originated from an external end user and destined to an end user
connected to the hub node or subtending node.

RTP traffic originated from an end user connected to the hub or Subtending node
and destined to an external end user.

RTCP traffic XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT hosted in the remote ISAM Voice node.

Case B: Shared public signaling/Voice VLAN:


The VLAN is of Residential Bridge mode in the Hub ISAM Voice and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice server in the Hub ISAM Voice and the network port(s). The shared VLAN terminates at the Voice server. It carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call
Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).

RTP traffic originated from an external end user and destined to an end user
connected to the Hub node, Subtending node or Remote node.

RTP traffic originated from an end user connected to the Hub, Subtending or
Remote node and destined to an external end user.

RTCP traffic. Private Voice VLAN:


The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode, configurable and allows layer 2 and layer 3 user-to-user communication. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice server, the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT and the subtending port(s). The private Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice server and the Voice LT and the SHub of the Hub, the Subtending (Case B) and/or Remote ISAM Voice node. It carries:

RTP traffic originated or destined to end users connected to the hub and subtending
ISAM Voice nodes.

RTCP traffic. XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT residing in the Hub, the Subtending (Case B) and/or the Remote ISAM Voice node.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology with IP subnet reduction and IP address reduction is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-46. For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-47. For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-48.
Figure 8-46 IP subnet and IP reduction - hub ISAM Voice (switching)
MG
Internal OAM VLAN
Voice Server 1

External OAM VLAN

MG

Private VOICE/XLES VLAN


Fast-path VRF

Voice Server N

Voice LT 1 NT

Shared SIGNALING/VOICE/XLES VLAN


Public OAM IP Address Private Voice IP Address Public shared Signaling/Voice /XLES IP Address Private OAM IP Address Private XLES IP Address

Voice LT M

Figure 8-47 IP subnet and IP reduction - subtending ISAM Voice (switching)


Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

Private VOICE/XLES VLAN

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

Public O AM IP Address Private Voice IP Address Vo ice LT M

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-48 IP subnet and IP address reduction - remote ISAM Voice (switching)
CASE A

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM Vo ice server N

Shared SIGNALLING/VO ICE VLAN

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Vo ice LT M

CASE B
Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM Vo ice server N

Shared SIGNALLING/VO ICE VLAN

SHu b NT

Vo ice LT 1

Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Vo ice LT M

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/Voice/XLES IP address: Residing at the Voice server. Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable. Public Voice IP address (for remote ISAM Voice node): Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Residing at the SHub. Configurable. Private Voice IP address (for hub ISAM Voice node and subtending ISAM Voice
node):

Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Residing at the SHub. Configurable. Private XLES IP address (for hub ISAM Voice node): Residing at the Voice server. Shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Megaco ISAM Voice as routing device


Three forwarding models can be distinguished for Megaco ISAM Voice as routing device:

Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology IP subnet reduction IP subnet and IP address reduction
The following is common to all three forwarding models:

Equipment and platform management entity is hosted at the NT Voice service Management entity is hosted at the Voice server Media gateway is hosted at the Voice server External communication VLAN carries the external management traffic Public OAM IP interface is configured at the NT External communication VLAN: see chapter Management interface functions Public OAM IP address: see chapter Management interface functions

Basic layer 3 addressing topology

The following applies for the basic layer 3 addressing topology:

Distinct user side VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice/XLES traffic are
configured at the user side of the fast path VRF. Distinct network side VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice/XLES traffic are configured at the network side of the fast path VRF. A distinct user side subtending VLAN for Voice/XLES traffic exchanged with the subtending ISAM Voice is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF. The public Voice IP interface is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF at the SHub. The public signaling IP interface is configured at the Voice server. The public XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server. A user-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of the user side signaling VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF. A network-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of both the network-side signaling VLAN and the network-side Voice/XLES VLAN at the network side of the fast path VRF. A user-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of the user side subtending VLAN at the user side of the fats path VRF. Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Voice server: layer 3
forwarding at the Voice server and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT board: the Voice/XLES
packet is internally relayed from the Voice LT board to the SHub and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub. Voice traffic and XLES traffic originating at the subtending interface: layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Downstream packet forwarding: Signaling traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice server: layer 3 forwarded at
the SHub.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice LT: layer 3 followed by layer
4 forwarded from the SHub to the Voice LT board.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the subtending interface: layer 3
forwarded at the SHub.

Signaling VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:


The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice server(s). The signaling VLAN terminates at the SHub/Voice server and carries the Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice). Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF: The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode, configurable and allows layer 3 user-to-user communication. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice server and the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT board. The VLAN terminates at the SHub and both, the Voice server and the Voice LT board and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users. RTCP traffic. XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT board).

Subtending Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s). The VLAN terminates at the SHub and the Voice LT board(s) connecting to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic XLES traffic exchanged between the Voice server and the subtending Voice LT
board(s)

The basic layer 3 addressing topology is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-49 For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-50 For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-51

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-49 Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - hub ISAM Voice (routing)
MG
Internal OAM VLAN
Voice Server 1

External OAM VLAN

MG

SIGNALING VLAN
Network VLAN

Voice Server N

Fast-path VRF

Voice LT 1

Network VLAN
NT

Subtending VLAN
Public OAM IP address Public Signaling IP address Public Voice /XLES IP address Private OAM IP address

Voice LT M

VOICE VLAN

Public Voice IP address Network IP address User IP address Subtending IP address

Figure 8-50 Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - subtending ISAM Voice (routing)

External OAM VLAN

Fast-path VRF
Voice LT 1 NT

Subtending VLAN

Public OAM IP address Public Voice IP address Voice LT M

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-51 Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - remote ISAM Voice (routing)

External OAM VLAN

Network VLAN

Fast-path VRF
Voice LT 1 NT

VOICE VLAN
Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Network IP address Voice LT M

The layer 3 IP address scheme looks then as follows:

Public signaling IP address: Residing at the Voice server. Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable Public Voice IP address: Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node configured at the user side of the fast
path VRF. Residing at the SHub. Configurable

Public XLES IP address: Residing at the Voice server. Shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable. Signaling path: User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF
(SHub)

Network-side next hop IP address configured at the network side of the fast path
VRF (SHub)

Voice / XLES path:


Network-side next hop IP address configured at the network side of the fast path VRF (SHub) User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (SHub) for the subtending link.
IP subnet reduction

This model intends to reduce the number of IP subnets (that is, the total amount of reserved IP addresses), required for the voice service.

The same user-side VLAN is shared by signaling and Voice/XLES traffic and
configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The same network-side VLAN is shared by signaling and Voice/XLES traffic and
configured at the network side of the fast path VRF.

The public Voice IP interface is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF
at the SHub. A shared public signaling/XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server. A distinct-user side subtending VLAN for Voice/XLES traffic exchanged with the subtending ISAM Voice is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF. A network-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of the network side signaling/ Voice/XLES VLAN at the network side of the fast path VRF. A user-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of the user-side subtending VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF. Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling traffic: layer 3 forwarding at the Voice server and layer 3 forwarding at
the SHub.

Voice/XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT: Voice/XLES packet internally


relayed from Voice LT board to SHub and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

Voice/XLES traffic originating at the subtending interface: layer 3 forwarding at the


SHub.

Downstream packet forwarding: Signaling traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice server: layer 3 forwarded at
the SHub.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice LT: layer 3 followed by layer
4 forwarded from the SHub to the Voice LT board.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the subtending interface: layer 3
forwarded at the SHub.

Shared signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode, configurable and allows layer 3 user-to-user communication. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice server and the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT. The shared VLAN terminates at the SHub/Voice server and the Voice LT board and carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call
Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice)

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT.

Subtending Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s). The VLAN terminates at the SHub and the Voice LT board(s) connecting to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic XLES traffic exchanged between the Voice server and the subtending Voice LT
board(s)

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The basic layer 3 addressing topology with IP subnet reduction is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-52. For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-53. For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-54.
Figure 8-52 IP subnet reduction - hub ISAM Voice (routing)
MG
Internal OAM VLAN
Voice Server 1

External OAM VLAN

MG

Shared SIGNALING /VOICE VLAN


Network VLAN

Voice Server N

Fast-path VRF

Voice LT 1 NT

Subtending VLAN
Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Public shared Signaling/Voice/XLES IP Address Private OAM IP Address Network IP address Subtending IP address Voice LT M

Figure 8-53 IP subnet reduction - subtending ISAM Voice (routing)


External OAM VLAN

VOICE VLAN
Fast-path VRF Voice LT 1 NT

Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Voice LT M

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-54 IP subnet reduction - remote ISAM Voice (routing)
External OAM VLAN

Network VLAN

Fast-path VRF
Voice LT 1 NT

VOICE VLAN
Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Network IP address Voice LT M

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/XLES IP address: Residing at the Voice server. Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable. Public Voice IP address: Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node at the user side of the fast path VRF
at the SHub.

Residing at the SHub. Configurable. Signaling/Voice path: Network-side next hop IP address configured at the network side of the fast path
VRF (SHub

User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF
(SHub) for the subtending link. IP subnet and IP address reduction

This model further reduces the total amount of public IP addresses, required for the integrated voice service.

A single public VLAN shared by signaling/Voice/XLES is configured at the user


side of the fast path VRF

A private VLAN for Voice/XLES traffic is configured at the user side of the fast
path VRF (Applies to the HUB and subtending ISAM Voice only) A network side VLAN shared by signaling/Voice/XLES is configured at the network side of the fast path VRF. A single public IP interface shared by signaling/Voice/XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server. A private voice IP interface is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF at the SHub. A private XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server. A distinct user side private subtending VLAN for Voice/XLES traffic exchanged with the subtending ISAM Voice is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF. A network side Next hop IP interface is configured on top of the network side signaling/ Voice/XLES VLAN at the network side of the fast path VRF.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

A user side Next hop IP interface is configured on top of the user side
signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF.

A user side Next hop IP interface is configured on top of the user side subtending
VLAN at the user side of the fats path VRF. Upstream packet forwarding in shared VLAN for signaling/Voice/XLES traffic:

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic + Voice traffic originating at the Voice server:
layer 3 forwarding at the Voice server and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Remote ISAM Voice: Voice/XLES
packet is internally relayed from the Voice LT board to the SHub and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub.

Downstream packet forwarding in shared VLAN for signaling/Voice/XLES


traffic

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic + Voice traffic destined to the Voice server: layer
3 forwarding at the SHub. Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice LT board (Remote ISAM Voice): layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding from the SHub to the Voice LT board.

Upstream packet forwarding in the private Voice VLAN (HUB / Subtending


ISAM Voice only): Voice traffic and XLES traffic originating at the voice LT board: Voice/XLES packet is internally relayed from Voice LT board to the SHub and layer 3 forwarding at the SHub. Downstream packet forwarding in the private Voice VLAN (HUB / Subtending ISAm Voice only): Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the voice LT: layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding from the SHub to the Voice LT board. Shared public signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF: The VLAN is of Residential Bridge mode in the Hub ISAM Voice and of Voice-VLAN mode in the remote ISAM Voice, and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice server in the Hub ISAM Voice and the ASAM port(s) connecting the voice LT board boards in the remote ISAM Voice. The shared VLAN terminates at the SHUB / Voice server and at the Voice LT board in the Remote ISAM Voice nodes. It carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call
Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).

RTP traffic originated from or destined to end users connected to a remote ISAM
Voice node.

RTP traffic originated from an external end user and destined to an end user
connected to the hub node or subtending node.

RTP traffic originated from an end user connected to the hub or Subtending node
and destined to an external end user.

RTCP traffic. XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT board hosted in the remote ISAM Voice node.

Private Voice VLAN:


The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode, configurable and allows layer 3 user-to-user communication. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice server and the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The private Voice VLAN terminates at the SHUB, Voice server and the Voice LT. It carries:

RTP traffic originated or destined to end users connected to the Hub, Subtending
(Case B:) and/or Remote ISAM Voice nodes.

RTCP traffic. XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT board residing in the Hub, the Subtending (Case B) and/or the Remote ISAM Voice node.

Subtending Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s). The VLAN terminates at the SHub and the Voice LT board(s) connecting to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic XLES traffic exchanged between the Voice server and the subtending Voice LT(s)
The basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology with IP subnet reduction and IP address reduction is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-55. For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-56. For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 8-57.
Figure 8-55 IP subnet and IP reduction - hub ISAM Voice (routing)
MG
Internal OAM VLAN Shared SIGNALING/VOICE VLAN
Voice Server 1

External OAM VLAN

MG

Private VOICE VLAN


Network VLAN
Fast-path VRF

Voice Server N

Voice LT 1

NT

Subtending VLAN
Public OAM IP Address Private Voice IP Address Public shared Signaling/XLES IP Address Private OAM IP Address

Voice LT M

Private XLES IP Address Network IP address User IP address Subtending IP address

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-56 IP subnet and IP reduction - subtending ISAM Voice (routing)
External OAM VLAN

Private VOICE VLAN


Fast-path VRF

Voice LT 1 NT

Public OAM IP Address Private Voice IP Address Voice LT M

Figure 8-57 IP subnet and IP address reduction - remote ISAM Voice (routing)
External OAM VLAN Shared SIGNALLING /VOICE VLAN
Voice server N

Network VLAN

Fast-path VRF Voice LT 1 NT

Public OAM IP Address Public Voice IP Address Network IP address Voice LT M

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/Voice/XLES IP address: Residing at the Voice server. Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable. Public Voice IP address (for remote ISAM Voice node): Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node configured at the user side of the fast
path VRF.

Residing at the SHub. Configurable. Private Voice IP address (for hub ISAM Voice node and subtending ISAM Voice
node):

Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node configured at the user side of the fast
path VRF.

Residing at the SHub. Configurable. Private XLES IP address (for hub ISAM Voice node): Residing at the Voice server. Shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers. Configurable. Public Signaling / Voice path:

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Network-side next hop IP address configured at the network side of the fast path VRF (HUB and Remote SHub). User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (HUB SHub). User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (SHub) for the subtending link.

SIP ISAM Voice as switching device


Four addressing topologies are supported:

Distributed IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP address. Distributed IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP address. Centralized IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP address. Centralized IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP address.

The following is common to all four addressing models:

Equipment, platform and integrated voice service management entity is hosted at


the NT. A SIP UA instance is hosted at the Voice LT. The external communication VLAN carries the external management traffic. The public OAM IP interface is configured at the NT. External communication VLAN: see chapter Management interface functions. Public OAM IP address: see chapter Management interface functions.

Distributed IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP address

A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at


the SHub. A single source/destination IP interface shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at the voice LT board. Upstream packet forwarding:

Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the Voice LT board. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side. Downstream packet forwarding: Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Shared signaling/Voice VLAN:


The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT and the network port(s). The shared signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end-users. RTCP traffic.


Figure 8-58 shows the layer 3 addressing topology for this model.
Figure 8-58 Distributed IP address topology (switching): shared signaling/voice IP address
SIP UA

OAM VLAN

Voice LT 1

SIP UA

Shared SIGNALING/VOICE VLAN


Fast-path VRF

Voice LT K

SIP UA

Voice LT L

NT

SIP UA

OAM IP Address Shared signaling/Voice IP Address Voice LT X Subtending node

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Signaling/Voice IP interface: Configurable at the Voice LT. Multiple IP address per ISAM Voice access node.
Distributed IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP address

Distinct VLANs are configured for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic at the
SHub.

Distinct IP interfaces for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at
the Voice LT board. Upstream packet forwarding:

Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the Voice LT board. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side. Downstream packet forwarding: Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side.

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November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Signaling VLAN:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, the network port(s) and the subtending port(s). The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice LT board and carries the SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent (ISAM Voice). Voice VLAN: The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, the network port(s) and the subtending port(s). The Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries the RTP traffic exchanged between end users and RTCP traffic. Figure 8-59 shows the layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology for this model.
Figure 8-59 Distributed IP address topology (switching): distinct signaling/voice IP address
SIP UA

External OAM VLAN

Voice LT 1

SIP UA

SIGNALING VLAN
Fast-path VRF Voice LT K

SIP UA

Voice LT L

VOICE VLAN
NT

SIP UA

Public OAM IP Address Public Signaling IP Address Public Voice IP Address Subtending node

Voice LT X

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

signaling IP interface: Configurable at the Voice LT board. Multiple IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Voice IP address: Configurable at the Voice LT board. Multiple IP address per ISAM Voice access node.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Centralized IP topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP address

Distinct VLANs are configured for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic at the
SHub. Distinct source/destination IP interfaces for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at the Voice LT board. Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling/Voice packet is internally relayed from Voice LT board to SHub Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side. Downstream packet forwarding: Layer 4 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from the SHub to the Voice LT board. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side. Signaling VLAN:
The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, the network port(s) and the subtending port(s). The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice LT board and carries the SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent (ISAM Voice). Voice VLAN: The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, the network port(s) and the subtending port(s). The Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries the RTP traffic exchanged between end users and RTCP traffic. Figure 8-60 shows the layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology for this model.
Figure 8-60 Centralized IP address topology (switching): distinct signaling/voice IP address
SIP UA

Voice LT 1

External OAM VLAN


SIP UA

Voice LT K

SIGNALING VLAN
Fast-path VRF

SIP UA

Voice LT L

VOICE VLAN
NT

SIP UA

Voice LT X

Public OAM IP Address Public Signaling IP Address Public Voice IP Address

Subtending node

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November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Public signaling IP address: Configurable at the SHub. Shared by a redundant pair of NTs/SHubs. Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Public Voice IP address: Configurable at the SHub. Shared by a redundant pair of NTs/SHubs. Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node.
Centralized IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP address

A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at


the SHub. A single source/destination IP interface shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at the voice LT board. Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling/Voice packet is internally relayed from Voice LT board to SHub Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side. Downstream packet forwarding: Layer 4 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from the SHub to the Voice LT board. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side. Shared signaling/Voice VLAN:
The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, the network port(s) and the subtending port(s). The signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT board and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice). RTP traffic exchanged between end-users. RTCP traffic.

Figure 8-61 shows the layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology for this model.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-61 Centralized IP address topology (switching): shared signaling/voice IP address
SIP UA

External OAM VLAN

Voice LT 1

SIP UA

Shared SIGNALING/VOICE VLAN


Fast-path VRF Voice LT K

SIP UA

NT

Voice LT L

OAM IP Address Shared Signaling/Voice IP Address

SIP UA

Subtending node

Voice LT X

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Shared signaling/Voice IP interface: Configurable at the SHub. Shared by a redundant pair of SHubs. Single IP interface per ISAM Voice access node. SIP ISAM Voice as routing device
Four addressing topologies are supported:

Distributed IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP address. Distributed IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP address. Centralized IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP address. Centralized IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP address.

The following is common to all four addressing models:

Equipment, platform and integrated voice service management entity is hosted at


the NT. A SIP UA instance is hosted at the Voice LT. The external communication VLAN carries the external management traffic. The public OAM IP interface is configured at the NT. External communication VLAN: see chapter Management interface functions. Public OAM IP address: see chapter Management interface functions. Different VLANs at the network side and at the user side of the fast path VRF.

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November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Distributed IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP address

A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at


the user side of the fast path VRF. A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at the network side of the fast path VRF. A single source/destination IP interface shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at the voice LT board. A single subtending VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling/voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling/voice VLAN at the network side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF. Upstream packet forwarding:

Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the Voice LT board. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side. Downstream packet forwarding: Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side. Signaling/Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT. The signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end-users. RTCP traffic. Subtending signaling/Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s). The user-side signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT(s) connected to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice). RTP traffic exchanged between end-users. RTCP traffic.

Figure 8-62 shows the layer 3 addressing topology for this model.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-62 Distributed IP address topology (routing): shared signaling/voice IP address
Shared SIGNALING/VOICE VLAN
SIP UA

OAM VLAN

Voice LT 1

SIP UA

Voice LT K Fast-path VRF

SIP UA

Network VLAN

Voice LT L

Network VLAN

NT

SIP UA

OAM IP Address Shared signaling/Voice IP Address Network IP address User IP address Subtending IP address

Voice LT X Subtending node

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Signaling/Voice IP interface: Configurable at the Voice LT. Multiple IP address per ISAM Voice access node. User-side signaling/voice VLAN: next-hop IP interface configured at the user
side of the fast path VRF (SHub)

Network-side signaling/voice VLAN: next-hop IP interface configured at the


network side of the fast path VRF (SHub) User-side subtending signaling/voice VLAN: next-hop IP interface configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (SHub)
Distributed IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP address

Distinct VLANs are configured for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic at the
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user side of the fast path VRF. Distinct VLANs are configured for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic at the network side of the fast path VRF. Distinct IP interfaces for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at the Voice LT board. Distinct subtending VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at the user side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling VLAN at the network side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the voice VLAN at the network side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending signaling VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF.

November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending voice VLAN at the
user side of the fast path VRF.

Upstream packet forwarding: Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the Voice LT board. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side. Downstream packet forwarding: Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side. Signaling VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT. The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice LT board and carries the SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent (ISAM Voice). Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF: The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT. The Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries the:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic. Subtending VLAN for signaling and voice at the user side of the fast path VRF:
These VLANs are of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s). The subtending signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT(s) connected to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries: SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent (ISAM Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic.


Figure 8-63 shows the layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology for this model.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-63 Distributed IP address topology (routing): distinct signaling/voice IP address
SIGNALING VLAN
SIP UA

VOICE VLAN
Voice LT 1

External OAM VLAN


SIP UA

Voice LT K Fast-path VRF

SIP UA

Network VLAN

Voice LT L

Network VLAN
NT OAM IP Address User IP Address User IP Address Network IP Address Subtending IP Address Subtending IP Address Signalling IP Address Voice IP Address

SIP UA

Voice LT X

Subtending node

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Signaling IP interface: Configurable at the Voice LT board. Multiple IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Voice IP address: Configurable at the Voice LT board. Multiple IP address per ISAM Voice access node. User-side signaling VLAN and user-side Voice VLAN: next-hop IP interface
configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (SHub). Network-side signaling VLAN and network-side Voice VLAN: next-hop IP interface configured at the network side of the fast path VRF (SHub). User-side subtending signaling VLAN and user-side subtending voice VLAN: next-hop IP interface configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (SHub).
Centralized IP topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP address

Distinct VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic at the user side of the
fast path VRF.

Distinct VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic at the network side of
the fast path VRF. Distinct source/destination IP interfaces for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic at the user side of the VRF at the SHub. Distinct subtending VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.
8-72 November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling VLAN at the network
side of the fast path VRF.

A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the voice VLAN at the network
side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending signaling VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF. A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF. Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling/Voice packet is internally relayed from Voice LT board to SHub Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side. Downstream packet forwarding: Layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from the SHub to Signaling VLAN:
the Voice LT board. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side.

The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT. The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice LT board and carries the SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent (ISAM Voice). Voice VLAN: The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT. The Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic. Subtending VLANs for signaling and Voice at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s). The Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT board connected to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice)

RTP traffic exchanged between end users RTCP traffic.


Figure 8-64 shows the topology for this model.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-64 Centralized IP address topology (routing): distinct signaling/voice IP address
SIGNALING VLAN
SIP UA

VOICE VLAN
Voice LT 1

External OAM VLAN


SIP UA

Voice LT K Fast-path VRF

SIP UA

Network VLAN

Voice LT L

Network VLAN
NT OAM IP Address Signaling IP Address Voice IP Address Network IP Address Subtending IP Address Subtending IP Address

SIP UA

Voice LT X

Subtending node

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Signaling IP address: Configurable at the SHub (user-side fast path VRF). Shared by a redundant pair of SHubs. Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Public Voice IP address: Configurable at the SHub. Shared by a redundant pair of NTs/SHubs. Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node. Network-side signaling VLAN and network-side Voice VLAN: next-hop IP
interface configured at the network side of the fast path VRF (SHub).

User-side subtending signaling VLAN and user-side subtending voice VLAN:


next-hop IP interface configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (SHub).
Centralized IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP address

A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at


the user side of the fast path VRF.

A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at


the network side of the fast path VRF. A single source/destination IP interface shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF. A single subtending VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.
8-74 November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling/voice VLAN at the


network side of the fast path VRF.

A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending VLAN at the user
side of the fast path VRF. Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling/Voice packet is internally relayed from Voice LT to SHub. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the SHub. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side. Downstream packet forwarding: Layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from the SHub to Signaling/Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
the Voice LT board. Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side.

The VLAN is of Voice-VLAN mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT. The signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end-users. RTCP traffic. Subtending signaling/Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable. Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s). The subtending signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT(s) connected to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end-users. RTCP traffic.


Figure 8-65 shows the addressing topology for this model.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-65 Centralized IP address topology (routing): shared signaling/voice IP address
Shared SIGNALING/VOICE VLAN
SIP UA

OAM VLAN

Voice LT 1

SIP UA

Voice LT K Fast-path VRF

SIP UA

Network VLAN

Voice LT L

Network VLAN

NT

SIP UA

OAM IP Address Shared signaling/Voice IP Address Network IP address User IP address Subtending IP address

Voice LT X Subtending node

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Shared signaling/Voice IP interface: Configurable at the SHub (user side fast path VRF). Shared by a redundant pair of NTs/SHubs. Single IP interface per ISAM Voice access node. Network-side VLAN sharing signaling traffic and voice traffic: next-hop IP
interface configured at the network side of the fast path VRF (SHub). User-side subtending VLAN sharing signaling traffic and voice traffic: next-hop IP interface configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (SHub).

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.9

Protocol stacks

Megaco ISAM Voice as switching/routing device


Both POTS and ISDN BRI lines are supported.
Signaling protocol stack

H.248 and SIGTRAN signaling packets are exchanged between the MG (Voice server) and the MGC (Call Server). The XLES proprietary protocol is used to exchange internal signaling packets between the Voice server and the Voice LT boards residing in the hub, subtending or remote ISAM Voice access nodes. H.248 and XLES signaling packets are encapsulated with UDP, IP and layer 2 frames. SIGTRAN signaling packets are encapsulated with SCTP, IP and layer 2 frames. The layer 2 frames are formatted according to Ethernet II format (that is, using the type field) and VLAN 802.1Q tagged including priority setting according to IEEE 802.1p. H.248, SIGTRAN and XLES signaling packets include configured DSCP and .1P values. Figure 8-66 shows the H.248 signaling protocol stack for a POTS termination connected directly to the hub ISAM Voice. The Z interface is terminated at the Voice LT. User events like hook off, hook on and so on are converted into XLES/LAPV5 packets which are sent to the Voice server. The Voice server in turn converts the internal proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol into Megaco messages sent to the MGC.
Figure 8-66 POTS signaling protocol stack - hub ISAM Voice (switching)
Hub ISAM Voice

XLES LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3

XLES H.248 LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY UDP H.248

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 November 2010 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA Edition 01 Released System Description for FD 24Gbps NT

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-67 POTS signaling protocol stack - hub ISAM Voice (routing)
Hub ISAM Voice

XLES LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3

XLES H.248 LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY UDP H.248

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

For POTS terminations connected to a remote or subtending ISAM Voice, the Z interface is terminated at the Voice LT residing at the remote or subtending ISAM Voice. Information transfer between the remote or subtending ISAM Voice and the hub ISAM Voice happens through the proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol that is terminated at the Voice server. The Voice server in turn converts the internal proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol into Megaco messages sent to the MGC.
Figure 8-68 POTS signaling protocol stack - subtending ISAM Voice (switching)
Subtending ISAM Voice Hub ISAM Voice

XLES LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.1Q 802.1Q

XLES H.248 LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY UDP H.248

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

SHub

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-69 POTS signaling protocol stack - subtending ISAM Voice (routing)
Subtending ISAM Voice Hub ISAM Voice

XLES LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.1Q IP 802.1Q

XLES H.248 LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY UDP H.248

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

SHub

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-70 POTS signaling protocol stack - remote ISAM Voice (switching)
Remote ISAM Voice Hub ISAM Voice

XLES LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.1Q 802.1Q 802.1Q

XLES H.248 LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY UDP H.248

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

SHub

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

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November 2010 Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM R4.2 | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7356 ISAM FTTB R4.2 System Description for FD 24Gbps NT Edition 01 Released 3HH-08871-AAAA-TQZZA

8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-71 POTS signaling protocol stack - remote ISAM Voice (routing)
Remote ISAM Voice Hub ISAM Voice

XLES LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3


802.3 IP 802.1Q IP

XLES H.248 LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3


IP 802.1Q 802.3

H.248

UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

L3

IP Generic PHY

802.1Q 802.3

802.1Q 802.3

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

SHub

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

For ISDN BRI terminations, the Voice server behaves as the signaling Gateway (SG). It communicates with the ASP through the SIGTRAN protocol. The D-channel layer 2 protocol (Q.921) is terminated at the Voice LT. The D-channel layer 3 protocol (Q.931) is fully transparent to the Voice server. Q.931 is encapsulated with SIGTRAN and fully transparently forwarded to the ASP. The ISAM Voice still acts as the MG for the call control in calls involving B-channels.
Figure 8-72 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - hub ISAM Voice (switching)
Hub ISAM Voice

Q931 XLES Q921 Q921 LapV5 UDP IP I410 I410 802.1Q 802.3 XLES IUA LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 SCTP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

Q931

IUA

SCTP

L3

IP 802.1Q 802.3

Termination

Voice LT

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-73 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - hub ISAM Voice (routing)
Hub ISAM Voice

Q931 XLES Q921 Q921 LapV5 UDP IP I410 I410 802.1Q 802.3 XLES IUA LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 SCTP IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

Q931

IUA

SCTP

L3

IP 802.1Q 802.3

Termination

Voice LT

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

For ISDN BRI Terminations connected to a remote or subtending ISAM Voice, the D-channel layer 2 protocol (Q.921) is terminated at the Voice LT residing at the remote or subtending ISAM Voice. Information transfer between the remote or subtending ISAM Voice and the hub ISAM Voice happens through the proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol that is terminated at the Voice server. The Voice server in turn converts the internal proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol into SIGTRAN messages sent to the ASP.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-74 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - subtending ISAM Voice (switching)
Subtending ISAM Voice Hub ISAM Voice

Q931
XLES XLES H.248 LapV5 UDP IP LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

Q931

IUA

Q921

Q921

L3

SCTP IP 802.1Q 802.3

I410

I410

802.1Q 802.3

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

SHub

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-75 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - subtending ISAM Voice (routing)
Subtending ISAM Voice Hub ISAM Voice

Q931
XLES XLES H.248 LapV5 UDP IP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

Q931

IUA

Q921

Q921

L3

SCTP IP 802.1Q 802.3

I410

I410

802.1Q 802.3

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

SHub

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-76 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - remote ISAM Voice (switching)
Remote ISAM Voice Hub ISAM Voice

Q931

Q931
XLES XLES H.248

IUA

Q921

Q921

LapV5 UDP IP

LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

L3

SCTP IP 802.1Q 802.3

I410

I410

802.1Q 802.3

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

SHub

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-77 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - remote ISAM Voice (routing)
Remote ISAM Voice Hub ISAM Voice

Q931

Q931
XLES XLES H.248

IUA

Q921

Q921

LapV5 UDP IP
IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP

LapV5 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3


IP 802.1Q 802.3

L3
IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

SCTP IP 802.1Q 802.3

I410

I410

802.1Q 802.3

802.1Q 802.3

802.1Q 802.3

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

SHub

Voice Server

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice protocol stack

Voice traffic, using Real-Time Protocol (RTP) providing the information needed to restore the original digital voice stream, is encapsulated in UDP/IP. The same encapsulation method is applied to Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP), the control protocol associated to RTP. The encapsulated voice traffic (RTP/RTCP) includes a configurable DSCP and .1P bit value. As a result the voice packets can use separate queues in the layer 2/layer 3 network to minimize delay and jitter.
Figure 8-78 Voice protocol stack - upstream (switching)
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

Figure 8-79 Voice protocol stack - upstream (routing)


Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

Figure 8-80 Voice protocol stack - downstream (switching)


Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-81 Voice protocol stack - downstream (routing)
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

SIP ISAM Voice as switching/routing device


Only POTS lines are supported.
Signaling protocol stack

SIP signaling packets are exchanged between the Voice gateway and the SIP server. All signaling packets are encapsulated with UDP, IP and layer 2 frames. The layer 2 frames are formatted according to Ethernet II format (that is, using the type field) and VLAN 802.1Q tagged including priority setting according to IEEE 802.1p. SIP signaling packets will include configured DSCP and .1P values. Figure 8-82, Figure 8-83, Figure 8-84, Figure 8-85, Figure 8-86 and Figure 8-87 show the SIP signaling protocol stack for a POTS termination for the different architectures. The Z interface is terminated at the Voice LT board. User events like hook off, hook on, and so on are converted into SIP messages sent to the SIP server.
Figure 8-82 POTS signaling protocol stack - distributed architecture (switching)
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-83 POTS signaling protocol stack - distributed architecture (routing)
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

Figure 8-84 POTS signaling protocol stack - centralized architecture - upstream (switching)
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

Figure 8-85 POTS signaling protocol stack - centralized architecture - upstream (routing)
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

Figure 8-86 POTS signaling protocol stack - centralized architecture - downstream (switching)
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3

UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-87 POTS signaling protocol stack - centralized architecture - downstream (routing)
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3

UDP IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 802.1Q 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.3 IP Generic PHY

UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

TGW

Voice protocol stack

Voice traffic, using RTP providing the information needed to restore the original digital voice stream, is encapsulated in UDP/IP. The same encapsulation method is applied to RTCP, the control protocol associated to RTP. The encapsulated voice traffic (RTP/RTCP) includes a configurable DSCP and .1P bit value. As a result the voice packets can use separate queues in the layer 2/layer 3 network to minimize delay and jitter.
Figure 8-88 Voice protocol stack - distributed architecture (switching)
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-89 Voice protocol stack - distributed architecture (routing)


Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-90 Voice protocol stack - centralized architecture - upstream (switching)
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-91 Voice protocol stack - centralized architecture - upstream (routing)


Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-92 Voice protocol stack - centralized architecture - downstream (switching)


Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 8-93 Voice protocol stack - centralized architecture - downstream (routing)


Hub ISAM Voice

RTP UDP IP 802.1Q Z Itf Z Itf 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 802.3 UDP IP 802.1Q IP 802.1Q 802.1Q IP 802.1Q IP Generic PHY

RTP UDP

L3

IP Generic PHY

Termination

Voice LT

SHub

EMAN

Edge Router

MGC

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.10

Management interface

General
Internally, the ISAM Voice supports three management entities:

Intelligent Access termination, Control and Management (IACM) entity. SHub management entity. Voice server.
With the focus on the ISAM Voice, being an access node with integrated voice service, the following management responsibilities are assigned to the different management entities:

In a Megaco ISAM Voice access node: The IACM entity deals with equipment, platform and system control. The SHub management entity deals with central switching control. The Voice server deals with voice service control. In a SIP ISAM Voice access node: The IACM entity deals with equipment, platform, system and voice service control. The SHub management entity deals with the central switching control.
The ISAM Voice supports SNMPv3. A single public OAM IP address per access node is used to address all management entities (the IACM, the SHub and the Voice server management entity). The public OAM IP address resides at the NT and its value can immediately be configured through manual command input. Another valid configuration option is to let the OAM IP address be retrieved by means of the BOOTP protocol. The OAM IP address is shared by both NTs of the redundant pair. Management of the ISAM is in-band, within a configurable external-OAM VLAN (default value is 4093). The external communication VLAN terminates at the NT and carries the OAM traffic exchanged between the external management platform and the IACM management entity. The external communication VLAN is of iBridge mode and configurable (although by default allocated with VLAN ID 4093). Ports associated with this VLAN are the NT port(s), subtending port(s) and the network port(s). The SHub and Voice server management entity can be addressed through the use of dedicated context names. The internal communication VLAN allows the NT to relay the specific management commands for SHub or Voice service to the SHub/Voice server. Local management of the ISAM requires the operator to use the serial interface on the IACM. Via this interface he can manage all ISAM functionality, IACM, SHub, and Voice server, using CLI.
Note The SHub has dedicated CLI commands.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The IACM part (including SIP) can be fully managed using TL1.
Note The SHub can also be partly managed via the IACM TL1 that supports:

Flow-through provisioning of VLANs and VLAN-ports on SHub Alarm reporting and alarm report/threshold configuration on
SHub

Collection of PM statistics from SHub Multicast control in SHub.


Figure 8-94 illustrates the management architecture.
Figure 8-94 Management architecture
SNMP for ISAM Voice SIP TL1 for ISAM Voice SIP CLI for ISAM Voice SIP CLI for Shub SNMP for Shub SNMP for ISAM Voice MEGACO CLI for SAM Voice MEGACO

SNMP for ISAM TL1 for IACM CLI for ISAM

ISAM IACM

TL1

CLI

SHub
SNMP

Voice Server

SNMP

SNMP

Mapper

Mapper

Mapper 18 Voice Server pairs

Application code

Application code

Application code

The CLI agent on the IACM must support parsing for the complete CLI interface for support of auto-completion and the help function for the complete CLI functionality. The CLI agent will parse the complete command line with auto-completion. Once the line has been completed, the CLI agent will either execute the command itself or dispatch it to the SHub. Therefore the dispatcher will have to know the complete command tree of the SHub.
Note Local and remote CT interface (serial interface) with command line interface is supported at the NT.

Local and remote CT interface is NOT supported at the Voice server.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Megaco ISAM Voice


The SNMP agent that resides on the Voice server supports the management interface of the voice service. However, neither CLI nor SNMP commands can directly be addressed to the voice server. These commands must be addressed to the IACM CLI and SNMP agent. For completeness, voice service alarms can be retrieved through the IACM TL1agent. However the usage of TL1 in the Megaco ISAM Voice is restricted to this single purpose only. For the purpose of the relay function that is to be preformed by the IACM SNMP agent, each voice server owns a voice server context name. This context name is configurable in SNMP but fixed in CLI. The Voice server context name corresponds to a private IP address assigned to each of the Voice servers. This IP address mapping is fixed and based on the physical slot ID of the voice server. It is an IP address from the private IP address range 127.0.0.11 to 127.0.0.26. Relay of SNMP commands from the IACM SNMP agent to the Voice server happens in the internal Communication VLAN (4094). SNMP commands, carrying a voice server context name, are addressed to the IACM SNMP agent which in turn relays the command to the destined Voice server based on the included context name. CLI commands, carrying a voice server identifier, are addressed to the IACM CLI agent. The CLI agent translates the CLI command into the appropriate SNMP commands, which are relayed by the IACM SNMP agent to the destined Voice server SNMP Agent based on the included context name.
Batch configuration CLI command support for POTS subscriber management

In Megaco terminology, Voice subscribers are called terminations. A termination is a logical entity on a MG that sources and/or sinks media and/or control streams. A termination is described by a number of characterizing properties, which are grouped in a set of descriptors that are included in commands. Terminations have unique identities, called TerminationIDs assigned by the MG at the time of their creation. The ISAM Voice allows to make use of 2 different formats for the terminationID: the flat-termination-id:

Consists of a prefix and a termination ID, Format = 'prefix<tidXXXXX>' Prefix: the prefix can be configured as uppercase or lower case character string
with a maximum length of 10 characters.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

<tidXXXXX>: Maximum length of the termination ID = 5 numeric digits. The configured format defines the MINIMUM length to be generated for the
termination ID (might require leading zeroes). However, it does not limit the maximum value of the termination ID itself. The termination ID can be defined as fixed length or variable length termination ID. Fixed length termination ID may imply the insertion of leading zeroes. Examples: AL0, AL1, AL54, AL004, AL0008, AL00055

Termination ID value range can start from value 0 or from value 1 (Value
range start value cannot be derived from the format definition; it is received through the provisioned termination id value.) POTS: a flat value in the range [032767] ISDN BRI: a flat value in the range [08175] the hierarchical-termination-id:

Legacy mode: typical format: Prefix/Dslam_Id/rack/shelf/slot/port(/channel)


Maximum length of the full hierarchical termination id string equals 72 bytes.

The keywords must appear in a pre-defined order: Dslam_Id, rack, shelf, slot, port,
channel. The delimiter is mandatory between the pre-defined keywords while optional between the prefix and the subsequent keyword. The delimiter character is fixed to /. The delimiter character is copied to the generated termination ID. Key-words: Dslam_Id (optional), rack (optional), shelf (mandatory), slot (mandatory), port (mandatory) and channel (mandatory for ISDN-BRI only). - Dslam_id: integer (1..255). - Rack: char (1); value range '1' - '7'. - Shelf: char (2); value range ' 01' - '04'. - Slot: char (2); The applicable value range will depend on the configured Slot ID numbering scheme. - Port: char(3); value range '001' - '072'. - Channel: char (2); value range '00' - '99'. All keywords, leading zeroes are to be included where needed. Prefix: char (8), optional delimiter not included.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Improved mode: typical format:


Prefix/Dslam_Id/rackXXXXX/shelfXXXXX/slotXXXXX/portXXXXX/ channel

Maximum length of the full hierarchical termination id string equals 128 bytes. Key-words: Dslam_Id (optional), rack (optional), shelf (mandatory), slot
(mandatory), port (mandatory) and channel (mandatory for ISDN-BRI only). The sequence of the key-words as shown in the typical format string must be respected. A key-word can only occur once in the hierarchical termination id character string. Key-word delimiter is optional. / is defined as the default delimiter Delimiter can be any valid character or character string not overlapping with the start character (string) of any of the key-words. The delimiter is copied to the generated termination ID. Each key-word can be followed by a number of numeric digits with the maximum number of digits = 5. The number of digits and the value of the digits configured in the format string define the MINIMUM number of digits to be generated (might require leading zeroes) and the value to start from, 0 or 1. The value following the key-word can start from value 0 or from value 1. Wildcard (*) is supported. The real value of the hierarchical termination id will autonomously be generated by the system based on the configured hierarchical termination id format string. Example: (1) ALshelf001/slot001port00000 whereby the shelf value range shall start from value 1 with max value 999, the slot value range shall start from value 1 with max value 999, while the port value range shall start from value 0 with max value 99999. (2) AL/Dslam_Id/shelf000slot000port00000 whereby the shelf value range shall start from value 0 with max value 999, the slot value range shall start from value 0 with max value 999, the port value range shall start from value 0 with max value 99999.

From a management interface perspective, should an operator decide to make use of the flat-termination-id format, then such flat termination id is to be configured for each of the terminations. Otherwise, should the hierarchical-termination-id format be used then the hierarchical termination syntax is to be configured once and the system will autonomously create the appropriate hierarchical termination id for each of the terminations. However, in addition, also the flat termination id is to be configured for each of the terminations for internal ISAM Voice purposes only. The management input for the flat termination ID can be given in 2 different ways:

By entering a single create command per termination and dictating the value for
the Flat Termination ID parameter per individual voice subscriber.

By entering a batch create command for a series of voice subscribers (typically


within the limits of a voice LT board). In this case, the operator doesn't specify a value for the Flat termination ID parameter. As a result the system will autonomously create the terminations for a voice LT board and assigns the value

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

of the Flat Termination ID, starting from one or previously successfully completed create command. and increment it by one for every subsequent termination being created.
Provisioning of MID field (H.248 packets)

ISAM Voice supports the provisioning of the Media Gateway IP Address, Media Gateway FQDN or Media Gateway Device Name to be used as Message identifier (MID) in H.248 signaling packets. Besides this, ISAM Voice supports the addition of the Port Number should either FQDN or IP address be used as MID. The ISAM-Voice allows to provision the MID in accordance to the following provided options:

ipv4: the media Gateway IP Address is used as the MG MID. ipv4-port: the media Gateway IP Address together with the media Gateway
UDP Port is used as the MG mid. domain-name: the media Gateway Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) is used as the MG MID. domain-name-port: the media Gateway FQDN together with the media Gateway UDP Port is used as the MG MID. device-name: the media Gateway Name is used as the MG MID The provisioning of the MG FQDN does only result in using this FQDN as MID in H.248 messages, it will for sure not be used as a trigger to perform DNS look-up for retrieving the media Gateway IP address. The latter IP address I still to be manually provisioned.

SIP-ISAM Voice
The Integrated Voice Service Management interface is fully supported by the SNMP and CLI agents that reside on the NT.

8.11

Permanent data storage

Megaco ISAM Voice


Voice permanent data is stored at the system disk. The system maintains a separate voice database for each of the Voice Servers. The voice database is managed by the integrated voice service management entity hosted at the Voice Server. At regular time, each Voice Server uploads its voice database to the system disk.

SIP ISAM Voice


Voice permanent data is stored at the system disk. A single voice database is stored at the system disk. The voice database is managed by integrated voice service management entity hosted at the NT board.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.12

Management model

Megaco ISAM Voice


Figure 8-95 shows the Megaco ISAM Voice conceptual management model.
Figure 8-95 Megaco ISAM Voice Conceptual Management Model
Equipment Board 1 0..n 0..5000 Equipment Terminatio 0..1 0..1 n 1 POTS Line
1..n

0..18

Equipment Node 0..32

1 1 1 1 1
1..8

H248 Voice Database

1 ISDN Line 0..72 1 0..24 1 ISDN LT 1


1..n

Voice Server 1 0..1 Media Gateway 1 0..1

Internal Signalling

POTS LT

Term Id Syntax

Voice LT
1..n 1

Media Gateway

1 1

1 1

Board

POTS CDE profile

ISDN CDE profile

Voice Server 1 CDE profile

NT

CDE profile

Voice Server

LT LineId
1

1..n

LT Session
1 1..n

LT test Param

1..n

LTLineId ExtReport

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The Megaco ISAM Voice management model includes the following classes:

The classes NT, VoiceServer, VoiceLT and Board reflect the Network
Termination, respectively the Voice Server and Voice Line Termination HW being involved in the integrated voice service. These classes are not further elaborated in subsequent chapters. The classes PotsLT and IsdnLT are instantiations of the class Voice LT. The class VoiceLT will be further elaborated in subsequent chapters. The classes PotsLine and IsdnLine are instantiations of the class EquipmentTermination. The class EquipmentTermination will be elaborated in subsequent chapters.
Voice Cluster management

A Voice Cluster is the aggregation of the ISAM network elements and Voice LT boards controlled by a single Voice Server. The class EquipmentNode includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the ISAM network elements that are associated with the voice cluster controlled by a particular Voice Server. The class EquipmentBoard includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the voice LT boards that are associated with the voice cluster controlled by a particular Voice Server. The methods that have been defined for both classes are Creation, Destroy and Retrieve.
Voice Network management

The class MediaGateway includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing:

Media Gateway interface with primary and secondary Media Gateway


Controller.

Quality of Service properties of the signaling and voice flows.


The class Signalinggateway includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the Signaling Gateway interface with primary and secondary Application Server Process. The methods that have been defined for both classes are Creation, Destroy, Modification and Retrieve.
Note For method Modification please refer to In-service/out-of-service modification.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice Subscriber management

The class EquipmentTermination includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the POTS / ISDN subscribers associated with a Voice Server, including the ability to overrule the QOS properties of the voice flow defined in the class MediaGateway, should a particular subscriber require an exception. The methods been defined for both classes are Creation, Destroy, Modification and Retrieve.
Note For method Modification please refer to In-service/out-of-service modification.

Voice Cluster Internal Signaling management

The class InternalSignaling includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the internal signaling (XLES communication) properties of the voice cluster. The methods been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve.
Note For method Modification please refer to In-service/out-of-service modification.

Voice Database management

The class VoiceDatabase includes the attributes and methods that allow managing the Voice Database. In particular, it allows (by manual trigger) saving the actual configuration settings of the Voice Database at the Voice Server to the system disk. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve.
Note For method Modification please refer to In-service/out-of-service modification.

Termination ID Syntax management

The class TermIdSyntax includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the termination ID syntax properties at the Voice Server. Both, the flat termination-id format and the hierarchical termination-id format are allowed. When selecting the flat termination-id format, the H.248 termination ID equals the termination ID created in class EquipmentTermination. Otherwise, when selecting the hierarchical termination-id format, the H.248 termination ID is autonomously generated by the system based the hierarchical termination ID syntax. (The termination ID created in class EquipmentTermination is then for internal usage only.)
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The Termination ID syntax is configured as a character string composed of a number of pre-defined keywords and operator defined characters. For a more detailed description, see section Megaco ISAM Voice. Both for POTS subscribers and for ISDN subscribers, the Termination-id must be unique network-wide. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve.
Note For method Modification please refer to In-service/out-of-service modification.

Voice CDE Profile management

The class CDEProfile includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the CDE profile for both the Voice Server and the voice LT. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve.
Note For method Modification please refer to In-service/out-of-service modification.

Narrowband Line Testing management

The class LtSession includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing a narrowband line test session. The class LtLineId includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the subscriber lines involved in a narrowband line test session. The class LtTestParam includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the parameters being considered in the course of a narrowband line test session. The class ltReport trap event during line test. The class LtLineIdExtReport includes the attributes and methods that allow retrieving the results of the completed narrowband line test session. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification (first three classes only) and Retrieve.
Note For method Modification please refer to In-service/out-of-service modification.

In-service/out-of-service modification

The method modification includes 2 different functions: the In-service-modification and the Out-of-service-modification.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

With the in-service-modification function, the system allows to modify the values of attributes of a previously created object whilst that object remains in service. With the Out-of-service-modification function, the system allows to modify values of attributes of a previously created object on the condition that object has been put out-of-service. An attribute is modifiable either by means of in-service-modification or by means of out-of-service-modification (these are mutual exclusive functions). Usually, an out-of-service-modification function involves three steps to be executed:

Putting the previously created object out-of-service by changing the


administrative state of that object to down.

Modify the value of one or multiple attributes of the object. Putting the object in-service by changing the administrative state of that object to
up. The first step usually causes de-registration of the voice subscribers associated with the object. The third step will then result in re-registration of the same voice subscribers. The latter step might also invoke a reset of the Voice Server. Below a more detailed view is given on the applicability of the in-service and out-of-service modification for the different Voice classes:

Class EquipmentNode: Neither in-service-modification nor


out-of-service-modification apply. A modification of the attributes of a previously created object can only be done by destroying the existing object and a re-creation of the same object with different attribute values. All associated EquipmentTermination objects will immediately become de-registered. Class EquipmentBoard: Neither in-service-modification nor out-of-service-modification apply. A modification of the attributes of a previously created object can only be done by destroying the existing object and a re-creation of the same object with different attribute values. All associated EquipmentTermination objects will immediately become de-registered. Class MediaGateway: Both in-service-modification and out-of-service-modification apply. For the out-of-service-modification, the above described three-steps approach is to be followed. All associated EquipmentTermination objects will immediately become de-registered. Class SignalingGateway: Both in-service-modification and out-of-service-modification apply. For the out-of-service-modification, the above described three-steps approach is to be followed. All associated EquipmentTermination objects will immediately become de-registered.
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Class EquipmentTermination: Both in-service-modification and


out-of-service-modification apply. For the out-of-service-modification, the above described three-steps approach is to be followed. The involved EquipmentTermination object will immediately become de-registered. Class InternalSignaling: Neither in-service-modification nor out-of-service-modification apply. All associated EquipmentTermination objects will immediately become de-registered. Class VoiceDatabase: in-service-modification applies. Class TermIdSyntax: The out-of-service-modification applies. The involved EquipmentTermination object will immediately become de-registered. Class CDEProfile: in-service-modification applies. Class LtSession: in-service-modification applies. Class LtLineId: in-service-modification applies. Class LtTestParam: Only in-service-modification applies. Class LtLineIdExtReport: Neither in-service-modification nor out-of-service-modification apply.

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SIP ISAM Voice


Figure 8-96 shows the SIP ISAM Voice conceptual management model.
Figure 8-96 SIP ISAM Voice Conceptual Management Model
Digit Map
0256 1

System Objects LineId Syntax Profile Sip Server

SIP Voice Database


1 1

Dial Plan

NT

System Stats

VSP
1 1

0..n

Termination
0..1 1

Line Stats Current 15m Line Stats Recent 15m Line Stats Current 1d Line Stats Recent 1d Call Stats Recent 15m Threshold Crossing Alarm

96

SIP Timers

POTS Line
n 1..n 1 1

Service profile

0..n 1

POTS LT
1..n

0..n

POTS CDE profile

1 1 1..n

Voice LT

1 1

CDE p rofile

1 1

Board
1

CPU stats

User Agent Access Point


1..18 1

NT
0..1

Resource Stats

User Agent Number of Lt Sessions


1 1

NT
1 1 0..8

Available Lt Session ID

1 1

Line Test Session


1

Line Test Line ID


1 1..n

1 1..n

Line Test Parameters

1.

Line Test Report

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The SIP ISAM Voice management model includes the following classes:

The classes NT, VoiceLT and Board reflect the Network Termination,
respectively the Voice Server and Voice Line Termination HW being involved in the integrated voice service. These classes are not further elaborated in subsequent chapters. The class PotsLT is an instantiation of the class Voice LT. The class VoiceLT will be further elaborated in subsequent chapters. The class PotsLine is an instantiation of the class SipTermination. The class SipTermination will be elaborated in subsequent chapters. The class POTS CDE Profile is an instantiation of the class CDE Profile. The class CDE Profile will be elaborated in subsequent chapters.
Voice Network management

The class SipSysObjects includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the properties of the Sip Session Timer facility. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve. The class SipServer includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the set of SIP servers used by the SIP based integrated voice service. Actually, only one SIP server can be used for the SIP server roles Proxy-server and Registrar. The methods that have been defined for this class are Creation, Destroy, Modification and Retrieve. The class SipVsp includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the properties of the Voice Service provider. Actually only one Voice service provider is supported. This object is auto-created by the system. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve. The class SIP Timers includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the timers applicable to the user Agent. The methods that have been defined for this calls are Modification and Retrieve. The class SipUserAgent includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing:

Access Gateway layer 3 addressing scheme. Access Gateway interface with the Proxy/Registrar server. Quality of Service properties of the signaling and voice flows.
The ISAM-Voice access node supports a single SIP User Agent as the properties of the SipUserAgent class are assumed to be associated with the Access provider, not the Voice Service provider. The methods that have been defined for this class are Creation, Destroy, Modification and Retrieve.
Note Neither the modification of the SIP architecture mode (centralized, distributed) nor the modification of the configuration mode (manual, DHCP) is allowed. The modification of these properties is only allowed through a destroy and creation procedure. However a User Agent instance can only be destroyed on the condition that all the associated termination instances were destroyed before.

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The class SipUserAgentAccessPoint includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing:

The physical mapping properties for each of the SIP User Agent access points
created in the ISAM Voice access node.

The layer 3 properties of the addressing scheme defined in the SipUserAgent


class. Although from a logical perspective (and as formerly described), the ISAM Voice supports only one SIP User Agent, should the system be configured to behave as a distributed SIP model, then the system autonomously creates a SIP User Agent Access Point object per voice LT being planned. Otherwise, in case the system has been configured to behave as a centralized SIP model then the system autonomously creates a single SIP User Agent Access Point object (with as value the NT slot ID) that is shared by all voice LT boards. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve. The class DialPlan includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the dial plan that applies to the voice subscribers. Actually, the same dial plan must be shared by all voice subscribers. The methods that have been defined for this class are Creation, Destroy, Modification and Retrieve. The class DigitMap includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the Digit Map that applies to the voice subscribers. The methods that have been defined for this class are Creation, Destroy, Modification and Retrieve.
Note For all classes: regarding the method Modification, see section In-service/out-of-service modification

Voice Subscriber management

The class SipTermination includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing POTS subscribers associated with the local SIP User Agent.
Note The SIP Digest Register Password is encrypted (not visible in display command).

The methods that have been defined for this class are Creation, Destroy, Modification and Retrieve.
Note For all classes: regarding the method Modification, see section In-service/out-of-service modification

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Voice Performance Monitoring Management

The class Threshold Crossing Alarm includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the threshold crossing alarms on a per subscriber line. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve. The class Line Stats Current 15m includes the attributes and methods that allow displaying the current 15-minutes register results of the per-subscriber-line performance monitoring. The method that has been defined for this class is Retrieve. The class Line Stats Recent 15m includes the attributes and methods that allow displaying the recent 15-minutes registers results of the per-subscriber-line performance monitoring. The system defines a maximum of 96 15-minutes per-line recent registers per subscriber line. The method that has been defined for this class is Retrieve. The class Line Stats Current 1d includes the attributes and methods that allow displaying the current 1-day register results of the per-subscriber-line performance monitoring. The method that has been defined for this class is Retrieve. The class Line Stats Recent 1d includes the attributes and methods that allow displaying the recent 1-day registers results of the per-subscriber-line performance monitoring. The system defines a maximum of three 1-day recent registers per subscriber line. The method that has been defined for this class is Retrieve. The class Call Stats Recent 15m includes the attributes and methods that allow displaying the recent 15-minutes registers results of the per-call & per-subscriber-line performance monitoring. The system defines a maximum of 96 per-call recent registers per subscriber line. The method that has been defined for this class is Retrieve. The class CPU Stats includes the attributes and methods that allow displaying the actual CPU load figures per voice LT. The method that has been defined for this class is Retrieve. The class Resource Stats includes the attributes and methods that allow displaying the actual memory resource allocation per voice LT. The method that has been defined for this class is Retrieve. The class System Stats includes the attributes and methods that allow displaying the actual state of the subscriber line occupancy and service availability. The method that has been defined for this class is Retrieve.
SIP Voice Database management

The class SIP Voice Database includes the attributes and methods that allow managing the SIP Voice Database.
Termination ID Syntax management

The class LineIdSyntaxProfile includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the termination ID syntax for POTS terminations.

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The Termination ID syntax (userInfo part of the SIP URI) is configured as a character string composed of a number of pre-defined keywords and operator defined characters. The pre-defined keywords are separated by the operator defined characters. The system supports pre-defined key-words for: Channel, Port, ShPrt, Slot, ShSlt, Shelf, Rack, ACCESS_NODE_ID. The difference here between Port/ShPrt, Slot/ShSlt is the former keywords express leading zero and the latter express non-leading zero. The methods that have been defined for this class are Creation, Destroy, Modification and Retrieve.
Note For all classes: regarding the method Modification, see section In-service/out-of-service modification

CDE profile management

The class CDEProfile includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the CDE profile for both the Voice Server and the voice LT. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve.
Note For all classes: regarding the method Modification, see section In-service/out-of-service modification

SERVICE profile management

The class Service Profile includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the Service profile for the voice LT. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification and Retrieve.
Note For all classes: regarding the method Modification, see section In-service/out-of-service modification

Narrowband Line Testing management

The class Line Test Session includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing a narrowband line test session. The class Line Test Line ID includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the subscriber lines involved in a narrowband line test session. The class Line Test Parameters includes the attributes and methods that allow defining and managing the parameters being considered in the course of a narrowband line test session. The class LtReport traps event during line test.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The class Line Test Report includes the attributes and methods that allow retrieving the results of the completed narrowband line test session. The methods that have been defined for this class are Modification (first three classes only) and Retrieve.
Note Regarding the method Modification, see section In-service/out-of-service modification

Overall management policies

Strict object creation priorities: The management classes have been split in three main categories:

Category 1: includes the management classes SipSysObjects, SipUserAgent,


SipUserAgentAccessPoint, DialPlan, DigitMap, SipServer, LineIdSyntaxProfile.

Category 2: includes the management class SipVsp. Category 3: includes the management class Siptermination.
The overall management policy is such that the system requires that category N class objects must be created prior to category N+1 class objects.
Note The strict object creation policy does not apply to the CDEProfile class.

In-service/out-of-service modification

The method modification includes 2 different functions: the In-service-modification and the Out-of-service-modification.

With the in-service-modification function, the system allows to modify the


values of attributes of a previously created object whilst that object remains in service. With the Out-of-service-modification function, the system allows to modify values of attributes of a previously created object on the condition that this object has been put out-of-service. An attribute is modifiable either by means of the in-service-modification or by means of the out-of-service-modification (these are mutual exclusive functions). Usually, an out-of-service-modification function involves three steps to be executed: 1 Putting the previously created object out-of-service by changing the administrative state of that object to down.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

2 3

Modify the value of one or multiple attributes of the object. Putting the object in-service by changing the administrative state of that object to up.

The first step usually causes de-registration of the voice subscribers associated with the object. The third step will then result in re-registration of the same voice subscribers. The down operation of SipVsp, SipUserAgent, SipUserAgentAccessPoint, SipServer, SipTermination will be successful immediately no matter there is active call. Below a more detailed view is given on the applicability of the in-service and out-of-service modification for the different Voice classes.

Class SipSysObjects: in-service-modification applies. Class SipVSP: Both in-service-modification and


out-of-service-modification apply. For the out-of-service-modification, the above described three-steps approach is to be followed. All the associated SipTermination objects will immediately become de-registered. Class SipServer: Both in-service-modification and out-of-service-modification apply. For the out-of-service-modification, the above described three-steps approach is to be followed. All associated SipTermination objects will immediately become de-registered. Class DialPlan: In-service-modification applies. Class DigitMap: In-service-modification applies. Class User Agent: Both in-service-modification and out-of-service-modification apply. For the out-of-service-modification, the above described three-steps approach is to be followed. All associated Termination objects will immediately become de-registered. The following exception is noticed: switching from the manual configuration to the DHCP based configuration mode or vice versa can only be done by deleting the existing SipUserAgent object and re-creating this SipUserAgent object with the desired configuration mode. This implies that all existing SipTermination objects must be deleted prior to the deletion of the SipUserAgent object and that the same SIptermination objects need to be re-created once the new SipUserAgent object has been re-created. Class SipUserAgentAccessPoint: out-of-service-modification applies. For the out-of-service-modification, the above described three-steps approach is to be followed. All associated SipTermination objects will immediately become de-registered. (Centralized Sip model = All terminations; Distributed Sip model = All terminations of the involved Sip User Agent Access Point). Class SipTermination: out-of-service-modification applies. For the out-of-service-modification, the above described three-steps approach is to be followed. The involved SipTermination object will immediately become de-registered.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Class LineIdSyntaxProfile: In-service-modification applies.


All SipTermination objects will re-register. Class Threshold Crossing Alarm: In-service-modification applies

8.13

CDE profile management


Besides the regular management interface to configure the network and end user associated database parameters for the integrated voice service, the ISAM Voice node makes use of additional configuration data input under the format of a downloadable file. Allowing the integrated voice service to become fully operational requires the presence of CDE profiles at the Voice server (Megaco ISAM Voice only) and the Voice LT (both Megaco ISAM Voice and SIP ISAM Voice). The content of CDE profiles is customer dependent. CDE profiles are produced off-line at the factory. The content is collected by means of a questionnaire that needs to be filled in by the customer. The contents is considered to be of static nature and concerns mainly the physical line characteristics of the NB user interface together with the Voice LT HW related configuration data and configuration data for the protocols that run at the end user side. There is a dedicated CDE profile for the POTS Voice LT board, the ISDN BRI Voice LT board and the Voice server. The CDE profile for the POTS Voice LT board is voice-topology independent meaning that the same CDE profile can be used in either a MEGACO environment or a SIP environment. The CDE profiles for the POTS/ISDN BRI Voice LT and Voice server are included in one CDE.tar file. This file must be downloaded and activated in the individual ISAM Voice access nodes, that is, the hub node, the subtending nodes and the remote nodes. The CDE.tar file is delivered to the customer together with the SW package and all other associated files that are required to install an ISAM Voice in the access network. The system itself takes care that a CDE profile is downloaded to the Voice server and/or the Voice LT board. The system supports CDE profile upgrade. They are as well an integral part of the offline database migration during software upgrade.

8.14

Service profile management


SIP ISAM Voice has introduced the concept of Service profile to maximize flexibility on:

IOT with multiple Application Servers, including the flexibility of a new IOT
during a maintenance phase of a ISAM release

re-using application SW: as such, application SW will be data driven, based on


the selected options from the SIP service profile. The service profile applies to the POTS SIP Voice LT board only and is provisional and downloadable via the CDE profile framework.

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The content of the service profile is customer dependent. A service profile is produced off-line at the factory. The content is collected from the voice service requirements defined by the customer. The service profile is appended to the CDE profile in the CDE profile file. As such it is downloaded together with the CDE profile in the individual ISAM Voice access nodes, that is, the hub node and the subtending nodes.

8.15

Performance monitoring

Megaco ISAM Voice


The Megaco ISAM Voice supports the nt as well as the rtp package for the permanent and ephemeral terminations. These statistics are reported to the MGC after the call has finished in either the subtract or the audit reply. Neither of these statistics are supported through the usual management interface.
Table 8-1 Statistics
Package Statistics Contained in subtract reply nt dur Y audit reply Y Provides the duration of time the termination has existed or been out of the NULL context. Provides the number of octets sent from the termination or stream since the termination has existed or been out of the NULL Context. The octets represent the egress media flow excluding all transport overhead. At the termination level, it is equal to the sum of the egress flows over all streams. Provides the number of octets received on the termination or stream since the termination has existed or been out of the NULL Context. The octets represent the ingress media flow excluding all transport overhead. At the termination level, it is equal to the sum of the ingress flows over all streams. Provides the number of packets sent from the termination or stream since the termination has existed or been out of the NULL Context. Provides the number of packets received on the termination or stream since the termination has existed or been out of the NULL Context. CLI/SNMP Notes

os

or

rtp

ps

pr

(1 of 2)

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Package

Statistics

Contained in subtract reply audit reply Y

CLI/SNMP

Notes

pl

Provides the current rate of packet loss on an RTP stream, as defined in RFC 3550. Packet loss is expressed as percentage value: number of packets lost in the interval between two reception reports, divided by the number of packets expected during that interval. Provides the current value of the inter-arrival jitter on an RTP stream as defined in RFC 3550. Jitter measures the variation in inter-arrival time for RTP data packets. Provides the current value of packet propagation delay expressed in timestamp units. This is the same as average latency.

jit

delay

(2 of 2)

SIP ISAM Voice


The SIP ISAM Voice supports

The Per-Line statistics reflecting the measurements that have been done for calls
made by a particular subscriber line during a 15-min time interval or a 1-day time interval. A set of per-line statistics is identified by the subscriber line identifier. The per-call statistics reflecting the measurements been done for a particular call. A set of per-call statistics, belonging to a particular call, is identified by the IMS Charging IDentifier (ICID) and the subscriber line identifier of the SIP termination that was involved in this particular call. Per-board resource utilization statistics. Subscriber line utilization and service availability statistics.

For both the per-line statistics and the per-call statistics, the Performance History Storage Framework is used as the basic framework to collect performance measurements. This basic framework relies on historical interval counters that make use of storage registers to store the history of the PM counters. This is typically one register per 15 minutes or per 24 hours. By applying the interval counters, should the duration of a call exceed the interval boundary, the per-call statistics for such a call will be collected and reported spread over multiple intervals. The post-processing (sum of all portions) of such per-call statistics portions is not supported by the ISAM Voice access node.
Note The use of some particular supplementary services may cause a dialog to become inactive for a while. This will also result in the generation of per-call statistics portions for the same call even within a single interval.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

For the per-line statistics the SIP ISAM Voice supports:

A current 15-minute register: a single register containing the PM counters for the
PM measurements ongoing in the current 15-minute interval. A set of 96 15-minute recent registers: a set of 96 registers containing the PM counters of the 15-minute intervals preceding the current 15-minute interval. A current 1-day register: a single register containing the PM counters for the PM measurements ongoing in the current 1-day interval. A set of three 1-day recent registers: a set of three registers containing the PM counters of the 1-day intervals preceding the current 1-day interval. For the per-call statistics the SIP ISAM Voice supports:

A current 15-minute register: a single register containing the PM counters for the
PM measurements ongoing in the current 15-minute interval.

A set of 96 15-minute recent registers: a set of 96 registers containing the PM


counters of the 15-minute intervals preceding the current 15-minute interval. The start time and the end time of each interval (15 minutes / 1 day) are aligned with the quarter hours /24 hours of the wall clock. The performance monitoring results can be retrieved by:

The usual management interface (SNMP/CLI) (see Figure 8-97): Row-by-row performance monitoring collection Data analysis is to be done by OSS platform The Statistics Data Collector (SDC) (see Figure 8-98), which: provides a feature-rich collection strategy (Fast MIB Upload) provides a user-friendly report generation as performance monitoring data analysis
is done at the SDC

guides the MSAN to collect specific data via config. File (based on operator input) retrieves performance monitoring results from the ISAM Voice via TFTP enhanced
with proprietary extensions

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-97 PM data collection by means of the usual management interface
CLI terminal Collection strategy: Click to Get via SNMP AMS
SNMP

DSLAM

LT

LT

Stats agent

SNMP Get Results

NT LT

MSAN keeps collecting statistics data from system

Figure 8-98 PM data collection by means of SDC

1 Collection strategy
- Statistics to be collected - File generation parameters - Collection interval - Automatic start or not Retrieve list of managed NEs from EMS

EMS
MSAN

5529
SNMP/TFTP

2 TFTP-PUT
Cfg. file Cfg. file

LT
FMU

Fast MIB upload

5 TFTP-GET
Controller

3 4
Data file

FMU

LT

Filter alarm

6 TFTP-GET
Output

NT

LT
FMU

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The SIP ISAM-V allows to retrieve the following performance monitoring results:

For the per-line statistics: The contents of the current 15-minute register The contents of the 96 recent 15-minute registers The contents of the current 1-day register The contents of the three recent 1-day registers For the per-call statistics: The contents of the 96 recent 15-minute registers.
Figure 8-99 Result post-processing
OSS Platform 2. Associate PM record with CDR record by using the Dialog Reference 1. Generate PM record for dialog A including Dialog Reference

Other NE

CDR
SDC 2. Generate PM record for dialog A including Dialog Reference. 1. Retrieve all PM portions for dialog A using Dialog Reference Dialog A Elapse time

Dialog A

Dialog A active time portion 1 Dialog A Portion_1 PM record Recent 15 min interval N-1

Dialog A active time portion 2 Dialog A Portion_3 PM record Dialog A Portion_4 PM record Recent 15 min interval N+1

Dialog A Dialog A e.g. put Portion_2 on hold PM record

Recent 15 min interval N

1 PM record for dialog A in this 15 min interval

2 PM records for dialog A in this 15 min interval

1 PM record for dialog A in this 15 min interval

Per-line Performance Monitoring Counters

The following per-line performance monitoring counters are supported:

Packets Sent. Offers the number of RTP packets sent by a SIP termination during one or more calls
made in a single 15-min / 1-day interval

32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the creation of the SIP termination.
Octets Sent.

Offers the number of RTP payload octets sent by a SIP termination during one or
more calls made in a single 15-min / 1-day interval

32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the creation of the SIP termination. Packets received. Offers the number of RTP packets received by a SIP termination during one or more
calls made in a single 15-min / 1-day interval

32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the creation of the SIP termination.

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Octets received.

Offers the number of RTP payload octets received by a SIP termination during one
or more calls made in a single 15-min or 1-day interval.

32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the creation of the SIP termination. Average Jitter Buffer Fill Level. Offers the average jitter buffer fill level for one or more calls made by a SIP
termination during a single 15-min / 1-day interval.

32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the creation of the SIP termination. Average Inter-Arrival Jitter. Offers the average Inter-Arrival Jitter for one or more calls made by a SIP
termination in a single 15-min or 1-day interval.

32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the creation of the SIP termination. Average Round Trip Delay. Offers the average Round Trip Delay for one or more calls made by a SIP
termination during a single 15-min / 1-day interval

32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the creation of the SIP termination. Total Packet Loss. Offers the total (absolute) amount of packets lost for one or more calls made by a
SIP termination during a single 15-min / 1-day interval.

32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the creation of the SIP termination.
Per-Call Performance Monitoring counters

The following per-call performance monitoring counters are supported:

Packets Sent. Offers the number of RTP packets sent by the SIP termination since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

Octets Sent. Offers the number of RTP payload octets sent by the SIP termination since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

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Packets Received. Offers the number of RTP packets received by the SIP termination since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

Octets received. Offers the number of RTP payload octets received by the SIP termination since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

Average Inter-Arrival Jitter. Offers the average Inter-Arrival Jitter for an RTP data stream since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

Peak Inter-Arrival Jitter.

Offers the peak Inter-Arrival Jitter for an RTP data stream since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

Average Round Trip Delay. Offers the average Round Trip Delay for an RTP data stream since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Peak Round Trip Delay. Offers the Peak Round Trip Delay for an RTP data stream since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

Total Packet Loss. Offers the total amount of packets lost for an RTP data stream since:
- The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination.

Total Packet Loss due to Jitter Buffer Overrun. Offers the total amount of packets lost due to Jitter Buffer Overrun for an RTP data
stream since: - The call was established (call established in this 15-min interval) - The start of the 15-min interval (call established in a previous 15-min interval) And - The end of the call (call terminates in this 15-min interval) - The expiry of the 15-min interval (call crosses the border of this 15-min interval) 32-bit counter Autonomously enabled by the system upon the configuration of the SIP termination

Per-Board Resource Utilization counters

CPU load Offers the CPU load for a particular Voice LT board as:
- a detailed value for the 180 most recent measurement points - an average value over the 180 most recent measurement points. Offered at board level and de-coupled from the Performance History Storage Framework. Enabled / Disabled on explicit operator request.

Memory Utilization Offers the memory utilization for a particular Voice LT board as:

- an absolute value - as a percentage compared to the reserved amount of dynamic memory for that Voice LT board. Offered at board level and de-coupled from the performance History Storage framework. Autonomously enabled by the system upon the planning of the LT board.

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Subscriber line Utilization and service availability statistics

The following counters are available:

Number of non-configured lines:


This counter offers the amount of planned/equipped subscriber lines for which no entry could be found in the Termination table.

Planned subscriber lines are subscriber lines associated with planned Voice LT
boards.

Equipped subscriber lines are subscriber lines associated with equipped Voice LT
boards.

Number of operational configured lines:


This counter offers the amount of subscriber lines configured in the SIP termination table for which the operational state equals up. Or in other words, the amount of subscriber lines that are registered with the IMS core and as such operational from an integrated voice service perspective. Only subscriber lines associated with equipped Voice LT boards can have an operational state which equals up. Number of non-operational configured lines: This counter offers the amount of subscriber lines configured in the SIP termination table for which the operational state equals down. Or in other words, the amount of subscriber lines that are configured in the SIP termination table but not registered with the IMS core and as such not operational from an integrated voice service perspective. Only subscriber lines associated with equipped Voice LT boards can have an operational state which equals down. The following applies for these counters:

they are 32-bit counters they are offered at system level and de-coupled from the performance History
Storage framework.

they are autonomously enabled by the system upon system start-up and Voice LT
board planning. Summarized: the sum of the lines of the planned Voice LT boards and the lines of the equipped Voice LT boards is equal to the sum of the non-configured lines, the operational configured lines, and the non-operational configured lines.]
Threshold Crossing Alarm Treatment

The SIP ISAM Voice supports TCA handling for the Jitter Buffer Fill level. The TCA can be enabled / disabled for each individual subscriber line. Both the high and the low TCA threshold are configurable.

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8.16

Reliability, Equipment / Connectivity / Overload Protection

Equipment Protection

NT redundancy

NT 1+1 redundancy applies to both Megaco ISAM Voice and SIP ISAM Voice. For further details about NT redundancy, see chapter Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM.
Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Server redundancy

Voice server 1+1 redundancy applies to Megaco ISAM Voice only. The Voice server may be installed as a 1+1 Redundancy pair. Both Voice servers of a 1+1 redundancy pair must be equipped in neighboring slot positions. One Voice server is active while the other runs in standby mode. In case the active Voice server encounters a HW or SW problem, the standby Voice server takes over and becomes the active Voice server for the integrated voice service. Upon switchover, the recovery time is less than 7 s for call signaling and less than 3 s for voice traffic. Stable calls are not lost during the switchover. Non-stable calls that is, calls in the set-up phase may be lost due to a Voice server switchover. This applies to both, POTS and ISDN BRI calls.

Connectivity Protection
Besides the support of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) or Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) and Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) on the network links of the ISAM Voice node, some additional, more voice specific connectivity protection concepts are introduced.
Megaco ISAM Voice: dual homing

Megaco ISAM Voice allows the provisioning of a primary and a secondary Softswitch (IP address). This allows the ISAM Voice access node to make a switchover from the actual connected Softswitch to the alternative one in case the communication with the actual one would be broken. The Megaco ISAM Voice supports the capability to preserve stable calls over a Softswitch switchover. However, whether stable calls are preserved or not depends on the capabilities of the Softswitch with which the ISAM Voice establishes the MGI, the customer requirements regarding the switch-over scenario to be followed and finally the total elapse time for making the switchover.

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A connectivity failure with an MGC may be detected by three different occurrences:

[A]: Upon no reply on a transaction request originating from the Voice server:
Megaco ISAM Voice allows configuring the maximum number of retries (max 7) per transaction together with the transaction retry mode being either the transaction retry mode comprising a fixed (configurable) retry interval or the transaction retry mode comprising an increasing retry interval. The initial retry interval is configurable; the retry interval doubles for each subsequent retry. The decision that connectivity with the MGC is broken is taken the moment the maximum number of configured retries for a transaction request initiated by the voice server has been exceeded without receiving a reply from the MGC. Inactivity Timer package: This package contains an event that can be implemented by an MGC and by an MG. The purpose of the event is to allow the MG to detect periods of silence of messaging from the MGC. Once the period of silence exceeds a threshold, the MG assumes a connectivity failure with the MGC.

[B]: Active Heartbeat approach:


ISAM Voice takes the initiative to check the connectivity with the MGC at regular time interval. For this purpose it makes use of the notify package. Megaco ISAM Voice allows enabling/disabling the active heartbeat either in learnt heartbeat interval or in configured heartbeat interval mode. Mode = configured heartbeat interval: The interval by which the notify packages are sent from ISAM Voice to the MGC is configured in the ISAM Voice database. Mode = learnt heartbeat interval: ISAM Voice gets notified by the MGC (through the Inactivity Timer package) about the interval to be used for sending the notify packages to the MGC. The decision that the connectivity with the MGC has been broken is taken from the moment 7 subsequent notify packages were not replied by the MGC. The notify packages will not be sent in case the ISAM Voice receives at least one Megaco message from the MGC within the learnt/configured heartbeat interval. [C]: Passive Heartbeat approach: The MGC takes the initiative to check the connectivity with the MG (ISAM Voice) at regular time interval. For this purpose it makes use of the audit package. Megaco ISAM Voice allows enabling/disabling the passive heartbeat either in learnt heartbeat interval or in configured heartbeat interval mode. Mode = configured heartbeat interval: The interval at which the audit packages are sent from the MGC to the ISAM Voice is configured in the ISAM Voice database. Mode = learnt heartbeat interval: ISAM Voice learns the interval at which the audit packages are sent by the MGC to the ISAM voice. ISAM voice awaits three consecutive audit packages from the MGC to calculate the heartbeat interval. The decision that the connectivity with the MGC has been broken is taken from the moment 8 subsequent heartbeat intervals have been passed without receiving an audit package nor a regular Megaco package from the MGC.

Megaco Voice: Network Connectivity Protection

Also known as Path Connectivity Check and Protection (PCCP). This protection technique aims at consolidating the connectivity between a Megaco ISAM Voice and a network device, mostly its default gateway. For further details about Network Connectivity Protection, see chapter Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM.
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SIP ISAM Voice Fail-over

Failover is the capability to switch over automatically to a redundant or standby SIP server upon the failure or abnormal termination of the previously active SIP server. Failover happens without human intervention and generally without warning. SIP ISAM Voice supports a provisional FQDN for the outbound proxy and follows RFC3263 and RFC2782 for trying different proxy addresses until one is successful. SIP ISAM Voice supports provisional primary and alternate proxy servers; Provisioned proxy addresses (primary or alternate) can be either an IP address or an FQDN. It is recommended to use FQDN. There are a number of alternatives for populating these addresses:

Populate both a primary and an alternate address with IP addresses (IP1 and IP2) Populate both a primary and an alternate address with FQDNs (FQDN1 and
FQDN2) Populate just a primary address with an FQDN that resolves to multiple IP addresses.
Note When primary and alternate proxies are provisioned, the current SIP ISAM Voice will only consider the primary proxy. Failover to the alternate proxy when the primary proxy is not available is not autonomously triggered by the system; this switch requires manual (configuration) intervention. Consequently, for autonomous fail-over support, the third alternative must be used. that is, populate just a primary address with an FQDN that resolves to multiple IP addresses.

The FQDN is resolved through DNS server access. The SIP ISAM Voice does not currently support SRV parameters such as priority though A-record queries are supported. In this case, however, the DNS A-record query may include the complete list of primary and secondary IP addresses. The SIP ISAM Voice currently assumes that the A-record list of intended primary and alternate servers remains in the desired order on the DNS, that is, it assumes that the list will not be permuted such as for load sharing purposes. The SIP ISAM voice does not currently distinguish the primary from the alternate outbound proxies. The SIP-UA first attempts to register with the first outbound proxy found in the IP address list. If registration via the current outbound proxy fails, the SIP-UA attempts to register via the next outbound proxy found in the IP address list. If after all, registration would fail (as none of the outbound proxies do reply), the SIP-UA raises an alarm. The maximum lifetime of the list of IP addresses received through a DNS A-query is controlled by a DNS purge timer which is currently fixed at a period of 20 minutes. A new DNS A-query is also launched in case none of the SIP servers in the list do respond.

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SIP ISAM Voice also allows enabling a heartbeat mechanism, based on the OPTION message, to verify the connectivity with a SIP server. In case there is no response to the OPTION request, the associated SIP server is marked as unreachable; stable calls that were associated with that SIP server are released and terminations associated with this SIP server are de-registered.
SIP ISAM Voice: SIP server fail-back

Fail-back, conversely, is the process of restoring a system/component/service in a state of failover back to its original state (before failure). Based on the explanation given above, the fail-back would occur upon restoration of the first / primary server listed in the DNS A-query. While this primary server was unavailable, the secondary servers from the DNS A-query list were used.

Megaco ISAM Voice: MG (ISAM Voice Server) Overload Protection


The overload treatment introduced at the Voice server card aims at guaranteeing self-protection and robustness for the ISAM Voice. The Voice Server overload protection is based on the SW Watch Dog concept. The software watchdog monitors the system in verifying whether all defined SW tasks become scheduled in a reasonable time frame. When this is not the case anymore, the software watchdog will trigger a SW application-specified call-back function in which the existing CPU load problem is expected to become resolved (if possible). The action that is taken when a SW watchdog happens at a certain priority level depends on the SW application policy. The goal of the SW watchdog is to detect tasks in the system that are too long in the READY state. A task in the READY state means that it wants to run, but cannot because there is one (or more) task(s) that constantly uses the CPU. This can be because the running task has a higher priority than the READY one or it has disabled its pre-emption. The reason why the CPU consuming task doesn't give up the CPU can have several reasons:

The process has a lot of work to do and runs at a high priority. For example a
protocol stack is running in its own task and receives a lot of network traffic that it has to process. The process enters an endless loop. The software watchdog is responsible for just detecting that there is a problem in the system, not to resolve the problem. The latter aspect is the responsibility of the clients of the software watchdog. Several SW Watchdog levels were introduced at the Voice server, each of them monitoring the range of SW tasks that run with priorities higher than the SW Watchdog level. The lower the SW Watchdog level, the longer it may take before a SW watchdog time-out is triggered.

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Watchdog approach

Overload = Voice server card runs at 100% of its CPU capacity: Received Megaco packets get a priority treatment Received Line events (off-hook, on-hook, flash-hook, dialed digits) could be
ignored,

Robustness Level 1 = reached when the Voice server remains running at 100% of
its CPU capacity during at least the next 40 s. The SW Watchdog task is started every 40 s and monitors the CPU capacity for another 40 s. As a result, the Voice server will get into robustness Level 1 mode 40 to 80 s after reaching the maximum CPU capacity.

A Megaco ADD command being received from the MGC is replied with error 510
(Insufficient Resources). Any incoming auditvalue or auditcapability command is discarded (this includes the heartbeat audit).

Robustness level 2 = reached when the Voice server runs in Level 1 mode and
remains running at 100% of its CPU capacity during the next 160 s. The SW Watchdog task is started every 80 s and monitors the CPU capacity for another 80 s. As a result, the Voice server may get into robustness Level 2 mode at the earliest 160 s after having reached Level 1 mode.

Any new Megaco command (Add, Modify, Subtract, Move, AuditValue,


AuditCapabilities and ServiceChange) being received from the MGC is discarded by the Voice server. Intra voice subsystem polling intervals are enlarged (This also includes the intervals to establish / maintain the XLES connection with the voice LT boards). Commands been received from the MGC but not yet replied by the Voice server, are treated with long timer timeout; no pending will be sent for those transactions.

Robustness level 3 = reached when the Voice server runs in Level 2 mode and
remains running at 100% of its CPU capacity during the next 320 s. The SW Watchdog task is started every 160 s and monitors the CPU capacity for another 160 s. As a result, the Voice server may get into robustness Level 3 mode at the earliest 320 s after having reached Level 2 mode. The Voice server initiates a board reset. Outgoing Megaco packets as well as outgoing internal signaling (XLES) packets remains treated as is the case when the Voice server runs in a non-overload situation
MG Control Overload package

An additional overload mechanism based on CPU load monitoring and in line with H.248.11 (MG Control Overload Package) is implemented (ocp). This package protects an MG from processing overload that prevents the timely execution of Megaco transactions. The MGC, supporting the MG Control Overload Package, adaptively throttles the rate with which it sets up calls using the ISAM Voice Server to maximize the effective throughput of the MG whilst bounding its response times. It does this by throttling the rate at which transactions that set-up new calls or that new call legs are sent to the overloaded MG, so the rate of overload notifications which the MGC receives from the overloaded MG converges to a suitably low level.
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To prevent a toggling between CPU-overload and end-of-CPU-overload, an (End of) Overload Persistency Time has been introduced. The Overload Persistency Time is the time period the CPU load of the ISAM Voice Server must exceed the High-Water-Mark before it can enter the CPU overload state. Similarly, the End of Overload Persistency Time is the time period the CPU load of the ISAM Voice Server must below the Low-Water-Mark before it leaves the CPU overload state. The End of Overload Persistency Time is set larger than the Overload Persistency time as to ensure that the CPU load is for a sufficient long time below the Low-Water-Mark as not to cause quite immediately a new CPU overload situation.

CPU load monitoring: Monitors the overall CPU load of the Voice server by measuring the run time of the
IDLE task.

Informs registered SW applications in case of overload detection Upon being notified of an overload situation, the SW Application takes action to
reduce the load.

CPU load monitoring parameters (not configurable):


High water (percentage): 95% (5% IDLE task) Low water (percentage): 93% (7% IDLE task) Overload persistency (time): 2000 ms End of overload persistency (time): 3000 ms Sample interval (time): 1000 ms (each sample period, the CPU load (as a function of the time given to the idle task) is measured)

Upon the receipt of Overload-condition notification, the Voice server takes the
following actions:

If requested by MGC and after having received and replied to a Megaco ADD
command, report the ocp/mg_overload event (irrespective of the events reporting settings being configured in the H.248 MIB. If not requested by the MGC, reports the ocp/mg_overload event if the MG-Overload event is enabled in the H.248 MIB (after having received and replied to a Megaco ADD command). Raise the MG-Overload alarm.

Upon the receipt of Overload-condition-Ended notification, the Voice server


takes the following actions:

Stop the reporting ocp/mg_overload event. Clear the MG-Overload alarm

8.17

Quality of Service
For VoIP to be a realistic replacement for standard public switched telephone network (PSTN) telephony services, customers need to receive the same quality of voice transmission they receive with basic telephone services, meaning consistently high-quality voice transmissions. Like other real-time applications, VoIP is extremely sensitive with regard to bandwidth and delay. For VoIP transmissions to be intelligible to the receiver, voice packets should not be dropped, excessively delayed, or suffer varying delay (otherwise known as jitter).

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VoIP can guarantee high-quality voice transmission only if the voice packets, for both the signaling and the voice channel, are given priority over other kinds of network traffic. For VoIP to be deployed so that users receive an acceptable level of voice quality, VoIP traffic must be guaranteed certain compensating bandwidth, latency, and jitter requirements. QOS ensures that VoIP voice packets receive the preferential treatment they require. P-bit marking (layer 2) and DSCP marking (layer 3) for signaling and voice (including fax and modem) traffic are supported. The p-bit as well as the DSCP values are configurable for signaling and voice traffic

Megaco ISAM Voice Signaling traffic: The p-bit and DSCP values are configurable at Media Gateway
level.

Voice traffic (including fax and modem): The p-bit and DSCP values are
configurable at Media Gateway and Termination level.

SIP ISAM Voice Signaling traffic: the p-bit and DSCP values are configurable at SIP UA level. Voice traffic (including fax and modem): the p-bit and DSCP values are
configurable at SIP UA level.

8.18

DHCP interworking

Megaco ISAM Voice


DHCP interworking is not supported for Megaco ISAM Voice.

SIP ISAM Voice


The distributed IP address architecture allows configuring the SIP UA parameter values by manual input (by means of the usual management interface (SNMP, CLI)) or for these values to be retrieved through a DHCP request. The centralized IP address architecture only allows configuring those parameter values by manual input. In case of retrieved through DHCP, options 1 (subnet mask), 3 (default route), 6 (DNS server IP address) and 120 (SIP option, to retrieve the SIP server IP address list or SIP domain names list) are used to retrieve all relevant information.

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Management interface parameters for which the value can be retrieved through a DHCP request are:

The source IP address and subnet mask of the SIP UA. The default gateway IP address for signaling and Voice traffic. The IP address of the DNS server.

8.19

DNS interworking

Megaco ISAM Voice


DNS interworking is not supported for Megaco ISAM Voice.

SIP ISAM Voice


The usual Management interface (SNMP, CLI and TL1) allows configuring the SIP servers (Proxy Server, Registrar Server) by manual input or for these values to be retrieved through DNS access. In the latter case, the DNS domain name must be specified to allow the system to make the correct DNS server binding.

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8.20

Basic call handling and supplementary services

Megaco ISAM Voice

Interfacing at subscriber's side according to the Z POTS interface. DTMF/pulse digit detection/processing. Caller identification services (FSK, DTMF, on/off hook). FSK/DTMF configurable per line Signaling events processing en-bloc dialing. Voice activity detection, comfort noise, and packet loss concealment. Configurable jitter buffer: adaptive or fixed size (per call). G.168/G.165 echo cancellation with an echo tail length at 16ms Tone generation: Ring tone, Dial Tone, Special (Information) Dial Tone, Ring
Back Tone, Congestion Tone, Busy Tone, and Howler tone.

Balanced ringing Flexible Termination ID format including wildcard Flat termination ID format Hierarchical termination ID format:
- Configurable Termination ID syntax - A character string composed of a number of pre-defined keywords.

Configurable ephemeral termination id range. Audit of ephemeral termination with support of the wildcard *. Capability of configuring 2 dial plans in the CDE profile, each with a max size of
4 Kbytes including digit map patterns and digit map pattern separators. The digit patterns are consecutively stored with the 4 Kbytes buffer, separated by a digit pattern separator. Capability to store up to 512+51 dial plans (one dial plan/call; downloaded by the MGC), each with a max size of 4 Kbytes including digit map patterns and digit map pattern separators. T.38 Fax/Modem

Softswitch is responsible of voice/T.38 call control & charging. Fax over IP according to ITU-T Rec. T.38 Between 2 Group 3 facsimile terminals. UDP transportation V21 flag detection Byte based and frame based FEC and redundancy 2400 bps, 4800 bps, 7200 bps, 9600 bps, 12200 bps, 14400 bps. Maximum Speed is 14400bps which depends on network situation.

T30 Fax/Modem, requiring full control at the MGC. Detected tones reported to MGC Switch to VBD mode upon receipt of MGC command.
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Transparent modem/fax service (v.150 VBD mode) Capability to detect fax/modem tones from network side or local side. In-band tones compliant with RFC2833 (e.g., frequency, duration, volume,
modulation etc. shall be same).

In-band tone detection of fax/modem/text tones from remote side (voice band
codecs, commonly G.711, ADPCM like G.726, etc.), which serves both as a VBD stimulus and a coordination technique to guarantee autonomous behavior. In-band fax/modem tones trigger ISAM Voice to switch to VBD mode For H.248only CNG/ANS tones and V.21 from local side will be reported to MGC in case of T30/modem full control by MGC. Support of the reception of event 52 in compliancy with RFC4734, allowing to swap to VBD for Bell 103 / Bell 212 modems. Support of the reception of event 28 in compliancy with RFC4734, allowing to swap to VBD for V.8 bis modems. Support of enhanced fax/modem in-band tone detection from local / IP side with additional tones treated in compliancy with RFC4733 (when defined). Additional fax/modem tones support together with IP side in-band tone detection can be activated simultaneously without causing a density decrease. IP side in-band tone detection can be turned off via CDE Profile. Fax: V.21, V.17, V.27 ter, V.29, V.34 Modem (or textphone): V.18, V.21, V.22, V.22bis, V.23, V.32, V.32bis, V.32ext, V.34, V.90, V.92, Baudot, Bell103, Bell 212A, V.25/V.8/V.8bis compliance. Public Payphone (reverse polarity) Line Polarity Reverse at answer. (H.248: driven by CDE profile input & MGC command input) 12 /16 Khz Metering (1 TR 110 - 1) for POTS lines connected to public coin boxes and payphones.

Periodic Pulsing Only Burst once then Periodic Pulsing Periodic Bursts Periodic bursts with Periodic Pulsing in between the bursts Burst once at the begin of a call Tariff changes during a call

Configuration of Line impedance on a per subscriber port basis Payload format 'audio/telephone_event' and associated dynamic payload type
number.

Delay before Reduce battery: Apply reduced power feed in case the analogue line
continues to remain Off-Hook without being associated to any connection. The ISAM Voice shall trigger timeout of cg/bt and xcg/roh signal and starts a timer in case the physical termination is in NULL Context or is the only termination in a non NULL context. Upon timer expiry, all active signals are disabled and the reduced battery line state is autonomously entered. The timer is disabled by 'On-Hook' event or 'stimal/stedsig=reduced battery' signal. Termination of the ISDN BRI U interface (ITU G.961). Q921 protocol termination. Q931 protocol relay via SIGTRAN. CODECs:

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48 lines POTS LT / 24 lines ISDN LT: G.711 A/u law (10ms, 20ms, 30ms),
G.729AB (10ms, 20ms, 30ms, 40ms, 50 ms, 60ms), G.723.1 (5.3kbps, 6.3kbs, with 30ms), T.38, RFC2833 72 lines POTS LT: G.711 A/u (10ms, 20ms, 30ms), G.729 A/B (10ms, 20ms, 30ms, 40ms, 50ms, 60ms), G.723.1 (5.3 kb/s/30ms, 6.3 kb/s/30ms), T.38, RFC 2833; For G.711, DTMF or RFC2833 signaling is supported For G.729, RF2833 signaling is supported

ISDN: Test based formatted ISDN IUA Interface identifier. SIP ISAM Voice

General properties (POTS)

Interfacing at subscriber's side according to the Z POTS interface. Caller Identification Services (FSK, DTMF, on/off hook). FSK/DTMF configurable per line Signaling events processing. Voice activity detection, comfort noise, and packet loss concealment. Configurable jitter buffer: adaptive or fixed size (per call). G.168 echo cancellation with an echo tail length at 16ms en-bloc dialing Overlap dialing Multiple-invite method In-dialog (INFO method) Balanced ringing Capability of configuring one dial plan through the usual management interface. The dial plan has a maximum size of 4 Kbytes including digit patterns and digit
pattern separators.

The dial plan needs to be configured by means of a maximum of 128 MIB table rows
with a size of 32 bytes each.

Each row may contain one or more digit patterns separated by a digit pattern
separator.

A digit pattern must not be split over 2 or more rows. Constant payload type throughout session CODECs: 48 lines POTS LT / 24 lines ISDN LT: G.711 A/u law (10ms, 20ms, 30ms),
G.729AB (10ms, 20ms, 30ms, 40ms, 50ms, 60ms), T.38. RFC2833

72 lines POTS LT: G.711 A/u (10ms, 20ms, 30ms), G.729 A/B (10ms, 20ms, 30ms,
40ms, 50ms, 60ms), T.38, RFC 2833;

For G.711, DTMF or RF2833 signaling is supported For G.729, RF2833 signaling is supported Supported GR-506 requirements: Detection of Dial-Pulse Signals from Analog Access Lines Hits, Flash Signals, and Disconnect Signals Detection of DTMF Signals from Analog Access Lines
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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Call Process Signals Audible ringing to calling line Tone generation: Ring tone, Dial Tone, Special (Information) Dial Tone, Ring
Back Tone, Congestion Tone, Busy Tone, and Howler tone.

E2E Dynamic payload type negotiation (RFC3264) - dynamic payload value out
of the range 96...127. T.38 Fax/Modem

China telecom T.38 fax scenario in Softswitch is mandatory Softswitch is responsible of voice/T.38 call control & charging. Fax over IP according to ITU-T Rec. T.38 Between 2 Group 3 facsimile terminals. UDP transportation V21 flag detection Byte based and frame based FEC and redundancy 2400 bps, 4800 bps, 7200 bps, 9600 bps, 12200 bps, 14400 bps. Max. Speed is 14400bps which depends on network situation.

Support of enhanced fax/modem in-band tone detection from local / IP side with
additional tones treated in compliancy with RFC4733 (when defined). Additional fax/modem tones support together with IP side in-band tone detection can be activated simultaneously without causing a density decrease. IP side in-band tone detection can be turned off via CDE Profile. Simultaneous activation of Fax/modem tones support. In-band tones compliant with RFC2833 (e.g., frequency, duration, volume, modulation etc. shall be same). in-band tone detection of fax/modem/text tones from remote side (voice band codecs, commonly G.711, etc.), serving as both a VBD stimulus and a coordination technique, guarantees autonomous behavior. Fax: V.21, V.17, V.27 ter, V.29, V.34 Modem (or textphone): V.18, V.21, V.22, V.22bis, V.23, V.32, V.32bis, V.32ext, V.34, V.90, V.92, Baudot, Bell103, Bell 212A, V.25/V.8/V.8bis compliance. Flexible SIP URI provisioning: Operator control on 'userinfo' part of SIP-URI

full operator control: The operator can configure a string per SIP Termination Point.
This configured string will be integrally copied into the 'userinfo' part of the SIP-URI where it will be completed with the '@' character. the MSAN itself generates a 'termination-id' string for the 'userinfo' part. This string shall be generated according a syntax that is under operator control. The string generated according the syntax will be completed with the '@' character. hostname: port IPv4address: port Hostname IPv4address

Operator control on 'hostport' part of SIP-URI

Flexible Termination ID provisioning: Configurable Termination ID syntax A character string composed of a number of pre-defined keywords and operator
defined characters.

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Public Payphone (reverse polarity): Line Polarity Reverse at answer. 12 /16 Khz Metering (1 TR 110 - 1) for POTS lines connected to public coin
boxes and payphones.

Periodic Pulsing Only Burst once then Periodic Pulsing Periodic Bursts Periodic bursts with Periodic Pulsing in between the bursts Burst once at the begin of a call Tariff changes during a call

Configuration of Line impedance on a per subscriber port basis Service Subscriber Control for POTS subscribers: Subscriber Control with & without a PIN code. PIN code is modifiable from the subscriber telephone set. Delay before Reduce battery: Apply reduced power feed in case the analogue line
continues to remain Off-Hook without being associated to any connection.

for 72-line POTS LT: complex tone support: up to 12 multi tone cadences each tone cadence can be 4 frequency tone
Supplementary Services

The ISAM Voice supports the following 3 models:

Tightly Coupled Model. More Advanced SIP EP Model (predecessor of Loosely Coupled Model). Loosely Coupled Model.
Tightly Coupled Model

On-hook and flash-hook are interpreted by the AS. Call Waiting: Flash-hook only: Calling termination presses the flash-hook to switch between the
current called termination and a third party.

Flash-hook + dialed digit: Calling termination presses flash-hook and dials an


additional digit to switch between the current called termination and a third party

Call Hold: Hard Hold:


- Only calling and called termination involved. - Allowing calling termination to Flash Hook once to put the called termination on hold, and to Flash Hook once again to resume the call with the hold termination. Call Hold Consultation: - Calling termination, called termination and third party involved. - Allowing calling termination to put an existing call on hold and to initiate a second call to a third party The following services are transparent for ISAM Voice: - CLIR - Call Forwarding Busy - Call Forwarding No reply - Call Forwarding unconditional

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3-party Conference: Compliant to both TISPAN and non-TISPAN specification, noted that the
Y-function hosts in the MRF/MS, not in IAM Voice.

Following 2 methods are supported (depends on AS service application): Explicit Call Transfer: Compliant to both TISPAN and non-TISPAN specification. The following 3 Explicit Call Transfer methods are supported:
- Automatically bridged call by AS - User dialing decided conference call Non-TISPAN implementation only supports IOT with Broadworks FS.

Malicious Call Identification: Permanent (transparent to ISAM-Voice): supported. After call completion: supported. During call (transparent to ISAM-Voice): supported

- Consultative call transfer: for forwarding a call after the first person who was called spoke to the caller (for example, this is useful if a secretary is called and forwards the call afterwards to the responsible person). - 3-Way Call transfer: a termination can set up a three-way call and then disconnect, allowing the remaining parties to continue the conversation. - Blind call transfer: to transfer a call without talking to the called party. Non-TISPAN implementation only supports IOT with Broadworks FS.

Note In this case the Application Server cannot make any different between flash-hook for MCID or flash-hook for another supplementary service, for example, put call on hold.

As such, the Application Server does either support MCID or the rest of the supplementary service activated by flash-hook, but cannot support both simultaneously. More Advanced SIP EP Model

This model was introduced as the predecessor of the Loosely Coupled Model in
order to meet the increased market demand from IMS Core and Application Server vendors. This model has been fully replaced by the Loosely Coupled Model. Loosely Coupled Model

On-hook and flash-hook events are analyzed in the AGCF/VGW (much like a
simulation endpoint would operate).

Call Waiting:
Supported in compliancy with ETSI TS183043 C.9.1/C.16.1 Loose Coupling, 3GPP ES 23.228 chap5.11.1, ES 24.228 chap10.1, and China Mobile spec; Generates re-INVITE message when the supplementary service becomes activated due to pressing the hook-flash. Call Hold: Supported in compliancy with ETSI TS183043 C.9.1/C.16.1 Loose Coupling, 3GPP ES 23.228 chap5.11.1, ES 24.228 chap10.1, and China Mobile spec; Generates re-INVITE message when the supplementary service becomes activated due to pressing the hook-flash.
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3-Party Conference:
Supported in compliancy with ETSI TS183 043 C.14.2 Loose Coupling option 1 and China Mobile spec. Support audio mixing on the 72 lines voice LT board. Malicious Call Identification: Permanent (transparent to ISAM-Voice): supported. After call is finished: supported. During call: NOT supported

Call Transfer: Blind Transfer, Consultant Transfer, Call Proceeding. Supported in compliancy with China Mobile spec and 3GPP ES 23.228 chap 5.11.5
Redirection, ES 24.228 chap 10.5.

Support Refer message to send the DTMF to the AS in compliancy with RFC
3515 REFER Method/Refer-to header and RFC 3892 Referred-By header.

Applying either the TISPAN or CMCC or 3GPP defined approach is configurable


through the SIP Service profile.

Support of the selected approach with or without SOC. Support of TISPAN SIP UA-profile according to ETSI TS183 043 Annex A. Support of SDP update of an early media stream.
Note The SIP ISAM Voice is also able to interoperate with the BroadSoft BroadWorks Softswitch. Interoperability of the ISAM Voice with additional voice applications servers is also possible through commercial agreement.

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Additional Supplementary Services

CLIP: Primary source for the Calling Line Identity is either the From header or the
P-Asserted Identity header (RFC3325). The primary source to be considered is configurable in ISAM Voice: PAI SIP URI user part, PAI SIP URI display name, PAI Tel URI, SIP URI user part, SIP URI display name, Tel URI. In case the end-user becomes identified to the CLIP service as No subscription, Private or Unavailable, part of the From header or from the P-Asserted Identity header will be set to a dedicated value by the IMS core network. ISAM Voice allows to configure whether either Display Name or User Part (PAI / From) or both do include this dedicated value. The dedicated value(s) for No Subscription, Private and Unavailable are configurable in ISAM Voice. Should a termination not be subscribed to the CLI service, then no CLI data transmission signalling sequence is applied. Should a termination be identified as Private CLI, then the calling Line identity parameter is omitted. Instead, Reason for absence of calling line ID=private is propagated. Should a termination be unavailable, then the calling Line identity parameter is omitted. Instead, Reason for absence of calling line ID=unavailable is propagated. Should both, a tel-uri as well as a sip-uri formatted P-Asserted Identity headers be present, then precedence is given to one of these headers in accordance with the precedence policy configured in ISAM Voice. In general, IMS networks do provide calling number information in the global number format identified by the leading + character (Ref. RFC3966). ISAM Voice converts the leading + into a configurable international-prefix before the CLI propagated in the CLIP FSK data message. ISAM Voice allows to configure whether the Date and Time parameter is to be included in the CLIP FSK data message. ISAM Voice is capable to display the date and time of the receipt of the INVITE request originated by the calling user based on the SIP Date header. ISAM Voice allows to configure whether the date and time shall be taken from the SIP Date Header or from the local ISAM Voice time reference. ISAM Voice allows to configure whether Calling Party Name and Reason for absence of calling party name is applicable or not. Should Reason for absence of calling party name be applicable and: - The termination is requesting private CLI, then the Reason for absence of calling party name is set to Private - The termination calling party name information is unavailable (either no display name in header or using blank between double quotes), then the Reason for absence of calling party name is set to unavailable. ISAM Voice allows to configure the primary source for the Calling Party Name i.e. from PAI SIP URI Display Name or from SIP URI Display Name. The Privacy header with value id, user, header is used for Calling Party Number/Name restriction. Number only, Name only, both Number and Name restriction are configurable by ISAM Voice. Privacy header with value none means that CLI is not forbidden by Privacy header. Whether CLI is presented or not still depends on the CLIP subscription status.

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Configurable Number display format:


ISAM Voice support several number display formats:

Countries requiring International and National number format:


- international number format: <international access code> <country code> <national number> - national number format: <national number> or <national access code> <national number> Countries requiring International, National and Area/Local number format: - international number format: <international access code> <country code> <national number> - inter area number: <national access code> <national number> - area/local number: <area/local number>

ISAM Voice allows to distinguish the following number display modes: display number restricted display number display number not available no display (no subscription to CLIP) Release Control Procedure:
ISAM Voice support the services:

Called Subscriber Held (a.k.a re-answer), Calling party hold by emergency operator, Other calls to/from non-emergency operators for which to hold Calling party hold for malicious calling indication in compliancy with the call flow diagrams documented in NICC ND1021 (v.0.13.1), chapter E.2.7 & E.2.8 (support of INVITE 'no ring').

Audible Message Waiting Indication:


ISAM Voice supports the service Audible Message Waiting Indication, providing a stutter dial tone should a message be waiting. Fixed line SMS service:

ISAM Voice supports the Fixed line SMS service in compliancy with SIN413
Fixed Line SMS As to be able to make use of this service, the termination needs to install an SMS enabled terminal (SM-TE). Once the call between the SM-TE and SM_SC has been successfully established, either SM-TE or SM-SC will initiate the FSK data transmission in compliancy with ETSI EN 300 659 -2 (Off-hook data transmission). The TE-alerting signal (TAS) is used to signal that data-transmission shall be carried. Upon the receipt of the TAS (line side & IP side), the ISAM Voice switches to VBD mode. Only the Dual Tone TE-alerting signal can be used for off-hook data transmission, as is specified in EN 300 659 - 1 (On-hook data transmission).

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Registration procedure

The registration of the SIP terminations is done:

From a system perspective: by all SIP UAs in parallel. From a SIP UA perspective: on individual SIP termination basis, in a sequential
way corresponding to the order that the SIP terminations become administratively enabled. From a voice LT board (system) recovery perspective: the SIP UA calculates the registration time for each individual SIP termination randomly within a fixed registration time frame ranging from [060] s.

Supplementary services
Supplementary services are widely used in traditional PSTN networks. When customers consider migrating from a TDM network to a NGN network, they expect feature parity to support legacy services.
Megaco: POTS service

The following is a list of representative POTS supplementary services that are available via the ISAM-Voice working in conjunction with different vendor MGC products.


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three-Party Conference (3PTY) Abbreviated Address/Dialling (AA) Add-on Conference (CONF) Administrative Call Barring (ACB)/ Bad Payer Alarm Call (AC) Announcement Connection Anonymous Call Rejection (ACR) Call completion to Busy Subscriber (CCBS) / Ring Back Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP) Calling Line Identification Presentation Analog (CLIP-A) Calling Line Identification Rejection (CLIR) Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU) Call Forwarding on Busy (CFB) Call Forwarding on No Reply (CFNR) Call Forwarding to Fixed Announcement (CFFA) Voice Mail Call Forwarding to Voice Mail (CFVM) Call Hold (HOLD) Call Pick-UP (CPU) Call Return (CR) Call Waiting (CW) CWID service Call Waiting Originating Coin box (CB)

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Connected Line Identification Restriction (COLR) Distinctive Ringing Do Not Disturb (DND) Explicit Call transfer (ECT) Fixed Destination Call (FDC) / Hotline General Deactivation (GD) Incoming Call Barring (ICB) Inhibition of Incoming Forwarded Calls (IIFC) Lawful Interception (LI) Line Hunting (LH) Malicious Call Identification (MCID) Message Waiting Indication (MWI) Numbering Plan and Dialed Digits Outgoing Call Barring (OCB) Outgoing Call Screening (OCS) Special Dial Tone Warm Line Call Park Last Call return

Megaco: ISDN service

The following is a list of representative ISDN BA supplementary services that are available via the ISAM-Voice working in conjunction with different vendor MGC products.

three-Party Conference (3PTY) Abbreviated Address/Dialling (AA) Alarm Call (AC) Call completion to Busy Subscriber (CCBS) / Ring Back Change password Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP) Calling Line Identification Rejection (CLIR) Calling Line Identification Rejection Override (CLIR-O) Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU) Call Forwarding on Busy (CFB) Call Forwarding on No Reply (CFNR) Call Hold (HOLD) Call Waiting (CW) CWID service Connected Line Identification Presentation (COLP) Connected Line Identification Restriction (COLR) Distinctive Dialing In (DDI) Do Not Disturb (DND) Fixed Destination Call (FDC) / Hotline Incoming Call Barring (ICB)
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Inhibition of Incoming Forwarded Calls (IIFC) Malicious Call Identification (MCID) Outgoing Call Barring (OCB) Sub Addressing (SUB) Terminal Portability (TP)

SIP: POTS service

The following is a list of representative POTS supplementary services that are available via the ISAM-Voice working in conjunction with the ALU IMS R7 / 5420 CTS R5 products. More extensive treatment of the supplementary services supported is available in the associated ALU IMS documentation.

three-Party Conference (3PTY) Abbreviated Address/Dialling (AA) Anonymous Call Rejection (ACR) Call completion to Busy Subscriber (CCBS) / Ring Back Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP) Calling Line Identification Rejection (CLIR) Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU) Call Forwarding on Busy (CFB) Call Forwarding on No Reply (CFNR) Voice Mail Call Hold (HOLD) Call Pick-UP (CPU) Call Waiting (CW) CWID service Distinctive Ringing Do Not Disturb (DND) Explicit Call transfer (ECT) Fixed Destination Call (FDC) / Hotline Malicious Call Identification (MCID) Outgoing Call Barring (OCB) Selective Call Forwarding (SCF) SIP Authentication Registration Special Dial Tone Music On Hold

8.21

BITS Support
An accurate synchronization is mandatory for the voice service, especially for voice-band-data services and ISDN services. The 24Gbps NT or the ERAM-A with BITS variant can be connecting by an external BITS clock or using its integrated BITS module (< 5ppm) to reach a decent quality voice quality. The NT boards without BITS module (50ppm) are not valid and are not permitted for voice application.

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8.22

Narrowband Line Testing

Megaco ISAM Voice


Full MTA is supported for both POTS and ISDN BRI lines. Integrated narrowband line testing is supported for POTS lines LT only. For further details, see chapter Line testing features. ISDN-BRI lines support ISDN BA loopback test with test pattern:

Complete loopback with test pattern: Loopback of full bit stream (B1 and B2 and D channel) Loopback at ISDN LT and NT/NT1: Self test on layer 1 by the ISAM Voice: ISAM Voice generates a test pattern,
activates a loopback at the LT, and verifies and evaluates the received test pattern. Test towards the NT/NT1: ISAM Voice generates a test pattern, activates a loopback at the NT, and verifies and evaluates the received test pattern.

SIP ISAM Voice


Full MTA is supported for POTS lines Integrated narrowband line testing is supported for POTS lines LT. For further details, see chapter Line testing features.

8.23

Termination local loop unbundling


ISAM Voice with FD-Combo ETSI practice has been optimized for the combo service deployment (combined PSTN and xDSL services). In such a situation it might be possible that subscribers desire to have the xDSL service provided by a different service provider than the integrated voice service. This can be achieved through a correct configuration of the Local Loop Unbundling relay (configurable on a per subscriber basis). The default setting of the LLU relay is that there is only a straight connection of the subscriber copper pair to the Voice LT.

Megaco ISAM Voice


Local loop unbundling is supported.

SIP ISAM Voice


Local loop unbundling is supported.

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8.24

Subscriber Line Showering


In case the amount of on-hook and/or off-hook events for a particular subscriber line exceeds 20 events / minute, the subscriber line will be put in Line Showering state, meaning that all subsequent events still occurring on this subscriber line will be ignored by the system; the subscriber is not able anymore to make outgoing calls nor is the subscriber able to receive terminating calls. Also from a narrowband line test perspective, when in showering state, the subscriber line is observed as being out-of-service. Once the amount of on-hook and/or off-hook events decreases to less than 10 events per minute, the system will put the subscriber line back into normal operation state. The upper and lower event thresholds are not configurable, neither in the CDE profile nor in the MIB.

8.25

Lawful Intercept

Overall Lawful Intercept strategy


The global Lawful Intercept (LI) solution complies with the international standardization definition of ETSI TISPAN WG7 and ES 201 671(ETSI TC LI). LI is considered to be fully transparent for ISAM Voice access node:

Voice packet replication is assumed to be done by external equipment situated in


the voice network. The control path is assumed to provide the IP address of the external equipment as the destination address of the bearer channel.

Megaco ISAM Voice: External Packet Forwarding (EPF)


In order to support Lawful Intercept, voice traffic exchanged between 2 voice termination points must be intercepted by an interception point (CCIF & IRIIF) prior to receipt at the destination voice termination point. In the feature described hereafter, the interception point is situated outside the ISAM Voice access node, further upstream in the customer's voice network. Obviously, all voice traffic originating at an ISAM Voice access node and destined to either a termination point connected to the same ISAM Voice access node, or a termination point connected to an ISAM Voice access node that subtends to the originating ISAM Voice, or a termination point connected to a remote ISAM Voice access node, or a termination point that resides outside the ISAM Voice cluster, must be brought outside of the originating ISAM Voice access node as to allow this voice traffic to be tapped to the Lawful Intercept device.

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To serve such Lawful intercept topology, Megaco ISAM Voice allows enabling the External Packet Forwarding facility. In addition, the EPF facility requires the IP address of the external device to which the voice traffic is to be forwarded as a configuration input. The external destination device must be directly connected to the ISAM Voice. When EPF is enabled, all voice traffic that originates from a voice termination point A connected to the ISAM Voice and destined to a voice termination point B, either connected to the same ISAM Voice, or connected to an ISAM Voice that subtends to the former ISAM Voice, or connected to an ISAM Voice that together with the former ISAM Voice subtends to the same Hub ISAM Voice, or to an ISAM Voice connected by means of a layer 2/layer 3 aggregation network with the former ISAM Voice, is forwarded in upstream direction to the external device as being pointed to by the configured IP address prior to the downstream forwarding to the destined voice termination point. The same forwarding principle as mentioned before, applies when either voice termination point A or voice termination point B becomes replaced by the Voice server due to the support of some supplementary services or the support of an optimized IP addressing scheme.
Note External packet Forwarding must not be enabled for H.248

L2/L3 addressing topologies with IP Subnet and/or IP Address reduction properties.

Figure 8-100 Megaco ISAM Voice: External Packet Forwarding enabled


Remote node NT board NT board Main node
Signaling IP address Voice

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board

Remote node NT board


L3 aggregation network

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

MGC

ASP

Edge Router serves as "external device" from where the voice traffic is tapped to the LI device

SoftSwitch

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-101 Megaco ISAM Voice: External Packet Forwarding disabled
Remote node NT board NT board Main node
Signaling IP address Voice

server XLES IP address Voice LT board


SHub Voice IP address SHub Voice IP address

L2 aggregation network

Voice LT board

Remote node NT board


L3 aggregation network

Subtending node NT board

Voice LT board

SHub Voice IP address

SHub Voice IP address

Voice LT board

MGC

ASP

SoftSwitch

8.26

Compliancy to standards
ISAM Voice is fully/partially compliant to the following standards (further details are provide in the related Protocol Information Compliancy Sheets (PICS documents)):

Megaco ISAM Voice RFC768, RFC791, RFC792, RFC826, RFC894, RFC919, RFC920, RFC950,
RFC1157, RFC2327, RFC2960, RFC3057, RFC3389, RFC3550, RFC4734 IEEE Std 802.3, IEEE Std 802.1Q, IEEE Std 802.1P ITU-T Study Group 16: H248.1v2, H248.1v3 annex E, H248.1v3 annex F, H248.2, H248.3, H248.8, H248.11, H248.14, H248.16, H248.23, H248.26, H248.27, H248.34, H248.45 RFC2960, RFC4233 ITU-T Study Group II: Basic Call Progress Tones Generator with Directionality, Expanded Call Progress Tones Generator Package, Basic Services Tones Generation Package. ITU-T Recommendation Q.921, ITU-T T.38 Recommendation Fax over IP, ITU-T recommendation V.23 (FSK), ITU-T recommendation Q.552: Transmission characteristics at a 2-wire analogue interface of digital exchanges ITU-T I.603 SERIES I: INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN) Maintenance principles; Application of maintenance principles to ISDN basic accesses

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

Telcordia Bell 202 (FSK) ETSI EN 300 659-1 V1.3.1 DTMF for on-hook data transmission ETSI EN 300 659-1 V1.3.1, ETSI EN 300 659-2 V1.3.1, ETSI EN 300 659-3
V1.3.1: Subscriber line protocol over the local loop for display (and related) services. ETSI EMC 300 386 v1.3.1: Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements Telcordia recommendation GR-30 LSSR: LSSR: Voice band Data Transmission Interface (FSD 05-01-0100), 1998 Calling Line Identification service SIN 227, issue 3.2. British Telecom specification, 2002

SIP ISAM Voice


RFC768, RFC791, RFC792, RFC950, RFC919, RFC920, RFC2131, RFC2327, RFC2833, RFC2976, RFC3261 (ETSI TS102 027-1), RFC3262, RFC3263, RFC3264, RFC3311, RFC3323, RFC3325, RFC3389, RFC3515, RFC3550, RFC3551, RFC3665, RFC3725, RFC 3842, RFC3891, RFC3892, RFC3959, RFC3960, RFC4028, RFC4780, RFC5009.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

8.27

ISAM Voice migration

Off-line SW Migration
The ISAM Voice uses the ISAM offline migration procedure, that is, the integrated voice service databases and related CDE profiles are considered to be an integral part of the ISAM offline database migration (next to the NT and SHub databases). This implies that at SW migration time:

The integrated voice service databases and related CDE profiles are uploaded to
the migration server offline migrated via the Push Button Migration Tool. The offline migrated integrated voice service database and associated CDE profiles are downloaded to the ISAM and activated together with the new SW package.
Megaco ISAM Voice

An Upgrade/Migration cluster is the aggregation of all ISAM Voice clusters served by a hub ISAM Voice node, this hub ISAM Voice node included.
Note The following restriction applies:

All Voice servers equipped in a hub ISAM Voice node are supervised by one and the same Voice Service Provider. In order for the integrated voice service to work correctly, the same SW package must be downloaded to all ISAM Voice nodes of an ISAM Voice cluster, that is, in particular with focus on the integrated voice service, the SW (maintenance) Release on the voice LT boards must be the same as the SW (maintenance) release on the Voice server and this for the complete ISAM Voice cluster. The same applies within one ISAM Voice node. Only one SW (maintenance) Release can be active at an ISAM Voice node at the same time. This implies that all Voice server pairs in the hub ISAM Voice node must run the same SW (maintenance) Release. As a consequence, for the integrated voice service to work, all ISAM Voice nodes within the same upgrade/migration cluster must be on the same SW (maintenance) release. The above rules imply that for both a SW upgrade and a SW migration, the upgrade/offline migration procedure for the full upgrade/migration cluster must be completed in a single maintenance window.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice Figure 8-102 Voice upgrade/migration cluster (centralized topology)
Voice Upgrade / Migration Cluster concept in the context of a Centralised Voice Topology.

Upgrade / Migration Cluster Main ISAM Voice Node


Voice Server Pair 1 Voice Server Pair 2 Voice Server Pair 3 Voice Server Pair 4 Voice Server Pair 5 Voice Server Pair 6 Voice Server Pair 7 Voice Server Pair 8

LTs Non-main node 1a

LTs Non-main node 2a

LTs Non-main node 3a

LTs Non-main node 4a

LTs Non-main node 5a

LTs Non-main node 6a

LTs Non-main node 7a

LTs Non-main node 8a

LTs Non-main node 1b

LTs Non-main node 2b

LTs Non-main node 3b

LTs Non-main node 4b

LTs Non-main node 5b

LTs Non-main node 6b

LTs Non-main node 7b

LTs Non-main node 8b

LTs Non-main node 1x

LTs Non-main node 2x

LTs Non-main node 3x

LTs Non-main node 4x

LTs Non-main node 5x

LTs Non-main node 6x

LTs Non-main node 7x

LTs Non-main node 8x

Voice Cluster 1

Voice Cluster 2

Voice Cluster 3

Voice Cluster 4

Voice Cluster 5

Voice Cluster 6

Voice Cluster 7

Voice Cluster 8

Figure 8-103 Voice upgrade/migration cluster (distributed topology)


Voice Upgrade / Migration Cluster concept in the context of a Distributed Voice Topology.

Upgrade / Migration Cluster 1


Main ISAM Voice Node 1
Voice Server Pair

Upgrade / Migration Cluster 2


Main ISAM Voice Node 2
Voice Server Pair

Upgrade / Migration Cluster 3


Main ISAM Voice Node 3
Voice Server Pair

Upgrade / Migration Cluster 4


Main ISAM Voice Node 4
Voice Server Pair

Upgrade / Migration Cluster 5


Main ISAM Voice Node 5
Voice Server Pair

Upgrade / Migration Cluster 6


Main ISAM Voice Node 6
Voice Server Pair

Upgrade / Migration Cluster 7


Main ISAM Voice Node 7
Voice Server Pair

Upgrade / Migration Cluster 8


Main ISAM Voice Node 8
Voice Server Pair

LTs Non -main node 1a

LTs Non -main node 2a

LTs Non -main node 3a

LTs Non -main node 4a

LTs Non -main node 5a

LTs Non -main node 6a

LTs Non -main node 7a

LTs Non -main node 8a

LTs Non -main node 1b

LTs Non -main node 2b

LTs Non -main node 3b

LTs Non -main node 4b

LTs Non -main node 5b

LTs Non -main node 6b

LTs Non -main node 7b

LTs Non -main node 8b

LTs Non -main node 1x

LTs Non -main node 2x

LTs Non -main node 3x

LTs Non -main node 4x

LTs Non -main node 5x

LTs Non -main node 6x

LTs Non -main node 7x

LTs Non -main node 8x

Voice Cluster 1

Voice Cluster 2

Voice Cluster 3

Voice Cluster 4

Voice Cluster 5

Voice Cluster 6

Voice Cluster 7

Voice Cluster 8

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Megaco ISAM Voice Backwards Compatibility in the Migration Scenario Under the conditions and constraints as stipulated in the section below, ISAM Voice indeed strives for backwards compatibility between releases, starting from R4.0v onwards, in that any next voice release after R4.0v will take backwards compatibility into account. I.e. both the R4.0v maintenance releases and the R4.1v releases (main and maintenance) will take into account backwards compatible with R4.0v. Disclaimer: Alcatel-Lucent, though remaining confident that this might be a rare case, is not in a position to guarantee backwards compatibility at all time, as, due to new feature introduction or problem resolution reasons, Alcatel-Lucent can be forced to break the backwards compatibility in a certain release, even under the conditions and constraints as stipulated below. In case of such happening, the customer will be informed by Alcatel-Lucent, clearly specifying the reasons why the backwards compatibility had to be broken and the related consequences for the customer. Also, Alcatel-Lucent will recover the backward compatibility on the earliest successive release possible. Conditions and restrictions: Backwards compatibility over ISAM Voice releases is considered:

Between a main release and its maintenance releases (e.g. R4.0v and R4.0.02c),
starting from R4.0v onwards Between 2 releases of 2 consecutive release streams (e.g. R4.0.03d and R4.1.02c), starting from R4.0v onwards From the xVPS pair to the voice boards, i.e. it is assumed the voice boards are always at a lower or equal release then the xVPS pair, but never at a higher release This ISAM Voice backwards compatibility has the following restriction:

New services, as part of the newly introduced release, might not work as long as
there is more then one release active in the network. ISAM Voice backwards compatibility is supported only at following conditions:

At any time there are no more then 2 different releases in the network, being main
or maintenance releases of consecutive release streams Having 2 releases in the network can last for at most 2 weeks Failing to do so will not only block any roll-out of new services in the customer's network, but will also make it impossible to guarantee tracking and fixing problems in the voice network Before an upgrade or migration is started to a next release, all ISAM Voice access nodes in the network must be at the same release (main or maintenance)
SIP ISAM Voice off-line SW migration

Since the scope of the Voice upgrade/migration cluster principle is restricted to a single ISAM access node, an upgrade/migration of a SIP ISAM Voice access node follows exactly the upgrade and offline migration procedure for an ISAM access node.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

H.248 to SIP functional Migration


ISAM Voice allows a voice access node / voice cluster being deployed in an H.248 based integrated voice service mode, to migrate to a SIP based integrated voice service deployment. The following restrictions apply:

It is not allowed that such a H.248 to SIP functional migration coincides with
either a SW upgrade or a off-line SW migration or a Switching to Routing functional migration (see next chapter). The target migration SIP architecture is the centralized architecture. A complete voice cluster is functionally migrated in one maintenance window. Distinct VLANs for signaling and RTP traffic. The same VLAN is used to carry RTP traffic in H.248 and SIP mode. The same VLAN is used to carry signaling traffic in H.248 and SIP mode. The same VLAN is used to carry OAM traffic in H.248 and SIP mode.

The main logical steps to be taken in the H.248 to SIP functional migration are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Configure the SIP voice database Check the ongoing calls and the emergency calls for graceful shutdown Lock the H.248 MGI interface Disconnect the Voice server at L2 from the voice LT boards (re-)Configure the L2/L3 topology to run in SIP mode Unplan the voice LT boards (configured with capability profile = H.248-profile) Replan the voice LT boards with capability profile = SIP-profile Reload the voice LT board with the SIP SW package Perform a SIP voice database NT-LT audit

10 Register the SIP terminations 11 Verify the SIP-based voice service 12 Unplan the Voice server (the Voice server must be kept running till the verification has proven that the SIP-based voice service behaves correctly)

Switching to Routing functional Migration


ISAM Voice allows a voice access node/voice cluster being deployed in a switched mode (NT behaving as switching device) to migrate to a routed mode (NT behaving as routing device). The switching to routing functional migration applies to both an ISAM Voice access node deployed in H.248 mode and an ISAM Voice access node deployed in SIP mode.

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8 Integrated Voice service: ISAM Voice

The following restrictions apply:

A functional migration from switching mode to routing mode may NOT coincide
with:

a SW upgrade an off-line SW migration a H.248 to SIP functional migration. ISAM Voice does not support the functional migration of a subtending access
node. In other words, the subtending access node behaves at all times as a switched device. The same signaling VLAN ID remains used at the IACM part of the ISAM Voice before and after the migration from switching device to routing device. The same RTP VLAN ID remains used at the IACM part of the ISAM Voice before and after the migration from switching device to routing device. The same source / destination signaling IP address remains configured at the xVPS (H.248) / SHub (SIP). The same source / destination RTP IP address remains configured at the xVPS (H.248) / SHub (SIP and H.248).

The main logical steps to be taken in the switching to routing functional migration are: 1 2 3 4 Configure the routing protocol (OSPF / RIP) Optionally, configure the static routes (re-)Configure L2/L3 topology to run in route mode. Reset the NT board pair.

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Layer 2 forwarding

9.1 Introduction

9-2 9-2

9.2 The concept of Virtual LAN (VLAN) 9.3 ISAM Internal Architecture 9.4 Support for Jumbo frames 9-8 9-13

9.5 Subscriber access interface on the LT board 9.6 iBridge mode 9-16 9-29 9-40

9-13

9.7 VLAN cross-connect mode

9.8 Protocol-aware cross-connect mode 9.9 IPoA cross-connect mode 9-44

9.10 Secure forwarding in iBridge and VLAN cross-connect 9.11 Virtual MAC 9-49 9-54 9-57

9-46

9.12 PPP Cross-connect mode 9.13 IP-aware bridge mode

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

9.1

Introduction
This chapter focuses on L2 forwarding, consistent with the standards of the Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Concretely in the ISAM this involves the iBridge and VLAN cross-connect forwarding mode.
Note 1 Strictly speaking, only iBridge and Vlan cross-connect

forwarding modes can be considered as L2 forwarding in term of IEEE context. For practical reasons however, this chapter will also cover two additional forwarding modes not really part of L2 forwarding family but still closely related: PPP cross-connect forwarding and IP-aware bridging. Although PPP cross-connect mode has distinctive differences with iBridge and VLAN cross-connect, it has also similarities. For more information, see section 9.12. In the IP-aware bridge mode, the ISAM can be an IP-aware bridge without being an IP next-hop. Subscribers connected to the ISAM are seen as being directly attached to the edge router IP interfaces. This mode is Alcatel-Lucent proprietary and is a kind of hybrid between layer 2 and layer 3 forwarding. For more information, see section 9.13.
Note 2 The support of IP-aware bridging will be discontinued in

the future. The use of IP-aware bridging is unadvised for new deployments.

9.2

The concept of Virtual LAN (VLAN)


VLANs are standardized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 802.1q (VLAN basic concept) and the 802.1ad/D6.0 (VLAN stacking).

VLAN tagging in IEEE 802.1q


Tagging of an Ethernet frame consists of adding a IEEE 802.1q tag of four bytes that specifies the VLAN ID and the priority (from 0 to 7) that indicate the QoS class. Table 9-1 shows the frame types used with their properties.
Table 9-1 Frame types
Property Carries the tag of four bytes Value of VLAN ID Indication priority bits Tagged frame Yes Non-zero value QoS class Priority-tagged frame Yes Zero QoS class Untagged frame No NA NA

Figure 9-2 shows an untagged and a tagged/priority-tagged Ethernet frame.


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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-1 Untagged and tagged/priority-tagged Ethernet frames

Untagged frame
preamble
7

SFD
1

dest addr
6

src addr
6

length type
2

data + pad
461500

FCS
4

(priority-)tagged frame
preamble
7

SFD
1

dest addr
6

src addr
6

802.1q tag
2

VLAN tag
2

MAC client length type


2

data + pad
46...1500

FCS
4

VLAN Tagging as a means to support Virtual LAN (VLAN


The use of VLAN Tagging on Ethernet frames has allowed the co-existence of a multiplicity of Virtual LANs (VLANs) which are logically isolated from each other although sharing the same physical infrastructure. Each VLAN is only aware of the Ethernet Frames tagged with the specific VLAN tag of this VLAN. By using the frames VLAN tags as VLAN discriminator, end-stations and frame forwarders within a given VLAN have no contact with end-stations or frame forwarders operating in another VLAN even when they share the same physical infrastructure. Figure 9-2 shows an example of VLANs.
Figure 9-2 Example of VLAN

c Ba

kb

on

e
i Sw
3 2 1 9

tch
5 4

7 6

VLAN A VLAN B VLAN C

i Sw
1 2 3 4

tch
5 6

8 7

In general the VLAN is shared between a group of several end-stations, forming a meshed configuration. In some special cases, the VLAN is used in a strict point-to-point configuration between two end-stations. Within a VLAN, frame forwarding takes place at layer 2 (L2) by using Ethernet-related information. The ISAM supports the VLAN concept applied to access networks.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Usage of VLANs in access networks


In the access network, each NSP operates in a dedicated VLAN. The role of the ISAM is to attach every subscriber to the NSP(s) of their choice, that is, to the corresponding VLAN(s).
Network side

Frames coming from the upstream Ethernet network are generally tagged, each tag being typical of a given NSP. The frame VLAN tag determines the VLAN the frame belongs to and the way the ISAM should forward it to the subscriber, via iBridge mode or VLAN cross-connect mode. Untagged frames can also be received from the network interface, for example when the ISAM is directly connected to an NSP IP router. In this case, a port-based default VLAN is required on the network interface.
Subscriber side

On an ADSL link carrying PVCs, the subscriber accesses different NSPs by using one PVC per NSP. On a PVC frames are typically untagged (in some rare network deployments, frames could also be priority tagged). When the ISAM receives untagged frames or priority-tagged frames from the subscriber, a port default VLAN (or port-and-protocol-based default VLAN) determines the NSP VLAN on the network side to which the frame must be forwarded (more on this in section Forwarding of untagged/priority-tagged frames received from the subscriber). Although not typical, tagged frames can also be used on PVCs to allow multiplexing several services on the same PVC. When the ISAM receives tagged frames, the frame tag is used to determine the NSP VLAN to which the frame should be forwarded. User frames received with an unexpected tag are discarded. Figure 9-3 shows an example.
Figure 9-3 Example of PVCs used on ADSL links

ADSL link 1 PVC 0,32 default VLAN 100 PVC 0,33 default VLAN 101 PVC 0,34 VLAN 102 ADSL link 2 PVC 0,34 default VLAN 100 VLAN 101, 102

NE

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Figure 9-3 shows two ADSL links:

ADSL link 1 with 3 PVCs: PVC 0,32 accepts untagged packets, priority-tagged packets, and packets with
VLAN ID 100 PVC 0,33 accepts untagged packets, priority-tagged packets, and packets with VLAN ID 101 PVC 0,34 accepts tagged packets, with VLAN ID 102

ADSL link 2 with 1 PVC: PVC 0,34 accepts untagged packets, priority-tagged packets, and tagged packets
with VLAN ID 100, 101 and 102

We have seen that for ATM-based DSL lines, one separate PVC per service (and per NSP) is deployed and the frames between the ISAM and CPE are typically untagged. Each PVC is related to a NSP VLAN in the aggregation network and vice versa. However, this is not possible for VDSL and point-to-point Ethernet accesses since this is based on EFM technology. Hence, tagged traffic on VDSL and point-to-point Ethernet subscriber access lines becomes the rule, with each VLAN identifying a given NSP. Multi-VLAN tagged subscriber traffic over VDSL and point-to-point Ethernet subscriber access lines is actually the equivalent of multi-PVC over ATM-based DSL lines.
Point to multipoint configuration (1:N) and point to point configurations (1:1)

The ISAM allows two L2 access modes, respectively the 1:N and the 1:1 mode:

In the 1:N mode, the ISAM allows the NSP network VLAN to be shared by a
group of N subscribers. This is done by means of the iBridging forwarding mode (also called Residential Bridging) In the 1:1 mode, the ISAM allows the NSP network VLAN to be shared by only one subscriber. This is done by means of the VLAN cross-connect forwarding mode.

Generic forwarder model in ISAM


The ISAM uses a generic L2 forwarding model directly mapping to the VLAN concept. In this model, the ISAM associates to every NSP a dedicated L2 forwarder i.e. an iBridge or a VLAN cross-connect. Each L2 Forwarder operates in the context of a dedicated VLAN on the network side. Further, the ISAM uses the following notions on the user side:

Bridge port:
a bridge port is a generic Ethernet interface on the user side. In practice, a bridge port can be an Ethernet PVC, an EFM link or a physical user Ethernet link. A bridge port can carry a mix of untagged, priority-tagged or tagged frames. VLAN port: a VLAN port is a generic Tagged Ethernet interface on the user side. In practice, a VLAN port results from the association of a VLAN ID and a bridge port. So a VLAN port is the ISAM entry point for user Ethernet traffic tagged with the

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

corresponding VLAN ID on the corresponding bridge port. Tagged frames received by the ISAM which cannot be related to a configured VLAN port are discarded. Port Default VLAN ID (PVID): A bridge port can be configured with a PVID. The PVID has only relevance for iBridging or VLAN cross-connect. It is the VLAN ID which untagged or priority-tagged traffic should inherit from this bridge port when subjected to iBridging or VLAN cross-connect. In that case, untagged frames are considered by the ISAM as if tagged by the user with the PVID. See more details in section Forwarding of untagged/priority-tagged frames received from the subscriber. From a black box point of view, the operator needs to create an NSP Network VLAN. Then, attaching a subscriber to an NSP is done by associating a subscriber VLAN port to the NSP Network VLAN. An interesting feature of this generic L2 forwarding model is that it does not impose that the VLAN port has the same VLAN ID as the NSP VLAN to which it is attached. This allows the possibility of VLAN translation by which subscribers can access an NSP using frames tagged with another VLAN than the NSP VLAN. Obviously, de-coupling network VLAN from user VLAN allows more flexibility in terms of network deployment. The need for VLAN translation becomes apparent when comparing with the familiar multi-PVC model in ATM-based aggregation networks. In the multi-PVC model, each PVC must be given a VPI/VCI value on the access link. To facilitate provisioning, these VPI/VCI values are often chosen to be the same for all subscribers to a given service, for example 8/35 for HSI. These subscriber-side Virtual Channel Links (VCLs) are then cross-connected to VCLs at the network side with different VPI/VCI values. In the multi-VLAN context, the same reasoning applies. Provisioning can be simplified by using the same C-VLAN IDs at the subscriber side for all subscribers. These subscriber-side C-VLANs indicate the service. For S+C-VLAN CCs, (see section S+C-VLAN cross-connect: VLAN stacking for residential subscribers) the network side C-VLAN IDs are typically used to identify the subscriber, with the S-VLAN identifying the service. Hence a subscriber-side VLAN ID can have a local significance, which means that the user VLAN ID is just used to select a particular forwarding context. Then, the subscriber-side VLAN ID is stripped from the packet, the forwarding decision is made, and a new network-side VLAN ID is supplied with the packet when it is transmitted on the network interface. As indicated in previous sections, although multi-VLAN originally came from the requirement to support multi-services above VDSL and point-to-point Ethernet subscriber access lines, some customers may want to use multi-VLAN on top of PVC for ADSL as well. Doing so can be interesting to create a uniform network configuration, or to alleviate some possible CPE limitation.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

To limit the configuration complexity of ADSL lines, the operator must however make a decision per ADSL line and segregate services either via PVCs or via VLANs. In the latter case, a single PVC will carry all the different VLANs. Figure 9-4 shows an example of multi-VLAN and VLAN tag translation. In this example there are two VDSL access lines: EFM1 and EFM2. PVCs supporting multi-vlans are also shown. Note that this example applies to ADSL, VDSL and point-to-point Ethernet subscriber access lines.
Figure 9-4 Multi-VLAN and VLAN translation example

T NSP 1

Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet

PVC1_VLAN1 PVC2_VLAN1 EFM1_VLAN1 PVC1_VLAN2 PVC3_VLAN17 EFM2_VLAN2

VLAN_1

VLAN ports

MAC FDB

T T

iBridge

T NSP 2

Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet

VLAN_2

VLAN MAC ports FDB iBridge

T T

NSP 3

VLAN_3

VLAN CC

Ethernet

EFM1_VLAN3

NSP 4

VLAN_4

VLAN CC

Ethernet

EFM2_VLAN34

NSP 5

VLAN_5

VLAN CC

Ethernet

EFM1_VLAN5

EMAN

ISAM

Note 1 Multi-VLAN makes flexible wholesaling possible without impacting the CPE configuration. For example, starting from a set of predefined subscriber VLAN tags at the CPE side (say, the same values hard-coded in all CPEs), it is possible to re-tag the received packet with a new network VLAN tag, so that the traffic can be passed to the correct NSP for a specific service. Note 2 From R4.1 on, the restriction that one cannot attach two

VLAN ports on the same bridge port to the same Layer 2 forwarding engine is removed.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

9.3

ISAM Internal Architecture


Layer 2 forwarding in ISAM is generally distributed over the LT boards and NT board in a two stage architecture. There may be also cases where only the NT board takes part in the Layer 2 forwarding - when users are directly connected to the NT board or when a subtending ISAM comes in the picture. This is shown in Figure 9-5.
Note Figure 9-5 does not show the VLAN translation capability on the user side of the LT board.

Figure 9-5 Layer 2 Forwarding in ISAM

L2 Fwdr NSP A

L2 Fwdr NSP B Phy/LAG L2 Fwdr NSP A LT

Phy/LAG

L2 Fwdr NSP B

L2 Fwdr NSP A

NT LT ISAM

L2 Fwdr NSP B

The basic strategy for the layer 2 forwarding data plane is that:

When subscribers are connected to LT boards, the NT board forwards


downstream frames to the proper LT board(s) and the LT board forwards downstream frames to the proper subscriber line/VLAN. It is the LT board that implements the difference between the VLAN cross-connect and iBridge mode. The NT board behavior is identical for iBridge and VLAN cross-connect. It is the LT board that takes care to translate user VLAN into network VLAN (optionally); the NT board does not perform VLAN translation.

9-8

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

The NT board behaves as much as possible as a standard bridge. However, some


restrictions may be required or desired for a consistent interworking with the specific LT boards forwarding modes, iBridge or VLAN cross-connect. User security and privacy may also require specific rules in the NT board, as further developed below. The NT board and the LT board behave as much as possible as two independent Layer 2 systems. For example, they both will learn and age independently on MAC addresses. Note that the ageing timer is independent in the NT board and the LT boards but for proper operation it should be configured identical. There is one ageing timer common for all LT boards. Although the NT board is originally derived from a standard bridge, its behavior will typically be constrained to fit access network requirements such as for instance security and privacy. For that purpose the ISAM makes the distinction between ports facing users and ports facing the EMAN network side:

Ports connected to subtending ISAMs, to LT boards or directly facing users


instantiate the so-called user side. Such ports are considered untrusted.

Ports connected to the EMAN or directly to service provider equipment (e.g.


BRAS) instantiate the so-called network side. Such ports are considered trusted. With the notion of User side and Network side, the NT has the capability to deviate from a normal standard bridge in particular in term of controlling traffic switching (or flooding) and controlling MAC address learning. In typical network deployment, the NT board will be constrained such that

Frames received from the network side can be passed: back to the network side, possibly on the same physical interface but using another
VLAN (this is to support a ring).

to the user side (an LT board, a user, or a subtending ISAM). Frames received from the user side (an LT board, a user or a subtending ISAM)
can only be passed to the network side.
Note 1 The forwarding of broadcast frames or frames with

unknown (unicast / multicast) destination MAC address will be based on these rules: flood to all allowed interfaces only.
Note 2 The operator can enable communication from user side

back to user side provided that both users are on different physical NT interfaces. Obviously, the NT board is VLAN aware. More specifically, every NT bridge instance operates within the context of a single distinct VLAN. Only tagged frames matching the VLAN of a bridge will be handled by that bridge. If the frame is multiple tagged, only the most exterior VLAN tag is used to determine whether the frame should be handled by a given bridge or not. Another strategy employed to enable ISAM to participate in a maximum of network deployments scenarios is to subtend network elements (such as remote ISAM) directly from the LT, as shown in Figure 9-6.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-6 Subtended network elements


UNI port
L2 Fwder NSP A

L2 Fwder NSP B L2 Fwder NSP A LT

UNI port

L2 Fwder NSP A L2 Fwder NSP B NT LT ISAM L2 Fwder NSP B


NT Subtended ISAM
L2 Fwder NSP A L2 Fwder NSP A

L2 Fwder NSP B

L2 Fwder NSP B

LT

NNI port

Such deployment scenario introduces the concept of User to Network Interface (UNI) and Network to Network Interface (NNI).

A UNI is a reference point for all interactions between subscriber services and the
ISAM. An NNI is a reference point for all interactions between a remote aggregator (business NTU, residential MDU, Ethernet switch, subtended ISAM, ) and the ISAM. On the Hub-ISAM, the NNI subtending interfaces will support L2 forwarding dimensioning required to subtend an aggregation node (such as for example increased scaling for VLANs, multicast channels and MAC learning, ).

Detailed configuration models

iBridge configuration model

Figure 9-8 shows the iBridge configuration model.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-7 iBridge configuration model

RB VLAN 19 Network Ports Network VLAN LT Ports RB VLAN 23 Phy/LAG VLAN 19 (= iBridge) LT

Phy/LAG

VLAN 23 (= iBridge)

RB VLAN 19

NT LT ISAM

RB VLAN 23

To configure a bridge for a given VLAN in the NT, the operator needs to:

Create the VLAN Associate the proper network / LT / subtending / user interface to this VLAN.
VLAN cross-connect configuration model

The configuration of the NT board is the same as for the iBridge forwarding model, only the configuration of the LT board is different, as shown in Figure 9-8.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-8 VLAN cross-connect configuration model

VLAN 11 (=Bridge)

C 11 VLAN CC

C-VLAN CC

VLAN 17 (=Bridge)

S17 +C23 VLAN CC LT

S+C-VLAN CC

(No VLAN translation shown on user side)

VLAN 13 (=Bridge)

S17 +C29 VLAN CC

S+C-VLAN CC

VLAN 19 (=Bridge) LT NT ISAM

S 13 VLAN CC

S-VLAN CC

C-, S+C- or S-VLAN CC

Note The different types of VLAN cross-connect (C-VLAN, S+C-VLAN and S-VLAN) are explained further in this chapter.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

9.4

Support for Jumbo frames


To take care of various encapsulation protocols overhead, Jumbo frames with 2048 bytes are supported in the data plane all over the ISAM, including all forwarding modes (iBridge, VLAN cross-connect, PPP cross-connect, VRF) and all Ethernet interface types. However, the final frame size will be constrained by the LT hardware limitation (the hardware of some LT boards cannot support more than 1580 bytes).
Figure 9-9 Support for Jumbo frames

3, 4
DSL line specific Ethernet MAC DA, SA Qtags, Type/Length, FCS SA, larger subscriber Ethernet payload

Edge

1
Ethernet MAC (with additional VLAN tags) DA, SA, Qtags, type/length, FCS

2
MPLS & other blue sky

3, 4
larger subscriber Ethernet payload

Scope of jumbo frames:


1. To cope with more VLAN tags being added on network side 2. To cope with additional encapsulating protocols, for example, MPLS on network side 3. To cope with user having larger payload data 4. NOT to cope with user having larger payload control

9.5

Subscriber access interface on the LT board


The ISAM has the capability to receive user frames from ATM PVCs (ADSL), EFM (VDSL) or Ethernet Physical interfaces on the LT board.

Attaching subscribers to iBridges and VLAN cross-connect forwarders


VLAN ports are always used to attach subscribers to iBridges and VLAN cross-connect, as shown in Figure 9-10. This obviously applies to tagged Ethernet frames, but also to untagged Ethernet frames, via Port Default VLAN (PVID) and even to IPoA frames via the so-called Interworking Layer (IWL) located on the LT board. The IWL takes care to convert IPoA frames into IPoE frames; see section Protocol-aware cross-connect mode for more information. Figure 9-10 shows the subscriber access interface model.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-10 Subscriber access interface model for iBridges and VLAN cross-connect

VLAN port Bridge port PVC ATM EFM

Of frame tag or PVID if untagged frame

VLAN port (from PVID) Bridge port PVC ATM ADSLx IPoA Frames

Managed by IWL

ADSLx VDSLx Eth Phy PPPoE or IPoE Frames

Attaching subscribers to PPP cross-connect forwarders


The interfaces that can be used to attach subscribers to PPP cross-connect forwarders - that is, the interfaces on which PPP client ports can be configured - are shown in Figure 9-11.
Figure 9-11 Subscriber access interface model for PPP cross-connect forwarder

VLAN port Bridge port PVC ATM ADSLx VDSLx Eth Phy Tagged PPPoE Frames EFM PVC ATM ADSLx PPPoA or untagged PPPoE Frames on PVC VDSLx Eth Phy Untagged PPPoE Frames on EFM or Eth Phy EFM

Frame Encapsulation on PVCs


ATM PVCs are configured on top of the ATM-based DSL links. A maximum of eight PVCs can be configured per DSL link. AAL5 is used to transport frames over ATM PVCs. When a frame is received on an PVC, the ISAM will try to determine whether the AAL5 frame carries:

an IPoA frame a PPPoA frame an Ethernet frame


For this, the ISAM inspects the encapsulation of each received AAL5 frame and compares it with the encapsulation allowed on the PVC receiving the frame.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

The ISAM supports the following ATM AAL5 encapsulation types:

LLC/SNAP bridged (Ethernet) VC Mux bridged (Ethernet) LLC/SNAP routed (IPoA) VC Mux routed (IPoA) LLC/NLPid (PPPoA) VC Mux PPP (PPPoA)

The operator can configure each PVC in such a way that either one of the following encapsulation modes is allowed:

one single encapsulation type only is allowed on the PVC. This is called static
encapsulation mode. Only the frames matching this encapsulation will be accepted. several encapsulation types are allowed on the PVC. In this case, the PVC works in auto-detect encapsulation mode: the ISAM adapts itself to the encapsulation selected by the CPE. If the encapsulation of the received frame matches one of the allowed encapsulations, the frame is accepted. Otherwise, the frame is discarded. This mode allows the subscriber to change his CPE without requiring the operator to reconfigure the ISAM.
Auto-detect encapsulation possibilities

It is not possible to have a universal auto-detect function accommodating any frame format without ambiguity. Hence, several auto-detect modes have been defined, each one with a limited number of allowed encapsulations. When an operator wants a PVC to work in auto-detect mode, he can configure the PVC with one of the following modes:

Autodetect_IP allows auto-detection of the following frame encapsulations: LLC-SNAP-Routed (then it is for IPoA) or LLC-SNAP-Bridge (then it is for IPoE) or VCMUX-Routed (then it is for IPoA)
Note: VCMUX-Bridge cannot be detected in this mode since it is ambiguous with VCMUX-Routed when the IP address starts with 00 (hex)

Autodetect_PPP allows auto-detection of the following frame encapsulations: LLC-NLPID-PPP (then is for PPPoA) or VCMUX-PPP (then it is for PPPoA) or LLC-SNAP-Bridge (then it is for PPPoE) or VCMUX-Bridge (then it is for PPPoE) Autodetect_PPPoA allows auto-detection of the following frame encapsulations: LLC-NLPID-PPP (then is for PPPoA) or VCMUX-PPP (then is for PPPoA)

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Autodetect_IPoE_PPP allows auto-detection of the following frame


encapsulations:

LLC-NLPID-PPP (then is for PPPoA) or VCMUX-PPP (then is for PPPoA) or LLC-SNAP-Bridge (then it can be for PPPoE or IpoE) or VCMUX-Bridge (then it can be for PPPoE or IpoE) Note: LLC-SNAP-Routed and VCMUX-Routed (i.e. for IPoA) cannot be detected in this mode. Note The auto-detect feature is aimed to cope with occasional CPE reconfiguration: when the ISAM detects a valid change of encapsulation, it will clear data related to PPP or DHCP sessions related to this PVC, if any is present. Also, it is possible that a few frames are lost during the transition.

9.6

iBridge mode
In iBridge mode, each NSP is connected to the ISAM at the network side by a dedicated VLAN. The ISAM supports up to 128 iBridges for layer 2 boards and up to 768 iBridges for layer 3 boards. Depending on the port configuration and LT board type, iBridges accept tagged and/or untagged traffic for forwarding. For untagged traffic, the ISAM makes use of a default VLAN configured per port to identify the NSP VLAN. More details about default VLANs are provided in section Forwarding of untagged/priority-tagged frames received from the subscriber. iBridges allows to connection of several subscribers to the same network VLAN. iBridges also allow the connection of several hub-ISAM NNI ports to the same network VLAN.

General considerations on iBridges

DHCP option 82

iBridge supports the DHCP snooping features for DHCP Option 82 handling. Likewise, iBridge supports DHCPv6 snooping for the insertion of DHCPv6 Option 18 and Option 37. For more information on DHCP, see chapter Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model and chapter Protocol handling in a Layer 3 forwarding model.
Note DHCP option 82 is not supported on traffic received on hub-ISAM NNI ports. The remote aggregator access node (connected to the hub-ISAM) will perform such function if required.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Network and subscriber ports

The iBridge mode makes a distinction between network ports and subscriber ports, in contrast with standard bridging where all ports are treated equally. Frames received from a subscriber will always be sent towards the network and never to another subscriber. This behavior is also true when the iBridge mode is used to forward traffic from hub-ISAM LT NNI ports. All the upstream traffic will be sent towards the network and never to another NNI port.
Prevention of broadcast problems

To prevent broadcast storms, the amount of broadcast traffic on each port can be limited. When standard bridging is used, a broadcast frame (ARP, PPPoE, DHCP, ICMPv6 or DHCPv6) will be sent to all ports in a particular VLAN. In iBridge mode, broadcast traffic from the subscriber only goes to the network. Broadcast traffic from the network is either passed to all ports or blocked on the subscriber ports. This behavior can be configured per VLAN. Also broadcast as a consequence of flooding, which happens with standard bridging when the MAC destination address is unknown or with multicast, is avoided in iBridge mode. In the context of hub-ISAM LT NNI ports, all the NNI upstream broadcast traffic is sent towards the network and never to another NNI port. Broadcast from the network is passed to all the NNI ports. This behavior is not configurable for NNI ports.
Frame types

In iBridge mode, only the following frame types are accepted from the subscriber ports:

IP over Ethernet (IPoE) (IPv4)/ARP/Reverse Address Resolution Protocol


(RARP)

IPv6 over Ethernet (IPv6oE), including Neighbor Discovery and ICMPv6


Note Neighbor Discovery and ICMPv6 are identified by a Next Header value of 58 in the immediately preceding IPv6 header

PPPoE (discovery and session) PPPoE relay IPoE (IPv4)/ARP/RARP/PPPoE (discovery and session) IPoA (per enhanced iBridge) (for IPv4 only) all Ethernet types Extensible Authentication Protocol Over LAN (EAPOL): EAPOL frames are dedicated packets that are never forwarded but are processed by the ISAM.

Other frames, including multicast data frames, will be discarded.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

In the context of hub-ISAM LT NNI ports, in iBridge mode, only the following frame types are accepted from the NNI ports:

IP over Ethernet (IPoE) (IPv4)/ARP/Reverse Address Resolution Protocol


(RARP)

IPv6 over Ethernet (IPv6oE), including Neighbor Discovery and ICMPv6 (note:
Neighbor Discovery and ICMPv6 are identified by a Next Header value of 58 in the immediately preceding IPv6 header PPPoE (discovery and session) PPPoE relay IPoE (IPv4)/ARP/RARP/PPPoE (discovery and session) IPoA (per enhanced iBridge) (for IPv4 only) all Ethernet types Extensible Authentication Protocol Over LAN (EAPOL) EAPOL frames are dedicated packets that are never forwarded, but are processed by the ISAM.

Other frames, including multicast data frames, will be will be sent towards the network and never to another NNI port.
iBridge Deployment

In iBridge mode, the operator will avoid putting two ISAMs within the same network VLAN on the same Ethernet Metropolitan Area Network (EMAN) to reach the same NSP IP router. Sharing the same VLAN between two ISAMs would allow inter-ISAM user-to-user traffic to by-pass the NSP, which is undesirable. Figure 9-12 details this misconfiguration:

The Ethernet switch will learn all subscriber MAC addresses. If subscriber A can
obtain the MAC address of subscriber C, then subscriber A can send traffic directly to subscriber C without the traffic going to the NSP IP router. This is direct user-to-user communication and should be prevented in iBridge mode. In such a configuration, an ISAM would receive all broadcast/flooded frames from any ISAM in the VLAN. This causes potential performance problems and should not be allowed in iBridge mode.
Figure 9-12 VLAN with two ISAMs
ISAM 1

EMAN
B
VLAN NSP

Not allowed

NSP IP backbone

ISAM 2

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Hub-ISAM LT NNI iBridge deployment example

The ISAM supports the ability to subtend network elements (such as remote ISAM) directly from the LT. This is done, in this time frame, by using the NNI port type on the GE Ethernet line board. As shown in Figure 9-13, by using the iBridge mode on the NNI ports, the operator can leverage the Hub-ISAM access aggregation capabilities in order to aggregate traffic towards the EMAN network.
Figure 9-13 Hub-ISAM with iBridge
UNI

E F A B

UNI

NSP IP Backbone

NNI

S-ISAM 1

UNI

EMAN

UNI

NNI

S-ISAM 1

UNI

C D

UNI

Hub-ISAM

Remote Aggregator (subtended ISAM)

Note The Hub-ISAM can also perform local access and access aggregation, as shown in Figure 9-13.

MAC learning
In the ISAM, each layer 2 forwarder has its own MAC learning process, independent from the other layer 2 forwarders. In other words, the text in the section below as to be understood within the same network VLAN context. This means that a MAC address is unique within a VLAN, but not across VLANs. If a port is connected to two VLANs, the MAC address is learned twice.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

MAC address learning on the NT board

When a frame is received with an unknown MAC Source Address (SA) or the MAC SA is received on a different bridge port than previously learned, the ISAM will learn this MAC address with the following restrictions:

If the MAC address is learned from a subscriber port but the number of MAC
addresses already learned on that port has reached a certain maximum, the MAC address is not learned and the frame is dropped. Note The secured MAC learning mechanism can be disabled to allow, for example, an unlimited number of MAC addresses in case of cross-connect mode.

If the MAC address is learned from a subscriber port, but the same MAC address
is already learned from the EMAN network, the MAC address is not learned and the frame is dropped (MAC address duplication). If the MAC address is learned from a subscriber port, but the same MAC address was already on another subscriber port, the new MAC address is not learned and the frame is dropped (MAC address duplication). If the MAC address is first learned on a subscriber port, and then learned from the EMAN network, this movement is accepted and the MAC address is learned. This means that the MAC address is removed from the subscriber port (MAC address movement, that is, the last learned MAC address takes priority). If the MAC address is first learned on a subtending, subscriber or internal LT port and then on another subtending, subscriber or internal LT port, then the MAC address is not learned on the second port (that is, no MAC address movement is performed) Well-known MAC addresses (for example, multicast MAC addresses, MAC addresses allocated for IEEE protocols, and so on) are not learned.
Note These restrictions are valid in both iBridge mode and VLAN cross-connect mode.

These principles apply also for subtending ports. In this context, a subtending port behaves at the same level as a subscriber port.
MAC address learning on the LT board

The ISAM LT boards provide a protection about the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned per port:

On ATM-based interfaces, the limit is applied per PVC. On PTM-based DSL interfaces, and Ethernet physical interfaces, the limit is
applied per interface.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

The way this protection is implemented depends on the LT board type:

On layer 2+ LT boards and on layer 3 LT boards, this protection allows the


operator to configure a maximum per port and this maximum is also committed. On layer 2 LT boards, this protection allows the operator to work with overbooking. The operator can configure a maximum per port and a committed number per port. The committed number of MAC addresses per port is the number of entries reserved in the forwarding database for that port. This number of entries can be used by the subscriber connected to that port at all times, that is, independent of any activity of other subscribers. However, if not all the available entries on an LT board have been assigned to a port, then the remaining entries are dynamically assigned to ports based on MAC address learning with the protection that the total number of entries per port cannot exceed the configured maximum number of MAC entries per port. The ISAM LT boards also provide protection against duplicate MAC addresses in the VLAN context of the forwarder. When a frame is received on a subscriber port with a source MAC address which was already learned on another port for this VLAN, this generates a duplicate MAC address alarm and:

On layer 2 LT boards, the frame is discarded and the MAC address is not moved
from the original port. Moreover the offending end-subscriber PVC gets locked. The subscriber port is unlocked again (and the duplicate MAC address alarm is cleared) after a time period equal to three times the MAC address aging time. On layer 3 and point-to-point Ethernet LT boards, the frame is discarded and the MAC address is not moved from the original port. The port carrying the offending frame remains fully operational for frames received with non-offending source MAC address. The alarm is cleared after a time period free of MAC address conflict.

The Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports concept is currently supported on the GE Ethernet LT


board only.

As such, the MAC address learning and the associated duplicate MAC address
alarming does apply to UNI and NNI ISAM LT ports with the same level of precedence between the two port types. MAC aging time

A MAC address that was previously learned on a given iBridge is automatically removed from the MAC forwarding table of that iBridge when no traffic has been received from that MAC address during the MAC aging time.

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MAC aging time configuration It is important that the MAC ageing time is properly configured, otherwise data-plane connectivity may get lost between the network and the ISAM subscribers (due to the fact that traffic is not flooded to these subscribers when their MAC address is no longer present in the forwarding database):

For PPPoE traffic, the MAC aging time can be kept small, because PPP has a
built-in keep-alive mechanism.

For DHCP-based service scenarios (IPv4 or IPv6), the MAC aging time must be
taken in the same order of magnitude as the DHCP lease time (unless there is another time that can be used, for example, an ARP refresh interval, an application-layer keep-alive time, and so on). The MAC aging time is configurable between 10 s and 1.000.000 s with a default value of 300 s.
Note On layer 2 LT boards, the MAC aging time is limited to a maximum of 1096 s by the hardware. In that case, the management interface allows the operator to configure a higher aging time, but the hardware caps this configured value to 1096 s.

A MAC aging time can be configured per iBridge forwarding instance as for some services the MAC aging time should be kept low, while for other services (for example, DHCP-based services) the MAC aging time should be increased.

VLAN tagging modes in the iBridge

Concepts

Section Generic forwarder model in ISAM has introduced the concepts of bridge ports and VLAN ports defined on the subscriber side and used by iBridges and VLAN cross-connects.
Forwarding of untagged/priority-tagged frames received from the subscriber

The subscriber bridge ports (that is, PVCs, EFM or Ethernet Physical link) are connected to the VLAN of the appropriate NSP by means of a default VLAN ID. Figure 9-14 shows the concept of the iBridge mode for untagged subscriber traffic.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-14 iBridge mode - untagged subscriber traffic


NSP 1

EMAN
A B C D E F G NSP2 NSP3
NSP 3-VLAN NSP 3 NSP 2-VLAN NSP 1-VLAN

NSP IP backbone

NSP1

NSP 2 NSP IP backbone

NSP IP backbone

Typical of an iBridge, several subscriber ports can be associated to a single VLAN. In Figure 9-14, the following subscriber ports are connected to the different VLANs:

subscriber ports A, B and C connected to NSP 1-VLAN subscriber ports D and E connected to NSP 2-VLAN subscriber ports F and G connected to NSP 3-VLAN
There are two ways to determine a default VLAN ID (and P-bits) for untagged frames received on a bridge port:

Port-based classification:
For port-based VLAN classification within a bridge, the VLAN ID associated with an untagged or priority-tagged frame (that is, a frame with no tag header, or a frame with a tag header that carries the null VLAN ID) is uniquely determined by the bridge port through which the frame is received. This classification mechanism requires the operator to configure a specific PVID on each bridge port. In this case, the PVID provides the VLAN ID for untagged and priority-tagged frames received through that bridge port. The PVID is always associated with a VLAN port on the bridge port. Port- and Protocol- based classification: For bridges that implement port/protocol-based VLAN classification, the VLAN ID associated with an untagged or priority-tagged frame is determined by the bridge port through which the frame is received and the protocol type of the frame. This classification mechanism requires the operator to configure one Port-Protocol-VLAN ID per protocol type on each bridge port. Each Port-Protocol-VLAN ID is always associated with a specific VLAN port on the bridge port. When a PVID and Port-Protocol-VLAN ID(s) are both configured on a given bridge port, the ISAM always selects the Port-Protocol-VLAN ID if applicable. In practice, the ISAM operator can configure up to two port-Protocol-VLAN ID per bridge port:

one for IP and related protocols (e.g. ARP) and one for the PPP protocol

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Note For more information about the handling of priority-tagged frames, see chapter Quality of Service.

When a subscriber generates a frame or a frame is received from the upstream Ethernet switch, a MAC address lookup is done in the forwarding table identified by the VLAN. Each NSP has its own forwarding table in the ISAM. The ISAM receives untagged or priority-tagged frames on a given bridge port, and forward these in the context of an iBridge. To achieve this, the operator creates a C-VLAN port on top of the bridge port, and couples it to the specified iBridge. Next, the operator installs a Port-default VLAN ID (PVID) (see Figure 9-15) or a Port-protocol-default VLAN (see Figure 9-16) that points to the VLAN port.
Figure 9-15 Forwarding untagged/priority-tagged frames in an iBridge (iBridge shown with only one subscriber)
Network-side traffic Configured VLAN ports Bridge port BP1 Ut,C1 VLAN port (BP1/ 0,C1) iBridge (C1) Ut,Ut User-side traffic

BP1:PVID = 0,C1 Si,X (any i) or Ut,Cj (j 1)

Legend for traffic characterization: Ut,C1 means S-VLAN = untagged and C-VLAN = C1 S1,X means S-VLAN = S1 and C-VLAN = do not care (tagged or untagged) Ut,Ut means no S-VLAN, no C-VLAN Legend for VLAN port configuration: 0,C1 means a C-VLAN port S1,0 means an S-VLAN port

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-16 Protocol-based VLAN selection (iBridge shown with only one subscriber)
Network-side traffic Configured VLAN ports Bridge port BP1 Ut,C1 VLAN port (BP1/ 0,C1) iBridge (C1) Ut,Ut User-side traffic

Ut,C2 iBridge (C2) VLAN port (BP1/ 0,C2)

BP1: IPoE VID = 0,C1 PPPoE VID = 0,C2

Si,X (any i) or Ut,Cj (j 1,2)

Legend for traffic characterization: Ut,C1 means S-VLAN = untagged and C-VLAN = C1 S1,X means S-VLAN = S1 and C-VLAN = do not care (tagged or untagged) Ut,Ut means no S-VLAN, no C-VLAN Legend for VLAN port configuration: 0,C1 means a C-VLAN port S1,0 means an S-VLAN port

Note The behavior described in this section is also true when the iBridge mode is used to forward traffic from Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports.

Forwarding of C-VLAN tagged frames

The CPE accessing an NSP via iBridge mode send their traffic to the ISAM tagged with a NSP and, optionally, a service-specific VLAN ID. With the multi-VLAN and VLAN translation capability, a bridge port can access several NSPs simultaneously. Figure 9-17 shows the concept of the iBridge mode with tagged subscriber traffic.
Figure 9-17 iBridge mode - tagged subscriber traffic
NSP 1

VDSL Bridge port

EMAN
NSP 1-VLAN

NSP IP backbone

NSP1
VLAN-a VLAN-b VLAN-c

NSP 2 NSP 2-VLAN NSP IP backbone

NSP2 NSP3

NSP 3-VLAN

NSP 3 NSP IP backbone

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

In Figure 9-17 the VDSL subscriber is connected to 3 NSPs in iBridge mode. When a subscriber generates a frame or a frame is received from the upstream Ethernet switch, a MAC address lookup is done in the forwarding table identified by the network VLAN. This means that each NSP has its own forwarding table in the ISAM. This is indicated by the black boxes labeled with NSPx. The subscriber VLAN-a, VLAN-b and VLAN-c are translated in the ISAM to NSP 1-VLAN, NSP 2-VLAN and NSP 3-VLAN respectively at the subscriber-side boundary. The ISAM receives C-VLAN-tagged frames on a given bridge port, and forwards these in the context of an iBridge. To achieve this, the operator creates a C-VLAN port on top of the bridge port, and couples it to the iBridge.

When no VLAN translation is needed, the VLANs used in the network are
extended all the way to the subscribers. In this case, the subscriber side VLAN IDs are said to have a network-wide scope; see Figure 9-18. Note The behavior described in this section is also true when the iBridge mode is used to forward traffic from Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports.

In case of VLAN translation, the network-side and subscriber-side VLAN IDs are
different. iBridging, in combination with VLAN translation, is typically used when a loose coupling is needed between the C-VLAN IDs used on the access link and the C-VLAN IDs used in the aggregation network; see Figure 9-19. Note VLAN translation is not supported on Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports.

Figure 9-18 Subscriber-side VLAN-IDs with a network-wide scope (iBridge shown with only one subscriber)
Network-side traffic Configured VLAN ports Bridge port BP1 Ut,C1 User-side traffic

iBridge (C1)

VLAN port (BP1/ 0,C1)

Ut,C1

Ut,C2 iBridge (C2)

VLAN port (BP1/ 0,C2) Ut,C2 BP1: no PVID Si,X (any i) or Ut,Cj (j 1,2) or Ut,Ut

Legend for traffic characterization: Ut,C1 means S-VLAN = untagged and C-VLAN = C1 S1,X means S-VLAN = S1 and C-VLAN = do not care (tagged or untagged) Ut,Ut means no S-VLAN, no C-VLAN Legend for VLAN port configuration: 0,C1 means a C-VLAN port

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-19 Support for VLAN translation (iBridge shown with only one subscriber)
Network-side traffic Configured VLAN ports Bridge port BP1 Ut,C1 User-side traffic

iBridge (C1)

VLAN port (BP1/ 0,C3)

Ut,C3

Ut,C2 iBridge (C2) T

VLAN port (BP1/ 0,C4) Ut,C4 BP1: no PVID Si,X (any i) or Ut,Cj (j 3,4) or Ut,Ut

Legend for traffic characterization: Ut,C1 means S-VLAN = untagged and C-VLAN = C1 S1,X means S-VLAN = S1 and C-VLAN = do not care (tagged or untagged) Ut,Ut means no S-VLAN, no C-VLAN Legend for VLAN port configuration: 0,C1 means a C-VLAN port

VLAN tagging modes in the iBridge (Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports concept)


Section VLAN tagging modes in the iBridge has explained the VLAN tagging modes in the iBridge for normal ISAM LT bridge ports, also known as UNI ports. This section explains the VLAN tagging modes in the iBridge when used in context of the Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports.
Concept

Section Generic forwarder model in ISAM has introduced the concepts of bridge ports and VLAN ports defined on the subscriber side and used by iBridges and VLAN cross-connects. These concepts are also valid for iBridges defined on NNI ports. As noted earlier, the Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports concept is currently supported on the GE Ethernet line card only. There are two VLAN iBridge models supported on GE Ethernet LT board NNI ports:

C-VLAN iBridge: basic VLAN bridge mode S-VLAN iBridge: supporting mapped and tunnel VLAN bridge modes
Forwarding of untagged/priority-tagged/VLAN tagged frames in C-VLAN iBridge

Section VLAN tagging modes in the iBridge explains the forwarding behaviors of a C-VLAN iBridge configured on the GE Ethernet line card port type.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Forwarding of untagged/priority-tagged/VLAN tagged frames in S-VLAN iBridge

The forwarding behaviors described in section VLAN tagging modes in the iBridge are, for the most part, also pertinent for the operations of a S-VLAN iBridge configured on the GE Ethernet line card NNI port type. The main difference being that an S-VLAN iBridge offers the ability of VLAN stacking (see About VLAN stacking) When the Hub-ISAM GE Ethernet line card NNI port is configured with an S-VLAN iBridge, the ISAM Access Node is considered to be a VLAN aware bridge, where each N:1 SVLAN is a separate Virtual Bridge (VB) instance. Each VB performs independent source MAC address learning and frame forwarding process as described in 802.1D and 802.1Q. The GE Ethernet line card S-iBridge forwarder, supported on the NNI port type, does support Mapped and Tunneled modes:

In Tunnel Mode, the ISAM systematically adds a VLAN tag to frames


originating from the NNI. This mode is enabled by configuring an S-VLAN PVID on the Bridge Port. It is to be noted that S-VLAN iBridge accepts indifferently untagged and single tagged frames. In Mapped Mode, the ISAM considers NNI traffic as if already inside a tunnel. In Mapped mode, the ISAM just extends the NNI tunnel further to the EMAN without adding any extra Vlan Tag. With Mapped mode, it is not possible to translate the NNI S-Vlan into a different network S-Vlan. Both the Tunnel mode and the Mapped mode can coexist simultaneously in the ISAM. Whether a frame has to be handled in S-VLAN Tunnel or Mapped iBridge results from a comparison between the most external frame tag (if any) and the Bridge port PVID. Thus the GE Ethernet LT board S-iBridge forwarding behaviors can be summarized as:

When upstream traffic on a given NNI bridge port does not match a defined
S-VLAN port attached to a given S-ibridge and no S-VLAN port default VLAN exist on that bridge port, then this traffic is dropped. When upstream traffic on a given NNI bridge port matches a defined S-VLAN port attached to a given S-ibridge and no S-VLAN port default VLAN exist on that bridge port, then this traffic is accepted into the VB instance for bridging functions. In this case, no new tag will be added on upstream egress. This mode of operation is referred as mapped mode. When an S-VLAN port default VLAN has been defined on an NNI bridge port, then all traffic is accepted into the VB instance for bridging functions and this traffic will be added an S-VLAN tag on upstream egress. This mode of operation is referred as tunnel mode.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

9.7

VLAN cross-connect mode

Concept
The VLAN cross-connect approach consists of building a connection-oriented model across the connectionless Ethernet access network, using VLANs. In VLAN cross-connect mode, one VLAN contains only one subscriber port. However, multiple VLANs (multi-VLAN feature) may be configured on a single subscriber port. Figures 9-20 shows the VLAN cross-connect mode.
Figure 9-20 VLAN cross-connect mode
NSP 1

EMAN
A VLAN-a VLAN-b VDSL bridge port

NSP IP backbone

A B
xDSL bridge port C

Subscriber A & Service a VLAN Subscriber A & Service b VLAN

NSP 2 NSP IP backbone

B VLAN-c

Subscriber B & Service c VLAN

NSP 3 NSP IP backbone

Note Although Figure 9-20 is DSL copper access specific, the

same concept applies for point-to-point Ethernet access solutions.

Figure 9-21 shows the cross-connect network topology.


Figure 9-21 Cross-connect network topology
Cross-connect logical view NSP User VLAN Network VLAN

Cross-connect physical EMAN topology Bridge User VLAN

Bridge Bridge Bridge Network VLAN NSP

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Usage
A particular subscriber VLAN ID, without VLAN translation, can be configured only once:

on any of the subscriber ports in the ISAM over all the ISAMs in the complete Ethernet network to which the ISAM is
connected When VLAN stacking is not used (see About VLAN stacking), the VLAN cross-connect mode should only be used:

in small networks, where the ISAM is directly connected to the IP Edge router or
Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS) of a Network Service Provider (NSP), for business customers for a larger network in combination with VLAN translation.

Supported models in ISAM


There are several VLAN cross-connect models supported:

C-VLAN cross-connect: basic VLAN cross-connect S+C-VLAN cross-connect: VLAN stacking for residential subscribers (mapped
or tunnel mode) S-VLAN cross-connect: VLAN stacking for business subscribers
Note These VLAN cross-connect models are also supported on the Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports.

About VLAN stacking

VLAN-stacking introduces another VLAN layer. One outer VLAN can bundle a number of inner VLANs, similar to one LAN bundling a number of VLANs. This way, one VLAN, called the Service-VLAN or S-VLAN, bundles a number of smaller VLANs, called Customer-VLANs or C-VLANs. Traffic in this S-VLAN may, in its turn, be bridged according to a forwarding context proprietary to the S-VLAN. This is done in S-VLAN-aware bridges. Figure 9-22 shows the protocol stack for S- and C-VLANs and the function of the different bridge types. C-VLANs can be carried up to the subscriber (hence the C). S-VLANs can be used to transparently convey traffic to specific large business customers with their proprietary VLAN-organization, or to group a set of residential subscribers to a single service provider (hence the S).

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-22 S-VLAN- and C-VLAN-aware bridges


VLAN-unaware terminal C-VLAN-aware bridge S-VLAN-aware bridge S-VLAN-aware bridge C-VLAN-aware terminal

C-VLAN termination

anything
Bridging

S-VLAN termination Bridging Bridging

S-VLAN termination

anything C-VLAN

Eth

C-VLAN Eth

C-VLAN Eth S-VLAN Eth S-VLAN Eth S-VLAN Eth S-VLAN Eth

Eth

C-VLAN cross-connect (basic VLAN cross-connect)

C-VLAN cross-connect is the most straightforward VLAN cross-connect model, where a single VLAN ID at the EMAN side is associated with a VLAN port at the subscriber side. In the ISAM, a bridge port is either an Ethernet PVC, an EFM link or a physical user Ethernet link. Any kind of traffic issued by the subscriber is forwarded transparently to the network using the selected VLAN ID. As illustrated in Figure 9-24, similar to iBridging the C-VLAN cross-connect allows:

user-VLAN to network-VLAN translation handling of untagged traffic by means of PVID or Port-Protocol-VLAN ID


default VLANs. Forwarding of untagged/priority-tagged frames in C-VLAN cross-connect The ISAM receives untagged or priority-tagged frames on a given bridge port, and forwards these in the context of a C-VLAN cross-connect. To achieve this, the operator creates a C-VLAN port on top of the bridge port, and couples it to the C-VLAN cross-connect. Next, the operator configures on the bridge port a PVID or a Port-protocol-default VLAN that points to the VLAN port. Forwarding of C-VLAN tagged frames in C-VLAN cross-connect The ISAM receives C-VLAN-tagged frames on a bridge port, and forwards these in the context of a C-VLAN cross-connect. To achieve this, the operator creates a C-VLAN port on top of the bridge port, and couples it to the C-VLAN cross-connect. When no VLAN translation is needed, the VLANs used in the network are extended all the way to the end subscribers. In this case, the end-subscriber side VLAN IDs are said to have a network-wide scope. For VLAN translation, the network-side and subscriber-side VLAN IDs are different. VLAN translation is not supported on Hub-ISAM LT NNI ports. Figure 9-23 shows the C-VLAN cross-connect model.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-23 C-VLAN cross-connect concept


C-VLAN cross-connect C-VLAN port

T C-VLANs T T EMAN NE CPE(s)

Figure 9-24 shows a detailed example of C-VLAN cross-connects.


Figure 9-24 C-VLAN cross-connect detailed model
Configured C-VlanPort: {BrP, S-VlanId, C-VlanId} Outer Tag: 117 X Outer Tag: 219 X Trsl Trsl {10, 0,17} {10, 0,19} BrP10 (say, no PVID) Traffic from Subscriber Outer Tag: 17 Outer Tag: 19 Anything else

Outer Tag: 17 X Outer Tag: 19 X

Trsl Trsl

{11, 0,17} {11, 0,19}

BrP11 PVID = (0,19) Outer Tag: 17 Untagged (*) Anything else (*) Outer Tag: 19 is also accepted

Legend: BrP10: bridge port 10 {10, 0, 19}: C-VLAN port on bridge port 10 with User-C-VLAN ID = 19

S+C-VLAN cross-connect: VLAN stacking for residential subscribers

In the basic VLAN cross-connect mode, the number of VLAN identifiers is limited to 4 K. Since the VLAN is an EMAN-wide identifier, there is a scalability issue: there cannot be more than 4 K subscribers connected to the whole EMAN. To solve this issue, two VLANs are stacked and the cross-connection is then performed on the combination (S-VLAN, C-VLAN), theoretically reaching up to 4 M subscribers (the C-VLAN tag may not be identical to the S-VLAN tag, and vice versa). An S+C-VLAN cross-connect can be seen as the generalization of a C-VLAN cross-connect. It has the same mode of operation and the same configuration model except that with an S+C-VLAN cross-connect, the user C-VLAN is always translated into a dual tag S+C Network VLAN. Figure 9-25 shows the concept of the S+C-VLAN cross-connect mode.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-25 S+C-VLAN cross-connect concept


C-VLAN to PVC cross-connects

C-VLANs

C-VLAN port

S-VLAN

EMAN

NE

CPE(s)

Figure 9-26) shows a detailed example of S+C-VLAN cross-connects.


Figure 9-26 VLAN translation in case of the S+C-VLAN cross-connect
Configured C-VlanPort: {BrP, S-VlanId, C-VlanId} (23, 117) (23, 17) X Trsl {10, 0,17} X Trsl {10, 0,19} BrP10 (say, no PVID) Traffic from Subscriber Outer Tag: 17 Outer Tag: 19 Anything else

BrP11 (say, no PVID) (29, 119) (29, 219) X Trsl X Trsl {11, 0,17} {11, 0,19} Outer Tag: 17 Outer Tag: 19 Anything else

Legend: BrP10: bridge port 10 {10, 0, 19}: C-VLAN port on bridge port 10 with User-C-VLAN ID = 19 (29, 119): (S, C) dual tag, with S being the outer tag with VLAN ID = 29

Note 1 In the ISAM, the S+C-VLAN cross-connect is always

performing VLAN translation, even when the subscriber-side and network-side C-VLAN IDs are the same. For instance in Figure 9-26 the subscriber-side VLAN (0, 17) is translated into the network-side VLAN (23,17).
Note 2 In the ISAM, the C-VLAN tag may not be identical to the

S-VLAN tag.
Note 3 S+C-VLAN cross-connect is also supported on the

hub-ISAM LT NNI ports. Special note about MAC address conflict prevention

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

The purpose of S+C-VLAN cross-connect is to regroup different subscribers identified by their own C-VLAN in the same shared S-VLAN. Doing so improves the EMAN scalability by allowing the EMAN to collectively bridge all users' traffic in the same S-VLAN context. Because the EMAN is only aware of the S-VLAN context when performing bridging, the ISAM must make sure that no two subscribers use the same source MAC address in upstream when put in the same S-VLAN. While on the LT boards, each S+C VLAN cross-connect defines a distinct forwarding context, and hence there cannot be any MAC address conflict, this is not true on the NT board. The NT board acts as an S-VLAN bridge, unaware of the C-VLANs so traffic of multiple end-users that share the same S-VLAN ID is treated in the same forwarding context. If a given MAC address is first learned on an LT port and later on a second LT port, then no MAC movement occurs, but instead a duplicate MAC address alarm is raised by the NT board.
S-VLAN cross-connect: VLAN stacking for business subscribers

Like for the S+C-VLAN cross-connect, in S-VLAN cross-connect mode, two levels of VLAN tags are used, supporting hierarchical addressing:

the customer VLAN: C-VLAN the service provider VLAN: S-VLAN


The difference however is that in the S-VLAN cross-connect mode, the EMAN and the ISAM are totally unaware of the C-VLANs. This contrasts with S+C VLAN cross-connects, for which the ISAM is aware of both the S-VLAN and the C-VLANs to identify individual S+C cross-connections. In a S-VLAN cross-connect, the C-VLANs carried within the S-VLAN are passed transparently to the end subscriber. The S-VLAN cross-connect plays the role of a transport pipe between the subscriber and the remote site. In this mode, the S-VLAN ID at the EMAN side is associated with an S-VLAN port at the subscriber side. The C-VLANs carried within the S-VLAN are passed transparently to the subscriber. This allows the subscriber to specify its own end-to-end connectivity, while remaining transparent for the EMAN. Figure 9-27 shows the S-VLAN cross-connect model.
Figure 9-27 S-VLAN cross-connect model concept
S-VLAN cross-connect S-VLAN port

C-VLANs

S-VLAN

ATM PVC or EFM

C-VLANs

EMAN

NE

The ISAM operator configures an S-VLAN cross-connect by configuring an S-VLAN port and associating it with an S-VLAN network VLAN.
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9 Layer 2 forwarding

The S-VLAN cross-connect is available in two modes for realizing the transparent pipe transfer of subscriber traffic: the S-VLAN tunnel cross-connect and the S-VLAN mapped cross-connect.

In tunnel mode, the ISAM systematically adds a VLAN tag to frames originating
from the subscriber. This mode is enabled by configuring an S-VLAN PVID on the bridge port. S-VLAN tunnel cross-connect accepts indifferently untagged, single, dual or multi-tagged frames. In mapped mode, the ISAM considers subscriber traffic as if already inside a tunnel originated at subscriber side. In mapped mode, the ISAM just extends the subscriber tunnel further to the EMAN without adding any extra VLAN tag. With mapped mode, it is possible to translate the user S-VLAN into a different network S-VLAN. Both the tunnel mode and the mapped mode can coexist simultaneously in the ISAM. Whether a frame has to be handled in S-VLAN tunnel cross-connect or S-VLAN mapped cross-connect results from a comparison between the most external frame tag (if any) and the bridge port PVID. S-VLAN cross-connect is also supported on the hub-ISAM LT NNI ports. Figure 9-28 and Figure 9-29 explain the principle by the means of detailed examples. For VLAN cross-connect, only the most external VLAN tag is used to determine the type of VLAN cross-connect to be applied to the frame, independently whether additional tags would be present or not (subscriber frames with more than 2 VLAN tags are not shown in the figures).

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-28 Detailed example of ISAM Configuration with PVID = S-VLAN and resulting behavior
S-VLAN tunnel mode 17 17,13 17,17 17,17,19 17,31,19 (17,0), PVID Ut 13 17 17, 19 31, 19

S-VLAN mapped mode 29 29,19

(29, 0) 29 29,19

23 23, 37

(0, 23)

23 23, 37 BridgePort

Legend Ut 13 17, 13 17, 31, 19 Untagged frame Frame with single tag = 13 Frame with double tag = 17 (external tag) and 13 Frame with triple tag = 17 (external tag), 31 and 19 No frame output

(17, 0) S-VLAN VlanPort configured (0, 23) C-VLAN VlanPort configured

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-29 Detailed example of ISAM Configuration with PVID different from S-VLAN and resulting behavior

S-VLAN mapped mode 17 17, 19 (17,0) 17 17, 19

S-VLAN mapped mode 29 29,19 (29, 0) 29 29,19

23 23 23, 37 X X BridgePort (0, 23), PVID

Ut 23 23. 37 13 31, 19

Legend Ut 13 17 Untagged frame Frame with single tag = 13 Frame with double tag = 17 (external tag) and 13 No frame output

(17, 0) S-VLAN VlanPort configured (0, 23) C-VLAN VlanPort configured

MAC learning
The same MAC learning concepts apply as for iBridge; see section MAC learning

Transparent VLAN cross-connect


The ISAM supports transparent VLAN cross-connect for use in a business environment on all LT boards except layer 2 LT boards. A transparent VLAN cross-connect is a special mode of operation of the S-VLAN cross-connect, C-VLAN cross-connect or S+C-VLAN cross-connect. Transparent VLAN cross-connect is also supported on the hub-ISAM LT NNI ports. A transparent VLAN has the following additional features compared with the usual VLAN cross-connect:

L2CP frames are transparently forwarded (except pause frames). MAC address learning is disabled in the NT board for better scalability.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

L2CP frames are those frames with the following destination MAC addresses:

01-80-C2-00-00-00 through 01-80-C2-00-00-0F 01-80-C2-00-00-10 01-80-C2-00-00-20 through 01-80-C2-00-00-2F


L2CP protocols is a family of link-related protocols. It comprises the following protocols:

Spanning Tree protocol Rapid Spanning Tree protocol Multiple Spanning Tree protocol Pause (802.3x) protocol Link Aggregation protocol Marker protocol Authentication (802.1x) protocol LAN Bridge Management Group Block of protocols Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) Block of protocols and so on

Pause frames are those L2CP frames identified by:

Destination MAC address = 01-80-C2-00-00-01 Ethernet type and op-code can be anything
The purpose of transparent VLAN cross-connect is to emulate a physical link, as illustrated in Figure 9-30.
Figure 9-30 Use of transparent VLAN cross-connect

L2CP: Sp. tree Br Br Br Br LAG Br Br L2CP: Sp. tree Link aggregate L2CP:LACP LAG LAG L2CP:LACP Br Br Br Br

Over Transparent VLAN-CC

Br Br Br Br LAG LAG Br Br

VLAN1

L2CP
x

Br Br Br Br LAG LAG Br Br

x x

VLAN2 VLAN3

L2CP
x

L2CP

EMAN
Assu m p tio n : EMAN tr a n sp a r e n t to ta g g e d L2 CP traffic

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

In the upstream direction, in a transparent VLAN cross-connect, untagged subscriber L2CP frames are considered as data traffic and are tagged by the default PVID configured on the PVC/EFM with the exception of:

tagged pause frames, which are always discarded untagged 802.1x frames, which are extracted to the LT OBC when 802.1x is
enabled, whether L2CP transparency is enabled or disabled on the LT board untagged link-based Ethernet OAM, which is extracted to the OBC when link-based Ethernet OAM is enabled, whether L2CP transparency is enabled or disabled on the LT board.
Note IEEE802.3ah OAM is currently not supported on hub-ISAM LT NNI ports.

In the downstream direction, in a transparent VLAN cross-connect, tagged subscriber L2CP frames are considered as data traffic and are passed untagged to the subscriber. The handling of untagged downstream L2CP frames is not affected by the transparent VLAN cross-connect. Because L2CP protocols are link related, the deployment model implies that only one transparent VLAN cross-connect is configured per PVC (or per EFM); see Figure 9-31. Having more than one cross-connect can lead to undesired effects in L2CP protocols.
Figure 9-31 One transparent VLAN cross-connect per PVC/EFM

L2CP CPE PVC/EFM x VLAN1 x PVC/EFM CPE

EMAN

PVID = VLAN1

CPE

PVC/EFM

L2CP VLAN1 x PVC/ EFM x VLAN2 CPE

CPE

PVC/EFM

PVID= VLAN1

EMAN

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

9.8

Protocol-aware cross-connect mode


The protocol-aware cross-connect mode behaves like the formerly described cross-connect modes for the dataplane, but it also adds some protocol awareness similar to the iBridge mode, for protocols such as 802.1x, DHCP, IGMP, PPPoE, DHCPv6 and ICMPv6. This mode provides a connectivity scheme compatible with a fully centralized subscriber management, where each individual subscriber is connected to an IP Edge (IP connectivity) or a BRAS (PPP connectivity) through a single bit-pipe. In this configuration, the subscribers are sharing the same subnet for scalability reasons and do not present their private network configuration to the network.

VLAN cross-connect for business and residential subscribers


The VLAN cross-connect feature cross-connects a subscriber PVC (or DSL line in case of EFM, Ethernet link in case of point-to-point Ethernet) with a private VLAN at the EMAN side. Depending on the subscriber type, two VLAN cross-connect configurations are considered:

Business cross-connect:
This mode provides a connectivity scheme for business subscribers which is as transparent as possible and emulates a fully featured routed network. In this configuration, the IP subnets of the private subscribers are made visible to the network and the configuration data of those private subnets and the subnets further in the network are exchanged through routing protocols. Figure 9-32 shows the IP network model for business cross-connect.
Figure 9-32 IP network model for business cross-connect

Edge

EMAN

NE

CPE VRF

VL
VRF Services

VRF
VRF VRF
Customer premises IP subnet

IP subnet

IP address

VLAN

Residential cross-connect:
This mode provides a connectivity scheme compatible with a fully centralized subscriber management where each individual subscriber is connected to an IP edge (IP connectivity; see Figure 9-33) or a BRAS (PPP connectivity; see Figure 9-34) through a single bit pipe. In this configuration, the subscribers are sharing the same subnet for scalability reasons and (normally) do not present their private network configuration to the network.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-33 IP network model for residential cross-connect using IP connectivity

Edge

EMAN

NE

CPE

VLAN-CC
Services

VRF

IP subnet

IP address

VLAN

Figure 9-34 IP network model for residential cross-connect using PPP connectivity

Edge

EMAN

NE

CPE

VLAN-CC
Services PPP IP TerminaRouting tion

IP subnet PPP session

IP address VLAN

Note Figure 9-33 and Figure 9-34 apply for residential subscribers

that are using bridged CPE or router CPEs with NAT. In those cases, only single IP address(es) are allocated to the subscriber, and no (directly or non-directly) attached subnets. Though not typically associated with residential subscribers, router CPEs without NAT can be supported too. The data forwarding in the VLAN cross-connect model is fully based on the VLAN tag(s) and does not need to look at the IP addresses (that is, need to support an IP next-hop behavior in the downstream direction). However, this possibility is rather heavy from an operational point of view: subscriber subnets need to be configured by the operator in the IP edge. If IP address anti-spoofing is switched on in the ISAM, the subscriber subnets must be configured there as well.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Business cross-connect features

In a business context, the VLAN cross-connect model is used to provide a transparent VPN service. Several variants exist:

Layer 2 VPN: the subscriber sends C-VLAN tagged frames, which are wrapped
at ingress of the ISAM into a S-VLAN pipe that is carried through the Ethernet aggregation network. In the ISAM, this model can be realized using the S-VLAN cross-connect. Layer 3 VPN: the subscriber router CPE (Customer Edge, CE) is connected to a Provider Edge (PE) located in the service provider network. In ATM-based DSL aggregation networks, a similar service is provided, often with IPoA encapsulation. The idea is that the Business cross-connect safeguards the parameters of the original service as it exists in the ATM environment: no changes in IP configuration, transparency for the (routing) protocols involved, same QoS offering, and so on. In the ISAM, this model can be realized using the C-VLAN cross-connect or S+C VLAN cross-connect. The business version of the VLAN cross-connect mode supports the following features:

point-to-point Ethernet interface types supported on the hub-ISAM LT NNI ports DSL interfaces types: ATM:
- Bridged encapsulation carrying IPoE traffic - IPoA with the required interworking to convert the traffic to IPoE (for IPv4 only) - PPPoA encapsulation or encapsulation auto-detection is not expected in a business context Ethernet: - VDSL EFM - Ethernet LT ports

Subscriber identification:
A single or a stacked VLAN tag towards the network is associated to a single business subscriber. Various VLAN assignment schemes exist:

S-VLAN cross-connect: The S-VLAN indicates the subscriber while the C-VLANs
represent various subscriber-defined services.

S+C-VLAN cross-connect: The C-VLAN indicates the subscriber, while the


S-VLAN indicates the DSLAM (or the DSLAM-PE pair).

IP addressing scheme for layer 3 VPNs:


IP addresses are statically assigned to the CPE and PE. Since IP subnets are not shared between business subscribers, it is sufficient to use a /30 subnet between the CPE and the PE. The DSLAM must be transparent for routing protocols between CPE and PE. IP addresses used in the private domain (at the LAN side of the CPE) are not known to the operator, therefore, these should not be required in the DSLAM configuration. Security features: For bridged encapsulation: optional limitation of the number of MAC addresses per VLAN cross-connect. Service enforcement: Policing per subscriber interface (PVC (ATM), subscriber-side VLAN within a VDSL port/Ethernet LT port (EFM), and so on).
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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Residential cross-connect features

The VLAN cross-connect supports the following features in the context of residential subscribers:

point-to-point Ethernet interface types supported on the hub-ISAM LT NNI ports DSL interfaces types: ATM:
- Bridged encapsulation carrying both PPPoE and IPoE traffic - PPPoA with the required interworking to convert the traffic to PPPoE - Encapsulation auto-detection as the encapsulation of residential subscribers is generally unknown Ethernet: - VDSL EFM - LT ports

Subscriber identification: A single (C-VLAN) or a stacked (S+C-VLAN) VLAN tag towards the network is
associated to a single residential subscriber

Optional addition of the PPPoE relay tag (that is, the line ID parameter) in the
PPPoE control messages (this is not supported however on the hub-ISAM LT NNI ports) Optional addition of the DHCP Option 82 (that is, the line ID parameter) in the DHCP messages (this is not supported however on the hub-ISAM LT NNI ports) Optional addition of the DHCPv6 Option 18 and/or Option 37 (that is, the interface ID and the relay agent remote ID parameters) in the DHCPv6 messages

Security features: 802.1x authentication allowing to allow or disallow the traffic (PPPoE and IPoE)
through the pre-configured VLAN cross-connect in function of the connected CPEs (this is not supported however on the hub-ISAM LT NNI ports) Optional limitation of the number of MAC addresses per VLAN cross-connect ACLs: though this should typically be done by the IP edge, it might happen that the latter does not own enough processing capacity to support that feature IP address anti-spoofing: this should ideally be done centrally in the network, but IP address anti-spoofing might not always be available centrally and/or might suffer from some dimensioning/performance issues when used for a large amount of subscribers

Service enforcement: Policing per subscriber interface (PVC (ATM), subscriber-side VLAN within a
VDSL port/Eth LT port (EFM), and so on).

Further detailed policing actions based on CoS and/or ACL results should be
typically performed centrally where the service awareness is present.

QoS policy: in case a single PVC is used to carry multiple services and the CPE is
not generating priority tagged frames, segregating services is then only possible at IP level using the QoS policies offered by the ISAM QoS Policy framework. For instance, one can define IP sub-flows based on, for example, DSCP values, IP source or destination addresses or even UDP/TCP port addresses. Each of these sub-flows can then have its QoS parameters re-marked and/or can be policed. The same applies for VDSL ports that only carry untagged frames.

Service selection: performed centrally Service accounting: performed centrally Local multicast handling: driven by IGMP
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9 Layer 2 forwarding

See also Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model for more information.

9.9

IPoA cross-connect mode


The IPoA cross-connect mode offers a solution for connecting subscribers with RFC-2684-routed encapsulation (IPoA) via the GE uplink with the same services as in an ATM environment. For example, it offers no changes in IP configuration, transparency for the involved (routing) protocols, QoS, and so on. IPoA is only supported for IPv4.
Note The IPoA cross-connect mode is comparable with the VLAN cross-connect mode, but with IPoA instead of IPoE at the CPE side.

The IPoA cross-connect model implies a cross-connection between the PVC of a subscriber whose encapsulation is IPoA with a VLAN at the EMAN side. The following applies for the subscriber subnet behind the customer CPE:

the CPE performs Network Address Translation (NAT), that is, the subscribers
behind the CPE have a private subnet and the CPE translates the private subscriber IP address to the public CPE IP address the subscribers have IP addresses from the public range and, as a consequence, the public subscriber IP addresses become visible in the IP network. In any case, the subnet configuration at the subscriber side (behind the CPE) is transparent to the ISAM. The ISAM only sees the IP address of the CPE and the IP address of the edge router; see Figure 9-35 and Figure 9-36.
Figure 9-35 IP network model for business IPoA cross-connect
NE 100.100.100.9 100.100.100.8 /30 Network side IP CPE side CPE 100.100.100.10 CPE Edge Router 100.100.100.13 100.100.100.12 /30 IP 100.100.100.14 CPE 100.100.100.17 100.100.100.16 /30 IP 100.100.100.18

= IP interface

IPoE

IPoA

9-44

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-36 Ethernet network model for business IPoA cross-connect
IPoE IPoA
PVC11

C_VLAN1

IP

CPE1
PVC12 PVC21 PVC22

Edge Router

C_VLAN2

S_VLAN

IP

CPE2

C_VLAN3

IP

PVC31 PVC32

CPE3

= L2 interface

IPoA cross-connect features


The following features are supported for the IPoA cross-connect mode:

The IP address of the CPE is static (no dynamic CPE IP address assignment via
DHCP). The ISAM is transparent for routing protocols between CPE and PE. Only /30 subnet is supported between the ISAM and the CPE. A given CPE can be associated with up to 30 different subnets (multi-VPN). Each of these subnets will then be served with a separate PVC and separate VLAN. There is VLAN stacking on the GE uplink. Typically, the C-VLAN indicates the CPE and the S-VLAN indicates the ISAM (or the paired ISAM-PE). There is internal prioritization based on Differentiated Services CodePoint (DSCP) bits, both for the upstream and the downstream direction. There is upstream p-bit marking.

Cross-connect from IPoA to IPoE (upstream)


The IP packet is extracted from ATM (IPoA) and encapsulated into Ethernet (IPoE), as follows:

Unicast IP packets:
The LIM MAC address is used as the source MAC address and the destination MAC address is the MAC address of the edge router which is resolved from the edge router IP address via ARP. Broadcast and multicast IP packets: The LIM MAC address is used as the source MAC address and the destination MAC address is derived from the broadcast or multicast destination IP address.

Cross-connect from IPoE to IPoA (downstream)


The IP packet is extracted from Ethernet (IPoE) and encapsulated into ATM (IPoA). The CPE interface (PVC) is determined from the VLAN (or S-VLAN and C-VLAN combination) since it is cross-connect mode. The destination MAC address can either be the LIM MAC address (the ISAM responds to an ARP request for the CPE IP address generated by the edge router), or a broadcast or multicast MAC address.
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9 Layer 2 forwarding

9.10

Secure forwarding in iBridge and VLAN cross-connect


Secure forwarding is a feature applicable to iBridge and VLAN cross-connect forwarders. It increases the network security by making use of the IP characteristics of the traffic. It is applicable both for IPoA and IPoE user traffic. When enabled, secure forwarding provides the following features:

IP session awareness:
DHCP messages are snooped to dynamically learn IP session information.

IP address anti-spoofing is activated both for dynamic IP sessions and statically


configured IP addresses/subnets. Any IP packets whose IP source address does not match any of the following are discarded:

any IP addresses allocated to the subscriber interface through DHCP any static IP addresses any IP subnets programmed by the operator ARP relay is performed both for dynamic IP sessions and statically configured IP
addresses/subnets. Downstream broadcast ARP messages are forwarded to the correct subscriber port only. This provides some security against malicious subscribers doing a theft of service. Secure forwarding relies on DHCP snooping (for more information on DHCP, see chapter Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model and chapter Protocol handling in a Layer 3 forwarding model. The operator can enable or disable the secure forwarding feature per iBridge / VLAN cross-connect. When secure forwarding is applied to iBridges, it is sometimes referred to as Enhanced iBridge forwarding.
Figure 9-37 Enhanced iBridge architecture
IS AM
Us r Usee r Us r Usee r Us ee r Us r CPE CPE CPE

L LT
DHCP s nooping/ S tatic config. ARP Relay

iBridge

VLAN

IP Subnet

Us r Usee r Us ee r Us r Us r Usee r

CPE CPE CPE

L LT
DHCP s nooping/ S tatic config. ARP Relay

NT EMA Bridge
IP edge

iBridge

IP IP network

Us r Usee r Us r Usee r Us ee r Us r

CPE CPE CPE

L LT
DHCP s nooping/ S tatic config. ARP Relay

iBridge

Us ers can belong to a ubnet different public s ubnet.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Secure forwarding is supported by all ISAM LT types: DSL and point-to-point Ethernet. Secure forwarding is not supported on the hub-ISAM LT NNI ports.

IP session awareness
The ISAM snoops DHCP messages to learn what IP addresses/subnets have been allocated to a subscriber port.
Note For more information about DHCP, see Chapter Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model and Chapter Protocol handling in a Layer 3 forwarding model.

The ISAM keeps the IP session information (that is, IP address and associated subnet of the subscriber, lease time, default gateway IP address, DHCP server IP address, and so on) during the lifetime of the DHCP session. The IP session information is used during ARP relay and to install IP anti-spoofing filters.

IP address anti-spoofing
The following applies for IP address anti-spoofing:

IPv4 address anti-spoofing for dynamic IP addresses learned through DHCP.


Any IP packets whose IP source address does not match any IP addresses allocated to the subscriber interface through DHCP are discarded. IPv4 address anti-spoofing for static IP addresses and/or IP subnets (IP prefix + length) configured by the operator. Any IP packets whose IP source address does not match any static IP addresses and/or any IP subnets programmed by the operator are discarded. Though the main scenario when considering IP awareness in the I-Bridge context is a configuration where IP addresses are dynamically allocated by a DHCP server, static IP addresses and/or subnets must also be supported to cover the following cases:

migration from legacy network where CPEs are already configured with a static IP IP address anti-spoofing for control messages.
IP address anti-spoofing is applied to control messages like ARP, IGMP and DHCP.
address DHCP servers that do not support Option 82

ARP relay
The iBridge forwarding rules allow a basic ARP handling:

Downstream ARP messages


When setting the broadcast flag for a given iBridge, downstream ARP requests are forwarded to all subscribers connected to the iBridge.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Upstream ARP messages


ARP requests originating from the subscriber are broadcast to all network bridge ports. A more intelligent way of dealing with ARP messages is ARP relay.
Note ARP relay is not the same as the so-called ARP-proxy defined in the context of IP forwarding. Indeed, the ISAM will never answer with its own MAC address in the context of iBridging but will direct the message to the host in charge of answering.

ARP relay is composed of the following features:

Broadcast ARP messages received from the network are forwarded to the single
relevant subscriber bridge port. The ISAM does not broadcast ARP messages to all subscribers. Instead, the ISAM only forwards an ARP message to the subscriber interface whose IP address(es) and/or subnet(s) match the IP address targeted by the ARP message. This in order to reduce the load on the subscriber interfaces and avoid security flaws by broadcasting ARP messages to all subscribers in an uncontrolled way. It is then up to the subscriber to reply the ARP message (there is no ARP state machine in the ISAM). To simplify the downstream forwarding of ARP messages in the ISAM, the IP addresses that are statically configured or learned via DHCP on a subscriber port must be non-overlapping with any other IP addresses that exist on the same or any other subscriber port. This is guaranteed in the following way:

Configuring a static IP address/subnet that overlaps with any other static one is
prevented at the time of configuration.

When a DHCP session is set up that contains overlapping IP address, the DHCP
message exchange between the subscriber client and the DHCP server is completed as usual. However, the IP address/subnet is not learned on the subscriber port, so no data traffic will be possible with that IP address/subnet due to the IP anti-spoofing filter. In addition, an alarm is generated.

Non-local ARP messages received from the subscribers are broadcast to all
network bridge ports. ARP messages coming from a subscriber, provided they are not targeted to the same subscriber, are simply broadcast to all network interfaces, allowing the edge routers to reply with their own MAC address. To avoid bothering the network with ARP messages intended for hosts located on the local network of the subscriber, the ISAM discards any ARP messages, whose targeted IP address belong to the list of IP addresses and/or subnets defined for IP address anti-spoofing on that subscribers interface. Because iBridging in the ISAM does not allow user-to-user traffic, the edge router must support local ARP proxy and IP traffic hair-pinning (that is, traffic received on a given interface that must be forwarded to the same interface based on the routing table) if user-to-user traffic is needed.

IPoA support for secure forwarding


By similarity with IPoA VLAN cross-connect, secure forwarding is supported with IPoA encapsulation: IPoA upstream traffic is converted into IPoE traffic and vice-versa.
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9 Layer 2 forwarding

9.11

Virtual MAC
Layer 2 forwarding models typically identify a subscriber device using a MAC address. However, since these devices are not directly controlled by the operator, their MAC address cannot be trusted. Various mechanisms have been put in place to deal with this, such as the duplicate MAC address control of the ISAM iBridge. However, this only partially solves the issue, because:

MAC address uniqueness can only be guaranteed at the ISAM level and not
across the whole access network

The ISAM can detect a duplicate MAC address but cannot differentiate the
well-meaning subscriber from the malicious one The concept of virtual MAC (vMAC) offers a complete solution by replacing the MAC address of the subscriber with a MAC address defined by the operator (and therefore, fully controlled). Enabling vMAC allows improving layer 2 forwarding models in the following two areas:

Security:
Translating the MAC address of the subscriber by an operator-defined MAC address ensures, by definition, the uniqueness of the MAC address across the whole access network, automatically alleviating all issues related with duplicate MAC addresses. Scalability: By guaranteeing that a MAC address is unique across the whole access network, an operator can now choose to connect multiple DSLAMs to the edge router through the same network VLAN. By doing so, the operator increases the number of subscribers sharing the same subnet and, consequently, improves the pooling effect when allocating IP addresses.
Caution Although vMAC addresses are saved during an LT board reset, they are not saved if the LT board is powered down.

Note vMAC is currently not supported on the hub-ISAM LT NNI

ports.

Deployment scenario example


One possible deployment scenario for vMAC is shared network VLAN for IP address pooling. Without enabling vMAC, the iBridge implementation only guarantees MAC address uniqueness at ISAM level, that is, not across the whole access network. In that case, you can only avoid duplicate MAC addresses by guaranteeing that the traffic from a DSLAM is not mixed with another DSLAM traffic in the EMAN, before entering the IP edge. In other words, avoiding duplicate MAC addresses is achieved by assigned a dedicated network VLAN per DSLAM; see Figure 9-38.

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9-49

9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-38 iBridge

Edge

EMAN

ISAM

CPE

I-Bridge

VRF

Bridge I-Bridge

IP subnet

IP address

Activating vMAC support in iBridge removes the preceding constraint and allows sharing a same network VLAN across multiple DSLAMs. This network VLAN sharing improves the scalability of the access network regarding IP address allocation; see Figure 9-39.
Figure 9-39 iBridge with vMAC enabled

Edge

EMAN

ISAM

CPE

vMAC bridge VRF Bridge vMAC bridge

VLAN / IP subnet

IP address

Sharing a network VLAN across multiple DSLAMs might lead to enabling user-to-user communication between subscribers connected to different DSLAMs through the Ethernet switches. This is typically not wanted by the access network operators and must be blocked by either the Ethernet switch (using the concept of split horizon at layer 2) or by the DSLAM itself.

vMAC features
vMAC has the following features:

vMAC support can be enabled or disabled per network VLAN maximum number of vMAC per port is programmable silent discard of packets received with a new subscriber MAC address when no
free vMAC is left

vMAC translation is not applied to multicast, broadcast and invalid MAC address
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9 Layer 2 forwarding

the DSLAM ID is programmable by the operator DHCP algorithm ARP algorithm Ethernet OAM algorithm user-to-user communication can optionally be blocked vMAC address - MAC address translation table recovery

Enable/disable vMAC support per network VLAN

vMAC support can be enabled per network VLAN and this independently of the forwarding model. vMAC can be used in conjunction with:

C-VLAN cross-connect S+C-VLAN cross-connect (vMAC is an S-VLAN level attribute) iBridge


Note vMAC cannot be used in conjunction with S-VLAN cross-connect or layer 2-terminated VLAN.

vMAC can also be used in conjunction with IP routing where the NT board acts as IP router and the LT board as iBridge. vMAC support together with the IP routing model (and LT board acting as iBridge) is advised, so that any issues with duplicate MAC addresses are avoided. This is what you would expect with a black box IP router DSLAM (that is, the IP router should still work even if all subscribers were using the same MAC address). vMAC support is characterized as follows:

Upstream traffic: Each time a new MAC address is received from the subscriber, a free vMAC is
associated with the MAC address of that subscriber.

The MAC source addresses of the Ethernet packets are overwritten with the vMAC
associated with the subscriber MAC address found into the MAC source address field. vMAC algorithms (ALGs) might be applied to control plane messages (ARP, DCHP, Link Related Ethernet OAM, and so on).

Downstream traffic: The MAC destination addresses of the Ethernet packets are overwritten with the
subscriber MAC address associated with the vMAC found in the MAC destination address field. vMAC ALGs might be applied to control plane messages (ARP, DCHP, Link Related Ethernet OAM, and so on).

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

When unused, vMAC are freed based on the standard MAC address aging process.
Note All the dimensioning parameters related to the standard MAC address (for example, average number of MAC addresses per subscriber, maximum number of MAC addresses per subscriber, and so on) also apply when vMAC is enabled within a given network VLAN. Maximum number of vMAC addresses per port is programmable

The maximum number of vMAC addresses that are allowed on a given subscriber port can be specified.
Note This limit is programmed by setting the maximum number of MAC address per port (generic MAC address related feature).

Silent discard

Packets received with a new subscriber MAC address when no free vMAC is left are silently discarded. Any packet received from a subscriber, and whose MAC source address should be learned because it is still unknown, will be silently discarded if there is no free vMAC left for that subscriber.
vMAC translation is not applied to multicast, broadcast and invalid MAC address

A vMAC will only be assigned to a unicast and valid MAC address received from the subscriber. Any other valid MAC address is kept unchanged (multicast and broadcast).
DSL/Eth LT vMAC format

In the vMAC format, the DSLAM ID can be set by the operator, see Table 9-2. To ensure uniqueness of the vMAC within the EMAN, vMAC cannot be enabled on any network VLAN until the DSLAM ID has been programmed by the operator. It is the responsibility of the operator to ensure that unique DSLAM IDs are assigned; otherwise duplicate vMAC addresses may be generated by different DSLAMs.
Table 9-2 vMAC format for data traffic forwarding
MAC Address Bit 47...45 Bit 44 Bit 43...42 Bit 41 Bit 40 (1 of 2) Configurable No No No No No Description Rack ID (minus 1) vMAC signature field set to 0 Reserved field for other applications, set to 0s for the vMAC application U/L field set to 1 (local MAC address validity) I/G field set to 0 (unicast address)

9-52

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

MAC Address Bit 39...21

Configurable Yes

Description DSLAM ID set by the operator [0524287] A unique DSLAM ID within an EMAN connected to the same IP edges

Bit 20...15 Bit 14...6 Bit 5...0 (2 of 2)

No No No

Slot ID of the line board [063] The logical position of the line card within the DSLAM. Port ID of the subscriber interface [0511] MAC ID unique to each subscriber MAC address

DHCP algorithm

The chaddr field of the DHCP messages must be translated as follows:

Upstream: the subscriber MAC address is replaced by the associated vMAC


address

Downstream: the vMAC address is replaced by the associated subscriber MAC


address
Note When vMAC is enabled, the DHCP lease time must be less than the MAC aging timer (on the ISAM or on the VLAN), or else the vMAC address for the subscriber will be forgotten before the DHCP session expires. In this case, when the subscriber attempts to renew the session, it is possible that the network is reached using a different vMAC address, causing it to be discarded. ARP algorithm

The MAC address field present in the ARP message payload is updated in a similar way as for DHCP.
Ethernet OAM algorithm

The MAC address field present in the payload of Ethernet OAM messages exchanged with the subscribers is updated in a similar way as for the DHCP case.
User-to-user communication can optionally be blocked

If an operator wants to share a VLAN across multiple DSLAMs, but the Ethernet switches are unable to block user-to-user traffic, the operator can enable dedicated filters at ISAM level to discard subscriber traffic received from other DSLAMs. Those filters must be implemented so that they do not prevent using typical access network topologies (for example, star, ring, dual homing, and so on). The filter is implemented per VLAN at LT board level so that the NT board still behaves as a normal bridge, in order to support all access network topologies (for example, ring). The LT filter discards any Ethernet packet received from the NT board within the specified VLAN and whose MAC source address matches the non-DSLAM specific fields of the vMAC (i.e. DSLAM ID, rack/shelf/slot/Port/MAC IDs).
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9 Layer 2 forwarding

vMAC address - MAC address translation table recovery

Enabling vMAC support makes the iBridge implementation state full. The ISAM recovers the stable states in case of LT software failure, LT board reset or LT software upgrade. In this manner, a correct vMAC-address-to-IP-address mapping is maintained to avoid issues with:

DCHP servers: for example, IP address lease renewal, where the subscriber is
identified using the vMAC (that is, chaddr)

IP routers implementing IP address anti-spoofing by coupling the vMAC and the


IP address learned through DHCP snooping

9.12

PPP Cross-connect mode


PPP cross-connect is a forwarding mode in which the ISAM forwards traffic from PPP sessions from the user side through PPP sessions at the network side towards a BRAS and conversely, and this as long as the user PPP session is living. There is always a 1:1 relationship between the PPP session at user side and the PPP session at network side. This justifies the use of the term cross-connect which must be understood as PPP session cross-connect By nature the PPP session is PPPoE at the network side. The network VLAN of a PPP cross-connect can be single tagged (like an iBridge or a C-VLAN cross-connect) or dual tagged (like a S+C-VLAN cross-connect). It should be noted that PPP cross-connect does not require that the user encapsulation is Ethernet. It works as well with PPPoA as with PPPoE although the PPP session setup handling is different:

In case of PPPoA, the ISAM is responsible for setting up and releasing the PPPoE
session which will encapsulate the user PPP packets.

In case of PPPoE, the PPPoE session is set up and released by the user himself
and the ISAM just relays it to the network side. For this to happen, the following must take place:

The operator statically configures the PPP cross-connect forwarder, which


network VLAN it uses and which users may use it. It is possible that multiple user sessions are multiplexed via PPPoE in one N:1 network VLAN, and it is possible that there is a 1:1 relationship between the user and the network VLAN. Each time a user initiates a PPP session, the ISAM goes though a dynamic PPP session marking phase: during this phase, the ISAM sets up information necessary to forward packets between user and network. When the PPP session is terminated, the ISAM deletes the marked session information.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

A property of PPP cross-connect is that the ISAM sends PPPoE packets to the network using its own MAC address as source address. Thus, for the network, the ISAM looks like the PPP client itself and actually performs user MAC address concentration.
Note The possibility exists - for legacy purpose - to configure PPP cross-connect without MAC address concentration. In this mode, only PPPoA traffic is accepted by the PPP cross-connect, whereas PPPoE is automatically iBridged or VLAN cross-connected to the same network VLAN as the PPP cross-connect. When not specified, the term PPP cross-connect must always be understood as PPP cross-connect with MAC address concentration

The general model of a PPP cross-connect engine with MAC address concentration is quite intuitive. It is shown in Figure 9-40.
Figure 9-40 General PPP cross-connect engine

PPP CC Client Port iBridge VLAN or CC VLAN

PVC, EFM, VLANPort or GE

PPPoE PPPoE Server Server

PPPCCE PPPCCE
PPPoA & PPPoE

In case of PVC

The VLAN which is attached to a PPP cross-connect Engine on the network side must be of iBridge or VLAN cross-connect type. Of course, when the VLAN is of type cross-connect, only one user is attached to the engine. The type of interface on which a PPP Client Port can be configured must be one of the following:

EFM interface for untagged PPPoE traffic PVC for PPPoA and/or untagged PPPoE traffic Ethernet interface for untagged PPPoE traffic VLAN port interface for tagged PPPoE traffic
Note It is intentionally not possible to create a client port on a bridge port.

All the supported encapsulations for PVCs are shown in Figure 9-41.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-41 Accepted ATM encapsulation for PPP cross-connect Forwarding with MAC address concentration
asamAtmVclEncapsAutodetect Client Port Client Port
PPPCCE PPPCCE VC VC

PPPoA

disabled(1) or autoDetectPPPoA(4)

asamAtmVclEncapsType
llcNlpid(3) or vcMuxPppoa(6)

Client Port Client Port


PPPCCE PPPCCE VC VC

Untagged PPPoE

asamAtmVclEncapsAutodetect
disabled(1),

asamAtmVclEncapsType Client Port Client Port


PPPCCE PPPCCE VLANPort BridgePort VC VlanPort VC

Tagged PPPoE

llcSnapBridged(1) or vcMuxBridged(4)

asamAtmVclEncapsAutodetect
Client Port Client Port PPPCCE PPPCCE VC VC

PPPoA or Untagged PPPoE

autoDetectPPP(3) or autoDetectIpoePpp (5)

asamAtmVclEncapsType
llcSnapBridged(1), llcNlpid(3), vcMuxBridged(4), vcMuxPPPoA(6)

PPP cross-connect implementation The object model of a PPP cross-connect depicted in Figure 9-40 is quite simple:

a forwarding engine applying PPP cross-connect forwarding rules one network VLAN one or several client ports on top of PVCs, VLAN port interfaces, EFM interface
or Ethernet interface to attach users
Note PPP cross-connect is not supported in hub-ISAM LT NNI

ports.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

PPP Cross-connect inside the ISAM


PPP cross-connect forwarding is implemented by a cooperation of functions in the LT board and NT board as shown in Figure 9-42.
Figure 9-42 PPP cross-connect inside the ISAM
PVC, EFM, VlanPort or EthPhy PPP CC Client Port PPP CC Engine

L2 Fwd

PPPCCE

PPPCCE EMAN L2 Fwd LT NT DSLAM

9.13

IP-aware bridge mode


IP-aware bridge mode is a predecessor of the secure forwarding in the iBridge, also called enhanced iBridge feature. This mode is only supported for IPv4.
Note The IP-aware bridge is still supported by the ISAM, but its

support will be removed over time. New deployments using IP-aware bridge are unadvised. In the IP-aware bridge mode, the ISAM can be an IP-aware bridge without being an IP next-hop. Subscribers connected to the ISAM are seen as being directly attached to the edge router IP interfaces.

IP-aware bridge
The end subscribers use the IP address of the edge router as their default gateway, while the IP edge router sees the end subscriber subnets as directly attached networks. The ISAM is situated in between the edge router and the networks and performs packet forwarding at layer 3.

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In an IPoA/IPoE DHCP scenario, the upstream packet forwarding happens as follows:

End-subscriber devices use ARP to contact the default gateway (really the IP
edge).

The LIM learns the end subscriber subnets by snooping DHCP messages, and
based on this knowledge, the LIM performs a proxy ARP function and returns the LIM MAC address in the ARP reply. The IP packet is sent to the LIM, and is forwarded at layer 3 into the correct VLAN that leads to the IP edge router. The network routes that are needed in the LIM FIB must be configured by the operator. In the downstream direction, the forwarding happens as follows:

The IP edge router sees the end-subscriber subnets as directly attached networks. When the IP edge uses ARP to contact an end-subscriber IP address, the relevant
LIM replies by way of a network-facing proxy ARP function. When downstream packets arrive in the ISAM, they are forwarded at layer 3 into the correct subscriber PVC, based on a host route that was automatically created by the ISAM when the DHCP session was set up. Figure 9-43 shows the IP-aware bridge functional model.
Figure 9-43 IP-aware bridge functional model
Edge EMAN
DHCP relay DHCP relay BTV Mux IP-aware bridge

NE

802.1x Option 82 IPoA relay DSL DSL

Unicast VLAN Unicast VLAN Traffic management (shaping per VLAN) Unicast VLAN

Voice

DSL BTV VLAN Multicast forwarder

Video

VRF

IP

HSI

Unicast VLAN BTV VLAN

In IP-aware bridge mode, the VRFs on the LT boards have the FIBs and do the layer 3 forwarding. Two separated FIBs per VRF (upstream FIB and downstream FIB) prevent subscriber-to-subscriber communication. The SHub operates as a bridge. Between LT boards and SHub, one V-VLAN per VRF is required to indicate the VRF that IP packets belong to. The P-VLANs links the ISPs to the ISAM SHub. In IP-aware bridge mode, the LT boards provide VLAN aggregation. A number of P-VLANs can be aggregated together to form an IP interface at the network side. VLAN aggregation is used in a network where subscribers with the same source IP address access different services offered by the same ISP.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

Subscriber access interfaces


Figure 9-44 shows the subscriber access interfaces.
Figure 9-44 Subscriber access interfaces

Virtual router IP Ethernet PTM AAL5 ATM VDSLx IPoE ADSLx IPoEoA User access AAL5 ATM ADSLx IPoA PHY IPoE Network interface IP Ethernet RFC 2684 IP RFC 2684 Ethernet IP

IPoEoA subscriber interfaces

An IPoEoA subscriber interface is a layer 2 interface created on a PVC, which is configured in RFC2684 LLCSNAP bridged or RFC2684 VC-MUX bridged encapsulation modes. An IPoEoA interface is attached to a VR by configuring an unnumbered IP interface on top of it. The VR is always determined via configuration. Multiple subscriber sessions (or subscribers) can exist on the same IPoEoA interface. A session corresponds to all traffic originated from or destined to a host that is seen (IP address) by the ISAM in the customer environment. IP addresses assigned to the subscribers on an IPoEoA interface have to be known by ISAM in order to support IP forwarding, ARP proxy, and IP anti-spoofing.
IPoA subscriber interfaces

An IPoA subscriber interface is a layer 2 interface created on a PVC which is configured in RFC2684 LLCSNAP routed or RFC2684 VC-MUX routed encapsulation modes. An IPoA interface is attached to a VR by configuring an unnumbered IP interface on top of it. The VR is always determined via configuration. Multiple subscriber sessions (or subscribers) may exist on the same IPoA interface. A session corresponds to all traffic originated from or destined to a host that is seen (IP address) by the ISAM in the customer environment.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

IP addresses assigned to the subscribers on an IPoA interface have to be known by the ISAM in order to support IP forwarding and IP anti-spoofing.

Authentication/authorization/accounting
The ISAM provides the possibility to authenticate the subscribers, to make sure that only those subscribers who have access rights can make use of the services offered by the service providers.
IPoE subscriber interfaces

The following applies for IPoE subscriber interfaces:

The subscriber interfaces are authorized for services by associating with an


IP-aware bridge corresponding to the service provider. RADIUS authentication only verifies the access rights of the subscribers.
IPoA subscriber interfaces

The following applies for IPoA subscriber interfaces:

No authentication mechanism is defined. The subscriber interfaces are by default considered as authenticated when
configured.

The subscriber interfaces are authorized for services by associating with an


IP-aware bridge, corresponding to the service provider.

Service provider selection


Service provider selection is static (by way of configuration). IPoE and IPoA subscriber interfaces are statically assigned to an IP-aware bridge, corresponding to the NSP. Subscribers connected to the ISAM by way of the same interface can only get access to the NSP network configured on that interface.

Subscriber IP address management


Subscriber IP address assignment can be either static (by way of configuration) or dynamic.

Static IP address assignment: IPoE and IPoA subscriber interfaces


IP addresses are statically assigned to the subscribers. Static IP address assignment is only supported for IPoE and IPoA subscriber interfaces. Dynamic IP address assignment: IPoE and IPoA subscriber interfaces DHCP servers dynamically allocate IP addresses to the subscribers. A DHCP session corresponds to a subscriber who is connected by way of an IPoE or IPoA interface to the ISAM and makes use of DHCP protocol to get an IP address. The ISAM needs to be aware of the IP address of the subscribers to perform anti-spoofing in the upstream direction, and to use IP-forwarding mode, which is based on fixed match look-up with the subscriber IP address in the downstream direction.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

IP-aware bridge scalability


The IP-aware bridge forwarding model supports sharing the same service provider VLAN over multiple ISAMs in the EMAN network. However, sharing the same VLAN for many subscribers would increase the number of broadcast storms (due to ARP and DHCP protocols) in the EMAN network, proportional to the number of subscribers (potentially tens of thousands). Large numbers of broadcast storms can lead to a scalability issue in both the ISAM control plane and the ISAM data plane (layer 2 FIB). The broadcast storms would become even worse when the layer 2 switches in the EMAN (see the layer 2 switch in Figure 40) do not have the feature to prevent subscriber-port-to-subscriber-port communication (ports connected to the ISAMs). That is, any broadcast message issued by one of the ISAMs would be broadcast to the rest of the ISAMs.
Control plane scalability

Because the control plane of the ISAM handles the broadcast ARP and DHCP messages, the control plane would be overloaded with the ARP and DHCP broadcast storms. The number of broadcast ARP messages that the ISAM control plane needs to handle on the network side (in downstream) would be increased enormously because:

ARP requests issued by one of the ISAMs to resolve the edge router MAC address
would be broadcast to the rest of the ISAMs via the layer 2 switches in between.

Gratuitous ARP requests issued by one of the ISAMs to announce the subscriber
IP address/MAC address relation would be broadcast to the rest of the ISAMs via the layer 2 switches in between. ARP requests issued by the edge router to resolve subscriber MAC address would be broadcast to all the ISAMs. The number of broadcast DHCP messages that the ISAM control plane needs to handle on the network side (in downstream) would be increased enormously because:

Broadcast DHCP messages (DHCP-DISCOVERY/REQUEST) issued by the


subscribers would be broadcast to the rest of the ISAMs via the layer 2 switches in between. Broadcast DHCP messages (DHCP-OFFER/ACK) issued by the layer 3 DCHP relay agent located at the IP edge (assuming the broadcast flag is enabled) would be broadcast to all the ISAMs. To avoid overloading the ISAM control plane with the broadcast storms, the ISAM implements an intelligent filtering mechanism in hardware. This mechanism discards (in the downstream direction) all the broadcast ARP and DHCP protocol messages which are not relevant for this ISAM (see ISAM-B in Figure 9-45).

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9 Layer 2 forwarding Figure 9-45 Broadcast storms in the EMAN


DHCP-DISCOVERY DHCP-REQUEST DHCP-OFFER DHCP-ACK Gratuitous ARP ARP for next-Hop DHCP relay agent

NE-A
User

ARP for user

EMAN
IP edge IP network

NE-B LT LT NT

Upstream broadcast packets (generated by an NE) are reflected back to other NEs ARP for user Gratuitous ARP ARP for next-Hop

User

DHCP-OFFER DHCP-ACK DHCP-DISCOVERY DHCP-REQUEST

Control plane

Data plane

DHCP protocol - LT control plane scalability

The LT data plane discards all the client-initiated DHCP messages (DHCP op
code = 1) received from the network because the client-initiated DHCP messages are NOT expected from network interfaces. The LT plane discards all the server-initiated DHCP messages when the chaddr is NOT the LT MAC address. DHCP protocol - NT control plane scalability: DHCP messages received from the network interfaces are processed by the NT control plane in case of dynamic IP address allocation mode for the management of the SHub. As this would require all the DHCP messages to be forwarded via the control plane, scalability cannot be guaranteed when the dynamic IP address allocation mode is enabled. ARP protocol - LT control plane scalability: The LT data plane discards all ARP requests received from the network interfaces if the ARP policy is not set to trusted or if the target subscriber is not known by the LT board (that is, not learned via DHCP snooping or via configuration).

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

ARP protocol - NT control plane scalability:

When IP forwarding is enabled in the SHub for a slow path VRF, the SHub
control plane has to handle ARP messages destined for any of the VRF IP interfaces. A VRF (slow path) is required for any of the following cases:

IP forwarding of the RADIUS control packets when the ISAM acts as RADIUS
client for 802.1x subscriber authentication, or operator authentication

IP forwarding of the DHCP control packets when the ISAM acts as a layer 3 DHCP
relay agent

IP forwarding of the SHub management control packets when the SHub is managed
via a dedicated IP address

IP forwarding of the subscriber data/control packets when the ISAM acts as an IP


router

To achieve the control plane scalability, ARP filters are made VLAN and IP
address aware. Therefore, only those ARP requests destined for any of the SHub IP interfaces are extracted to the control plane. Because the number of filter resources in the SHub data plane is limited, a number of ARP filters are reserved (32 for ECNT-A and 128 for ECNT-C). The SHub ARP control plane scalability is then only guaranteed as long as the number of SHub X IP interfaces is within the reserved limit, otherwise scalability is not guaranteed.
Data plane scalability

In the ISAM, source MAC learning is by default enabled on the network ports of the NT. In the IP-aware bridge mode, the ISAM only needs to learn the edge router MAC addresses. However, as described in the preceding section, the fact that the layer 2 switches in the EMAN broadcast the ARP/DHCP broadcast messages (received from one of the ISAM ports) to the rest of the ISAM, would lead to every ISAM learning the MAC addresses of each other on the network ports. In IP-aware bridge mode, the public MAC addresses of the LT boards are exposed to the EMAN, which means that the MAC address of each LT board would have to be learned. This would cause a layer 2 FIB size scalability issue because the number of the ISAMs would be increased proportionally to the number of subscribers (potentially tens of thousands). This would become even worse (multiplied by the number of service provider VLANs of an IP-aware bridge) because the MAC learning is in the scope of a VLAN. To overcome the layer 2 FIB size scalability issue, MAC learning is disabled on the ISAM network ports, provided there is a single network interface in the ISAM (that is, a single GE or a group of GEs with link aggregation). Therefore, it is not required to learn the MAC address at the network interface because there is only one. The traffic associated with unknown MAC addresses is simply flooded to the single network interface, assuring the correct network connectivity.

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9 Layer 2 forwarding

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

10.1 Introduction

10-2 10-3 10-5 10-7

10.2 Link aggregation 10.3 RSTP and MSTP

10.4 Connectivity Fault Management 10.5 802.1x support 10.6 ARP 10.7 VBAS 10.8 DHCP 10.9 IGMP 10.10 PPPoE 10.11 DHCPv6 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-19 10-19 10-24 10-10

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

10.1

Introduction
Layer 2 protocol handling can be divided into two parts of handling:

Layer 2 Control Protocol handling:


Layer 2 Control Protocols are protocols defined for use within the Layer 2 network. They are defined to influence the forwarding behavior within this Layer 2 network and/or to maintain and troubleshoot this Layer 2 network. This includes protocols that have an individual or group of interfaces as scope, and it includes protocols that have the end-to-end connectivity within this Layer 2 network as scope. Application protocol handling: These are protocols defined at a layer higher than Layer 2. They are used for communication between nodes connected to the Layer 2 network and/or nodes deeper in the IP (Layer 3) network. Some participation of the ISAM in the processing of these protocols allows these nodes, or more in general the total network, to give a better service.

Layer 2 Control Protocol handling


Table 10-1 shows the protocols of the Layer 2 control protocol handling.
Table 10-1 Layer 2 control protocol handling
Protocol Link Aggregation Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Connectivity fault management 802.1x Described in Section 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

Application protocol handling


Table 10-2 shows the protocols of the application protocol handling.
Table 10-2 Application protocol handling
Protocol ARP VBAS DHCP IGMP PPPoE DHCPv6 Described in Section 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

10.2

Link aggregation
Link Aggregation allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a Link Aggregation Group, such that a MAC client can treat the Link Aggregation Group as if it were a single link. Link aggregation is defined in IEEE 802.3-2005, clause 43. This specification specifies the establishment of Link Aggregation Groups, consisting of N parallel instances of full duplex point-to-point links operating at the same data rate. This Link Aggregation Group provides increased bandwidth and/or increased availability. Link aggregation is defined with a load sharing mechanism that distributes the traffic over the active links of the Link Aggregation Group. When one of the physical links of the link Aggregation Group is not longer active, then the load sharing adapts and distributes the traffic over the remaining active links. If the total traffic exceeds the bandwidth of an active link, then normal QoS handling applies. Figure 10-1 shows an example of link aggregation.
Figure 10-1 Link aggregation
IP Edge Router / BRAS Link Aggregation Group 1 NE ADSL
m x FE/GE

Ethernet Bridge

NSP IP backbone

FE/GE

n x FE/GE

EMAN

NSP IP backbone

Link Aggregation Group 2 NSP IP backbone

Link Aggregation is defined for use between any type of Ethernet nodes (that is, both bridges and end stations). The binding of links into Link Aggregation Groups may be under manual control by an operator. In addition, automatic determination, configuration, binding, and monitoring may occur through the use of a Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP).

Link Aggregation Control Protocol


The Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is part of the IEEE 802.3-2005 clause 43. The LACP provides a standardized means for exchanging information between Partner Systems on a link to allow their Link Aggregation Control instances to reach agreement on the identity of the Link Aggregation Group to which the link belongs, move the link to that Link Aggregation Group, and enable its transmission and reception functions in an orderly manner.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

Also the use of LACP requires some operator control. Especially important is the configuration of actor-keys per physical link. This parameter identifies the Link Aggregation Group and is exchanged within the protocol to the peer side to assure that the links of one link aggregate really connect to the same node. When an inconsistency is detected between the configured information and the connectivity of a link, the involved link is not activated. If a link fails, this is detected by LACP. It removes the link from the active set of the link aggregate. When the link comes up again, LACP puts the link back in the active set of the link aggregate.

Link aggregation support


Link aggregation is supported on:

network links subtending links the GE Ethernet LT board UNI and NNI port types
Link Aggregation Groups are defined by configuring individual physical links with identical link aggregation parameters. Especially the parameter actor-key is important as the Link Aggregation Group is defined as the set of links with the same value for this parameter. The use of the LACP protocol can be enabled or disabled. Load balancing is supported and the load balancing criteria can be configured to use the source and/or destination MAC address, or to use the source and/or destination IP address. Figure 10-2 shows link aggregation support.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model Figure 10-2 Link aggregation support
network links n n L.A.G. xHub s s subtending links L.A.G. n n xHub s L.A.G.
n: link type is network link L: link type is LT link s: link type is subtending link

LT links

LT

.
L.A.G. PVCs (on top of xDSL links)

network links

LT links

LT

s subtending links PVCs (on top of xDSL links)

Note Link aggregation is not supported on subscriber links (with the exception of the GE Ethernet LT board UNI subscriber links) .

10.3

RSTP and MSTP


The ISAM can be configured with several network interfaces. They can be used to connect the ISAM to multiple Ethernet Bridges, see Figure 10-3 as example, or directly to end stations such as, for example, a Router or a BRAS. For an Ethernet network to function properly, only one active path can exist throughout an EMAN Network between two end stations. These paths are symmetrical, that is, they are used for both directions of communication.
Figure 10-3 Spanning Tree between NE and EMAN
IP Edge Router / BRAS Ethernet Bridge NE ADSL
m x FE/GE

NSP IP backbone

FE/GE
n x FE/GE

EMAN

NSP IP backbone

: Link disabled by spanning tree protocol

NSP IP backbone Selected root of spanning

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

RSTP
The Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) as defined in IEEE 802.1D-2004, clause 17, is a Layer 2 Control Protocol that provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops in the network. Providing path redundancy starts with having a physical redundant network topology. Multiple active paths between end stations cause L2 loops in the network. If a loop exists in the network topology, the potential exists for duplication of messages. Therefore the task of RSTP is defining a single active path between each pair of end stations. To realize this single active path, RSTP forces certain redundant data paths into a standby (blocked) state. The logical topology that is realized in this way is a single tree with a selected root end station and with the other end stations at leave positions. Ethernet Bridges are involved in selecting the active path and blocking the standby paths. After a network node or link has become unavailable, RSTP will run again to define a new tree topology.

MSTP
If the network contains more than one VLAN, the logical network configured by a single RSTP would work, but better use can be made of the available redundant links by using an alternate spanning tree for different (groups of) VLANs. Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP), which uses RSTP for rapid convergence, enables VLANs to be grouped into a spanning-tree instance. Each instance has a spanning-tree topology independent of other spanning-tree instances. This architecture provides multiple forwarding paths for data traffic, enables load balancing, and limits the number of spanning-tree instances required to support a large number of VLANs. MSTP is defined in IEEE 802.1Q clause 13.

Support of RSTP and MSTP


The ISAM can be configured to act as an Ethernet Bridge within a EMAN Network. Then RSTP and MSTP is supported on network links, on subtending links, and on subscriber links terminated on the NT board. The MSTP protocol is also supported on the GE Ethernet LT board NNI port type. The ISAM can be configured to act as Router. This router functionality is provided on top of the Layer 2 Bridging functionality. All ISAM links are considered as being part of a single EMAN Network. In that case the ISAM acts as an end station connected to this EMAN Network. Then, as before, RSTP and MSTP is supported within this EMAN Network on network links, on subtending links, and on subscriber links terminated on the NT board.
Note The GE Ethernet LT board NNI port type is used for access aggregation or business services access but not as an network uplink interface.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

In some network topologies the use of RSTP or MSTP will not give benefit. This is the case when the single active path is already realized at physical level. An example is that the user equipment connected to LT boards (must) have already by construction a single physical interface and inherently this will form a single active path. Therefore and because of this RSTP and MSTP is not supported on these interfaces. Other examples are the use of a single link (aggregation group) between a hub and a subtending ISAM. Therefore RSTP and MSTP can be enabled or disabled per Ethernet interface of the ISAM. As an example, RSTP and MSTP shall be disabled on the network interface of the subtending ISAM in case it is disabled on the corresponding subtending interface in the Hub ISAM.
Note 1 The 7302 ISAM does support RSTP and MSTP towards

DSLAMs in a ring.
Note 2 The 7302 ISAM and the 7330 ISAM FTTN also support

STP (IEEE 802.1D-1998, clause 8) for inter-operability with older routers.

10.4

Connectivity Fault Management


This section describes Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) and identifies the level of support in the ISAM.

CFM elements
Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) is an Ethernet Operations and Maintenance (OAM) capability that allows service providers or network operators to verify and isolate connectivity faults and configuration problems at layer 2. CFM is specified in the standard IEEE 802.1ag. To support CFM functionality, network operators must configure software entities called Maintenance Points (MPs) on selected bridge ports on the network. MPs are points where CFM messages are inserted, extracted, or monitored to verify connectivity within part or within the whole of the Layer 2 network. MPs are organized into Maintenance Associations (MAs) and Maintenance Domains (MDs) on a network. Table 10-3 describes the CFM elements that must be configured on an Ethernet network.
Table 10-3 CFM elements
CFM element MD Description An MD corresponds to the administrative OAM domain and is assigned a level from 1 to 8. A typical example is that an administrative OAM domain is defined per operator involved in the offering of a service with the Layer 2 network. Associated to an MD are one or multiple MAs. (1 of 2)

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

CFM element MA

Description An MA is defined as an OAM maintenance entity per service instance per MD. The service instance could be a VLAN or a set of VLANs. The OAM maintenance entity scope is defined by a set of associated Maintenance end Points (MEP). The MEPs define a closed segment of the VLAN in the Layer 2 network. The segment matches the scope or involvement of a particular administrative OAM domain (operator) in that VLAN. As such, MDs/MAs allow network operators to test the segment of a given VLAN that is within their own scope. E.g. it allows them to perform a test on all links and nodes of their own network and being used by the VLAN or service. Typically the set of operator segments are all at the same MD level and then the MDs/MAs can not overlap. MDs/MAs also allow network operators to divide a network into separate hierarchical administrative OAM domains. An MD/MA at a higher level has no visibility inside an MD/MA at a lower level. Also at the higher level the same concepts apply: the scope is delimited by MEPs and the MDs/MAs at the same higher level can not overlap. There may be one or more MA, that is, service instances, per MD. There may be multiple MAs for the same service instance (VLAN) if these are within different MDs and the lower level MDs/MAs are terminated with MEPs.

MP

MPs are organized into MAs and MDs and are configured on ports within an MA (VLAN) defined within an MD level. There are two types of MPs:

Maintenance end points (MEPs) Maintenance intermediate points (MIPs)

MEPs are points that identify the border of a maintenance entity. MEPs can initiate or terminate CFM messages. MIPs are points inside the network segment that is defined as a maintenance entity. MIPs can respond to and allow the transit of CFM frames originated from another MP. (2 of 2)

IEEE 802.1ag defines these generic CFM OAM procedures. DSLF TR-101 defines the usage of these procedures in a Layer 2 Access Network. An access aggregation network typically has the following MD levels:

Service provider domain from the edge router/BNG to the CPE Carrier domain from the edge router/BNG or Ethernet switch to the user port on
the ISAM Intra-carrier domain from the edge router/BNG or Ethernet switch to the network port on the ISAM Access link domain from the LT port on the ISAM to the CPE Figure 10-4 shows CFM implemented on a typical access aggregation network. When a customer contacts the service provider helpdesk because of lack of service, the service provider can run a test in the service provider domain from the BNG toward the CPE. If the fault is isolated to a specific section, the service provider can notify the owner of that section who can run tests at a lower level within his domain. This continues until the failing point is identified.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model Figure 10-4 CFM on the access aggregation network
MD level 7 MD level 5 MD level 3 MD level 1 Access link ME ME Service provider ME carrier ME Intra-carrier

CPE RG

Ethernet access network DSLAM Ethernet switch BNG

Regional network

MEP MIP

Scope of access network operator

Scope of service provider operator

CFM functions
The CFM protocols define multiple functions that act as tools to test and isolate connectivity faults in the network. The CFM link trace acts like an ICMP traceroute command. Multicast Link Trace Messages (LTMs) are sent from the originating MEP. Each MIP along the trace path inspects the message to determine whether the target MAC address of the LTM is known. If the MIP knows the MAC address, the MIP forwards the LTM to the next MIP, and a response in the form of a Link Trace Reply (LTR) message is sent back to the originating MEP. A MIP that does not know the target MAC address does not send back an LTR. When the target MP responds with a successful LTR message, the link trace test is successfully completed. A CFM loopback acts like an ICMP ping command. Multicast or unicast loopback messages (LBMs) are sent from the originating MEP. In the case of a unicast LBM, the MAC address of the destination MP is inserted. When the target MP receives the LBM with the matching MAC address, it sends back a loopback response (LBR) to the originating MP. When the originating MP receives the LBR, the loopback is complete. In the case of a multicast LBM, each MEP within the targeted MA in the MD level that receives the LBM request will reply with an LBR. A connectivity check (CC) is a message multicast to all MEPs in the same MA at fixed intervals. When a peer MEP does not receive a specified number of CCM reply messages in a given time, a fault is raised.

CFM support in the ISAM


The ISAM supports the configuration of MDs, MAs and MEPs. MIPs are created by the ISAM based on the parameter setting of the MA. The service instance managed by an MA covers a single VLAN.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

The ISAM supports MIPs and network facing MEPs at UNI ports (which includes UNI ports supported by the GE Ethernet LT board). The ISAM also support MIPs at the GE Ethernet LT board NNI ports. Within these MPs the ISAM responds to LBMs and to LTMs coming from the network. The ISAM responds to LBM coming from the user (see DSLF TR-101). The ISAM supports network facing MEPs on the LT board at its GE interface towards the NT board. Within these MEPs the ISAM responds to LBMs and to LTMs. For information about CFM MAC addresses and performing CFM fault detection and isolation, see TNG 120 in the Operations and Maintenance Using CLI for FD 24Gbps NT document.

10.5

802.1x support
The 802.1X protocol complies with both the IEEE 802.1X and the CCSA specification. Its purpose is to control the access of users to the Layer 2 Access Network. Each 802.1X-enabled user port (including the GE Ethernet LT board UNI user ports) is by default in a closed status and successful authentication is needed to open the port. This functionality is mapped to the LT board, where the authentication state of the port is enforced; see Figure 10-5. Packets from unauthenticated subscribers are dropped at the LT board. 802.1X on the LT board communicates with the NT board by way of the internal communication to perform the authentication. The NT board uses a local database or contacts a RADIUS Server to execute the authentication request.

For an un-authenticated port, all subscriber frames are discarded. For an authenticated port, all subscriber frames are processed based on the Layer
2 configuration
Note The GE Ethernet LT board NNI ports do not support 802.1x

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model Figure 10-5 802.1x in the ISAM

LIM

xHub

Ethernet

ER

802.1x

LIM
CPE

NT Control

Performs authentication by means of contacting a RADIUS server. The result is sent back to the LT.

Handles the 802.1x protocol, communicates with the system controller to perform the authentication, controls the port state.

10.6

ARP
The IETF RFC 826 defined Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol defined within the context of using IP over Ethernet. An IP node uses the ARP protocol to obtain the Ethernet MAC address of another IP node identified by a known IP address and connected to the same Layer 2 network. The ISAM has a limited ARP handling functionality, but it is sufficient to prevent broadcast storms toward the subscribers. This is achieved in the following ways:

in iBridge mode: When an ARP request is received from a user port, the ARP request is broadcast to
the Ethernet network interface. This deviates from the standard Ethernet broadcast because the ARP request is not broadcast to the other user ports. This behavior is also true for the GE Ethernet LT board NNI ports. When an ARP request is received from an Ethernet network interface, the ARP request is only broadcast in the VLAN when downstream broadcast is enabled in the VLAN. Otherwise, the ARP request is dropped. In case of the GE Ethernet LT board NNI ports, the ARP request is only broadcast in the VLAN (not configurable).

in VLAN cross-connect mode:


ARP requests are forwarded transparently downstream or upstream like any other data packet. in both forwarding modes: ARP reply messages receive no special treatment compared to any other data packet.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

in secure-forwarding-enabled iBridge/VLAN cross-connect mode:


An ARP relay function exists to forward the downstream ARP request messages to the right user only. This is achieved by forwarding downstream ARP request messages to the user port that owns the IP address that is to be resolved via the ARP request. In the upstream direction this ARP relay will perform IP address anti-spoofing, that is, it will discard ARP request messages when the sender IP address is not owned by a user behind the same user port, and it will discard ARP messages addressed to other users behind the same user port. Valid ARP requests will be forwarded to the network. Note 1 The ARP-Relay function learns the IP addresses from the end-users either via DHCP snooping or via static configuration.
Note 2 The GE Ethernet LT board NNI ports do not support secure

forwarding

in IP-aware bridge mode:


An ARP proxy function exists that will reply to upstream and downstream ARP request messages with its own MAC.

10.7

VBAS
The Virtual Broadcast Access Server (VBAS) protocol is defined directly on top of the Ethernet Layer and allows the external BRAS to query the ISAM for DSL link information so that the BRAS can limit the number of Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) sessions per DSL link.
Note VBAS is only supported on the 7302 ISAM.

VBAS allows the BRAS to obtain detailed information on the physical address of a subscriber on the network element. The VBAS protocol goes through query and response phases before the BRAS can obtain the physical address of any new subscriber.

VBAS query:
VBAS sends a VBAS query packet to the ISAM to gather physical port information corresponding to the MAC address of the new subscriber. VBAS response: Upon receiving the request packet, the ISAM sends a VBAS response packet to the BRAS. This packet includes the physical port information of the new subscriber. All messages are in standard Ethernet frames with a proprietary Ethertype and the messages are all unicast messages. All VBAS packets carry a destination identifier. If the packet is not destined for a specific system, it floods the packet to all subtending systems until it reaches its intended destination. In normal operation, the network port toward the BRAS is tagged. This means that the network port is able to process and respond to tagged VBAS frames.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

If untagged packets need to be handled, the network port is explicitly set as untagged. A PVID is also configured for the port. When the ISAM receives a VBAS query, subscriber information is retrieved from the VLAN configured as PVID.

VBAS handling in the 7302 ISAM


Figure 10-6 shows the VBAS handling in the 7302 ISAM.
Figure 10-6 VBAS handling
When a VBAS packet is received, the port information based on the user MAC address is added inside the VBAS packet and the VBAS packet is sent back to the BRAS.

BRAS
CPE

NE

EMAN
CPE

Sends VBAS request with MAC DA address (the MAC address of the user which is to be resolved) and waits for the response.

VBAS handling in a subtended 7302 ISAM


When a downstream VBAS packet is destined for a subtended 7302 ISAM, the hub 7302 ISAM will bridge the VBAS packet to the correct external Ethernet link. This is because the MAC Destination Address (DA) of the VBAS packet is equal to the MAC address of the subtended 7302 ISAM.

10.8

DHCP
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a client-server protocol that enables DHCP Servers to configure internet hosts. The DHCP protocol is defined on top of UDP/IP. DHCP simplifies the configuration of a host since no IP addresses, subnet masks, default gateways, domain names, or DNSs must be locally configured within the host. Instead, with DHCP, this information is dynamically leased from the DHCP Server for a predefined amount of time. Because the information is stored on a Server, it centralizes IP address management, it reduces the number of IP addresses to be used, and it simplifies maintenance. DHCP is defined in IETF RFC 2131. A problem to solve when using this technology is that the DHCP Client must be able to communicate to the DHCP Server. This is achieved by the DHCP Client starting the communication with a broadcast message. The DHCP Server will receive this message in case the Server is connected to the same Layer 2 network as the Client. IETF RFC 2131 and RFC 3046 define a DHCP Relay Agent for when this is not the case. Then a DHCP Relay Agent connected to the Layer 2 network of the Client will convert the broadcast message to a unicast message and send it to a Server further in the IP network. In doing so, the DHCP Relay Agent can add 'option 82' information. That information can be used by the DHCP Server to identify the subscriber, and when mirrored back in reply messages it helps the DHCP Relay Agent to forward the replies to the correct Client. In its definition this DHCP Relay Agent is a function within a router for which it can be referred to as a 'Layer 3' DHCP Relay Agent.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

DSLF TR-101 defines a Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent, that is, a Relay Agent functionality in the middle of the Layer 2 Access Network. The Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent is assigned to be a responsibility of the DSLAM. It shall add option 82 information (which allows the Server to identify the subscriber) but leaves the broadcast message a broadcast message. Converting the broadcast message to a unicast message is not needed when the DHCP Server is connected directly to the Layer 2 Access Network, or is the responsibility for a real DHCP Relay Agent at the edge of the Layer 2 Access Network. The ISAM provides Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent functionality when it is configured for Layer 2 forwarding and a full (Layer 3) DHCP relay when it acts as an IP Router.

Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent


The ISAM provides Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent functionality for IPoE and IPoA subscriber access interfaces for all of the Layer 2 forwarding modes that provide IPoE and/or IPoA:

the iBridge the IP-aware bridge the protocol-aware cross-connect (that is, C-VLAN cross-connect and
S/C-VLAN cross-connect) the iBridge and cross-connect with IPoA to IPoE interworking function This Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent is supported for the L2 forwarding modes above, irrespective of secure forwarding being enabled or not. The Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent functions can be split in three parts:

Relaying DHCP messages to and from network and subscriber interfaces Option 82 handling Client hardware address (chaddr in the DHCP message) concentration
Note The layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent is only supported on the GE Ethernet LT board UNI ports.

Relaying DHCP messages to and from network and subscriber interfaces

Relaying DHCP messages in iBridge and VLAN cross-connect The Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent for the iBridge and for the protocol-aware cross-connect forwarding modes is distributed over the LT boards.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model Figure 10-7 Layer 2 DHCP relay implementation)
US: Bridge to the network interfaces (unicast packet forward based on FDB, broadcast packet: flood to all the network interfaces that participate in the VLAN DS: Bridge to the LTs/subtending interfaces (unicast packet: forward based on FDB, broadcast: flood to all network interfaces that participate in the VLAN

DHCP relay

LT

xHub

Ethernet

ER

DHCP client

LT
CPE

NT
DHCP server

IP network

US/DS: DHCP boadcast or unicast packet

US: adds option 82 and sends packet to xHub DS: remove option 82 and send on to correct user port

The DHCP client can send broadcast or unicast DHCP messages. These will be forwarded in the upstream direction:

If the insertion of option 82 is enabled, the ISAM verifies the DHCP message and
adds option 82 to a valid DHCP message as described further on. If the insertion of option 82 is disabled, the ISAM still verifies the DHCP message as described further but does not add an option 82. But with or without option 82 insertion, the broadcast message remains a broadcast message, the unicast message remains a unicast message. For more information on the handling and configuration of DHCP Option 82; see section Option 82 handling. In the downstream direction the DHCP Relay within the Edge Router (or the DHCP server in case it is directly connected to the Layer 2 Access Network) sends broadcast or a unicast DHCP messages. This depends on the broadcast flag inside the DHCP message sent from the DHCP Client. In all cases the Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent will forward the DHCP message to the correct user only. For a unicast DHCP message the user is identified from the MAC address in the Ethernet header, for broadcast DHCP messages the user is identified from the payload of the DHCP messages, for example, chaddr. In any case the option 82 is removed before forwarding the DHCP message. Relaying DHCP messages in IP-aware bridge The Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent for the IP-aware bridge forwarding mode is very similar to the Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent for iBridge. Its implementation is also distributed over the LTs. The possibilities for option 82 insertion are also the same. Some differences exist in the forwarding behavior.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

Upstream relay (from subscriber to network) - broadcast/unicast DHCP message:

A broadcast DHCP message is further broadcast into one specific VLAN


associated with the VRF (of an IP-aware bridge). This specific broadcast VLAN is configurable per VRF. In case no broadcast VLAN is configured, then the DHCP message is flooded into all VLANs associated to the VRF. When chaddr concentration is enabled: the subscriber chaddr is replaced by the LT board MAC address, and the user XID (transaction ID) is replaced by an LT-board-wide unique XID. Downstream relay (from network to subscriber) - broadcast/unicast DHCP message:

In the DHCP session set-up phase and if chaddr concentration is not enabled: the
DHCP message is forwarded to the subscriber interface that is selected based on the chaddr. In the DHCP session set-up phase and if chaddr concentration is enabled: the DHCP message is forwarded to the subscriber interface that is selected based on XID. Both the subscriber chaddr and the subscriber XID are restored before sending the DHCP message to the subscriber. More information on the client hardware address concentration function is provided in section Client hardware address concentration. Relaying DHCP messages in the iBridge and cross-connect mode with IPoA to IPoE interworking function The Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent for the iBridge and cross-connect mode with IPoA to IPoE interworking function is very similar to the Layer 2 DHCP Relay Agent when the IPoA to IPoE interworking function is absent. Its implementation is also distributed over the LT boards. The possibilities for option 82 insertion are also the same. But here, IPoA packets from and to the user do not have an Ethernet header. As such, the chaddr in the upstream DHCP messages is normally not a MAC address. The ISAM will insert itself an identifier in the chaddr of upstream messages. This field being returned by the DHCP Server allows the ISAM to identify the correct user. The ISAM will restore the original chaddr before sending the DHCP message to the user.
Option 82 handling

IETF RFC 3046 defines a Relay Agent Information option and assigns it the code 82. In this way the option is often referred to as option 82". Option 82 provides security when DHCP is used in public access networks. It provides the DHCP Server with trusted information on who is requesting an IP address. But to make it really a trustable identifier the ISAM shall also discard upstream messages with an option 82 already added by the user. Therefore the ISAM also makes some validity checks on upstream DHCP messages. In the upstream direction, the insertion of DHCP option 82 is configurable. If enabled, option 82 parameters are inserted both for unicast and broadcast DHCP messages. If disabled the ISAM obviously does not add option 82. The validity checks are however executed also when option 82 insertion is disabled.

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10 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model

IETF RFC 3046 defines option 82 as containing two sub-options: the circuit-id being sub-option 1 and the remote-id being sub-option 2. In addition to enabling or disabling option 82 insertion, it is possible to control the insertion and contents of the sub-options:

the circuit ID: this can be configured with one of the following values: do not add this sub-option into option 82 add the customer ID into the circuit-id sub-option generate a physical line ID and add this into the circuit-id sub-option the remote ID: this can be configured with one of the following values: do not add this sub-option into option 82 add the customer ID into the remote-id sub-option generate a physical line ID and add this into the remote-id sub-option
Note The values for the circuit ID and the remote ID are not allowed to be identical.

Insertion of the circuit ID and/or remote ID can be enabled or disabled per VLAN in iBridge or VLAN cross-connect mode, and per VRF in IP-aware Bridge mode.
Customer ID

The Customer ID is fully configurable for each DSL line, ATM PVC, Ethernet interface or VLAN port by the operator (string with a length between 0 and 64 bytes). In case the Customer ID is configured for one user at various levels, e.g. at ATM PVC and at DSL line level, then the most fine grained level will be used. For example, the Customer ID configured for an ATM PVC will take precedence over the customer ID configured at the DSL line.
Physical line ID

By default, the Physical line ID is auto-generated by the ISAM and contains information used to identify the precise circuit from which the DHCP message originates (for example, DSL line, ATM PVC, Ethernet interface or VLANport). The Physical line ID syntax is configurable. The Physical line ID syntax is a concatenation of keywords, separators, and free text strings:

for ATM-based DSL interfaces, the default value is Access_Node_ID atm


Rack/Frame/Slot/Port:VPI.VCI

for EFM-based DSL and for Ethernet interfaces, the default value is
Access_Node_ID eth Rack/Frame/Slot/Port You can use the following predefined keywords:

Access_Node_ID: identifies the ISAM. The ISAM will insert the identifier that
is configured as System ID Rack: rack number in the access node for the position of the line termination

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Frame: shelf number in the rack. The variable is called 'Frame' to be inline with
TR-101.

Slot: slot number in the shelf. Port: port number on the LT. On DSL or point-to-point LTs, the port stands for
an end-user DSL/fiber interface VPI: VPI on user interface in case of ATM over DSL VCI: VCI on user interface in case of ATM over DSL Q-VID: VLAN ID on user interface (when applicable) NVID: refers to the C-VLAN ID at the network-side, which may be different from the user-side Q-VID
Note <ShSlt> and <ShPrt> keywords can also be used instead of respectively <slot> and <port>. The keywords <ShSlt> and <ShPrt> can be used to specify the slot and port number without leading zero. This gives an alternative for the <Slot> and <Port> keywords as defined above and provides full flexibility as to the wanted/required syntax. Bandwidth information

DSLF TR-101 defines additional sub-options on top of those defined in IETF RFC 3046. Amongst others it specifies a set of sub-options to pass DSL line bandwidth characteristics. You can also enable or disable the insertion of the line rate characteristics per VLAN/VRF (per VLAN in iBridge or VLAN-cross-connect mode, per VRF in IP-aware Bridge mode). When enabled, the ISAM inserts actual line rate data.
Client hardware address concentration

Client hardware address (chaddr) concentration is only supported for IP-aware bridge forwarding mode. In IP-aware bridge, the ISAM performs MAC concentration (in the upstream direction, the source MAC