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PHARDOSE (LAB) FOR SHARMAINES USE ONLY LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS Solution Types:

Sharmaine Margaret Lee Aromatic Water- Dakins

1. Aqueous Solutions- solutions that use water as a vehicle or solvent. 2. Non-aqueous Solutions a. Hydroalchoholic uses alcohol and water as primary solvents. Example: Spirits b. Oleaginous- uses oil as a vehicle Example: Collodions c. Ethereal Example: Oleovitamins- fat soluble vitamins (Vitamin A, D, E, K) Aromatic Water 1. Aromatic water a. These are clear, aqueous solutions saturated with volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances. b. These are commonly used as flavorants and scents. c. This is the slowest and most expensive method but the most satisfactory. (Example: Stronger Rose Water) 2. Characteristic of Aromatic water : free from empyreumatic odour (smoke odour) 3. Preparation of Aromatic Water (1) Distillation o Cohobation- the distillate is subjected to several distillation processes or multiple distillation processes with the addition of volatile oils or flowers. Example: Adding orange to stronger rose water (2) Solution a. Direct Solution - has standing - Easy and less expensive b. Alternative Solution Method - non-stand - Other than oil and water, dispersing agents like talc and purified siliceous earth is added. o Dispersing Agents- these help in the dispersion of oil in water. 4. Cinnamon water (OFFICIAL) Formula: a. Cinnamon oil b. Purified water q.s. ad 5. Cinnamon Water- this is a direct (MOP), non-medicated clear colourless solution.

6. Concentrated Peppermint Water (UNOFFICIAL) Formula: a. Peppermint Oil b. 90% Ethyl Alcohol c. Purified talc d. Purified water q.s. ad 7. Concentrated Peppermint water- this is an alternative (MOP), non-medicated clear colourless solution with peppermint water. 8. Camphor Water Formula: a. Camphor Crystals b. 90% Ethyl Alcohol c. Purified talc d. Purified water q.s. ad 9. (Camphor Water and Concentrated Peppermint Water used C1V1=C2V2 for 95% EtOH and water) 10. MOP of Camphor Water: Alternative Solution Method 11. Calcium Hydroxide Topical Solution ( Red Label, OFFICIAL) Formula: a. Calcium Hydroxide b. Purified water q.s. ad 12. Calcium Hydroxide Topical Solution a. Used as an emulsifying agent b. Employed in dermatological lotions c. An astringent 13. Method of preparation: Slaking 14. Characteristic of Ca (OH) 2: No bubbles and a clear solution. 15. Synonyms: Lime Water 16. Slaking- to make calcium hydroxide, we must eliminate the presence of carbon dioxide to prevent the formation of calcium carbonate. 17. Slaking- after adding water, crumbling substances may form, so cover the preparation with a watch glass. 18. Soluble- a term to describe the dissolution of solid in liquid 19. Miscible- a term to describe the dissolution of liquid in a liquid. 20. Chemical reaction- this took place in the making of Calcium Hydroxide Topical Solution. 21. Chemical reaction- this is needed to come up with a solution. You need one or more solutes to come up with a suitable solvent Examples: Aluminum Subacetate Solution, Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution, Sulfurated Lime Solution

22. Solubility is determined according to the following:

Very Soluble Freely Soluble Soluble Sparingly Soluble Slightly Soluble Very Slightly Soluble Practically insoluble (means it has high MW)

<1 1-10 10-30 30-100 100-1000 1,000-10,000 >10,000

23. Strong Iodine Solution (Red Label, OFFICIAL) Formula: a. I2 crystals b. KI solution c. Purified water q.s. ad 24. Synonyms: Lugol Solution, Liquor Iodi 25. Strong Iodine Solution: a. Used as a germicide b. Used as a fungicide c. Used as an Antiseptic 26. MOP of Strong Iodine Solution: Simple Solution Method 27. Fact: Elixirs are clear, sweetened hydroalcoholic solutions intended for oral use and are usually flavoured to enhance their palatability. Nonmedicated elixirs are employed as vehicles, and medicated elixirs are used for the therapeutic effect of the medicinal substances they contain. They are made from the Simple Solution Method and are preferred to syrups. A disadvantage of elixirs for children and for adults who choose to avoid alcohol is their alcoholic content. Livers of children are not fully developed, hence prone to toxicity. Adults with liver serosis are not allowed to take elixirs. Strong iodine Solution is an elixir. 28. Solution by distillation- these are used with volatile oils. 29. Solution by extraction- drugs or pharmaceutical necessities of vegetable or animal origin. (Example: Albularyo)

30. Types of Solution by Extraction: a. Maceration- submerge the solute in a solvent to come up with a solution. b. Percolation- this uses sugar in the process, a method used to come up with syrup. c. Digestion- method which uses gentle heat. d. Infusion- involves blanching (binanlawan) e. Decoction- this means boiling for 15minutes 31. 1:2950- the ratio of iodines solubility to H2O. 32. Potassium iodide- this acts as the solubilizing agent in Strong iodine Solution because I2 transforms to I3 (triiodocomplex) where I3 is soluble in water. 33. Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution (OFFICIAL, White Label) Formula: A. MgCO3 B. Anhydrous Citric Acid C. Syrup D. Talc E. Lemon Oil F. KHCO3 G. Purified H2O q.s. ad 34. Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution- this solution is a colourless to slightly yellow clear effervescent liquid having a sweet, acidulous taste and a lemon flavour. 35. Synonyms: Citrate or Citrate of Magnesia 36. Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution- The solution is employed as a saline cathartic, with the citric acid, lemon oil, syrup, carbonation, and the low temperature of the refrigerated solution all contributing to the patients acceptance of the large volume of medication. 37. Magnesium Citrate is extemporaneously compounded. 38. MgCO3- this is a milky substance and when upon heating becomes clear. 39. Syrup- the sweetening agent in Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution. 40. Talc- this is the dispersing agent used in the preparation of Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution. 41. Equation Involved: (MgCO3)4 Mg (OH) 2 + 5H3C6H5O7 + H2O 5MgHC6H5O7 + 4CO2 + 6H2O 3KHCO3 + H3C6H5O7 K3C6H5O7 + 3CO2 + 3H2O

42. Dakins Solution (Full Strength) ( UNOFFICIAL, Red label ) Formula: a. Chlorox b. Sodium Bicarbonate c. Clean tap H2O

43. NOTE: After placing solution in a sterile container, close the lid tightly and cover the entire container with aluminium foil to protect it from light. It is a light-sensitive solution. Chlorox Full strength strength strength 95mL 45mL 25mL Water 946mL 946mL 946mL

44. Diluted Hypochlorite Solution- another name for half strength Dakins Solution 45. Dakins Solution: a. Used as an antiseptic b. Usually used by geriatric patients 46. Chlorox- the disinfectant or disinfecting agent in Dakins solution. 47. NaHCO3- this acts as the buffer in Dakins solution. 48. Shelf Life: 30 days if unopened, 48 days if opened.

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