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1. .

,
:
- 2048 / 50 ppm (1 ppm (point per million) =
10-6), ,
(2048 ) 102,4
: HDB3 (High-Density Bipolar order 3),
AMI(Alternate Mark Inversion). HDB3
AMI .

AMI

AMI .
1.

AMI ,

.

HDB3
HDB3
, AMI.
HDB3
" - ". .
HDB3 1000 0000.

1
,
. , HDB3
,
.

HDB3
.

.
, 000V; V ,
.
, B00V, , V ,
.

75

120

2.37

0 0.237

0 0.3

244

1:
120 ()
75 . 3
2,37. ,
. 120

. 75 .

1 75
2.37 ( 1) 0 ( 0),
120 - 3 ( 1) 0 ( 0).
10% .
.

1.
, 1.


"", ITU-T G.703

1

- .

, ,

. 1:
,
.
1
.
1 32
64 / ()
0 31. 8 ,
256 ,
1 125 ( ).
FAS
(Frame Alignment Signal).

FAS .
. TS0 FAS ( ),
0011011 ,
. TS0 NFAS,
.

FAS. NFAS. Sn = ,
. Si = ,
.
FAS = 0011011

NFAS
Si, (
),
CRC-4 (CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy
Check)).
, (
- Loss of Frame Alignment),
Sn4, Sn5, Sn6, Sn7, Sn8,
1,
.

1
-31(256S).
,
7, ISDN B-ISDN.
/ 1
(TS-16) ,
( CAS).
1
(MFAS - Multi
Frame Alignment Signal).
1 -30(256N).
16 4096
2 . /
MFAS, FAS
.
FAS - 16 .

MFAS
, 15
. MFAS
.

MFAS=0000XYXX
X- (1 )
Y- MFAS ( 1 ,
)

.
CRC-4
1 -30 .
Si FAS NFAS.

BER (Bit Error Ratio) CRC4(Cyclic Redundancy Check).

CRC-4 .
, CRC-4 MFAS.
2 (SMF) SMF#1
SMF#2 8 . 4
, CRC-4 ( ).
CRC-4 8
, 4
1.

1, 2, 3, 4 - CRC
001011 - CRC
E1 2 CRC (E=1 - , =0 CRC)
Sn = ,

1
C 1
, .
:
;
, ;
,
.

NFAS,
MFAS , 1
. ,
NFAS ,
- Sn4, Sn5, Sn6, Sn7, Sn8.

. Sn ,
1. Sn
XXYX
MFAS.

1
" "
, NFAS
Sn4 0 1.
ITU-T
:
, BER FAS , 10(-3)

,



.
Sn4.

""
.
1,
.

0 ()

0000

1010

1111

1 ()

Sn4

1 ()

Sn5

1 ()

0000

1000

AIS

1010

AIS

1111

RAI

1 ()

Sn4
Sn5
Sn6
Sn7/Sn8
A

Sn6

Sn7/Sn8

AIS

Alarm Indication Signal

CAS-LOM

Channel Associated
Signalling - Loss of
Multiframe

.

MFAS

CRC-LOM

Cyclic Redundancy Check


- Loss of Multiframe

CRC. ,

FAS
915 CRC .

EXBER

Excessive BER

LOF

Loss Of Frame

LOS

Loss Of Signal

1()

LSYNC

Loss Of Synchronization

MAIS

Multiframe Alarm
Indication Signal

.
,

0 4(MFAS)

MRAI

Multiframe Remote Alarm


Indication


. 6 MFAS 1

RAI

Remote Alarm Indication

RDI

Remote Defect Indication

RFI

Remote Fault Indication

REBE

Remote End Block Error