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Reference signal is used to measure quality

Cell Selection QRxLevMin -128 to -110 to discourage camping QRxLevMinOffset 0 to 2 will

discourage camping,

Qqualmin -22 to 18 to discourage camping Pcompensation max(PEMAX PPowerClass, 0), pMaxServingCell, pMaxGeran PMAX (max UE power) Criteria for camping of Less power UEs is hard, pMaxServingCell 1000

Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas (Qrxlevmin + Qrxlevminoffset) - Pcompensation

Reselection Start Reselection SIntraSearch 29*2=-58dBm to 31 will encourage reselection sNonIntraSearch 2 to 5 will discourage IRAT reselection,

TcrMaxConnMode (mobility calc) T_CRMAX_30S to T_CRMAX_60S will discourage reselection but increase precision, celResTiF, sIntrasearch, sNonIntrsearch High mobility scaling QHystSfHigh DB0_Q_HYST_SF_HIGH(0dB) to DB_2_Q_HYST_SF_HIGH will discourage reselection, qRxlevminoffset 0
to 2

TreselectionRAT increase to decrease reselection, treSelection 7s Reselection Decision IdleQhyst1s (current cell) 4 to 2 will discourage sticking to current cell qHyst,
qHyst 4

Cell offset qOffsetCellEUtran, qOffsetCell, qOffCell, interTResEut,

qRxLevMinInterF, offsetFreq 2 to 0

CellReselPriority 0 to 2 for high priority, cellReselectionPriority 5 to 3

discourage reselection, threshXHighHrpd, tReselectionEutra 2 to 4,
tReselectionEutraSfHigh 3 to 2

NcellReselectionHigh 16 to 10 UE enters high mobility state earlier threshXHigh, threshXLow, tReselectionEutraSfHigh, threshServingLow 62, sPrioritySearch1, interFrqThrH, tResEutSF, eutResTiFHM, celResTiFHM, cellReSelPrio 3 to 0 will discourage, mobStateParamNCelChgHgh, mobStateParamTEval, qRxLevMinOffset 0 to 2dB, q-RxLevMin, spStResPars, qHystSfHigh, tReselEutr, timeToTriggerSfMedium, tResUtra, tResUtraSF, utrResTiFHM Qrxlevmeas

Rs = Qmeas,s + QHyst Rn = Qmeas,n - Qoffset

Tevaluation 30 to 60s, tEvaluation 240 T320 ATTACH T3410 (UE), T3450 (eNodeB) System Information Messages SIB1(Access/Message scheduling, reselection),SIB2(UE timers,common/shared channel, UL RBs),SIB3(intra-freq reselect) systemInformationBlock3,SIB4(Intra neigh),SIB5 (inter-freq neigh), SIB6(Reselect to WCDMA),SIB-7(Reslect to GSM),SIB8(Reselect to CDMA) Sib3Period RF16 to RF32 less resources used but delay in access, maxCrSibDl, si4Periodicity CellRadius

RRC setup success rate (service)

pZeroNominalPucch -117 SRB0 is for RRC messages transmitted over the Common Control Channel CCCH


SRB1 is transmitted over the Dedicated Control Channel DCCH. RRC connection establishment is Signaling Radio Bearer-1. Theis is for NSN and RRC SRB2: bearing NAS signaling and transmitted over the DCCH, srbSchedWeightDl. This is for NAS and RRC of high priority DRB bears data maximum of eight DRBs per UE with eNodeB T302 4 to 6 s, timer b/w retries for RRC connection establishment

Causes emergency highPriorityAccess Mobile terminating Mobile Originating Signaling and mo-Data. RRC failures L.RRC.ReEst.ReconfFail.Rej L.RRC.ReEst.HoFail.Rej, RA measurement(Random Access
failures), PDCP discards, s1RetryTimer 30 to 40, T300-5, T301, 200 to 300 ms, N310, N311 T310 indicates physical failure 200 to 300

T311 10000 to 150000 ms, RRC reestablishment T3446 T3460 supervises authentication request.NAS timer T3470 sueprvises identity request. NAS timer
T3410 UE timer supervises attach request T3417, T3421 or T3430 retransmission timers T3421 UE timer supervises detach procedure

RRC Setup Success Rate (Signaling) PRACH (SIB2)

prach-ConfigurationIndex, Max Preambles, contention/non contention (specified RACH), Power ramping step DB0 to DB2, Preamble initial received target power DBM_104 to DBM_100, RA retries, PreambInitRcvTargetPwr DBM_120(-120dBm) to DBM_92(-92dBm) performace of cell at the cost of interference on others, RachAlgoSwitch, maxCrRa4Dl, PRACH cyclic shift, prachFreqOff, prachPwrRamp, preambTxMax, raContResoT, raMsgPoffGrB, raNondedPreamb, raPowRampSetup, raRespWinSize, rootSeqIndex, ulpcIniPrePwr, ulpcRarespTpc, RACH density Early contention resolution can improve the Access success rate accessBarringTime s32 T303 numberOfPRBsForDynamicallyScheduledPUSCHForRACHRegion, maxHARQmsg3Tx, maxRACHTransmitPower, pRACHPreambleDetectorThreshold, pRACHpowerSetting, prachFrequencyOffset, preambleInitialReceivedTargetPower, preambleTransMax, preambleTransmitPowerStepSize, adaptiveMsg3PowerControlEnable, sctpAccessAssociationMaxRetrans, sctpAccessEstablishmentMaxRetries

RA (Random Access) update for service request, location update, and paging. RACH is provided to UE. o Contention (preamble collision) initial RRC connection establishment, RRC connection reestablishment, uplink data arrival o Non Contention (preambles allocated) handover, downlink data arrival o BackOffSwitch adjust the back off time dynamically to relieve load on RACH o RACH process influences the call setup delay, handover delay, data resuming delay, call setup success rate and handover success rate. o AcBarringFactorForCall P95(95%) to 80 will discourage access ATTACH o Incorrect LAC at MSC, TAC at MME T3412 TAC update T3414 UE attach with NAS S1_implicitDetachTimer S1_MobileReachableTimer o SON

RACH load (call arrival rate, HO rate, tracking area update, traffic pattern) Interference on PUSCH channel Paramaters that can be controlled are PRACH configuration index, RACH preamble split, RACH backoff parameter value, PRACH transmission power control parameters

Discarded Paging Messages over the Uu Interface, pagingDiscardTimer 3 to 5s, T3413, , DefaultPagingCycle or DRX cycle rf128 to fr64 shorter paging cycle. AS (UE & eNodeB) RRC service request, location update, and paging, maxCrPgDl, maxNumRrc, pagingNb, raCrntiReuseT, modificationPeriodCoeff 2, rrcConnReestActive 0 to 1 RRC success, cellRange 15 to 10Km success, coverageIndicator, nrOfRrcConnectedReserved, dlGbrAdmThresh, T=defaultpagingcycle 1T to 1/2T less paging time, high paging traffic, fewer groups, more UEs in a group, nB T to 1/4T fewer and larger groups, less paging capacity T=defaultpagingcycle 1T to 2T more paging time, low paging traffic, more groups, less UEs in a group, Nb ONET (1T) to TWOT(2T) more paging capacity maxNoOfPagingRecords3 to 5 more UEs in a paging message Single paging message can accommodate a maximum of 16 paging records. Small TA more LAC updates and chances of missing paging message increase
pagingForceMCSmin -1 to 2 min MCS scheme

NAS (UE & MME) procedure consists of attach, detach, tracking area (TA) update, service request, and extended service request.

RRC connection reestablishment caused by handover failure, RRC reconfiguration failure, or radio link failure downlink data arrival. uplink data arrival.
initial coding is set by parameter

CCCH o SRB-0 o RRC(SRB-1) over DCCH Connection Request (Over CCCH from UE to eNodeB) UE
context/SRB1 allocation RRC Connection Setup (eNodeB to UE) RRC Connection Setup Complete (UE to eNodeB) Initial UE Message (eNodeB to MME) Initial Context Setup message (MME to eNodeB) Security Mode command (eNodeB to UE)RRC Connection Reconfiguration message(eNodeB to UE) RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete message (UE to eNodeB)

o RRC(SRB-2) for ERABover DCCH,

Signaling Link Release RRC Release UeInactiveTimer 1800 to 2000s, load rebalancing

ERAB Setup Success Rate (VoIP) ERAB Setup Success Rate (All) o E-RAB establishment = Signaling Radio Bearer-2 (SRB2) establishment and Data Radio Bearer (DRB)
establishment. ERAB=RB(Um)-S1(S1)

o Radio Network Unavailability Rate 9 Radio Bearers RadioBeare rs _QCI _ 1 (highest) to 9

o RRC reconfiguration establishment, modification and Release of RBs

o SRB2 Inititial Context Setup Request (MME to eNodeB) RRC connection reconfiguration
(enodeB to UE) RRC connection reconfiguration complete (UE to eNodeB) Intial context setup (eNodeB to MME) ERAB setup request (MME to eNodeB) RRC reconfiguration (enodeB to UE) RRC reconfiguration complete (UE to eNodeB) ERAB setup response (eNodeB to MME)

o DRB ERAB modify request (MME to eNodeB) RRC connection Reconfiguration (eNodeB to UE)
RRC Reconfiguration complete(UE to eNodeB) ERAB modify response(eNodeB to MME). 8 DRB max.

csFallbackPrio, s1RetryTimer, CS Fall-Back feature, GoldServiceArpThd 5 to 8 access, Qci1HoThd 90 to 95 access, NewGoldServiceOffset 10 to 5 access to gold at the cost of silver/copper,
a2TimeToTriggerRedirect, ocAcProbFac, acBarSig, sigAcProbFac, addAUeRrHo, qRxLevMinUtra

RAC is based on No. of RRCs and active users, maxNumActDrb

RRM, Dynamic Resource Allocation = Scheduling, resources modified are PRBs, Power, PDCCH/PUCCH Resources, TX rank, baseband power, UlBasebandCapacity DlBasebandCapacity

Channels o Downlink Control Channels PCFICH (no of symbols in PDCCH depending upon signaling), maxNrSymPdcch, PDCCH (scheduling, Downlink control info-DCI, MIMO mode, precoding, modulation, SIB,
paging, broadcast, RACH response) DCI-0 uplink scheduling, RB group assignment, UL grant DCI-1 modulation, TPC, coding, RB assignment Resource allocation type-0 Resource allocation type-1 Resource allocation type-2 Resource indication Value-RIV (like pointer) DCI-2 downlink shared channel assignments in case of closed loop spatial Mux DCI-2A downlink shared channel assignments in case of open loop spatial Mux DCI-3 TPC CQI request cFI 1 to 2 increase in no. of PDCCH symbols, dynamicCFIEnabled initial coding is based on control data volume PHICH ack/nack PBCH MIB 40 ms, pBCHPowerOffset, initial coding is set by parameter PSS & SSS symbol and frame timing as well as cell identities RS reference signals for cell recognition, channel estimation, path loss estimation, and handover measurement. soundRsEnabled. srsBandwidth, srsHoppingBw, srsPwrOffset,

o Uplink channels o PUCCH ack/nack, channel quality indication (CQI) reports, precoding matrix information (PMI)

PCI 504 = 168 (secondary x 3 (primary group) PDSCH for downlink data, deliver RA-RNTI,TA, uplink grant, contention response by eNB, Pb 0 to 3 & ReferenceSignalPwr 182 to 200 (20dBm) high coverage/capacity but interference on others, PDSCH power boosting, initial coding is set by parameter Paging initial coding is set by parameter

and rank indication (RI) for MIMO, and scheduling requests (SR). Control info is ent on this channel if PUSCH is not assigned to UE, pucchSize, pZeroNominalPucch, noOfPucchSrUsers,

o PUSCH data, freq hopping can be used, Intra-frame or Inter frame hopping, type 1 or 2 hopping
demodulation reference signal is used for channel estimation sounding reference signal provides uplink channel quality CQI 16 values representing modulation scheme and coding format, pZeroNominalPusch -103 (power), HoppingMode HoppingOffset,

o PRACH Preambles, initial access, handover, UL sync and UL SCH resource requests. initial
coding is set by parameter, NCS(prachCs)

o DRS Demodulation reference signals for channel estimation o Sounding reference signals (SRS) are used to control frequency-dependent scheduling by the o POWER CONTROL
eNodeB and PSrsOffsetDeltaMcsDisable -30 to -15 increase power of SRS. Estimate channel quality, transmitted where there is no user data Measurement messages are sent

o FPC Fractional Power Control, applicable on Cell-specific reference signal, PBCH. estimation, and
o o o handover measurement. Commands are sent through DCI Reference signal power -57, PCFICH power -3175, PBCH power -3174, Synchronization signals power, -3173, DBCH power -3172, Paging power -3171, Rach respond power -3170, Prs Power -3169 SINR target and CQI, Downlik ICIC, scheduling affect power control ICIC SON can change parameters HII, OI and DL TX Power indicator. ICIC changes scheduling strategies on serving and neighbor cells CellDlpcPdschPa (enable PC or even power distribution) partOfRadioPower 100, confOutputPower 20 to 40, confOutputPower, maximumTransmissionPower, rlfailureT, noutsyncInd, MinpwrRL, MinpwrMa, qRxLevMinInterF, dFpucchF1, dlPathlossChg, dlpcMimoComp, enablePcPdcch, p0NomPucch, p0NomPusch, pMax, pMaxIntraF, pMaxOwnCell, rxPowerScaling, tpcStepSize, ulpcAccuEnable, ulpcAlpha, ulpcEnable, ulpcIniPrePwr, ulpcLowlevCch, ulpcPucchEn, ulpcReadPeriod, ulpcUplevCch, ulpcUpqualCch, pMaxUtra, networkSignallingValue NS_01 (UE power attenuation) Power Control of Signals ReferenceSignalPwr 182(18dBm), offset of Sync signal SchPwr 0, PbchPwr -600(-3dB), PcfichPwr -600(-3dB), They affect the coverage. The cell-specific reference signal is used for cell recognition, channel estimation, path loss, Scaling factor Pb 1 to 3 (01,2,3) High Power of Reference signal but at the cost of PDSCH, CellUlpcDedic, referenceSignalPower PRACH PreambInitRcvTargetPwr DBM_104(-104dBm) to -102 , PwrRampingStep DB2 to DB4, retries, Increase in Power more interference but good accessibility, FilterRsrp PDCCH Carrying RACH Response, Paging Messages, SIBs. RaRespPwr, PagingPwr -3171, DbchPwr, They affect accessibility. Increase in Power more interference but good accessibility. PDCCH (RRC or SD)PC is dynamic w.r.t SIR targets and Static based on PdcchPwrDedi larger value less drops but less UEs accommodated, throughput and accessibility is affected, PdcchBndPcSw is the switch for dynamic PC. maxNrSymPdcch, PHICH carries HARQ and affects throughput. PC is dynamic w.r.t SIR targets and Static based on PhichPcOff, PhichResource 1 to 2 more control resources. SINRRS(based on CQI) SINRTarget then increased power PDSCH Increase Pb and Pa to increase power of PDSCH. PaCenterUe PA_0, PPDSCH_A, PO_PDSCH,
pDCCHPowerOffsetSymbol1, paOffsetPdsch, pDCCHPowerControlMaxPowerDecrease

o o o o

o o o o o

In Dynamic scheduling: CQI, transmission block, GBR, AMBR are considered to arrive at Pa value In Semi-persistent scheduling: BLER target is considered ICIC informs if user is at the centre or edge PUSCH (UE) affects throughput ,PCMAX, Alpha (0.4 to 0.8) good for cell edge users but not of system performance, P0NominalPUSCH -67 to -58 large value throughput of the cell increases but network decreases, DeltaMcsEnabled 0 to 1 MCS value affects power control and throughput increases

Dynamic SINR based PH, RBs, RBs and OI of neighbor Semi persistent BLER PUCCH (UE) affects throughput. The PUCCH carries the ACK/NACK information, CQIs, and schedule request (SR) information related to downlink data. DeltaFPUCCHFormat1, PucchAlgoSwitch, P0NominalPUCCH -105 to -100 increases throughput but decreases network throughput


o SRS for uplink channel estimation and uplink timing, PSRS OFFSET, low power low performance o maximumTransmissionPower, confOutputPower, sectorPower, pMaxInterF,
o o o RaRspPwr PchPwr DbchPwr SchPwr PbchPwr PcfichPwr PrsPwr Open loop PC is based on path loss, broadcasted/RRC parameters

o PaPcOff o Closed Loop PC is based on UL level and quality measurements, CELL_PWR_RED LOAD CONTROL
o T320 RacAlgoSwitch enable admission and load control algo, MlbAlgoSwitch load balancing algo ulAccGbrAdmThresh loadTargetForOCNS RB based loadTargetForOCNSonPDCCH Power based Load Monitoring Resource Limitation Indications Downlink power limitation indication PUCCH resource limitation indication Sounding resource limitation indication PUSCH Transport resource limitation indication Cell Congestion AqmAlgoSwitch (queueing at the cost of integrity) PRB usage, QoS satisfaction rate of GBR services, and resource limitation, DlRbHighThd 95 to 90 to encourage load control UlRbHighThd 95 to 90 Load control QOS Satisfaction Rate, based on QCI, admission based on QOS Admission Control Check UE capability Resource prediction or QoS satisfaction rate of Admitted services or check no. of PRBs Resource: Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP), SRB for location updates and detach, GoldUserArpThd 5 to 4 will increase priority, MaxNonGbrBearerNum 3000 to 4000 will enhance admission. By limiting the number of PRBs used by GBR services, admission control increases the admission success rate QoS: admission threshold for new gold services is QcixHoThd plus NewGoldUserOffset. Service preemption and Redirection, PreemptionArpThd 5(ARP value) to 3 to encourage preemption MaxNonGBRBearerNum 3000 to 4000 admission GbrRbUseHighProportion, dlAccGbrAdmThresh Load Balancing Intra-Frequency CIO(for connected mode), Qoffset in idle mode, Increase CIO and decrease Qoffset IntraFreqMlbThd 60 to 50 for traffic shifting, LoadOffset 8 to 5,Neighbor with the lowest load is considered or in A category Auto adjust CIO(for connected mode), Qoffset in idle mode CIO decrease to discourage HO to neighbor InterFreqMlbThd 60 to 55 InterRatMlbThd 75 to 70 unidirectional only, based on UE attributes, service attributes, load factors, and system performance. LoadExchangePrd 10s to 8 load control, imLoadBalancingActive, threshServingLowHystMin, threshXHighHystMin Congestion Control


o o

Preemption of GBR services with low energy efficiency rate (EER) PreemptionArpThd 5 to 3 congestion relief GBR service rate downsizing CopperGbrCongProportion 90% to reduction 80 reduction congestion relief


Qci1CongThd 65 + CongRelOffset 20 < Qci1HoThd 90 to 85 congestion relief? QcixHoThd is small overall QoS satisfaction rate of the admitted services is low but the admission of incoming handovers is easy and drop rate may increase. Energy efficiency rate (EER) depend upon data amount, PRB used, Downlink Power. More data with less power efficiency if ARP is >= LdcMeaArpThd 10 to 5 EER is calculated LdcMeaArpThd 10 to 13 congestion relief but drops increase

Call Drop Rate (VoIP) Service Drop Rate (All) Radio Network Unavailability Rate
pZeroNominalPusch RAB Failures ERAB relase causes (normal,abnormal,HO, congestion, unavailability), ERAB modification causes, CQI measurement, MAC traffic retransmissions, no of users/edge users,PDCP discards/packet loss, UE context releases, Check RACH and power parameters Raw counters, Traces, Layer3, DT, PM events for diagnosis, CSFallBackBlindHoCfg CQI 0 to 15, MCS 0 to 31, QC1 to QC9, RANK 1 to 4 T310 indicates physical failure 200 to 300

UeInactiveTimer 1800 to 2000s T321

Interference o IRC works at physical layer MIMO o ICIC works at MAC layer, adjust center CCU and edge CEU UE loading
dlInterferenceManagementActive switch, noOfRxAntennas, tHODataFwdReordering 50 to 100 ms

o tInactivityTimer, a5B2MobilityTimer, s1RetryTimer, tHODataFwdReordering, cellRange 15 to 10Km

low drops, coverageIndicator, ulInterferenceManagementActive, pMaxServingCell MIMO o Fading=Variance in SINR, 6dB gain with 4 antennas, adjust antenna weights to either minimize interference gain (MRC) white Noise or maximize signal gain (IRC) colored interference, Closed loop for slow moving and open loop for fast moving E-RAB Release Service, handover, actRedirect, taTimerMargin, addAUeRrHo, dlTargetBler, p0NomPusch, riEnable, riPerOffset, taMaxOffset, taTimer, ulamcSwitchPer, qQualMinUtra, qRxLevMinUtra DeltaPreambleMsg3 4 to 6, DeltaFPUCCHFormat2a DELTAF2(2dB), P0NominalPUCCH The definition of an abnormal release is that there shall be buffered data to be transmitted at the time of release release of the E-RAB had a negative impact on the end-user. o Voice release, normalized to releases o PS releases, normalized to session time


T301 tTimeAlignmentTimer (Timer for TA UL sync) T3411 failure in NAS signaling T3410 failure in NAS signaling T3430 failure in NAS signaling T3417 failure in NAS signaling T3440

groupHoppingEnabled, isRrcReEstablishmentAllowed, isS1EnhancementsAllowed, isTrafficBasedContextReleaseAllowed, vswrUrgentThreshold 20 to 15 early trigger of alarm, minimumCQIForFSS, connTimer, hARQMaxTimer, initialMCSIndexForBearerSetup, mIMOMode, sctpAccessPathMaxRetrans

Closed Loop PC is based on UL level and quality measurements, CELL_PWR_RED, upper and lower thresholds


General Causes o Path imbalance, connectors, hardware, antenna tilt, serving/neighbor config, discontinuous coverage,
parameter settings, interference, cell degraded, PCI collisions,unavailabilities, check equipment health,

T304 supervises the Intra-LTE HO

Events o A1(stop Inter-freq/Inter-RAT meas due to good quality), A2(start Inter-fre/Inter-RAT meas due to
good quality) RRC Connection Release with Redirect, A3(start intra-freq HO due to good neighbor) better cell HO, A4(start inter-freq HO due to good neighbor, B1 (start inter-RAT HO due to good neighbor), A5 coverage HO a3offset (serving) 30 to 40 discourage HO, timeToTriggerA3 40 to 64, hysteresisA2Sec (neighbor) 10 to 20, hysteresisPm, reportAmountA2Prim 1 to 2 discourage A2, reportAmountA3, reportIntervalA2Prim MS120 to MS240, reportQuantityA2Prim, timeAndPhaseSynchCritical, x2BlackList, x2retryTimerStart, reportIntervalPm MS_480 to MS_640, removeNcellTime 1 to 2 min, b1ThresholdEcNoUtra, hysteresisA3 3dB, timeToTriggerA3 320 ms, filterCoefficientEUtraRsrp 4, tHODataFwdReordering 300 to 400 ms UE Level Oscillating Handover Minimization feature

o SON o AnrSwitch, MroSwitch, TpeSwitch o Power Control


Reference signal power -57, PCFICH power -3175, PBCH power -3174, Synchronization signals power, -3173, DBCH power -3172, Paging power -3171, Rach respond power, -3170, Prs Power -3169

o Neighbor-ANR maxReportCellsPm, measurementPriority, cellAddRankLimitEutran, isRemoveAllowed,

cellAddRsrpOffsetEutran, cellAddRsrpThresholdEutran, removeNrelTime, ctrlMode, maxMeasInterFreqEUtra, filterCoefficientEUtraRsrq, dlInterferenceManagementActive, anrUesThreshInterFMax, minBestCellHoAttempts 1, x2BlackList, anrIntraFreqState, ANR add cell threshold(%),Fast ANR PCI report amount, FastAnrRsrpThd, Fast ANR checking period, covTriggerdBlindHoAllowed ANR is suggested for early phases anrEnable, isBlindPsHoToUtraFddAllowed Event triggered, Detection of missing neighboring, PCI collisions and abnormal neighboring cell coverage NRTCellHOStatNum no of HOs with N and ANR DelCellThd 60 to 50% discourage deletion, HOSR with N, FastAnrRprtAmount, Drawbacks, HO delayed, data delay Periodic or Fast, detects only missing neighbor, FastAnrRprtInterval 2048 ms to 1024 ms will speed up the ANR high speed, FastAnrIntraRatMeasUeNum 5 to 7 will improve HOSR. Periodic measurements increase power and decrease throughput. FastAnrRsrpThd -102 to -90 make ANR tough URBAN Manual configure black and white list, intrFrBCList, intraEnbPrio, statusRepReq, A3 offsets, a3ReportInterval, a3TimeToTrigger, addAUeRrHo, addAUeTcHo, cqiPerNp, dlsUsePartPrb, maxNumAUeHo, p0NomPusch, p0UePusch, pMax, taMaxOffset, threshold1 CsfbHoUtranTimeToTrig, HO Parameter-MRO minimizes HO failures, service drops, Early/Drag/Ping-pong by adjusting CIO. Enable during initial phase, MRO (Mobility Robust Optimization) feature optimizes the handover parameters automatically. Deals premature handover, delayed handover, and ping-pong handover. It changes the CIO, NcellOptThd, PingpongTimeThd, PingpongRatioThd 10 to 5 % (to encourage MRO), MRO optimization period(min), Ncell optimization threshold(%) CIO, PingpongTimeThd 5 to 3, PingpongRatioThd 5 to 3 SON or MRO OptPeriod 1440 to 1300, OptParaThd 70 to 80% HOSR SON Ealry Hos>Delayed Hos decrease CIO of neighbor

2. Detect early or late HO

o IRAT HO a2ThresholdRsrpPrim, a2ThresholdRsrpSec, b2Threshold1Rsrp,

Uemeasurementsactive, triggerQuantityA2Sec, hysteresisA2Prim, timeToTriggerA2Prim, isForcedDrxForCsFallbackAllowed no to yes, isX2LoadIndicationAllowed, threshold2EutraRsrq 8 (-7,-6.5) to 9 (-10,-9.5) discourage A5, tReselectionEUTRAN,

o a3offset 30 to 35 discourage A3 or adding Intra freq neighbor, a1ThresholdRsrqPm o pMaxGer, qRxLevMinGer KPIs handover success rate, call drop rate, and ping-pong handover rate are set per QCI. RACH-PDCCH
CIO decrease to discourage HO to neighbor. Intra-Frequency CIO(for connected mode), Qoffset in idle mode LTE system uses hard handovers RRC = connected mode, HO Types, Coverage, Load, service based, Measurements gaps=compressed mode, frequency-specific offset 0 to 2 encourages HO PBGT HO minBestCellHoAttempts, qOffsetFreq Event-Triggered Periodical Reporting Hysteresis, time-to-trigger, filtering coefficient for L3-

EutranFilterCoeffRSRP FC0 to FC2 will delay HO, reporting configuration.

Intra-frequency Handover Out Success Rate

o o

Cell group ID is critical In load based, CIO is changed automatically A3 Mn + Ofn + Ocn Hys > Ms + Ofs + Ocs + Off (IntraFreqHoA3Offset) MeaBandwidth MBW-50 MBW-60, QoffsetFreq, IntraFreqHoA3Offset 2 to 4 will discourage HO, IntraFreqHoA3Hyst 2 to 4(2dB), IntraFreqHoA3TimeToTrig 40 to 60 ms, IntraFreqHoA3TrigQuan, IntraRATHoMaxRprtCell 4 to 6, IntraFreqHoRprtInterval 240 to 480ms, EutranFilterCoeffRSRP FC6 to FC8, IntraRATHoRprtAmount r2 to r4 High values for cells with large signal fading variance CellIndividualOffset (Auto) dB-0 to dB-2 will encourage HO


o Measurement Gaps

Ocs less value will discourage HO Ocn (connected mode) high will encourage HO Retry and Penalty Handover failure cell selection procedure RRC connection re-establishment

GapPatternType GAP measurement pattern1 Tperiod 40ms, TGAP 6ms GAP measurement pattern2 Tperiod 80ms, TGAP 6ms RRC connection re-establishment towards the selected cell only Blind HO In the case of a load-based or service-based handover, the eNodeB may select a target cell in the absence of the measurement information, in order to reduce the delay

Inter-frequency Handover Out Success Rate o A2 Ms + Hys < Thresh InterFreqHoA1A2Hyst 4 to 6(3dB), InterFreqHoA2ThdRSRQ -24(-12dB) to -28(-14dB), o A4 Mn + Ofn (QoffsetFreq) + Ocn Hys > Thresh QoffsetFreq 0 to 3 , InterFreqHoA4Hyst 4 to 6 InterFreqHoA1ThdRSRQ -20 to -22, InterFreqLoadBasedHoA4ThdRSRP -103 to -105 Timer304 GEAN IRAT timer Load Based
o Based on frequency capability of UEs, ARPs, and resource usage

Handover In Success Rate Inter-RAT Handover Out Success Rate (LTE to CDMA) Inter-RAT Handover Out Success Rate (LTE to WCDMA) o InterRatHoA2ThdRSRQ -20 to -22, InterRatHoA1ThdRSRQ -20 to -18,
InterRATHoUtranB1ThdEcN0 -20 to -16, LdSvBasedHoGeranB1Thd -98 to -94, UtranFilterCoeffRSCP FC0 to FC2, InterRatHoRprtAmount, InterRatHoGeranRprtInterval

o o

T311 10000 to 150000 ms

Inter-RAT Handover Out Success Rate (LTE to GSM) o


GeranFilterCoeff FC0 to FC2 T304 ms4000 to ms8000 redirectionInfoRefPrio1, OffsetFreq, ThreshXHigh, ThreshXLow, PciConflictAlmSwitch


ulChBw, redBwMaxRbDl 10 to 15 PRBs Maximum number of PRBs assigned in downlink, tPeriodicBsr 20 to 60s. Throughput depends upon o Channel environment (e.g. stationary or mobile, speed) and fading conditions. o Reception conditions impaired by traffic load levels, and by interference between the cells, in short by the user's SINR. o Network layout, type of antenna. o Position of users in the cell (implies e.g. path loss and fading). o Restriction of user data rates (e.g. by terminal category) o Link sharing weights (Quality of Service (QoS) configuration) o Backhaul capacity o Troubleshoot Throughput Check alarms Check UE capability Check AMBR of user service Check parameters like dlChannelBandwidth/ redBwMaxRbDl noOfUsedTxAntennas, pZeroNominalPucch, noOfUsedTxAntennas Check Licenses 64-QAM Check Radio IE CQI, MCS, PRBs, Transmission mode,RI, HARQ, RLC retransmisssions, CFI, buffer status, PHR, rxPowerReport, TTI scheduling, RLC discards, tStatusProhibit Check reports from L1 to MAC Check UE variables, ARP,buffer status, PHR report of UE, interference, pZeroNominalPusch of neighbours/serving, Max PRBs allowed Check PDCCH, if CCE are occupied by donwlink grants than UL grants cannot be scheduled QoS profile QCI, priority bit, AMBR, ARP Transport Network 1. GE link counters (packet delays, errors, re-trans),SCTP, synch, IpInterface 2. Use wireshark (throughput result and signalling analysis)

Service Downlink Average Throughput Service Uplink Average Throughput AQM (automated queue management)-discard large data volume, relieves queue congestion, reduce
transmission delay ROHC (Robust Header Compression) Traffic Volume, no of RBs, MCS coding, usage of PRB (Physical resource blocks), MAC retransmission, no of users/edge users CQI 0 to 15, MCS 0 to 31, QC1 (highest) to QC9, RANK 1 to 4, modulation scheme RRM, Dynamic Resource Allocation = Scheduling, resources modified are PRBs, Power, PDCCH/PUCCH Resources, TX rank, baseband power, UlBasebandCapacity DlBasebandCapacity Common Low Data Rate Issues: TCP/UPD/IP Config, transport network, cable swaps, pmIfInOctetsLink1Hi, CRC errors, RxPower at eNB, GINR on DL, TA, sync
isLargePdcpSduAllowed, maxNbOfCallCapacityLicensing, sRPeriodicity 10 to 5ms, numberOfPRBsForDynamicallyScheduledPUSCHForCentralRegion 16 to 20, srsBandwidthConfiguration, dlBasicSchedulingMode, dlResourceAllocationType, dlSchedulerMode, expectedNumberOfUEPerTTIForDLRR, maxNumberOfRBsPerUE,

nbrUserThrFDS, maximumFSSUsers, operationalMode, pmcMaxResultStringBlockSize, mIMOMode

Reducing Low CINR impact o Resource Block Group Assignments o Frequency Selective Scheduling o Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) KPITYPE (alarm) Power is distributed along subcarriers, high bandwidth less power less coverage NAS authentication, service request, connection setup MimoAdaptiveParaCfg (Transmission mode fixed 3/adaptive), ECGI, PCI, scheduling recources, LBBP (baseband resources), Qam64Enabled, RachAlgoSwitch, AqmAlgoSwitch (queueing at the cost of integrity), BfAlgoSwitch beamforming algo, DlSchSwitch, DlschStrategy (DLSCH_PRI_TYPE_RR(RR) to DLSCH_PRI_TYPE_MAX_CI(MAX C/I)), UlSchSwitch, BtServiceWeight, PdcchSymNumSwitch, MaxReportCellNum, measBdw, dlTrmBw, ulTrmBw, drbPrioDl, packLoss, resType, ulsBSD, ulsPrio, prio, resType, raLargeMcsUl, PucchRS, dSrTransMax, deltaPreMsg3, deltaTfEnabled, dl64QamEnable, dlCellPwrRed, dlChBw, dlMimoMode, dlRBM, harqMaxTrDl, hopBwPusch, hopModePusch, iniMcsDl, iniPrbsUl, maxBitrateDl, maxNumAUeHo, maxNumUeDl, mbrSelector, mimoOlCqiThD, minBitrateDl, pMax, redBwEnDl, redBwMaxRbDl, redBwRpaEnUl, riEnable, ulChBw, ulTargetBler, ulamcEdgFugEn, ulamcSwitchPer, ulatbEnable, trafficType, rtoMax, qQualMinUtra, qRxLevMinUtra, proportional fair scheduler, Preamble format affects UL throughput, Traffic Marking (transport), PRB, PDSCH power boosting More users service fair bit rate, Less users resource fair spatial multiplexing and transmit diversity Adaptive Transmission bandwidth ulatbEventPer preamble sequence subset uplink resources MIMO featureStateDualAntDlPerfPkg, noOfTxAntennas The resources managed by the downlink scheduler are downlink Physical Resource Blocks, downlink power, PDCCH capacity and base-band processing capability. The resources managed by the uplink scheduler are block resources for PUSCH, PDCCH, PHICH and base-band processing capacity. 100 simultaneous UEs, 8 DRBs max per User, licenseCapacityConnectedUsers, licenseCapacityDlBbCapacity,, number of OFDM symbols for PDCCH PUCCH Overdimensioning feature for Rural sites DRX introduces extra delay to scheduling EnterDrxSwitch, DrxInactivityTimer, DrxReTxTimer, ShortDrxCycle, FddEnterDrxThd, TrmSwitch, DiscardTimer, UeMaxRetxThreshold, ENodeBMaxRetxThreshold, UlschPriorityFactor, DlMinGbr, PreAllocationWeight, PrioritisedBitRate, LogicalChannelPriority, SriPeriod, UlschPriorityFactor, defPagCyc noOfPucchSrUsers 50, nrOfSymbolsPdcch 1, allowedMeasBandwidth, channelBandwidth, noOfPucchSrUsers, noOfRxAntennas, priority, pucchOverdimensioning 0, schedulingStrategy (round robin to strict priority), ulChannelBandwidth, ulMinBitRate, pdb, dscp, dlMinBitRate, resourceAllocationStrategy, dlChannelBandwidth, dlTransNwBandwidth, dlFrequencyAllocationProportion, ulTransNwBandwidth, dlMaxRetxThreshold, mtu, tPollRetransmitDl, rlcMode, dlPollPDU, tReorderingDl, ulMaxRetxThreshold, ulPollPDU, dlMaxHARQTx, priority bit o Poor Uplink P0NominalPUSCH -67 to -58 uplink thorughput at the cost of network performance o Increase PreambInitRcvTargetPwr, PwrRampingStep improved accessibility and throughput


LINK BUDGET TX Diversity of MIMO, Adaptive array gain, occupied sub-carrier bandwidth, RX diversity
Gain, Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC Gain)-requires two antennas and software in UE, HARQ Gains Propagation Models Hata upto 1Ghz, Cost-Hata 2Ghz, Greenstien 2 Ghz, Ray Tracing (Dense Urban). Propagation related parameters mean frequency dependent parameters, LTE is interference limited, System gain, also known as the maximum allowable pathloss, use fixed interference/load margin or Monte Carlo simulation


LTE network poses also similar effects such as network breathing due to UL interference and cell range dependency upon user data rate. PRACH planning is done in LTE. COST model is used by Nokia. Low Tx power for small bandwidth, high Tx power for large bandwidth. Ray Trace model for URBAN with vectors provided LTE network poses also similar effects such as network breathing due to UL interference and cell range dependency upon user data rate DL load as % of total capacity, UL load in terms of interference margin MAPL Signal Strength threshold of Coverage based planning Best server areas should be contiguous and should not be fragmented. F 5 to 20Mhz RSRP reduce and RSRQ increases with RSSI being constant

Self Healing, Optimization, configuration Coverage and capacity optimization MimoAdaptiveSwitch DefDopplerLevel affects all KPIs Energy Savings Load generator ailgActive, dlPrbLoadLevel, trafficModelPrb Interference Reduction, Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) Beamforming Automated Configuration of Physical Cell Identity Mobility robustness optimisation Mobility Load balancing optimisation Random Access Channel Optimisation Automatic Neighbour Relation Function ROHC compression feature CounterCheckTimer, CounterCheckTimer Inter-cell Interference Coordination over X2 interface, ReportInterval, MaxReportCellNum, ReportAmount, TriggerQuantity, Hysteresis, TimeToTrigger, A3Offset neighbour cell list optimization interference control handover parameter optimization Quality of Service related parameter optimization load balancing RACH load optimization optimization of home base stations Adaptive Transmission bandwidth FTP and HTTP are sensitive to end-to-end delay Access Stratum b/w UE and eNodeB via RRC RRC idle RRC connected Non Access Stratum procedure consists of attach, detach, tracking area update, service request, and extended service request.

EMM-DEREGISTERED: EMM-REGISTERED: MME establishes and stores the UE context ECM-IDLE: ECM-CONNECTED: S1 connection is established,

3GPP causes ref 24.301 Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identifier (RA-RNTI) Subscriber/Cell/Interface/Cell traffic/terminal/traces ROHC (Robust header compression) PORTS and TRACE rbsUeTraceEventStreamingPort streamPortPmUeTrace streamStatusPmCellTrace streamStatusPmUeTrace A class Subnet mask, less networks (inter) but more Host (intra) B class Subnet mask

Internet Protocol

C class Subnet mask, 255=network address, 0=host address, more networks (inter) but less Hosts (intra) Default gateway (eNodeB IP address): Ping command, tracert, sniffer capture, show route SCTP is use for signaling e.g NBAP X2 and S1 are using GPRS Tunneling Protocol for User data (GTP-U) to transfer the user plane traffic. ICMP reports erros of IP e.g ping, arp The process of finding the new next hop after the network changes is called convergence 169.254.x.x IP addresses are self-assigned when your computer can't get an address any other way. It's an almost sure sign of a problem The Domain Name System (DNS) is used by RBSs to translate host names of other nodes (for example RBSs, MMEs, synchronization servers) to IP addresses Registered State o PDN,TAU update IDLE state o No NAS signaling b/w UE and network CONNECTED state: o RRC b/w UE and eNodeB o S1 b/w UE and MME

Ericsson tools CCR, Nexplorer, Auto-integration, TRUC, LTE troubleshooting WIKI, Moshell/BB/RU commands, Moshell, ITK,FlowFox,LTEDecoder,TeRouter/TeViewer,Multimon,uetrace,Japy,scheduling_parser,CDA
Web,Hammerhead Web,LTELogTool,TET.pl,decode,LTE Trace Tools, UE Trace Recording (UETR) Cell Trace Recording (CTR), mtd-signal trace COMMAND LINE MP, RU, Moshell, RRU, BB, AMOS, BCM TRACES CPP, baseband LPP, MTD, RDR, RRT, RBS, UE, T&E, HiCap, UE, Cell, CEX, NSD LTE torubleshooting wiki DUMP configuration report, Dumpcap (network traffic) SYSTEM CRASH DUMPS baseband core, Post Mortem. LOGS alarm, availability, HW, audit, trace&error, autointegration, board error, event, system, upgrade trace, security, exceptions, trace-error, dump network traffic EVENTS RB&UE Trace, EHB, exceptions Ericsson Network IQ Reports COLI, NCLI,OSS-RC, MicroCPP, ANR, equinox PM-initiated UE Measurements Layer 3 and S1/X2 (Flowfox, LTEDecoder, scripts), LTELogtool LLDM for data rate diagnosis Cell Traces are streamed using TCP while UE Traces are streamed using UDP, Iperf, TCP Optimizer, Filezilla (FTP), VLC (Streaming/media), Neoload (Web browsing), wireshark, Element Manager, AMOS,Netpersec(realtime thorughput), Iperf(inject TCP/UDP packets) Iperf generates TCP/UDP traffic Netpersec monitor thorughput MMR = Channel Feedback Report (CFR) Nethawk, wireshark (open source), TCP dump, Agilent Cell Trace files .ROP te e all Ft_RRC_ASN te e all Ft_S1AP_ASN te e all Ft_X2AP_ASN te e all Ft_LTE_EXCEPTION te e all LTE_EXCEPTION te e all CELL_CONFIG te e all Ft_RRC_CONN_SETUP te e all Ft_ANR_COMMON ENIQ ericssons tool like Optima Moshell commands Teviewer to view trace commands Te enable trace Pset UETR trace

Diff for parameter audit of RNC.zip Moshell rnc7 momd . power|pwr //list power control parameters set primarycpichpower pmr get specific KPI pmom get counter lgx, lgo alarm inv check licenses KO UE capability Te e get QCI, AMBR, ARP values COLI commands are for trouble shooting L12 features, RoHC, 4-way receive diversity, service based HO, System info-9 tunneling, preempt low priority users, oscillating HO minimization

NSN tools TTI Trace, Emil, LTE browser, BTS-Log, RF Unit console, Memory Dumper KPIs
Delay Delay Variation Latency, throughput, packet drop, Packet Loss Availability Service Access time is a Latency KPI

Event A1: Event A2: Event A3: Event A4:

Serving becomes better than absolute threshold; Serving becomes worse than absolute threshold; Neighbor becomes amount of offset better than serving; Neighbor becomes better than absolute threshold; Inter-Freq

Event A5: Serving becomes worse than absolute threshold1 AND Neighbor becomes better than another absolute threshold2. Event B1 Event B2 threshold Inter-RAT neighbor becomes better than threshold Inter-RAT neighbor becomes better than threshold and serving becomes worse than

The RRCConnectionReconfiguration message is the command to modify an RRC connection. It may convey information for measurement configuration, mobility control, radio resource configuration (including RBs, MAC main configuration and physical channel configuration) including any associated dedicated NAS information and security configuration. PDCP: integrity protection and ciphering; RLC: reliable and in-sequence transfer of information RSSI = wideband power= noise + serving cell power + interference power RSRP (dBm)= RSSI (dBm) -10*log (12*N), high BW less RSRP Value 00 (-140) to 97 (-44), step 1 Independent of load

RSRQ = N x RSRP / RSSI, high BW Value 00 (-19.5) to Value 34 (-3), step .5 Dependent on load

RSRQ -3 to -19, RSRP -140 to -44 RSRQ=RSRP/(RSSI/N) = RSRP*N/(IN_n + *12*N*Psc) and

SINR=S/(IN_m) SNR -15 to 40 CINR=RSRQ UE estimates SINR based on the Power Spectral Density of the downlink RS and PSD offset between PDSCH and RS. The SINR is Channel Quality Indicator (CQI). UE will report lower CQI values when using MIMO as opposed to SIMO in same RF environment (SINR), UE will typically use lower Modulation/MCS CQI 0 to 15, MCS 0 to 28 CINR -25 to 40dB RSRP -150 to -30 RSSI -120 to 0 UE PRACH TX Power -10 to 23 dBm RSRQ 0 to -40 BLER 0 to 100% tolerable till 10% FER 0 to 100% UE categories 1(low) to highest(5) Transmission modes Mode 1 to 9 (highest), open/closed loop, antenna ports, MIMO (tm3) vs. TxD (tm2) vs. SIMO (tm1) GINR Gain to interference and Noise Ratio A UE is said to be in session if any data on a DRB (UL or DL) has been transferred during the last 100 ms PHR (power headroom report). PSD SINR CQI Channel Feedback Report (CFR) transport format. RI i suded with MIMO link quality (SINR, BLER, HARQ OPP) MCS and coding rate TBS

eNodeB Hardware
D2U V2 (1 uCCM + 3 eCEM) TRDU (remote-radio-heads comprising of amplifiers and filters), 40W Tx power

DT Performance Metrics Air Interface o UE Tx power o RSSI o SINR o BLER o Retransmission statistics (HARQ and RLC) o Transport Format o Number of resource blocks (DL/UL) o Channel rank statistics o MIMO mode (Tx diversity or Spatial Multiplexing) o Serving sector o Location (GPS) o UE Velocity Throughput o Individual user throughput and aggregated sector throughput o UDP individual user throughput and aggregated sector throughput o TCP individual user throughput and aggregated sector throughput o User statistics (peak rates, average rates, standard deviations)

o Latency o U-plane latency o Connection set up times o Handover interruption time within the same site and across different sites

Open loop PC is based on path loss, broadcasted/RRC parameters Closed Loop PC is based on UL level and quality measurements The power per subcarrier will be higher in smaller bandwidths downlink coverage will be higher for smaller bandwidths than for larger ones Downlink AMC/fast AMC, SINR CQI modulation and coding scheme, per TTI, scheduling, Uplink AMC/ slow AMC, SRS, BLER modulation and coding scheme, scheduling, Emergency Downgrade, Fast Upgrade Current BLER and Target BLER CQI offset PESQ 4 (best) to 1(worst) SFN=system frame numer, 10ms, 0 to 1024 Sub-frame number, 1ms, 0 to 9 Paging Occasion = System and sub frame number SFNmode 4 40 ms THE UE reads P-SS and S-SS every 5ms to stay in synch. If UE successfully detected Cell ID/PCI, it means UE successfully completed the time-sync. Network not detected but signal bars are there RACH error There are 64 PRACH sequences. Same PRACH preamble from multiple UE reaches the NW at the same time. This kind of PRACH collision is called "Contention" Preamble format 0-4 Precoding matrix 0-3. Related to MIMO PDCCH format 0-3 Failure to decode SIB2 by the UE, will affect PRACH process PMI precoding matrix indication, (codebook index,no.of layers) Table, 36.211, reported in

case of TM=4
Transmission mode 1-7

PDCCH format 0(1)-3(8 CCEs)

T is the DRX cycle or defaultPagingCycle QCI 1(Highest) to 9(Lowest) RRC Connection Reconfiguration for measurement configuration, handover/mobility control, radio resource configuration (RBs, MAC, physical channel), dedicated NAS information and security configuration RACH procedure initial access, handover, RRC recon estb, Sync loss in RRC connected mode RBs/BW 25/5Mhz, 50/10, 75/15, 100/20 RRS Re-estb after UE tirggered RF failure, HO failure, RRC re-config failure For RSRP: RSRP based threshold for event evaluation. The actual value is IE value 140 dBm. For RSRQ: RSRQ based threshold for event evaluation. The actual value is (IE value 40)/2 dB. RSRQ_00 = RSRQ < -19.5, RSRQ_34= -3 RSRQ 36.133 PH Power headroom , is defined as the difference between the nominal UE maximum transmit power and the estimated power for PUSCH transmission PH_0= -23 PH < -22 & PH_62 = 39 PH < 40. Low value index means UE has limited power. To transmit more PRBs, more power is required EMM = EPS mobility management, timers ref: 10.2, 24.301 ESM = EPS session management, bearer assignment, timers ref: 10.3, 24.301 TA 0,1(156m) ,1282 (200km) RRC function SIB, RRC, connection, handover, paging, security message, NAS messages, selection/reselection CFI no. of scheduling bits, (number of OFDM symbols for PDCCH) vs. MCS vs. % scheduling HARQ TM Transmission mode 1-7, 7.2.3-0 36.213

CQI 0 to 15, MCS 0 to 31, QC1 to QC9, RANK 1 to 4

WCQI, wide-band CQI reported periodically 7(best)

SCQI, sub-band CQI, reported aperiodically on request from enodeb, 1(worst) to

RI Rank indicator, UE reports that info has been decoded from how many antennas, 2/4 layer spatial multiplexing 7.2.3-1 36.213, Assignable bits means the amount of data in the downlink buffer available for the scheduler to schedule for this UE. RLC DISCARDs will trigger TCP congestion control and lower throughput BSR buffer status report 0(0KB) to 64 (15KB), power headroom report Interference power > -104dBm Link adaptation considers PHR, recived power of UE and UL interference power QoS profile QCI, priority bit, AMBR, ARP DSCP differentiated servise code point. QCI is mapped to DSCP GTPU, GPRS tunneling protocol DCI Downlink scheduling control indicator, channel coding formats, which resource block carries your data, power control, transport format,HARQ, L1 signaling, DCI format 1, 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 2 or 2A UCI Uplink scheduling control indicator, it contains, SR, Ack/Nack, CQI. Transmistted in PUSCH is there is data and on PUCCH otherwise. Resource Indication Value (RIV),that informs the device which RB to use and which start offset to apply. Hopping bits are Type1 00,01,10, follows one pattern only

Type2 11 random based on subband, offset and mirror function. Unique to the cell

PDCCH format 0(low capacity) to 3(high signaling capacity) DL Scheduling of RBs is determined TYPE & DCI format

TYPE 0 to 2 DCI format 0,1A,1B,1C,2,3,3A

RB assignment is carried in RIV (resource indication value) RB= 1 slot x 12 carriers, resource block RGB = 4 RBs or 48 carriers If 20Mhz, 100 RBs and 25 RGBs RGB subset 0,1,2,3 1 RE = 1 carrier x symbol I REG=4 RE e.g. 1CCE = 9 REGs or 36 REs, 72 bits if REG-8bits 1, 2, 4 or 8 CCE(s) (1 CCE = 9 REGs = 9*4 REs = 72 bits Aggregation Level - a group of 'L' CCEs. (L can be 1,2,4,8) In order to get the assigned RB resources (and the location) in PDSCH, DCI bits and format TYPE has to be decoded 29 MSC schemes sector capacity is approximated by the harmonic mean of the MPR distribution LTE smart antenna arrays focuses the beam towards the user ARP allocation and retention priority. This determines if bearer can be dropped if congestions occurs, or it cause other bearers to be dropped C-RNTI, P-RNTI (Paging UE identifier), RA-RNTI(RACH), SI-RNTI(System information) TPC 0(-6dB) to 7(8dB) DCI format0/3 PUSCH channel TPC 0(-4dB) to 3(4dB) DCI format0/3 + TPC-PUSCH-C-RNTI PUCCH channel TPC 0(-1dB) to 3(3dB) DCI format0/3 + TPC-PUSCH-C-RNTI PDSCH Power is determined in the following manner If RS is not present in the RB of PDSCH, offset from RS power is defined by Pa, which is UE specific offset. Pa is signaled by higher layers and is changes every 1ms, values are -6 to 3 dB. If RS is present then Pb and antennaPortsCount together will determine the offset. It is cell specific and changes only when there is change in system message e.g if antennaPortsCount=1 and Pb=2 then Offset = -2.218

Tranmist diversity same stream sent on diff antennas Spatial diversity means diff stream on diff antennas

Cyclic Delay Diversity (CDD) Addition of antenna specific cyclic shifts Fast Power control is per slot Pcmax = min(p-Max,Pumax), Pcmax is max UE power

p-Max 23 dBm PuMax

o MPR (max power reduction) table 6.2.4-1 36.101
additionalSpectrumEmission =1 them MPR =0dB

RIV resource indication values indicates the starting position and number of RBs assigned. It is given in DCI-0 Assigned PRBs in layer3

In order to save signaling bits on the downlink control channel (physical downlink control channel, PDCCH), these two parameters are not explicitly signaled. Instead, a resource indication value (RIV) is derived which is signaled in the downlink control information on the PDCCH.

Alpha range 0,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7,0.8,0.9,1.0. It is used as path loss compensation factor as a trade-off between total uplink capacity and cell edge-data rate. Higher value will be good for cell edge user but not for the overall capacity due to high uplink power Short and Long DRX cycles are configured to trade off battery saving and latency PBR prioritized bit rate timeAlignmentTimer RBG a group of radio bearer with similar QoS requirements SRS uplink scheduling, BSR, PHR. SRS is uplink counterpart of CQI report for downlink scheduling Cylic shifts and sub-carrier offsets and used to define transmission combs for UEs or in other words schedule reference signals of UE, cell edge user cannot use srs-BandwidthConfig range 0(high bw) to 7 (Low bw) srs-Bandwidth range 0 (whole band) to 3 narrowest band Scheduling techniques

In dynamic scheduling, the resources are distributed in 1 ms intervals. Quick link adaptation In persistent scheduling, longer transmission period is allocated for user with the one grant. Poor link adaptation, fixed resources TB

RB Power is the power of 1 RB TX Power is the power of all assigned RBs TTI is subframe=1msec A cyclic shift in the time domain (post IFFT in the OFDM modulation) is equivalent to a phase rotation in the frequency domain (pre-IFFT in the OFDM modulation). Common SRS is also called Cell Specific SRS and Dedicated SRS is also called UE Specific SRS. MAC CE, MAC control info 1 PDCCH = 8 DCIs PDCCH Carries common control info RACH response, Broadcast, SIB, paging, UL TPC Dedicated control info Uplink scheduling information (DCI format 0) Downlink scheduling information (DCI format 1/1A/1B/2/2A) PUSCH/PUCCH TPC commands (DCI format 3/3A)

CASES Difference betwwen RRC or RAB congestion PRACH, not observable from TEMS. Check RF conditions, RACH parameters T304 Intra-LTE Hanodver failure TAC/LAC update CFI no. of scheduling bits, (number of OFDM symbols for PDCCH) vs. MCS vs. % scheduling HARQ, CFI= 3 for 1.4, 3 and 5 MHz system bandwidths and CFI= 2 for 10, 15 and 20 MHz system bandwidths Throughput was low because of low BSR and PHR No PHR left in the UE

Questions? Sounding reports SRS

MAC layer o MACContentionTimer o TATimerLength