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Essential English

for Seamen


..
2005

ISBN

. .
,
.

.

Aa
Bb
Cc
Dd
Ee
Ff
Gg
Hh
Ii
Jj
Kk
Ll
Mm

Aa
Bb
Cc
Dd
Ee
Ff
Gg
Hh
Ii
Jj
Kk
Ll
Mm

Nn
Oo
Pp
Qq
Rr
Ss
Tt
Uu
Vv
Ww
Xx
Yy
Zz

Nn
Oo
Pp
Qq
Rr
Ss
Tt
Uu
Vv
Ww
Xx
Yy
Zz


[b]
[d]
[D]
[G]
[f]
[g]
[h]
[j]
[k]
[l]
[m]
[n]
[N]
[p]
[r]
[s]
[S]
[t]
[C]
[T]
[v]
[w]
[z]
[Z]
[x]
[R]
[o]
[L]
[e]
[q]
[E:]
[I]
[J]
[H]
[V]
[A]

back
day
they
jump
few
game
hot
yet
key
lamp
man
nose
ring
pen
rose
sea
show
tea
chat
thin
very
wet
zero
measure
bad
barn
pot
born
bed
about
bird
pit
sheep
boot
put
cut

"", ,
"",
""
"",
"", ,
""
"",
""
""
""
""
""
""
"", ,

""
""
"", ,
"",
""
"", ,
, "" ""
""
""
"",
""
""
""
"" "", ""
""
"" ""
""
""
""
""
""


' .
[aI]
bite

[aV]
now

"

[OI]
.
boy
, :
[eq]
there
1)

[eI]
make
.
[qV]
note
2)
[Iq]
here

[Vq]
poor
.

3)
[aIq]
tire

[aVq]
power
, ..

.

. ,

,
.

.
;
.
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
, . early
, , ,
.
, .

, .
, .



A, an ()
.
" ", "-",
"", ""
A sailor is painting a boat. (-)
.

,
.
This is a cabin.

,

(
"").
Have you got a sextant?
.

,

.
He is a boatswain.

The ()

;
"".
The sailor who is painting a boat is
my friend. - () ,
,
.

,
.
This is a cabin. The cabin is large.

,
,

:
The sextant is a measuring instrument.

,
,
.
the moon (), the sun
(), the earth ()

the :
.1 : the coldest, the most
important, the best
.2 : the first, the second

.1 ,

.2
, ,
:
state, union, republic
.3 ,
, , , ,
, ,

.4 ,
, , ,
,
.5

the Smiths ( )
the United States of America (the
USA)
the United Kingdom
the Russian Federation
the Netherlands
the Black Sea
the Indian (Ocean)
the Dnieper
the Carpathians
the Hawaii
the Strait of Dover
the Times
the Odessa Hotel
the m/v Shota Rustaveli
the north, the south, the west, the
east


.1
John, Ivan, Odessa, Ukraine, Deri
basovskaya Street

.2
He is a motorman.
,
They are motormen.
.

.3
My work gives me satisfaction.

.4 ,
Oil is transported by tankers.
-

.5
He gives me good advice.
,

(news, money, in-

formation, equipment, advice)


.6 ,
, ,

.7
,


.8 ,
next
last,
,

.9

Captain Ivanov, Mrs. Smith, Mr.


Black
on Sunday, in March

last year
next month
cabin No. 25

I've studied mathematics in Maritime College.

ship ships
rat - rats
bouy - bouys
hull - hulls
watch - watches
dish dishes
box - boxes

[s] -

-s
[z] -

[Iz] -
-es
(-s, -ss, -x, ch, -tch, -sh)
:
man - men
woman women
child - children
foot - feet
tooth - teeth

:
+ y i +es
a body bodies
a lady ladies
a company companies

fv
knife knives
wife - wives

sailor
captain
man
child

sailor's
captain's
man's
child's


sailors
captains
men
children


sailors'
captains'
men's
children's


big
fast
pretty
active
attentive
useful
little
many, much
good
bad
far


-er
bigger
faster
prettier
more active
more attentive
more useful
less
more
better
worse
farther
further

-est
the biggest
the fastest
the prettiest
the most active
the most attentive
the most useful
the least
the most
the best
the worst
the farthest
the furthest

1
2
3

1
2
3

I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they


me
my
mine
you
your
yours
him
his
his
her
her
hers
it
its
its

us
our
ours
you
your
yours
them
their
theirs

myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
ourselves
yourselves
themselves

-
- (mine, yours, his,
hers, its, ours, theirs) .
I have no brush. Give me yours, please. .
, , .
This is not our cabin. It is theirs. . ().


(myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,
ourselves, yourselves, themselves) , ,
.

()
(, ).
Look at yourself! !

.
, , , .
.
, .
I want to do it myself. .
Now you can do it yourself. .

10


: help yourself (), to find oneself in some place
( -).
, ,
:
I shave, wash and dress very quickly. ,
.

some any
some any
.
.
some


.
There are some sailors in the mess-room.
.
There is some paint in the can. .
any
1. -.
Are there any sailors in the mess-room? () ?
2. .
not.
There arent any sailors in the mess-room. .
3.
You can take any brush. .

no

no.
no
, .
.
There is no paint in the can. .
There are no sailors in the mess-room. .
I have no sister. .

11

, some, any,
no, every
-body
-where
-one
somebody
somewhere
someone
-
-
-
- - -
any
anybody
anywhere
anyone
-
-
-
- - -
no
nobody
nowhere
no one

every
everybody
everywhere everyone

some any ,
.
some .
There is somebody in the mess-room. - .
any
.
Is there anybody in the mess-room. - ?
There isnt anybody in the mess-room. .
any ,
any,
, ..
Anybody can do it. .
Id like to go anywhere. .
something, somebody, someone, anything, anybody, anyone, nothing, nobody, no one, everything, everybody everyone,
, :
Everybody can swim. .
Everything is clear. .
nobody, no one, nothing nowhere
,
.
Nobody speaks German in our crew.
-.
No one can do it. .
some

12

-thing
something
-
-
anything
-
-
nothing

everything

many, much, little, few


many () few ()
.
There are many sailors in the mess-room.
.
There are few women in the crew. .
much () little ()
.
There is much paint in the can. .
There is little water in the tank. .

other
other (, )
-, .



1-12
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve

13-19
(+teen)
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen

20-99
(+ty)
20 twenty
30 thirty
40 forty
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety
91 ninety-one

100
100 a (one) hundred
101 a (one) hundred
and one
200 two hundred
235 two hundred and
thirty-five
1,000 a (one) thousand
2,000 two thousand
3,356 three thousand
three hundred and
fifty-six
1,000,000 a (one)
million

13


1-12-
1 first
2 second
3 third
4 fourth
5 fifth
6 sixth
7 seventh
8 eighth
9 ninth
10 tenth
11 eleventh
12 twelfth

13-19-
13 thirteenth
14 fourteenth
15 fifteenth
16 sixteenth
17 seventeenth
18 eighteenth
19 nineteenth

20-99-
20 twentieth
30 thirtieth
40 fortieth
50 fiftieth
60 sixtieth
70 seventieth
80 eightieth
90 ninetieth
91 ninety-first

100
100 one hundredth
101 one hundred and
first
200 two hundredth
235 two hundred and
thirty-fifth
1,000 one thousandth
2,000 two thousandth
3,356 three thousand
three hundred and
fifty-sixth
1,000,000 one millionth


1991 .
1978 .
1980 .
2000 .
15th May, 1982
May, 15th, 1982

nineteen ninety-one
nineteen seventy-eight
nineteen eighty
twenty hundred
the fifteenth of May, nineteen
eighty two
May the fifteenth, nineteen eigty
two


1/2
1/3
1/4
2
foot
0.7
1.3

14

a (one) half
one third
a (one) quarter
two and three eighth
one eighth of a foot
point seven
one point three



(Participle I)
,
ing.
to work working
e,
ing .
to take taking
,
, :
to stop stopping
y, ing

to carry carrying

:
1.
The ship entering the port is a tanker. , , .
2. .
(When) studying at school I was good in physics. ,
.
3.
We repaired the engine following the manufacturers instructions.
, .
4.
Studying hard at the Maritime College I was one of the best cadets.
,
.
,
Continuous.

15


(Participle II)
.
, ,
,
.
Participle II ,
Past Indefinite , .. ed
.
work worked
paint painted
Participle II
, (.
).

.


, -, - :
1) :
the sent letter
the painted boat
2)
The letter written by the Master is on the table. ,
, .

, as, when, if,
whether .
As reported the unloading was finished in time. ,
.
If maintained carefully the engine will work well.
, .

Present Indefinite Tense


Present Indefinite Tense ,
, ,
, .
I live in Odessa. .
I usually get up at 7 oclock. 7 .

16

Present Indefinite Tense (


) to , 3-
.
, ch, -sh, -tch, -s, -ss, -o, -x 3-
es (to do does,to go
goes, to wash washes).
, y
3- y i
es (to carry carries, marry marries).
to have 3-
has.
(e)s :
: [z]- to go goes, to carry - carries; to read reads;
: [s] to put puts, to work works;
: [Iz] to watch watches, to wash washes.
,
Present Indefinite Tense
usually

sometimes

seldom

often

always

never

.
I usually get up at 7 o'clock. - 7 .
never
.
I never get up at 6 o'clock. - 6 .

Present Continuous Tense


Present Continuous Tense :
1. , :
What are you doing now? ?
I am painting the boat. .
Are you still washing the deck? ?
2. :
The ship is leaving to Piraeus tomorrow.
.

17

Present Continuous Tense


to be
(Participle I) .
,
Present Continuous Tense
now

at the moment

Present Perfect Tense


Present Perfect Tense ,
.
I have visited London. - .
We haven't repaired the engine. - .
Have you painted the boat? - ?
Present Perfect Tense
have/has Participle II .
,
Present Perfect Tense
ever
-
never

just

already
( )
yet
( )
( )
lately

recently

ever, never, just, already


.
Have you ever been to London? - - ?
lately recently .
I have painted this boat lately. - .
never
.
I have never studied French. -
.
Present Perfect Tense
,
. Present Perfect Tense
since ( ) for ( ).

18

I haven't been to London since last year. -


.
I have known him for five years. - .
Present Perfect Tense ,
,
(.. , ): today,
this week, this month, this year.
I have painted the boat this month. -
.
I have received weather information today. -
.
to be Present Perfect Tense to.
I have been to Glasgow twice. - .

Past Indefinite Tense


Past Indefinite Tense :
1. ,
.
I graduated from school many years ago.
.
2. , .
I uncovered the lifeboat, removed harbour pins, released gripes, keel
block fastening, boat davit stoppers, screwed the drain plug, released handrail, lowered the embarkation ladder and checked the lifeboat supplies.
, , , ,
, ,
, .
Past Indefinite Tense
: .
Past Indefinite Tense
ed to.
to work worked
wash washed
, y
, y i + ed.
to carry carried
to study studied
e,
d.
to use used

19

to live lived
.
to stop - stopped
ed
[t] ( t)
worked, brushed
[d] - ( d)
used, lied, stayed
[Id] - t d
translated, decided
Past Indefinite Tense -.
.
Past Indefinite Tense
did (Past Indefinite
to do), not
to.
I didnt paint the boat yesterday. .
,
Past Indefinite Tense
yesterday

the day before yesterday

last month

last week

last Monday

last night

two hours (days, weeks) ago
(, )
in 1982
1982 .
the other day
( )
long ago

to be Past Indefinite Tense


to be Past Indefinite Tense : was
were .

.
I was in London last year. .
I wasnt in London last year. .
Was he in London last year? ?

20

to have Past Indefinite Tense


to have Past Indefinite Tense had

.
He had a good cabin. .
He hadnt a good cabin. .
Had he a good cabin? ?
to have
, ,
(to have dinner (), to have a rest (), to have a talk
() ..,
did.
They had breakfast at 8 oclock. 8 .
They didnt have breakfast at 8 oclock. 8
.
Did they have breakfast at 8 oclock? 8 ?

Past Continuous Tense


Past Continuous Tense ,

.
:
1. .
I was keeping navigational watch at 7 a.m. yesterday.
7 .
2. , Past Indefinite
Tense.
I was taking bearings when the Master came. ,
.
Past Continuous Tense ,
-
:
They were loading the ship the whole week.
.
Past Continuous Tense to be

.
was/were + Participle I

21

Past Perfect Tense


Past Perfect Tense ,

.
Past Perfect Tense
had Participle II :
had + Participle II
, "" ,
:
1. by:
by 12 o'clock yesterday ( 12 ), by last week (
), by the end of last year ( );
I had finished my work by 6 o'clock yesterday. -
6 .
2. , , ,
Past Indefinite Tense:
We had taken a pilot on board before our ship entered the channel. -
, .
After we had loaded all the grain, we covered the hatches. - ,
, .

, , ..
, ,
Past Perfect Tense.
Our ship entered the port of Piraeus. It was my first voyage to this port. I
had never been to Greece before. -
. .
.

Future Indefinite Tense


Future Indefinite Tense ,
.
Future Indefinite Tense
will + to.
I will keep navigational watch tomorrow.
.
I wont (will not) keep navigational watch tomorrow. -
.

22

,
Future Indefinite Tense
tomorrow

the day after tomorrow

next week

next month

next year

soon

in a week (month, year)


(, )
in five minutes

in future

in the near future

in 2008
2008 .
one of these days
( )


(The Passive Voice)
,
() ,
(The Active Voice) , ()
.
:
to be + Participle II.
, to be,
Participle II
Active Voice
Passive Voice
The engineer repaired the engine. The engine was repaired.
.
.
I receive the weather information.
The weather information is re
ceived.
.
.

.
Was the engine repaired? ?
not
.
The engine wasnt repaired. .

23

, Passive Voice ,
by.
The engine was repaired by the engineer.
.
, ,
(to look at, lo listen to,
to speak to, to speak about .).
He was attentively listened to. .

.
Active Voice
Passive Voice
We were told an interesting story.
He told us an interesting story.
An interesting story was told to us.
We were shown the engine-room.
He showed us the engine-room.
The engine-room was shown to us.


Infinitive
awake
be
become
begin
blow
break
bring
build
burn
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
do
draw
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed

24

Past Indefinite
awoke
was / were
became
began
blew
broke
brought
built
burnt
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
did
drew
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed

Participle
awaked, awoke
been
become
begun
blown
broken
brought
built
burnt
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
done
drawn
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed

feel
fight
find
fly
forbid
forget
freeze
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hold
hurt
keep
know
lay
lead
learn
leave
let
lie
light
lose
make
mean
meet
pay
put
read
ring
rise
run
say
see
seek
sell
send

felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forgot
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hung, hanged
had
heard
held
hurt
kept
knew
laid
led
learnt
left
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent

felt
fought
found
flown
forbidden
forgotten
frozen
got
given
gone
grown
hung, hanged
had
heard
held
hurt
kept
known
laid
led
learnt
left
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent

25

set
show
shut
sink
sit
sleep
speak
spend
stand
strike
sweep
swell
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
understand
write

set
showed
shut
sank
sat
slept
spoke
spent
stood
struck
swept
swelled
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
wrote

set
shown
shut
sunk
sat
slept
spoken
spent
stood
struck
swept
swollen
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
understood
written

( )

Indefinite

Continuous
be + V-ing

Present

I ask
He ask
We ask

I am asking
He is asking
We are asking

Past

I asked
He asked
We asked

Future

I will ask

I was asking
He was asking
We are asking
I will be

26

Perfect
have
+ Participle
II
I have asked
He has
asked
We have
asked
I had asked
He had
asked
We had
asked
I will have

Perfect Continuous
have + been +
V-ing
I have been asking
He has been asking
We have been
asking
I had been asking
He had been asking
We had been
asking
I will have been

He will
ask
We will
ask
Futurein-the
Past

I would
ask
He would
ask
We would
ask

asking
He will be
asking
We will be
asking
I would be
asking
He would be
asking
We should
be asking

asked
He will have
asked
We will
have asked
I would
have asked
He would
have asked
We would
have asked

asking
He will have
been asking
We will have
been asking
I would have
been asking
He would have
been asking
We would have
been asking

( )

Indefinite

Present

I am asked
He is asked
We are asked

Past

I was asked
He was asked
We were asked

Future

I will be asked
He will be
asked
We will be
asked

Futurein-the
Past

I would be
asked
He would be
asked
We would be

Continuous
be + V-ing
I am being
asked
He is being
asked
We are being asked
I was being
asked
He was being asked
We are being asked
-

Perfect
have
+ Participle II
I have been
asked
He has been
asked
We have been
asked
I had been asked
He had been
asked
We had been
asked
I will have been
asked
He will have
been asked
We will have
been asked
I would have
been asked
He would have
been asked
We should have

Perfect Continuous
have + been
+ V-ing
-

27

asked

been asked



can ,
( Past Indefinite - could)

may ,
( Past Indefinite - might)

-

must ,
( Past Indefinite - must)

-

28


:
I can swim. - .
He cannot (can't) swim. -
.
Can you come tomorrow? -
?
(
- )
:
May I come in? - ?
Yes, you may. - , .
No, you mustn't. - , .
You may not do it. -
.
,
:
You must do it. -
.
Must I go to the navigating bridge?
?
Yes, you must. - , .
No, you needn't. - , .
You mustn't go to the port today. -
.


at, in, on ,

at
at 5 o'clock

at midnight
at dinner

in
in the evening

in September

in 1979 1979 .

at Easter
at this time

at weekend

in summer
in the 20th century

in three hours

on
on Monday

on May 1st

on Christmas Day

at, in, on
,

at
at the theatre

in
in Odessa

at the Maritime College

at Deribasovskaya
Street, 8
, . 8
at the desk

in Ukraine

on
on Deribasovskaya
Street

on the wall

in the pocket

on deck

in the cabin

on the table

29


there is/are
there is/are,
, , .
there is/are ,
, to be ,
(a, an),
.
there is/are ,
.
There is a map on the wall. .
There are twenty sailors in the mess-room.
.
there is/are ,
to be .
There is a boatswain and three sailors on the deck.
There are three sailors and boatswain on the deck.
there is/are to be
.
Is there a map on the wall? ?
Are there many sailors on board? ?
there is/are:
1. to be not.
There isnt any map on the wall. () .
2. no.
,
.
There is no map on the wall. .
There are no maps on the wall. .

to be going to
to be going to + ( )

, .
I am going to ask you some questions. ()
.
What are you going to do tomorrow? ?

30

We are not going to stay here for a long time.


.

("Essential English for Sailors", . 22, 23)

31

My biography
My name is Andrey Ivanov. I was born in 1980 in Odessa. My father is
a doctor, he works at a hospital. My mother is a teacher, she works at
school.
I've got a sister (brother). She (he) is younger (elder) than me.
At the age of seven I went to school. I did well at school. I was good at
physics, mathematics and English.
We had a very good nautical club at our school and I attended classes
there.
My training in the club did me a lot of good. When I finished the school
my father advised me to become a seaman. I followed his advice, passed the
entrance examinations and entered the Odessa Maritime College.
I graduated from Odessa Maritime College in 2001 and started working
as a motorman on the m/v "Maxim Gorky". I have been working there for
three years.
I got married last year. My wife is a student. She studies at the department of law of Odessa National University.


. 1980 . .
- , . - ,
.
(). () () .
. .
, .
,
.
.
, .
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2001
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32

Ship's Architecture
The main part of a ship is the hull. This is the area between the main
deck, the sides - the starboard side and the port side - and the bottom. It is
made up of frames covered with plating, the keel joints them altogether. The
hull is divided up into a number of watertight compartments by decks and
bulkheads. Bulkheads are vertical steel walls going across the ship and
along side. Decks divide the hull horizontally. Those dividing up cargo
space are known as "tween decks". The hull contains the engine room, cargo space and a number of tanks. In dry cargo ships the cargo space is divided into holds, in liquid cargo ships it is divided into tanks. At the fore end of
the hull there are the forepeak tanks and at the after end there are the afterpeak tanks. They are used for fresh water and water ballast. The space between the holds and the bottom of the hull contains double bottom tanks.
These are used for water ballast and fuel.
All permanent housing above the main deck is known as superstructure.
For a traditional dry cargo ship main superstructure consisting navigational
bridge and a funnel is placed on the midships, above the main deck. For
modern ships the engine room and the main superstructure are situated at
the after end of the ship to leave more space to load cargo. In tankers, between the engine room and the cargo hold there is a cofferdam, which protects inflammable cargoes from fire. At the fore end there is a forecastle,
where different mooring and anchoring equipment is mounted.


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33


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Displacement
Usually a ship's weight is expressed as displacement. There are different
displacements for different types of ship and conditions. For merchant
ships:
Load displacement. The weight of water displaced when ship is loaded
to her marks with cargo, stores, fresh water, fuel, water ballast, crew, passengers and baggage.
Light displacement (light weight). This is the weight of the hull of a ship
and her machinery and spare parts, with water in her boilers and condensers
to working level plus lubricating oil and cooling water.

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The Load Line


To prevent overloading, a load line is assigned to every merchant ship.
This is the official mark which a cargo vessel is not allowed to submerge by
loading an excess of cargo. These marks are situated on each side amidships. Lines of this mark show normal water levels when floating on fresh
or salt water and in various seasons. Thus, a ship's draft can differ from the
smallest - WNA (Winter, North Atlantic) to the largest - TF (Tropical Fresh

34

Waters). A line passing through the centre of the disc indicates Summer
load line in salt water.
Actual freeboard, which means the vessel's height above the water, is the
distance between upper edge of the deck line and the waterline. It must be
registered in the Official Log on every occasion a vessel proceeds to sea.
The ship must be so loaded that at no time during her voyage must the
appropriate line be submerged. Only for timber carriers deeper loading is
permitted in certain cases.



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The Ships Crew


There is a lot of complex equipment on board modern ships so it is necessary to have skilled crews to operate the ships. Usually there are at least
two departments on cargo ship: the deck department and the engine department.
The deck department includes navigators, radio-officers, a boatswain,
sailors and a doctor. We call navigators according to their rank on board
ship: the Master (Captain), the Chief Officer (First Mate), the Second Officer (Second Mate), the Third Officer (Third Mate), the Fourth Officer
(Fourth Mate).

35

The Master is responsible for the ship, her cargo and the crew. He must
be an experienced navigator.
The Chief Officer is the Masters main assistant and the head of the
Deck Department. He must be always ready to replace the Master and perform his duties.
All the navigators must keep watch on the navigating bridge.
Radio officers keep watch in the radio-room and are responsible for radio-communication.
A Boatswain and sailors must keep the ships hull, holds and tackle in
good condition. Ship's ratings constantly do cleaning, painting and repair
work under the supervision of the Boatswain.
The Boatswain and the Carpenter are directly responsible to the Chief
Officer. The Boatswain sees that his orders and order of other deck officers
are carried out by the crew. He is a man with a lot of knowledge and practical experience in seamanship. The Carpenter is usually a qualified shipwright. His regular duty is to sound the tanks and bilges to check the depth
of liquids in them.
The Engine Department consists of the Chief Engineer, the Second,
Third and Fourth Engineers, some motormen and two or three electricians.
They keep watch in the engine-room and must maintain and repair its
equipment.
Only well-qualified sailors can perform their duties properly.



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The Fitter
The Fitter is responsible to the Second Engineer. He assists the engine
room watchkeepers or UMS duty engineers, in particular with regard to the
maintenance of the plant. The Fitter maintains all machinery, technical
equipment, plant etc. as instructed and under supervision of an engineer
officer. The Fitter also performs any other duties assigned to him by the
Chief Engineer and Second Engineer.


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The Motorman
The Motorman is responsible to the Second Engineer. He assists the engine room watchkeepers or UMS duty engineers, in particular with regard to

37

the maintenance of the plant. He assists in the maintenance of all machinery, technical equipment, plant etc. as instructed by an Engineer Officer.
The Motorman is responsible for general cleaning and performs housekeeping duties in engine room as instructed by an Engineer Officer. He also performs any other duties assigned to him by the Chief Engineer and Second
Engineer.

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Holds and hatches


Each dry cargo ship has four or five holds of different capacity. The
holds have bilges which facilitate the flow of water which may condense on
metal plating and bulkheads. Hold pumps pump out the water collected in
the bilges.
The double bottom is covered with a removable wooden flooring. Cargo
battens are fitted to the inner edges of the frames. These wooden sheathings
protect cargo from damage by moisture, which may collect on the side of
the ship.
Each hold has a hatchway, a rectangular opening in the ship's deck, surrounded by a coaming. When cargo work is over, it's necessary to cover
hatches. This should be done with special covering systems. Quick operating hatch covers permit the opening and closing of covers in as little time as
two minutes per hatch.



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38

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Before Loading
On board ship the Cargo Officer is responsible for the safe and efficient
handling and stowage of cargo. He should ensure proper preparation of the
holds before loading and he supervises during the time the ship is receiving
or delivering the cargo.
The stevedore should inspect cargo space before the beginning of cargo
work. The holds and other compartments must be clean, dry and well aired.
Cargo battens must be in good condition, scuppers - clear, bilges - free and
clean.
When preparing for loading bulk cargo, special attention must be given
to prevent its shifting. Shifting boards should be at least 2 inches thick,
made of good timber and securely fitted at bulkheads.



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Stowage
Stowage is the placing cargoes in the ship's hold and on her deck. Correct stowage must ensure the following:

39

1. Protection of the cargo from damage and loss during cargo work or
during the voyage.
2. Economy of cargo space that increases the vessel's capacity.
3. Optimum convenience of loading and unloading in every port of call.
A plan showing the disposition of cargoes throughout the ship is called
the cargo plan. It makes the loading of cargo pieces in the holds easier. It
should be drawn up carefully. When loading in more than one port, a different colour should be used to indicate the cargo for each port.

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Navigational watch
If the ship is at sea I keep watch on the navigating bridge.
We have the following navigational equipment on the bridge: radar, GPS receiver, VHF, gyro and magnetic compasses, course recorder, echo sounder, log.
We have many binoculars and a sextant on the bridge.
We also have a satellite station on the bridge.
I keep one watch a day from 16.00 hrs to 20.00 hrs.
During my watch I stand at the helm. If necessary I turn the helm to port
or to starboard (to the left or to the right). I steer a steady course. I execute
the wheel orders of the master or the officer of the watch.
If necessary I take bearings of landmarks. I also hoist flags or shapes in
the day time and switch on the lights at night.
I also look out for dangers.
The ship is under way. I am on the bridge now. I am keeping watch. I
am standing at the helm. I am steering the ship.

40

The ship is steady on course 230 degrees. I am keeping the course. The
master is standing near me. The officer of the watch is standing at the radar.
I am looking ahead. There is an on-coming vessel on my starboard.
The master is lookin at her through the binoculars.


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Gangway watch
When the ship is in the port the watchman usually keeps watch at the
gangway.
He meets all the visitors and, if necessary, asks them to produce proper
identification.
He says, "Your identification, please". If he has any problems he must
report them to the officer of the watch. He must lock all the doors leading to
the superstructure and, if necessary, to store-rooms aft. He must keep the
gangway area clean.
He must inspect the aft mooring lines at regular intervals.
And, of course, he must answer all the phone calls.
In this case he says, "Hello, this is the m/v "A".
I have kept gangway watch several times.

41


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At the gangway
A: How do you do! I am a watchman. Can I help you?
B: I am a surveyor. I must check if the holds are ready for loading. Call
Chief Officer, please.
A: Just a minute. I'll call him up.
A: Chief, a surveyor is here to check if the holds are ready for loading.
A: Chief Officer will be here in a minute.
B: Thank you


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42

My working day
I am a sailor. My working day on the ship is long and hard. I get up at
6.30. Then I go to the crew's mess-room to have breakfast. After breakfast I
work on deck. I scrub down the deck and wash it.
If necessary I lubricate the deck equipment with lub oil. But my main
job on deck is painting.
Before painting I clean and wash the deck equipment to remove all salt,
dirt and oil. Then I remove loose paint with a scraper and any heavy rust
with a chipping hammer. And then I apply one or more coats of paint.
I use primer paints and enamel for painting.
The boatswain supplies me with paint, buckets and brushes, which he
takes from the paint locker.
At 11 o'clock I have lunch. After lunch I keep watch on the bridge.
After watch I have dinner. Then I go to rest in my cabin. I go to bed at
22.30.


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22.30.

Painting
Boatswain:
You must start painting the ship's board. Chip off the rust with a chipping hammer. Then take one can with black paint and one can with white
paint and start painting.
Sailor:
Must I start painting from the bow to the stern?
Boatswain:

43

Yes, you must. By the way, the paint is very thick and you must use the
thinner. You can take the thinner, the paint and the paint-rollers in the paint
locker.
Sailor:
How many coats must I apply?
Boatswain:
You must apply two coats of paint.

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Engineering Watch
I am a motorman.
I keep engineering watch in engine room.
I take over the watch at 4 A.M. and turn over the watch at 8 A.M.
I have a lot of duties. I must drain settled water from service tanks, drain
off water starting-air bottles and keep bilges clean. I must check all mechanisms and systems during my watch.
According to the schedule I turn over and test in operation different machinery under the supervision of Engineer Officer.
I am also responsible for housekeeping in engine room.


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.
4 8 .

44

.
,
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.

Dangerous Situations
When two vessels approach one another, a dangerous situation can occur. This happens most frequently in narrow channels and fairways or under
bad weather and sea conditions. Development of the situation can produce
dangerous proximity and growing risk of collision. To avoid collision every
navigator should be aware of and operate according to the "International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea". All seamen on the bridges of
approaching ships must be sure that their counterparts act in accordance
with the same "Regulations" and that their actions are right and well coordinated.


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.

Actions to Avoid Collision


Any action taken to avoid collision should be positive, timely and in accordance with good seamanship. Any alteration in the course or speed of
your ship should be large enough to be clearly seen from another vessel
observing visually or by radar. A sequence of small one-by-one changes
must be avoided. It's also better to avoid crossing ahead of another vessel. If

45

one or two vessels keeps out of the way, another should keep her course and
speed. She may however take actions to avoid collision.

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.

Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting


Fire aboard ship is a danger, which should be constantly guarded
against. Everybody on board ship must remember that a fire prevented is
better than a fire occurring. Some very simple rules are useful to prevent
fire in your accommodation:
1. Keep compartment clean and ventilated.
2. Carefully maintain gas and fuel installation.
3. Maintain electrical equipment in perfect order. Don't overload current
network with additional heaters, lamps.
4. Cigarette ends thrown overboard may be blow back aboard or onto
another vessel and produce fire.
5. Smoking in bunk before retiring is dangerous because a cigarette falling into the bed clothes can cause fire in your cabin or smoke poisoning.
To be prepared for fire keep fire fighting equipment in good order. Put
extinguishers in a proper place easy to reach in case of emergency.


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46

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Aid to Vessels in Distress


State authorities give assistance when a ship or aircraft is in distress off
their coasts. Coastal radio stations keep a continuous watch on the distress
radio wave. When a radio distress signal is received by a coast radio station,
it is transmitted to ships at sea and different authorities ashore are immediately informed. The coastguard divisions are responsible for providing
search and rescue measures for all vessels in distress up to 1000 miles from
the shore. They also co-ordinate the activity of all the units operating together - lifeboats, aircrafts, helicopters and vessels at high sea. The air force
and navy also render great assistance.

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47

Ships alarms

General emergency alarm
Alarm signal: seven (7) short blasts (or more) and one (1) long blast on
ship's whistle and continuous sounding of ship's general ALARM.
When General Alarm sounds it does not necessarily means to Abandon
Ship.
At the general emergency alarm the sailor must:
1. close the watertight doors, leading to the superstructure and other
compartments;
2. get ready the life-boats for launching;
.3 get ready the life-saving equipment.
If an able seaman is second in command of the damage control party he
must get ready the portable firefighting appliances.
The crew on watch must remain in their positions on signal for Emergency Drill.


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Fire alarm
Fire signal: groups of rapid rings for a period of 10 seconds on ship's
bell and the same on ship's general alarm (electric).
Person discovering fire should immediately notify the bridge and fight
the fire with available equipment until the Emergency Squad arrives.

48

In case of fire the sailor must:


1. break the glass of the fire-alarm box and press the button;
2. call up the bridge and inform the officer of the watch;
3. close the watertight doors, fire doors;
4. evacuate people if necessary;
5. bring the fire-crowbar, the fire-axe, sand and hoses to the seat of the
fire;
6. bring the hand fire nozzle to the seat of the fire and operate it;
7. put out the fire with an extinguisher.
A sailor may also act as a messenger.
Immediately upon the fire emergency signal, fire pumps to be started, all
watertight doors should be closed, and all fans and blowers to be stopped.
Fire hoses to be led immediately out in the affected area as directed.


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Flooding
Flooding signal: three long rings on general alarm bells.

49

In case of flooding the sailor must:


1. bring the collision mat and the sheets and make fast the collision mat;
2. stand by the control lanyard;
3. bring and make fast the hogging line;
4. stand by the winch;
5. if necessary, stop the hole with a cement box and sand, and liquid
glass from the inner side.

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Man overboard
Alarm signal: Immediately hail and pass to the bridge "Man overboard".
Upon hearing the signal "Man overboard" life rings, buoys must be
thrown immediately into the sea, engines must be stopped, and lookout aloft
must be sent.
Emergency Boat crew consisting of all seamen should immediately clear
lee boat for launching.
At the "man overboard" alarm the sailor must:
1. screw the drain plug;
2. carry the painters;
3. bring the blankets;
4. release the boat gripe;
5. release the life-boat falls;
6. heave in the painters;
7. launch the life-boat;
8. act as a rower.

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50

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6. ;
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Boat alarm
Signals:
Commencing lowering: One(1) short blast on whistle
Stop lowering: Two(2) short blasts on whistle
At the boat alarm the sailor must:
1. screw the drain plugs;
2. release the boat gripe;
3. get ready the painters;
4. release the forward (aft) life-boat falls;
5. throw the life-rafts overboard;
6. ensure safe embarkation of the life-boats and rafts;
.7 act as a helmsman.


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51

7. .

Lifeboat Launching Procedure


1. uncover the lifeboat;
2. remove harbour pins;
3. release gripes, keel block fastening, boat davit stoppers;
4. screw the drain plug;
5. release hand-rail
6. lower the embarkation ladder;
7. check the life-boat supplies (fresh water, survival pack, blankets).


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Communication at Sea
Communication at sea is necessary for the efficient and safe running of a
ship. It takes place within the ship herself, between the ship and other ships,
between the ship and shore stations and sometimes between the ship and
aircraft. Communication can be made over different distances. It uses different methods from the simplest visual ones to the most moderns radio
technologies.
Within the ship an internal telephone system links most of compartments. Orders from the bridge to the engine room are passed by means of
the ship's telegraph. Messages can also be given to the ship's crew through a
loudspeaker system.
Communication over short distances can be made by visual or sound
signals. Visual signals can be sent, for example, using flags. Sound signals
can be made with the ship's siren, whistle or bell. These are used in fog and
other cases when visual signals can't be seen. The number of blasts signifies
that the ship is manoeuvring in a certain way. In emergency rockets and
flares are used to signal distress.
Communication over long distances is made by radio. The Radio Officer
is responsible to the Master for the efficient operation and maintenance of

52

the communication equipment on board. Modern merchant ships provided


with automatic satellite systems need not Radio Officers and have an Electronics Engineer Officer instead of them.



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International Code Flags


The International Code of Signals (ICS) comprises forty special flags,
which enable any vessel and Shore Signal Stations to send and receive messages. The stowage of Code Flags for easy use must be correct. Usually
they are stowed in a Flag Locker. This is a wooden box with small square
holes in which each Code Flag is stowed separately, with the letter A, B, C,
D etc., marked clearly under each compartment. Watchmen can quickly and
easily find any flag to compose a message of one, two or three letters. Experienced seamen know the most important signals by heart.

53

ICS signals may be transmitted not only by flags but also by radio, or
even by hand semaphore. When transmitting by voice, every letter or figure
is called according to the Phonetic Alphabet and Figure Code, to avoid any
mistake in the transmitted message.


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54

- Orders

Wheel orders
Ease to five!
Finished with the wheel!
Hard-a-port!
Hard-a-starboard!
Keep the buoy on the port
(starboard) bow!
Midships!
Port!
Port a bit!
Port a little!
Port easy!
Port five!
Starboard!
Starboard easy!
Starboard fifteen!
Steady!
Steady as she goes!
Steady so!
Steer for the buoy!
Steer for the leading
lights!
Steer for the lighthouse!
Steer the course!
Steer the course one two
six!

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126!

- Lines
heaving line
mooring line
head line
stern line
breast line
forward spring
aft spring
messenger liner
slip rope

55


Mooring orders
Check the aft spring!

Check the breast line!



Check the forward spring! `:
Have (get) heaving lines
ready forward and aft!

() `:
` `: :

Heave in the aft spring!


Heave in the breast
spring!
Heave in the forward
spring!
Heave up the gangway
(ladder)!
Hold on the aft spring!

: :
:

Hold on the breast line!


Hold on the forward
spring!
Let go fore and aft!
Lower the gangway (ladder)!
Make fast fore and aft!
Make fast the aft spring!

: :
!

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Pay away the breast line!


Pay away the forward
spring!
Pay away the head line!

: : :
: :

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: `:

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`
` `:

Pay away the heaving


line!
Pay away the stern line!

` `:

Pick up the slack on the


aft breast line!

Make fast the breast line!


Make fast the forward
spring!
Pay away the aft spring!

56


!
!

!


!
!
!

!

!
!

!

!
!

!

!

!

!

!

Pick up the slack on the


head line
Pick up the slack on the
stern line!
Send the aft spring!

Send the breast line!


Send the head line!

Send the heaving line!


Send the stern line!

`:

Ship the fenders!


`
Single up to the head line!
Slack away the aft spring! ` :

Slack away the breast


`
line!

Slack away the forward


` `:
spring!

Slack away the head line! `


Slack away the heaving
line!
Slack away the stern line!

` `:

Stand by moorings!

Stand by ropes!

Stop heaving head line!

`:

Stop heaving stern line!

`:

Take forward spring!

`:

Take the head line!

Take the stern line!

Take the towing line!

Unship the fenders!


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57


Anchoring orders

`
`
Have (get) both anchors
() `
ready!
`
Have (get) the port anchor () : `
ready!

Have (get) the starboard


() `:
anchor ready!
`
Hold on the cable!

Keep the cable slackened! : `
Check the cable!
Disengage the windlass!

Let go the port anchor!


Let go the starboard anchor!
Make fast the cable
(chain)!
Pay away the cable!
Put the windlass in gear!
Stand by the port anchor!
Stand by the starboard
anchor!

-!
!


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Engine Orders
Dead slow ahead!
Dead slow astern!
Faster!
Finish with the engine!
Full speed ahead!
Full speed astern!
Half ahead!
Half astern!
Half speed ahead!
Half speed astern!
Slow ahead!
Slow astern!
Slow speed ahead!
Slow speed astern!
Slower!

58

` `
!
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` : `
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!

Stand by the engine!


Stop her!
Stop the engine!
Try the engine!

`

`
`

!
!
!
!


Towing Orders
Give the heaving line to
the tug boat!

`:
`

Pass the heaving line to


the tug boat!

: `:
`

` (`)

: ` (`)

` `
(`)
: `
(`)
` `
(`)
` (`)
`:
Let go the tow line (rope)! `
(`)
Heave away the tow rope! : ` ` `
Get the ladder ready at
` `
port (starboard)
: (`:)
Lower the ladder!
` `
Give the tow line (rope) to
the tug boat!
Pass the tow line (rope) to
the tug boat!
Slack away the tow line
(rope)!
Make fast the tow line
(rope)!
Secure the tow line
(rope)!
The tow line (rope) afast!



!


!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

() !
!

59

. " "
. 376

60

. " "
. 377

61

1 forepeak
2 forecastle
3 chain locker
4 forepeak bulkhead
5 double-bottom tank
6 hold
7 transverse bulkhead
8 double-bottom plating
9 engine-room
10 boiler-room
11 shaft tunnel
12 afterpeak bulkhead
13 propulsion installation
14 rudder and steering gear
15 afterpeak
16 steering gear compartment
17 flagstaff
18 flag
19 poop
20 poop deck
21 upper deck
22 second deck
23 tweendeck
24 main mast -
25 boat gear
26 funnel
27 superstructure deck
28 boat deck
29 navigating bridge deck
30 wheelhouse top
31 midship superstructure
32 fore mast -
33 cargo handling gear
34 deck house
35 hatch
36 anchor gear

62

.
(- ,
)

Container

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

()

aluminium container
prototype container
freight container
isotermal container
metal container
refrigerated container
series container
steel container
standard container
corner fitting
left-hand fitting
right-hand fitting
lower corner fitting
upper corner fitting
air inlet
roof
roof panel
emblem of register
lateral hinge
stopwater
end door
door locking gear
latch bar, locking rod
label, seal
Pocket for the carriage of
documents
fork-lift pocket
side wall, lateral wall
floor
end wall
load-bearing framework

63

20

21

22

23



1


2



3


4

5


6
, ,


7
-,

(
)
8

()
18
19

64

roof rail
roof cross members
corner post
door opening
bs cross -members
side rail, bottom rail
lower frame
Marking scheme
owner's mark and serial number
maximum gross weight in kilogrammes and in short tons
tare weight in kilogrammes and in
short tons
A single code letter for external
overall dimensions of the freigh container
A two digit code number for the
type of freight container
A character to indicate that it is a
freight container
Country of ownership in a code of
up to three letters (if required)

Load in stacking (total)

65