Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 459

-

2011

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
63
63

.
Ubuntu : . . .: ;
.: -, 2011. 464: . + DVD

ISBN 978-5-9775-0711-0 (-)


ISBN 978-5-7502-0403-8 ( )
Ubuntu. , , ,
, , . Linux, , , , , .
, , Ubuntu One.
OpenOffice.org, , , Windows- Wine.
.
DVD Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat.

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
OReilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol,
CA 95472.
Nutshell Handbook OReilly OReilly Media, Inc.
/ . .
, , , ,
, , .

Ubuntu

-

02429 24.07.00. 07.02.11.


70 1001/16. . . . . 37,41.
1500 .
-
77.99.60.953..005770.05.09 26.05.2009 .
.

" ""
199034, -, 9 , 12
ISBN 978-0-596-80484-8 (.)
ISBN 978-5-7502-0403-8 ( )
ISBN 978-5-9775-0711-0 (-)

2010 Robin Nixon


, -, 2011
, -,
, 2011


............................................................................................................ 1
............................................................................................................................ 1
.......................................................................................................... 2
.................................................................................................................. 2
, .......................................................................... 3
........................................................................................... 3
O'Reilly ............................................................................. 4
Safari Books Online............................................................................................................. 4
...................................................................................................................... 5
1. U BUNTU ............................................................................. 7
Ubuntu? ................................................................................................................... 8
Ubuntu ..................................................................................................... 9
Debian .............................................................................................................................. 10
GNU................................................................................................................................. 10
Linux ...................................................................................................................... 10
Tux ................................................................................................................................... 11
Linux ...................................................................................................... 11
Ubuntu .................................................................................................... 13
X Window System ........................................................................................................... 13
Linux ...................................................................................... 14
Linux .................................................................................................................. 17
Ubuntu ....................................................................................................... 19
Ubuntu ................................................................................................................ 20
, ........................................................................................................... 21
, .................................................................................................. 22
......................................................................................................................... 22
2. U BUNTU ................................................. 23
Live DVD ............................................................................................................................ 23
Live DVD ............................................................................................................. 26
........................................................................................ 27
MD5- ................................................................................................................... 28
........................................................................... 29
CD- DVD- .................................................................................... 30
Active ISO Burner Windows XP/Vista .............................................. 30
ISO Windows 7................................................................. 32
ISO Mac OS X .................................................................. 33
ISO Ubuntu ....................................................................... 33
ISO- -USB .................................................................................. 33
..................................................................................................... 34
Microsoft Virtual PC ....................................................................................................... 34
VMware ........................................................................................................................... 34
Oracle VirtualBox ............................................................................................................ 35
.............................................................................. 45

VI

............................................................................................................... 45
Ubuntu Windows ................................................................................... 45
Ubuntu ........................................................................ 50
Ubuntu 10 ................................................................................................. 62
.................................................................................................................. 62
CD .............................................................................................................. 63
................................................ 63
10.10 ......................................................................................................... 66
......................................................................................................................... 66
3. ........................................................................................ 67
................................................................................................. 67
................................................................................................. 70
............................................................................................ 72
Ethernet........................................................................................... 73
................... 75
......................................................................................................................... 78
(General) .............................................................................................. 79
(Layouts) ........................................................................................ 80
(Accessibility) .................................................. 83
(Mouse Keys) ........................................................................... 85
(Typing Break) ................................................................. 85
........................................................................................... 86
.................................................................................................................................. 87
(General) .............................................................................................. 88
(Accessibility) .................................................. 89
............................................................................................................................... 91
(Display Preferences) ....................................................................... 91
..................................................................................................................................... 99
(Sound Effects) .............................................................. 100
(Hardware) ............................................................................... 100
(Input) .................................................................................................... 100
(Output) .............................................................................................. 100
(Applications) .......................................................................... 102
PulseAudio ..................................................................................................... 103
............................................................................................................................... 103
, ............................................... 105
......................................................................................................... 105
TV- ....................................................................................................................... 106
........................................................................................... 107
(Capture cards) ..................................................................................... 108
(Video Sources)............................................................................... 109
(Input Connections) ..................................................................... 109
MythTV ............................................................................................................. 111
Web-...................................................................................................................... 111
USB- .................................................................................................................. 112
Ubuntu 10 ............................................................................................... 113
....................................................................................................................... 113

VII

4. : ........ 115
................................................................................................................. 115
(Language) ............................................................... 116
(Keyboard) ................................................... 118
(Session) ................................................................. 118
(Accessibility).................................................. 120
............................................................................................. 120
(Applications) .............................................................................. 121
(Places) ................................................................................................ 122
(System) ............................................................................................. 128
................................................................................. 130
(Quit) ............................................................................ 131
, ..................................... 135
........................................................................................ 137
............................................................................................................. 140
................................................................................................. 142
(Appearance) ............................................................... 142
.................................................................................................. 149
................................................................................................. 154
.................................................................................................................... 157
, ................................................................ 157
............................................................ 159
.................................................................................. 159
....................................................................................................................... 164
5. , .......... 165
............................................................................................................. 165
............................ 168
...................................................................... 169
............................................................................................ 169
ISO ........................................................................................... 169
...................................................................................... 169
.................................................................................................................. 171
................................................................................................. 171
................................................................................................... 172
............................................................................................... 172
.................................................................................................... 175
................................................................................................... 175
....................................................................................... 177
.................................................................................................. 181
................................................................................................... 182
(Trash) ............................................................................................................ 186
....................................................................................................................... 186
6. N AUTILUS .................................................. 187
............................................................................................... 187
....................................................................................................................... 188
......................................................................................... 188
........................................................... 189
............................................................................................. 190
, ........................................................................................ 190

VIII

............................................................................... 190
............................................................. 191
........................................................................................... 192
....................................................... 192
.......................................................................... 194
................................................................................................... 194
........................................................................................................ 194
............................................................................................................ 195
............................................................................................ 197
(File) ......................................................................................................... 197
(Edit) ..................................................................................................... 199
.......................................................................... 202
(Preferences) ................................................................................................ 202
| | (Edit | Preferences | Views) ............................................. 202
| | (Edit | Preferences | Behavior) ............................. 203
| | (Edit | Preferences | Display) ........................ 205
| | (Edit | Preferences | List Columns) ........... 206
| | (Edit | Preferences | Preview) ................................. 206
| | (Edit | Preferences | Media) .................................. 209
(View) ............................................................................................................. 210
(Go) ......................................................................................................... 212
(Bookmarks) .......................................................................................... 214
(Help) ................................................................................................................. 216
.......................................................................................................... 216
- .............................................................................................................. 219
...................................................................................................... 221
................................................................................. 222
............................................................................................................. 222
(Configuration Editor) ............................................................. 222
10.04 10.10 ................................................................................ 224
....................................................................................................................... 225
7. ........................................................................ 227
...................................................................................................... 227
Bash ................................................................................................................................... 228
........................................................................................... 228
Bash .................................................................................................................. 231
cd, pwd ls ................................................................................................... 232
cp mkdir ..................................................................................................... 236
mv ................................................................................................................... 237
diff .................................................................................................................. 238
find ................................................................................................................. 239
cat more ..................................................................................................... 241
grep ................................................................................................................ 243
rm rmdir ..................................................................................................... 245
wc ................................................................................................................... 246
man .............................................................................................. 246
.............................................................................. 247
....................................................................................................... 248
PATH ........................................................................................ 249
. ................................................................................................. 250

IX

...................................................................................... 250
.............................................................................................. 251
Nano ............................................................ 252
......................................................................................................... 253
................................................................................ 255
................................................................................................... 255
........................................................................................ 258
............................................................................................ 258
............................................................................................... 259
...................................................... 259
.......................................................................................... 260
, ................................................................... 260
................................................................................................ 260
................................................................ 261
tee ................................................................................................................... 262
, ................................................... 262
.................................................................... 263
.................................................................................. 263
.......................................................................................... 264
................................................................................................................. 265
...................................................................................................... 266
....................................................................................... 266
, ............................................................... 267
chmod.................................................................................. 269
chown ...................................................................................... 270
chgrp........................................................................................ 271
sudo ............................................................................................. 272
root ............................................................................................. 272
....................................................................................................... 273
................................. 275
....................................................................................................................... 275
8. .............................................. 277
Ubuntu ............................................................................................. 277
................................................................................................. 280
................................................................................................... 282
.......................................................................................... 283
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software) ............................... 284
(Other Software).......................................................................... 286
(Updates) ................................................................................... 286
(Authentication) .............................................................. 288
(Statistics) ............................................................................... 289
(View) ......................................................................................................... 291
........................................................................................................ 291
Synaptic (Synaptic Package Manager) ............................................. 291
Synaptic .............................................................. 293
........................................................ 296
................................................................................................... 296
Synaptic ..................................................................................... 298

Synaptic .................................................................................................................. 298


(file) .......................................................................................................... 299
(Edit) ..................................................................................................... 299
(Package) ............................................................................................... 300
(Settings) ........................................................................................ 301
(Help) .................................................................................................. 303
Aptitude ....................................................................................................... 303
apt-get ..................................................................................................... 305
...................................................................................... 305
....................................................................................................................... 306
9. .......................... 307
................................................................................................ 307
| ..................................................................................... 307
| ...................................................................... 316
- - ...................................................................................................... 323
..................................................................................................... 324
.......................................................................................................................... 324
root ............................................................................................ 326
...................................................................................................... 326
............................................................................ 327
......................................................... 329
.................................................................... 329
.................................................................................................................. 329
........................................................................... 330
Web- ................................................... 332
Wine ............................................................................................................................... 332
....................................................................................................................... 333
10. U BUNTU ................................................. 335
................................................................................................ 335
VNC ............................................................................................ 336
VNC-..................................................................................... 338
VNC- ........................................................................ 342
VNC ............................................................................. 342
....................................... 342
...................................................................................... 345
............................................................................................ 347
.................................................................. 349
........................................................................... 349
....................................................................................................................... 350
11. ....................................................................................... 351
Web ........................................................................................................................ 351
............................................................................................................................. 352
(Bookmarks) .................................................... 352
............................................................................................................. 353
............................................................................................................................. 353
Web-.................................................................................................. 353
........................................................................................................... 355

XI

............................................................................... 359
Pidgin .................................................................................. 360
- ........................................................................................................ 362
........................................................................... 363
Telnet SSH ................................................................................................. 366
Ubuntu One ....................................................................................................................... 367
.................................................................................... 367
Ubuntu One ......................................................................................... 368
....................................................................................................................... 369
12. O PEN O FFICE . ORG .................................................... 371
........................................................................................ 371
Writer............................................................................................................. 372
(Standard) ................................................................................ 373
(Formatting)....................................................................... 376
..................................................................................................... 378
...................................................................................................... 378
Calc ................................................................................................................ 379
(Standard) ................................................................................ 379
(Formatting)....................................................................... 381
Impress .......................................................................................................... 382
(Standard) ................................................................................ 382
(Line and Filling) ................................................................. 383
(Slides) ............................................................................................... 384
(Workspace) ............................................................................ 384
(Tasks) ................................................................................................. 385
(Drawing)....................................................................................... 385
............................................................................................................ 385
Draw .............................................................................................................. 385
Base ............................................................................................................... 387
Math............................................................................................................... 388
......................................................................................................... 390
Evolution ........................................................................................................ 390
Ubuntu 10? ................................................................................................. 391
....................................................................................................................... 392
13. .............................................................................................. 393
............................................................................................................. 393
PlayDeb ............................................................................................................................. 395
Linux- ........................................................................................................... 397
PlayOnLinux ...................................................................................................................... 398
KDE ......................................................................................................................... 400
Web- ................................................................... 401
" " Ubuntu ............................................................................................. 401
Ubuntu ............................................................................................................. 402
OpenOffice.org StarWars .............................................................................................. 402
Aptitude ................................................................................................. 403
Ubuntu 10? ................................................................................................. 404
....................................................................................................................... 404

XII

14. , ....................................................... 405


(Movie Player) .............................................................................. 405
................................................................... 406
VLC ............................................................................................. 408
Rhythmbox..................................................................... 409
............................................................................................................ 410
............................................................................................ 410
Last.fm ........................................................................................................................... 411
Ubuntu 10?.............................................................................................. 411
GIMP ......................................................................................... 412
? ................................................................................ 412
Ubuntu 10?.............................................................................................. 413
F-Spot .............................................................................. 414
Audacity............................................................................................ 416
Rosegarden .................................................................................................... 417
PiTiVi ..................................................................................................... 419
Ubuntu 10?.............................................................................................. 420
(Take Screenshot) ............................................................... 421
....................................................................................................................... 422
15. U BUNTU ................................................... 423
......................................................................................................................... 423
Ubuntu ................................................................ 424
Kubuntu ............................................................................................................................. 428
Xubuntu ............................................................................................................................. 430
Mythbuntu.......................................................................................................................... 432
Edubuntu............................................................................................................................ 432
Ubuntu Netbook Edition .................................................................................................... 432
Ubuntu 10?.............................................................................................. 433
Ubuntu Server Edition ....................................................................................................... 433
Ubuntu Studio .................................................................................................................... 434
Eeebuntu ............................................................................................................................ 435
......................................................................................... 436
....................................................................................................................... 436
16. W INE ........................................................................ 437
Wine? ............................................................................................................... 438
Wine ........................................................................................................ 439
Wine ........................................................................................................... 440
Wine ................................................................................................................ 440
Microsoft ........................................................................................ 442
Wine ............................................................................................................... 443
Windows- : .................................................................................... 444
......................................................................................... 444
....................................................................................................................... 444
..................................................................... 445
................................................................................ 446


Ubuntu ,
Linux. Ubuntu Webc. (Mark
Shuttleworth), ,
"", , Canonical,
Ubuntu Linux.
, , , . ,
, -
, Ubuntu
, .
, Ubuntu , ,
, , , , .
.
, Ubuntu ,
. ,
, Ubuntu - ,
.
Linux Web-, , ,
. Linux
1% ( )
Ubuntu.
, ,
Ubuntu, 10.10 Maverick Meerkat . , ,
, .

, Ubuntu,
Linux. , -

, , !
, ,
, , .


,
, Windows Mac OS
X. UNIX Linux (
Ubuntu) .


,

. .
, ,
Ubuntu,
, . 2 Ubuntu.

, .
, Ubuntu , , , , Web-.
, , Linux
. , , , .
, .
Ubuntu, , , OpenOffice.org, , , Bluetooth,
Windows-, Ubuntu.

, ,
.

:
;
, Web- ;
,
, HTML, ,
;

, ;
, , ;
, .


,
. , . , . ,
, , . CD-ROM O'Reilly, , , .
. , , .
, . , , ISBN
(International Standard Book Number, ).
: "Ubuntu: Up and Running, by Robin Nixon. Copyright 2010 Robin Nixon,
978-0-596-80484-8."

, , : permissions@oreilly.com.

O'Reilly
, , , :
O'Reilly Media Inc.,
1005 Gravenstein Highway North
Sebastopol, CA 95472
800-998-9938 ( )
707-829-0515 ( )
707-829-0104 ()
Web-,
, .
:
http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/9780596804848
Web- :
http://ubuntubook.net
, . ,
, ISBN- (9780596804848) :
bookquestions@oreilly.com
, ,
(Resource Centers) O'Reilly Network Web-
:
http://www.oreilly.com

Safari Books Online


Safari Books Online , " ", 7500
. .
Safari Books Online,
.

. ,
, , , , .

,
, "", ,
, ,
.
OReilly Media Safari Books
Online. OReilly
Web- http://my.safaribooksonline.com.

(Andy Oram) , , . , , OReilly



. .
, ,
, ,
: (Lesley Harrison),
(Matthew Helmke) (Jeff Kite), .
, ,
Canonical, GNU, Linux ,
, Ubuntu. , , Ubuntu ,
.

Ubuntu
, (Mark
Shuttleworth) . . ,
, ,
.
1995 . Thawte1,
, Web-,
, .
.

, "" ,
Ubuntu, Linux.
2004 ., Ubuntu Linux
. 2009 ., , Dimensional Research KACE, Ubuntu
, Windows Vista Windows 7, Mac OS X.
, ,
Ubuntu Mac OS X .
, ,
, 10 ,
, . , ,
Ubuntu, , 1

Thawte Consulting (http://www.thawte.com/) , X.509.


1995 . 1999 . VeriSign.
2010 . Symantec VeriSign, Thawte Symantec.

,
25 .

Ubuntu?
, " Ubuntu?"
. ,
. Ubuntu
.
. GNU, Linux ( Ubuntu Linux), , , " ". ,
( ,
Linux Red Hat SUSE Novell), ,
.
.
, , Ubuntu , , Ubuntu. , ,
, ,
Ubuntu.
, .
. Ubuntu,
Windows XP, Vista Windows 7,
Ubuntu.
. , Ubuntu
, .
. Web-
Ubuntu . ,
( ). , Ubuntu ,
, .
. , , ,
Ubuntu (, 10.04) (Long Term Support).
-

Ubuntu

, Windows.
. , Linux, Ubuntu
, . , ,
.

. , Linux

.
. Ubuntu CD
DVD, -USB,
.
. Ubuntu
OpenOffice.org,
, , Microsoft Office.
, Ubuntu, , , .

Ubuntu
Ubuntu, , "),
", " ( "
(), .
Canonical Ltd., .
Ubuntu ( ), Canonical ,
. Canonical
, Ubuntu.
2005 . Ubuntu Foundation,
10 , .
Ubuntu.
2009 . (CEO)
Canonical, " , ".

10

Ubuntu ( . 1.1)
, Debian, Linux.

. 1.1. Ubuntu

Debian
1993 . Debian ( Debian , (Ian
Murdock) (Debra Lynn), - , Linux
.
Debian (http://www.debian.org/) , 1000 , .

GNU
Debian, Ubuntu,
GNU (GNU General Public License, GPL)
GNU (GNU
Lesser General Public License, LGPL).
, , ,
.
GNU ( , );
: "GNU UNIX". GNU 1984 . (Richard Stallman),
. 1992 . Linux, GPL,
.

Linux
Linux , Linux "". 1991 .

Ubuntu

11

(Linus
Torvalds), .
Linux, , GNU, GNU/Linux.
Linux, .
Linux, Microsoft 20 000 . , 2006 . , ,
.

Tux
Tux (), Linux (. 1.2). (Larry Ewing)
GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program)
Linux. , ,
.

. 1.2. Linux

Linux
Linux ,
distros. Linux, GNU, ,
, , . .
, , 600 Linux,
300. ,
, .
,
Ubuntu.

12

. 1.1 ,
, Web-
http://distrowatch.com. , , ,
, , .
1.1. Linux

Ubuntu

Linux,
GNOME

Fedora

, Red Hat

Mint

, Ubuntu Ubuntu

openSUSE

, Slackware Novell

Debian

Mandriva

Red Hat,

PCLinuxOS

, Mandriva

Puppy

,
64

Sabayon

, Gentoo

Arch

,
Linux

CentOS

100-
Red Hat Enterprise Linux

MEPIS

Debian Linux

Slackware

Linux

Kubuntu

Ubuntu, KDE

Gentoo

, FreeBSD,

Ubuntu Studio

Ubuntu,

Xubuntu

Ubuntu, Xfce Desktop

Red Hat

Fedora, Red Hat

Edubuntu

Ubuntu,


, . ,

Ubuntu

13


, . ,
. ,
, , , , .

, (embedded systems), ,
.

Ubuntu
Ubuntu " ". . 1.1,
Ubuntu, :
Ubuntu Linux Ubuntu;
Kubuntu , GNOME
KDE;
Xubuntu , GNOME
Xfce;
Mythbuntu ,
(PVR);
Netbook Edition ,
( Ubuntu Netbook Remix).

X Window System
Ubuntu X Window System,
Linux
UNIX- . ,
Ubuntu.
X Window System 1980 .
(MIT), .
, C R. X Window System W (W Window System),
, V1.
1

. https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/V_%28operating_system%29,
http://eia.udg.es/~teo/sd/documents/articles/p314-cheriton.pdf. . .

14

,
UNIX- ( UNIX- , Linux)
, "" - , . ,
"" X.org,
,
.
, , .
, .

Linux
Windows Mac, , Windows XP,
Windows Vista/7 Mac OS X. Ubuntu Linux
: GNOME, KDE Xfce.

GNOME
GNOME Ubuntu . , "
".
GNOME , KDE Qt.
GPL .
, GNOME GPL- LGPL . GTK+, Windows Mac OS X, ,
, , (. 1.3). , GNOME, Debian Fedora.

KDE
KDE Qt, LGPL.
Kubuntu 1998 . UNIX,
. 2006 .
KDE, .

Ubuntu

15

. 1.3. Ubuntu, GNOME

Ubuntu Kubuntu , Ubuntu GNOME, Evolution Personal


Information Manager (PIM) Synaptic Package Manager, Kubuntu KDE-: Kontact PIM KPackageKit.
KDE ,
GNOME, .
KDE GNOME , Ubuntu Kubuntu
(repositories). Ubuntu KDE,
. 1.4. GNOME
KDE .
, ,
, KDE
GNOME, . , KDE, , .
, Windows "K",
(. . 1.4), .

16

. 1.4. Ubuntu KDE

Xfce
Xfce Xubuntu Linux (
UNIX- Solaris BSD) GTK+, GNOME, Xfwm.
Xfce, . 1.5: " ".
, . ,
.
Xfce GNOME
KDE,
. , , Xubuntu Xfce.
Xfce , 10% Linux.
Windows XP , ,
, .
KDE Kubuntu, Xfce Xubuntu.
Ubuntu, , , 2.

Ubuntu

17

. 1.5. Ubuntu Xfce

Linux
(packages), , (package manager).
Linux . , Ubuntu Synaptic (Synaptic Package Manager), . 1.6, Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center)1,
. 1.7.
1

, Ubuntu (Ubuntu
Software Center) Synaptic.
Ubuntu 10.10 Synaptic , , Ubuntu
11.04 Synaptic . , Ubuntu (
, Synaptic ). Synaptic
Ubuntu 10.04, , . , Synaptic , . . .

18

. 1.6. Synaptic Package Manager

. 1.7. Ubuntu

Ubuntu

19

, Linux, , . ,
Ubuntu, .

Ubuntu
Ubuntu ,
, , ,
, . ,
, , .
, .

. 1.8. Web- Ubuntu Community

, Ubuntu. , , -

20

, Ubuntu Community
http://ubuntu.com/community1 (. 1.8), .
Ubuntu Code of
Conduct (http://ubuntu.com/community/conduct),
Ubuntu
. , ,
: " ".
Web- ,
Ubuntu, .
. ,
Planet Ubuntu (http://planet.ubuntu.com/) Web- Fridge
(http://fridge.ubuntu.com/).
, , , , , . Ubuntu Community .

Ubuntu
Ubuntu,
. , , , ,
. Ubuntu ( , ), , 6.06 LTS, , . , Ubuntu ,
: Observant Ostrich ( ) , , Obvious Otter ( ) . .
. 1.2.
1.2. Ubuntu

4.10

Warty Warthog

2004 .

2006 .

5.04

Hoary Hedgehog

2005 .

2006 .

, Ubuntu: http://team.ubuntu.ru/ . .

Ubuntu

21

1.2 ()

5.10

Breezy Badger

2005 .

2007 .

6.06LTS

Dapper Drake

2006 .

2009 .

6.10

Edgy Eft

2006 .

2008 .

7.04

Feisty Fawn

2007 .

2008 .

7.10

Gutsy Gibbon

2007 .

2009 .

8.04LTS

Hardy Heron

2008 .

2011 .

8.10

Intrepid Ibex

2008 .

2010 .

9.04

Jaunty Jackalope

2009 .

2010 .

9.10

Karmic Koala

2009 .

2011 .

10.04LT
S

Lucid Lynx

2010 .

2013 .

10.10

Maverick Meerkat

2010 .

2012 .

11.04

Natty Narwhal

2011 .

2012 .

2011 .

2013 .

2015 .

,
Ubuntu , , OpenOffice.org ( Microsoft Office), Web-
Firefox (Terminal),
.

"" " " ( ) , . . .

22

, ,
(instant messaging), , , .

,
Ubuntu , , . . ,
,
, . ,
(. ., ), ,
.
,
, , . .
. ,
. ,
, , Windows
Mac OS X. Ubuntu " " .

- ,
. Ubuntu, , , , .
, Windows Mac OS X ( ),
.
, Ubuntu ,
( ),
.
, , ,
Ubuntu .

Ubuntu
DVD,
, , ,
ISO- .
DVD , , , : Live DVD, . .
.
, DVD
Ubuntu 10.10, - . , Ubuntu, , . RAM-
, .
, Ubuntu 10.10
ISO Ubuntu,
Kubuntu Xubuntu. , .


(, , DVD). , . " " .

Live DVD
Live DVD ,
Ubuntu, . , , Ubuntu. Ubuntu -

24

, (,
Microsoft Windows). , Live DVD.
Live DVD , DVD ,
. ,
RAM,
, , ,
( -USB, Web-: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/LiveCD/
Persistence). , . Ubuntu
DVD.
, BIOS CD/DVD. ,
. ,
BIOS Setup. , . , , BIOS ,
.

. 2.1. , Live DVD Ubuntu 10.04 LTS

Ubuntu

25


DVD Intel Macintosh, , DVD, , System
Preference ( ) , Mac, , <>, .

. , Live DVD Ubuntu 10.04 (. 2.1)


10.10 (. 2.2), , .
Ubuntu
, 10.10.

. 2.2. ,
Live DVD Ubuntu 10.10

,
Live DVD ( , ). . , ,
, , . ,
. ,
.

26

Live DVD
Live DVD
Ubuntu (Try Ubuntu). Ubuntu ,
.
,
, , , , ,
.
, Ubuntu
, .
Ubuntu, . 2.3.

. 2.3. Ubuntu 10.10, Live DVD

, Examples,
.
Examples, Ubuntu , .

Ubuntu

27

, , .
,
( ), , .
, Enable Networking (
). , Ethernet- ,
. ,
Auto eth0 .
, (.
. 2.4).

. 2.4.

,
,
Ethernet- .
. 3.

Ethernet, , , ,
Live DVD, Ubuntu . Ubuntu,

, , , , Ubuntu,
, .


DVD, , , ISO- CD, . CD

28

, Ubuntu ,
, . ,
. , , , , , .
ISO distros . 2.1.

2.1. , DVD-

MD5-

ubuntu-10.10desktop-i386.iso

59d15a16ce90c8ee97fa7c211b7673a8
Ubuntu

Ubuntu: ,

GNOME

kubuntu-10.10desktop-i386.iso

da50a1ddb22060a2abda6823c9d1148d
Kubuntu

Kubuntu: Ubuntu,
GNOME
KDE

xubuntu-10.10desktop-i386.iso

ea9ecc3486e8c2994d8779bbf5ad1b96
Xubuntu

Xubuntu: Ubuntu,
GNOME
Xfce

mythbuntu-10.10desktop-i386.iso

e191bae252490c8b7e33e1f0f30df24e
Mythbuntu

Mythbuntu:
Ubuntu,


Myth TV Personal Video Recorder

ubuntu-10.10netbook-i386.iso

6877bf8d673b87ba9500b0ff879091d0
Netbook

Ubuntu Netbook Edition: Ubuntu,


MD5-
ISO, . 2.1
MD5-. , , -
ISO .
Windows ,
winMD5sum http://www.nullriver.com/index/products/winmd5sum.

Ubuntu

29

ISO, . 2.1. ,
,
.
Mac OS X Disk Utility ( )
Utilities, ISO Disk Utility
Dock. ISO Images (),
Checksum | MD5 ( | MD5).
,
, VirtualBox (. .
" " ), CD DVD- (. . " "
).


, Live DVD,
ISO-, Ubuntu, .
, DVD.
. 2.2 URL ISO .
2.2. URL- Ubuntu

URL

Edubuntu

http://www.edubuntu.org/download

Eeebuntu

http://eeebuntu.virginmedia.com

Kubuntu

http://www.kubuntu.org/getkubuntu/download

Mythbuntu

http://www.mythbuntu.org/downloads

Ubuntu

http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/download

Ubuntu MID Edition

http://www.ubuntu.com/products/mobile

Ubuntu Netbook Edition

http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/download-netbook

Ubuntu on ARM

http://www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/arm

Ubuntu Server

http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/download-server

Ubuntu Studio

http://ubuntustudio.org/downloads

Xubuntu

http://www.xubuntu.org/get

30

( 6.06) http://releases.ubuntu.com.

, MID Ubuntu, .
, .
Netbook Remix ( Netbook Edition, 10.04) ,
, Eee PC,
. ARM ARM. ,
.
15.
Kubuntu Xubuntu, 15 , ( )
Ubuntu ,
.

ISO
(. .) ISO
(. . " " ).

CD- DVD-
Windows XP Windows Vista,
CD/DVD-,
Active ISO Burner, ISO
CD- DVD-. Windows 7, Mac OS X Ubuntu , .

Wubi (. . " Ubuntu


Windows"), ISO CD,
CD ISO, DVD.

Active ISO Burner


Windows XP/Vista
, DVD, distros, Active
ISO Burner
IsoBurner-Setup.exe. Next () (. 2.5) License. ( )
Next.

Ubuntu

. 2.5. Active ISO Burner

. 2.6. Active ISO Burner

31

32

Complete () Custom
() . Complete Next,
Install (). .
, Finish
(), , ,
. 2.6.
ISO Browse ()
. ,
Target ( ), .
124 ( ). Auto-Select (),
.
, ,
BURN ().

ISO Windows 7
,
Windows 7, ISO- CD DVD.

. 2.7. ISO- Windows 7

Ubuntu

33

, ,
, ,
.
ISO-, , . 2.7.
(Burn).

ISO Mac OS X
ISO Mac OS X
Applications | Utilities | Disk Utility ( | | ). Images | Burn ( | )
ISO.

ISO Ubuntu
Ubuntu , ISO ,
, Open with | Brasero ( | Brasero), Burn ()
(. 2.8).

. 2.8. CD- ISO Ubuntu Brasero

ISO- -USB
Ubuntu ISO -USB, System | Administration | USB Startup Disk Creator ( | | USB Startup Disk Creator). , USB- ISO.
, ISO, USB-, Make
Startup Disk ( ).

34

-USB Live CD,


, . Ubuntu
. USB- , , .


Ubuntu Ubuntu . , .
CD-ROM ,
. , . .

Microsoft Virtual PC
, Ubuntu
Virtual PC Microsoft,
Windows XP Professional Tablet PC, Windows Vista Business,
Enterprise Ultimate Windows 7. ,
Windows XP Home Windows Vista Home Premium,
.
, Virtual PC,
, , , , , . , ,
,
Ubuntu Virtual PC.

VMware
VMware ,
Linux Max OS X, Windows. , (VMware Player), .
. VMware Workstation
.

Ubuntu

35

Ubuntu , Ubuntu,
, , VMware.
VMware , ,
Ubuntu ( ).
VMware "",
.

Oracle VirtualBox
, , . VirtualBox (
http://www.virtualbox.org/) Windows, Mac OS X, Ubuntu Solaris,
, , - . ,
. Innotek Qemu1.
VirtualBox 2007 ., ( 2008 .) Innotek Sun Microsystms, VirtualBox . , 2010 .
Sun Microsystems Oracle Corporation,
VirtualBox - .
VirtualBox Live
CD/DVD: ISO.
, DVD-, ,
VirtualBox. , , Ubuntu.

Web- http://www.virtualbox.org Downloads,


Web-.
: Windows, Intel Mac, Linux Solaris.
3.2.10. Windows.
, ,
, . 2.9.
Next (),
Next.
.
1

. http://xgu.ru/wiki/QEMU. . .

36

. 2.9. VirtualBox

. 2.10.

Ubuntu

37

, Next, . Next , Yes () Install (), .


(. 2.10).
, , . Yes,
VirtualBox.
, . Finish ().
, , . 2.11.
VirtualBox ,
, . 2.11
.

. 2.11. VirtualBox


, New () .

38

. 2.12.

. 2.13.

Ubuntu

39

,
(New Virtual Machine Wizard), . 2.12, Next () , . 2.13.
Name () , Ubuntu,
(Operating System) Linux.
(Version) Ubuntu, ,
, Next (Memory)
(. 2.14).

. 2.14.

512 .
(, 2 ),
1000 . Next,
, . 2.15.
, :
(Boot Hard Disk) (Create new hard disk)
Next Next ,
(Hard Disk Storage Type),
. 2.15.

(Dynamically expanding storage) Next. , VirtualBox ,
.

40

. 2.15.

. 2.16.

Ubuntu

41


.
, ,
,
(Fixed-size storage). ,
.
(. 2.17) ( Fixed-size
storage).

. 2.17. VirtualBox,

,
.
Next, , Finish ()
.
, ,
.
Finish (), (. 2.18). ( ).

42

. 2.18. Ubuntu 10.10


, . ,
(First Run Wizard) (. 2.19).
Next . 2.20 ,
ISO.
, , Next, CD- DVD-,
, .
ISO.
, Drive (). (. 2.21)
CD/DVD (CD/DVD Images),
Add (),
ISO-, . 2.21.

Ubuntu

. 2.19.

. 2.20.

43

44

. 2.21. ISO-

, , ubuntu-10.10-desktop-i386.iso.
ISO , (Select),
. , , Next
Finish ().
Ubuntu, . 2.1
.
"" ISO Live
. ,

, .
VirtualBox . 3.

VirtualBox ,
, <Ctrl>, .

Ubuntu

45


,
Bochs (http://bochs.sourceforge.net/) QEMU (http://wiki.qemu.org/Main_Page).
, ; , , , . , ,
.


(
), :
1) , ;
2) ;
3) Wubi Ubuntu
Microsoft Windows .
Ubuntu, Windows 2.
,
Ubuntu ,
, , ,
.
Wubi ,
Ubuntu
Windows. Wubi , Ubuntu ,
<Enter>,
, .
Wubi.

Ubuntu Windows
, DVD, Windows distros
DVD-:
wubi.exe
ubuntu-10.10-desktop-i386.iso

46

!
wubi ,
Ubuntu!

, DVD
( : , Wubi1
) wubi.exe,
.


Wubi .
Wubi , -

(
). , , .
Wubi , ,
, . , Continue ()
, .
, .
ISO CD ( CD Ubuntu), CD-ROM Windows, Wubi Ubuntu ISO , CD-, DVD-.
Windows , , wubi.exe ubuntu-10.10-desktop-i386, exe iso. , , ,
Wubi (
).
ISO
Ubuntu.
Wubi.
, , . 2.22.
- Windows (Install from Windows).
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Installer),
. 2.23.
1

(Wubi) "Windows-based UBuntu


Installer". , Ubuntu - Windows. .
https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Wubi_%28Ubuntu_installer%29,
http://wubi.sourceforge.net/, https://wiki.ubuntu.com/WubiGuide. . .

Ubuntu

. 2.22. Wubi

. 2.23. Ubuntu - Windows

47

48

, Ubuntu,
, Ubuntu.
,
. 17 ,
100 , , 30 .
, Wubi , , ,
Ubuntu/Wubi .
.
, ,
,
, .
, . 9.
, .
10 (. 2.24).

. 2.24. Ubuntu Wubi

Wubi - ,
ISO . , ISO . ,

Ubuntu

49

, MD5- ,
. " MD5-" .
, , . 2.25.
Ubuntu,
(Reboot now). , - ,
(I want to manually reboot later). (Finish).

. 2.25. Ubuntu

, , Ubuntu

Windows. Ubuntu
, .
, Windows ,
.
3, Ubuntu,
,
.

Wubi, ISO DVD, , Wubi, DVD, . , Wubi ISO CD, DVD.

50

Ubuntu
Wubi Ubuntu,
, , .
Ubuntu,
, , ,
( ).
Ubuntu.
Live DVD
Ubuntu 10.10 (Install Ubuntu 10.10) (. . 2.3) .
DVD Ubuntu (Install
Ubuntu).
, , , , . 2.26.

. 2.26. Ubuntu Live DVD

Ubuntu

51


,
( , Fluendo MP3). , ( ),
, , . (Next), , .
,
, . 2.27, , ,
(Erase and use the entire disk), Ubuntu .

. 2.27. ,

(
Windows, Mac OS X Ubuntu),
Ubuntu (. 2.28).

52

. 2.28.

. , . ,
, .

,
,
.
, Ubuntu , (. 2.29).
, , . ,
, .
Ubuntu

.

Ubuntu

53

. 2.29.
Ubuntu

Linux, . .


Ubuntu
, , (.
. 2.29), (Install Now).
(. 2.30), , . , ,
.
(Continue)
, , . ,
(. 2.31).

54

. 2.30. , ,

. 2.31. Ubuntu 10.10

Ubuntu

55

, Ubuntu 10.10
, 10.04, , ,
, Ubuntu . Ubuntu , Ubuntu
, Ubuntu.

,
, ,
, .
, , .


Ubuntu ,
, , .

. 2.32.

56


(Install Now)
(. 3.32), .

.
(Next) (. 2.33).

. 2.33.

, (Next),
, , , . , .
(Next) .


,
, , (username),
(password) (. . 2.34).

Ubuntu

57

. 2.34.

, , , ,
. , . , .
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
(
). , , , ; , . ,
. Ubuntu , (. 2.35).
, Ubuntu ,
, .

58

,
.
, , .

. 2.35. Ubuntu ,

Ubuntu.
,
, .
, . - , . . ,
.

,
Ubuntu ,
. ecryptfs-unwrap-passphrase Terminal , .

Ubuntu

59

,
, . 2.36. , Ubuntu .

. 2.36. Ubuntu


, .
, . ,
, , ,
, , . ,
Ubuntu,
Ubuntu, 10.10, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, , , , Windows.

, ,
, (Restart
Now), . 2.37. DVD ,
(Restart Now),
.

60



Ubuntu. , , , , Terminal ( Applications | Accessories | Terminal
( | | )). eject <Enter>.

. 2.37. Ubuntu


Ubuntu
, , Ubuntu, .



. , , . 2.38.
Ubuntu.
, .
,
Windows Mac OS X, recovery mode ( )
memtest86+ ( ), .


Ubuntu ,
, .
Live DVD Ubuntu,
, ,

Ubuntu

LiveCdRecovery.

Web-

61

Ubuntu

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/

. 2.38.

, Ubuntu
, Ubuntu DVD. ,
?


memtest86+ , . , ,
(. 2.39).
, , Pass () Test ()
. ,
, .

<Esc>.

62

. 2.39.

Ubuntu 10
Ubuntu 10.04 , 10 . . -,
3060 .
1020 .,
12 . , .

10.10, Web- https://wiki.ubuntu.com/BootCharting
, .
Ubuntu 10.10
, .
, .


, Ubuntu 10.10 ,
, ,

Ubuntu

63

11.04. ,
Ubuntu , .
, , URL:
http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes
More
(). .

CD
Ubuntu. -,
ISO, CD . , , " ".
" CD- DVD-" , ISO .
, , ,
Ubuntu ,
.
,
.



Ubuntu
. , , . | | (System |
Administration | Update Manager), , . 2.40.
. ,
. ,
, , (Check).

. - ,
(Install Updates), . -
, .
.

64

. 2.40.

, (Check)
, (Install Updates) (), ,
(. 2.41).


( , , ),
Ubuntu 'xx.xx' (New Distribution release
'xx.xx' is available), 'xx.xx . ,
, (. . 2.41).

(Upgrade) , , , .

Ubuntu

65

. 2.41. Ubuntu ,


, ,
,
. , .


, , ISO- , . ,
,
, ( ). ,
, .

66

10.10
Ubuntu 10.10 , ,
. , ,
GRUB (Grand Unified Bootloader) 2, , Ubuntu , . , , Ubuntu,
. .,
<Shift>. GRUB 2 <Enter>.

, Ubuntu ,
. , .
, , Ubuntu
: , .
, 3 ,
, , ,
Web- . .

Ubuntu ( , 4), , .
, , Ubuntu , .
,
, ,
Windows. ,
Windows, .
, , , , , Linux-,
, ,
. , , , , .
Ubuntu ,
.


10 ,
, Ubuntu
, .
Firefox, , (System),
| | Web- Firefox (Applications | Internet | Firefox Web Browser). Web-,

68

Google/Ubuntu,
. 3.1.
, , Offline Mode, This document cannot be displayed while offline,
, .

. 3.1. Firefox Ubuntu, ,


, -


, Ubuntu Live CD,
, , ,
, , . , . 3.2. ,
, . , , .

, , . 3.3.
,
. Ubuntu

69

(
), Ubuntu 10.04 10.10 , ( ).
,
, (
).

. 3.2.

. 3.3.

,
Ethernet, Auto eth0 (Wired
Network). , ,
(), ,
(Wireless Networks). , . 3.4,
, The Dunes.

70

, , .

. 3.4. ,

, , ,
( , ) .

, , (. 3.5).

. 3.5. ,


Ethernet Auto eth0 (
Auto eth1 . ., ). , , ,
. , , , Auto eth0

71

(Auto eth0 connection established). -


, : Auto eth0 (Auto eth0 disconnected).
Ethernet-,
(Wired Network) (Disconnect),
. , , (Disconnect)
(Wireless Networks).


, , (
) , Ubuntu , , . ,
, ,
, .

. 3.6. PCI

, Google , , , RALink

72

2790, .
, RT2860STA,
, . .
,
. , ,
, ,
(Terminal) ( | |
(Applications | Accessories | Terminal) lspci ( PCI), <Enter>. . 3.6. Network Ethernet, ,
.
.


, , . ,
.
,
. ,
. Ubuntu . . 3.7 128-
WEP 40.

. 3.7.

73

, , (Show key),
.
(Connect), "" , , ,
, ,
(connection established).

Ethernet
,
, : Ethernet, ,
Ethernet, , . ,
Ethernet.
.
, Ethernet-.
: , .
. , , . Ethernet-
( Ubuntu, Windows, Mac OS X ), .
Ethernet (Wireless Ethernet
Bridge) (Wireless Gaming
Adapter).
,
: ,
,
Ethernet, .

, , . ,
(Configure connections). (Network
Connections), . 3.8, (Edit...). , ( ) (
). , . 3.9, IP- IPv4 (IPv4 Settings). -

74

IP- IP-
( 10).

. 3.8. Network Connections

. 3.9. IP-

75

,

.



,
| | (System | Administration | System
Language). , . 3.10.

. 3.10. Ubuntu

,
,
( ,
). , .

76

,
. 3.11.
, (Install now).

. 3.11. ,
( )

, ,
. , (. 3.12).

. 3.12. ,

, (. 3.13), .

, (. 3.14),
, .

77

. 3.13.

. 3.14.

78

Ubuntu, 2, Ubuntu Windows, , , , ,


.
Ubuntu GNOME
(System), (Preferences)
. . 3.15 , (Keyboard Preferences). , ,
| | (System | Preferences | Keyboard).

. 3.15. GNOME

(Keyboard Preferences)
. 3.16. , . ,
.

79

. 3.16.


Ubuntu . , ,
, , -
. ,
, , ,
. , Ubuntu - , ,
.

(General)
. 3.16, (General)
(Repeat Keys). ,
, , .
(Type to test
settings).

80


. ,
.
, , (Help).

(Close): .

(Layouts)
Ubuntu,
, ( , ). , . 3.17,
Ubuntu 10.10 (,
Ubuntu,
).

. 3.17.
() ()

, , .
,

81

, , : (Keyboard model). ,
(. 3.18).

. 3.18.

, Generic ( ), , . .
, (Separate layout for each window),
.
, , (Add). (. 3.19) , .
,
(By country),
, .
(By language),
, , , ; . .
(Add)
(Layouts).

82

, - ,
(Remove).

. 3.19. ,

(Separate layout for each window)


(Selected Layouts),
- , .
, (Reset to Defaults) ,
(Apply System-Wide).
,
(Layout Options) , . 3.20.
,
, , <Caps Lock> <Ctrl>, , . -

83

, . , . 3.20, ,
, .

. 3.20. ,

(Accessibility)
,
(Accessibility) (. 3.21) Ubuntu . (Sticky Keys), <Ctrl> <Shift> ,
; (Slow Keys), ; (Bounce Keys),
. .
,
, (Audio Feedback), , . 3.22.
,
(Beep) , ( )
.

84

. 3.21.
,

. 3.22.

85

(Mouse Keys)
. (Mouse Keys), . 3.23.

. 3.23. Ubuntu

, ,
, , .
, , .

(Typing Break)
, - , , (, - ). , Ubuntu
, (Typing Break) (. 3.24).

86

. 3.24.

, , .
, , , .
. , , .
,
, (Close) .


, , , "
" (Keyboard shortcuts). |
| (System | Preferences | Keyboard
Shortcuts) , . 3.25.

87

. 3.25.

, , ( ),
. , <Ctrl>+<PgUp> ,
(Volume up) , <Ctrl>,
<PgUp>.
"" , , Web-
, Ubuntu ,

, .
,
, ,
(Add). ,
, () Linux,
,
(. 7).
,
(Close).

, . | | (System |
Preferences | Mouse) (. 3.26),
: (General) (Accessibility).

88

. 3.26. ,

(General)
(General)
<Ctrl>.
, (Acceleration) (Sensitivity),
(Drag and Drop Threshold) (Double-Click Timeout).
,
. .
(Double-Click Timeout), , .
(Acceleration) , , (Sensitivity)

89

. , , , , .
(Drag and Drop Threshold) ,
, Ubuntu , .

(Accessibility)
(Accessibility) , . . 3.27 (Simulated Secondary
Click) (Dwell Click).

. 3.27.

90

( ) ,
(Simulated Secondary Click) ,
. ,
, ( ) .
,
, , , ,

(desktop). (Accessibility),
,
,
.
(Assistive Technology
Support) (Accessibility)
(Dwell Click). , .
,
. .
,
, .
( ), ,
, .
, ,
, , :
: ;
: ;
: ;
: .
, (Accessibility).

, , ,
.
,
,
(Choose type of click beforehand) ,
(Show click type window).
(. 3.28), , .

91

. 3.28.
,

,
(Right Click)
, .
, .
.

, " " Linux, , , .


, , "" " ".
, Linux.
Linux
.
800600 ( 640480) . , .
,
. Linux . ,
.

(Display Preferences)
(Display Preferences) (. 3.29) ,
| | (System | Preferences | Display).

92

. 3.29. ,
1024768

,
(Resolution). ,
, ( "" Ubuntu) .
,
( ) (
). , ,
( ) ,
. , , , .
, ,
(Detect Monitors)
Ubuntu .
Ubuntu (Show displays in panel),
, , , , .
, ,
Ubuntu (Resolution),
, . . 3.30
, , 19201200 . 1024768 . Ubuntu
.

93

. 3.30.


. , . ,
, .
Ubuntu ,
(proprietary) , .
, , Linux-.
,
, . ,
, , ,
, Ubuntu, .
, Ubuntu
, .

94

Web- , .

Ubuntu DVD-,
, (Display Preferences).
, Ubuntu, Wubi Ubuntu Windows, Ubuntu VirtualBox.
.
2.

, - , | |
(System | Administration | Hardware Drivers), , , . 3.31. , . ,
(. . 3.31) , NVIDIA.

. 3.31. Ubuntu ,
( NVIDIA)

95

Ubuntu 10.04,
, .
(. . 3.31) - ,
, (Activate).
,
.
Ubuntu, .
, .
, , , . ,
: : (No extra features), : (Normal) : (Extra),
| |
| (System | Preferences | Appearance | Visual
Effects), 4.
, ,

(. 3.32).

. 3.32. ,

. 3.33. (Nvidia),

96

(No), (. . 3.30), ,
. ,
(Yes), , ,
. 3.33 ( NVIDIA).
, , , " ",
. , ,
, ( ) Ubuntu.


VirtualBox
2,
VirtualBox . , - ,
.

. 3.34. ,
VirtualBox

97

VirtualBox Ubuntu , , "" . , VirtualBox Windows Windows NT 4.0,


2000, XP, Server 2003 Windows Vista/7,
, DOS/Windows 3.x, Linux, , Solaris, OpenSolaris OpenBSD.
, Ubuntu VirtualBox,
640 480 800600. ,
Ubuntu. <Ctrl>,
, ( ), VirtualBox |
(Devices | Install Guest Additions) (. 3.34).
,
. CD-ROM, Ubuntu,
.

. 3.35. VirtualBox

98

Ubuntu, VirtualBox , CD- ( , VBOXADDITIONS, VirtualBox),


. ,
. ,
autorun.sh. ,
(Run in Terminal)
(Run). , , , Ubuntu. . 3.35 ,
.
, , ,
- .

. 3.36. Ubuntu, VirtualBox,


<Enter> ( ), Ubuntu. , Ubuntu, -

99

(. 3.36).

, .
, . VirtualBox , :
(Save the machine state)
(Send the shutdown signal)
(Power off the machine)
, ,
,
. ,
, . , .

,
.

. 3.37. (Sound Preferences)

100

.
(Sound Preferences) (. 3.37),
| | (System | Preferences | Sound).

(Mute) . .

(Sound Effects)
.
Ubuntu. , (Sound theme) (
, ).
, .

(Hardware)
, ,
, ,
, ,
, .
(Profile).

(Input)
(Mute).
(Input level) (. 3.38).
(Connector) ( (line in) (microphone))
, , .

(Output)
,
,
, (. 3.39).

101

. 3.38.

. 3.39.

102

: (Connector),
, .
: (headphones)
(general analog output).

(Applications)
,
, (Applications), (. 3.40). , ,
. , , , .
( ), (No application is currently playing or recording
audio).

. 3.40. ,

103

PulseAudio
Ubuntu PulseAudio,
, .
,
. ,
,
, .
, PulseAudio ,
, ,
, , (sampling), . , , .
, , , ,
. , , , Ubuntu PulseAudio.
, Synaptic ,
(Terminal), | | (Applications | Accessories | Terminal). , :
sudo apt-get remove pulseaudio

, , , PulseAudio (, ,
), , .
:
sudo apt-get install pulseaudio

, .

| | (System | Administration | Printing), . (New)


| | (Server | New | Printer);
(Searching),
, Ubuntu (. 3.41).

104

. 3.41.

, (Forward). , Ubuntu
. ,
. , .
PPD
( ) Web- .
,
,
(Drivers) . , , , (. 3.42).
(Apply)
. (Yes), .
.
.

105

. 3.42.

,

Ubuntu ,
Windows, Windows Printer via SAMBA / smb://. , ,
(/), .
(Browse), , (. 3.43).
, ,
. .


( ) ,
,
Ubuntu. Web-
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Printers (, Printers ), Brother, HP, Lexmark, Samsung Xerox.

106

. 3.43. Ubuntu ,

Web- http://wiki.ubuntu.com/HardwareSupportComponentsPrinters
, Ubuntu.
, , , , ,
Ubuntu. " ", , . .

TV-
Ubuntu TV- ( ,
), MythTV, Linux Windows Media Center.
apt://mythtv Web- Firefox (, apturl
)
| | (Applications | Accessories | Terminal)
:
sudo apt-get install mythtv

, , ,
.

107

root
MySQL. , , , . , ,
<Enter>, ;
root MySQL , .
, MythTV, . ,
(Yes). , , Web MythTV,
MySQL.


, , , , MythTV,
.
.
TV-
| | MythTV Backend Setup (System |
dministration | MythTV Backend Setup), , . 3.44. , , , mythtv. ,
Ubuntu.
Ubuntu, ,
MythTV.

. 3.44. MythTV

.
, <Enter>

108

. , (Capture cards), MythTV,


.

(Capture cards)
(Capture cards),
, <Enter> ( )
(New Capture card). ,
, , . 3.45.

. 3.45. TV-

: (Card type)
, USB . , , (. . 3.45),
Philips, ,
<Alt>+<F>, (Finish).
<Alt>+<B>, <Alt>+<C> <Escape>.
(Capture cards)
<Escape> .

, MythTV ( ),

109

, - (): (Signal Timeout (msec))


- (): (Tuning Timeout (msec)), ,
, 5000 500 (
, ).

(Video Sources)
Video Sources (),
New video source ( ), ,
. 3.46. TV-, , Listings grabber (
) Transmitted guide only (EIT) ( ) EIT Video source name ( ) Finish ().

. 3.46.

<Escape>.

(Input Connections)
, Input
Connections ( ).
, (. 3.47).
Digital TV, Video
source ()
EIT.

110

. 3.47. EIT

Scan for
channels ( ) Next (),
, .
- , .
, -
, .
,
, . , .
mythfilldatabase MythTV. EIT , Cancel ().

. 3.48. MythTV, mythbuntu

111

,
MythTV | | MythTV Frontend
(Applications | Sound & Video | MythTV Frontend).
. 3.48.

MythTV
MythTV
(Watch TV). , , . 3.49. .
, .

. 3.49. MythTV,

Web-
USB- UVC (USB Video Class),
Web-
-USB , Web-. Ubuntu
Web- ( ).
Web- Cheese, |
| (Applications | Accessories | Terminal) :
sudo apt-get install cheese
cheese

112

(
Ubuntu), ( , )
Web- , . 3.50. , Web- , Cheese, , .

. 3.50. Web- Cheese


,

USB-
, (
) USB, , -USB, . . Ubuntu

113

,
.
,
,
.

- iPhone. Ubuntu, 10.04,
iPhone , , iPod .
, Wine Windows, iTunes. iTunes,
iTunes iPhone. VirtualBox Ubuntu Windows XP
iTunes. ,
.

Ubuntu 10
10.04, Nautilus
iPhone Ubuntu
iPhone, , . , Rhythmbox, iTunes, iPhone. ,
iPhone. 10.04 10.10 Ubuntu 9.10.

, , ,
,
, , Ubuntu, ,
.
,
, ,
.

:


, Linux
. , , ,
, Windows Mac OS X.
Xfce, KDE Ubuntu GNOME

.
GNOME Ubuntu 10.10
Linux, ,
.


, (logging in). , Ubuntu , , . 4.1.
, .
,
. ,
, .
,
, . , Ubuntu. .

116

. 4.1. Ubuntu

(Language)
(Language) Ubuntu. (
( )), ,
, , . , ,
.
. , , , ,
, (. 4.2).
( ).
. ,
Ubuntu, | |

117

(System | Administration | Language Support),


/ (Install/Remove Languages),
. 4.3. , , , .
, , (Install) , , 3.

. 4.2. Ubuntu ,

(Apply Changes), , (Translations)


(Spellchecking and writing aids). ,
3.

118

. 4.3.

(Keyboard)
Ubuntu . , ,
,
. 4.4. Ubuntu , , , ,
, .
, .

(Session)
(. 4.5).
GNOME, , 15, ,
Ubuntu KDE Xfce. , -

119


GNOME.

. 4.4.

. 4.5.

Ubuntu Desktop Edition ( )


(Ubuntu Desktop Edition (safe mode)), , -

120

GNOME.
Recovery Console,
(Terminal) Ubuntu. ,
,
, . . ,
, .

(Accessibility)
(Accessibility) ( Ubuntu (Universal Access
Preferences)) , ).
(
(, , ):
(Use onscreen keyboard);
(Use screen reader);
(Use screen magnifier);
(Enhance contrast in colors);
, (Make text larger and
easier to read);
( ) (Use sticky keys);
( ) (Use bounce keys);
( ) (Use slow keys).
3.


Ubuntu, Linux
,
(desktop). Ubuntu,
, GNOME (
KDE Xfce , , Kubuntu Xubuntu).

.
. 4.6 Ubuntu
. ,
"".

121

. 4.6. Ubuntu GNOME,


, , , , .
Windows, Windows (Start). , GNOME
(Start), Windows, ,
. GNOME , ,
.

(Applications)
(Applications) (. 4.7) , . ,
(Calculator), CD/DVD (CD/DVD Creator) (Terminal) -

122

(Accessories); (Games);
GIMP F-Spot (F-Spot
Photo Manager) (Graphics); Web- Firefox
Web Browser Empathy
(Internet); (Dictionary)
OpenOffice.org (Office); (Sound Recorder),
Brasero (Brasero Disc Burner) (Movie Player) (Sound & Video).
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software
Center) (. 8).

. 4.7.

, Ubuntu, ,
, , ,
(Education), (System Tools),
(Universal Access) . . , - , (Applications).

(Places)
(Places) (. 4.8)
, -USB . ,
.

(Home Folder)
. ,
:
(Home folder)
,

123

. /home/robin. olga /home/olga. , , . ,


(Desktop) /home/robin/Desktop,
olga home/olga/Desktop. D.
Linux , , ,
D.

. 4.8.

(Desktop) -

.
(Documents) , -

, OpenOffice.org.
(Music) -

, , , .
(Pictures)
GIMP.
(Videos) .
(Downloads) ,
.

124



- ,
USB. . 4.8 , (Computer). ,
, , ,
. 4.9.
, .

. 4.9. ,

(Places) (File Browser) ,


LACIE, USB.
, Windows. Ubuntu
Windows, Ubuntu ,
Windows. ( ),
, . ,
. 4.10, , ,
Ubuntu Windows .

125

. 4.10. Windows


, Ubuntu
. , , .

(Network)

(Network),
(File Browser), , . 4.11. , , Linux (SambaSrv linbhvmail2-2), Windows.
Linux , Linux, Windows (Windows Network)
Windows, Ubuntu. , . 4.12, Windows
ADMINISTRATION.

126

. 4.11.

. 4.12. , Windows

127

Windows , ,
(. 4.13). , ,
. , , .

. 4.13. , Windows

,
(Places) Ubuntu.
, ,
, (Networks)
(Places) , . ,
Windows Mac, .

(Search for Files)


(Recent Documents)
(Places)
, .

128

. 4.14 (Search for Files) (Recent Documents) (Places).


Ubuntu, ,
: (Look in folder)
/ .
,
(Select more options),
,
.

. 4.14.

(System)
(System) (. 4.15).

. 4.15.

129

(Preferences)
3, | (System | Preferences) (. 4.16) , Ubuntu,
, .

. 4.16. |

, , .

130

(Administration)
| (System | Administration) (. 4.17)
,
, TV- Web .

. 4.17. |

,
.


Web-, Ubuntu GNOME.


GNOME,
.
. ,
(Remove from Panel) (. 4.18).

131

. 4.18.

,
,
(Add this launcher to panel)
(. 4.19). , (Add this
launcher to desktop). (Entire menu), , .
. 4.19 ,
.

. 4.19.

(Quit)
,
(Quit), , (. 4.20).
,
.

132

. 4.20.

(Lock Screen)
, ,
(. 4.21).

(Unlock). (Switch User) .

. 4.21.

,
(Leave Message). (Cancel) ,
. . 4.21 ,
, .

(Guest Session)
, Guest (). .
(Log Out.).

133

, ,
Guest ().

(Switch User)
(. . 4.1),
.

(Log Out.)

, ( )
, . (Switch User) (Log
Out.) , , .

(Suspend)
(Suspend) "" , ,
. , Ubuntu , , , . , , ,
.

(Hibernate)
(Hibernate) : .
,
, , . : , .

(Restart)
, , 60- ,
. (Cancel),
, (Restart), .
, , -

134

. (Authenticate), ,
(Cancel), .

(Shutdown)
, (Restart),
, , .

Ubuntu 10.04 10.10


Ubuntu 10.04, (Quit)
. ,
, ,
(
). , (. 4.22),
, .
?

. 4.22. ,

-
(, Pidgin Empathy), , , , :
(Available) ;
(Away) ;
(Busy) , , ;
(Invisible) ; ;
(Offline) .

135

,
- .
, ,
, , , Twitter,
Facebook / , , Ubuntu
. , Ubuntu One. , .

,


(Quit) , -
(applets), .

(Date and Time)


, ,
, ,
, ,
(. 4.23).

. 4.23. Ubuntu

136

,
Evolution,
, . . .
,

(Copy Time) (Copy Date).

/ , , | | (System | Administration | Time and Date). (Click to make changes),
, .

(New mail)
(New mail) ( ), , Ubuntu,
Evolution,
. , . .
, .

(Sound volume)
, . ,
,
(Mute) (Sound Preferences). Ubuntu, , , ,
.

Bluetooth
Bluetooth,
Bluetooth. , ,
Bluetooth,
,
Bluetooth. .

137

(Network)
.
,
, , , .
WiFi, ,
. ,
.
,
( Ubuntu)
, (Ubuntu 10.04 10.10).
, ,
, (. 4.24).
VPN- (Virtual Private Networking,
), (, ) .

. 4.24.

, ( ) . . . 3.



, (Trash) (. 4.25).


Wastebasket Trash.

138

. 4.25.

(Trash)
, , (Trash) . , , :
, , (Empty Trash).

. 4.26.

,
(. 4.26).

139


, .
(Empty Trash).



( 36) .
, , .
.
, , .
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+< >
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+
+< > .
, , ,
.
() .
, .
,
.
(
)
: (Move to Workspace Right),
(Move to Workspace Left) (Move to Another Workspace). , , ,
.
, ,
.
,
, <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Shift>+<
> ( )
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Shift>+< > ( ).

140

. ( NVIDIA
NVIDIA. ,
, 3.)
,
, ,
(Preferences).
(Workspace Switcher Preferences) (. 4.27).
,

.

. 4.27.

,
, <> <> / . , ,
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Shift>+<>.

1 2, , .



, .

141

. 4.28 , , .

. 4.28. ,

. 4.29.

142

. ,
,
, , (On Top) (Visibility),
(. 4.29).

(Show desktop)

, . ,
, .
Ubuntu .
, , .


,
, ,
.
Ubuntu .

(Appearance)
Ubuntu (Appearance Preferences), |
| (System | Preferences | Appearance). . 4.30 ,
, .

(Theme)
(Theme) . , ( ). ,
(High Contrast Large Print Inverse). , .

. 4.30.

. 4.31. (Customize Theme)

143

144

, (Customize),
(. 4.31).
(Controls)
. .
(Colors) , ,
.
(Window Border)
.
(Icons) ().
(Pointer) ,
.

(Backdround)
(Backdround) (
), . , . . 4.32 , .

. 4.32.

145

(Style) , ,
. ,
(Add) , . , Firefox Image Viewer,
.
: (Colors) , . . ,
(. 4.33).

. 4.33.

,
, .
, , , , , 30- .

(Fonts)
(Fonts) (. 4.34) , , , , . .
, ,
, ,
.

146

. 4.34.

. 4.35.

147

(Cancel)
, .
, ,
. ,
, .
(Details)
(. 4.35) Ubuntu ,
, , (hinting)
. , , .

Ubuntu 10.04 10.10


Ubuntu ( Ubuntu 10.04)
(Interface). Ubuntu 10.04 (Interface) (Appearance Preferences)
. GNOME, ,

, .
GNOME (Configuration Editor), <Alt>+<F2>
gconf-editor. ,
desktop | gnome | interface ,
menus_have_icons.
GNOME, , . 6.

(Visual effects)
Ubuntu (. 4.36), .
.
(None) .
(Normal) ,
. , , , , Aero Glass Windows Vista Windows 7.

148

(Extra) ,

"" , .
( )
<WindowsKey>+<Tab>, (. 4.37).

. 4.36.

, , Ubuntu . , .

, , , . , .

149

. 4.37. ,
Cover Flow ()


, , Ubuntu,
(Delete this panel). ,
(New Panel). , .

- , , .
<Alt>+<F2>, gnome-terminal (Run).

150
(Terminal) :
gconftool --recursive-unset /apps/panel
rm -rf/.gconf/apps/panel
pkill gnome-panel
, recursive .

,
, ,
, (Properties)
(Orientation).



(Add to Panel), .
(. 4.38).

. 4.38.


, -

151

(Applications).
.
,
, , , , (Shut Down) (Restart) .
. ,
(Add this launcher to panel).


(Remove from Panel). ,
(Quit) , .


(Move), (
) , .
.
,
, , . , ,
.
,
(Lock to Panel).
. , ,
.


(
), (Properties) .
, . 4.39. , , -

152

(Calculator),
.

. 4.39. ()


.
(Cancel) - .
, , (
) .


Ubuntu ,
, . , .
-

153

(Add to Panel), (Drawer),


(Add).
.
, .
, ,
(Add to Drawer).
, . 4.40, , (Drawer)
. .
.

, , .


(Properties).
(Choose Icon) .
" ". .


,
,
(Entire menu). (. 4.40).

. 4.40.

154


,
, ,
(Properties) (Autohide). (Close). ,
, , . ,
.
, (Autohide)
(Show hide buttons).
.
, , ,
.
.


(Properties),
(Expand), , .
(, , ),
, . , (Background),
.


Ubuntu , .
(System), (Places) (Applications) (
) (Edit Menus).
(Main Menu) (. 4.41).
(Applications) (System) , , .
, ,
(Show), .
, , . Ubuntu , Debian, (Education) (Science)
, . ,

155

(Show) , .

. 4.41.


(Programming), (System Tools) (Universal
Access), , .
, ,
; ,
, . 4.42. (Show) ,
, .


, .
(Properties) (

156

) (Launcher Properties) (. . 4.39). , . " ".


, ,
.

. 4.42.


(Move Up)
(Move Down) , .
,
(Delete). , " ?..."

157


, , (New Menu). , , ,
, .
- (Cancel).
, ,
, (New Item). (Create Launcher), , . 4.39, , .
, , , . , ;
, (Cancel) ,
7. , .


, ,
, , , .
, , , CD-ROM ,
,
.

,
- ,
, . 4.43.

. 4.43.

158

(Create Folder), , , - , " ".


, , ,
. , , , , , ,
Ubuntu .
, ,
(Edit) (Preferences)
, . 4.44.
, 6,
(Behavior),
(Single-click to open items) (Close).

. 4.44.

159

, , (Trash).

.



.
, "" ,
,
.
, .
<Ctrl>,
, . ,
, .
,
<Ctrl>+<A>.

, ,
.

, Ubuntu ,

(Clean Up by Name).
, .
(Keep aligned), ,

. . , .


, , ,
, .
, Ubuntu ,

160

(
).
| |
(System | Administration | Users and Groups), , . 4.45.

. 4.45.

, Olga
(, olga).

Kokoreva


root? , ,
,
(Users settings)? , Ubuntu 10 , root .
, sudo , root . , , .
2, Ubuntu, , , ,
root.
. , , :
sudo passwd root

root.
(. 4.46).

161

root :
sudo passwd -l root
, , root ! ( , . .). ,
Ubuntu Windows Vista
Windows 7, (Administrator) .

. 4.46. root Ubuntu


, ,
, (Properties) (
), .
(Add User),
, , .
,
(New user account), . 4.47.
.
(Name) ,
.

162

(Username) ,
. ,
(. 4.48).
, , , . 4.48, OK.

. 4.47.

. 4.48.

163

, , ,
. , , ,
(. . 4.45). , , (. 4.49). , . 4.49 , ,
.

. 4.49.

,
(Advanced settings),
(. 4.50), , , , (, , . .), , , (User ID),
. . , ,
(User rights) (Advanced).
,
, .
(Close) , . (Quit).

164

. 4.50.

Ubuntu GNOME ,
Ubuntu.

,

Windows, , CD-
DVD-, -USB , , Ubuntu . Mac OS X, , , . ,
Mac OS X UNIX, ,
Linux.
, Windows,
C:\,
Ubuntu ( Mac OS X, UNIX, Linux) (root) (/). , /, , , ,
, ( , ).
,
(root).

Ubuntu (filesystem) Filesystem,
file system, File System Filesystem,
( ) , .


/
, Ubuntu.

166


, , ,
,
.
"" .

(
), Ubuntu:
/
/bin
/boot/
/cdrom
/dev
/etc
/etc/X11
/home
/home/user1/Desktop

/home/user2/Desktop
/lib
/lost+found
/media
/media/cdrom
/mnt
/opt
/proc
/root

/sbin
/selinux
/srv
/sys
/tmp
/usr
/usr/bin
/var

. 5.1. Ubuntu

. 5.1 , Ubuntu. -

167

, . 5.1, .
,
. ,
, , , .
/etc ,
Ubuntu. , Ubuntu
/etc/hostname.
/home , . , olga /home/olga (. 5.2).

. 5.2. home olga


.
Desktop ( ) ,
.
Documents () ,
OpenOffice.org .

168

Pictures (), Music () Videos () - .

Public ,
.
Templates () , ; . 6.
Examples () ,
, Ubuntu, .
/media .
, Windows,
. , CD- DVD-,
, . (Places)
(Computer) . , ,
.
/tmp . , , .



Linux ,
Windows, , , Business, business
BUSINESS . Linux ( UNIX) ,
( , Linux ). ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
, . .
,
*, ?, > |, Ubuntu (
. 7) .

169


CD- DVD-, , , USB, . ., ( ) Ubuntu.
,
, CD-ROM .


/media,
Linux.
-USB, CD-
DVD-, /media
(Places), .

ISO
ISO,
CD- DVD- , iso.
ISO | (Open
with | Archive Mounter). CD-
DVD-, ISO- , . , ISO- ,
CD- DVD- .
ISO- , , , USB, CD- DVD-.
2, DVD ISO- CD
Ubuntu.
ISO- :
, , ,
.


| (Places | Network),
,
.

170

, ,
, . ,
. . 5.3 Windows one.

. 5.3.

, , , | (Places | Connect to Server),


, . 5.4.
Windows (Service type) FTP (Public FTP) Windows
(Windows share) (Server). , ,
. (Connect).

171

. 5.4. ,


, , , , ,
(shared). 10 , .

( , ISO-),
(), (Unmount).
CD- DVD-,
(Eject), .
(Unmount) ,
, . ,
(Places) , .
(Places).


Ubuntu, ,
. ,

172

. , (.).
,
Nautilus, ,
, | (Edit | Preferences) ,
(Views). , (Show hidden and backup files), , . ,
, ,
, .
, , ( ) ,
. , diary, , .diary.
,
, ,
.


,
. , mary,
, , :
/home/mary/Documents/freelance/invoicing/template.odt


:
/home/mary/invtemp.odt

- invtemp.odt ( )
template.odt, .
( ).
6
.


Linux Windows , Linux
, exe
dll. , -

173

, . ,
" ", "" "", ,
Windows, "" (executable).
Linux ,
, html jpeg htm jpg, - , Windows. , gif, tif png, , . . 5.1
, Ubuntu.
5.1. , Ubuntu Linux

.0.9

man

asm

au

bmp

bz2

bzip2

class

Java

cfg/conf

cc/cpp

++

css

csv

db

Berkeley DB

deb

Debian

diff

, diff

dtd

XML-

gif

gz

, gzip

, ++

jar

- Java,

java

Java

kwd

Kword

174

5.1 ()

ksp

Kspread

kss

KDE

m3u

MP3

md5

mpg/mpeg

Mpeg

mp3

++

odt

OpenOffice.org

ods

OpenOffice.org

odp

OpenOffice.org

ogg

pdf

,
Adobe

php

PHP-

pl

Perl

png

py

Python

rpm

Red Hat Linux

rtf

Rich-text format

sh

tar

, tar

tgz

, tar gzip

tga

ttf

True type

txt

wav

xml

XML-

175


UNIX ,
. ,
, .
Linux,
. , , .
. , ,
, , . (), .
(Read) ,
, .
(Write) .
(Execute) . , .

, . 5.2. 0 7
(. 7).
5.2.


, : (Owner) (Group),
. , (World
Others) , .

176

. 5.5 , OlgaCat.JPG, (Permissions).


(Owner), (Group) (Others), olga Olga Kokoreva ,
.
, ( ), .
.
(Permissions),
.

. 5.5.

Ubuntu, -
(username),
, ,
. ,
joesmith, , joesmith.
, , , .
, , .

177

, Ubuntu
. , ,
finance (), , ,
marketing ().
Web-, internet, telesales . .
. . 5.3
, .
5.3. ,

joesmith

Finance

Internet

Marketing

Telesales

marywhite

harryjones

paulharvey

annwatson

ennywilson

Web-

+
+

+
+

(username), , . , (Joe Smith), -, , (Paul


Harvey), , marketing
telesales.

, . , Web Web- . .


| | (System | Administration | Users and Groups),
(Users Settings),
. 5.6. (Add User),
. " " 4.

178

. 5.6.

,
, (. . 5.6).

(Advanced settings), . ,
(. 5.7), (. 5.8), (. 5.9).

. 5.7. olga

179

. 5.8.

. 5.9.

(Advanced settings),
,
(Contact
Information), . 5.10. , (User Privileges) (Advanced), (. 5.11) ,
(. 5.12).

180

. 5.10.

. 5.11.

(Users Settings) , . :
, . .

(Users Settings) (Delete)

181

, (Delete), . , .
, , , , .

. 5.12.



(Manage Groups), , , . 5.13.
(Add Group), ,
. 5.14. , Internet olga evarokko.
ID (Group ID) Linux,
( 1000).
, .
(Add Group)
(Properties) . (Properties)
(New group) , . ,
,
.

182

. 5.13.

. 5.14. Internet

, root, ,
.


, .
, -

183

(Properties). , , . 5.15. , .

. 5.15.

, , ,
, .
(Basic) ,
, , ,
, .
.
(Emblems) Ubuntu ,
,
,
. . 5.16 OlgaCat.jpg.
, , , ,
, , . .
(Permissions) . "
" (. . 5.5). : , : ,
, .

184

. 5.16.

. 5.17. ,
PNG

(Open With)

. , . 5.17, -

185

OlgaCat.jpg Ubuntu
. Ubuntu 10.10, , ,

Shotwell. , , ,

GIMP (GIMP Image Editor),
.
(Notes)
. ,
, .
(Image)
, .

. 5.18. ,

(Share)

, . 5.18. -

186

(Sharing service) (. 10), (Share this folder) ,


, .
Ubuntu .
,
, ( ).

(Trash)
(Trash) .
, ( ), .
, .
(Trash) ,
,
(Restore).
, , (Trash)
(Empty Trash), ,
(Delete
Permanently). ,
, ,
.

GNU/Ubuntu
Linux,
. , Nautilus , Ubuntu.

Nautilus

Ubuntu Nautilus.
, ,
, ( Windows),
,
.
, Ubuntu ,
. , Nautilus "" (
) Ubuntu,
.
,
, , ,
.


- ,
, Nautilus,
, -, , (. 6.1).
, .
,
. " , " 4,

.

| | | (Edit | Preferences | Behavior | Single click to open items).

188

. 6.1. ,

( ),
, .
, .
,
, ,
.
, , , . ,
, ,
(Open with
Other Application)
.

, ( drag
and drop). , , , ,
.
, , . . 6.2
OlgaCat.jpg.


,
<Ctrl>. , -, + . <Ctrl>
, ,
.

Nautilus

189

. 6.2.

;
, -
.


<Ctrl>, , CD-
, c DVD- -USB . .
, , Ubuntu
, , . , ( ) , .

190


, ( ). , , .

,
,

"" . ,
. . 6.3 ""
. , ( , ) ,
.

. 6.3.


<Ctrl> ,
. , ,
.
. 6.4 , ,
.

Nautilus

191

. 6.4. ,


Windows ,
Windows Ubuntu -. Windows
.
Ubuntu . , Ubuntu , Windows, <Ctrl>,
.


,
<Ctrl> ,
<Shift> .
.
<Shift>- .
(Arrange Items),
:
(Manually)
(By Name)
(By Size)
(By Type)
(By Modification Date)
(By Emblems)
, . , (. 6.5).

192

. 6.5.


<Ctrl>+<A>
, .
,
, (. 6.6).
, , ,
.
, . <Ctrl>+<A> <Ctrl> , .


, . ,
,
( , ).

Nautilus

. 6.6. <Ctrl>+<A>

. 6.7.

193

194

. 6.7 .
, , . , .


, .
(Open With).
,
.


,
,
(Browse Folders),
. , : (Open in New Tabs) (Open
in New Windows).
(Browse Folders).
.


, Web- ;
,
. , . 6.8 , .
,
, .
.


,
. ,
, , . (Trash)
.

Nautilus

195

. 6.8.

,
.
, ,
.

- (Zoom) Firefox
Web- Web-?
Ubuntu, ( ).
, Ubuntu , MID (mobile internet device), UMPC (Ultra Mobile PC)
.
,
. ,
, , .

196

. 6.9 , 66%.
.

. 6.9.



:
<Ctrl> <+> ( );
<Ctrl> ;
(Zoom In).



:
<Ctrl> <-> ( );
<Ctrl> ;

Nautilus

197

(Zoom out).



:
<Ctrl> <0> ();
(Normal Size).


, , Nautilus,
, .
, (File),
. 6.10.

. 6.10.

(File)
(File) -, . .
, , - , .

198

, .
(New Tab) -

. , . , .
(New Window)
. (New Tab)
.
(Create Folder)
, .
" " (untitled folder),
, .
(Create Document) " " (new file)
, .
, . gedit.
(Connect to Server) (Places), . "
" 5.
(Empty Trash) , (Trash) . , .
(Close All Windows)
.
, ,

(Hide/Show Desktop), .
(Close) ,
.
, (File)
.
(Open) , (Open with),
.
.
, ,
. , ,
. , .

Nautilus

199

(Open in New Tab) ,

. , 2
(Open in 2 New Tabs) . .
(Open in New Window) , ,
.
(Open with Other Application)
.
, GIMP, F-Spot OpenOffice.org (OpenOffice.org Drawing).
, (Open with),
.
(Properties)
, . " " 5.
, .


. , <Ctrl>+<T> ,
<Alt>+<Return> . , , , .

(Edit)
(File), (Edit) -. , , ,
. 6.11. , .
(Select All) , <Ctrl>+<A>, . " " . .
(Select Items Matching) . .
, * (), . , *.jpg , jpg.
, , temp,
temp*. , memo, *memo* . .

200

. 6.11.

(Invert Selection) -

. ,
, .


(Backgrounds and Emblems)
, .
, ,
.
. . 6.12 . ( ) .
(Emblems)
, . " " 5.
,
(Preferences)
. . 6.13 .
, .

Nautilus

. 6.12.

. 6.13.

201

202


Nautilus , , .
| (Edit |
Preferences) , .
:
;
, , , ;
, , ,
. .;
(Computer);
, ;
;
.

(Preferences)
Nautilus, . , .
, .
. 6.14 | (Edit | Preferences) , .

| |
(Edit | Preferences | Views)
.
(Default View) (Views)

: , , .
, : , , ,
. .
, ,
, , ,
.
(Icon View Defaults)
,
, , () .

Nautilus

203

. 6.14.

(Compact View Defaults)


.
(List View Defaults) () .
(Tree View Defaults) , , ,
.

| |
(Edit | Preferences | Behavior)
,

(Trash) (. 6.15).

204

. 6.15.

(Behavior) 4,


, . , . , , ,
,
. ,
. ( ) Web- (Browser mode),
(Spatial mode).
.
(Executable Text Files) ,
(shell scripts), Windows. , . ,

Nautilus

205

, . . , .
(Trash)
, ,
. , , ,
, (Trash).
Ubuntu, ,
.

| |
(Edit | Preferences | Display)
, () , .

. 6.16.

206

. , ,

. . 6.16 .
(Icon Captions)
,
.
.
(None),
, , .
, , , , , (). , (Permissions) SELinux (SELinux Context),
, Linux,
.
(Date) , , , , , , ,
, , .

| |
(Edit | Preferences | List Columns)
, .
, , ,
. . 6.17
, (Owner).

| |
(Edit | Preferences | Preview)
, ,
- ( ) ,
. . 6.18 ,
(Folders) .

Nautilus

207

. 6.17.

(Text Files) ,

, , , Ubuntu
, . , , .
(Never).
(Other Previewable Files) , , , :
, .
, , ,

208

.
,
.

. 6.18.

(Sound Files) -

, .

.
(Folders)
, ,
.
, , (Display)
.

Nautilus

209

| |
(Edit | Preferences | Media)
CD- DVD-, USB , Ubuntu , . , . . 6.19
(Media),
(Browse media when inserted).

. 6.19.


, ,
-, -,
USB.

210

.
, (Ask what to do) , .
(Do Nothing) .
(Open Folder) , ,
.
< > (Open in program) , < >, . ,
.
(Open with other Application)
, ,
,
.


, DVD- Blu-ray.
(Type), , (Action), .
.

(View)
(View)
Nautilus . . 6.20
.
(Stop) ,
.
(Reload) .
/ (Hide/view checkboxes)
, ,
, , , -

Nautilus

211

. , (Spatial mode) (. . " | |


(Edit | Preferences | Media)".

. 6.20.

(Reset View to Defaults)

, , .
(Show Hidden Files)
, . , , , .
(Arrange Items)

. . .
" ".
(Clean Up by Name) ,
(Arrange Items),

212

.
.
(The Zoom Controls)
,
. . . "".
(Icons), (List) (Compact)
.
.

(Go)

, . ,
, (. 6.21).

. 6.21.

(Open Parent)

(Go) -

Nautilus

213

. , (Documents),
.
(Back) (Forward) (Go) , . , , , (Back) ,
.
(Back), (Forward),
.
(Home Folder), (Computer),
(Templates), (Trash) (Network)
(Places) .
(Location) , , .
. 6.22 /home/olga//.

. 6.22.

(Search for Files) , -

,
, .

214

. 6.23 "png"
PNG.

. 6.23. "png"

(Folder History) Ubuntu , -

, , .
(Go). , (Clear History).
, .

(Bookmarks)
Nautilus ,
Web- Web-.
. 6.24, ,
,
, .
(Add Bookmark)
, . ,

Nautilus

215

, .
.

. 6.24. Nautilus

(Edit Bookmarks) -

, (Remove).
(Jump to) , . 6.25.

. 6.25.

216

(Help)
, Ubuntu,
.
<F1> (Contents)
(Help). Web- launchpad.net, | (Help | Get Help Online),
Web- http://help.ubuntu.com.


, ,

( ).

. 6.26.

Nautilus

217

, , , (), , . . . 6.26 .
< > (Open with program)
, .
(Open With) , .
(Cut) ,
. ,
, , , .
(Copy) (Cut), , ,
, , .
(Make Link)
, .
<> (Link to <name>), <>
. ,
, .
, . , .
(Rename)
.
(Move to Trash)
.
(Compress) (
) ,
. . 6.27
, zip, tar gz.
, ;
.
, ,
, .
, , , ,
(Extract). ,
<Ctrl>+<A>, (Extract).
(Send To)
() .
: , CD-
DVD-, Bluetooth,

218

.
(Compression), ( ) .

. 6.27. logo.tif zip-

(Properties) (Properties),

. " " 5.
(Open) , . , .
(Open in New Tab)
.
(Open in New Window) .
(Open with Other Application) , .
(Sharing Options) , ,
(Sharing service). . 10.

Nautilus

219

-
, , .
, 5, . " ".

,
(Templates) .
, , ,
,
(Templates). . 6.28 - invoices.odt (
OpenOffice.org), .
(Templates) -,
(Create Document), . . 6.29
, - ( ,
invoices odt).

. 6.28. - OpenOffice.org

220

. 6.29.

. 6.30. ,

Nautilus

221

, -,
, (. 6.30).
, , OpenOffice.org
, . ,
.
| (File | Create Document) . - .


Nautilus
,
(Browser). (Spatial) ,
(. . " | | (Edit | Preferences | Behavior)"
). . 6.31 , (Browser).

. 6.31.

222


,
.
(Back) (Forward) , , .
(Up)
.
(Stop) ,
.
(Reload) ,
.
(Home) .
(Computer) , , , CD- USB-.
(Search) .


( ) .
, , ,
.

. ,
. ,
, , , 100%.
.
(Icon
view), (List view) (Compact view).


(Configuration Editor)
GNOME, , Windows.
,

Nautilus

223

GNOME, .
, , .
<Alt>+<F2>, gconf-editor
(Run). . 6.32 , apps nautilus desktop.

. 6.32. ,

, (Configuration Editor),
, , Windows. ,
computer_icon_name .
computer_icon_visible ,
.
, volumes_visible, ,
.
Nautilus ,
.
, , .

224

10.04 10.10
Ubuntu 10.04 Nautilus , (. 6.33).

.
.
(Places)

.
(Pencil)

| (Go | Location) <Ctrl>+<L>.
- ,
,
<F3> |
(View | Extra Pane).
.

. 6.33. Ubuntu 10.04 Nautilus

Nautilus

225

Ubuntu 10.10
Gnome 3.0, -
. , Ubuntu 10.10 2.32
.
, Gnome 2.32
Gnome 3.0, , (. http://www.opennet.ru/opennews/
art.shtml?num=26819).

Ubuntu
Linux,
(Terminal)
root,
. : , .


GNOME
Nautilus, Ubuntu
. , , ,

, .
, , , , , ,
.
,
. UNIX, Linux,
"" , , ,
, .


, Ubuntu
, (Terminal),
| | (Applications |
Terminal). , 24 80 (. 7.1).

. 7.1. Terminal

228

,
UNIX.
.
(Terminal) . (View) ,
, .
, . 7.1. : olga@ubuntu:~.
, olga ubuntu,
~ , ( ) ( olga). , : /home/olga. Bash.

Bash
Bash - , . Bash, "Bourne again shell" (" "), UNIX, 1970 .
(Stephen Bourne). Bash
GNU Linux, Ubuntu. , Bash
Mac OS X, ,
Mac OS X, .


, . .
,
<> (Up) <> (Down)
<Ctrl>+<N> (Next) <Ctrl>+<P> (Previous) , . 7.1.

229

7.1. , Bash

<Ctrl>+<A>

<Home>

<Ctrl>+<E>

<End>

<Ctrl>+<D>

<Delete>

.
<Ctrl>+<D> (
<Delete>)

<Ctrl>+<H>

<Backspace>

<Ctrl>+<J>

<Enter>

<Ctrl>+<B>

<>

<Ctrl>+<F>

<>

<Ctrl>+<P>

<>

(
- ). .
<Ctrl>+<N>

<Ctrl>+<N>

<>

(
).
<Ctrl>+<P>
,

<Alt>+<B>

<Ctrl>+<>

<Shift>+<Alt>+
+<F>

<Ctrl>+<>

<Shift>+<Ctrl>+
+<C>


(clipboard) Ubuntu ( Bash)

<Shift>+<Ctrl>+
+<V>


Ubuntu ( Bash)

<Ctrl>+<C>

<Ctrl>+<K>

<Ctrl>+<L>

. clear,

<Ctrl>+<U>

,
Bash (
Ubuntu)

<Ctrl>+<W>


Bash ( Ubuntu)

230

7.1 ()

<Ctrl>+<Y>

Bash (
Ubuntu)

<Ctrl>+<Z>

,

Stopped.
, fg,

<Alt>+<C>

<Alt>+<D>

,
,

<Alt>+<L>

<Alt>+<R>

, ,

<Alt>+
+<Backspace>

<Ctrl> ,
, ,
, .
, , , #, Ubuntu
. ,
(). , , .
, , Bash (clipboard), <Ctrl>+<U>, <Ctrl>+<W> <Ctrl>+<Y>. Ubuntu Bash
<Shift>+<Ctrl>+<V>
| (Edit | Paste), Ubuntu Bash <Shift>+<Ctrl>+<>, | (Edit | Copy).

231

Bash
Bash . , , pwd,
"print working directory", .
,
ls, "list
contents". . 7.2 , , .

.
UNIX, ,
, Ubuntu, .

7.2. ,

cat

file

file

cd

folder

( )
folder

chmod

{various} fname


{various}

cp

fname1 fname2

fname1 fname2

diff

file1 file2

file1
file2

echo

text

text

find

where name what

,
what, ,
where

grep

what where

,
where, , what

ls
ls


( )
pattern

(
), ,

232

7.2 ()

ls

-l


( )

ls

-a

( )

ls

-la

( )

ls

-la pattern

( ),
,

mkdir

folder

folder

more

file

,
, <>
, <Q>

mv

fname1 fname2


fname1 fname2

nano

file

file Nano (
, )

pwd

rm

fname

fname

rm

-rf folder

folder
( ,

; ,
!)

rmdir

folder

folder, (
, folder -
)

touch

file

file,
,

wc

file

,
file

cd, pwd ls

:
user@computer:~$

233

(user) olga, (computer)


ubuntu, . 7.1 :
olga@ubuntu:~$

.
, .
, cd, ( ).
:
cd /home

home .
<Return> <Enter>, (Terminal) :
user@computer:/home$

, , , user computer. :
cd /home
pwd

Ubuntu , home,
:
/home
user@computer:/home$

/, :
cd ..


" " " " , -. :
( ) , , " ", ,
.

.. .
, Ubuntu .
:
cd ~

, Ubuntu ,
~, . ,
, , :
pwd

234

,
:
ls

. 7.2. , , , , -
, (Desktop), (Documents), (Downloads), (examples.desktop), (Music),
(Pictures), (Public), (Templates), Ubuntu One
(Videos).

. 7.2.

ls
:
ls a

, :
.

.gnome2

.profile

..

.gnome2_private

Public

.adobe

.gnupg

.pulse

.apport-ignore.xml

.gstreamer-0.10

.pulse-cookie

.bash_history

.gtk-bookmarks

.qt

.bash_logout

.gvfs

.quicksynergy

.bashrc

.hplip

.recently-used

.cache

.ICEauthority

.recently-used.xbel

.compiz

.icons

.ssh

.config

.kde

.sudo_as_admin_successful

.dbus

.local

Templates

Desktop

.macromedia

test

( . .)

235

.gstreamer-0.10

.themes

..

.gtk-bookmarks

.thumbnails

.bash_history

.gvfs

.update-manager-core

.bash_logout

.ICEauthority

.update-notifier

.bashrc

.icons

.vboxclient-clipboard.pid

.cache

.local

.vboxclient-display.pid

.config

.mission-control

.vboxclient-seamless.pid

.dbus

.mozilla

.xsession-errors

.dmrc

.mythtv

.xsession-errors.old

.esd_auth

.nautilus

.evolution

.openoffice.org

examples.desktop

.printer-groups.xml

.fontconfig

.profile

.gconf

.pulse

.gconfd

.pulse-cookie

.gksu.lock

.recently-used

.gnome2

.recently-used.xbel

.gnome2_private

.ssh

.gnupg

.sudo_as_admin_successful

, , ,
, . , ( ) .
:
ls l

:
drwxr-xr-x

3 robin robin 4096 2009-10-05 14:12 Desktop

drwxr-xr-x

2 robin robin 4096 2009-09-07 15:29 Documents

drwx------

2 robin robin 4096 2009-09-02 10:15 Downloads

lrwxrwxrwx

1 robin robin

26 2009-04-16 17:56 Examples


-> /usr/share/example-content

drwxr-xr-x 12 robin robin 4096 2009-06-16 00:45 firefox


drwxr-xr-x

2 robin robin 4096 2009-04-16 18:07 Music

drwxr-xr-x

2 robin robin 4096 2009-10-05 13:45 My Projects

drwxr-xr-x

2 robin robin 4096 2009-04-16 18:07 Pictures

drwxr-xr-x

2 robin robin 4096 2009-04-16 18:07 Public

drwxr-xr-x

2 robin robin 4096 2009-09-23 15:13 Templates

drwxr-xr-x

2 robin robin 4096 2009-10-05 14:47 test

drwxr-xr-x

2 robin robin 4096 2009-04-16 18:07 Videos

:
ls al

236

cd,
(Pictures), :
cd

pwd, , ; , .
.. ,
(Downloads)
, :
d ../

d ,
(. . "
" ).

Windows , Bash (/), (\). Bash UNIX
Linux ,
, URL- Web- .
, , Linux , . . .

cp mkdir
cp : ,
, . , accounts.txt
, :
cp accounts.txt accounts.bak

accounts.bak,
.
. , ,
.
, /boot
, ,
, ( mkdir
"make directory" ( )):
cd ~
mkdir test

:
cp /boot/* test

Ubuntu test ,
/boot. *, " ".
, (,

237

grub), , .
r
:
cp -r /boot/* test

mv
Ubuntu . , Ubuntu ,
, . ,
DOS, MOVE, RENAME, Ubuntu mv.


:
mv accounts.txt accounts.old

, accounts.txt, accounts.old. , accounts.txt backups, (


, backups):
mv accounts.txt backups

, :
mv oldfolder newfolder


, , accounts.txt backups:
mv accounts.txt backups

backups , accounts.txt . accounts.txt backups.


, accounts.txt backups,
accounts.old:
mv accounts.txt backups/accounts.old

backups , .
( )
, :
mv oldfolder otherfolder

otherfolder , oldfolder . oldfolder otherfolder.

238

, , :
mv *.txt textfolder

txt textfolder.
, mv , :
mv *.txt *.jpg readme.doc destination

, , . , rm cp,
.

diff
diff . :
diff file1 file2

, , ,
, .
.
, . 7.3.

. 7.3.


,
. " Nano " .

, ,
<, . , , >.
. 7.3 , MyGlossary1.utf8
, MyGlossary.utf8 4. diff , , (
) .

239

. , , - , .

find
Ubuntu ( ), find
.
.
, :
find / -name blackjack

. 7.4. mahjongg

240

mahjongg.
, . 7.4, , ( )
(Permission denied).
, . 7.4, , 11
mahjongg, - ,
. ,
sudo,
root (. . " sudo" ); :
sudo find / -name mahjongg

, mahjongg /usr/games/mahjongg, .

. 7.5.

, Ubuntu |
(Applications | Games), - -

241

( ), .
, "" , . 7.5.
/usr/games/mahjongg

, "" (wildcard characters) * ?.


. " ,
". , ?
, * ( ).
, " " (blackjack) :
find / -name black*
find / -name *jack
find / -name bl?ck*

,
, more, .
, . ,
(.)
:
find . -name invoice*

:
find ~ -name invoice*

Ubuntu 10
Ubuntu 10.04 " "
(Blackjack), 9.10 10.04,
. , ,
.
10.04, , Web-

URL-:
http://mirrors.kernel.org/ubuntu/pool/main/g/gnomegames/gnome-blackjack_2.28.0-0ubuntu1_i386.deb
,
<Enter> .

cat more
cat .
:
cat chapter7.txt

, , , more.

242

more , , .
, :
more chapter1.txt

. 7.6
.

. 7.6. more

, ,
, . ,
<Enter>, , . <q>.
more , .
Ubuntu ( ) , ( . . " " " "
). more ,
.
, , find, ,
, more
. :
find / -name OlgaCat* |more

243

| (), more. , | ,
, more.
( ) , find , more , . , more, . 7.7.
, more
Bash, , .
more:
(Permission denied), find, , more,
. ,
.

. 7.7. more ,
find

grep
grep .

244

, ( ) , . . . grep
, .
, (Documents) , invoice, :
grep invoice ~//*

~ ,
cp; . , cd . ,
~ , Ubuntu .
, fred, ~//*
/home/fred/.
, grep, invoice () ,
, .
, :
grep -r videos /usr/share/doc

. 7.8. , videos

245

r usr/share/doc videos . (
r,
, ,
, , , . .).
, i
,
( ):
grep -ri videos /usr/share/doc

, videos
, , videosettings (), w (. 7.8):
grep -rw videos /usr/share/doc

more, grep . , ls
, ,
Do, :
ls ~ | grep Do

, , Documents
.

Downloads,

rm rmdir
rm,
remove (). , tempfile , :
rm tempfile


:
rm ~/oldfile


rmdir:
rmdir EmptyFolder

, , rm rf:
rm -rf FolderWithStuffIn

,
. / root,
. (~)
.
, .

246

, , , <Enter>. rm,
- , ( ).

wc
, ,
. :
wc document

:
10 234 1319 document

, document 10 , 234 1319 . , , . ,


, .

man
,
, .
,
.
man , -
Bash. , man, , :
man wc

, wc,
, <Enter>, , .
< > (Up) < > (Down).
<q>.
, man. . 7.9
wc.
Ubuntu ,
, man.
, , info . info, man info.

247

. 7.9. wc

, , ,
man help.
man -help


, ,
.
, ,
.
, , /home/robin/Documents , ,
.., .
,
../ ../../../.
.. Ubuntu . ,

248

.. / ( ). ,
../../.. , .
,
, / Vacation/Cancun/Photos.
, , , , Vacation/Cancun/../Barbados, , Vacation/Barbados
Cancun .
, / . ,

.


Nautilus ,
. .
,
. ,
jenny My projects ( ), , cd :
cd /home/jenny/My Projects

Ubuntu , /home/jenny/My, :
bash: cd: /home/jenny/My:

, ( ,
):
cd "/home/jenny/My Projects"

Bash , , .

:
mkdir "/home/jenny/My Projects"
cd ~/"My Projects"
ls -al "/home/jenny/My Projects/January"
rm "Backups/Old|Report.doc"

, , |, , -

249

.
, >, < ;.
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, !
, , , ,
, ~, .
- . ,
:
mkdir /home/jenny/"My Projects"
cd ~/My" "Projects
ls -al /home/jenny/"My Projects"/January
rm Backups/Old"|"Report.doc

PATH
, , , . ,
mkdir wc /bin.
, Bash , , . ,
,
.
Ubuntu , , ? , . PATH
echo ( $ ):
echo $PATH


, :
/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games

Ubuntu
, , ,
. , ; .

, .
.

250

, diary.
, ,
, . (,
~ ):
~/diary

, . , diary , ,
- .

.
, , cd ~
, , find. , , find, , , find, /usr/bin, Ubuntu
, , .
, :
~/find

,
:
./find


, .
( ,
) , , , (command not found ( )), ~, .
.


Ubuntu , ,
. 7.3.

251

7.3.

Home

LANG

MANPATH

man

PATH

PWD

SHELL

TZ

USER

echo, :
echo $HOME


$ ,
, ,
.

, (Documents),
, :
ls $HOME/

, $HOME ~ .


, , Bash Ubuntu, Dash (Debian Almquist shell).
Dash Ash (Kenneth
Almquist) Bash , .
.
Bash Dash Bash, chsh (choose shell, ),
<Enter> /bin/bash.
chsh,
/bin/sh. ,
Dash, chsh /bin/dash .

252


:
cat /etc/shells

Linux
, | | Synaptic (System | Administration | Synaptic Package
Manager) shell, . , .

Nano


Gedit OpenOffice.org.
, Nano.
Linux Unix, , Nano
.

. 7.10. Nano

253

nano,
. , hapter7.txt
(Documents) ,
. 7.10:
nano ~//PREFACE_Ru.txt

. , , ^ ("" ), <Ctrl>.
<Ctrl>+<O>, ( ) , , <Enter>. ,
, <Ctrl>+<>, <>
, , , <Enter>.
, nano
- . .


,
, .
Hello World, , Nano,
hello :
nano ~/hello

, <Enter>. <Ctrl>+<>, <>


<Enter>, :
#!/bin/sh
echo "Hello World\n"

#!/bin/sh Ubuntu /bin/sh .


/bin/bash ,
/bin/sh. Hello World, , \n .
,
:
chmod +x ~/hello

chmod , + Ubuntu . .
. " " .

254

. ,
-:
~/hello

, , , , . ,
, , :
#!/bin/sh
clear
echo -n "What is your name? "
read NAME
echo "\nHello $NAME\n"

clear , n echo Ubuntu , , .


.
read , NAME
, . $ .
, .
echo , NAME
( ) $. . 7.11 .

. 7.11. hello

, ,
, ,
- .
, "Classic Shell Scripting" ( ),
OReilly.

255


,
<1>. , Ubuntu , , , .
,
:
echo "Today is `date`"

:
echo "You are in `pwd`"


( ), txt:
echo -e "`clear`Your text files:\n\n`find ~ -name *.txt`";

, , : , . e escape- , \n
.



more grep |
. , , ,
. , :
ps -ax | sort -k5 | less

ps -ax , ,
. " " . ps ax , , , . 7.12.
(
). , sort -k5. ( ), . . 7.13.

256

. 7.12. ps ax

. 7.13. ps ax, 5

257

, , less,
more. less
,
, <Enter> .


(. 7.14).

. 7.14.


. , man
info
.

, . , , ,
.
, , , , ,
,
gnome:
ps -ax | sort -k5 | grep gnome | less

258


Ubuntu > <. , , ,
, .


, files.txt
ls al:
ls -al > ~/files.txt

files.txt , ;
.
, ,
, , .
, , :
cat ~/files.txt

, . 7.15.

. 7.15. files.txt

259

, , ?
6, :
ls -al | sort -k6 > ~/files.txt


, ,
, :
sort -k6 < ~/files.txt

files.txt, , <.
less, |:
sort -k6 < ~/files.txt | less

, > < ,
| . , sort -k6 <
~/files.txt ,
, , .


,
. , ,
:
ls -al | more

:
ls -al > tempfile
more < tempfile

, ,
:
rm tempfile

, , .

, , /dev/null, , , . :
./install-program >/dev/null

260


, >
:
ls -al >> ~/files.txt

files.txt , , .

,

, . <, , ( ),
.
, >, Ubuntu, ( , ) .
, , . " find" , ,
, , :
find / -name blackjack

, , .
, .
,
more. ?


, Ubuntu ,
, , > | , , . , :
find / -name blackjack | more

;
find. -

261

more . -
, , ,
.
, Ubuntu , .
. 7.4 , : stdin,
stdout stderr, .
7.4.

stdin

stdout

stderr


. ,
stderr :
find / -name blackjack 2> ignoreme.txt

, , . . "
" , , /dev/null, " " . ,
, stderr
:
find / -name blackjack 2> /dev/null

, -
, . ,
, , blackjack. more less.


, ,
, . , stderr stdout :
find / -name blackjack > ~/results.txt 2>&1

262

> stdout
~/results.txt stderr, 2
&1. , > &
.
2>&1
stderr stdout, 1.

, , ,
/dev/null :
./install-program >/dev/null
stdout. ,
stderr stdout:
./install-program >/dev/null 2>&1

, >
2>&1; >&:
find / -name blackjack >& ~/results.txt

- |&
.

tee
, . (stdout stderr ,
) tee, - :
ls -al | tee ~/files.txt


tee , :
~/files.txt.

find / -name blackjack | tee ~/results.txt 2>&1

,

,
, * ?
(. 7.5).

263

7.5.

[set]

set

[ch1-ch2]

ch1-ch2

[^set]

, set

[^ch1-ch2]

, ch1-ch2

{ch,str,etc}


, ,
.
?. , [abcdef]
, [abcdef]ark.txt
bark.txt dark.txt , . ,
, [a-f] [abcdef].
, , [A-Z]
[a-z].
( ) [ azA-z]. , , [0-9].

^. [^b]ark.txt bark.txt, dark.txt, lark.txt . .
^ , [^al]ark.txt , mark.txt ,
m .


,
. , ca{ree,mpe,tere}rs.txt
, ( )

264

, : careers.txt,
campers.txt caterers.txt.
, , echo
, :
echo ca{ree,mpe,tere}rs

:
careers campers caterers

, echo ( )? ,
Ubuntu ,
. , , ,
, :
echo "ca{ree,mpe,tere}rs"

:
ca{ree,mpe,tere}rs


,
Ubuntu. , md
Windows mkdir, :
alias md="mkdir"

, md, mkdir, mkdir.


, , .

. , ,
rm ( ), :
alias rm="rm -i"
i rm , , .

:
alias newf="find ~ -type d -mtime -3"

, newf, , .

265

, Web- , .
, ,
alias :
lias

, ,
ls ( (
) ):
alias ls='ls --color=auto'

unalias. ,
ls :
unalias ls


Ubuntu Linux () ,
, .
. 7.6 , .
7.6.

bz2

bzip2

bunzip2

gz

gzip

gunzip

tar

tar

tar

zip

zip

unzip

tar.gz tgz

gzip tar

gunzip tar

tar.bz2

bzip2 tar

bunzip2 tar

,
. , finances.doc gzip :
gzip finances.doc

finances.doc.gz,
, .
k ( )
:
gzip -k finances.doc

266

bzip2, :
bzip2 finances.doc
bzip2 -k finances.do

inances.doc.bz2 ,
, .


gzip :
gunzip finances.doc.gz

finances.doc, . bzip2 , :
bunzip2 finances.doc.bz2

.

. , tar, . tar

tar.gz tar.bz2.
Ubuntu
GNOME Nautilus . ,
, man , man tar.


5 , . , . ,
:
0. (No permissions)
1. (Execute only)
2. (Write only)
3. (Execute and Write)
4. (Read only)
5. (Execute and Read)

267

6. (Write and Read)


7. (Execute and Write and Read)
0 7,
. . 7.7
(+), .
7.7.

0
1

, , 0 7 :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

,
7, ,
.
Ubuntu Linux ( UNIX, Linux)
( ): , ,
.

,
( ) 512 . , , ? ,
. 7.8, ,

268

07, 000 777


( 0 511 , 0 777).
7.8.

0
1

+
+

+
+

+
+


644. 6 4 ,
, .
, , .
, , 6
. 7.8 ; , . 4,
.
, , , 755. 644, ( , , 1).
, , ,
700. , 00 , ,
root, .

269

chmod
chmod (
(mode) ), .
filename , 644 :
chmod 644 filename

, :
:
u ()
g
o ( u, g)
a
+/-r /
+/-w /
+/-x /
, (,
, ) ,
, . .
, 644 (
) :
chmod a+r-w-x filename
chmod u+w filename

: ,
() , (+r-w-x) .
(u) (+w) .

ls -l filename

, ,
.
:
-r--r--r--

, , . (-),
d, l. , 9 , , , .
, filename
, .
, :
chmod u+w filename

270

, , , :
chmod a+x filename

, ,
:
chmod +x filename


.
.

ls l, .
drwxr-xr-x
drwxr-xr-x
drwxr-xr-x
-rw-r--r-drwxr-xr-x
drwxr-xr-x
drwxr-xr-x
drwxr-xr-x
drwxrwxr-x

2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2

robin
robin
robin
robin
robin
robin
robin
robin
robin

robin
robin
robin
robin
robin
robin
robin
robin
robin

4096 2009-11-30 10:38 Desktop


4096 2009-11-27 04:48 Documents
4096 2009-11-27 04:48 Downloads
167 2009-11-27 04:38 examples.desktop
4096 2009-11-27 04:48 Music
4096 2009-11-27 04:48 Pictures
4096 2009-11-27 04:48 Public
4096 2009-11-27 04:48 Templates
4096 2009-11-27 12:49 Ubuntu One

drwxr-xr-x 2 robin robin 4096 2009-11-27 04:48 Videos

( ) :
;
( ,
);
;
;
( );
;
.

chown
chown .
,
root, . . sudo .
, mary ( , mary ):
sudo chown mary filename

271

ls l, , . , ,
sudo,
.
Ubuntu nobody,
:
echo > testfile
ls -l testfile
sudo chown nobody testfile
ls -l testfile
sudo rm testfile

testfile
echo. ls
, chown.
, ,
rm. . 7.16 ,
.

. 7.16. ,

, iwille ,
nobody, robin .

chgrp
chown ,
. , ,
, root sudo, , ,
.

272

, accounts, ,
, :
chgrp accounts filename

, ,
,
sudo root :
sudo chgrp accounts filename

chown,
, :
sudo chown mary:accounts filename

sudo
root sudo? Root , Ubuntu.
, , .
Ubuntu root
. , ,

root. ,
root
, .
Ubuntu , ,
root, sudo. , , sudo ,
sudo
15 . ,
.

root
, ,
root ,
root ( sudo), :
sudo i

root
, , , , . exit.

273

sudo,
, :
man sudo



, .
, ,
.
, ,
, , .
( ) ( ps process status ( )):
ps -ax

. 7.12 .
, ,
, , . . , Ubuntu
. , , Ubuntu.
. , , Ubuntu ,
.
. , ,
- .
top, ,
(Central
Processing Unit (CPU)), . . 7.17 .
, , ,
Xorg, ,
Ubuntu, ,
10,9%. ( ),
Cpu(s), , Ubuntu
89,1% , , 10,9%.
,
( , ), -

274

-
. ,
, , ( ,
- , , ,
), , <K> PID , .

. 7.17. top

, , . , , , , .
,
, , , . - Ubuntu .

275



ps
( ax )
kill. ,
(PID) 7662 :
kill 7662

, . ( )
, .
, . ,
:
kill -9 7662

, , ,
, ,
.

! . ,
, ,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
, ,
.


, Windows
Mac OS X, Ubuntu ,
, .
, , , Ubuntu (Ubuntu
Software Center).
. ,
.
, Web , . , Ubuntu .

Ubuntu
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center)
| Ubuntu (Applications |
Ubuntu Software Center). ,
. 8.1.

Ubuntu 9.10 10.04 Ubuntu . Ubuntu 10.10,
(For Purchase), . 8.1. "", . , ,
Ubuntu ,
Fluendo, .
Ubuntu , . -

278

, ,
Ubuntu .

. 8.1. Ubuntu

Ubuntu .
, , , , . , , (Games) |
(Desktop Games),
(. 8.2).
, . 8.2, , Ubuntu 51 . , , Ubuntu
3D- (3D Chess), (. 8.2), -
. ,
, ( ) . , ,
- .

279

. 8.2.

.
( chess) ,
, . 8.3. , Ubuntu
20 ,
,
, .

Ubuntu , . , , , , 10 20
.
, - . , , ( , ),
. !
,
, .
, ,
, , . , ,
"", 10 , ,

280

, , .

. 8.3. , "chess", ,
Ubuntu 10.10 20 ,
,


, .
(gnome-chess).
, , . 8.4.

.
, ,
.
( (Get Software), (Games),
(Desktop Games) (gnome-chess)). .

281

, . (Get Software)
Ubuntu (. . 8.1).

. 8.4.

Ubuntu
(Get Software). , . : Ubuntu (Provided by Ubuntu), Canonical
(Canonical's Partners) (For Purchase).
, (Installed Software),
, . . , , (History), ,
.
(gnome-chess) .
(Install) ,

282

(Authenticate). (In
Progress)
(

).
, (Install)
(Remove), , . ,
(Installed Software).
.
, , | (Applications | Games), . 8.5, ,
, .

. 8.5.


, , .
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center) (Installed Software) .
, , , .
, :

283

(gnome-chess). , . 8.6. , ,
(. . 8.4), , , , (Install)
(Remove), .

. 8.6.

(Remove) (Authenticate).
(In Progress),
, .
, , .


Ubuntu , .
(Software Sources) (Edit). , , , ,
. (Software Sources)
: Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software),
(Other Software), (Updates), (Authentication)
(Statistics).

284

Ubuntu
(Ubuntu Software)
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software), (Software Sources) , . 8.7.

. 8.7.

Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software) (. . 8.7)


.
,
Canonical (Canonical-supported Open Source software (main) ,
(Universe).
, Canonical, Canonical, , Ubuntu. , , , , .
, ,
Canonical, , , "" , ,
Canonical.

285

, , Linux
GNU , . , Canonical, " ,
, , , ,
".
(restricted) (Proprietary drivers for devices (restricted))
( )
, , ,
,
. ,
, , , , , Windows Mac OS X.
, (multiverse) (Software
restricted by copyright or legal issues (multiverse))
, Ubuntu,

. , ,
.
, .
(Source code)
Linux,
,
. ,
.
(Download from)
, ,
(Source code),
, , Ubuntu, .
. ,
(Other),
(. 8.8).
, , , , ( )
.

286

. 8.8.

,
(Select Best Server),
. ,
300 . ,
(Cancel)
.

(Other Software)
, Ubuntu.
, , ,
. 8.9.

(Updates)
(Updates) ,
, . 8.10.

Ubuntu (Ubuntu updates)


. Ubuntu, . , .

. 8.9.

. 8.10.

287

288

, ,
.

(Automatic updates)

(Daily), (Every two days), (Weekly)
(Every two weeks) , , Ubuntu
. , , ,
(Daily).
(Only notify about available updates).
. , .
, (, ). ,
, , .

(Release upgrade)
, . :
(Never) , . ,
.
(Normal) .
(Long term) , Canonical
(Long Term Support (LTS)).
.
, (Normal).

(Authentication)
. , , , -

289

. . 8.11 ,
, .
ubuntu.com, , , ,
.

. 8.11.

(Statistics)
Ubuntu,
, , . 8.12. ,
, ,
.
, , .
, .

290

. 8.12.

. 8.13. View Ubuntu Software Center

291

(View)
(View), . 8.13, , , Canonical.


,
,
, . ,
, , (Help) ,
Ubuntu, , Netbook Edition ( Remix).

Synaptic
(Synaptic Package Manager)
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center) Synaptic (Synaptic Package Manager), | | Synaptic
(System | Administration | Synaptic Package Manager).
, . 8.14.
Synaptic , , Synaptic . " ",
Ubuntu , , , . ,
, .
, , (Reload)
Synaptic. , , ,
. , (Editors),
, Synaptic,
- (. 8.15).
,
, ,
Canonical,
Ubuntu.

292

. 8.14. Synaptic

. 8.15.

293

8.15 , :

, .

Synaptic
. . (Status) ,
: (Installed), (Not installed) . . (. 8.16).

. 8.16.

3dchess,
. , ,
(Get Screenshot), ( ) .


, ,
(Mark for Installation), . 8.17.

294

. 8.17. 3dchess

, Ubuntu ,
, , ,
, . 8.18, (
libsdl-image1.2), ( , brutalchess).

. 8.18.
,

, , , (Mark). -

295

(Cancel), ,
, , ,
, , .
, ,
, ( , ).


(Apply)
, , . 8.19.

. 8.19.


(Apply) . ,
.
,
.
(Show Details), .

(Download package files only), .
, (Apply), ( )
. ( ) , .

296

| (Applications | Games), 3D Chess,


.


Synaptic (Quick Search) .
chess , chess.
, .
, ,
, , , .


(Installed)
. (Quick Search)
( ), , . 8.20.
,
.
, , .
, , , ,
. 8.21.
(Mark for
Reinstallation), (Mark for Removal) (Mark for Complete Removal).
(Mark for Upgrade), .
(Mark for Complete
Removal) .
, , . ( ), .
Synaptic
(Apply), , ,
. 8.22. , .
.

297

. 8.20.

. 8.21.

(Apply) , , , , .
. ,
, , , , ,
, (Show Details).

298

. 8.22.

, (Apply)
( ).
Synaptic , ,
, .

Synaptic
, (Sections)
(Status) ,
: (Origin),
(Custom Filters) (Search Results).
, , .
, Ubuntu,
, , , ,
.

Synaptic
Synaptic ,
.

299

(file)
(File), . 8.23. , ,
,
() Synaptic.

. 8.23.

, Ubuntu,
, (History). ,
, , , .

(Edit)
(Edit) ,
, , (Fix Broken Packages),
. 8.24.
Synaptic -
, ,
. ,
, - . ,
, , .
(Fix Broken Packages),
,
(Apply) (
(Apply Marked Changes)),
, .

300

. 8.24.

(Package)
, , , , ,
, ,
(. 8.25).

. 8.25. Synaptic

, ,
. , Ubuntu
, ,

301

, (Automatically installed).
(Download
Changelog),
. (Properties)
(Properties) ,
, , ,
. , . 8.26.

. 8.26.

(Settings)
(Settings), . 8.27,
(Preferences) ,
.
, Ubuntu, - , Synaptic,
.
, , ,
(Preferences), . 8.28,
, ,
, , , ,

302

, , .

. 8.27.

. 8.28.

(Settings) (Repositories).
, , (Software Sources), , , Ubuntu (Edit) |
(Software Sources), (. . 8.7).

303

(Filters) , . 8.29, , Synaptic, . ,


, ( ) Synaptic .

. 8.29.

(Set Internal Option), " ".


.
(Settings), (Toolbar),
, , :
.

(Help)
, Ubuntu, (Help). , <F1>
| (Help | Contents). |
(Help | Quick Introduction) | (Help | Get Help Online).

Aptitude
Ubuntu Aptitude Package Manager, -

304

Advanced Packaging Tool (APT),


(Terminal) :
sudo aptitude

. ,
Synaptic,
. Aptitude (Terminal)
, . 8.30.

. 8.30. Aptitude Package Manager

Aptitude, ,
Synaptic.
(Terminal), , .
Aptitude
<Enter>. ,
<Enter>.
.

. , <Enter> .
, ,
. , <?> , <q> , <u> , <g> . .
(, ),
<Tab>.
(Terminal), , , apt-get, .

305

apt-get
. Aptitude, apt-get
.
,
. , ,
(Terminal),
Synaptic, ( ) .


apt-get , , (
, ):
sudo apt-get update

, sudo .
, 15
.


, , , , :
sudo apt-get upgrade

-
, dist-upgrade, , :
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade



, ,
chess :
sudo apt-cache search chess

306


, , , packagename:
sudo apt-get install packagename


, . packagename:
sudo apt-get remove packagename


apt-get
,
:
apt-get help

:
man apt-get

,
, "" "" , , Ubuntu.
,
Ubuntu
(Ubuntu Software Center). ,
, Synaptic.
Aptitude , . ,
, , ,
, Synaptic.
,
, Aptitude , .
, apt-get ;
. , , .
, Ubuntu
.
, , .



, , ,

.
, Linux. ,
.
, ,
Ubuntu, -
, . , .


,
,
,
.

|
| (System | Preferences) (. 9.1).
,
, , , ,
.
Ubuntu, .

308

. 9.1. |


(Power Management)
,
, .
-, ,
. ,
, , , .
. 9.2 , .
(On Battery Power),
, ( ), , , .

309

. 9.2. ,
Ubuntu


(On AC Power)
(On AC Power) . , ( " ").
, . ,
, ,
"",
. , ,
(
).
, . ,
, ("")
.
, ,
,
. , , ,
.

310


(On Battery Power)
(On Battery Power) () .
,
(On AC Power), , , , .
,
, ,
, .
. ,
, .
,
.

(General)
(, , )
(. 9.3). (), ,
.

. 9.3.

311

(Preferred Applications)
, , , Web-
. - ,
, PDF-
Web- , ,
. . 9.4 , (Preferred Applications). 4 ,
.

. 9.4.

(Internet)
,
Web- (,
). , (Custom),
(Command). , 7.
, %s,
, Web. , .
(Run in terminal),
( , ).

312

(Multimedia)
, , .
(System)
, :
(Command) (Execute flag) (. 9.5).
,
. , x (Execute flag).

. 9.5.

(Accessibility)
.
(Run at start), .

(Startup Applications)
Ubuntu, , Bluetooth, Network Manager ( ), , . . (. 9.6).

313

. 9.6.

(Startup Applications)
(Add), (Remove)
(Edit). , (Remove)
(Edit) ( , ).
, ,
, . .
(Add), , . 9.7.

. 9.7.

synergyc .
- Synergy,
Windows, Mac OS X Ubuntu.
iville.

314

10
.
,
(Browse) .
. ,
Ubuntu ,
(Options)
(Automatically remember running applications when logging in) (. 9.8).

. 9.8.

. - ,
, .
Ubuntu ,
, (Remember Currently Running Application). ,
, ,
.
, ,
(Remember Currently Running
Application).

Ubuntu . , Gedit (Terminal),
(Calculator).

315

| (Windows)
| (Preferences | Windows),
(Window Preferences).
(. 9.9).

. 9.9.

.
(Window Selection).

, . , , , , ,
.
, ,
, - ,
, ,

(raise). ,
.
, ,
, . ,
. , , , .
0 10 .
(Titlebar Action). .

316

,
. :
(Maximize)
;
(Maximize Vertically)
;
(Maximize Horizontally)
;
(Minimize)
;
(Roll up) ,
;
(Window menu) , ,
;
(To Front) ,
;
(Back) ;
(None) .
, .
(Movement Key). ,
,
, <Alt>
, .
(Movement Key)
, <Alt> <Ctrl> Windows, <Windows logo>.

|
(Administration).
, ,
.

(Computer Janitor)
(Computer Janitor)
, . , , . 9.10.
, ,
.
,
.

317

. 9.10.

, ,
(Do selected tasks),
, .
, ,
(Clean up).

, , . (Computer Janitor)
, .

(Login Screen)
,
(. 9.11).
. (Unlock) , , .

,
.
,
.

, , ,
. , ,
. , ,
, ,
.

318

. 9.11.

, , . GNOME,
Xfce (. . 9.11). , , Xfce. , Ubuntu KDE Xfce,
, 15.


,
- Web .
, , ,
Web-
.
,

, , 1.
,
.

(User Switch)
. ,
, ,
.

, ? . .

319

,
(Terminal) :
sudo passwd -d username

, 15 . ,
andy, brian, claire denise, :
sudo passwd -d andy
sudo passwd -d brian
sudo passwd -d claire
sudo passwd -d denise

. , , . :
sudo gedit /etc/pam.d/common-auth

, (
17- ), :
auth

[success=1 default=ignore]

pam_unix.so nullok_secure

_secure , (Save),
, ,
.
, sudo .

, ,
,
. , sudo , ( ) .
.

(System Monitor)
(System Monitor) ,
, , , , . . . 9.12 , (System).
4 , :
(System).
, , Ubuntu, Linux
GNOME, , () () .
(Processes). , (. 9.13).
,

320

, ,
.

. 9.12.

""1 ( ),
(End Process).
, , , .
, , ,
,
.
(Resources). , (. 9.14).
, .
. 9.14 , 20% , 15% ( ),
, Web Firefox.

Windows Vista,
,
Linux. Ubuntu
. Vista ,
, - .

, kill,
"". . .

. 9.13.

. 9.14.

321

322

(File Systems). ,

. ,
, , , (. 9.15).

. 9.15.

(Monitor), (Edit) (View) ,


, , , . . , ,
Ubuntu.

(System Testing)

(System Testing) (. 9.16).
, ,
(Next). . ,

323


(Test). Bluetooth, USB.

. 9.16.

- , , .

- -
, (Update Manager)
2, - -
() Ubuntu ,
.

, - ( -). ,
, Ubuntu.
Ubuntu , - -, .
, ,
.

324

() , -, ,
. , Linux.
- . ,
, ,
. , , ,
- -, (Terminal) :
sudo update-manager d

(Update Manager)
, - -, ,
. ,
( , - -), , ,
.
, , . - -

.

ISO- Ubuntu Web- http://iso.qa.ubuntu.com.


Ubuntu,
, ,
, .
, . , .

.
, , ,
. .
,
, ,

325

, ,
, .

, . , ,
. ( 20 ), .
, , , ,
.
,
:




,
,
-, . ,
, .
{+}JaMeS0311MaRy0704{+} , , .
disney112008LAND!!!!
, , , ,
, .
kanye--TAYLOR++WEST--swift++
, , , , .
, , - .
.
, .

326

root
, ,
,
: root .
, ,
. ,
,
.
Ubuntu root
sudo, 7.
, sudo
15 . , - ,
root .
, - sudo i
root, ,
. . , root, , user@ root@,
. 9.17.

. 9.17. root


, Ubuntu ,
, Ubuntu
.
, Ubuntu
. , Ubuntu

327

, ,
root .
, ,
(
) root .
, , , root
:
sudo passwd root

() UNIX.
, . root , .
BIOS, , ,
. BIOS, , .

, , - , . ,
,
URL- Web- Ubuntu: https://help.ubuntu.com/
community/EncryptedFilesystemHowto.


,
, , .
, , ADSL-
. , , , , ,
, , , , Skype BitTorrent, .
, Ubuntu , .

, , Web ,
, . , , ,

328


Web-, , .

, . , , . , , , ,
, .
,
- , (Terminal) , :
sudo ufw allow ssh/tcp
sudo ufw logging on
sudo ufw enable
sudo ufw status

. 9.18 ,
. , . , (state tracking), ,
Web-, Web-, , Web-,
.

, , URL-: https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UncomplicatedFirewall.

. 9.18. Ubuntu

329


Synaptic, Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software
Center) apt-get, 8. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, , , . , , ,
, , .


- , ,
.
, , rm, . mv , ,
>, .
, , , , .
-r f rm (
rm -rf)
.


, .
, ,
.
(Update Manager),
(Settings) , , . 9.19.

330

. 9.19.


Linux
, . , . Linux , .
, .
ClamTk, ClamAV.
rkhunter
1
chkrootkit (rootkits),
, ,
Linux.

Synaptic (Synaptic Package Manager) (Quick search), . 9.20.
1

. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/. . .

331

. 9.20.

, . (Apply). ,
.

. 9.21.

| |
Virus Scanner (Applications | System Tools | Virus Scanner) ,
, . 9.21, . ,

332

Home () . , Directory () File System


( ) .

Web-
, ,
Linux ,
, Windows.
, Web-
, ,
Windows, , ,
Linux, .
, , - , Ubuntu Linux.
, Web, Web- , , ,
Web-, . , - , , . ,
( ),
.

,
, Linux.

Wine
,
Ubuntu Linux. OpenOffice.org, Microsoft Word Microsoft Office,
. "". , -.
Wine, Windows, , , Windows,
Word Microsoft Office.

333

. ,
, Windows, Wine root. , ,
, Wine Windows-. Wine
. 16.


, , , .
,
, Ubuntu, ,
( ),
.

Ubuntu, . Web- http://lists.ubuntu.com
, .
- ,
:
Ubuntu
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/ubuntu-announce;
Ubuntu
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/ubuntu-news;
Ubuntu
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/ubuntu-security-announce;
Ubuntu
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/ubuntu-users;
Kubuntu
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/kubuntu-users;
Xubuntu
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/xubuntu-users;
Edubuntu
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/edubuntu-users;
Ubuntu Studio
http://lists.ubuntu.com/mailman/listinfo/Ubuntu-Studio-users.
, , ,
,
.

10

Ubuntu
, Ubuntu
,
Linux, Windows Mac OS X.
, .
. . ,
, ,
, (Connect).
, ,
. 3 ,
, , . , ,
, .


Ubuntu Virtual Network Computing (VNC),
, , . , . VNC ,
.
,
, , .
, " "
.

10

336

VNC
,
VNC-, VNC-. Ubuntu , | | (System | Preferences |
Remote Desktop). , . 10.1.

. 10.1.

, , :
" ." (Nobody can access your desktop.).

, , , VNC .

VNC- (Allow other


users to view your desktop)
.
(Allow other users to control your desktop)
(Configure network automatically to accept connections), .
, -

Ubuntu

337

(Require the user to enter this password)


. , ,
. , . 10.2.

. 10.2. VNC-

. "" 9,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, , . .

. 10.2, IP-, , 192.168.11.8,


ubuntu.local. , .


(. . 10.2), (Security),

10

338

-,
VNC-.
, VNC . VNC- . , VNC-
(
. 10.2).

(Notification Area). () VNC-. , VNC-, .

VNC-
VNC-:
Ubuntu, Windows Mac OS X.

Ubuntu
Ubuntu VNC- , , | | (Applications | Internet |
Remote Desktop Viewer). Vinagre VNC,
. 10.3, Ubuntu .

. 10.3.

Ubuntu

339

,
VNC-, , .
, . 10.3, Linux-, VNC.
, (. 10.4).

. 10.4.

. 10.5. VNC-


(Remember this credential), ( , , ). ,
(Authenticate),

10

340

(Remote Desktop
Viewer) VNC-, . 10.5.
, , .
.
, , , .
, ,
/ .
(View)
(View)
, . ,
,
,
.
(Fullscreen)
(Fullscreen) <F11>,
(. 10.6).
,
, ,
, .

Windows
Windows VNC, RealVNC ( Web- http://www.realvnc.com/
products/download.html). . ,
, . 10.7, VNC- IP-.
IP- Ubuntu, ( , ) onnect.
,
Windows VNC-.
, VNC-,

.

Ubuntu

341

. 10.6. VNC-,
1

. 10.7. VNC- Windows

, VNC- , . , . . .

10

342

Mac OS X
Mac VNC- , ,
Jollys Fast VNC ( Web- http://www.jinx.de/
JollysFastVNC.html). ,
. , VNC- ,
.
: ,

, , .

VNC-
VNC- ( ),
, , . , , . , ,
1024768 , 800600 , . | | (System | Preferences | Display).
, , 256 16.

VNC
VNC
, ,
. . , , . Ubuntu Web-
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/VNC, .



, ,
. ,
- .

Ubuntu

343

, Synergy,

. VNC, , ,
.
Ubuntu Synergy, | | Synaptic (System | Administration |
Synaptic Package Manager) Synergy
(Quick search). : synergy quicksynergy.
, (Apply).
, . . , , IP-. , IP- 192.168.11.8. ,
Ubuntu, , |
| QuickSynergy (Applications | Accessories | QuickSynergy)
Use (), . 10.8.
. ( , Synergy.)

. synergy
quicksynergy Synaptic.
( | | QuickSynergy
(Applications | Accessories | QuickSynergy)) Share (), ,
() .
.

. 10.8. Synergy

10

344

, slave1 slave2,
, . Left () Right () , . 10.9.

. 10.9. Synergy

Execute ()
,
.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
,

, | | (System | Preferences | Startup Applications), , . 10.10, master .
QuickSynergy,
,
. ,
.
Synergy Windows Mac OS X,
Synergy Linux. Ubuntu
,

Ubuntu

345

, http://synergy2.sourceforge.net. , , ,
Mac, Windows Vista 7 Ubuntu.

. 10.10. Synergy

( , ), , Synergy
,
. , .


,
, | (Places | Connect to Server)
, . 10.11. Users
Fileserver.
,
, . ,
, | (Places | Network) , . . 10.12 ,
.

Ubuntu
.
. (Create Launcher). ,
(Command) , computer
folder , :
nautilus smb://computer/folder

10

346

. 10.11.

. 10.12.
, ,
.
Nautilus

Ubuntu

347

Samba. ,
:
nautilus smb://iq500/transfer



Ubuntu , ,
(Sharing), .
, -
,
(Sharing Options) (. 10.13).

. 10.13.

, . 10.14.

(Share this folder), (. 10.15),
, (Sharing) , .
(Install service) .

10

348

. 10.14.

. 10.15.

,
. , (Restart session). , , . .
(Folder Sharing) , ( ),
. , (Create Share).
, , , ,
, , . , ,
.

Ubuntu

349


, Windows Mac OS X,
Windows (Windows domain protocol),
Samba ( Windows). , , ,
. ,
, .



Ubuntu , WiFi . . . .
Ubuntu.
. Ubuntu
,
. , ,
. Ubuntu , .
, , .
. , <Enter>. , ,

, .
, , ,
.
. Ubuntu ,
, .


| | (Applications | Accessories |
Passwords and Encryption Keys). , . 10.16.
, , ,
.
.

10

350

. 10.16.

,
(Delete).
. - , ( : default (Passwords: default) : login (Passwords: login)).
, ,
.

, " Ubuntu". Ubuntu! , , ,


Windows-, OpenOffice.org , , .

11

Web-, , , IP-, ""


.
Ubuntu , . ,
, Web-
, Ubuntu , , .
, Ubuntu ,
, Ubuntu Synaptic .

, , ,
.

Web
Web-, . -,
, , Google.
, Web, , Google Apps, "" .
Ubuntu Web- Mozilla Firefox (. 11.1).
, ,
| (Applications | Internet). , .

11

352

. 11.1. Web- Firefox,

Firefox (, Web- Microsoft Internet Explorer,


Linux), , .
.

Web-,
. , , (Options), |
(Tools | Internet options) Internet Explorer | (Tools | Options) Firefox. Ubuntu | (Edit | Preferences).
, Ubuntu
(Check for Updates) (Help) Web-
Firefox. Web- Firefox,
(Updates Manager).

(Bookmarks)
Ubuntu
:
Most Visited ( ) ,
;

353

Getting Started ( ) Web- Getting

started with Firefox ( Firefox);


Latest Headlines ( )
Web- BBC World News.


Firefox -, ,
(New Tab) ( + ), <Ctrl> ,
, <Ctrl>+<T>.
( ).
, ,
(New Tab) ,
.
. , ,
.
(New Window)
(File) , <Shift>.
, , <Alt>+<F4>.

Google Firefox -. ,
(New Tab), Home (
), .
, .

Web-
Ubuntu Web-,
Opera (. 11.2). Web- Google Chrome (
http://google.com/chrome/) , ,
, Firefox Linux.

11

354

. 11.2. Web- Opera Firefox

Opera Firefox ,
Download Opera (
Opera):
http://www.opera.com/download/index.dml?platform=linux

. . Web- Opera , ,
Opera
Synaptic, , , deb.

Firefox , , GDebi (
) (Open with GDebi Package Installer) .
(Install
Package), . Opera
| (Applications |
Internet).

355


Ubuntu Evolution Mail (. 11.3),
| (Applications | Internet)
, .

. 11.3. Evolution Mail

Evolution .
(Forward)
(Restore).
, .
, Evolution,
. ,
, ,
. (Forward).

( ) (reply-to) (. 11.4).

(Make this my default account), ,
.
(. 11.5) ,
(Forward).

11

356

. 11.4.

. 11.5.

357

,
(Server Type), IMAP. , , Microsoft Exchange, Novell GroupWise, POP, Usenet News, Local Delivery
.
, . , , @.
,
Evolution .
, ,
. (Forward)
(Receiving Options) (. 11.6).

. 11.6.

, . ,
.
, , , ,
. ,
(Forward) (Sending Email) (. 11.7).
(Server Type) SMTP Sendmail,
, , . , .

11

358

. 11.7.

,
Evolution, . , (Forward)
(Account Management), . 11.8.
,
.
, . (Forward)
(Apply). Evolution
, , , .
, , ,
, / (Send/Receive)
, , , . -

359

(New), (Reply) . . | (Help | Contents).

. 11.8.


9.10 (Karmic Koala) (IM) Ubuntu Empathy, . ,
, , , .
, , ,
.
, Pidgin, -
,
Ubuntu,
Empathy .
, Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software
Center), pidgin .

(Pidgin Internet Messenger), (Install), .

Empathy, -

11

360

(Installed Software)
empathy (Uninstall).

Ubuntu, 9.10, Pidgin, ,
. Empathy,
.

Pidgin
Pidgin , | | Pidgin (Applications | Internet | Pidgin Instant Messenger) .
,
(Add) (Add Account), . 11.9.

. 11.9. Pidgin

(Protocol), IM-, , -

361

.
, (Remember
password), ,
(User Options) (Local
alias) , Pidgin; . , ,
.
IM,
(Add) (Close) .


(Buddy List), .
,
(Buddies), , . 11.10.

. 11.10. Pidgin

Pidgin , -
IM-, . (Buddies)
(Add Buddy),

11

362

(Buddies), (Join
a Chat) . . ,
.
.

-
Ekiga Softphone, Ubuntu VOIP
(Voice Over Internet Protocol, IP) . , ,
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center).
, VOIP- Empathy,
, , .
Empathy , . . Skype,
, Synaptic
(Synaptic Package Manager), .
Web- http://skype.com/
download , 32 64-.

Ubuntu, . (Downloads) (Package Installer) (
). , (Install Package)
. ,
(Close)
(Package Installer).
Skype |
(Applications | Internet)
.
Skype (. 11.11).
Skype-, Skype? (Dont have a Skype Name yet?),
. ,
.

Skype , ,
(Buddy List) .

363

. 11.11. Skype


, (Peer-to-Peer) P2P , .
P2P ( )
, (tracker servers), . ,
.
,

11

364

. ,
, .

, ISO- Ubuntu,
, Web- http://ubuntu.com, , 2, , ( , ).

2- BitTorrent,
| |
Transmission BitTorrent Client (Applications | Internet | Transmission BitTorrent
Client).
torrent-.

. 11.12.

torrent- ,
"torrent". torrent-,
, Web- ,

365

torrent- Transmission BitTorrent Client. , , (Torrent


Options), . 11.12.
,
torrent- ,
. ,
(Add).
, torrent, , . , torrent-, , , .
,
. torrent-,
. 11.13.

. 11.13. torrent-



torrent- ( ,
" ").
).

11

366

Telnet SSH
, Telnet SSH (Secure SHell,
). SSH , , Telnet
, Telnet
.
, , PuTTY, Ubuntu (Ubuntu
Software Center), putty
Putty SSH Client, (Install). | (Applications | Internet). PuTTY , . 11.14.

. 11.14. PuTTY

IP-
Host Name ( ) , , SSH. Saved Sessions ( )

367

Save () . ( Close window on exit


( )) Open () .
, ,
. 11.15. Web-,
Web-.

. 11.15. SSH-

Ubuntu One
Ubuntu One Canonical, Ubuntu,
2 ""
. , 50 .


Ubuntu One | |
Ubuntu One (Applications | Interne | Ubuntu One).
, Launchpad Login Service (
Launchpad), . 11.16.
( )
. , Continue ().

11

368

. 11.16. Launchpad Login Service

Login Service Continue


(). Ubuntu One,
Ubuntu One,
Subscribe (), Add
This Computer ( ).

Ubuntu One
, , , Ubuntu One
"" . , (Connect).
Ubuntu One,

(Go to Web), Web- , . 11.17.
Ubuntu One,

| Ubuntu One (Places | Ubuntu One). ,
, ( -

369

). , , .

. 11.17. Ubuntu One

Ubuntu One, ,
:
https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UbuntuOne/Tutorials

, Ubuntu. .
, ,
( , ), Synaptic (Synaptic
Package Manger) Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center).

OpenOffice.org, .

12

OpenOffice.org
Ubuntu , ,
.
OpenOffice.org, ,
, Microsoft Office.
,
. , OpenOffice.org
,
.
, OpenOffice.org
, Microsoft: xls, doc ppt, PDF-. ,
.
, , Ubuntu, OpenOffice.org
, , , .


Ubuntu 10.041
(Examples) .
, /usr/share/example-content,
root. , ,
. ,
( ) (readonly) -.
OpenOffice.org,
, , 1

Ubuntu 10.10 , : https://launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/example-content. . .

12

372

(Terminal)
:
cp -r /usr/share/example-content ~/Desktop

example-content,
. , .

Writer
OpenOffice.org Writer, , . |
| OpenOffice.org (Applications | Office | OpenOffice.org Word
Processor) , , odt ( , OpenOffice.org
) doc.

. 12.1. Writer

OpenOffice.org

373

. 12.1 Welcome_to_Ubuntu.odt examplecontent, .

, Writer Microsoft Word ( OpenOffice.org), , , Writer Word .


. , OpenOffice.org ,
Word,
, .

,
Writer ,
. , , , .
, , (Help),
.
, , , , (Standard) (Formatting),
.

(Standard)
. 12.2 (Standard), , , , . .
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
, , .
. , ,
. .
, OpenOffice.org.
(Open) ( ), (Save) ( , ,
, ) -

12

374

(E-mail) ( - ).

. 12.2.

(Edit), : . , , ,
, . , ( ). , ,
, , (Formatting),
(. 12.3).
PDF-
(Portable Document Format), ,
.
: ,
,
. ,
.
, ;
-, (,

). , , . -

OpenOffice.org

375

, .

. 12.3.

(Standard) . 12.4.
,
. , , ,
. , , >>,
.

12

376

. 12.4.

. , , .
.
, . (, , ). , ,
. , .
.
, ,
, ,
(), .
.
, ,
, , .

(Formatting)
, Writer, (Formatting), . 12.5.

. ,

OpenOffice.org

377

(Standard). , ,
, (Styles and formatting).

. 12.5.

,
, . , .
. 12. 6 .

. 12.6.

, , .
,
, ,
.
.

12

378

, ,
(
) . ,
, , , , , .
,
.


, , , . ., , ,
(, ) .

(Styles and Formatting) . , ( , , , , ).

(New style from
selection) ( ) .
, . , (Styles and Formatting),
.


Writer , .
(Word Completion) . ,
, .
, (Word
Completion), | (Tools | AutoCorrect
Options) (Word Completion).
(Enable word completion) . , ,
<Tab> <Enter>).
(Accept with)
(AutoCorrect) Tab.

OpenOffice.org

379

Calc
OpenOffice.org Calc,
, ,
Microsoft Excel. c Writer, , , ,
, , .

(Standard)
Calc
example-content .
Payment_schedule.ods

. 12.7. Calc

12

380

, . 12.7 Payment_schedule. ods


- Microsoft Excel.
, , (Standard)
(Formatting) , Writer,
. : . ,
.
, ,
, ,
. 12.8.

. 12.8. Calc
Writer

. 12.9. Calc

OpenOffice.org

381

, , (Table) (Standard) Writer Calc ,


A Z . , (Chart Wizard) (. 12.9),
, .

(Formatting)
(Formatting)
, , ,
(Style and Formatting),
.
, . 12.10, .

. 12.10.

(Formatting) . ,
,

12

382

, (
).
, ,
Writer, .
.


(Formatting) ,
, ,
(Formatting) . , , ,
. , (
) .
,
. .
(Visible Buttons),
(Number Format),
.

Impress
OpenOffice.org .
Impress,
| | OpenOffice.org (Applications | Office |
OpenOffice.org Presentation). ,
Presenting_Ubuntu.odp example-content (. 12.11).

(Standard)
(Standard) , , (Presentation) (. 12.12).
: .
,
.

OpenOffice.org

383

. 12.11. Impress

. 12.12.

(Line and Filling)


(Standard) (Formatting) Impress (Line
and Filling), . 12.13.

12

384

. 12.13.

, (Style and Formatting), (Line),


. (Arrow) .
(Line style), (Line width) (Line color).
(Area) , , / (Styling) /
(Color). . , , ,
, .
(Line and Filling) (Slide Sorter).
, . Impress :
(Slides), (Workspace) (Tasks).

(Slides)
.

, , .

(Workspace)
, . "",

OpenOffice.org

385

, , , .
, - .

(Tasks)
, (Layouts),
(Table Design) . . ,
, .
,

.

(Drawing)
(Drawing),
, , ,

.



, , , , . . , , .
, .
| | (View | Master | Slide Master), , . , ,
, .

Draw
OpenOffice.org ( ) Draw, | | OpenOffice.org (Applications | Graphics | OpenOffice.org
Drawing). . 12.14 Draw.

12

386

. 12.14. OpenOffice.org Draw

, OpenOffice.org,
. , Draw , Impress, .
,
2D- 3D-, ,
. .

, Draw, OpenOffice.org, , .
GIMP ( Photoshop Ubuntu), F-Spot,

OpenOffice.org

387

XSane ( Simple Scan, Ubuntu 10.04).


| (Applications | Graphics).
, Draw , , , .

Base
Base OpenOffice.org, .
Ubuntu ,
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center)
openoffice (. 12.15).

. 12.15. OpenOffice.org
Ubuntu

, ,
, ,
. , ,

12

388

(Install).
. ,
| (Applications | Office)
Base
, ( ). , ,
, . 12.16.

. 12.16. OpenOffice.org Base

Base
,
, , .
CD- , Base
. , ,
.

Math
OpenOffice.org Math , , -

OpenOffice.org

389

. Ubuntu, - .
,
OpenOffice.org | | (File |
New | Formula)
Ubuntu (Edit Menus) , . 12.17.
, . ,
, OpenOffice.org (OpenOffice.org Formula) (Close), | (Applications | Office).

. 12.17.

Math .
,
(Selection).
. 12.18 ,
, , .

12

390

. 12.18. Math


, OpenOffice.org,
| ? (Help | Whats
This), ,
.

Evolution
OpenOffice.org, ,

.
Evolution (Evolution Calendars), , , ,

OpenOffice.org

391

( ) (. 12.19).

. 12.19. Evolution OpenOffice.org

Ubuntu 10?
Ubuntu - ,
, , 700- CD. , ,
. ,
Base CD, 10.04 GIMP.
Ubuntu,
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center) . ,
, ,
.

12

392

, OpenOffice.org
ISO-. ,
, Synaptic Ubuntu.

OpenOffice.org .
, , ,
, . 2006 .
.
,
, OpenOffice.org.
, ,
Ubuntu.

13

, Windows Mac OS X 99%


, Linux
, . ,
Linux , Linux.
, Linux , . , Windows Linux.
, ,
, Ubuntu.


Ubuntu ,
| (Applications |
Games) (. 13.1).

. 13.1. Ubuntu

13

394

(Games), ,
, (Logic).
Ubuntu Windows,
(AisleRiot Solitaire), Windows (Windows Solitaire),
, , Windows-
, (Klondike) (Three card deals) (. 13.2).
(Mines) (. 13.3), (Minesweeper)
Windows.

. 13.2.

. 13.3.

395

Windows Vista Windows 7 , , Ubuntu


(Mahjongg) (. 13.4).

. 13.4.

, (Chess), -- (Four-in-a-row),
(Sudoku) ,
. - ,
PlayDeb.

PlayDeb
PlayDeb , Ubuntu. Ubuntu PlayDeb ,
Web-.
,
, ,
Web- URL-:
http://archive.getdeb.net/install_deb/playdeb_0.3-1~getdeb1_all.deb

13

396


0.3-1 ,
,
#,
<Return>, .

URL- , . 13.5,
URL GDebi (GDebi Package
Installer). ,
. PlayDeb .

. 13.5. PlayDeb

Web- http://playdeb.net.
Install this now ( ),
(. 13.6).
Ubuntu , apturl.
"apt" (Remember my
choice for apt links), . ,
, . Ubuntu 10.10
Ubuntu.
, , .
(Install).
- , ,
, Blood Frontier.
| (Applications | Games).

397

. 13.6. Install this now

Linux-
, Linux-, Ubuntu,
URL- :
http://help.ubuntu.com/community/Games
http://linux.about.com/od/ubuntu_doc/a/ubuntu_games.htm
http://linuxgames07.blogspot.com/2007/11/top-ubuntu-linux-games.html
http://gwos.org/doku.php
.

13

398

PlayOnLinux
PlayOnLinux Windows- Wine ( Wine . 16).
, -, Windows-.

Ubuntu, (Terminal) . , , , O.
:
sudo wget http://deb.playonlinux.com/playonlinux_karmic.list -O
/etc/apt/sources.list.d/playonlinux.list


Ubuntu, , Karmic Koala, Lucid
Lynx, karmic lucid .
1
Ubuntu 10.10 , , karmic lucid
maverick.

:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install playonlinux

| (Applications | Games)
PlayOnLinux, ,
. 13.7.

. 13.7. PlayOnLinux

( ) Ubuntu,
(Install) . 13.8
1

http://www.playonlinux.com/en/
PlayOnLinux, Linux ( Ubuntu). ,
PlayOnLinux ( Ubuntu)
, ( maverick)
. . .

399

, (Games) Crayon
Physics.

. 13.8. PlayOnLinux

, ,
, .
, PlayOnLinux, .
. 13.9 Crayon Physics (Apply).
, .

PlayOnLinux. , , Google Chrome Internet
Explorer 7. . 13.9 Crayon Physics, PlayOnLinux
Google Chrome, ,
Internet Explorer 7.
PlayOnLinux , Ubuntu, Linux, . 13.9.

13

400

. 13.9. PlayOnLinux Crayon Physics


Google Chrome. Internet Explorer 7

,
, . ,
, PlayOnLinux
.

KDE
KDE, 15, KDE (. 13.10),
, KDE,
GNOME. Arcade, Board
(Strategy) | (Applications | Games) 50 .

401

. 13.10. KReversi KDE


Web-
Web- , Flash, JavaScript
Java, Web- Ubuntu. ,
"flash games".

" " Ubuntu


, , , ,
Ubuntu , , -

13

402

, , , " "
( ).

Ubuntu
<Alt>+<F2>
(. 13.11) :
free the fish

(. 13.12), , .

. 13.11. " "

. 13.12. " "


,
. ,
, <Alt>+<F2>
GNOME:
killall gnome-panel

" " GNOME, KDE Xfce.

OpenOffice.org StarWars
, -
OpenOffice.org Calc,
,
StarWars ( ) (. 13.13):
=Game("StarWars")

403

. 13.13. , StarWars OpenOffice.org!

Aptitude
apt-get aptitude.
(Terminal)
, :
apt-get moo
aptitude help
aptitude moo
aptitude -v moo
aptitude -vv moo
aptitude -vvv moo
aptitude -vvvv moo
aptitude -vvvvv moo
aptitude -vvvvvv moo

, !

13

404

Ubuntu 10?
Ubuntu "",
, CD, DVD, , . , , | (Applications | Games) (AisleRiot Solitaire),
(Gnometris), (Mahjongg), (Mines) (Sudoku).
, , , ,
, .

Ubuntu,
. .

, Ubuntu Web- ;
, , , - .
, Ubuntu, , , , ,
USB . .

14

,
Ubuntu . Ubuntu Studio -. , , MP3, Ubuntu Studio,
Ubuntu ,
, .
, Ubuntu
, , , - Ubuntu , -.
MP3-,
,
,
, . , , .

(Movie Player)
(Movie Player) Ubuntu
. | (Applications | Sound & Video) , . . 14.1
, Ubuntu.

, . -

14

406

. 14.1. YouTube

,
, , BBC YouTube , , . (Sidebar)
.

BBC , , , Could not connect to server ( ). , , .


- ,
(MP3, WAV QuickTime,

407

), (Movie Player)
, (). ,
, , . 14.2, (Search).

. 14.2. ?

. 14.3.

14

408

(Install Multimedia
Plugins) .
(Install) (. 14.3)
(Confirm).
.
, (Movie Player), ,
. , , .

, , . ,
Linux
.
. , , ,
, .

VLC
Ubuntu (Movie Player) ,
, VLC (VLC Media Player),
: vlc Ubuntu (Ubuntu
Software Center). | (Applications | Sound & Video).
. 14.4 , .
, VLC
, DVD- - (network stream). .

. 14.4. VLC

409

, ,
, VLC, (spatializer),
, , ,
. .

VLC
" VLC" (Open With VLC media
player). VLC,
,
(Properties), (Open With),
VLC (VLC
media player).

Rhythmbox
Rhythmbox , |
(Applications | Sound & Video). ,
(
, , ) (. 14.5).

. 14.5. Rhythmbox

, ,
, . 14.6, , .

14

410

. 14.6. Rhythmbox


Rhythmbox | (Music | Import Folder) . ,
(File Manager) Rhythmbox.
,
, .



.
, , , , .
, ,
, -

411

.
(Library)
. , .
(Search)
. , , ,
(Album).
, ,
.
Linux, Rhythmbox , wma (Windows Media Audio) m4a (Apples iTunes
format), .

Rhythmbox,
; , , .
Rhythmbox ,
.

Last.fm

Last.fm,
Rhythmbox, Last.fm,
(Account Settings)
.

Ubuntu 10?
Ubuntu 10.04 Rhythmbox Ubuntu One Music Store. , Rhythmbox , , ,
(Stores) ,
Jamendo Magnatune . ,
(Digital Rights Management, DRM).
Ubuntu ,
, ,
, . -

14

412


( )
.
Rhythmbox iPhone iPod.
USB- , ,
Rhythmbox. .
, iPhone 3GS
1.3.1. , Apple Rhythmbox.

GIMP
GIMP, |
(Applications | Graphics),
, Linux-
Adobe Photoshop. , (. 14.7).
, , , ,
,
,
GIMP , .
GIMP.

?
, ,
GIMP, ,
.
(Help) ,
(. 14.8). GIMP
, GIMP .

413

. 14.7. GIMP

GIMP- Web-
http://gimptalk.com, , . , , . , GIMP
Web- http://registry.gimp.org, http://gimp.org/tutorials .

Ubuntu 10?
Ubuntu 10.04 GIMP Ubuntu,
, , ,
. ""
.
, . GIMP

14

414

Linux, Ubuntu,
gimp Ubuntu
(Ubuntu Software Center) , Staff Picks ( ).

. 14.8. GIMP


,
Ubuntu, , , GIMP ISO-
( - ) . , Ubuntu 9.10, 10.04 , GIMP
.

F-Spot
F-Spot, | (Applications |
Graphics), , (. 14.9).

415

. 14.9. F-Spot

F-Spot1 ,
, .
.
, ,
-.
, , , . ,
.
(Help) .

Ubuntu 10.10 F-Spot Shotwell,


- . Shotwell ,
F-Spot, , F-Spot. , ,
Ubuntu 10.10, , F-Spot Ubuntu. . .

14

416

Audacity
Audacity .
Ubuntu, , audacity Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center). | (Applications | Sound &
Video). ,
"Audacity" (Open With | Audacity). .
14.10 Audacity.

. 14.10. Audacity

, , ,
. .

.
"" , ,

(Effect), , , ,
. .
,
|

417

(File | Import). ,
. , , 100 , (comb filter), (valve rectifier), (harmonic generator) .
(Help) .

Rosegarden
, MIDI
(Musical Instrument Digital Interface, ), Rosegarden Linux. . . 14.11
aveverum.rg, ,
.

. 14.11. MIDI- Rosegarden

14

418


, .

.
,
.
.
, MIDI- (MIDI Mixer), . 14.12.

. 14.12. MIDI- Rosegarden

, (. 14.13),
. -
,
.
Help ()
, ,
Rosegarden .

419

. 14.13. Rosegarden

PiTiVi
, Ubuntu PiTiVi, . , pitivi
Ubuntu (Ubuntu Software Center).
,
( ,
) . ,
, ,
(. 14.14).

. , . , .
,
,

14

420

. - ,
, .

. 14.14. PiTiVi

, , ,
, ,
, Web- http://pitivi.org.

Ubuntu 10?
Ubuntu 10.04, PiTiVi , . , ,
PiTiVi .

421


(Take Screenshot)
Ubuntu , (Take Screenshot). ,
(Applications),
. , . 14.15.

. 14.15.

, ,
, . , 0 99 . ,
, .
,
(Include the window border), .
, . : .
,
, .
, .
,
.png ( -1.png
. . ). . , (Save) .

14

422

, Ubuntu -, Windows Mac,


, , . ,
- .
. ,
, .
, Ubuntu. , Kubuntu
Xubuntu, Wine,
Windows Linux.

15


Ubuntu
Linux , Mac OS X Windows, , , , .
Linux, , , .
, Ubuntu, , ,
Debian.
Ubuntu . , Ubuntu Studio, Edubuntu,
Mythbuntu . .
Ubuntu, . DVD-,
, .

Ubuntu,
2,
. ,
ISO-.
distros DVD-, , ISO- Ubuntu, . 15.1.

15

424

15.1. Ubuntu DVD-

Kubuntu 10.10

kubuntu-10.10-desktop-i386.iso

Mythbuntu 10.10

mythbuntu-10.10-desktop-i386.iso

Ubuntu 10.10

ubuntu-10.10-desktop-i386.iso

Ubuntu Netbook Remix 10.10

ubuntu-10.10-netbook-remix-i386.iso

Xubuntu 10.10

xubuntu-10.10-desktop-i386.iso

ISO- Ubuntu , wubi.exe ( ) Ubuntu Windows (. 2). CD-,


, DVD-.
,
Web-, ISO:
http://ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/derivatives
ISO
Ubuntu Brasero, ,
, . Windows, distros Active
ISO Burner, ISO
.
,
. , , , 2.

Ubuntu
Ubuntu,
, , ,
, .
,
Ubuntu . , , , , .
"Megabuntu",
Ubuntu, ,
.

Ubuntu

425

, , Netbook Remix (
Netbook Edition, 10.04), , , , .

, .
, .

Kubuntu
Kubuntu ,
(Terminal) , :
sudo apt-get install kubuntu-desktop

, <Enter>, , (
. 15.1).

. 15.1. Kubuntu Ubuntu

15

426

100
2- .
, . 15.2. KDM, <Enter>.

. 15.2. KDM Kubuntu

,
(. 15.3). GNOME, gdm,
KDE, kdm. , . , , <Enter> .

. 15.3.

(gdm kdm)

Ubuntu

427

, , .
,
Kubuntu, .
. (Sessions)
GNOME KDE. ,
KDE.

Xubuntu
Xubuntu
, Kubuntu, (Terminal),
:
sudo apt-get install xubuntu-desktop

, . 15.1.
: ?
, ,
, (Sessions), GNOME Xfce (
KDE, Kubuntu).

Mythbuntu
Mythbuntu
Ubuntu,
. (Terminal) :
sudo apt-get install mythbuntu-desktop

;
, .

Mythbuntu. ,
Mythbuntu (Sessions) .

Edubuntu
Edubuntu
. (Terminal) :
sudo apt-get install edubuntu-desktop

15

428

, ,
10 . 2- . 10 .
. Edubuntu , .

Ubuntu Studio
Ubuntu Studio .
(Terminal) :
sudo apt-get install ubuntustudio-desktop

, - , , . , ,
Ubuntu Studio.

Ubuntu
Ubuntu (
)
(Terminal) :
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop

.
Ubuntu
. GNOME (Sessions)
.


Ubuntu. , Ubuntu (Quit) .

Kubuntu
Canonical, ,
. Canonical,
, ,
.
Kubuntu KDE (K Desktop Environment,
K) GNOME, Ubuntu.

Ubuntu

429

, ,
GNOME. KDE Kickoff (Kickoff Application
Launcher), (. 15.4),
(Start) Windows.

. 15.4. Kubuntu

KDE
K (. 15.5).
(,
), , .
(Quit) ,
. . ,
, , .
,
, -

15

430

, , , . .

. 15.5. Kickoff

Kubuntu Web- http://kubuntuguide.org,


.

Xubuntu
Xubuntu Ubuntu, Canonical, . . Canonical
, . ,
, , , Xubuntu

Ubuntu

431

, Ubuntu, ,
.
. 15.6 Xubuntu,
GNOME ( (Applications) (Places) ), Xfce.

. 15.6. Xubuntu

, (System)? , Xubuntu
, , .

.
, ,
Ubuntu, , Xubuntu. -
,
Web- http://xubuntu.org.

15

432

Mythbuntu
Mythbuntu Ubuntu, Canonical. (personal video recorder, PVR),
Ubuntu,
.
3 MythTV,
, ,
Mythbuntu Xfce, OpenOffice.org.
Web- http://mythbuntu.org.

Edubuntu
Edubuntu Canonical
Ubuntu, , , , . ISO- ( 3 ),
CD- DVD ( USB , ).
, , . "
Edubuntu" , , 200
.
, Tux
Paint, |
(Applications | Education).
Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) (
, " "),
. , Web http://edubuntu.org.
,
Edubuntu.

Ubuntu Netbook Edition


Ubuntu ( Netbook Remix Ubuntu,
10.04) " ", -

Ubuntu

433

, , ,
.
, , Netbook Edition , .
Netbook Edition
, , ,
, (Favorites).
Netbook Edition Ubuntu, ,
.
, .
Netbook Edition ISO- distros
DVD-, , CD USB-,
. ,
,
, .
, , Ubuntu, .


Netbook Edition , ,
,
, Macrium Reflect, Web- http://macrium.com/reflectfree.asp. . , ,
Ubuntu Netbook Edition ,
, , Sun VirtualBox.
. 2.

Ubuntu 10?
Ubuntu 10.04, Ubuntu Netbook Edition Ubuntu Netbook Remix. ,
.

Ubuntu Server Edition


Ubuntu Canonical 18 (Long Term Support, LTS) LTS, 10.04.

15

434

,
Web- . Web- Apache Tomcat, MySQL PostgreSQL, PHP, Perl, Python,
GCC Ruby .
Web-
Ubuntu Server. Web-:
http://www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/serveredition

Ubuntu Server Edition
, , ,
, ,
. " Ubuntu".

Ubuntu Studio
Ubuntu Studio Canonical,
. Ubuntu
, , Kino.
Linux, , PulseAudio
JACK.
. ,
, , .
ISO "" 1,4 , DVD USB, CD ,
, , .
Web- http://ubuntustudio.org
Ubuntu, , , .

Ubuntu

435

Eeebuntu
Windows XP Xandros Linux Asus Eee PC, ,
Ubuntu , Eeebuntu. , ,
Canonical,
Eee PC, Ubuntu,
. .
Standard ( 860 M). , Firefox Web-, Pidgin
, Thunderbird , OpenOffice.org
,
VLC Banshee .
NBR ( 860 ). Netbook Remix Eeebuntu,
Standard Netbook
Launcher, Eee
PC. (main
launcher) .
.
Base ( 560 ). . Firefox ,
. , Eee PC Web-. Synaptic , , Ubuntu.
ISO- Web- http://eeebuntu.org. Eee PC Ubuntu | |
USB- (System | Administration | USB Startup Disk Creator).

Eeebuntu Ubuntu ,
(Update Manager) (Install Updates), (Upgrade), .
, Ubuntu, , , . ,
Eeebuntu ( Ubuntu), . , Eeebuntu
Ubuntu 6 (, Eeebuntu 3.0
Ubuntu 9.04), .

15

436


, , , Ubuntu,
; , 50,
, ,
.
, , URL-,
Ubuntu , :
http://wiki.ubuntu.com/DerivativeTeam/Derivatives

, ( ) Ubuntu. , , Windows,
,
. Wine,
Ubuntu Windows-.

16

Wine
, Ubuntu , , ,
, , . , OpenOffice.org
, , ,
Microsoft Office. Office,
- Office, - .
OpenOffice.org ?
,
, . , , , , Office.
, -, Office, OpenOffice.org? , , . ,
, . .,
.
Ubuntu Office Wine (. 16.1),
Wine Is Not an Emulator (Wine ), ,
.
Windows-, Ubuntu. Wine, , Windows-, .
Windows-, , , ,
Ubuntu. ,
, , Wine Ubuntu
Windows-.

16

438

. 16.1. , Microsoft Word, Ubuntu

Wine?
Wine ! ?
, . 2
VirtualBox ( ). , ,
, , ,
.

, . ,
(), .
Wine .
Ubuntu ( Linux) "" -

Wine

439

(API), Windows. Windows . ,


, ,
Windows , .
Wine,
Ubuntu. Windows- , , Wine . , Windows-, Ubuntu, Wine Windows.
Wine
.

Wine
Wine
Windows , VirtualBox, .
Windows, . Wine .
( Wine Microsoft Office
, .)
Wine Ubuntu, Windows- Linux- , ,
( )
.
. 16.1 , Ubuntu (Ubuntu File Browser),
C:, Wine. OFFICE11 , WINWORD.EXE, Microsoft Word,
.
Microsoft. ,
, Windows
. ,
Wine Ubuntu- Windows- .

16

440


, Wine Mac OS X, : Linux, Mac OS X Windows.

Wine
Wine Windows, ,
. , Windows-
Wine, ,
, .
iTunes, ,
Windows, . .
, Windows Wine . ,
Wine . , Wine .

Wine
Wine Ubuntu (Ubuntu
Software Center) wine. .
, Wine Microsoft Windows Compatibility Layer (. 16.2).

-, , -,
.

.
, (Install)
. - ,
-, ,
, - .
. 16.3 Wine, .

Wine

. 16.2. Wine
Ubuntu

. 16.3. , ,

441

16

442

, Windows-.
, Microsoft Office ,
. , SETUPPRO.EXE ( , ).
, Windows.

| Wine | Programs (Applications | Wine | Programs)
(. 16.4), , , .

. 16.4. Microsoft Office

Wine Windows, . Windows-, , | Wine | Uninstall Wine Software (Applications | Wine | Uninstall Wine Software).

Microsoft
, Windows-,
,
Microsoft. , (Terminal), :
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts

Wine

443

,
Windows-, ,
.
, PlayOnLinux (. 13),
Ubuntu 10.10, Microsoft Windows ,
, ,
Windows .

Microsoft . Web
Fontpack Internet Explorer.
IE Web-, Web-
Microsoft. , (End User
License Agreement, EULA)
, .
Web- Microsoft
http://microsoft.com/typography/fontpack/eula.htm.

Wine
Wine ,
| Wine | Configure Wine (Applications | Wine |
Configure Wine). , . 16.5, Windows-, Wine.

. 16.5. Wine

16

444

, , ,
(Dynamic Link Librar, DLL) Wine, DirectX Direct3D, , , .
, DLL,
Windows, ,
, .

Windows- :
Wine C:
Windows, ,
.wine. , C:\ ~/.wine/dosdevices/c:. , (Terminal)
c:\Program Files, ( ,
- ):
cd ~/.wine/dosdevices/c:/"Program Files"


Nautilus, | Wine | C:
(Applications | Wine | Browse C:\ Drive).


Wine Wine Project
(http://winehq.org). URL- ,
. wiki-
http://wiki.winehq.org, ,
.

,
Ubuntu. , , ,
, Ubuntu.
, Web-
http://ubuntubook.net, Ubuntu
.
.


Ubuntu Linux, ,
Linux .
, , , :
1. Linux in a Nutshell, Sixth Edition (http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596154493) by
Ellen Siever, Stephen Figgins, Robert Love, and Arnold Robbins (OReilly).
2. Bash Cookbook: Solutions and Examples for bash Users (http://oreilly.com/catalog/
9780596526788) by Carl Albing, JP Vossen, and Cameron Newham (OReilly).
3. Linux System Administration (http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596009526) by Tom
Adelstein and Bill Lubanovic (OReilly).
4. Linux System Programming (http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596009588) by Robert
Love (OReilly).
5. . . Ubuntu 10. . :
-, 2010.


3
3D Chess 278

chkrootkit 330
ClamAV 330
ClamTk 330
Cover Flow 149
Crayon Physics 399

A
Active ISO Burner 30, 424
Adobe Photoshop 412
ADSL 327
Advanced Packaging Tool 304
Aero Glass 147
apt-get 329, 305
Aptitude 303, 304, 306
apturl 396
Arch 12
ARM:
30
Audacity 416

Edgy Eft 21
Edubuntu 12, 29, 423, 427, 432
Eeebuntu 29, 435
Ekiga Softphone 362
Ethernet 27, 69, 70
Empathy 359
Evolution 136, 355, 358
355
Evolution Personal Information
Manager 15

Base 387
Bash 228, 231
BIOS:
24, 327
24
BitTorrent 327, 364
Bluetooth 2, 136
323
Bochs 45
Brasero 33, 424
Breezy Badger 21
BSD 16

C
Calc 379
Canonical 1, 5, 9, 284, 291, 367
CentOS 12

Dapper Drake 21
Debian 10, 12, 14, 423
Debra Lynn 10
Digital Rights Management 411
Dimensional Research 7
DOS/Windows 3.x 97, 237
Draw 385
DVD 23

F
Fedora 12, 14
Feisty Fawn 21
Firefox 21, 67, 68, 145, 320, 352
Fluendo 51, 277
FreeBSD 12
Fridge 20
F-Spot 386, 414

447

GDebi Package Installer 354


Gedit 198, 314
Gentoo 12
GIMP 11, 412
GNOME 12, 13, 14, 28, 78, 115, 118, 164,
225, 227, 318, 426, 427
227
GNU 5, 8, 10, 11, 285
Google 351
Google Apps 351
Google Chrome 399
GPL 10
GRUB 66
GTK+ 14, 16
Gutsy Gibbon 21

Karmic Koala 21
KDE 12, 13, 14, 28, 115, 118, 318, 427, 428
Kontact PIM 15
KPackageKit 15
Kubuntu 12, 13, 15, 23, 28, 29, 30, 120, 422,
425, 428

H
Hardy Heron 21
Hoary Hedgehog 20

I
Ian Murdock 10
Image Viewer 145
IM- 360
Impress 382
Innotek 35
Intel Mac 25, 35
Internet Explorer 352, 399
Intrepid Ibex 21
iPhone 113, 412
IP-:
74, 340
IP- 351
ISO 23, 30, 32, 33, 42, 46, 169
-USB 33
iTunes 113

J
Jaunty Jackalope 21
Jollys Fast VNC 342

L
Larry Ewing 11
LGPL 10, 14
Linus Torvalds 11
Linux 1, 2, 5, 9, 34, 35, 53, 97, 115, 285, 320,
332, 335, 352
91
11
67, 91
330
10
Live DVD 23, 26
Local Delivery 357
lspci:
72
Lucid Lynx 21

M
m4a 411
Mac OS X 2, 7, 14, 22, 29, 30, 34, 35, 51, 60,
73, 115, 165, 228, 277, 285, 313, 335, 338,
344, 349, 423
ISO- 33
Mandriva 12
Mark Shuttleworth 7
Math 388
Maverick Meerkat 1, 21
MD5- 28
memtest86+ 60
MEPIS 12
Microsoft 11, 34
Microsoft Excel 379
Microsoft Exchange 357
Microsoft Office 9, 21, 371, 437
Microsoft Word 332

448

MIDI 417
Mint 12
more 242
Mozilla Firefox 351
MP3- 405
MySQL 107
Myth TV Personal Video Recorder 28, 106,
110
Mythbuntu 13, 28, 29, 423, 427, 432

PIM 15
PiTiVi 419
Planet Ubuntu 20
PlayOnLinux 398
POP 357
PPD 104
ppt 371
Puppy 12
PuTTY 366

Nano 252
Natty Narwhal 21
Nautilus 113, 187, 227, 248, 346
Network Manager 312
Novell 8, 12
Novell GroupWise 357
Nvidia 96, 140
94

Qemu 35, 45
Qt 14
QuickSynergy 344

O
odt 372
OpenBSD 97
OpenOffice.org 2, 9, 21, 123, 332, 350, 371,
437
Base 387
Calc 379
Draw 386
Impress 382
Writer 372
Word 373
373
OpenSolaris 97
openSUSE 12
Opera 353, 354
Oracle Corporation 35

P
P2P- 363
PCI 72
PCLinuxOS 12
PDF-
371, 374
Pidgin 359

R
RALink 2790 72
RAM- 23
RealVNC 340
Red Hat 8, 12
Rhythmbox 409, 411
Richard Stallman 10
rkhunter 330
root:
327
Rosegarden 417, 418

S
Sabayon 12
Safari Books Online 5
Samba 347, 349
Shotwell 415
Simple Scan 387
Skype 327, 362
Slackware 12
Solaris 16, 35, 97
SSH 366
sudo 326
Sun Microsystms 35
Symantec 7
Synaptic 15, 17, 103, 291, 296, 298, 299, 303,
305, 329, 351
Synergy 343, 344

T
tar 266
Telnet 366
Terminal 58, 72, 103, 314
Thawte 7
torrent- 364, 365
Transmission BitTorrent Client 365
Tux 11
TV- 106, 130
Twitter 135

U
Ubuntu 1, 2, 7, 12, 13, 15, 23, 28, 29, 30, 35,
67, 71, 73, 79, 166, 227, 285, 291, 300, 307,
313, 332, 338, 351
Long Term Support 8
- 323
34
Live DVD 26

314
60
DVD- 94
312
393
VirtualBox 97
78
105
63, 288
61
VN- 338

75
ISO- 33
80
20
349
335
19, 20
326
335
277, 282

52
103
Ubuntu 10.04 17, 62, 95
Ubuntu 10.10 17, 23, 80, 225, 277

449

277
Ubuntu 11.04 17

Ubuntu Foundation 9
Ubuntu Installer 46
Ubuntu Live CD 68
Ubuntu MID Edition 29
Ubuntu One 135, 367
Ubuntu Server 29
Ubuntu Software Center 17, 277, 278, 283, 329
Ubuntu Studio 12, 29, 405, 423, 428, 434
UNIX 2, 165, 227, 228, 231, 327
Update Manager 329
USB 111, 112, 124, 323
Usenet News 357

V
VeriSign 7
Virtual PC 34
Virtual Private Networking 137
VirtualBox 29, 35, 39, 44, 94, 97, 99, 438
37
97
VLC 408, 409
VMware 34
VNC 335, 336, 338
342
VOIP 362

W
W Window System 13
Warty Warthog 20
Web-:
311
Web- 111, 112, 130
WEP 40 72
WiFi 137, 349
Windows 2, 9, 14, 22, 28, 35, 51, 60, 73, 94,
115, 165, 277, 285, 313, 335, 338, 340, 344,
349, 423
349
VNC 340
Windows 7 7, 8, 30, 34, 147, 161
ISO- 32
Windows Media Center 106
Windows NT 97
Windows Vista 7, 30, 34, 147, 320, 345

450

Windows XP 8, 14, 16, 30, 34, 113


Wine 113, 332, 398, 422, 437, 438
winMD5sum 28
Wireless Ethernet Bridge 73
Wireless Gaming Adapter 73
wma 411
Writer 372, 373, 382
378
Wubi 30, 45, 49, 94, 424

X.509:
7
X.org 14
Xfce 12, 13, 14, 16, 28, 115, 118, 318
Xfwm 16
xls 371
XSane 387
Xubuntu 12, 13, 16, 23, 28, 29, 30, 120, 422,
427, 430

X Window System 13

YouTube 406

247
136
175, 182

135
261
159
122
:
95, 285

72

73
Ethernet 73
188

147
176
142
150
150, 253
115

133

151, 153, 155


313

"" 190

121
132
145
176

255
166
345
131

407
241
cd 233
chmod 253, 269
chsh 251
clear 254
chgrp 271
chown 270
cp 236
diff 238
find 239
grep 243
kill 275
less 257
ls 234
man 246
more 242
mv 237
ps 273
read 254
rm 245
rmdir 245
sudo 240, 272, 305
tee 262
top 273
unalias 265
wc 246
87, 199
189
137, 186, 198, 205
165

, 10

327
Bluetooth 312
323, 329
, 10
PulseAudio 103
Ethernet 73

451

202
GNOME 147, 222

125, 187
:
Ash 251
Dash 251
171, 218, 347
247
147

221
166
/etc 167
/home 167
/media 168
/tmp 168
100
78
87
315
324, 327
139
PATH 249
/ 258, 259
127
:
nobody 271
root 182, 270, 272, 326
175
311
248
273
320

157
92
81, 118

452

173
154, 389
Web- 204
237, 245
15, 302
PlayDeb 395, 396

349
Last.fm 411
:
335
217
172
172
195
157
168
/ 260
134
, 10
253

371
72, 103, 305, 314, 398
119
, 11
363

151
191
181
149
308, 312
177
/dev/null 259

326
-USB 24
() 265

219
, 7
327

, 11

152