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Works Cited

Primary
After the Bomb: Hiroshima May Have Been Devastated by the Bomb, but it Helped End the War. 2007. Mail Online. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. This source is a picture of the wreckage after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, and was placed on our negative impacts page on the top bar. This picture helped to devastation wreckage that was a negative impact of the atomic bombings of Japan. B-29 Superfortress. Aviation-Central.com. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. From this website, we obtained a picture of the Enola Gay (the B-29 that was used to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima) flying. We used this picture in our turning point section on our top bar. Baldwin, Hanson W. America At War. Foreign Affairs 24.1 (1945): 26-39. History Reference Center. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. This source taught us more about the war in general, such as more battles that took place and their outcomes. This helped us with our background page. Bodies left by the explosion of an atomic bomb over Hiroshima, Japan. 30 May. 2012. Voice of America. Web. 5 Nov. 2012. This picture is a picture of all of the bodies left in Hiroshima, and is used to further show turning point in the world by showing what the bombs did to people. "Effects of the Atomic Bomb (1945) The United States Bombing Survey." Online Study Canter. Cengeg Learning, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. This survey conducted by the United States Bombing Survey specifically focused on the effects of the bomb. From this source I

learned many more specifics and statistics, it explains the effects from a very technical standpoint. Goldensky, Elias. Roosevelt in 1933. 27 Dec. 1933. NNDB, tracking the entire world. Web. 3 Nov. 2012. This is a picture of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, and it is displayed on our people page, while we are talking about Franklin D. Roosevelt. Great Neok, Publishing. Statement by the President Announcing the Use of the A-Bomb At Hiroshima. Essential Speeches (2009): 0. History Reference Center. Web. 5 Nov. 2012. From this source, we learned the presidents (one of the people that supported the bombings) on the bombings. We used this in our event section to explain why Truman dropped the bombs. Reasons that Truman said that he dropped the bomb for are that the U.S. could maintain world peace with the power, and that it would give us more military power. Harach, Joseph C. "Why Truman dropped the bomb." Christian Science Monitor. 04 Aug. 1995: 9. History Reference Center. 1 Nov. 2012. This article was written at the time of the atomic bombings, and it was very useful because it explains the war from the United States' point of view, and why Truman decided to drop it based on the war at the time. Hiroshima Before The Bombings. n.d. How the United States Strategic Bombing Survey reports endorsed the use of the atomic bombs. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. This picture shows the one thousand foot targeting circles that are around ground zero in the from a the view of the plane, and helped us to make the viewer feel more like they were in the time period. Hiroshima, after the first atomic bomb explosion. This view was taken from the Red Cross Hospital Building about one mile from the bomb burst. (Photo from U.S. National

Archives, Still Pictures Branch, Subject Files, "Atomic Bomb"). n.d. The National Security Archive. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. This is a picture of Hiroshima after the bomb had destroyed it, and was used in the top bar of our negative impacts page. It helped to greater display the great destruction which was a negative impact of the atomic bombings of Japan. Introduction. History.us. n.p., 2007. Web. 2 Feb. 2013. From this webpage we found a picture of the Enola Gay (the plane used to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima), and used it in the turning point section of our project to show the viewer what the plane looked like. The picture shows the plane on the ground with a man standing next to it. Langley, Andrew. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Fire from the Sky. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2006. Print. This book provided us with a letter written by Albert Einstein to the United States government about the atomic bomb race and the available uranium. This was important because it helped the atomic bomb be built faster. More than 73,000 people were killed by the Nagasaki bomb. n.d. On This Day, 1950-2005. Web. 30 Oct. 2012. This picture shows the actual atomic bomb in Nagasaki and was taken at that time. It demonstrates to the reader the size and devastation of the atomic bomb. The Mushroom Cloud Over Nagasaki. 1945. National Security Archive. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. This picture was used in our website in our top bar, and helped us to realize how large and extreme the bombs were. Nagasaki atomic bomb. n.d. Japan remembers Nagasaki atomic bomb victims. Web. 8 Nov. 2012. This picture shows the bomb in Nagasaki from a view that can see the entire bomb. It helps the viewer of our website to comprehend the power of the bombs

The National Security Archive. n.p., 2007. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. This Website gave us a picture of Little Boy, and a picture of Big Man, the two bombs that were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Big Man in Nagasaki, and Little Boy in Hiroshima. We used these pictures on the collage at the top of our background page. From this archive we also found the Japanese surrender negotiations with the U.S. This told us the exact surrender negotiations, and everything that was said. The surrender was unconditional. Since the whole reason for the surrender was the bombs, it is important to know what happened. Nuclear Power in the World Today. Nuclear World Association. Cameco, April 2012. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. From this article, we found out that 13.4 percent of the worlds electricity is generated by nuclear power plants. We also quoted this website in order to further show evidence of the major impact that nuclear power plants have on the world. Finally, from this article, we found a picture of a pie graph that showed the different energy sources and how much they generate in comparison to each other which we put on our positive impact section as well. The Nuclear Weapon Archive. n.d., n.p. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. This source gave us many images, and lots of information for most of our pages. It also gave us contact information for an expert on our topic that we interviewed. From this interview, we learned much useful information such as the atomic bomb changed Japanese politics and to a lesser extent, their society. "Pearl Harbor Raid, 7 December 1941 USS West Virginia and USS Tennessee during the Pearl Harbor Attack." Naval History and Heritige. n.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. From this website, we obtained a picture of the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and used it on the top bar of our background page

socialstudiesforkids.com. n.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. This website gave us a picture of Truman, which we used on our collage on the top of our impact page. The picture also helped us see what Truman looked like. Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. 1953. Cambridge Books online. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. This picture was the actual treaty of the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons which was used in our impact section of our website as a visual for the paragraph the discusses the treaty. Twisted iron girders are all that remain of this theater building located about 800 meters from ground zero. n.d. Boston.com. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. This picture is a picture of the wreckage at ground zero, and it helped us, along with our audience to see how much devastation power the bombs had. Waite, Erwin. Personal interview. 5 Jan. 2013. This was an interview of Erwin Waite, he fought in world war II and was a crew member of the USS Indianapolis, the ship that dropped the bomb off at the New Guinea islands where the bomb was loaded onto the plane. This interview taught us a what a person that was living and involved in the atomic bombs at the time thought of them. It also helped us with the background of the bomb. World War Two Database. n.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. From this website, we found a picture of a person working on the atomic bombs. We used this picture on the collage on the top of our background page because in the page we talk about the Manhattan project. Yamahata, Yosuke. Nagasaki. August 10, 1945. The National Security Archive. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. This picture shows the city of Nagasaki one day after it was destroyed, and it shows the destruction that surrounded the city as far as the eye can see. It helped us to

further understand the significance of the bombs based on their size alone. This picture was also used in our impact section.

Secondary Alperovitz, Gar. Was it Necessary to Drop the Atom Bomb on Japan? New York Times. Scholastic, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. From this source, we learned about the different opinions about the bombing of Japan. People who were against the bombing of Japan say that Japan was already defeated, and that the bomb was useless and at the cost of over 100,000 peoples lives. People who think that it was a necessary action to take argue that the bombing of Japan was a quick way to end the pacific war, and saved the lives of hundreds of thousands of American solders that would have been taken in a lank attack. Atomic bomb Project. Blogspot.com. Blogger, n.d. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. This source taught us about the people involved with making the bomb, and their reaction to what happened in August 1945, since they knew that they contributed to making the bombing possible. Some of the people had positive reactions to the bombing and, even after the bombing, believed that it was a good decision, and some
changed their mind after it went off and began to regret what they had helped to create. "Atomic Bomb Quotes." Brainyquotes.com. tend glam media, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2013. This source helped us find quotes that we could use in our website. This site gave us many quotes that we used in our impact and background section. Some of these quotes are primary.

Bowler, Sarah. Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Child's World inc. Channassen, Main, 2002. Print. This book explained all about Eisenhower's life in and out of office. From this source I mainly learned background of the war, and of a very important person in the war, Dwight D. Eisenhower. Coakley, Robert W. World War II: The War Against Japan. America and Military History, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. This source specifically explained the minor battles that led up to the allies and the U.S. gaining position, until the bombing of Japan, and specifically, the end of world war two. Columbia University, Press. "Radiation Sickness." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2011)" 1. History Reference Center. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. From this Encyclopedia we learned exactly what radiation sickness is, and its affect on humans. Concentrated Radiation. n.d. Scientific American. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. This picture was is of a nuclear power plant that turns coal into ash to generate energy; we used it, along with others on our positive impact page to show an example of a nuclear power plant. The Decision to Drop the Bomb. U.S. History.org. Independence Hall Assosiation, n.d. Web. 1 Oct. 2012. This source helped lead us to discover that one of the most significant impacts of the bombings was the way that it changed the way war is thought of knowing that a there is now a power out there that can do incomprehensible damage in one drop. This information was used and emphasized in our website in our turning point section. Department of History. University of Oregon., n.d. Web. 14 Sep. 2012. This website helped us find contact information for an expert on our topic that we might be able to interview. "Enola Gay." Online Lesmateriaal Geschiedenis. Albert van der Kaap, 2011. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. This source provided us with a key diagram to help us better show the event on our

Turning Point page. Ewers, Justin. Survivor of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. World War II. 24.2 (2009): II. History Reference Center. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. This newspaper article helped us to understand to personal reactions of the everyday person which helped us to add to our turning point (impact) section. Facts about the Atomic Bomb. Nuklem.com. n.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. This source told us the facts that had to do with the atomic bombing of Japan. These facts helped us to learn more about the severity of the atomic bombs. For example, 80,000 people were killed in the atomic bomb of Hiroshima, and 35,000 more in Nagasaki. The article also states that two thirds of Hiroshima was destroyed, and 44% of Nagasaki was destroyed. All of these facts help to convey the power of the bombs, and were put into our website with that intent. Faculty by Name. University of Colorado: Department of History. Regents of the University of Colorado, n.d. Web. 14 Sep. 2012. This source helped us find contact information for an expert on our topic that we might be able to interview. Faculty/ Staff University of Princeton: The Department of History. Trusties of Princeton University, 6 Mar. 2012. Web. 15 Sep. 2012. From this website we found contact information for Carey Sublette, who we later interviewed. First Atomic Bomb Dropped on Japan; Missile is Equal to 20,000 tons of TNT; Truman Warns Foe. New York Times. n.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. This was one of our first sources, and taught us about our topic in general. For example, we learned statistics about the development of the bombs, such as its power was 2,000 times the power of the previously

most powerful bomb used in warfare. This helped us with our background page of the Manhattan project. Freedman, Lawrence D. "Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons." Encyclopedia Britannica. n.p, n.d. Web. 8 Nov. 2012. From this webpage, we learned about the nonproliferation treaty for nuclear weapons. We learned that the three original countries that signed the treaty, and that it lasted for twenty five years, also, it was signed in March 1970. This gave another impact of the atomic bombing of Japan. Freeman, Robert. "Was the Atomic Bombings of Japan Necessary?" Common Dreams. n.p.' 2006. Web. 19 Sep. 2012. This source helped me with my variety of research in terms of opinions. The author of this article believed that the bombings were not necessary from a strictly military point of view. Grant, Reg. World War II: The Events and Their Impact on Real People. New York: DK Publishing, 2008, Print. This book gave us helpful information on the background of the war, and why Truman believed that it was necessary to drop the bombs. "Ill-health legacy of atomic bomb." BBC News. BBC. 1 March 2006. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. From this website, we learned the specific long-term effects that radiation had on the citizens exposed to it in Japan. For example, the massive amount of radiation that the bombs released made the people more likely to have thyroid related illnesses. Also, we learned that younger victims were affected more. Introduction to the Attack on Pearl Harbor. WWIIhistorysites.com. Interesting.com, 2001. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. This source told us all about the attack on Pearl Harbor, and its influence on the bomb. The attack led Germany and Italy to declare war on America, and

eventually led to U.S. involvement in the war. It also gave us many specifics such as 161 planes were destroyed in the bombing, and 101 seriously damaged. Jablonski, Edward. America in the Air War. Alexandria: Time-Life Books, 1982. Print. This book gave us information about the day the bomb was dropped. It gave an image and description of the destruction, and it discussed the blast and the aftershocks felt by the pilots. Krieger, David. E-mail Interview. 11 Feb. 2013. From this interview, we learned of some reputable sources relating to our project, we cleared up the number of people killed in both explosions (Hiroshima: 90,000 killed immediately and 140,000 dead by the end of 1945. Nagasaki: 40,000 killed immediately and 70,000 dead by the end of 1945). From this interview we also learned an expert opinion of if the atomic bombs will ever be used again in warfare. David Krieger believes they will unless they are abolished. He is the head of the nuclear age peace foundation, and works to get rid of nuclear weapons in the world. He also was kind enough to offer his latest book that argues this case. Manhattan Project. 2012. io9.com. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. This is a picture of one of the atomic bombs, and it helped to show us, along with the viewer of our website what the atomic bomb actually looked like. It was very big and heavy, and it was very big in the middle with a missile like shape. "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb Part V: The Atomic Bomb and American Strategy" atomicarchive.com.The division of Undergraduate Education, National Science Foundation. n.d. Web. 8 Feb. 2013. This source was very helpful to us because it helped us realize why Hiroshima was targeted in the attacks. It also gave us some statistics

about the final result of the bombing in Hiroshima. Additionally, we found a very helpful picture that we used on our background page. Masters, Cole. Carolina A. Miranda, and Tim Padyett. "The Men Who Dropped the Bombs." Time 166.5 (2005): 46. History Reference Center. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. This source talked about the actual event a lot, such as what happened, and what was done about it. Examples of this are the facts that people couldn't see anything, due to the debris, also, the energy of the bombs were so great that anyone around could actually feel it, and a final example is that when the bomb was actually dropped, the plane went up due to the loss of 10,000 pounds, and then, once the pilot got his bearings, went as far away from ground zero as he could. McPhilops, Martin. Hiroshima. Morris-town N.J.:Silver Bardett Company, 1985. Print. From this book we learned many new things about background, and about the actual bombing of Hiroshima including many statistics, and how it ended the war. On the top of the front cover of this book, it actually shows a picture of a fork in a road, and says "Turning Point in History, which demonstrates the relevance that the book has to the theme. Mitgang, Herbert. "Study of Atomic Bomb Victims Stresses Long-term Damage." New York Times 6 Aug. 1981. Print. This article in the New York Times explained the lasting effects of radiation on atomic bomb victims. Museum of World War II Boston. n.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sep. 2012. This source helped us find contact information for an expert to interview for our topic. Nash, Tim. "The Bomb That Changed the World." The Finer Times Excellence in Contact. The Finer Times, n.d. Web. 26 Sep. 2012. From this source, we learned/confirmed more about how the bombs changed the world. For Example, we learned the amount of people that

were killed well exceeded 100,000 people, and that there was much debate that followed the bombs. The National WWII Museum New Orleans. The National WWII Museum, n.d. Web. 12 Sep. 2012. We used this website to find contact information for an expert on our topic. National WWII Museum. convio, n.d. Web. 14 Sep. 2012. This source helped us find contact information for an expert on our topic to interview. Nuclear Power Plant. n.d. Sunbolt Energy Systems. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. This picture showed one of the larger nuclear power plants in the U.S.; we used it, along with others, on our positive impact page to show an example of a nuclear power plant. "Pearl Harbor Bombed."History Channel.com. A&E Television Networks, 2012. Web. 2 Oct. 2012. This article taught us about Pearl Harbor. Pearl Harbor was a very important event in terms of how America was brought into the war because it is thought of as the sole reason for this. Soon after the bombings of Pearl Harbor, war was declared against Japan. Plant Cooling Towers. 13 Aug. 2005. Before It's News. This picture was one of the pictures of nuclear power plants that we used on our impact page. "Nuclear Power Plant Dimensions." Dimensions Info. n.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. This source gave us a picture of Cofrente's nuclear power plant's cooling towers. We used it, along with others, on our positive impact page to show an example of a nuclear power plant. "Robert Oppenhiemer." NNDB, Tracking the Entire World. n.p., 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. This article told us all about Robert Oppenheimer, who was the leader of the Manhattan project. We were able to use this information in our people section of our website. One of the things we learned was that he was a major voice in the proposal of the attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Rosenberg, Aaron. Profiles World War Two: One Even, Six Bios. New York, NY; Scholastic Publishers Inc., 2011. Print. This book told us more people that were part of the bombing, and their roles, such as Eisenhower actually brought us into war, and Truman bombed Japan. This book also told us about peoples experiences of the bombings through their biographies. Rosenberg, Jennifer. "The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." About.com. 20th Century History, n.d. Web. 2 Oct. 2012. This source helped us a lot with the events that impacted the bombings, and that let us improve our background and events pages. It specifically told us about the making of the plane that dropped the bombs and the bombs. Satellite Images of Three Mile Island Pose Security Risk. CentraPA. n.p., 7 June 2007. Web 12 Feb. 2013. On this website, we found a picture of the cooling towers for the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant that broke down, and we used it on our impact page on our top collage. Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. World Leaders Past and Present, Stalin. Chelsea House Publishers. U.S. M&D. Print. This book helped us with the background page, and some of our impact page on our website. For example we know that one of the major war leaders for the allies, Stalin, was sided with the Nazis until betrayed. We also learned more result of the war and bombings from this book, such as the bombing led to Japans downfall, and ultimately the end of World War Two. Stimson, Henry L. The Decision To Use the Atomic Bomb. Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. (2009) : 1. History Reference Center. Web. 7 Nov. 2012. This article helped us to further understand the reasoning for using the atomic bombs, and the effects that the bomb had on the world. We also learned the research that went into making the bombs. An example

of a fact that we learned about the making of the bombs is that everything relating to nuclear weapons at that time was kept secret. Sublette, Carey. Email interview. 13 Feb. 2013. This interview was with Carey Sublette, one of the editors of the Nuclear Weapons Archive. She told us many details involving politics affected by World War Two in general. Some examples of this are that Japans society was changed forever after the war, and how it created the political integration of the entire world via the UN. She also gave us some useful books to look at. We also used a quote from this interview in our website on our impact page. The Susquehanna steam electric station, a boiling water reactor. 30 July 2007. 2011 Empire War. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. This picture was one of the four pictures of nuclear power plants that show how nuclear power plants were a great impact of the bombing of Japan. Three Mile Island March 28, 1979. Worst Nuclear Accidents/Disasters in History. Sams club, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. From this article, not only did we learn that the nuclear disaster Three Mile Island triggered ten court cases, and these court cases took fifteen years to resolve, but we also used a picture of the event. "Truman Library Photographs." Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. n.p., August 1945. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. This website gave us a picture of the ruins in Hiroshima soon after the bombs went off. We used this picture in the top bar of our impact page. United Nations. United Nations.n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. From this source we got a picture of the United Nations logo. We used this photo on the impact collage in our project. The War is Over. A People at War. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. This source told us more about what happened during the war to get a better understanding of the situation. Some of the facts that it states are who it was

piloted by (Paul W. Tibbets Jr.), that the first one was tested in the deserts or New Mexico, and that the bomb on Hiroshima was on August 6, 1945, and the bomb on Nagasaki was on August 9, 1945. "White House: North Korea Nuclear Test 'Highly Productive'." NBCNews.com. n.p., 12 Feb. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. This website gave us news on the third nuclear weapon test in North Korea which was detonated underground, caused a 5.1 magnitude earthquake, and caused surrounding nations and the U.N. to condemn them. This source also gave us a block quote that we used in our positive impact page where we talked about the United Nations being created. "Why Did Japan Attack Pearl Harbor." Pearl Harbor. PearlHarbor.org, n.d. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. This article was very useful to our background section because it discussed the causes and effects of the bombings of Pearl Harbor. We used this information as background because it is what brought America into the war in the first place. "World War 2 ATOMIC BOMB." History. n.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012. From this cite, we learned that a large impact of the bomb is the never ending debate over the humaneness, or rather non-humaneness of them. The Wright Museum of WWII History. n.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sep. 2012. This source helped us find contact information for an expert on our topic. WWII Memorial. n.p., 7 Aug. 2012. Web. 17 Sep. 2012. This source helped us find an expert on our topic.