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arXiv:physics/0605057v2 [physics.

ed-ph] 27 Dec 2010

Test problems in mechanics and special relativity


Z. K. Silagadze
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and
Novosibirsk State University, 630 090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Abstract
These test problems were used by the author as weekly control works for the first
year physics students at Novosibirsk State University in 2005. Solutions of the problems
are also given. The problems were taken from or inspired by the sources listed at the
end.


. .
.
, 630 090,


- 2005 . . , ,
.

1
1.2
u.
V .
.
.

A rabbit runs in a straight line with a speed u. A dog with a speed V starts
to pursuit it and during the pursuit always runs in the direction towards the
rabbit. At the initial moment of time their positions are shown in the gure.
Find the equation of the dogs trajectory in the rabbits frame.
1.3

(. ). ?

Let speeds of the dog and the rabbit from the previous problem are equal in
magnitude and their initial positions are as shown in the gure. To what limit
converges the distance between them?

1.4
, ,
q
q
1
x = cos , y = sin , z = ( ).
2

.
, ,
.
Parabolic coordinates , , are dened by formulas
q
q
1
x = cos , y = sin , z = ( .)
2

Express coordinate orts of the parabolic system through Cartesian orts. Find
elements of line, area and volume for these coordinates.
1.5

x = a cos t, y = a sin t, z = bt.
.
An Electron in a constant magnetic eld moves in a helical orbit
x = a cos t, y = a sin t, z = bt.
Find the radius of curvature of its trajectory.
1.6
,
- . , r(0) = r0, (0) = 0.
A point moves on a plane so that the angle between its velocity and radiusvector is equal to all the time. Find the trajectory of the point, if at the initial
moment r(0) = r0, (0) = 0 .

2
2.1
.
1 . ,
.

A tennis ball sits atop a basketball as the two are dropped without initial speed
from height 1 m. Estimate the height the tennis ball will rebound.
2.2
.
V .
, .
- .
.
?

One end of the hollow cylinder is sealed by a paper. A nail with the large
velocity V ies towards the open end. The hat of the nail is larger than the
diameter of the cylinder, and their proper lengths are equal. In the cylinders
frame the nail is contracted -times and, consequently, cannot perforate the
paper. But in the nails frame its the cylinder thats length-contracted and
consequently the paper is pierced. What occurs actually in each of frames?

2.3
R , V~
~a.
Assuming that the velocity V~ and acceleration ~a of a point are known nd the
radius of curvature R of its trajectory.
2.4
x = , y =
1 2
2
e , ~e .
2 ( ). ~
Parabolic coordinates on a plane are dened as follows x = , y = 12 ( 2 2 ).
Find the coordinate orts ~e , ~e and the element of area.
2.5
, . ,
0 0.
A point moves on the surface of a sphere so that its velocity vector keeps a
constant angle to the meridian. Find the trajectory of the point if at the
initial moment its spherical coordinates were 0 and 0.
2.6
:
~A
~ = 0,
A
~ B)
~ A
~ = (A
~ B)
~ B
~ = 0,
(A
~ B|
~ = |A|
~ |B|,
~ A
~B
~ = 0.
|A

, .
Let a multidimensional generalization of the cross product keeps the following
properties of the usual three-dimensional vector product:

~A
~ = 0,
A
~ B)
~ A
~ = (A
~ B)
~ B
~ = 0,
(A
~ B|
~ = |A|
~ |B|,
~ if A
~B
~ = 0.
|A

Prove that this is possible only in seven-dimensional space.

3
3.1
S L u
x. S ,
x V ?
In the frame S a rod has length L and moves with a speed u along the x axis.
What is the length of the rod in the system S which moves with a speed V
along the x axis?
3.2
x+ = ct + x, x = ct x, x+ = e x+ , x = e x.
V ( , x+ x
).
If one introduces the following coordinates x+ = ct + x, x = ct x, the
Lorentz transformations can be written in the form x+ = e x+, x = e x.
Find as a function of V (the parameter is called rapidity, and x+ and x
coordinates of the light cone).
3.3
n V1 ,
V2 , . . .,Vn . , V1 = V2 = . . . = Vn ?
Find the result of relativistic addition of n collinear velocities V1 , V2 , . . ., Vn .
What does one get if V1 = V2 = . . . = Vn ?

3.4
x
V . .

?
The long luminescent lamp is parallel to the axis x and moves along this axis
with a speed V . The lamp ashes instantly in its proper frame. With what speed
propagates the ash along the lamp from the point of view of the motionless
observer?
3.5
. ,
,
V ,
.
A cylinder rotates about its axis with angular velocity . Show that for an
observer who moves along the axis of the cylinder with a speed V the cylinder
will appear twisted and nd the torsion magnitude per unit length of the
cylinder.

4
4.1
,
, .
Find the speed of an observer if a distant and small lantern ahead looks to him
twice as large as to the motionless observer nearby.
4.2
V . 2 ,
1 .

A massive mirror moves perpendicularly to its plane with the speed V . Find
the angle of reection 2 for a light ray from such mirror if its angle of incidence
equals to 1 .
4.3
V~1 V~2 . ,
V
(~1 ~2)2 (~1 ~2 )2
2
,
=
(1 ~1 ~2 )2

~ =

V~
c

~1 and V~2 . Prove that their relative


Two reference frames move with speeds V
velocity V satises the relation
(~1 ~2)2 (~1 ~2 )2
2
,
=
(1 ~1 ~2 )2
where ~ =

~
V
c

4.4
V .
, ?
A rod moves with the speed V . What angle makes the rod with the direction
of its motion if this angle is equal to in its rest frame?
4.5

AB V ,
8

. V .

A vector AB is transferred on a circle with the constant in magnitude


speed V so that in every instantaneous comoving inertial frame the vector is
transferred parallel to itself. Find the minimal V for which after a full turn the
vector points opposite to its initial direction.

5
5.1
. ,
, 90.
A particle collides with another identical particle at rest. Prove that the opening
angle between outgoing particle velocities after the elastic scattering is always
less than 90.
5.2
x S,
S , x,
x.
Under what angle to the x-axis moves the photon with frequency in frame S
if in frame S , moving along the x-axis, the photon has frequency and ies
under the angle to the x-axis.

5.3
K 0- K 0 + . K-,
- -
. -
?
K 0-meson decays under the scheme K 0 + . Find the energy of the K 0meson if the greatest possible energy of -mesons from this decay is -times
larger than the minimal one. For what there will be no -mesons ying into
the backward hemisphere?
5.4
+ K 0 + .
Find the relative velocity of the + and mesons from the decay K 0 + .
5.5

4- a a = du
d , u - 4-
- . a u a a,
, V (t), .

4-acceleration a is dened by the expression a = du


d , where u is 4-velocity
and proper time. Find scalar products a u and a a if the particle moves
rectilinearly and the dependence of its speed on the laboratory time, V (t), is
known.

6
6.1
1 2 . .
Two photons with frequencies 1 and 2 are moving in opposite directions. Find
the mass of this system and the speed of its center of mass.

10

6.2
- + 0 . - 0 2.
-meson at rest decays under the scheme + 0 . Find the minimal
opening angle between the -quanta from the subsequent decay 0 2.
6.3
, V , M . ?
A fast electron with the speed V collides with a motionless nucleus of mass
M and emits a bremsstrahlung photon. What maximal energy this photon can
have?
6.4

K +K + -?
To what limit tends the ratio of the maximal opening angles in decays
K +K and + for very energetic -meson?
6.5
- + 0 . -, + -
E1 = 300 ?
-meson at rest decays under the scheme + 0 . In what limits can
vary the energy of the -meson if the energy of the + -meson is equal to
E1 = 300 MeV?

11

7
7.1
, . .
u. ,
, .. . . , , V ,
. .

In the center of a metal gutter two metal spheres connected by a strand lay.
Between spheres there is a compressed spring. The strand is burnt through
and the spheres acquire identical in magnitude and opposite speeds u. While
spheres have not fallen from the gutter, the bulb in the electric scheme shown
in the gure does not burn, since the electric element is short circuited. But
spheres will fall simultaneously and the bulb will not light up either. However,
in the frame of an observer which moves with the speed V as in the gure, the
right sphere falls earlier and the bulb should light up. Explain the paradox.
7.2
g.
,
.
?
A rocket leaves the Earth with constant proper acceleration g. After time from
its start, a radar sends to it a short signal with frequency . What frequency
of the reected signal will be registered on the Earth?
12

7.3
. , E
. E e + p
e + p + e + e+ ?

An electron and a proton are close to each other in the electric eld. At the
initial moment of time the proton is motionless and the electron has the energy
E and moves in the direction of the eld. For what E would the reaction
e + p e + p + e + e+ be allowed when the electron and the proton do
collide?
7.4
g. 4- (ct , x, y , z )
4- (ct, x, y, z) ?
A rocket leaves the Earth with constant proper acceleration g. How are related
the 4-coordinates (ct , x, y , z ) of an event in the rockets frame with 4-coordinates of the event (ct, x, y, z) in the Earths frame?
7.5
1 9109 ,
.
1015 ?
An ideal mirror of mass 1 kg is accelerated by a beam of the laser of power
9 109 watts, located on the Earth. For what time will the mirror depart on the
distance 1015 m?

13

8
8.1
l . .
A homogeneous rod of length l leans on a smooth horizontal surface and starts
to fall on the plane without initial speed from the vertical position. Find the
trajectory of the top end of the rod.
8.2
H
. ,
.
At the initial moment an electron at rest was situated at a distance H from the
innite, conducting, not charged plane. Find the time for which the electron
will reach the plane.
8.3
m
U (x) = U0 tg

x
.
a
!

.
A point with mass m moves in a eld with potential
U (x) = U0 tg

x
.
a
!

Find the position x(t) of the point as a function of time.


8.4
m H
. , 14

F = V 2.
A ball of mass m falls from the height H on a horizontal plate and elastically
rebounds. Find the height of the subsequent rise of the ball, if the air resistance
force is F = V 2 .
8.5

~ = g ~r .
B
r3
~ = ~r p~ -?
L
An electron moves in the eld of a magnetic monopole
~ = g ~r .
B
r3
~ = ~r p~ as a function of its
Find the angular momentum of the electron L
radius-vector.
8.6
E x.
, y
E0. .
A homogeneous and constant electric eld E is directed along the x-axis. A
relativistic proton with initial energy E0 darts along the y-axis from the origin
of coordinates. Find its trajectory.

9
9.1
,
, , .
S1 S2 . V . , m. .
p.
15

Two pistons capable to move without friction in tightly connected pipes are
connected by a rigid rod, as shown in the gure. The areas of pistons are equal
to S1 and S2 respectively. At equilibrium the air volume between the pistons
is equal to V . Find the frequency of small oscillations of the pistons if their
total mass together with the rod is m. The temperature is kept constant. The
atmospheric pressure is equal to p.
9.2
L, , . ,
, V0 .
, u.

The thin and exible not extensible rope of length L, combined half-and-half,
is laid in a thin horizontal smooth tube. One end of the rope is xed, and the
half of the rope connected to it is at rest, while the initial velocity V0 is given
to the second half. Find the length of the motionless part of the rope at the
moment when the speed of the bending point becomes equal to the speed of
sound u.
9.3
, m,
. ,
k. ,
16

. = 0 .
.

A body of mass m can move on a horizontal straight line with a spring of


rigidity k attached to it. The second end of the spring is xed as shown in the
gure. When the angle = 0 , the spring is not deformed. Find the frequency
of small oscillations of the body.
9.4
4
m 2 x2
U = mx

U
(x)
=
4
2 .
Find the change of the oscillator period when a small anharmonic perturbation
4
m 2 x2

U
is
added
to
the
harmonic
potential
U
(x)
=
U = mx
4
2 .
9.5
. + e e + e + e+ . ,
.
Photon and electron move towards each other. After a head-on collision the
reaction + e e + e + e+ happens. Find the energy of the photon if all
reaction products are at rest.

10
10.1
m ,
. 17

l. 2l. ,
.

A ball of mass m is attached to the ends of an elastic massless string which


is stretched over two horizontal smooth cores. The cores are at the same level
and the distance between them is l. The length of not deformed string is 2l.
Find the frequency of small vertical oscillations of the ball if at equilibrium the
string forms a equilateral triangle.
10.2

2
2
F (t) = F0et / . ,
? t = .
Energy is transferred to a linear oscillator of frequency under inuence of the
2
2
force F (t) = F0 et / . For what is the energy transfer maximally eective?
At the time t = the oscillator was at rest in the equilibrium point.
10.3

F (t) F = V .
Find the law of forced oscillations of a linear one-dimensional oscillator under
inuence of the force F (t) in presence of the friction force F = V .
10.4
, , . , Mg, M
18

( ).
An hourglass, in which the stationary stream of the sand was established, have
been put on a sensitive balance. Prove that the display of the balance will be
more than Mg, where M is the mass of the hourglass (with the sand of course).
10.5
- . , ,
.
Because of the relativistic eects the period of harmonic oscillator depends on
its amplitude. Assuming the relativistic eects are small, nd the corresponding
correction.

11
11.1
, m ,
k m 2 . .
.
?

Two identical mathematical pendula, with mass m and frequency , are connected by a weak spring of rigidity k m 2 . The distance between the hanging
points of the pendula equals to the length of the not deformed spring. One
pendulum is set at a small distance from the equilibrium point and begins to
swing. What time it takes the oscillations to pass completely to the second
pendulum?
19

11.2
R . . ?
, z, ( CGSE)
mV 2 qB
L=
+
(xy y x).

2
2c
An electron moves on a circle of radius R in a homogeneous magnetic eld.
The eld slowly increases. What will be radius of the electron orbit when
the magnetic eld will increase twice? Lagrangian of a charged particle in a
homogeneous magnetic eld, directed along the z-axis, looks like (in the CGSE
system of units)
mV 2 qB
+
(xy y x).

L=
2
2c
11.3
,
R, V0 gR.
. ?

An initial velocity V0 gR has been imparted to a small ring on a horizontal


circular wire of radius R. The friction coecient between the ring and the wire
is equal to . After what time will the ring stop?
11.4
l. > tg .
. N t. ?
A lead leaf of length l lays on a roof with an angle of inclination . The friction
coecient between the lead and the roof > tg . Linear thermal expansion
coecient of lead is . During N days of steady weather daily temperature
drop was t. On what distance will the leaf slip?
20

11.5
0 .
,
( 0 ) ( )
m . .
lepton at rest undergoes radiative decay 0 . In what limits does
the energy of the photon change if invariant masses of subsystems ( 0 ) and
( ) are equal to each other and constitute one third of the lepton mass m .
The mass of neutrino is equal to zero.

12
12.1

?
At what direction of the initial speed a space vehicle will fall to Earths surface
irrespective of the initial speed magnitude?
12.2

p
= 1 + e cos ()?
r
p, e .
In what central force eld does a point move on the trajectory
p
= 1 + e cos ()?
r
Here p, e and are some constants.
12.3
( ) 21

, .
Find the optimal launching angle to the horizon of a ballistic missile on the
North Pole (from the point of view of minimization of the initial speed) for the
missile to land on the equator.
12.4
, , ?
How does Keplers third law get modied if the movement of the Sun, caused
by an attraction of the corresponding planet, is taken into account?
12.5
, ,
, R,
R 8R . ,

, .
Two satellites, having equal masses, move in the same direction on coplanar
orbits, one of which is circular of radius R, and the another is elliptic with
the perigee and apogee distances R and 8R respectively. Assuming that the
satellites have been joined to each other at the contiguity point of their orbits
and have their further motions continued together, nd the apogee of their new
orbit.
12.6
L
U (r) =

, > 0, > 0?
r

For what values of the angular momentum L are circular orbits possible in the

22

potential
U (r) =

, > 0, > 0,
r

for relativistic particles?

13
13.1

, .
Find the dependence of the scattering angle on the impact parameter for fast
electrons ying past a very heavy magnetic monopole.
13.2
, 90,

U (r) = 2 , > 0.
r
T .
Find the cross section for scattering at angles greater than 90 in the central
force eld with the potential
U (r) =

, > 0.
r2

The incoming particle has a kinetic energy T .


13.3
M, ,
V , , ,
b. .

23

Four stars of identical mass M, being very far from each other, are located
at vertexes of a square and have identical in magnitude speeds V . Impact
parameters of the stars, with respect to the center of the square, are also
identical and equal b. Find the scattering angle of the stars.
13.4
a . , L = 3a?

Identical smooth plates of length a are placed one on another. What minimum
number of plates is required to construct an equilibrium construction with
overhang L = 3a?
13.5
Q R P A, . A
AO = l. , AO
.

A homogeneous sphere of weight Q and radius R and a weight P are suspended


on cords xed in a point A, as shown in the gure. The distance from the point
24

A to the center of the sphere AO = l. Find the angle the straight line AO
makes with the vertical at balance.

14
14.1
M m. , k.

A body of mass M hangs on a exible rope of mass m. Find the frequency of


vertical oscillations if the coecient of rigidity of the rope is equal to k.
14.2
m
l . .

A ring of mass m is suspended symmetrically on three not extensible strings of


length l each. Find the frequency of small torsion oscillations of the ring around
the vertical axis passing through its center.

25

14.3
r. 2 z 2 =
R2 ( ). r
?

A particle moves inside a cup on a circular horizontal orbit of radius r. The


surface of the cup has the form of a hyperboloid of revolution 2 z 2 = R2
(in cylindrical coordinates). For what values of radius r does the orbit become
unstable?
14.4
M , .
.

A homogeneous core of mass M is suspended on two vertical not extensible


strings of identical lengths, attached to the ends of the core. Find the tension
of one string at the moment of breakage of another.
14.5


26

.
?
A homogeneous cylinder with a horizontal axis rolls down under gravity with
sliding on an inclined plane. The sliding friction coecient is . For what
inclination angles of the plane to the horizon is this possible?
14.6
m. u. ,
V > u.

On the ends of a tube with the compressed massless spring two identical balls
of mass m are kept by a string. At breakage of the string the balls y away
with identical in magnitude speeds u. Explain how momentum is conserved in
this process from the point of view of an observer who moves along the axis of
the tube with relativistic speed V > u.

15
15.1
R
, . .
.

27

A half cylinder of radius R slides on an inclined plane with the angle of


inclination to the horizon and performs small oscillations around its axis
which is perpendicular to the plane of the gure. Find the frequency of these
oscillations. Friction is absent.
15.2
, ,
.
. , ?
.

aaaaaa
aaaaaa
aaaaaa
In a sealed tube completely lled with water a run out hourglass oats pressing
a little on the top cover of the tube. The tube is ipped over. Does the hourglass
start to oat to the top? The internal diameter of the tube is only somewhat
larger than the external diameter of the hourglass.
15.3
. .
, ?

28

A broomstick rests on two wine glasses as shown in the gure. Will the wine
spill out after a strong downward blow to the center of the broomstick with an
iron rod?
15.4
V
~ = g ~r .
B
r3
Find the scattering angle of an electron with the impact parameter and
velocity V in the eld of a magnetic monopole
~ = g ~r .
B
r3
15.5
, .
, -
~0 ( ).
~r0 , V
A homogeneous ball rolls without slipping on the surface of a turntable which
rotates with angular velocity . Find the trajectory of the ball if at the initial
moment of time the radius vector of the ball equals to ~r0 and its velocity is V~0
(with regard to the laboratory frame).
15.6
, , . T .
, p ?
A current-carrying wire with xed ends is placed in a non-uniform magnetic
eld. The tension of the wire equals to T . What current does ow in the wire
if its form coincides with the trajectory of a proton with momentum p in this
eld?
29


1
1.1

( )
Vr = V + u cos ( ) = V u cos , V = u sin ( ) = u sin .
Vr = r V = r.

r = V u cos , r = u sin .

r
dr
=
,

1 dr
V + u cos
=
.
r d
u sin

Z V + u cos
r
d.
ln =
L
u
sin

/2

Z V +z
V + u cos

d = u
dz,
u sin
1 z2
z = cos .
Z

V
u

+z
V
1 V
A
B
1
1
+
,
B
=
=
+
,
A
=
1 .
1 z2
1z 1+z
2
u
2 u
!

30

,
Z

/2

V
u

i
h
+z
B
A
.
dz
=
ln
(1
+
z)
(1

z)
1 z2

V + u cos
(1 + cos )B

ctg
d = ln
=
ln
u sin
(1 cos )A
2

!V

1
sin

L
ctg
r=
sin
2

!V

Let us decompose the dogs velocity (in the rabbits frame) into the radial
and tangential components
Vr = V + u cos ( ) = V u cos , V = u sin ( ) = u sin .
But Vr = r and V = r.
Therefore,
r = V u cos , r = u sin .
Dividing the rst equation over the second one and taking into account that
r
dr
=
,

d
we get

Hence,

V + u cos
1 dr
=
.
r d
u sin

Z V + u cos
r
d.
ln =
L
u
sin

/2

31

However,

Z V +z
V + u cos
dz,
d = u

u sin
1 z2
where z = cos . Using the decomposition
Z

V
u

+z
V
1 V
A
B
1
1
+
,
B
=
=
+
,
A
=
1 ,
1 z2
1z 1+z
2
u
2 u
!

the integral is easily calculated


Z

Hence,

/2

V
u

i
h
+z
B
A
.
dz
=
ln
(1
+
z)
(1

z)
1 z2

V + u cos

(1 + cos )B
ctg
=
ln
d = ln
u sin
(1 cos )A
2

!V

and we nally get the following equation for the trajectory


L

r=
ctg
sin
2

!V

1.2

r = u(1 + cos ), r = u sin


r(1
cos ) + r sin = u(1 cos2 ) + u sin2 = 0.

r(1
cos ) + r sin =
32

d
(r r cos ).
dt

1
sin

,
r(1 cos ) = C,

C . t = 0 (. )
L2
r0 = L21 + L22, cos 0 = q 2
.
L1 + L22
q

C = L2 + L21 + L22.
, t . , = ur sin > 0,
< , . , ,
r
.
,
rmin

L2 + L21 + L22
C
=
.
=
1 cos
2

From
we get

r = u(1 + cos ), r = u sin


r(1
cos ) + r sin = u(1 cos2 ) + u sin2 = 0.

But
r(1
cos ) + r sin =

d
(r r cos ).
dt

Therefore,
r(1 cos ) = C,

where C is a constant. At t = 0 we have (see the gure)


L2
.
r0 = L21 + L22, cos 0 = q 2
L1 + L22
q

33

Hence, C = L2 + L21 + L22.


In the rabbits frame, when t . Indeed, = ur sin > 0, if
< , and, therefore, is increasing all the time. But when it approaches ,
both and r approach zero.
Therefore, the limiting distance is
rmin

L2 + L21 + L22
C
=
.
=
1 cos
2

1.3
, :
v

u
1 u
u
u
~
t
d()~r =
cos i + t sin ~j + ~k d,
2

u
u
u
1 u
t
~
d()~r =
cos i + t sin ~j ~k d,
2

d()~r = ( sin ~i + cos ~j) d.


q

, , d()~r = (dx),=const~i + (dy),=const~j + (dz),=const~k. .


.
v

d()~r

1 u
u
, |d()~r| = d t1 + .
~e =
|d()~r|
2

q
1

[ cos ~i + sin ~j + ~k],


~e =
+
q
q
1

[ cos ~i + sin ~j + ~k],


~e =
+
~e = sin ~i + cos ~j.

dV = |d()~r [d()~r d()~r]|. ,












r
1
2
1
2

cos

r
1
2

1
2

sin

cos
sin

sin
cos

34






1
2

0
1
2

41 ( + ),
dV =

+
d d d.
4


+
dS(,) = |d()~r d()~r| = dd,
4
1q
( + ) dd,
2
1q
( + ) dd.
= |d()~r d()~r| =
2

dS(,) = |d()~r d()~r| =


dS(,)
,

1
(d)2 (d)2
(dl)2 = (dx)2 + (dy)2 + (dz)2 = ( + )
+ (d)2.
+
4

Let us nd innitesimal displacements along the coordinates , and :


v

u
1 u
u
u
~
t
d()~r =
cos i + t sin ~j + ~k d,
2

u
u
u
1 u
t
~
cos i + t sin ~j ~k d,
d()~r =
2

d()~r = ( sin ~i + cos ~j) d.


q

Where, for example, d()~r = (dx),=const~i + (dy),=const~j + (dz),=const~k. Orts


are unit vectors in these directions. Therefore, let us simply normalize the
corresponding innitesimal displacements. For example,
v

d()~r
1 u

u
, |d()~r| = d t1 + .
~e =
|d()~r|
2

As a result, we get
q
1

~
~

[ cos i + sin j + ~k],


~e =
+
q
q
1

[ cos i + sin ~j + ~k],


~e =
+

35

~e = sin ~i + cos ~j.

The volume element is dV = |d()~r [d()~r d()~r]|. Noting that the absolute
value of the determinant

is 14 ( + ), we get

r
1
2

1
2

cos

r
1
2

1
2

sin

cos
sin

cos
sin

dV =






1
2

0
1
2

+
d d d.
4

The area elements are


+
dS(,) = |d()~r d()~r| = dd,
4
1q
( + ) dd,
dS(,) = |d()~r d()~r| =
2
1q
( + ) dd.
dS(,) = |d()~r d()~r| =
2
At last, the line element is
(d)2 (d)2
1

+ (d)2.
+
(dl) = (dx) + (dy) + (dz) = ( + )
4

1.4

V = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = b2 + a2 2 . , :
2
gn = x2 + y2 + z2 = a 2 . gn = VR
b2
V2
= a + 2.
R=
gn
a

The magnitude of the electrons velocity V = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = b2 + a2 2


does not change over time. Therefore, the tangential acceleration is zero and
the normal component
of the acceleration coincides with the whole acceleration.
2
2
Hence, gn = x + y2 + z2 = a 2 . But gn = VR and the curvature radius is
R=

b2
V2
= a + 2.
gn
a
36

1.5

Vr = r = V cos ,
V = r = V sin .
1 dr
= ctg .
r d
,
r = r0e(0 ) ctg .

The velocity components, in the polar coordinate system, are Vr = r =


V cos and V = r = V sin . Therefore,
1 dr
= ctg .
r d
Integrating, we get the trajectory equation
r = r0e(0 ) ctg .

37

2
2.1

- , .
, ,

V 2gh, h = 1 . , 2V , . ..
. , 2V + V = 3V .
, 32h = 9 . -
,
, 1 .

During the fall of the ball, due to air ow, the tennis ball will drag behind
and consequently face a head-on collision with the basketball ball which already
had bounced. For estimation purposes, one can assume that upon the impact

the balls are heading toward each other with the same velocity V 2gh,
where h = 1 m. In the rest frame of the basketball ball, the tennis ball is
38

moving at a speed 2V and bounces at the same speed as its mass is much
smaller than the mass of the basketball ball. That is, the tennis ball bounces
as if on a wall. Consequently, with regard to the ground, the tennis balls speed
after the impact will be 2V + V = 3V . The maximum height is proportional to
the square of initial velocity. Therefore, the tennis ball will jump at the height of
32h = 9 m. In fact, the actual height will be somewhat less due to air resistance
and energy loss upon the impact, but still this height will be considerably more
than 1 m.
2.2

, ,
, . L .
. , , ..
, c.
V , L
, t = (cV
) .
V , ,

r
1+
LV
L + (cV
) = L 1 .
L

1+
1

> L, .

In the nails frame it is clear that the paper is punched, so the whole question
is how this is achieved in the cylinders rest frame. In this frame, at the moment
of collision, the tip of the nail is at a distance L from the beginning of the
cylinder. But it cannot stop its ight instantly. It even does not know that the
39

collision occurred, because the signal that the collision happened can propagate
along the nail with the speed no more than the speed of light c. In the cylinders
rest frame, the tip of the nail runs away from this signal at a rate V . Therefore,
L
it will feel the eects of the collision not before t = (cV
) . All this time the tip
moves at a speed V and, therefore, when it stops
it will be fromrthe beginning
r
1+
L
LV
of the cylinder at a distance + (cV ) = L 1 . However, L 1+
1 > L and,
hence, the nail will punch the paper before its tip stops.
2.3

dq 2
dV
~a V~
x
x + y y + z z
2
2

=
.
a =
=
x + y + z =
dt
dt
V
x 2 + y 2 + z 2

q

an = a2 a2 =
an =

V2
R,

v
u
u
t 2
a

~|
|~a V
(~a V~ )2
=
.
V2
V


V3
V2
=
.
R=
~|
an
|~a V

The tangential acceleration is


a =

dV
x
x + y y + z z
dq 2
~a V~
x + y 2 + z 2 = 2
=
.
=
dt
dt
V
x + y 2 + z 2

Hence, the normal acceleration equals to


an =
But an =

V2
R,

a2

a2

v
u
u
t 2
a

~|
|~a V
(~a V~ )2
=
.

V2
V

therefore the radius of curvature


V2
V3
R=
=
.
~|
an
|~a V
40

2.4
:
d()~r = (d~r) =const = d[~i ~j], d( )~r = (d~r)=const = d [~i + ~j].
~e ~e d()~r d( )~r .
~i ~j
~i + ~j

~e =
~e =
.
2 + 2
2 + 2
dS = |d()~r d( )~r| = ( 2 + 2) dd .

Let us nd innitesimal displacements along the coordinates and :


d()~r = (d~r) =const = d[~i ~j], d( )~r = (d~r)=const = d [~i + ~j].
Orts ~e and ~e dier from d()~r and d( )~r only by normalization. Therefore,
~i + ~j
~i ~j

and
~
e
=
.
~e = 2

+ 2
2 + 2
The area element is dS = |d()~r d( )~r| = ( 2 + 2 ) dd .
2.5
.
~r = r sin cos ~i + r sin sin ~j + r cos ~j.
r,
d(r)~r = dr[sin cos ~i + sin sin ~j + cos ~k],

d()~r = rd[cos cos ~i + cos sin ~j sin ~k]


d()~r = r sin d[ sin ~i + cos ~j].

, :
~er = sin cos ~i + sin sin ~j + cos ~k,
~e = cos cos ~i + cos sin ~j sin ~k, ~e = sin ~i + cos ~j.
41

~r = r~er ( r = const)
r
e + sin ~e
V~ = d~
e r . ~e r = ~
dt = r~

~e r = [cos
cos ~i + cos sin ~j sin ~k] + sin [ sin ~i + cos ~i].
~ ~e = V cos .
~e . , , V
~ ~e = V sin , ~e ~e -
V
~ .
( ) V
e + r sin ~e ,
V~ = r~
r = V cos ,
r sin = V sin .

d
d ,

1 d
= ctg .
sin d

1
d
=
sin
2

Z "

v
u
u1
t

1
1

cos
d cos = ln
+
= ln tg ,
1 + cos 1 cos
1 + cos
2
#


tg

0 (0 ) ctg
= tg
e
.
2
2

Let us nd the orts of the spherical coordinates.


~r = r sin cos ~i + r sin sin ~j + r cos ~j.
Therefore, the innitesimal displacements along the coordinates r, and will
take the form
d(r)~r = dr[sin cos ~i + sin sin ~j + cos ~k],

and

d()~r = rd[cos cos ~i + cos sin ~j sin ~k]


d()~r = r sin d[ sin ~i + cos ~j].
42

Normalizing, we get the orts:


~er = sin cos ~i + sin sin ~j + cos ~k,
~e = cos cos ~i + cos sin ~j sin ~k, ~e = sin ~i + cos ~j.

Therefore, ~r = r~er and the velocity of a point on the surface of the globe (when
r
e + sin ~e , because
= r~e r . But ~e r = ~
r = const) will be V~ = d~
dt

~e r = [cos
cos ~i + cos sin ~j sin ~k] + sin [ sin ~i + cos ~i].
The meridian is directed along ~e . Therefore, under the terms of the problem,
V~ ~e = V cos . But then V~ ~e = V sin , because ~e and ~e are mutually
orthogonal and lay in the same (tangential to the globe) plane together with
e + r sin ~e , we get
~ = r~
V~ . Substituting in these relations V
r = V cos ,
r sin = V sin .
Dividing the rst equation over the second one and taking into account
we get
1 d
= ctg .
sin d
By using
Z

d
d ,

v
u

u 1 cos
1
1 Z
1

d
d cos = ln t
=
+
= ln tg ,
sin
2
1 + cos 1 cos
1 + cos
2
#

"

we get the equation of the trajectory in the form

0 (0 ) ctg
= tg
e
.
2
2
Such a curve is called a loxodrome.
tg

2.6
, ..
~ + B)
~ (A
~ + B)
~ =A
~ B
~ +B
~ A.
~
0 = (A
~ B)
~ C
~
, (A
. ,
~ + C)
~ B)
~ (A
~ + C)
~ = (C
~ B)
~ A
~ + (A
~ B)
~ C.
~
0 = ((A
43

~ B,
~ |A
~ B|
~ 2
A



~
A



~B
~
~B
~


A
A


~
~ 2 = |A|
~ 2 |B|
~ 2 (A
~ B)
~ 2.
~ = A
~ B
~ |B|
B
B




~ 2
~ 2


|B|
|B|

,
~ B)
~ (A
~ B)
~ = (A
~ A)(
~ B
~ B)
~ (A
~ B)
~ 2.
(A

~ (B
~ A)
~ (A
~ A)
~ B
~ + (A
~ B)
~ A|
~2=
|A

~ (B
~ A)|
~ 2 + |A|
~ 4 |B|
~ 2 (A
~ B)
~ 2|A|
~ 2 2|A|
~ 2 (A
~ (B
~ A))
~ B.
~
= |A

~ (B
~ A)|
~ 2 = |A|
~ 2 |B
~ A|
~ 2 = |A|
~ 4 |B|
~ 2 (A
~ B)
~ 2|A|
~2
|A

~ (B
~ A))
~ B
~ = (B
~ A)
~ (B
~ A)
~ = |A|
~ 2 |B|
~ 2 (A
~ B)
~ 2.
(A

~ (B
~ A)
~ = (A
~ A)
~ B
~ (A
~ B)
~ A
~.
A

(1)

,
~ (B
~ C)
~ = B(
~ A
~ C)
~ C(
~ A
~ B)
~
A
(2)

. , ( , (2))
~ B,
~ C}
~ =A
~ (B
~ C)
~ B(
~ A
~ C)
~ + C(
~ A
~ B).
~
{A,

(1) , , , .
,
~ + B,
~ A
~ + B,
~ C}
~ = {A,
~ B,
~ C}
~ + {B,
~ A,
~ C}.
~
0 = {A
~ei , i = 1 n
.
~ (~ei B)
~ = ((~ei B)
~ ~ei ) A
~ = [B
~ (B
~ ~ei )~ei] A
~
(~ei A)
44

, ,
n
X

~ (~ei B)
~ = (n 1)A
~ B.
~
(~ei A)

(3)

i=1

,
n
X

~ B}
~ {~ei , C,
~ D}
~ =
{~ei , A,

i=1

~ B)
~ (C
~ D)
~ + 2(A
~ C)(
~ B
~ D)
~ 2(A
~ D)(
~ B
~ C).
~
= (n 5)(A

n
X

~ {~ei , ~ej , B}
~ = (n 1)(n 3)A
~ B
~
{~ei , ~ej , A}

(4)
(5)

i,j=1

n
X

{~ei, ~ej , ~ek } {~ei , ~ej , ~ek } = n(n 1)(n 3).

(6)

i,j,k=1

, {~ei, ~ej , ~ek } , n > 3. (2)


(n = 1 ,
, ,
).
,
~ B
~ C)+(
~
~ B)
~ C
~ = (A+
~ C)
~ B
~ (A+
~ C)
~ A
~ B
~ A
~ C
~ B
~ C
~ =
A(
A

~ C
~ B
~ A
~B
~ C
~ B
~ C
~ A
~
= 2A
~ (B
~ (C
~ D))
~ + (A
~ B)
~ (C
~ D)
~
~ (B
~ (C
~ D))
~ = 1 A
A
2
"

~ B)
~ (C
~ D)
~ ((A
~ B)
~ C)
~ D
~ + ((A
~ B)
~ C)
~ D+
~
(A
~ (B
~ C))
~ D
~ (A
~ (B
~ C))
~ D
~ A
~ ((B
~ C)
~ D)+
~
+(A
#

~ ((B
~ C)
~ D)
~ +A
~ (B
~ (C
~ D))
~
+A
,

~ {B,
~ C,
~ D}
~ = {A,
~ B,
~ C
~ D}
~ +A
~ (B
~ (C
~ D))
~ {A,
~ C,
~ D
~ B}+
~
A
~ (C
~ (D
~ B))
~ {A,
~ D,
~ B
~ C}
~ +A
~ (D
~ (B
~ C))
~ =
+A
45

~ B,
~ C
~ D}
~ {A,
~ C,
~ D
~ B}
~ {A,
~ D,
~ B
~ C}
~ + 3A
~ {B,
~ C,
~ D}.
~
= {A,

~ C,
~ D}
~ = {B,
~ C,
~ D}
~ + {C,
~ D,
~ B}
~ + {D,
~ B,
~ C}
~ =
3{B,
~ (C
~ D)
~ +C
~ (D
~ B)
~ +D
~ (B
~ C).
~
=B

,
~ {B,
~ C,
~ D}
~ = {A,
~ B,
~ C
~ D}
~ + {A,
~ C,
~ D
~ B}
~ + {A,
~ D,
~ B
~ C}.
~
2A
(7)

n
X

i,j,k,l=1
n
X

i,j,k,l=1

|~ei {~ej , ~ek , ~el }|2 =

|{~ei , ~ej , ~ek ~el } + {~ei , ~ek , ~el ~ej } + {~ei , ~el , ~ej ~ek }|2 .

(3) (6):
4

n
X

i,j,k,l=1

|~ei {~ej , ~ek , ~el }|2 = 4n(n 1)2(n 3).

,
n
X

~ {~ei , ~ej B,
~ C}
~ = (n 3)(n 6)A
~ (B
~ C),
~
{~ei , ~ej , A}

i,j=1

(4)
n
X

~ ((~ei B)
~ C)
~ =
(~ei A)

i=1

n
X

~ [2~ei C
~ B
~ B
~ C
~ ~ei ~ei B
~ C
~ ~ei (B
~ C)]
~ =
(~ei A)

i=1

~ (B
~ C).
~
= (n 4)A

, (5) (8) ,
n
X

i,j,k,l=1

|{~ei , ~ej , ~ek ~el } + {~ei , ~ek , ~el ~ej } + {~ei , ~el , ~ej ~ek }|2 =
46

(8)

= 3n(n 1)2(n 3) + 6n(n 1)(n 3)(n 6) = 3n(n 1)(n 3)(3n 13).


,

4n(n 1)2(n 3) = 3n(n 1)(n 3)(3n 13)

3n(n 1)(n 3)(3n 13) 4n(n 1)2(n 3) = 5n(n 1)(n 3)(n 7) = 0.


,
.

It can be easily shown that the vector product is anti-commutative. Indeed,


~ + B)
~ (A
~ + B)
~ =A
~ B
~ +B
~ A.
~
0 = (A
~ B)
~ C
~ is alternating in
One can prove as well that the mixed product (A
~ B,
~ C.
~ For example,
A,
~ + C)
~ B)
~ (A
~ + C)
~ = (C
~ B)
~ A
~ + (A
~ B)
~ C.
~
0 = ((A
~ and B,
~ the norm |A
~ B|
~ 2 equals to
For any two vectors A



~
A



~B
~
~B
~


A
A


~ 2 = |A|
~ 2 |B|
~ 2 (A
~ B)
~ 2.
~ B
~ |B|
~ = A
~
B
B




2
2
~
~



|B|
|B|

Therefore, the following relation holds

~ B)
~ (A
~ B)
~ = (A
~ A)(
~ B
~ B)
~ (A
~ B)
~ 2.
(A
Now consider
~ (B
~ A)
~ (A
~ A)
~ B
~ + (A
~ B)
~ A|
~2=
|A
~ (B
~ A)|
~ 2 + |A|
~ 4 |B|
~ 2 (A
~ B)
~ 2|A|
~ 2 2|A|
~ 2 (A
~ (B
~ A))
~ B.
~
= |A

But this equals zero because

~ (B
~ A)|
~ 2 = |A|
~ 2 |B
~ A|
~ 2 = |A|
~ 4 |B|
~ 2 (A
~ B)
~ 2|A|
~2
|A
and
~ (B
~ A))
~ B
~ = (B
~ A)
~ (B
~ A)
~ = |A|
~ 2 |B|
~ 2 (A
~ B)
~ 2.
(A
47

Therefore,
~ (B
~ A)
~ = (A
~ A)
~ B
~ (A
~ B)
~ A
~.
A

(9)

~ (B
~ C)
~ = B(
~ A
~ C)
~ C(
~ A
~ B)
~
A

(10)

However, the well known identity for the three-dimensional vector product

is not valid in general case. To show this, let us consider the ternary product
(which is zero if (10) is valid)
~ B,
~ C}
~ =A
~ (B
~ C)
~ B(
~ A
~ C)
~ + C(
~ A
~ B).
~
{A,
Equation (9) implies that this ternary product is alternating in its arguments,
like the mixed product. For example,
~ + B,
~ A
~ + B,
~ C}
~ = {A,
~ B,
~ C}
~ + {B,
~ A,
~ C}.
~
0 = {A
Let ~ei , i = 1 n be some orthonormal basis in the vector space. Then
~ (~ei B)
~ = ((~ei B)
~ ~ei ) A
~ = [B
~ (B
~ ~ei )~ei] A
~
(~ei A)
and, therefore,

n
X

~ (~ei B)
~ = (n 1)A
~ B.
~
(~ei A)

(11)

i=1

Using this identity, we obtain


n
X

~ B}
~ {~ei , C,
~ D}
~ =
{~ei , A,

i=1

~ B)
~ (C
~ D)
~ + 2(A
~ C)(
~ B
~ D)
~ 2(A
~ D)(
~ B
~ C).
~
= (n 5)(A

Hence

n
X

~ {~ei , ~ej , B}
~ = (n 1)(n 3)A
~ B
~
{~ei , ~ej , A}

(12)
(13)

i,j=1

and

n
X

{~ei, ~ej , ~ek } {~ei , ~ej , ~ek } = n(n 1)(n 3).

(14)

i,j,k=1

It follows from the last equation that there exists some {~ei , ~ej , ~ek } that is
not zero if n > 3. So, really, equation (10) is valid only for the usual threedimensional vector product (n = 1 case corresponds to identically vanishing
vector product). To continue, let us note that using
~ B
~ C)+(
~
~ B)
~ C
~ = (A+
~ C)
~ B
~ (A+
~ C)
~ A
~ B
~ A
~ C
~ B
~ C
~ =
A(
A
48

~ C
~ B
~ A
~B
~ C
~ B
~ C
~ A
~
= 2A

and

~ (B
~ (C
~ D))
~ = 1 A
~ (B
~ (C
~ D))
~ + (A
~ B)
~ (C
~ D)
~
A
2
"

~ B)
~ (C
~ D)
~ ((A
~ B)
~ C)
~ D
~ + ((A
~ B)
~ C)
~ D+
~
(A
~ (B
~ C))
~ D
~ (A
~ (B
~ C))
~ D
~ A
~ ((B
~ C)
~ D)+
~
+(A
#

~ ((B
~ C)
~ D)
~ +A
~ (B
~ (C
~ D))
~
+A
,
we can check the equation
~ {B,
~ C,
~ D}
~ = {A,
~ B,
~ C
~ D}
~ +A
~ (B
~ (C
~ D))
~ {A,
~ C,
~ D
~ B}+
~
A
~ (C
~ (D
~ B))
~ {A,
~ D,
~ B
~ C}
~ +A
~ (D
~ (B
~ C))
~ =
+A
~ B,
~ C
~ D}
~ {A,
~ C,
~ D
~ B}
~ {A,
~ D,
~ B
~ C}
~ + 3A
~ {B,
~ C,
~ D}.
~
= {A,

The last identity follows from

~ C,
~ D}
~ = {B,
~ C,
~ D}
~ + {C,
~ D,
~ B}
~ + {D,
~ B,
~ C}
~ =
3{B,
~ (C
~ D)
~ +C
~ (D
~ B)
~ +D
~ (B
~ C).
~
=B

As we see, the ternary product satises the following interesting identity


~ {B,
~ C,
~ D}
~ = {A,
~ B,
~ C
~ D}
~ + {A,
~ C,
~ D
~ B}
~ + {A,
~ D,
~ B
~ C}.
~ (15)
2A
Hence we should have
4

n
X

i,j,k,l=1
n
X

i,j,k,l=1

|~ei {~ej , ~ek , ~el }|2 =

|{~ei , ~ej , ~ek ~el } + {~ei , ~ek , ~el ~ej } + {~ei , ~el , ~ej ~ek }|2 .

Left-hand side is easily calculated by means of (11) and (14):


4

n
X

i,j,k,l=1

|~ei {~ej , ~ek , ~el }|2 = 4n(n 1)2(n 3).

To calculate the right-hand side, the following identity is useful


n
X

~ {~ei , ~ej B,
~ C}
~ = (n 3)(n 6)A
~ (B
~ C).
~
{~ei , ~ej , A}

i,j=1

49

(16)

This identity follows from (12) along with the relation


n
X

~ ((~ei B)
~ C)
~ =
(~ei A)

i=1

n
X

~ [2~ei C
~ B
~ B
~ C
~ ~ei ~ei B
~ C
~ ~ei (B
~ C)]
~ =
(~ei A)

i=1

~ (B
~ C).
~
= (n 4)A

Now, with (13) and (16) at hands, it is easy to calculate


n
X

i,j,k,l=1

|{~ei , ~ej , ~ek ~el } + {~ei , ~ek , ~el ~ej } + {~ei , ~el , ~ej ~ek }|2 =

= 3n(n 1)2(n 3) + 6n(n 1)(n 3)(n 6) = 3n(n 1)(n 3)(3n 13).


Therefore we should have

4n(n 1)2(n 3) = 3n(n 1)(n 3)(3n 13).


Hence,
3n(n 1)(n 3)(3n 13) 4n(n 1)2(n 3) = 5n(n 1)(n 3)(n 7) = 0.
This shows that a nontrivial vector product is dened only in spaces with
dimensions three and seven.

3
3.1
L0 . L =
S
u = u V =

L =

L0
u

uV
1 2
c
L
1

50

L0 = uL.

uV
.
1 uV
c2

L =
uV = uV

L0
u

uV
c2

.

=
.

u
u L.


Let L0 be a proper length of the rod. Then L =
S , the rod moves with the velocity
u = u V =

L0
u

and L0 = u L. In the frame

uV
.
1 uV
2
c

Therefore, the length of the rod in this frame is L =


uV
1 2
c

uV = uV
Therefore,
L =

L
1

uV
c2

L0
u

u
u L.

But

.

3.2
ct + x = [ct x + x ct] =
(1 )(ct + x) ct x = (1 + )(ct x).
(1 ) =

v
u
u1
t

u
u1 +

1
, (1 + ) = t
=
.
1+
1
(1 )

, x+ = e x+ , x = e x ,
e = (1 + ) =

v
u
u1
t

1 1+
+
, = ln
.
1
2 1

,
e e
(1 + ) (1 )
th =
=
= .
e + e
(1 + ) + (1 )

According to the Lorentz transformations, ct + x = [ct x + x ct] =


(1 )(ct + x) and ct x = (1 + )(ct x). But
(1 ) =

v
u
u1
t

,
1+

and (1 + ) =

51

v
u
u1
t

1
+
=
.
1
(1 )

Hence, x+ = e x+, x = e x, where


e = (1 + ) =
Let us note that

v
u
u1
t

+
,
1

or =

1 1+
ln
.
2 1

(1 + ) (1 )
e e
=
= .
th =

e +e
(1 + ) + (1 )
3.3
S1 V1 S, S2
V2 S1 .
(1)

x =
,

v
u
u1
t

u
u 1 + 2 (1)
+ 1
(2)
x x = t
x .
1 1
1 2

(2)

x =

v
u
u (1
u
t

+ 1 )(1 + 2)
x .
(1 1 )(1 2)

(2)
x

v
u
u1
t

+
x ,
1

1 + 2
1 + 1 2
V1 V2 . n
(1 + 1 )(1 + 2) (1 + n )
1+
=
.
1
(1 1 )(1 2) (1 n )
. , 1 = 2 = = n ,
= 1 2 =

(1 + 1 )n (1 1 )n
.
(1 + 1 )n + (1 1 )n

Let the frame S1 moves with velocity V1 relative to S, and the frame S2 with
velocity V2 relative to S1. Then
(1)

x =

v
u
u1
t

u
u 1 + 2 (1)
+ 1
(2)
x and x = t
x .
1 1
1 2

52

Hence,
(2)

x =
On the other hand,

v
u
u (1
u
t

+ 1 )(1 + 2)
x .
(1 1 )(1 2)

(2)
x

where

v
u
u1
t

+
x ,
1

1 + 2
1 + 1 2
is the relativistic sum of velocities V1 and V2. In the case of n velocities, we get
= 1 2 =

1+
(1 + 1 )(1 + 2) (1 + n )
=
.
1
(1 1 )(1 2) (1 n )
From this equation one can determine . In particular, if 1 = 2 = = n ,
then
(1 + 1 )n (1 1 )n
.
=
(1 + 1 )n + (1 1 )n
3.4
A x .
A t = 0, t = (t + cV2 x) = cV2 x
2
x = (x + V t ) = x = cV t. ,
2
cV . c ,
, ..
.
, , , u < c. x

t = xu . -
V
1
x V

t = + 2 x = x + 2
u
c
u
c

x=

x
V
+ V = x 1 + .
u
u

..
1 + uV
u + V
x

u= = 1
V =
u V = u V < c.
t
1 + c2
u + c2
53


Consider the point A of the lamp with the coordinate x in the lamps rest frame.
In this frame, the ash at this point occurs at t = 0. Therefore, in the frame of
stationary observer, the ash occurs at t = (t + cV2 x) = cV2 x and at a point
2
with coordinate x = (x + V t ) = x = cV t. This shows that, in this system,
2
the ash propagates with speed cV . The fact that this speed exceeds the speed
of light in vacuum c is a reection of the fact that the ashes at dierent parts
of the lamp are not causally related to each other, because in the lamps rest
frame they occur simultaneously. If the ash is caused by switching a voltage
at, for example, left end side of the lamp, it will propagate in the lamps rest
frame with a nite speed u < c. Then at a point with coordinate x the ash

will occur at t = ux . Correspondingly, in the laboratory frame, we will have


V
1
x V

t = + 2 x = x + 2
u
c
u
c

and x =

x
V
+ V = x 1 + .
u
u

That is, the propagation speed of the ash in this frame is now
1 + uV
u + V
x

=
u= = 1
V
u V = u V < c.
t
1 + c2
u + c2
3.5

, . , . S , .. , , 1200. S
, ..
1200, . , S
. , S
.

. t = 0 B, L A, .
54

xA = 0, tA = 0 xB = L, tB = 0 S
xA = 0, tA = 0 xB = (xB V tB ) = L, tB = (tB cV2 xB ) = cV2 L.
, B tB , ..
, , . tA tB = cV2 L
B , .. S A 0, B - . , , t = 0,
S . ,
= cV2 L , .. S .
S L = cV2 .
, (. ).

Let us imagine a set of points along the cylinder generatrix. Each cross-section
of the cylinder is a clock where the corresponding point plays the role of the
end of the clocks arrow. In the frame S , these clocks are synchronized, that
is, all of them show, for example, 1200. In the frame S, however, they are not
synchronized, and when the clock on the far left end of the cylinder shows 1200
other clocks along the cylinder show a dierent time. Consequently, our points
no longer lie on one line in the frame S at any given instant of this frame. This
indicates that the cylinder in the frame S must be twisted.

Let us look more closely. Suppose that at the time t = 0 the point B, which
is located at a distance L along the cylinder from the point A, is rotated by
an angle . Coordinates xA = 0, tA = 0 and xB = L, tB = 0 in the frame
S do correspond to xA = 0, tA = 0 and xB = (xB V tB ) = L, tB =
(tB cV2 xB ) = cV2 L in the frame S . At that, in this frame the point B at
the time tB is also rotated by an angle , because transverse dimensions do not
change under Lorentz transformations and, therefore, a transverse angle is also
not changed. During the time tA tB = cV2 L the point B should be able to
turn by the angle , as in the frame S the clocks are synchronized and when
clock A shows 0, the clock B also must show the same time. In other words,
55

at any instant of time in S , including t = 0, all the points considered above


should lie on one line. Consequently, = cV2 L , because in the frame S the
cylinder rotates with angular velocity . Thus in the frame S the torsion per
unit length is L = cV2 . It is clear from our discussion that the torsion occurs
in the opposite to the rotation direction (see the gure).

4
4.1
S cx = c cos , cy = c sin .
S
cy = c sin 2 =

cy
,
1 cxc2V


sin
.
(1 cos )
1, sin , sin 2 2 cos 1. ,
sin 2 =

u
u1 +
1
2=
=t
(1 )
1

= 35 .

In the frame S, the velocity of the photon has the following components cx =
c cos , cy = c sin . Then, in the frame S , we will have
cy = c sin 2 =
or

cy

cx V ,
1 c2


sin
.
(1 cos )
But 1, therefore sin , sin 2 2 and cos 1. Consequently,
sin 2 =

u
u1 +
1
2=
=t
(1 )
1

and = 35 .
56

4.2
- cx = c cos 1,
cy = c sin 1.
cx =

cx V
c cos 1 V
cy
c sin 1

 =
=
,
c
=
.
y
1 cos 1
(1 cos 1)
1 ccx2V
1 ccx2V

cx = cx cy = cy . - y-

c sin 2 =

cy


1+

cx V
c2

c sin 1
1

.

2 1 ccx 1 cos 1


cx
cos 1
1
1 =1
=
(1 + 2 2 cos 1).
c
1 cos 1
1 cos 1

(1 2) sin 1
sin 1
.
=
sin 2 = 2
(1 + 2 2 cos 1) 1 + 2 2 cos 1

In the laboratory frame, incident photons velocity has the components cx =


c cos 1, cy = c sin 1 . Then, in the rest frame of the mirror, we will have
cx =

c cos 1 V
c sin 1
cy
cx V

, cy = 
.
cx V =
cx V =
1 cos 1
(1 cos 1)
1 c2
1 c2

Then after the reection, in the rest frame of the mirror, cx = cx and cy =
cy . Therefore, in the laboratory frame y-component of the reected photons
velocity is
c sin 2 =
But
1

cy


1+

cx V
c2

1
c sin 1

.

2 1 ccx 1 cos 1


cx
cos 1
1
=1
=
(1 + 2 2 cos 1).
c
1 cos 1
1 cos 1

Hence, nally

(1 2) sin 1
sin 1
=
.
sin 2 = 2
(1 + 2 2 cos 1) 1 + 2 2 cos 1
57

4.3
- 4- S1 S2 u1 = (1c, 1V~1 ) u2 =
~ ),
(2c, 2V~2 ), S1 u1 = (c, ~0), u2 = (c, V
~ S1 S2 ( S2 S1 ).
V
4- : u1 u2 = u1 u2. , 1 2(c2 V~1 V~2 ) = c2. = 12(1 ~1 ~2).
1
(1 12)(1 22) 12 + 22 2~1 ~2 + (~1 ~2 )2 1222
=1 2 =1
=
.

(1 ~1 ~2 )2
(1 ~1 ~2 )2
2

(~1 ~2 )2 = 1222(1 cos2 ) = 12 22 (~1 ~2)2,


(~1 ~2)2 (~1 ~2 )2
2
.
=
(1 ~1 ~2 )2

In the laboratory frame, 4-velocities of S1 and S2 are u1 = (1c, 1V~1 ) and


~ ),
u2 = (2c, 2V~2 ), while in the frame S1 we will have u1 = (c, ~0), u2 = (c, V
where V~ is the relative velocity of S1 and S2 (the velocity of S2 in the rest
frame of S1). But scalar product of four-vectors is invariant: u1 u2 = u1 u2.
Therefore, 1 2(c2 V~1 V~2 ) = c2 . It follows from this that = 1 2(1 ~1 ~2 ).
But
2 = 1

1
(1 12)(1 22) 12 + 22 2~1 ~2 + (~1 ~2 )2 1222
=
1

=
.
2
(1 ~1 ~2 )2
(1 ~1 ~2 )2

On the other hand, (~1 ~2 )2 = 1222(1 cos2 ) = 1222 (~1 ~2)2 , and nally
(~1 ~2)2 (~1 ~2 )2
.
=
(1 ~1 ~2 )2
2

58

4.4
t = 0 S-
.

S tA = 0, xA = 0, yA = 0 tB = cV2 xB =
cV2 L cos , xB = xB = L cos , yB = yB = L sin , L
S. , tA 6= tB , (xA, yA ) (xB , yB ) S ,
.

, tg =

tg

tg = tg .

Suppose that at the time t = 0 the rod in the S-system occupies a position as
indicated in the gure.

In the system S we will have tA = 0, xA = 0, yA = 0 and tB = cV2 xB =


cV2 L cos , xB = xB = L cos , yB = yB = L sin , where L is the length of
59

the rod in the system S. Although tA 6= tB , the points (xA , yA ) and (xB , yB ) still
determine the orientation of the rod in the system S , because in this system
the rod is stationary.

Therefore, tg =

tg

and tg = tg .

4.5

S AB
x, 180. N -, N . n-
, x S, AB
x, ,
+ , = 2
N , + d.

S, x S,
n- .

S AB = x n-
+ d (n + 1)- .
, t = 0 n-
(n + 1)-. , t = 0 , A B
xA = 0, yA = 0, xB = l cos , yB = l sin . S
AB n- .

60


V
xB , xB = xB , yB = yB .
2
c

, tA =
6 tB , AB x
S
y
tg
tg = B =
,
xB

.. S AB .

(n + 1)- , AB S . , t = 0+,
tA = 0, xA = 0, yA = 0, tB =

xA = 0, yA = 0, xB = l cos ( + d), yB = l sin ( + d).


t = tB , (tB , xB (tB ))
tB = 0 S .
tB
, tB =
d = 2
N .

V
c2

V
= tB 2 xB (tB ) .
c
!

xB (tB ). xB (tB ) = xB + (V cos d)tB xB + V tB ,

xB (tB )

xB
V 2
2
=

t
=
xB .
B
B
1 (V /c)2
c2

xB = (
xB (tB ) V tB ) xB = l cos ( + d) yB = yB (tB ) =
yB + (V sin d)tB yB + V tB d = l sin ( + d) + ( 2 1)ld cos ( + d).

, +
, (n + 1)- ,
i
1h

tg +
= tg ( + d) + ( 2 1)d .

S AB , ..

+
=
, , tg = tg ( + d) + ( 2 1)d.
tg ( + d) =

tg + d
tg + tg (d)

tg + (1 + tg2 )d.
1 tg tg (d) 1 d tg
d
= ( 2 1) cos2 ,
d
61

= ,
h
i
d
= 1 + ( 2 1) cos2 .
d

,
=

Z
0

d
.
1 + ( 2 1) cos2

tg = x:
Z

Z
1
x
1
tg
dx
d
=
=
arctg
=
arctg
.
1 + ( 2 1) cos2
2 + x2

, tg = tg (). , = . tg (2) = 0, ..

5
( = 0). , V = 3 c, = 23 .

Let S be the laboratory frame in which AB makes initially a zero angle with
the x-axis but after the full turn changes its orientation by 180. Let us replace
the circle, on which the motion takes place, by a regular N -side polygon, where

N . Suppose the vector AB makes the angle with respect to the x-axis
of the system S while moving on the n-th side of the polygon tilted at an angle
with respect to the x-axis. This angle changes to + d upon the transition
.
to the next (n + 1)-th edge, with the tilting angle + , = 2
N

which is at rest with respect to S, but with the x-axis


Consider the system S,
rotated by an angle , so that it is pointing along the n-th edge of the polygon.

Then in the system S the vector AB makes an angle = with the x-axis
during the motion on the n-th edge and the angle + d when driving on the
(n + 1)-th edge. We choose the origin of time so that t = 0 corresponds to the
transition from the n-th edge to the (n + 1)-th. Before the transition, at t = 0,
62

coordinates of the points A and B are xA = 0, yA = 0, x


B = l cos , yB = l sin .

Let S be the system in which AB is left at rest while moving along the n-th
edge in the system S. According to the Lorentz transformations, we nd
V
xB , xB = xB , yB = yB .
2
c

Despite the fact that tA 6= tB , the angle of inclination of the vector AB to the
x-axis is determined in the system S by
tA = 0, xA = 0, yA = 0, tB =

tg

yB
tg
= =
,
xB

because the vector AB remains stationary in this frame.

After the change to the (n + 1)-th edge, the vector AB is now moving with
respect to S . Immediately after the transition, at t = 0+ , we have
xA = 0, yA = 0, xB = l cos ( + d), yB = l sin ( + d).
Let us nd a time t = tB such that the event (tB , xB (tB )) has the time
coordinate tB = 0 in the system S . We have
tB

V
= tB 2 xB (tB ) .
c
!

Consequently, tB = cV2 xB (tB ). But xB (tB ) = xB + (V cos d)tB xB + V tB ,


where d = 2
N . Hence
xB (tB )

xB
V 2
2
=

and
t
=
xB .
B
B
1 (V /c)2
c2

xB (tB ) V tB ) xB = l cos ( + d) and yB = yB (tB ) =


Therefore xB = (
yB + (V sin d)tB yB + V tB d = l sin ( + d) + ( 2 1)ld cos ( + d).

Consequently, the inclination angle +


, after the transition on the (n + 1)-th
edge is determined from
i
1h
tg ( + d) + ( 2 1)d .

But in the system S the vector AB is displaced parallel to itself, that is,

+
=
and, consequently, tg = tg ( + d) + ( 2 1)d. But

tg +
=

tg ( + d) =

tg + d
tg + tg (d)

tg + (1 + tg2 )d.
1 tg tg (d) 1 d tg
63

Therefore, we get

d
= ( 2 1) cos2 ,
d
or after taking into account that = ,
h
i
d
= 1 + ( 2 1) cos2 .
d
Consequently,
Z
d
=
.
2
2
1
+
(

1)
cos
0

The integral can be calculated by substitution tg = x:


Z
Z
1
x
1
tg
dx
d
=
=
arctg
=
arctg
.
1 + ( 2 1) cos2
2 + x2

Finally, tg = tg (). By the condition of the problem, after a full rotation


= . Therefore, we must have tg (2) = 0 and is half-integer (an integer
corresponds to = 0). The minimum speed, V = 35 c, is obtained when = 23 .

5
5.1

S , u. , S, S
u. ,
u ( ). S .
, .. . , V1,x
= u cos ,

V1,y
= u sin , V2,x
= u cos V2,y
= u sin .
, S
V1,x =

V1,x
+u

1+

u
V1,x
c2

=u

V1,y
1 + cos
sin


=
u
,
V
=
,
u
1,y
V1,x
2 cos )
1 + u2 cos

(1
+

u
u
u 1 + c2

64

1 cos
sin
V2,x = u
V2,y = u
.
1 u2 cos
u (1 u2 cos )
, V1,x > 0 V2,x > 0. S
1 < 2 2 < 2 . ,
tg 1 =

tg 2 =





V1,y




V1,x





V2,y




V2,x

sin
=
u (1 + cos )
sin
=
.
u (1 cos )

tg 1 tg 2 =

1
.
u2

tg 1 = 2 ctg 2 = 2 tg
2 < tg
2 ,
u
u
2
2
.. u > 1. , 1 < 2 2 1 + 2 < 2 .
!

Let S be the center of mass system, which moves with velocity u. the second
particle, which is initially at rest in the system S, in the system S moves with
velocity u. Consequently, the rst particle in this system moves with velocity
u (so that the total momentum is zero). Let the scattering angle in the S is .
Particle velocity magnitudes will not change after the scattering because the

scattering is elastic. Consequently, after the scattering V1,x


= u cos , V1,y
=

u sin , V2,x = u cos and V2,y = u sin . According to the velocity addition
formula, in the system S we will have
V1,x =

V2,x

V1,x
+u

1+

u
V1,x
c2

V1,y
1 + cos
sin


=u
=u
, V1,y =
,
V u
1 + u2 cos
u (1 + u2 cos )
u 1 + 1,x
2
c

1 cos
=u
1 u2 cos

and

V2,y

sin
= u
.
u (1 u2 cos )
65

Note that V1,x > 0 and V2,x > 0. Therefore, in the system S the scattering
angles 1 < 2 and 2 < 2 . Moreover,
tg 1 =
and
tg 2 =
Therefore,





V1,y




V1,x





V2,y




V2,x

sin
=
u (1 + cos )
sin
=
.
u (1 cos )

tg 1 tg 2 =

1
.
u2

Or

tg 1 = 2 ctg 2 = 2 tg
2 < tg
2 ,
u
u
2
2
because u > 1. Consequently, 1 < 2 2 and 1 + 2 < 2 .
!

5.2
S y-
h

sin .
py =
c
py = py S
h
py =
sin .
c
sin = sin

sin = sin .

In the system S , the photons momentum has the following y-component


h

py =
sin .
c

But py = py and in the system S,


py =

h
sin .
c

Consequently, sin = sin and

sin = sin .

66

5.3
K 0-. ,
= m2K ( c = 1)
q

p = 2 m2 =

v
u
mK u
u
t1

4m2
.
m2K

- -,
, = ( + px ) = ( + p cos ).
=

+ p
1 +
max
=
=
,
min
p
1

p
= =

v
u
u
u
t1

4m2
2
mK

- K 0-. K 0
1 1
=
.
+ 1
2

E = mc 2 ( c) 1

v
u
u
m2K 4m2
2 +1u
t
.
E = mK c
2
m2K ( + 1)2 m2
-

= p cos + .
px = px +
c

, px 0,

1. ..

1
4m2
2
= 1 2 .
+1
mK

m2K
1.

2m2

67


Consider the decay in the rest system of the K 0 meson. In this system, each
pion has an energy = m2K (we have assumed c = 1) and momentum
q

p =

m2

v
u
mK u
u
t1

4m2
2 .
mK

In the L-system, the energy of the -meson, which in the K 0 rest frame was
emitted at angle , will be = ( + px ) = ( + p cos ). Therefore,
max
+ p
1 +
=
=
=
,
min
p
1
where
=

p
=

v
u
u
u
t1

4m2
m2K

is the velocity of the -meson in the K 0 rest frame. Hence for the velocity of
the K 0-meson we get
1 1
.
=
+ 1
After some algebra, for the energy E = mc

1 2

(we have restored c), we get

v
u

u
m2K 4m2
2 +1u
t
.
E = mK c
2
m2K ( + 1)2 m2

Pions momentum in the L-frame is

= p cos + .
px = px +
c

It is evident that px 0, if

1. Therefore we should have

1
4m2
2
= 1 2 .
+1
mK
Hence

m2K
1.
2m2

68

5.4
4.3
u2 =

(~1 ~2)2 (~1 ~2 )2


.
(1 ~1 ~2 )2

, 1 = 2
u2

212(1 cos ) 12 sin2


=
.
(1 12 cos )2

2(1 cos) sin2 = 2(1 cos ) (1 cos )(1 + cos ) = (1 cos )2.

2
2
2 (1 cos )
u = 1
.
(1 12 cos )2

- E1 =
r

E
2,

p1 =
r
2

E12 m2 =

4m
p1

1 4m
E 2 ( c = 1). 1 = E1 = 1 E 2 . cos E. ,
mK = 2m 1 mK = 2m 1 cos
E
2

cos =

.
1

(1 )
2
u2 = (1
2 . 1 u =
1 )
1(1 1 ). ,

1 (1 1 ) = 1 (1 12 cos ) =

(112 )(1 2 )
(11 )2 ,

u =

1
p1 p2 ,
m2 1

p1 , p2 4- . 4- pK =
p1 + p2 m2K = (p1 + p2 )2 = 2m2 + 2p1 p2 , ,
p1 p2 =
,

m2K 2m2
.
2

1
m2K
u = 2 p1 p2 =
1
m
2m2

u =

v
u
u
t1

4m2
m2K
2m2
m2K

1
=
u2
1
69

E.
, , u =
V~1 V~2 = 1 2(1 ~1 ~2 )
m2K 2m2
= p1 p2 = E1E2 p~1 p~2 = m2 12 (1 ~1 ~2 ).
2
2

2m
.
, u = mK2m
2

:
. K 0- V , u.
mK = m + m u (, c = 1),
mK = m u u.

m2
= 2 (u + 1)2
mK
2

m
( ) = 1 =
mK
2

!2

u2 u2

m2 2
= 2 (u 1).
mK

m2
m2 2
m2 2
2m2
2
2
(u +1) 1 = 2 (u 1), 1 = 2 u +2u +1u +1 = 2 (u +1)
m2K
mK
mK
mK
, ,
m2K
u =
1.
2m2
"

For the relative velocity we have got in the problem 4.3


u2

(~1 ~2)2 (~1 ~2 )2


.
=
(1 ~1 ~2 )2

Since the decay is symmetric, 1 = 2 and we will have


u2

212(1 cos ) 12 sin2


=
.
(1 12 cos )2

But 2(1 cos) sin2 = 2(1 cos ) (1 cos )(1 + cos ) = (1 cos )2.
Consequently
2
2
2 (1 cos )
.
u = 1
(1 12 cos )2
70

After the decay,rthe -meson has the energy E1 =

E
2

4m2
E2

and momentum
p1 =
r
2

(c = 1 is assumed). Therefore 1 = Ep11 = 1 4m


.
E12 m2 = E2 1
E2
But cos is uniquely determined by E. Indeed, the laws of conservation of
energy mK = 2m 1 and momentum mK = 2m 1 cos imply

cos =

.
1

(1 )
2
Hence we get u2 = (1
2 . Consequently 1 u =
1 )
1(1 1 ). On the other hand,

1 (1 1 ) = 1 (1 12 cos ) =

(112 )(1 2 )
,
(11 )2

u =

1
p1 p2 ,
m2 1

where p1 , p2 are 4-momenta of the pions. From the conservation of 4-momentum


pK = p1 + p2 we get m2K = (p1 + p2)2 = 2m2 + 2p1 p2 and, therefore,
m2K 2m2
p1 p2 =
.
2

Finally,

m2K
1
1
u = 2 p1 p2 =
m
2m2

and
u =

v
u
u
t1

4m2
m2K
2m2
m2K

1
=
u2
1

does not depend on E.


More simply, this result can be obtained by noting that u = V~1 V~2 =
12 (1 ~1 ~2 ) and
m2K 2m2
= p1 p2 = E1E2 p~1 p~2 = m2 12 (1 ~1 ~2 ).
2
2

2m
even for asymmetric decay.
Consequently, u = mK2m
2

Another simple solution: consider the decay in the rest frame of one of the
pions. In this system, before the decay, K 0 meson is moving with some velocity
V , and the second pion after the decay has a velocity u. The conservation of
energy requires mK = m + m u (recall that c = 1) and conservation of
momentum mK = m u u. Consequently,

m2
= 2 (u + 1)2
mK
2

71

and

m
( ) = 1 =
mK
2

!2

u2 u2 =

m2 2
( 1).
m2K u

Hence
m2 2
m2 2
2m2
m2
2
2
(u +1) 1 = 2 (u 1), 1 = 2 u +2u +1u +1 = 2 (u +1)
m2K
mK
mK
mK
"

and, consequently,

m2K
u =
1.
2m2

5.5
u u = c2 , a u = 0.
a .
d
du0
= c .
a0 =
d
dt

d
3,
=
dt
2 1/2
- . .. = (1 )
. = d
dt

, a0 = c 4 .
~
d(V~ )
d()
d~u
~ +
~
3).
=
= c
= c(
d
dt
dt

n, ~n - .
.. , ~ = ~n ~ = ~

n(1 + 2 2) = c 4 ~
n.
~a = 2c~
n)
c 4~
, a = (c 4 ,
~a =

2( 2 1) = c2 6 2.
a a = (c 4)

Dierentiating u u = c2 , we immediately get a u = 0. Let us nd the


components of a .
du0
d
a0 =
= c .
d
dt
But
d
3,
=
dt
72

because = (1 2)1/2. Here =

Consequently, a0 = c 4 .

d
dt

is a known function by the condition.

~
d(V~ )
d()
d~u
~ +
~
3).
=
= c
= c(
d
dt
dt

n, where ~n is the unit


Because the motion is rectilinear, ~ = ~n and ~ = ~
vector in the direction of motion. Therefore
~a =

n(1 + 2 2) = c 4 ~
n.
~a = 2c~
n) and
c 4 ~
Consequently, a = (c 4 ,
2( 2 1) = c2 6 2.
a a = (c 4)

6
6.1
4-
h2
h2
h1 h1
,
~n) p2 = (
,
~n),
c
c
c
c
~n .
p1 = (

h2
h2
2
2
M c = (p1 + p2) = 2 [(1 + 2) (1 2) ] = 4 2 12 .
c
c

2h
M = 2 1 2 ,
c

1 2
~pc2
~
=c
~n.
V =
E
1 + 2
2 2

4-momenta of photons are


h2
h2
h1 h1
,
~n) and p2 = (
,
~n),
c
c
c
c
where ~n is the unit vector.
p1 = (

M 2 c2 = (p1 + p2)2 =

h2
h2
2
2
[(
+

)
]
=
4
1 2 .
1
2
1
2
c2
c2
73

Therefore, the mass of the system is


M=

2h
1 2 ,
c2

and its velocity equals to


1 2
p~c2
~
=c
~n.
V =
E
1 + 2
6.2
0 2. 4- p = k1 + k2 ( c = 1) m20 = 2k1 k2 = 2E1E2(1 cos ) = 4E1E2 sin2 2

m20
m20
2
sin =
=
.
2 4E1E2
4E1(E E1)

E1 = E2 = E2, E1 (E E1) , ,

m20
1
min
= 2 = 2 ,
sin
2
E
0
2

min = 2 arcsin 10 . , 0 . ..

+ 0 0 -. + 4- p . p p0 = p
(p p0 )2 = m2 2m E + m20 = m2 .
m2 + m20 m2
E=
2m
, m . +
m2 = (E+ + E , ~0)2 = 4(m2 + p2). ,
2
p = 0 m2
min = 4m .
Emax

m2 + m20 4m2
=
2m

-
min = 2 arcsin

2m0 m
.
m2 + m20 4m2
74


Consider the decay 0 2. From the 4-momentum conservation, p = k1 + k2 ,
we get (c = 1 is assumed) m20 = 2k1 k2 = 2E1E2(1 cos ) = 4E1E2 sin2 2
and
m20
m20
2
sin =
=
.
2 4E1E2
4E1(E E1)

When E1 = E2 = E2, the function E1(E E1 ) reaches its maximum and,


consequently, the minimum opening angle of the two gammas is determined by
sin2

m2 0
1
min
= 2 = 2 ,
2
E
0

or min = 2 arcsin 10 . The larger is 0 , the smaller is this angle. Consequently,

in the decay + 0 we should maximize the energy of the 0 -meson.


Consider the + subsystem as a single particle with 4-momentum p . Then
p p0 = p and (p p0 )2 = m2 2m E + m20 = m2 . Hence
m2 + m20 m2
E=
2m
and it is maximal when m is minimal. But in the center of mass system of
the + composite particle, m2 = (E+ + E , ~0)2 = 4(m2 + p2). This shows
2
that the minimum is achieved when p = 0 and m2
min = 4m . Therefore,
Emax

m2 + m20 4m2
=
2m

and the smallest opening angle of the two gammas is


min = 2 arcsin

2m0 m
.
m2 + m20 4m2

6.3

M1 , M2 . M12 =
(pe +pA )2 = m2 +M 2 +2ME, pA 4- . p1
k = p2, k 4- , p1,2 4- -
, M12 2M1 E =
75

1 M2
. M22 . .. E = M2M
1
E = 1E (1 + 1 cos ), 1 , 1
- . , E = 0
M2 . M2,min =
m + M, .. ( ) M2 = m2 + p2 + M 2 + p2, p
.

E,max

M12 (m + M)2
= 1
(1 + 1 ).
2M1

M12 (m + M)2 = m2 + M 2 + 2ME m2 M 2 2mM = 2M(E m)


1 (1 + 1 ) 12(1 + 1)
1
1
=
=
,
M1
M1 1
E + M 1 1
M1 1 = E + M - ,
p
1 = E+M
. , E,max =
M (Em)
. c ( c = 1):
E+M p
E,max =

M(E mc2 )
mMc2 ( 1)
.
=
p
E
m
+
M

m
+
M

2
c
c

E,max

m
= mc ( 1) 1 + (1 )
M
2

"

#1

1/2

V 2

, = 1 2
c

m
.. M
1, E,max .

E,max =

mc2 ( 1)
Mc2 (E mc2 )
r
=
.
m 1
E pc + Mc2
1 + M 1+

Consider the electron and the nucleus before the collision as a single composite
particle with mass M1 , and after the collision - as a single particle with mass
M2 . At that M12 = (pe + pA )2 = m2 + M 2 + 2ME, where pA is 4-momentum
of the stationary nucleus. From p1 k = p2 , where k is 4-momentum of the
photon, and p1,2 are 4-momenta of the electron-nucleus system before and after
the collision, we obtain in the center of mass frame: M12 2M1 E = M22 . Hence,
2
2
1 M2
. In
in this system, the energy of the bremsstrahlung photon is E = M2M
1
76

the L-system, we have E = 1 E (1 + 1 cos ), where 1, 1 refer to the


system of electron-nucleus before the collision. It is clear that E is maximal
when = 0 and M2 is minimal. But M2,min = m + M, because In the rest
frame of the electron-nucleus system (after the collision) M2 = m2 + p2 +

M 2 + p2 , where p is the magnitude of momentum of the particles in this


system. Therefore,
E,max = 1

M12 (m + M)2
(1 + 1 ).
2M1

But M12 (m + M)2 = m2 + M 2 + 2ME m2 M 2 2mM = 2M(E m)


and
1 (1 + 1 ) 12(1 + 1)
1
1
=
=
,
M1
M1 1
E + M 1 1
where M1 1 = E + M is the energy of the electron-nucleus system before the
p
is the velocity of the center of mass of this system.
collision, and 1 = E+M
M (Em)
Consequently, E,max = E+M p . If we restore the light velocity c (above we
have assumed c = 1), we get
E,max

M(E mc2 )
mMc2 ( 1)
= E
.
p =
m
+
M

m
+
M

2
c
c

Finally,
m
E,max = mc2 ( 1) 1 + (1 )
M
"

#1

1/2

V 2

, where = 1 2
c

m
Because M
1, E,max is almost equal to the kinetic energy of the electron.
The answer can also be rewritten in the following form

E,max

Mc2 (E mc2 )
mc2 ( 1)
r
=
.
=
m 1
E pc + Mc2
1 + M 1+

6.4
A B +B A.
B + B A . B + -

B sin
cos + A

=
.
1,x = B
1,y
1 + B A cos
A (1 + B A cos )
77

B :
2,x

B cos + A
B sin
=
1,y =
.
1 B A cos
A (1 B A cos )

B + B - 1 2 (1 , 2 ),
B sin
B sin
tg 2 =
.
tg 1 =
A (A + B cos )
A (A B cos )

= 1 + 2
tg =

2A B A sin
tg 1 + tg 2
= 2 2
.
1 tg 1 tg 2
A (A B2 cos2 ) B2 sin2

A2 (A2 B2 cos2 ) B2 sin2 = A2 (A2 B2) + B2 (A2 1) sin2 =


A2 [A2 B2 + A2 B2 sin2 ], .. A2 1 = A2 A2 .

2A B
sin
tg =
.
A A2 B2 + A2 B2 sin2
f (x) =

x
A2 B2 + A2 B2x2


x0 =

v
u
u
t

1
1

.
B2 A2
78

, A > B , .. - . x = sin , , x20 1,


A2

B2

,
1 B2

A B B = m1B p, p B q
A. r
mA = 2 p2 + m2B .

p = mB

m2A
4m2B

1
A

v
u
u
u
t

m2A
1.
4m2B

+ x20 1 ,
s
m2
4m2

1 > 1. 0 , tg

0
sin 0 =
,
tg max
1,

K +K ,
, >

1
1
2.
2

1
2 2 2/
q
=
.
=

2(2 2)
2 2
()
max

v
u
u
u
t

m2
4m2K

1
= .

1 2

m2
4m2K

1 < 1 -

1, x0

(.. ). tg
79

=
.

2K
.

2K
max ( K +K )
.
max ( + )

, B2B2 = B2 1 =

4m2B
.
m2A

..

2 K
1
2K
=
2 + 2 2 .
2 K

tg max
(K)
, max

2,

m2A
4m2B

1. .. B =

mA
2mB

B = 1

1
2
B

, ,
+

max ( K K )

max ( + )

v
u
4m u
u
t1
m

4m2K
0.14.
m2

Consider the decay A B + B in the rest frame of the particle A. Suppose in


this system the particle B + has a velocity B and ies at an angle relative
to the direction of motion of A in the laboratory frame. Then the velocity of
B + in the L-frame will be
1,x =

B sin
B cos + A
and

=
.
1,y
1 + B A cos
A (1 + B A cos )

While the velocity of B :


2,x

B sin
B cos + A
and 1,y =
.
=
1 B A cos
A (1 B A cos )

80

Hence B + and B are emitted in the L-system at angles 1 and 2 (1 is reckoned


counterclockwise, and 2 is counted clockwise) satisfying
tg 1 =

B sin
B sin
and
tg

=
.
2
A (A + B cos )
A (A B cos )

The opening angle is = 1 + 2 and

tg 1 + tg 2
2A B A sin
tg =
.
= 2 2
1 tg 1 tg 2
A (A B2 cos2 ) B2 sin2

But A2 (A2 B2 cos2 ) B2 sin2 = A2 (A2 B2 ) + B2(A2 1) sin2 =


A2 [A2 B2 + A2 B2 sin2 ], because A2 1 = A2 A2 . Therefore,
tg =
the function

sin
2A B
.
A A2 B2 + A2 B2 sin2

f (x) =

A2

is shown in the gure below.

B2

x
+ A2 B2x2

It has the maximum at the point


x0 =

v
u
u
t

1
1
2.
2
B A

Note that in our case A > B , since the energy of the -meson is very large.
In addition x = sin and, therefore, we should have x20 1, or
A2

B2

,
1 B2
81

which gives A B B = m1B p , where p is the magnitude of the momentum


of B in the rest frame of the particle A. But in this system,
the energy
r
q
2
mA
conservation law gives mA = 2 p2 + m2B . Hence p = mB 4m
2 1 and we
B
obtain the condition
v
u
u m2
u
A t A2 1.
4mB
In the case
of the + decay, the condition x20 1 does not restrict ,
s
because

m2
4m2

1 > 1. When varies from 0 to , tg is changing as follows

The maximum opening angle corresponds to 0 with


sin 0 =

v
u
u
u
t

1
1

.
2 2

Hence,
tg max
Since 1, then

2 2 2/
1
q
=
.
=

2(2 2)
2 2
q

()
max

But for the decay K +K ,


meson, when >

m2
4m2K

.
=

1 2

s
m2
4m2K

1 < 1 and for very high-energy -

1, the maximum of x0 lies outside the physical

domain (that is, it is not attained at some ). In this case, tg is changing as


shown in the gure below and, hence, the maximum opening angle corresponds
to = 2 , that is, to the symmetric decay. Then
tg max

1
2K
2 K
=
2 + 2 2 .
2 K

82

(K)
Consequently, max

2K
.

Therefore, in the limit of very high-energy -meson,

max ( K +K )
2K
.
max ( + )

As was already found, B2B2 = B2 1 =


r

B = 1

1
2
B

= 1

4m2B
m2A .

m2A
4m2B

1. That is, B =

mA
2mB

and

Therefore, nally,
v
u

4m2K
4m u
max ( K +K )
u
t
1

0.14.
max ( + )
m
m2
6.5
4- p = q0 + q+ + q ( c = 1)
(p q0)2 = m2 + m20 2m E0 = (q+ + q)2 = 2m2 + 2(E+E p+p cos ).
+
cos =

2E1E m2 m20 + 2m2 + 2m (m E1 E )


q
q
,
2 E12 m2 E2 m2

E+ = E1 E0 = m E+ E. cos2 1,
4(E12 m2 )(E2 m2 ) [2E1E m2 m20 +2m2 +2m (m E1 E)]2.
, 4E2 (m2 2m E1 + m2 ) + 4E(E1
m )(m2 2m E1 m20 + 2m2 ) + (m2 2m E1 m20 + 2m2 )2 4m2 (E12
m2 ) 0.
x1 =

E1
E
m
m0
, x=
, =
0 =
.
m
m
m
m

4x2(1 2x1 + 2 ) 4x(1 x1 )(1 2x1 20 + 22) + (1 2x1 20 +


22 )2 + 42 (x21 2 ) 0. 16(1 x1)2(1 2x1 20 + 22 )2 16(1 2x1 +
2 )(1 2x1 20 + 22)2 642(x21 2 )(1 2x1 + 2 ) = 16(x21 2 )[(1 2x1
83

20 + 22)2 42 (1 2x1 + 2 )] (1 2x1 20 + 22 )2 42(1 2x1 + 2 ) =


(1 2x1 20 )2 + 44 + 42(1 2x1 20 ) 42(1 2x1 + 2 ) = (1 2x1 20 )2
42 20 = (1 2x1 20 20 )(1 2x1 20 + 20 ). , ,
xmin x xmax ,

(1 x1)(1 2x1 20 + 22) D


,
xmin =
2(1 2x1 + 2 )

(1 x1)(1 2x1 20 + 22 ) + D
xmax =
,
2(1 2x1 + 2 )

D = (x21 2 )(1 2x1 20 20 )(1 2x1 20 + 20 ).

The conservation of 4-momentum p = q0 + q+ + q gives (c = 1 is assumed)


(p q0)2 = m2 + m20 2m E0 = (q+ + q)2 = 2m2 + 2(E+E p+p cos ).
Hence, the opening angle between + and is
2E1E m2 m20 + 2m2 + 2m (m E1 E )
q
q
,
cos =
2 E12 m2 E2 m2

since E+ = E1 and E0 = m E+ E. But cos2 1, which gives the


condition 4(E12 m2 )(E2 m2 ) [2E1E m2 m20 + 2m2 + 2m (m
E1 E)]2. After some algebra, we get 4E2 (m2 2m E1 + m2 ) + 4E(E1
m )(m2 2m E1 m20 + 2m2 ) + (m2 2m E1 m20 + 2m2 )2 4m2 (E12
m2 ) 0. It is convenient to use dimensionless quantities
x1 =

E
m
m0
E1
, x=
, =
0 =
.
m
m
m
m

Then 4x2(1 2x1 + 2 ) 4x(1 x1 )(1 2x1 20 + 22) + (1 2x1 20 +


22 )2 + 42 (x21 2 ) 0. But 16(1 x1)2(1 2x1 20 + 22)2 16(1 2x1 +
2 )(1 2x1 20 + 22)2 642(x21 2 )(1 2x1 + 2 ) = 16(x21 2 )[(1 2x1
20 + 22 )2 42 (1 2x1 + 2 )] and (1 2x1 20 + 22 )2 42 (1 2x1 + 2 ) =
(1 2x1 20 )2 + 44 + 42 (1 2x1 20 ) 42 (1 2x1 + 2 ) = (1 2x1
20 )2 42 20 = (1 2x1 20 20 )(1 2x1 20 + 20 ). Therefore, nally,
xmin x xmax , where

(1 x1)(1 2x1 20 + 22) D


xmin =
,
2(1 2x1 + 2 )
84

xmax
and

(1 x1)(1 2x1 20 + 22 ) +
=
2(1 2x1 + 2 )

D = (x21 2 )(1 2x1 20 20 )(1 2x1 20 + 20 ).

7
7.1
2L,
S tL = Lu , xL = L tR = Lu , xR = L.
(S )
L V
L V
= V
+ 2 L tR = V
L ,
u c
u c2
.. . AA : ,
V
, = 2L/
cV .
!

tL

1 V
L
V
1
2
1 V
= LV
= tL +2V > tL .
2 +2 1+
+ 2+
= LV
u c
c
c
u c
c
c
, S AA ,
,
.
tR +

"

!#

"

In the system S, if the proper length of the gutter is 2L, the coordinates of the
events of falling of left and right spheres are tL = Lu , xL = L and tR = Lu ,
xR = L. In the observers system (S ), we will have
tL

= V

L V
+ L
u c2

and
85

tR

= V

L V
L ,
u c2
!

that is, the right sphere falls earlier. But after its fall, the state of current in the
cross-section AA can not change instantaneously: information that the electric
element is no longer short circuited arrives at AA not earlier than after the
V
time = 2L/
cV .

But
tR +

= LV

"

V
1
1 V
2 +2 1+
u c
c
c

!#

= LV

"

L
1 V
2
= tL +2V > tL .
+ 2+
u c
c
c
#

Consequently, in the system S , by the time when the cross-section AA will


become aware that a short circuit has disappeared, the left sphere, too, is
already fallen down and the bulb will not light up.
7.2
, V .
= (1 ).
, ,
. -
= (1 ) = 2(1 )2 =
, = Z,
Z=

1
2
=
1.
1+
1+

Z .
dZ
d
2
=
.
2
dt
(1 + ) dt

g
d
= 3
dt
c
86

1
.
1+

( - 3- ).
u

u1
dZ
1
2g
2g
2g
t
Z.
= 3
=

(1

)
=

(1

)
dt
c (1 + )2
c
1+
c
v

t = t xc = xc ( ). dt = dt dx
c = (1 )dt
Z
dZ
2g
=
Z,
dt
c

g
dZ
= dt.
c
2 Z
,
t = 0, x g= 0
, , t = 0, Z(0) = 1 (.. (0) = 0), Z1 = c t .
x t . x = c(t ) t =

2

t xc = . , Z = 1 gc Z = 1 gc . ,
g
= 1
c

!2

Let the signal reaches the rocket at a time when the velocity of the rocket is
equal to V . In a co-moving inertial reference frame, the frequency of the signal
will be = (1 ). After the reection, in this system, the frequency is not
changed, while the photon momentum changes sign. Therefore, in the L-system,
frequency of the reected signal will be
ref = (1 ) = 2(1 )2 =
Hence, ref = Z, where
Z=

1
2
=
1.
1+
1+

Lets see how Z varies with time.


d
2
dZ
=
.
2
dt
(1 + ) dt
But

d
g
= 3
dt
c
87

1
.
1+

(acceleration of the rocket in the L-system is 3-times less). Therefore,


u

u1
dZ
1
2g
2g
2g
t
= 3
= (1 )
= (1 ) Z.
dt
c (1 + )2
c
1+
c
v

Let us introduce the retarded time t = t xc = xc (recall the denition of the


light-cone variables). Then dt = dt dx
c = (1 )dt and the equation for Z
can be rewritten as
dZ
2g
Z,
=
dt
c
or
g
dZ
= dt.
c
2 Z
Integrating and taking into account that t = 0, x = 0 at the
initial time, and,
consequently, t = 0, Z(0) = 1 (because (0) = 0), we get Z 1 = gc t .
The signal covered the distance x during the time t . Therefore, x = c(t )

2

and t = t xc = . Finally, Z = 1 gc and Z = 1 gc . Consequently,


g
ref = 1
c

!2

7.3

pe,x = pe,0
eEt pp,x = eEt. , pe,x + pp,x = p0, p0 = pe,0 .
. Ee = E0 eEl Ep = mp c2 + eEl. ..
Ee + Ep = E0 + mp c2 . , 4- ( c = 1) (E0 +mp , p0, 0, 0). 4-
(E0 + mp )2 p20 = (pe + pp + qe+ + qe )2, pe, pp 4-
88

, qe+ , qe 4-
. (E0 + mp )2 p20 = E02 p20 + 2E0mp + m2p = m2e + m2p + 2E0mp
(pe +pp +qe+ +qe )2 (me +mp +2me )2 = 9m2e +m2p +6me mp (
(pe + pp + qe+ + qe )2 , ). , m2e +m2p +2E0mp 9m2e +m2p +6memp
( c)

m
e
E0 me c2 3 + 4 .
mp

The electron and proton momenta before the collision will be pe,x = pe,0 eEt
and pp,x = eEt. Therefore, pe,x + pp,x = p0 , where p0 = pe,0 is the initial
momentum of the electron. Work done by electrical force is determined solely
by the nal and initial positions. Therefore, before the collision, energies of
the particles will be Ee = E0 eEl and Ep = mp c2 + eEl. That is, Ee + Ep =
E0 + mp c2 . Consequently, the total 4-momentum before the collision will be (we
have put c = 1) (E0 + mp , p0, 0, 0). Conservation of the 4-momentum implies
(E0 + mp )2 p20 = (pe + pp + qe+ + qe )2 , where pe , pp are 4-momenta of the
electron and proton after the collision, and qe+ , qe are 4-momenta of the new
particles. But (E0 + mp )2 p20 = E02 p20 + 2E0mp + m2p = m2e + m2p + 2E0mp
and (pe + pp + qe+ + qe )2 (me + mp + 2me )2 = 9m2e + m2p + 6me mp (the
invariant mass (pe + pp + qe+ + qe )2 is minimal when in the center of mass
system all particles are at rest). Hence m2e + m2p + 2E0mp 9m2e + m2p + 6memp
and (we have restored c)

me
E0 me c2 3 + 4 .
mp

89

7.4
. a = g3 , d
= cg 3 . = 3
dt

d
+ = (1

3 = g.
() =
+ 2 2) =
dt
c
r

2 2
, = gtc = 1 + 2 2 = 1 + gc2t .

L=

V (t)dt = c

dt = c

Z
0

2
Z

c 3
c2

d =
g
2g

(1 x)

3/2

c2
dx = ( 1).
g

t =

Z
0

dt Z
=

dt
r

1+

g 2 t2
c2

c
g
arcsh .
g
c

gt
c
= sh
g
c
..

(t) =

v
u
u
t

g 2 t2
1
gt
2 gt
2

, (t) = 1 2 = th
,
1 + 2 = ch
c
c

gt

(t) = th
.
c
S
S . t = 0 S S
S ,

c gt

.
t0 = t = t th

g
c

: S 1
t = 0
c2 gt gt c2 1
c2 gt
c2

 
ch
1 th
sh
=
,
x0 = L V =
g
c
g
c
c
g ch gtc
g

S , S 1 t1 = 0.
S1 , x0 ( ). , t = t1 = 0 S1 S 1 .



V

x1 = (x 1 + V t 1 ) t1 = t 1 + c2 x 1 . x = x0 + x1
90

(, x0 < 0) t = t1. , x1 = x = x

t 1 = t t 0 = t t 0 = gc th gtc .
gt c2 2 gt

x + th
x1 = ch
c
g
c

c2
gt c2 2 gt c2
1

  =
x = x1 + x0 = + ch
x + th
+
g
c
g
c
g ch2 gtc

gt c2 c2

= ch
x +
.
c
g
g

g
x
c
gt
gt
gt
gt c
t = t1 = ch th + th = sh 1 + 2 x .
c
g
c
c
c
g
c
c

"

, (ct , x, y , z )
(ct, x, y, z)
g
gt c2 c2
c gt

1 + 2 x , x = ch
x +
, y = y, z = z.
t = sh
g
c
c
c
g
g

"

First, some relations for the rocket. Since in the earths frame the rocket
g
acceleration is a = g3 , then d
= 3 and
dt = c 3 . But
d
+ = (1

3 = g.
() =
+ 2 2) =
dt
c
r

2 2
Consequently, = gtc = 1 + 2 2 = 1 + gc2t . During the time span ,
the rocket have ied the distance
L=

Z
0

V (t)dt = c

dt = c

Z
0

c 3
c2

d =
g
2g

2
Z

(1 x)

3/2

At that, the proper time elapsed in the rocket equals to

t =

Z
0

dt Z
=

dt
r

1+

91

g 2 t2
c2

g
c
arcsh .
g
c

c2
dx = ( 1).
g

Hence,

c
gt
= sh
g
c
that is,

and (t) =

v
u
u
t

g 2 t2
1
gt 2
2 gt

1 + 2 = ch
, (t) = 1 2 = th
,
c
c

gt

(t) = th
.
c
Coordinates in the rockets frame S coincide with the coordinates in the instantanous comoving frame S . However, at the time t = 0, the origins of the systems
S and S do not coincide and the clock S does not read zero, but some other
time

c gt

.
t0 = t = t th

g
c
Therefore, we consider two other inertial reference frames. At the time t = 0,
the origin of the rst frame S 1 has the same x-coordinate

c2 1
gt
c2
gt
gt
c2
c2
 
,
x0 = L V = ch 1 th sh =
g
c
g
c
c
g ch gtc
g

as the origin of the frame S , but the clocks of S 1 read at that the time t1 = 0.
The second frame S1 is at rest with respect to the Earth, but its origin is located
at the point x0 (in the Earths frame). Therefore, at the moment t = t1 = 0,
the origins of S1 and S 1 coincide and, hence, the coordinates in these systems
are
related by
standard Lorentz transformations x1 = (x1 + V t 1) and t1 =


t 1 + cV2 x 1 . But x = x0 + x1 (note that x0 < 0) and
t = t1 . On the other
 

hand, x 1 = x = x and t 1 = t t 0 = t t 0 = c th gt . Consequently,


g

gt c2 2 gt

x1 = ch
x + th
c
g
c

and

c2
c2
c2
gt
gt
1
  =
x = x1 + x0 = + ch x + th2 +
g
c
g
c
g ch2 gtc

gt c2 c2

= ch
x +
.
c
g
g
Moreover,

g
x
c
gt
gt
gt
gt c
t = t1 = ch th + th = sh 1 + 2 x .
c
g
c
c
c
g
c
c

92

"

Finally, we nd that the coordinates of the event (ct , x, y , z ) in the rockets


frame and the coordinates (ct, x, y, z) of the same event in the Earth frame are
related as follows
c
g
c2
c2
gt
gt
t = sh 1 + 2 x , x = ch x + , y = y , z = z .
g
c
c
c
g
g

"

7.5
. dt
dl = (c V )dt.
dt0 = dlc = (1 )dt. ,
E = N dt0 = N (1 )dt, N .
E ,

E + E = E + E + dE Ec + p = Ec + p + dp. d(E + cp) =


2E = 2N (1 )dt. E = mc2 p = mc.
t = t xc , dt = (1 )dt,
2N
d
.
[(1 + )] =
dt
mc2

v
u
u1
t

2N
+
t + 1,
=
1
mc2
.. t = 0 = 0. ,
(1 + ) =

=

x=

Zt

2N
mc2 t

2N
mc2 t

+1

+1

cdt = c

=
1

x 1 Z 2N
=
t + 1
c
20
mc2

!2

Zt
0

2

2N
mc2 t

2

93

+1

dt .
1

+1
2

mc2

1 dt =
12N

2

2N
t + 1
mc2

!3

t
.
2

x
x mc2 2N
2 + t = t + =
t + 1
c
c
6N
mc2

2N
N
t + 1
6 2 t+ =
mc
mc2

t = t xc .
,

!3

!3

1 ,

1,

9 109 1015
1
Nx
=
=
.
mc3
1 27 1024
3
2 ct
ct
+1 =
1 +1
2
x
3 x
!

"

#3

1.

2 ct
1 + 1 = .
3 x
3 + 2 = 3 . 3( + 1) = 3 + 1 =
( + 1)( 2 + 1). , ( + 1)( 2 2) = ( + 1)2( 2) = 0.
= 2, .. > 0.
!

ct 3 1 5
5 x 5 1015
5
=
= t=
=
= 107 .
8
x
2
2
2c
2 3 10
6

, 1015 56 107 .

Lets derive the equation of motion for the mirror. Over the time dt, a portion
of the laser beam with the length dl = (c V )dt will fall at the mirror. The
laser will emit this portion of the beam during the time dt0 = dlc = (1 )dt.
Therefore, the light energy which fell at the mirror equals to E = N dt0 =
N (1 )dt, where N is the power of the laser. If the part of this energy, E ,
was reected, the conservation laws of energy and momentum will have the

forms E + E = E + E + dE and Ec + p = Ec + p + dp, respectively. Hence


d(E + cp) = 2E = 2N (1 )dt. But E = mc2 and p = mc. Introducing
the retarded time t = t xc and noting that dt = (1 )dt, we get
d
2N
.
[(1 + )] =
dt
mc2
Therefore,
(1 + ) =

v
u
u1
t

2N
+
t + 1,
=
1
mc2
94

because at the initial moment t = 0 and = 0. Hence,


=
The mirror will y a distance
x=

Zt

2N
mc2 t

2N
mc2 t

+1

+1

cdt = c

=
1

and
t

x 1 Z 2N
=
t + 1
c
20
mc2
Hence

!2

Zt
0

But

2

2N
mc2 t

2

+1

dt .
1

+1
2

2

mc2

1 dt =
12N

2N
t + 1
mc2

!3

!3

x mc2 2N
x
t + 1
2 + t = t + =
c
c
6N
mc2

or

N
2N
6 2 t+ =
t + 1
mc
mc2

!3

t
.
2

1 ,

1,

where t = t xc . But

Consequently,

Nx
9 109 1015
1
=
=
.
mc3
1 27 1024
3
ct
2 ct
2
+1 =
1 +1
x
3 x
!

Let

"

#3

1.

2 ct
1 + 1 = .
3 x
For we get the equation 3 +2 = 3. Or 3( +1) = 3 +1 = ( +1)( 2 +1).
Therefore, ( + 1)( 2 2) = ( + 1)2( 2) = 0. Only the root = 2 is
appropriate, because > 0. Therefore,
!

5 x 5 1015
5 7
ct 3 1 5
=
= and t =
=
=
10 sec.
x
2
2
2c
2 3 108
6

Thus, the mirror will cover the distance 1015 m in 65 107 sec.
95

8
8.1

x y.
x- , O y. ..
, AO = OB , , A O = OB = y2 .
2
2
OB B x2 + y4 = l4 .
.

Let the coordinates of the upper end of the rod are x and y at some time.
In the x-direction, no force is acting on the rod. Therefore, the center of mass
96

of the rod O will fall down vertically and will always be located on the y-axis.
Since the rod is homogeneous, AO = OB, and hence, A O = OB = y2 . Then
2
2
we get from the right-angled triangle OB B the relation x2 + y4 = l4 . This
is just the equation of the trajectory of the upper end of the rod and it is an
ellipse.
8.2

e2
(2z)2 ,

z
2

. , m
z = 4ze 2 . z,

md 2
e2 d 1
e2
mz z =
.
(z ) = 2 z =
2 dt
4z
4 dt z
!

m2z
e2

const = 4H

e2
4z

= const. z = H z = 0. ,

mz 2
e2 1
1
.
=

2
4 z H
(, z < 0, .. z
)
v
!
u 2
u e
dz
1
1
t
.
=

dt
2m z H

!

T =

Z0

dz
r

e2
2m

1
z

1
H

ZH
0

dz
r

e2
2m

1
z

1
H

.

..

v
u
u1
t

v
u

u 1
1

= t tg ,
z H
H

1
1
1
= (1 + tg2 ) =
z = H cos2 .
2
z
H
H cos

H
2mH
T =2
l

/2
Z

cos2 d =

97

H
l

v
u
u mH
t


The electron is attracted to the plane with a force

e2
(2z)2 ,

where z is the distance


2

from the plane. Hence, the equation of motion of the electron is m


z = 4ze 2 .
Multiply both sides by z,

e2 d 1
e2
md 2
.
(z ) = 2 z =
mz z =
2 dt
4z
4 dt z
!

e
Hence m2z 4z
= const. But at the initial moment z = H and z = 0. Therefore,
2
e
and
const = 4H
!
mz 2
e2 1
1
.
=

2
4 z H
Consequently (note that z < 0, because the z-axis is directed upward)
v
u

u e2
1
dz
1
.
= t

dt
2m z H
!

We can separate the variables and integrate


T =

Z0

dz
r

e2
2m

1
z

1
H

ZH
0

dz
r

e2
2m

1
z

1
H

.

If we make the substitution


v
u
u1
t

v
u

u 1
1

= t tg ,
z H
H

that is,

1
1
1
= (1 + tg2 ) =
and z = H cos2 ,
2
z
H
H cos

we get
H
T =2
2mH
l

/2
Z

cos2 d =

H
l

8.3

mx 2
x
= E.
+ U0 tg2
2
a
!

98

v
u
u mH
t


v
u

dx u
2
x
E U0 tg2
=t
dt
m
a
( , t = 0 x = 0)
t=

m
2E

Zx
0

!!

dy
r

U0
E

tg

 
y
a

m
2E

Zx
0

 
y
a dy
 .
2 y
E+U0
sin
E
a

cos
r


v
u
uE
t

y
+ U0
= sin .
sin
E
a
!

v
u

1u
y
t E + U0
dy = cos d
cos
a
E
a

t=

v
u
u
at

m
2(E + U0)

Zmax
cos d

cos

sin max =
,
v
u
uE
t

, ,
x=

v
u
uE
t

v
u
u
at

m
max ,
2(E + U0)

x
+ U0
.
sin
E
a
!

v
u

u 2(E + U0 ) t
+ U0
x

= sin
sin
E
a
m
a
!

v
u
u
a arcsin t

v
u

u
E
t 2(E + U0 ) t
.

sin
E + U0
m
a

The energy is conserved


x
mx 2
= E.
+ U0 tg2
2
a
!

Therefore,
v
u

dx u
2
x
E U0 tg2
=t
dt
m
a
99

!!

and (the origin of the coordinate system is chosen in such a way that at the
initial moment t = 0 we have x = 0)
t=

m
2E

Zx

dy
r

Let us substitute

v
u
uE
t

Then

v
u
1u
tE

a
and
t=
where

 
U0
2 y
tg
E
a

v
u
u
at

m
2E

 
y
a dy
 .
E+U0
2 y
E sin
a

cos
r

y
+ U0
= sin .
sin
E
a
!

Zmax
cos d

cos

sin max =
Consequently,

v
u
uE
t

+ U0
x
=
sin
E
a
!

and, nally,
x=

Zx

y
+ U0
dy = cos d
cos
E
a

m
2(E + U0)

v
u
uE
t

v
u
u
a arcsin t

v
u
u
at

m
max ,
2(E + U0)

x
+ U0
.
sin
E
a
!

v
u
u
t 2(E
sin

+ U0 ) t

m
a

v
u

u 2(E + U0 ) t
E

t
.

sin
E + U0
m
a

8.4
. x .

mV 2
= mgx V 2x.
2

2
mV2 = mV V mV dV
dx = mg V .

H=

VZmax
0

1
2
2 mdV

2
m
Vmax
.
= ln 1
mg V 2
2
mg

100

mV dV
mgV 2

= dx


2
Vmax


mg 
2H
m
=
1e
.

.. , . . x .
mV 2
= mgx V 2 x.

2
mV

dV
dx

= (mg + V 2 ).
h=

Zh
0

dx =

Z0

Vmax

1
2
2 mdV

2
m
Vmax
.
=
ln 1 +
mg + V 2
2
mg

2
Vmax
,

m 
2H
m
ln 2 e
h=
.
2

We rst consider the downward motion of the ball assuming that the x-axis is
directed downward. The change of the kinetic energy of the ball is determined
by the energy balance equation
mV 2
= mgx V 2x.

2
2

But mV2 = mV V and we get mV


H=

VZmax
0

dV
dx

= mg V 2. Hence

1
2
2 mdV

mV dV
mgV 2

= dx and

2
m
Vmax
.
= ln 1
mg V 2
2
mg

This determines the velocity of the ball before the impact


2
Vmax


mg 
2H
m
.
=
1e

Because the impact is elastic, the ball will bounce with the same velocity. We
now consider the upward movement with the x axis directed upwards. We will
have
mV 2

= mgx V 2 x.
2
101

Or mV dV
= (mg + V 2). Consequently, the lifting height of the ball equals
dx
to

1
2
2
Z0
Zh
mdV
m
V
max
2
.
=
ln 1 +
h = dx =
2
mg
+
V
2
mg
0
V
max

2
Substituting Vmax
, we nally get


m 
2H
m
h=
ln 2 e
.
2

8.5
,

~
dL
dt

= ~r

d~
p
dt ,

..

d~r
dt

p~ = V~ p~ = 0.

~
d~p e ~
~ = eg V ~r .
= V B
dt
c
c r3
,

~
dL
eg
= 3 ~r (V~ ~r).
dt
cr
~r (V~ ~r) = r2 V~ (~r V~ )~r,
~
eg ~r ~r ~r
dL
=
3 ~r .
dt
c r
r

~r ~r =

1 d
r 2)
2 dt (~

1 d
2
2 dt (r )

= rr.

!
~
eg ~r
r eg d ~r
dL
.
=
~r =
dt
c r r2
c dt r

d ~ eg ~r
~ eg ~r = L
~ 0 eg ~r0 ,
L
=0 L
dt
c r
c r
c r0
L0 r0 -
. ,
!

~ =L
~ 0 + eg ~r ~r0 .
L
c r r0
!

Note that

~
dL
dt

= ~r

d~
p
,
dt

because

d~r
dt

p~ = V~ p~ = 0. But

~
d~p e ~
~ = eg V ~r .
= V B
dt
c
c r3
102

Therefore,

~
dL
eg
= 3 ~r (V~ ~r).
dt
cr
~ (~r V~ )~r, we get
Using ~r (V~ ~r) = r2 V

~
dL
eg ~r ~r ~r
=
3 ~r .
dt
c r
r

However, ~r ~r =

1 d
r 2)
2 dt (~

1 d
2
2 dt (r )

= rr.
Therefore,

!
~
dL
eg ~r
r eg d ~r
.
=
~r =
dt
c r r2
c dt r

Or

d ~ eg ~r
~ eg ~r = L
~ 0 eg ~r0 ,
L
=0 L
dt
c r
c r
c r0
where L0 and r0 are the values of the angular momentum and radius vector at
the initial time. Finally,
!

~ =L
~ 0 + eg ~r ~r0 .
L
c r r0
!

8.6
5.29 [1],
eEc2 t
Vx = q 2
Vy =
E0 + (eEct)2

x=

Zt

Vx dt =

y=

Zt
0

1
2eE

Zt
0

v
u
u
E0
u
t1

d(eEct)
=
eE
E02 + (eEct)2

E0V0 Zt
Vy dt =
eEc 0

E0V0
.
E02 + (eEct)2

eEct
E0

!2

E0V0
d(eEct)
eEct
=
arcsh
.
eEc
E0
E02 + (eEct)2

eEct
eEcy
= sh
E0
E0 V0
eEcy
E0
ch
1 .
x=
eE
E0 V0
!

103

according to the solution of the problem 5.29 from [1],


eEc2 t
Vx = q 2
Vy =
E0 + (eEct)2

Hence
x=

Zt

Vx dt =

and

Zt

1
2eE

Zt
0

E0V0
.
E02 + (eEct)2

v
u
u
E0
u
t1

d(eEct)
=
eE
E02 + (eEct)2

E0V0 Zt
Vy dt =
eEc 0

eEct
E0

!2

E0V0
d(eEct)
eEct
=
arcsh
.
2 + (eEct)2
eEc
E
E
0
0
0
From the second equation, we can determine
y=

eEct
eEcy
= sh
E0
E0 V0
and substitute this into the rst equation. As a result we get the equation of
the trajectory:
!
eEcy
E0
ch
x=
1 .
eE
E0 V0

9
9.1
x.
V = V S1 x + S2 x = V (S1 S2)x,
p =

p
p
pV
=
(S1 S2)x.

p
+
1
V
V
1 V (S1 S2 )x


F = S1p + S2 p S1p S2 p = (S1 S2 )(p p)

p
(S1 S2 )2x.
V

, k =

v
s
u
uk
p
t
=
(S1 S2).
=
m
mV
104

p
V (S1

S2 ) 2


Let the Pistons moved to the right by x. The volume of air between the pistons
becomes V = V S1 x + S2 x = V (S1 S2)x, and the pressure
p =

pV
p
p
=
(S1 S2)x.

p
+
1
V
1 V (S1 S2 )x
V

The restoring force equals to


F = S1p + S2 p S1p S2 p = (S1 S2 )(p p)

p
(S1 S2 )2x.
V

Consequently, the eective spring constant is k = Vp (S1 S2 )2 and we get for


the frequency
v
s
u
uk
p
t
=
(S1 S2).
=
m
mV
9.2
, AB
BC .

, , V , A
(AB BC . A AB ). ,
. C x, AB = 21 (L+x)
( L = x + 2BC). 2- , x u,



M
M
V0
1
2u. , 2 (L x) L 2u = 2 V0 . x = 1 2u L
V0
AB = L 1
.
4u
!

.
[21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27].
105


In the limit of innite exibility of the rope, there are no elastic interactions
between AB and BC parts of the rope.

Consequently, after the initial impulse, which gives the top half of the rope its
initial velocity V , The tension at the point A will disappear (AB is at rest and
BC does not exert a force on it. Therefore, at the point A there is no force acting
on AB too). This implies that the momentum of the rope is conserved. If the
distance between C and the left-end of the tube is x, then AB = 12 (L + x) (this
follows from L = x+2BC). Therefore, the velocity of the inection point is two
times less than x and when it is equal to u, the top half of the rope moves
with


M
M
V0
1
the velocity 2u. Consequently, 2 (L x) L 2u = 2 V0 . Hence x = 1 2u L
and
!
V0
.
AB = L 1
4u
Real ropes may exhibit quite a dierent behaviour. See the discussion of the
falling chain problem in [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27].
9.3

x.
q

l = h2 + (x0 + x)2

l02

+ 2x0x = l0

v
u
u
t1

x
x
,
+ 2 cos 0 l0 1 + cos 0
l0
l0
!

.. x x0 x0 = l0 cos 0 . F = kl =
k(l l0) k cos 0 x. Fx =
106

F cos k cos2 0 x. , k = k cos2 0


=

v
u
uk
t

v
u
u
t

k
cos 0 .
m

Let the body has been displaced by x. The new length of the spring is
q

l = h2 + (x0 + x)2 l02 + 2x0x = l0

v
u
u
t1

x
x
,
+ 2 cos 0 l0 1 + cos 0
l0
l0
!

because x x0 and x0 = l0 cos 0 . The force exerted by the spring equals to


F = kl = k(l l0 ) k cos 0 x. Its projection on the horizontal direction
is Fx = F cos k cos2 0 x. Therefore, the eective stiness of the spring
in the horizontal direction is given by the coecient ke = k cos2 0 and the
frequency of small oscillations is given by
=

v
u
uk
t e

v
u
u
t

k
cos 0 .
m

9.4

x
Zx2

dx
Z 2q
E U (x) dx.
T = 2m q
= 2 2m
E x1
E U (x)
x1

I,
T = 2 2m
E

I =

x2Z+x2

x1 +x1

E U U dx
107

Zx2 q

x1

E U (x) dx.

E U U

E U 1
2(E U )

x2Z+x2

Zx2

E U dx
E U dx 0,

x2Z+x2

x1 +x1

x1

x2

E U dx

Zx1

x1 +x1

E U dx

(
,
x

E U 0).

1 Z 2 U
x4dx
m Z 2
r

I
dx
.
2 x1 E U
8 x1 E m2x2
2

y =

m 2
2E

x,

Z1
y 4 dy
2E 2 Z1 y 4 dy
E 2

=
.
I
2m m 5 1 1 y 2
2m m 5 0 1 y 2

y = sin ,
2E 2
I
2m m 5

sin4 d.

1
1
1
sin = (1 cos 2)2 =
1 2 cos 2 + (1 + cos 4)
4
4
2
"

/2
Z

/2
Z

cos 2 d =

/2
Z

cos 4 d = 0.

/2
Z
0

1
1
3
sin d =
1+
=
24
2
16
!

3E 2
.
I
8 2m m 5
108

3E
T = 2 2m
I
.
E
2m 5

..
3 E
2
2 3E
1

=
T =

2m 5

4 m 4
!

E
m 4

1.

The oscillation period is given by


x
Zx2

dx
Z 2q
T = 2m q
= 2 2m
E U (x) dx.
E x1
E U (x)
x1

The change of the period is

I,
T = 2 2m
E
where
I =

x2Z+x2

x1 +x1

but

and

E U U dx

E U U
x2Z+x2

x1 +x1

Zx2 q

E U (x) dx.

x1

E U 1
2(E U )

Zx2

E U dx
E U dx 0,
x1

because the magnitudes of the integrals


x2Z+x2
x2

E U dx and

Zx1

x1 +x1

E U dx

are of the second order (in the vicinity of the turning points
Consequently,
x

x4dx
m Z 2
1 Z 2 U
r

.
dx
I
2 x1 E U
8 x1 E m2x2
2

109

E U 0).

After the substitution y =

m 2
2E

x, we will have

Z1
y 4 dy
E 2
2E 2 Z1 y 4 dy

I
=
.
2m m 5 1 1 y 2
2m m 5 0 1 y 2

If we make one more substitution y = sin , we get


2E 2

I
2m m 5
But

sin4 d.

1
1
1
sin = (1 cos 2)2 =
1 2 cos 2 + (1 + cos 4)
4
4
2
"

and

/2
Z

/2
Z

cos 2 d =

/2
Z

cos 4 d = 0.

therefore,
/2
Z
0

and

1
3
1
1+
=
sin d =
24
2
16
!

3E 2

I
.
8 2m m 5

Then

3E

T = 2 2m
I
.
E
2m 5
Therefore, the new period is
2 3E
3 E
2
T =
1

2m 5

4 m 4
!

The correction is small if

E
m 4

1.

9.5
E. .. ,

E ( c = 1), 2
2
Ee =
m + E , m .
E + m2 + E 2 = 3m. ( c)
4
E = mc2 .
3
110


Let the photons energy is E. Since after the reaction all reaction products are
at rest, the electron momentum equals in magnitudeto the photon momentum
2
2
E (we have assumed c = 1), and its energy is Ee = m
+ E , where m is the
electron mass. The energy conservation law gives E + m2 + E 2 = 3m. Hence
(we have restored c)
4
E = mc2 .
3

10
10.1


CD = x. .. AE =
ED = 23 l,
l =

v
u
u
u
t
2u

l
2

!2

l
2

v
u
u
t

3
x 2

3+2
l l + 3 x.
l + x + l 2l = l 1 +
2
l

6

F = 2T cos( + ) mg, + = ECB,
T = kl = k(l + 3 x). 2kl cos 30 = mg.

mg
mg
mg

k=
=

T
=
(l
+
3 x).
2l cos 30
3l
3l

,
cos ( + ) =

r
( 23

3
2

l+x

l+

x)2

( 2l )2

111

3 + 2 xl
2

1
x
3
r
+
.

x
2
4l
1+ 3 l

mg
3
3
2mg
x
7
7mg
F = 2 (l + 3 x)
+ mg =
l + x mg = x.
2
4l
4
3l
3l 2
2 3l

,
7mg
k =
2 3l

=

v
u
uk
t

v
u
u
t

7g
.
2 3l

Suppose the ball is slightly displaced from the equilibrium position by CD = x.


Since AE = 2l and ED = 23 l, the string will be elongated by
l =

v
u
u
u
t
2u

l
2

!2

2
!2
u

u
x
3
t
l l + 3 x.
l + x + l 2l = l 1 +
3+2
2
l
v

The magnitude of the restoring force will beF = 2T cos( + ) mg,


where + = 6 ECB, T = kl = k(l + 3 x). In the equilibrium state
2kl cos 30 = mg. Hence

mg
mg
mg

and
T
=
(l
+
3 x).
k=
=
2l cos 30
3l
3l
Next we have,
cos ( + ) =

r
( 23

3
2

l+x

l+

x)2

( 2l )2

112

3 + 2 xl
2

1
3
x
r
x 2 + 4l .
1+ 3 l

Therefore, the restoring force is

mg
3
3
2mg
x
7
7mg
F = 2 (l + 3 x)
+ mg =
l + x mg = x.
2
4l
4
3l
3l 2
2 3l

Consequently, the eective spring constant emerges


7mg
ke =
2 3l
and the frequency of small vertical oscillations is
v
u
uk
t e

v
u
u
t

7g
.
2 3l

10.2
E =

m
2
2 |z| ,

F0 it Zt t22 it
e e
dt , t .
z= e
m

|eit | = 1,
|z|2 =

F02
m2

t2
t2
t
i

+ it = 2 + 2i
+
2

2
2

!2

2
t 2 it

2



dt .

!2

t 2 it

2 2

dt = e

2
( t +i
2 )

dt = e

2 2


2 2
t

+i
.
=
+

2
4

ez dz =

2 2
4

,
F02 2 2 2
E( ) =
e 2 .
2m
f (x) = xex . f (x) = ex xex = 0
x = 1 . ,
2 =

F02 2 1
F02
2

E
=
e
=
.
max
2
2m 2
m 2 e
113


The transferred energy is E =

m
|z|2 ,
2

where

F0 it Zt t22 it
z= e
e e
dt , t .
m

But |eit | = 1, therefore,


|z|2 =

F02
m2

Moreover,

t2
t
i
t2

+
it
=
+
2i
+
2
2
2
2

!2

2
t 2 it

2



dt .

!2

Hence
Z

t 2 it

2 2

dt = e

2
( t +i
2 )

2 2

dt = e

t
2 2

= +i +
.

2
4

ez dz =

2 2
4

Consequently, we get for the transferred energy


F02 2 2 2
e 2 .
E( ) =
2m
Let us nd the maximum of the function f (x) = xex . The condition f (x) =
ex xex = 0 gives x = 1 . Therefore, the maximally eective energy
transfer takes place at
F02 2 1
F02
2
e =
.
= 2 and Emax =

2m 2
m 2 e
2

10.3

F (t)

x =
.
m
m
= 2.
x + 2 x +

x + 2 x + 2 x =
114

F (t)
.
m

z = x + 1 x 2 , z + 2 z = x + 2 x + 2 x.
z + 2 z = x + 1 x + 2 x + 1 2 x. ..

2 = 1 + 2
2 = 1 2

1 , 2 2 2 + 2 = 0. ..
1,2 =

= i, = 2 2.

, > , .. . 1 = + i
2 = i. z = x + x + ix
F (t)
.
m

z + ( i)z =

e(i)t . z = A(t)e(i)t. A(t)


= F (t) e(i)t .
A(t)
m

z = e(i)t z0 +

The equation of motion is

Zt
0

F (t ) (i)t
e
dt .

F (t)
x =
.
m
m
= 2. We have to solve the equation
x + 2 x +

Let us denote

x + 2 x + 2 x =

F (t)
.
m

Let z = x + 1 x and choose 2 so that z + 2 z = x + 2 x + 2 x. But z + 2 z =


x + 1 x + 2 x + 1 2 x. That is,

2 = 1 + 2
2 = 1 2

and 1 , 2 are solutions of the equation 2 2 + 2 = 0. That is,


q

1,2 = 2 2 = i, where = 2 2.
115

We will assume that the friction is small and, therefore, > . Let 1 = + i
and 2 = i. Then z = x + x + ix and the equation takes the form
F (t)
.
m

z + ( i)z =

Solution of the homogeneous equation is proportional to e(i)t . Therefore,


we will take z = A(t)e(i)t. For A(t) we get the equation
= F (t) e(i)t .
A(t)
m
Finally,

z = e(i)t z0 +

Zt
0

F (t ) (i)t
e
dt .

10.4

aaaaa
aaaaa
aaaaa
aaaaa
M ( ).

My.. =

yZ1 (t)

yS(y)dy +

yZ2 (t)

yS(y)dy + C,

h , , S(y) y C My..
, . ..
, C . ,
d
dt

fZ(t)
0

F (x)dx = lim
t0 t

f (t+t)
Z
0

116

F (x)dx

fZ(t)
0

F (x)dx =


f (t)+f
Z (t)t

1
= lim
t0 t

F (x)dx = f (t)F [f (t)],

f (t)

..

f (t + t) f (t) + f (t)t

a+a
Z
a

F (x)dx F (a)a.


M y.. = [y1 y1S(y1 ) + y2 y2 S(y2)] .
, = S(y1 ) y1 = S(y2) y2, .. S(y1)y1 =
S(y2 )(y2) , t. , M y.. = (y1 y2 ).

H, H - (, y .. = M
t = 0).
.
, M y.. = (y1 y2).

y1 =
y2 =
.
S(y1 )
S(y2 )
,

1
2 1
> 0.
+
M y.. =
S(y1) S(y2)
.. , . , M y.. = F Mg, F - .
F > Mg , .

aaaaa
aaaaa
aaaaa
aaaaa
Let M be the mass of the hourglass (the mass of sand included). The center of
mass position is determined by equation
Mycm =

yZ1 (t)

yS(y)dy +

yZ2 (t)
h

117

yS(y)dy + C,

where h is the height of the hourglass bottleneck, is the density of sand, S(y)
is hourglass cross-section at a height y and C corresponds to the contribution
in Mycm from the hourglass frame and the part of the sand, which is in ight.
Since the ow is steady-state, C does not depend on time. Note that
d
dt

fZ(t)
0

F (x)dx = lim
t0 t
1
= lim
t0 t

f (t+t)
Z
0

f (t)+f
Z (t)t

F (x)dx

fZ(t)
0

F (x)dx =

F (x)dx = f (t)F [f (t)],

f (t)

because

f (t + t) f (t) + f (t)t and

a+a
Z
a

F (x)dx F (a)a.

Therefore, we have
M y cm = [y1 y1 S(y1) + y2 y2S(y2 )] .
If the sand ux is , then = S(y1) y1 = S(y2 ) y2, because S(y1)y1 =
S(y2 )(y2) is the amount of sand which is transferred from the upper half
to the lower one during the time t. Consequently, M y cm = (y1 y2 ). At the

H, H being the height of the hourglass (or rather,


initial moment y cm = M
the height of the top level of the sand at t = 0). The center of mass gains this
initial velocity in the brief period of establishing the steady ow. Dierentiating
again, we have M y.. = (y1 y2). But

y1 =
and y2 =
.
S(y1 )
S(y2 )
Therefore,

1
2 1
> 0.
+
M ycm =
S(y1) S(y2)

That is, the center of mass acceleration is directed upward despite the fact that
the center of mass descends. On the other hand, M ycm = F Mg, where F
is the reading of the balance. Therefore, F > Mg always as long as there is a
steady ow of sand.

118

10.5
E = mc2 + 21 m 2 x2 . x = A
= 1, E = mc2 + 21 m 2 A2. ,
2 2
2 2
E
2 x = 1 + 2 (A x2).
=
2
mc
2c
2c

T =4
r

= 1

1
2

ZA
0

2 1
.

dx 4 ZA dx
=
.
V
c0

4 ZA

8c d ZA q 2

T =
1 dx.
dx = 2 2
c 0 2 1
dA 0
..

2 2
y = 2 (A x2) 1,
2c

2 1 = (1 + y)2 1

T = T0 + T1,

v
u
u
t2y

q
y
y
1+
2y 1 +
.
2
4
!

v
u

2
8c d ZA u
8 d ZA 2
t
2
2
T0 = 2
A x2 dx.
(A x ) dx =
dA2 0 c2
dA2 0

x = A sin .
A2 x2 dx =

T0 =

Z2

A2 cos2 d =

2 Z2

A
2

(1 + cos 2) d =

A2
4

2
.

T1 =

ZA

d 4
d

(A2 x2)3/2dx = 2
cos4 d .
A
2
2
2
c dA 0
c dA
0

1
cos = (1 + cos 2)
2
4

ZA

"

#2

Z2

1
1
1 + 2 cos 2 + (1 + cos 4)
=
4
2
"

119

Z2
0

1
3
1
1+
= .
cos d =
24
2
16
!

dA4
3 A2
2
= 2A T1 =
.
dA2
8 c2

2
3 2 A2
T =
1+
.

16 c2

ZA

q 2
dA q 2
d ZA q 2


.

1
dx
=

1
dx
+

(x,
A)

1

2
2
2
dA 0
A
dA
x=A
0

, .. (x, A) = 1 x = A.

The energy E = mc2 + 12 m 2 x2 is conserved. Initially, x = A and = 1, that


imply E = mc2 + 21 m 2 A2. Consequently,
E
2 2
2 2
=
2 x = 1 + 2 (A x2).
2
mc
2c
2c
The period of oscillations is
T =4

But = 1

1
2

2 1
.

4 ZA dx
=
.
V
c0

ZA dx

Therefore,

4 ZA

8c d ZA q 2

T =
1 dx.
dx = 2 2
c 0 2 1
dA 0
Since

2 2
y = 2 (A x2) 1,
2c

we have
q

2 1 = (1 + y)2 1

v
u
u
t2y

120

q
y
y
2y 1 +
.
1+
2
4
!

Hence T = T0 + T1, where


v
Au
Z
u 2
8c d
t
(A2
2
2
2
dA 0 c

T0 =

x2 )

8 d ZA 2
dx =
A x2 dx.
2
dA 0

Let us make the substitution x = A sin . Then

ZA

A2

and T0 =

2 Z2

A
A cos d =
2
2

A2
(1 + cos 2) d =
4

2
.

T1 =
But

x2 dx

Z2

ZA

d 4
d

2
2 3/2
4
.
A
(A

x
)
dx
=
cos

c2 dA2 0
c2 dA2
0

1
cos = (1 + cos 2)
2
4

and

"

#2

Z2

1
1
1 + 2 cos 2 + (1 + cos 4)
=
4
2
"

Z2
0

Further, we have

Finally,

1
3
1
1+
= .
cos d =
24
2
16
!

3 A2
dA4
2
= 2A and T1 =
.
dA2
8 c2
2
3 2 A2
T =
1+
.

16 c2

Note:

ZA

q 2
dA q 2
d ZA q 2
.
1 dx =
1 dx +
(x, A) 1
2
2
2
dA 0
A
dA
x=A
0
!

But the second term vanishes because (x, A) = 1 when x = A.

11
11.1
x1 x2 (. .
, ). mx1 = m 2 x1 + k(x2 x1) mx2 = m 2 x2 k(x2 x1)
121

x1 + 2 + mk x1 = mk x2, x2 + 2 + mk x2 = mk x1.


+ 2 X = 0 x + 2 + 2 k x = 0.
X = x1 + x2 x = x1 x2, X
m
x1(0) = A, x2 (0) = 0, x1 = x2 = 0. ..
X(0) =
r
k
t.
x(0) = A X 0 = x0 = 0. X(t) = A cos t x(t) = A cos 2 + 2 m
x1 (t) = (X + x)/2, x2 = (X x)/2. ,


x1 =

A
cos t +
2

v
u
u
cos t 2

+2

v
u

k
t
m

u
A
k
x2(t) = cos t cos t 2 + 2 t .
2
m
v
u
u
t 2

cos + cos = 2 cos

+2

k
k
+
m
m

cos
, cos cos = 2 sin
sin
.
2
2
2
2

x1(t) A cos t cos

kt
kt
, x2(t) = A sin t sin
.
2m
2m

kt
, 2m
= 2 , ,
. ,

t=

m
m 2
=T
k
2k

. T =
, .

Let x1 and x2 are horizontal displacements of the balls from the equilibrium
state (since the oscillations are small, we neglect vertical displacements). The
equations of motionare mx1 = m 2 x1 + k(x
x1) and mx2 = m 2 x2
2
k
k(x2 x1) or x1 + 2 + mk x1 = m
x2 , x2 + 2 + mk x2 = mk x1. Introducing
+ 2 X = 0 and
new variables X = x1 + x2 and x = x1 x2, we get X
k
x = 0. At the initial moment x1(0) = A, x2 (0) = 0, x1 =
x + 2 + 2 m
x2 = 0. That is, X(0) = x(0) = A and X 0 = x0 = 0. Hence X(t) = A cos t
122

k
t. But x1(t) = (X + x)/2, x2 = (X x)/2.
and x(t) = A cos 2 + 2 m
Consequently,

v
u
u
A
k
x1 = cos t + cos t 2 + 2 t
2
m

and

However,

v
u

u
A
k
x2(t) = cos t cos t 2 + 2 t .
2
m
v
u
u
t 2

and
cos + cos = 2 cos

+2

k
k
+
m
m

cos
, cos cos = 2 sin
sin
.
2
2
2
2

Therefore,
x1(t) A cos t cos

kt
kt
, x2(t) = A sin t sin
.
2m
2m

kt
= 2 , the oscillations of the rst ball decay, and the
This shows that when 2m
oscillations of the second ball are maximal. Hence it takes the time

m
m 2
t=
=T
k
2k
the oscillations to completely pass to the second pendulum. Here, T =
the period of oscillations when the balls are not related.

is

11.2
. V 2 = 2 + 2 2 + z 2
xy y x = cos ( sin + cos ) sin ( cos sin ) = 2 .

qB 2
m

L = ( 2 + 2 2 + z 2 ) +
2
2c
, ,
p =

qB 2
L
= m2 +
.

2c

123

p d . B, = m 2 = qc V B =
qB
qB
= mc
.
c . ..
H

p d =

qB 2 qB 2
qB
+
d = 3 2 .
c
2c
c
!

, B2
, 2 . , 2 B ,
.

Let us pass to cylindrical coordinates. Then V 2 = 2 + 2 2 + z 2 xy y x =


cos ( sin + cos ) sin ( cos sin ) = 2 .
Therefore,
L=

m 2
qB 2
( + 2 2 + z 2 ) +

2
2c

and the generalized momentum corresponding to the coordinate is


p =

qB 2
L
= m2 +
.

2c

p d is an adiabatic invariant. But when the electron rotates in a magnetic


eld B, its angular velocity = is determined by m 2 = qc V B = qB
c .
qB
That is, = mc . Therefore,
H

p d =

qB
qB 2 qB 2
+
d = 3 2 .
c
2c
c
!

Consequently, the product B2 is invariant and when the eld


strength is
doubled, the radius of the electrons orbit will be reduced by 2 times. Note
that the invariance of 2 B means that the magnetic ux through the electrons
orbit is an adiabatic invariant.

124

11.3


mg, N .

2
2
2
F = N + m g . N . mV 2/R = N
F =

v
u
u
mg t1

V4
+ 2 2.
g R

,
v
u

u
dV
V4
t
= F = mg 1 + 2 2
m
dt
g R

1
T =
g

ZV0
0

dV
r

1+

V4
g 2 R2

ZV0
1
0

V05
1
V4
V0
.
2 2 dV =
2g R
g
10g 2R2

V0
V04
T =
1
.
g
10g 2R2

Both the force of gravity mg and the


reaction force N are acting on the ring.
Therefore, the friction force is F = N 2 + m2 g 2 . But the reaction force N
gives the ring a centripetal acceleration. Therefore, mV 2 /R = N and
v
u
u
t

V4
F = mg 1 + 2 2 .
g R
Consequently, the velocity of the ring decreases in accordance with the law
v
u

u
V4
dV
t
= F = mg 1 + 2 2
m
dt
g R

125

and the ring stops after the time


1
T =
g
Finally,

ZV0
0

dV
r

1+

V4
g 2 R2

ZV0
1
0

V05
V4
1
V0
2 2 dV =
.
2g R
g
10g 2R2

V0
V04
T =
1
.
g
10g 2R2

11.4

.
C x
. AC , CB
. .
AC CB , ,
. AC
m
m
xg sin + xg cos T = 0,
l
l
T CB AC. CB

m
m
(l x)g sin (l x)g cos + T = 0.
l
l
,
m
m
lg sin (l 2x)g cos = 0.
l
l

l
tg
x=
1
.
2

t, l = (1 + t)l.
!

126

, 
.






tg

l
l
l
= 2 x 2 x , x = 2 1 . ,
=

tg
tg
(l l) = t l
.
2
2

, AC , CB
. (
x T , ):
m
m
m
m
xg sin xg cos +T = 0 (l x)g sin + (l x)g cos T = 0.
l
l
l
l

2x
l

=1+

tg

x=

l
2

1+

tg

l tg
tg
l

x
=
(l l) = t l
= .
= x
2
2
2
2
!

,
2 = l t

tg
.

N
N l t

tg
.

Consider the process of thermal expansion of a lead sheet. Let the point C at
a distance x from the top edge remains xed with respect to the roof during
the expansion. Then the part AC of the sheet moves upward and the part
CB moves downward during the expansion. This determines directions of the
frictional forces acting on them. Since accelerations of the centers of mass of
127

AC and CB are very small, we can assume that the forces acting on them are
balanced. For AC this condition is given by the equation
m
m
xg sin + xg cos T = 0,
l
l
where T where is the force with which the CB part acts on AC. Similarly, for
CB we will have
m
m
(l x)g sin (l x)g cos + T = 0.
l
l
Adding these equations, we obtain
m
m
lg sin (l 2x)g cos = 0.
l
l
Hence

tg
l
1
.
x=
2

if the temperature is increased by t, the length of the leaf becomes l =


(1 + t)l.
!

At that its center of mass shifts, as isshown in


 the Figure. The shift equals





tg

l
l
l
= 2 x 2 x , where x = 2 1 . Therefore,
=

tg
tg
(l l) = t l
.
2
2
128

When the temperature drops, the part AC moves down and the part CB moves
up. Therefore, the corresponding equations are (we use the same notations x
and T , although numerically they may be dierent):
m
m
m
m
xg sin xg cos +T = 0 and (lx)g sin + (lx)g cos T = 0.
l
l
l
l
tg

2x
l

Hence
= 1+
and x =
center of mass equals

l
2

1+

tg

. The downward displacement of the

l
tg
l tg

= x
x
(l l) = t l
= .
=
2
2
2
2
!

Consequently, one day downward displacement of the center of mass is


tg
.
2 = l t

For N days, the shift will be


N l t

tg
.

11.5
( )

( 0 ) + ( ) E = m2 ,
r
p=

E2


m 2
3

5
m
6

( c = 1).

( ) + . (p p )2 = p2 = 0, p2 = m2 =
EE p~ p~ = E (E p cos ),

m2
9

p p =

m2
2E (E p cos ) = 0.
9

E =
, E 2 p2 = m2 = 91 m2 ,
E,min

m2
18(E p cos )

m2
1
m2
1
=
= (E p), E,max =
= (E + p).
18(E + p) 2
18(E p) 2

( c),

5
5
m c2
m c2
1
E
1+
.
4
3
4
3
129


The energy and momentum of the ( ) subsystem is determined from the
energy-momentum conservation
laws for the decay ( 0 ) + ( ) that
r
m
2 ,

E2


m 2
3

5
6 m

p =
(we have assumed c = 1). Let us
give E =
=

consider further the decay ( ) + . Given (p p )2 = p2 = 0,


2
p2 = m2 = m9 and p p = EE p~ p~ = E (E p cos ), we obtain
m2
2E (E p cos ) = 0.
9

Hence

and, since E 2 p2 = m2
E,min =

m2
E =
18(E p cos )
= 91 m2 , we get

1
m2
1
m2
= (E p), E,max =
= (E + p).
18(E + p) 2
18(E p) 2

Consequently, (we have restored c),



m c2
5
5
m c2
1
E
1+
.
4
3
4
3

12
12.1

r
V~ .
p
R, R .
, rmin = 1+e
e=

v
u
u
t

v
u

2EL2 u
2Ep
t
1+
1
+
=
.
m2

130


p
1
R

!2

p
2Ep
p2
.
= 2 2 + 1 e2 = 1 +
R
R

2
E
+
.

R2

R
!


E=

L2
mV 2 2
mV 2

p=
=
sin r2 ,
2
r
m

r2

mV 2 2 sin2 1 2 (r R).
R
rR
V ,

r
r2
sin 2 1 0, sin .
R
R
.. ,
.
2

Let the spacecraft is at a distance r from the center of the Earth and its velocity
V~ makes an angle with the direction to the center. The spacecraft will fall to
p
R, R being the Earth radius. But
the Earth, if rmin = 1+e
e=
Therefore, we get
p
1
R

!2

v
u
u
t

1+

2EL2
m2

v
u
u
t

1+

2Ep
.

p2
p
2Ep
= 2 2 + 1 e2 = 1 +
.
R
R

131

Or

2
E
+
.

R2

R
!

Taking into account


L2
mV 2 2
mV 2

and p =
=
sin r2,
E=
2
r
m

we get

r2

mV 2 2 sin2 1 2 (r R).
R
rR

This inequality will be satised for any value of V , only if


r2
r
sin 2 1 0, or sin .
R
R
2

That is, the velocity vector of the spacecraft must lie within the solid angle
with that the Earth is visible from the spacecraft.
12.2

E=

m 2
(r + r2 2) + U (r)
2

L = mr2 ,

E
dr
1
=
L2
2mr4 d

1 dr
r4 d

!2

!2

ds
=
d

!2

1
U (r)
+
.
2mr2
L2
1
, s = .
r

L2 ds
U =E
2m d

!2

+s

1
[1 + e cos ()] ,
p
r,
s=

L2 (1 2) L22 1
L 2 2 2
(e 1)

.
U (r) = E
2mp2
2mr2
mp r
132


From the equalities
E=

m 2
(r + r2 2) + U (r)
2

and L = mr2 ,
we obtain
E
dr
1
=
L2
2mr4 d
But

1 dr
r4 d

!2

!2

ds
=
d

!2

1
U (r)
+
.
2mr2
L2

1
, where s = .
r

Therefore,
L2 ds
U =E
2m d

Substituting here

!2

+s

1
[1 + e cos ()] ,
p
and expressing the answer in terms of r, we get
s=

U (r) = E

L 2 2 2
L2 (1 2) L22 1
(e

1)

.
2mp2
2mr2
mp r

12.3

x. < 0,

~u = V~ + ~e .
L
133


= GmM ( , .. ).
x-

V cos = V cos
L
( ,
). y-
V sin =
,
sin + sin =

V sin .
L

= cos + cos .
VL

+
cos
= 2 cos
cos
.
2
2
2
2
= 1, = 2 .

2 sin
tg +
2

sin + sin = sin + cos =


,
V2 =

=
.
V L mV 2 R cos

mR cos (cos + sin )

, cos (cos + sin ).


d
[cos (cos + sin )] = 2 cos sin + cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2 = 0
d
tg 2 = 1 = 8 . ,
8 .

134

Angle is measured counterclockwise from the axis x. When the rocket moves,
< 0. Therefore, as the Hamilton vector we will take

~u = V~ + ~e .
L
Here
= GmM (so designated because the we had already used to denote
the angle). Conservation of its x-projection gives

= V cos
L

V cos

(at the pole and the equator, the rocket velocities are the same, according to
the energy conservation law). Conservation of the y-projection gives
V sin =
Therefore,
sin + sin =
Or

V sin .
L

= cos + cos .
VL

+
cos
= 2 cos
cos
.
2
2
2
2
= 1, and = 2 . Then
2 sin

Hence tg +
2

sin + sin = sin + cos =


Therefore,
V2 =

=
.
V L mV 2 R cos

.
mR cos (cos + sin )
135

It is minimal, when cos (cos + sin ) is maximal. But


d
[cos (cos + sin )] = 2 cos sin + cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2 = 0
d
gives tg 2 = 1 and = 8 . Consequently, the optimal launching angle for the
missile is 8 .
12.4
L = mr2 .
21 r2 d OAB. R
L R
dt , LT
, 12 r2 d = 2m
2m = =ab,
T - .

e =

a2 b2
a

,
v

..

s
u

u 2EL2
a
b = a 1 e2 = at
=
L
,
m2
m

e=

v
u
u
t

1+

2EL2

E= .
2
m
2a

m
a a.

( M
mM

m), m = m+M
= GmM.
T = 2

T =
,

v
u
u
2 t

a
a.
G(m + M)

T12
m2 + M a31
=
.
T22
m1 + M a32
136

T12
a31
= 3
T22
a2
,
.

For the angular momentum we have L = mr2 .


But 21 r2 d is the area of the
R
L R
sector OAB. Consequently, 12 r2 d = 2m
dt means that LT
2m = area of the
ellipse = ab, where T is the orbital period.

But it follows from e =

a2 b2
a

that
v

because

s
u

u 2EL2
a
t
=
L
,
b = a 1 e2 = a
m2
m

e=
Therefore, we get

v
u
u
t

1+

2EL2
and
E
=

.
m2
2a

m
a a.

When considering the two-body problem (the Sun with mass M and the planet
with a mass m), in the previous formulas we must make the substitutions
mM
and = GmM. Therefore, we will have
m = m+M
T = 2

T =
Consequently,

Keplers third law

v
u
u
2 t

a
a.
G(m + M)

m2 + M a31
T12
=
.
T22
m1 + M a32
T12
a31
= 3
T22
a2
137

is obtained only if we neglect the masses of the planets compared to the mass
of the Sun.
12.5

E=

=
,
2a
rmin + rmax


mV12

mV22

E2 =
=
,
E1 =
2R
2
R
8R
2
R
V1 V2 = GmM.
V1 =

v
u

u 7

V2 = t
.
mR
4mR

2mV = mV1 + mV2 ,

s
1
7+2
.
V = (V1 + V2 ) =
2
4
mR

21 4 7
2mV 2 2 ( 7 + 2)2 2

=
.
E=
2
R
16
R
R
16
R

2
,
R+r
r .

343 + 128 7
11 + 4 7
R=
r=
R 2.07R.
329
21 4 7
E=

Since
E=

=
,
2a
rmin + rmax

the satellites energies are

mV12

mV22
E1 =
=

and E2 =
=
,
2R
2
R
8R
2
R
138

where V1 and V2 are their perigee velocities and = GmM. Therefore,


V1 =

v
u

u 7

and V2 = t
.
mR
4mR

From the conservation of momentum 2mV = mV1 + mV2 , we nd the speed


after the docking

s
7+2
1
V = (V1 + V2 ) =
.
2
4
mR
Therefore, the total energy after the docking will be

21 4 7
2mV 2 2 ( 7 + 2)2 2

=
.
E=
2
R
16
R
R
16
R
On the other hand

2
,
R+r
where r is the new apogee. Therefore, we get

11 + 4 7
343 + 128 7
R=
r=
R 2.07R.
329
21 4 7
E=

12.6



d~

p


dr

p pV
=
.
t
R

dU

pV
= +1 .
=
R
dr r=R R

L = pR ( ). ,
LV

V
=
.
R2
R+1
LR1
L , = 1.
L>

= V < c

.
c

6= 1, .
139

= 1, :
mV 2
r

V2
c2

pV
R

R2

v
u

V2
u

t
R=
=
1 2 .
R
mV 2
c

V = L ,
v
u

2
L2 u
t
R=
1 2 2.
m
Lc

When moving on a circle, we have




d~

p


dr

p pV
=
.
t
R

Therefore, the following relation must hold


dU

pV
=
= +1 .
R
dr r=R R

But L = pR (for circular motion). Consequently,

LV
=
and
V
=
.
R2
R+1
LR1
Restriction on L occurs if = 1. Then
L>

= V < c gives

.
c

If 6= 1, circular orbits are possible for all values of angular momentum.


If = 1, the radius of the circular orbit can be found as follows: from
pV

R = R2 , we have
mV 2
r

V2
c2

v
u

V2
u
t
=
1 2 .
and R =
R
mV 2
c

Substituting here V = L , we obtain


v
u

2
L2 u
t
1 2 2.
R=
m
Lc
140

13
13.1
, , ( CGSE)
e ~
~ = eg V~ ~r.
F~ = V
B
c
cr3

~p =

Z V
~ ~r
eg
~
dt.
F dt =
c r3

, ,
.

~ ~r = V
~ ~. , r =
~r = ~ + V~ t V
~p

dt
eg ~
V ~
2
c
( + V 2 t2 )3/2

2 + V 2 t2 .


~ ~

t
eg V


=
2
c
2 + V 2t2

2eg V~ ~
.
c V 2

~q = p~ + ~p, q p,
~p ~p. .
|~q ~p| = p2 sin = |~p p~| =

2eg
|~p (V~ ~)|.
cV 2

~ (~p ~) ~ (~p V~ ) = ~ pV , p~ ~ p~ k V~ .
p~ (V~ ~) = V

p2 sin

2eg
2eg
pV

sin

.
cV 2
cp

141


The force which acts on the electron is (in the CGSE system)
e ~
~ = eg V~ ~r.
F~ = V
B
c
cr3
Momentum change caused by this force equals to
~p =

eg Z V~ ~r
~
dt.
F dt =
c r3

Since the electron is fast moving, while calculating the integral, we can assume
that the electron moves in a straight line with a constant speed.

~ ~. In addition, r =
Then ~r = ~ + V~ t and V~ ~r = V
~p

dt
eg ~
V ~
c
(2 + V 2 t2 )3/2

2 + V 2 t2 . Therefore,


~ ~

t
eg V


=
2
2
2
2
c
+ V t

2eg V~ ~
.
c V 2

The momentum of the electron after the scattering is ~q = p~ + ~p, wherein


q p, because ~p ~p. Let be the scattering angle. Then
|~q ~p| = p2 sin = |~p p~| =

2eg
|~p (V~ ~)|.
cV 2

But ~p (V~ ~) = V~ (~p ~) ~ (~p V~ ) = ~ pV , since p~ ~ and p~ k V~ . Hence


we get
2eg
2eg
p2 sin
pV
and

sin

.
cV 2
cp
13.2
L = mr2 ||,

E=

m 2
mr 2
L2
(r + r2 2) + U (r) =
+
+ U (r).
2
2
2mr2
142

( r < 0)
1/2

2
L2
dt = [E U (r)] 2 2
m
mr

d
dt

,
0 =
E = T =

rZmin

L
mr2

( , > 0 ||
= )

L
2mr2 dr
r

mV 2
2

2
m [E

dr.

U (r)]

L2
m2 r 2

dr
r2

rmin

2
r2

U (r)
T

L = mV (. ).

. U (r) =

Z
dr
r2
q
,
0 =
2
1 ( + T ) r12
rmin

r2

1 (2 + T ) r21 = 0 ( r = rmin , r = 0).


min
s = 1r .
Zs0
1
ds
q
,
s
=
.
0 = q
0
2+
2 + )s2
1

T
T
0

dx

= arcsin x 0 =
1 x2

q
2 +

arcsin

! s0




0

2 + s
T

0 = 20.

=q 2
+

= 1 q 2
+

143

.
2 2 + T
q

= 2 ,

2 +

2 =

3T

1
= .
2

, 90,
= 2 =

.
3T

Since the angular momentum is L = mr2 ||,


the energy of the particle equals
to
m 2
mr 2
L2
2 2
E = (r + r ) + U (r) =
+
+ U (r).
2
2
2mr2
Hence (for r < 0)
1/2

L2
2

dt =
[E U (r)] 2 2
m
mr

d
dt

On the other hand, from


0 =
because E = T =

rZmin

L
mr2

we get (note that > 0 and ||


= )

L
2mr2 dr
r

mV 2
2

2
m [E

dr.

U (r)]

L2
m2 r 2

rmin

dr
r2
r

2
r2

U (r)
T

and L = mV (see the gure below).

This is true for any central potential. In the case of U (r) =


0 =

rmin

,
r2

we have

dr
r2
,
1 (2 + T ) r12

wherein 1 (2 + T ) r21 = 0 (at r = rmin , we have r = 0). Let us make the


min
substitution s = 1r . Then
0 =

Zs0
0

ds
, s0 =
1 (2 + T )s2

144

1
.
2 + T

But
Z

dx

= arcsin x and 0 =
1 x2

q
2 +

arcsin

! s0




0

2 + s
T

.
2 2 + T
q

The scattering angle and the angle 0 are related as follows = 20.

Therefore,

=q 2
+

= 1 q 2
+

If = 2 , the impact parameter is determined from

2 +

Hence 2 =
equal to

3T

1
= .
2

and the scattering cross section at angles greater than 90 is


= 2 =

.
3T

13.3

, .
r.

a = 2 r. ,
145

2
M2
1
+
2
M2
GM
2

F =G
+
2G
cos
45
=
.
(2r)2
a2
r2
4
,

1
+
2
2
U (r) = , = GM 2
r
4
.
tan

=
2 MV 2b



1
+
2
GM
2
.
= 2 arctan 2
bV
4

It is clear from the symmetry of the problem that the stars will always be
at the vertexes of some square. Let the distance from the star to the
center of
this square is equal to r. Then the side of the square will be a = 2 r. An
attractive force acting on the star by other stars is directed to the center and
is equal in magnitude to

2
1
+
2
M2
GM
2
M2

+
2G
cos
45
=
.
F =G
(2r)2
a2
r2
4
That is, we can assume that each star moves in a central eld

1
+
2

2
U (r) = , = GM 2
r
4
146

with the center of attraction that coincides to the center of the original square.
According to the Rutherford formula

=
,
2 MV 2 b
we nd the scattering angle of the stars
tan


GM
2
1
+
2
= 2 arctan 2
.
bV
4

13.4
,
,
.

C a
b. a x
b. D
b + a , y = MM+m x,
M a m . b + a
y, D b + a
c. x y = Mm
x.
+m
.

, Ln Ln = Sn1 + Ln1, Sn1


147

(n1)
( . ).
, n ,
(n 1)
,
Sn =

m
a a 1
=
.
m + (n 1)m 2
2 n

Ln = Sn1 + Ln1 = Sn1 + Sn2 + Ln2 = . . . = Sn1 + Sn2 + . . . + S1 =


a
1 1
a
1
=
1+ + + ...+
ln n
2
2 3
n1
2
n 1. Ln = 3a ln n = 6 n = e6 400.
,
, [28, 29, 30].
!

Let us prove that in the optimal situation the center of gravity of any top-level
construction is located on the vertical line through the right edge of the plate
on which it is based.

Suppose this is not true and the center of gravity C of the top part a lies to the
left of the edge of the plate b. Then the part a can be shifted to the right say by
x and it will be still stably based on the plate b. At that the center of gravity D
of the system b + a also moves to the right but by a smaller amount y = MM+m x,
where M is the mass of the part a and m is the mass of the plate. If the system
b + a is now shifted to the left by y, its center of mass D will return to the same
point and b + a will be again stably based on the lower part c. However, after
these manipulations the overhang increases by x y = Mm
+m x. This proves the
assertion. Hence, the maximum overhang Ln satises the recurrence relation
Ln = Sn1 + Ln1, where Sn1 is the horizontal distance from the bottom right
edge of the upper construction of the (n 1)-plate stack to its center of mass
(see the gure).
148

On the other hand, for the center of mass of the n-plate stack, when the center
of mass of its upper part, consisting of (n 1) plates, passes through the right
edge of the bottom plate, we have
Sn =
Therefore,

a a 1
m
=
.
m + (n 1)m 2
2 n

Ln = Sn1 + Ln1 = Sn1 + Sn2 + Ln2 = . . . = Sn1 + Sn2 + . . . + S1 =


a
1 1
a
1
=
1+ + + ...+
ln n
2
2 3
n1
2
for n 1. Then Ln = 3a gives ln n = 6 and n = e6 400.
More general case, when plates are not necessarily placed one on another
and can be used as counterweights, is considered in [28, 29, 30].
!

13.5


A. AO
A.
0 = x.. =

1
[Ql sin + P (R l sin )]
P +Q
149

( l sin
R l sin ). ,
P R = (Q + P )l sin
R P
sin =
.
l Q+P

At equilibrium, the center of gravity of the system lies on the vertical line
through the suspension point A. Let the line AO makes an angle with the
vertical and the origin of the reference frame is located at the point A. Then,
in equilibrium,
0 = xcm =

1
[Ql sin + P (R l sin )]
P +Q

(the center of the ball is on the left side of the vertical at the distance l sin
and the weight is on the right side at the distance R l sin ). Hence, P R =
(Q + P )l sin and
R P
.
sin =
l Q+P

150

14
14.1

m
N
N N
l
N . N -
, (.. N - ).
i-

l
l
m
m
+ N k Si+1 Si
, i < N,
Si = g N k Si Si1
N
N
N
N
!

Si - .
kN 2

Si = g +
Si+1 Si (Si Si1) .
m
"

N
x x = i Nl Si x: Si S(x, t).

S(x, t)
dx,
Si+1 Si = S(x + dx, t) S(x, t) =
x
dx = Nl ,
Si Si1 = S(x, t) S(x dx, t) =

S(x dx, t)
dx.
x

, N , Si+1 Si (Si Si1)


S(x, t) S(x dx, t)
2S(x, t)
2S l2
2
dx =

(dx) =
x
x
x2
x2 N 2

"

2S(x, t) kl2 2S(x, t)

= g.
t2
m
x2
151

i < N , .. x < l. M,

m
m
l
M+
SN = M +
g N k xN xN 1
.
N
N
N
!

,
N (xN xN 1) N [S(l, t) S(l dx, t)] N

S(l dx, t)
S(l, t)
dx l
.
x
x

,
kl S(l, t)
2S(l, t)
=
g

1 .
t2
M
l
"

S(0, t) = 0, ..
, . S(x, t) = S0(x) + A(x) cos t, S0 (x)
. ..
kl dS0 (l)
kl2 d2 S0(x)
=
g

0
=
g

1 .

m dx2
M
dl
"

S(x, t)
kl2 d2A
= 0,
A +
m dx2
2

, x = l,
kl dA(l)
.
M dl

2 A(l) =

A(x) =

v
u
2
u
t m
a1 cos

x
+
l

v
u
2
u
t m
a2 sin

x
,
l

a1 , a2 - . S(0, t) = 0 A(0) = 0
kl dA(l)
a1 = 0. 2 A(l) = M
dl
2

sin

"s

kl m 1
m
=
cos
k
M k l

m
tg
k

"s

m
m
= .
k
M

152

"s

m
.
k
#

. . m 0,
s

2 =

k
M.

m
tg
k

m
M

m
m
2
k
k
#

M 0, tg
= (2n + 1)

"s

v
u
u
t

hq

m
k

m
k

+ n,

k
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
m

<< 1. tgx x + 31 x3,


m 2
1m 2
m 2
m
k
1+

.
1 m 2 =
k
3 k
1 3 k
M
!

2 ,
k
k
1 m

=
1

.
M + 31 m M
3M
!

m
Replace the rope by a system of N weights of mass N
each connected by N
l
weightless springs of length N each. Stiness of the small springs will be N times greater than the stiness of the rope (Because they have N -times less
length). Therefore, the equation of motion of the i-th weight will be

m
l
l
m
+ N k Si+1 Si
, i < N,
Si = g N k Si Si1
N
N
N
N
!

where Si is its coordinate. This equation can be rewritten as follows


kN 2

Si+1 Si (Si Si1) .


Si = g +
m
"

153

We are interested in the limit N , so we introduce a continuous variable


x through x = i Nl and consider Si as a function of x: Si S(x, t). Then
Si+1 Si = S(x + dx, t) S(x, t) =
where dx =

l
N,

S(x, t)
dx,
x

and

S(x dx, t)
dx.
x
Therefore, in the limit N , Si+1 Si (Si Si1) can be replaced by
Si Si1 = S(x, t) S(x dx, t) =

"

S(x, t) S(x dx, t)


2S(x, t)
2S l2
2
dx =

(dx)
=
x
x
x2
x2 N 2
#

and the equation of motion takes the form


2S(x, t) kl2 2S(x, t)

= g.
t2
m
x2
But this is true only for i < N , that is, x < l. For the last weight, together
with the body M, the equation of motion is
m
l
m
SN = M +
g N k xN xN 1
.
M+
N
N
N
!

To get the continuum limit, we note that


S(l dx, t)
S(l, t)
dx l
.
x
x
Consequently, in the continuum limit we obtain the equation
N (xN xN 1) N [S(l, t) S(l dx, t)] N

kl S(l, t)
2S(l, t)
=g
1 .
2
t
M
l
"

In addition, we have the boundary condition S(0, t) = 0, since the closer the
point of suspension, the lower is the stretching of the appropriate section of
the rope. Let S(x, t) = S0(x) + A(x) cos t, where S0 (x) corresponds to the
position at equilibrium. That is,
kl dS0 (l)
kl2 d2 S0(x)
=
g

0
=
g

1 .

m dx2
M
dl
"

Substitution of S(x, t) in the equations of motion gives


A 2 +

kl2 d2A
= 0,
m dx2
154

and, at x = l,
kl dA(l)
.
M dl

2 A(l) =
Therefore,
A(x) =

v
u
2
u
t m
a1 cos

v
u

2
u
x
t m x
+ a2 sin
,
l
k l

where a1 , a2 are some constants. The condition S(0, t) = 0 gives A(0) = 0 and
kl dA(l)
a1 = 0. Whereas 2 A(l) = M
dl condition implies
2

sin
Or

"s

kl m 1
m
=
cos
k
M k l
s

"s

m
.
k
#

m
m
m
tg
= .
k
k
M
This transcendental equation determines the frequency of vertical oscillations
. Let us consider several limiting cases. If m 0, then
s

and we get 2 =

k
M.

m
tg
k

"s

"s

m
m
2
k
k

If M 0, then tg

hq

m
k

= and

m
k

+ n, or

v
u

uk
= (2n + 1) t , n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
2 m
Now let

m
M

<< 1. Using tgx x + 31 x3, we get


m 2
1m 2
m 2
m
k
1+

.
=
k
3 k
1 13 mk 2
M
!

Solving with respect to 2 , we obtain


k
k
1 m

=
1

.
M + 31 m M
3M
!

14.2
r .

r2 2
.
h = l l2 r22
2l
155

r2
r

h =
= r << r,
l
l
2
m2h
2
I2 = m2 r2 2.
m 2 2
1 2 2 1
r2 2
E = r + mgh = mr + mg .
2
2
2
l


g
dE
2
+ gl = 0.
0 = dt = mr + l
q
, = gl .

Let the ring of radius r has turned by a small angle . Then it rises to a height

r2 2
2
2
2
h=l l r
.
2l
Note that

r
r2

= r << r.
h =
l
l
2
Therefore, the energy of translational motion m2h can be neglected compared
2
to the energy of rotational motion I2 = m2 r22 . The total energy of the ring is
1
1
r2
m 2 2
r + mgh = mr2 2 + mg 2.
2
2
2
l


g
2
The conservation of energy, 0 = dE
dt = mr + l , gives the equation of
motion
+ gl = 0. Consequently, the frequency of torsional oscillations is
q
= gl .
E=

14.3
- , z- Lz =
m2 .
E=
z =


m
m
L2z
m 2
+ 2 2 + z 2 + mgz = (1 + z 2 ) 2 +
+ mgz,
2
2
2
2m2

dz
.
d

,
L2z
dE
2
2
+ mgz
= m
(1 + z ) + m z z
0=
3
dt
4m
"

156


L2z
m(1 + z )
+ m z z
+ mgz = 0.
4m3
2

= r + x, r , x .
L2z
3x
1
1
1

,
=
mgz
(r),
z
()

z
(r)
+
z
(r)x,
=

4mr3
3
(r + x)3
r3
r
!

, x ,
L2z 3x
m 1 + z (r) x +
+ mgz (r)x = 0.
3
4mr r
!

L2z
4mr3

= mgz (r),

z (r)
x = 0.
1 + z (r) x + g z (r) + 3
r
!

"

z (r) + 3 z r(r) > 0,



v
u
z (r)
u
u z (r) + 3 r
= tg
.
1 + z 2 (r)

< 0, x(t)
z (r) + 3 z (r)
r

. z (r) + 3 z (r)
= 0,
r
, .

, z (r) + 3 z r(r) > 0.


2 z 2 = R2 , zz = . .. z = z .
1 2
1 z
z = 2 = 3.
z
z
z z

z (r) 1 r2
r2
1 1
z (r) + 3
= 3 +3 = 4 2 .
r
z z
z
z
z
z > 0 ( ).
, ,
!

r2
r2
4> 2 = 2
.
z
r R2
157

3r2 > 4R2

2
r > R.
3

Because of the cylindrical symmetry, z-component of the angular momentum


Lz = m2 is conserved. The particle energy is
E=


m 2
m
m
L2z
+ 2 2 + z 2 + mgz = (1 + z 2 ) 2 +
+ mgz,
2
2
2
2m2

where z =

dz
d .

It is also conserved. Hence

L2z
dE
2
2
+ mgz
= m
(1 + z ) + m z z
0=
3
dt
4m
"

and we get the following equation of motion


L2z
m(1 + z )
+ m z z
+ mgz = 0.
3
4m
2

Let = r + x, where r is the radius of the equilibrium circular orbit and x is


a perturbation. Then
3x
1
1
1
L2z

,
1

=
mgz
(r),
z
()

z
(r)
+
z
(r)x,
=

4mr3
3
(r + x)3
r3
r
!

and, up to linear in x terms, the equation of motion becomes


L2z 3x
+ mgz (r)x = 0.
m 1 + z (r) x +
3
4mr r
2

Or, if we take into account

L2z
4mr3
!

= mgz (r),

z (r)
x = 0.
1 + z (r) x + g z (r) + 3
r
2

"

If z (r) + 3 z r(r) > 0, we have oscillations around the equilibrium orbit with
frequency
v
=

+ 3 z (r)
r
.

2
1 + z (r)

u
u
u z (r)
tg

< 0, the perturbation x(t) will grow exponentially and the


If z (r) + 3 z (r)
r

orbit will be not stable. If z (r) + 3 z (r)


r = 0, the perturbation will grow linearly
158

with time, and the orbit also will be not stable. Thus, the condition for stable

equilibrium is z (r) + 3 z r(r) > 0. It follows from 2 z 2 = R2 that zz = .


That is, z = z . Then
1 z
1 2

z = 2 = 3.
z
z
z z
Therefore,
!
r2
1 1
z (r) 1 r2

= 3 +3 = 4 2 .
z (r) + 3
r
z z
z
z
z
But z > 0 (otherwise we will not have the vertical component of the ground
reaction force). Consequently, the orbit is stable if

Hence 3r2 > 4R2 and

r2
r2
4> 2 = 2
.
z
r R2
2
r > R.
3

14.4
O
2
2
= mg(l/2)
, l- , I = ml
+ m( 2l ) = 13 ml2
I
12
O. , = 32 gl . a = 2l = 43 g. ,
1
a = mgT
m . , T = m(g a) = 4 mg.

The rod will begin to rotate about the point O with an angular acceleration
2
2
, where l is the length of the rod and I = ml
+ m( 2l ) = 31 ml2 is its
= mg(l/2)
I
12
moment of inertia about O. Consequently, = 32 gl . Then the center of mass of
the rod will move with a linear acceleration a = 2l = 43 g. On the other hand,
1
a = mgT
m . Hence, T = m(g a) = 4 mg.
159

14.5

2F
F = FIR = mR
.
A . V R = 0, V
. a = R
= 2F
m . 1
, ma = mg sin F . , F = 3 mg sin .
N = mg cos . 13 mg sin mg cos tg 3, . ,
> arctg (3).

The friction force F rotates the cylinder with angular acceleration = FIR =
2F
mR . At the point of tangency A, the velocity is zero. Therefore V R = 0,
where V is the instantaneous velocity of the center of mass of the cylinder. Then
1
a = R
= 2F
m . On the other hand, ma = mg sin F . Hence F = 3 mg sin .
But the friction force cannot exceed the maximum value N = mg cos .
Therefore, 13 mg sin mg cos and if tg 3, the cylinder will roll down
without slipping. As the cylinder slides, then > arctg (3).

160

14.6

:
u+V
V u
V1 =

V
=
2
uV .
1 + uV
1

2
c
c2

( )
uV
mV1 1 + mV2 2 = mV1 V u 1 + 2
c

uV
+ mV2 V u 1 2
c

= 2mV V u.


V~ ~u

!
~u V~
= V u 1 + 2 .
c

, p1 + p2 6= 2mV V = q1 + q2
. ,
E , , M = cE2 . E

E + 2mc2 = 2mc2 u
( ). ,
E
M = 2 = 2m(u 1)
c
q = MV V = 2mV V (u 1).

q + q1 + q2 = 2mV V (u 1) + 2mV V = 2mV V u = p1 + p2.

Velocities of the balls in the observers frame are given by the velocity addition
formula:
V u
u+V
.
V1 =
uV and V2 =
1 + c2
1 uV
2
c
The balls total momentum (after breaking of the string) is
uV
mV1 1 + mV2 2 = mV1 V u 1 + 2
c

161

uV
+ mV2 V u 1 2
c

= 2mV V u.

Here we used the formula


V~ ~u

~u V~
= V u 1 + 2 .
c
!

Note that p1 + p2 6= 2mV V = q1 + q2 the sum of balls momenta before


breaking of the string. The point is that a compressed spring has an elastic rest
energy E and hence the mass M = cE2 . E is found from the energy conservation
law in the rest frame of the tube
E + 2mc2 = 2mc2 u
(we have neglected a mass of the not deformed spring). Consequently,
M=

E
= 2m(u 1)
c2

and the momentum of the deformed spring in the observers frame will be
q = MV V = 2mV V (u 1). Therefore, in this frame the total momentum
before the breaking of the string is
q + q1 + q2 = 2mV V (u 1) + 2mV V = 2mV V u = p1 + p2.

15
15.1
mg sin
.
g cos .

,
.
162

, .
1, N mg cos
N b sin (mgb cos ), b C O. ,
Ic = (mgb cos )
2 =

mgb cos
.
Ic

Io ( 2m), .. Io = 12 12 2mR2 = 21 mR2 .


, , Io = Ic + mb2.
Ic = 12 m(R2 2b2). b :
, . , . , ,
43 R3 = 21 R2 2b. b = 4R
3 , ,
2 =

g cos 24
.
R 9 2 32

In the rest frame of half-cylinder, the inertial force mg sin compensates the
component of gravity force along the inclined plane. Therefore, the problem is
equivalent to nding the frequency of small oscillations of a half-cylinder on a
smooth horizontal surface under the eective eld of gravity g cos .

Since there is no force acting in the horizontal direction, the center of mass of
the half-cylinder moves only vertically. For small oscillations, we can neglect
this tiny vertical shift too and assume that the half-cylinder rotates around
its center of mass. When tilted at an angle 1, the ground reaction force
N mg cos creates a return torque N b sin (mgb cos ), where b is
163

the distance from the center of mass C to the geometric center of the cylinder
O. Consequently, the equation of motion is Ic = (mgb cos ) and the
frequency of small oscillations will be
2 =

mgb cos
.
Ic

The Moment of inertia Io of the half-cylinder about the axis of the cylinder
is one half of the moment of inertia of the cylinder (of mass 2m), that is,
Io = 12 21 2mR2 = 12 mR2 . On the other hand, by Steiners theorem Io = Ic +mb2.
Hence we get Ic = 12 m(R2 2b2). Value of b can be found by applying the second
theorem of Pappus-Guldinus: the volume of a solid of revolution generated by
rotating a plane gure about an external axis is equal to the product of the
area of the gure and the distance traveled by its geometric centroid. If we
rotate a semicircle around its diameter, we get a ball. Therefore, by theorem of
Pappus-Guldinus, we must have 34 R3 = 12 R2 2b. Hence b = 4R
3 and, nally,
2 =

g cos 24
.
R 9 2 32

15.2
, .
.
, , . ,
,
, .


. ,
164

.
. ,

(
, ).

The buoyancy force is greater than the force of gravity. Nevertheless, after
overturning of the tube, the hourglass will not immediately begin to rise.
The case is that the buoyancy force is applied to the geometric center of the
symmetric hourglass and the gravitational force acts trough the center of mass.
Initially, when the clock is oating in the tube, the center of mass is below the
geometric center and this state is stable with respect to tilting the hourglass,
as a random tilt produces a return torque.

After the tube is turned over, the center of gravity becomes located above the
geometric center and this state is not stable under random tilts of the hourglass.
In its attempt to turn around, the clock is stopped by the wall of the tube and
it exerts a pressure on the wall. As a result, a friction force emerges which
prevents the ascent of the hourglass. After about half of the sand is spent, the
center of gravity of the hourglass will be lowered again below the geometric
center and the clock will start to rise (in fact, it will start to rise a bit earlier
when the buoyancy force overcomes the decreasing friction).
15.3
. m l. -
R
V = m1 F dt R
6 R
= I1 F 2l dt = ml
F dt. , , ,
V 2l = 2V . .
165

.
.
1 [44].

The strike cuts the rod in half. Suppose that each half has a mass m and a
length l. Due to the hit, each half of the rod acquires a center of mass velocity
R
V = m1 F dt and begins to rotate about the center of mass with angular velocity
R
6 R
F dt. Consequently, the end of the rod, which rests on the
= I1 F 2l dt = ml
glass of wine, immediately after the impact acquires the velocity V 2l = 2V
and will y upwards. Therefore, the wine does not spill.
But this argument ignores the elastic properties of the rod. Actually, after the
impact, a wave of transverse strain propagates along the rod and the ends of the
rod still have a little time to move down. Therefore, for successful demonstration
of the experiment it is necessary to provide a damping of rod-end displacements
of the order of 1 mm [44].
15.4

eg ~r ~r
~r =
mc r3
2
~ 2 , ~r L
. , 0 = ~r ~r = 12 dtd (~r 2 ).
8.5 ,
~ eg ~r
J~ = L
c r
~ = 0, J~ 2 = L
~2+
. ~r L
.
r(t) .


eg 2
c

~2
, , L

d2~r 2
d
= 2 (~r ~r) = 2~r 2 = 2V 2 ,
2
dt
dt
.. ~r ~r = 0. , t =
0 r0 ,
166

, ~r(0) ~r (0) = 0.

q
2
2 2
2
~r = V t + r0 r(t) = V 2 t2 + r02.
r0
: L = mV = mV r0. r0 = .
J~ ~r = Jr cos = egc r.
eg
~r J~
, cos = cJ
2,
~ z
J.
. ~r = r(sin cos ~i + sin sin ~j + cos ~k)
~r = r(sin

cos ~i + sin sin ~j + cos ~k) + r(


sin sin ~i + sin cos ~j).

2
V 2 = ~r = (r 2 + r2 2 ) sin2 + r 2 cos2 = r 2 + r2 2 sin2 .

, r(t) = V 2t2 + 2 ,

V
V 2 r 2
=
.
=
r sin
(V 2t2 + 2 ) sin

sin =

1 cos2 =

1
r

1+

,
r

 .
eg 2
cL

2

eg
V 1 + cL
=
2 + V 2 t2
, (0) = 0,

(t) =

v
u
u
t

eg
1+
cL

!2

arctg

Vt
.

, t r V , r 0

, =
2

v
u
u
t

eg
1+
cL

!2

v
u
u
u
t1

eg
+
mcV

!2


~
~
i + sin
j V cos ~k.
~r () = V sin cos
2
2
"

167

! #

,
!
~r () ~r ()
2
2
cos =
.
= 1 + 2 sin
V2

It follows from the equation of motion


eg ~r ~r
~r =
,
mc r3
2
~ 2 are the integrals of
that the squares of velocity ~r and angular momentum L
motion. Indeed, 0 = ~r ~r = 12 dtd (~r 2 ). But we have shown in the problem 8.5
that the Poincare vector
~ eg ~r
J~ = L
c r
 
~ 2 is
~ = 0, so J~ 2 = L
~ 2 + eg 2 and, consequently, L
is conserved. However, ~r L
c

also conserved.
The r(t) dependence can be found as follows. We have
d
d2~r 2
=
2
(~r ~r) = 2~r 2 = 2V 2 ,
2
dt
dt

since ~r ~r = 0. Let the time origin is chosen so that at t = 0 the electron is at


the minimum distance r0 from the eld center and, therefore, ~r(0) ~r (0) = 0.
Then we
r 2 = V 2t2 + r02 and
q get, by integrating the above given equation, ~
r(t) = V 2 t2 + r02 . The minimum distance r0 can be found from the fact that
the velocity magnitude is unchanged in the magnetic eld and conservation of
angular momentum thus gives L = mV = mV r0. Hence, r0 = .
Next, consider the scalar product J~ ~r = Jr cos = egc r. This shows that
eg
cos = cJ
and the angle between vectors ~r and J~ does not change over time,
that is, the electron moves on the surface of a cone with opening angle 2, with
the vertex at the coordinate origin and with the axis along the Poincare vector
~ Therefore, it is convenient to introduce spherical coordinates with the z axis
J.
along the Poincare vector. Then ~r = r(sin cos ~i + sin sin ~j + cos ~k) and
~r = r(sin

cos ~i + sin sin ~j + cos ~k) + r(


sin sin ~i + sin cos ~j).
Consequently,
2
V 2 = ~r = (r 2 + r2 2 ) sin2 + r 2 cos2 = r 2 + r2 2 sin2 .

168

Hence, given r(t) =

But

22
V t + 2 , we obtain

V
V 2 r 2
=
.
=
r sin
(V 2t2 + 2 ) sin

sin = 1 cos2 =

1
r

1+

Therefore,
r

 .
eg 2
cL

2

eg
V 1 + cL
=
2 + V 2 t2
and integrating under the assumption (0) = 0, we get

(t) =

v
u
u
t

eg
1+
cL

!2

arctg

Vt
.

Note that for t we have r V , r 0 and

, where =
2

v
u
u
t

eg
1+
cL

!2

v
u
u
u
t1

eg
+
mcV

!2

Therefore, the electron velocities in the distant past and distant future are given
by expression
~
~
~r () = V sin cos
i + sin
j V cos ~k.
2
2
"

! #

Consequently, for the scattering angle , we obtain


!
~r () ~r ()
2
2
cos =
.
= 1 + 2 sin
V2

15.5
, , F~ .

~ F~ ,
mV~ = F~ I
~ = R
~ (.. I = 25 mR2 R
~ ,
~r + R).
~
~ (~r + R)
169

~ .
~ =
V~ + ~ R
~ (~r + R)
~
V~ +
~ R,
~ ~r = V
~ + ~ R
~ = 1 F~ + 1 (R
~ F~ ) R.
~

m
I

~ F~ ) R
~ = R2 F~ (F~ R)
~ R
~ = R2 F~ , .. F~ R
~ = 0 ( R
~
(R
). ,
2
~ ~r = 1 + R F~ = 7 F~ .

m
I
2m

F~ mV~ = F~ ,
2~ ~

V.
V~ =
7

2
2
V x = Vy , V y = Vx , V z = 0.
7
7

2
2 2

Vx = Vy = Vx .
7
7
x V~0 . 7
Vx = V0 cos 27 t. , Vy = 2
Vx = V0 sin 27 t.
, x(0) = x0 , y(0) = y0 ,
!

x(t) = x0 +

7V0
2
7V0 7V0
2
sin t, y(t) = y0 +

cos t.
2
7
2
2
7

,
-

7V0
2

7V0 ~
7 ~ ~
x0 ~i + y0 +
j = ~r0 +
V0 .
2
22
!

Let the frictional force acting on the ball is F~ . Equations of motion have the
form

~ F~ ,
mV~ = F~ and I
~ = R
~ is a vector from the center of the sphere to the point
where I = 25 mR2 and R
~ Since the ball
of contact (i.e. the radius vector of the point of contact is ~r + R).
170

~
does not slip, at the contact point the velocities on the turntable,
~ (~r + R),
~ +~ R,
~ are equal to each other. Dierentiating
and on the surface of the ball, V
~ = V~ + ~ R,
~ we get
the equality ~ (~r + R)
~ ~r = V
~ + ~ R
~ = 1 F~ + 1 (R
~ F~ ) R.
~

m
I
~ F~ ) R
~ = R2 F~ (F~ R)
~ R
~ = R2F~ , since F~ R
~ = 0 (vector R
~ is
But (R
perpendicular to the plane of the turntable). Consequently,
1
7 ~
R2 ~

~r =
F.
F =
+
m
I
2m

Determining F~ from this equation and substituting it into mV~ = F~ , we get


2~ ~

V~ =
V.
7
Or in components
2
2
V x = Vy , V y = Vx , V z = 0.
7
7
Hence

2
2 2

Vx = Vy = Vx .
7
7
Let the x-axis is along the initial velocity V~0 . Then the solution of this equation
7
is Vx = V0 cos 72 t. Consequently, Vy = 2
Vx = V0 sin 72 t. Integrating once
again, given that x(0) = x0, y(0) = y0 , we obtain
!

x(t) = x0 +

2
7V0 7V0
2
7V0
sin t, y(t) = y0 +

cos t.
2
7
2
2
7

This shows that the center of the ball moves on a circle of radius
at the point with the radius vector
7 ~ ~
7V0 ~
j = ~r0 +
V0 .
x0 ~i + y0 +
2
22
!

171

7V0
2 ,

centered

15.6

R R
R. 2T sin 2 T p
IRB. T = IRB. R = eB
. IP
, T = e
eT
I=
p
( ).

Consider a section of the wire with a radius of curvature R and length R R.


The resultant tension force 2T sin 2 T is balanced by the Ampere force
p
. Consequently, T = IP
IRB. Therefore, we have T = IRB. But R = eB
e and
I=

eT
p

(all quantities are in the SI system).

. .
-905.2006.2 06-02-16192-.

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