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. ..

..

2008


1842
,

. ,


1868 . . .
.
1900 ., .


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,

,
.

- ,
.

.

1.
1.1.
()
.
.
. , ,
,
,
.
,
1015 .

, ().

.
, .
, ,
.

,
.
,
.

.
.

k0

2
3

ks

Ks

. 1.
1.2.
(1) (.1)
0 k0. ,
u (2), .
ks s.

s 0. ,
0, ,

' = 0 1 cos i

(1.1)

u - , c - , i -
.
,
(3), , (1.1):

s =

[1 (u c ) cos ]

(1.2)

i -
. (1.1) (1.2)

u
1 cos i
s = 0 c
u
1 cos s
c

(1.3)

u/c << 1, (1.3)


:
2

u
u
u

s = 0 1 cos i 1 + cos s + cos s + ...


c
c
c

, u,

s = 0 1 (cos i cos s )

u
c

(1.4)

(1.1.4)

D, [1]

D = s 0 = 0 (cos i cos s )
, f D =

D
2 n 0
=

c
2

fD =

u
c

(1.5)

(cos s cos i ) u ,

(1.6)

n - , , -
, i -
, s

, u - .
(1.5) ,
k0 ks. , k 0 =

ks =

s
c

0
c

, .. k 0 k s ,

d = (ks - k0)u = Ksu

(1.7)
5

k1
3

K
k2

. 2

Ks
. (1.6) :

fD =


u sin cos ,

2n

(1.8)

n - , , -
, -
, - ks ,
u - .

,
.2. (1)
(4).
, ,
.
(3) .
1, k1, 2, k2,
.
6

,
(1.7):

s1 = 1 (k s1 k 1 )u ,

(1.9)

s 2 = 2 (k s 2 k 2 )u ,
ks1, ks2
. , ,
,
,
:

d 12 = s1 s 2 = 12 Ku ,

(1.10)

12 = 1 - 2 ,
K = k1 k2, u .

. ,
, 1 = 2 ,
:

K =

4n


sin ,

(1.11)

n - , , -

, -

.
1.3.

,
.
.
,
u = 10 /. He-Ne ,
7

= 633 , n = 1,33.
(1.6),
, = , = 0,
, ,
.
fD = 4,4104 . 633
f0 = c/ = 51014 . ,

!

.
,
, .

. ,

,

, , ,
,
, ,
.

.

, f1 f2,
. E1 E2
:

E1 = A1 cos(2f1t ) ,

E2 = A2 cos(2f 2t + ) ,

(1.12)
8

A1 A2 , , , t .
:

I1 = A12 ,

I 2 = A2 2

(1.13)

,
, . ,
, .
,
, ,
:

I 3 = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos[2 ( f 2 f1 )t + ] .

(1.14)

, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
,
0 2.
(1.14) 0.
, ,
.
1.4.

. 1.1.
. ,
,

, .

9

.
, (),

().

60- ,
,

,
.
s(t),
,
.

i(t),
, :

i (t ) =

(t n )

(1.15)

n =

si (t ) = s (i ) i (t )

(1.16)

Si(f).
:

Si ( f ) =

S ( f g ) I (g )dg

(1.17)

I(g) i(t).
,

1
I (g ) =

n =

(1.18)

(1.17) (1.18) :
10

1
n

Si ( f ) =
S f
n =

(1.19)

(1.19) , ,

1 , S(f) f 1 , Si(f)
2

S(f). ,
S(f) Si(f), Si(f) H(f),
1

, f 2
H(f )=
1
0, f >
2

(1.20)


, ,

S (t ) =

( )

sin u

( ) S (t u )du

sin u

(1.21)

Si S i (t ) . ,

( )

sin u

, (1.21)
. , S(f) ,

f =1

, S(t) S(f), , S(f)

f N = 1

f 1

11

fN =

1
2

(1.22)

,
, .
, , f N ,
" " f N ,
.
: ,
, f N . ,

()

.
, ,
,
, ,
10 20 .
X(t),
t n = n , (n 1) , , (n 1)

I ( f n ) =
N
f n =

n
,
N

n 1

X (t )e
n

2
i 2f t n

(1.23)

t = n

N = 2n

I'(fn), ,
X(t).
,
.
I'(fn) - ,
. -,
12

,
:

W (t ) = 1, n t (n 1)
W (t ) = 0

(1.24)


w(f) , .
,

1.23

w(f)


sin(fN )
w( f ) = N

fN

(1.25)

"",
.

W(t), (1.24),
- , .
.

.

.
X(t), j=0, ..., N-1
. , E ( X ) = 0
P(f), f

1
.
2

L X 1( j ) , j=0, , L-1

X 1( j ) = X ( j )
X 2 ( j ) = X ( j + L)
..............................

X k ( j ) = X ( j + ( k 1) L) , j = 0, L-1

13

, k , k L = N .
.
:

j
W( j) = 1 c o s 2

L 1

X 1( j )W ( j ) , ...,

j = 0, ..., L-1

(1.26)

X k ( j )W ( j ) .

1
Ak (n) =
L

i = ( 1) 2 .
1

L 1

X k ( j )W ( j )e

2 ij n L

(1.28)

j =0

Ik ( fn ) =
n
f n =
,
L

2
L
Ak (n)
U

n = 0, ..., L
2

k=1, 2, ..., k

1
U =
L

(1.29)

L 1

W ( j)
2

j =0


)
1 k
P( f n ) = I k ( f n )
k k =1

(1.30)

P ( f n ) ,

1
.
L

14

2.
2.1.
, ,
:
,
.
(.3, 4)
-

650

()

,
.

.
. ,
(
),
.

.
LabView (National Instruments
Inc., USA).

.
, .
, ,
.

15

.3.

, 650

.4.

16

2.2.
1.
,
,
(. (1.11)),
.
(1.11)
. , ,
,

. (1.11) n =
1.33 ( ), = 650 .
2.


,
SpectraLab (.
SpectraLab).
44100 , 2084

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3.

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18


1.

/ . .

. .

, . . , . . . - .
, 2003. - 450 c.
2. . . . .: -. . 1990.
287 .
3. .. .:, 1978. 160 ., .
4. J. A. R. Griffith, G. Duxbury. Laser Heterodyne Spectroscopy, Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and
Physical Sciences, Vol. 307, No. 1500, New Techniques in Optical and Infrared
Spectroscopy (Nov. 12, 1982), pp. 563-571,
5. , .
, , . //, . 106 .3 (
1972), . 481 - 504.).
6. , ., , . . I
.:, , 1971. 320 .
7. / . , ., , .,
, ..: . . .: , . . .-. ., 1986. 464
.
8. Welch, P.D. The Use of Fast Fourier Transform for the Estimation of Power
Spectra: A Method Based on Time Averaging Over Short, Modified
Periodograms// IEEE Trans. on Audio and Electroacoustics, Vol. Au-15, No. 12,
(June 1967), pp. 70 73.
9. , ., , . . .: ,
1989. 540 ., .