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___________________________________________________________________6
1. ______________________________________________6
1.1. ___________________________________________6
1.2. ___________________________________________________________8
1.3. _______________________________________8
1.4. _________________________________________9
1.5. ,
_______________________________________________________________11
1.6. ___________________________________________11
1.6.1.
1.6.2.
1.6.3.
1.6.4.

:_________________________________________________11
, ____________________________12
____________________________________________________________12
______________________________12

1.7. _______________________________________13
1.7.1. _________________________________________________14
1.7.2. ________________________________14

1.8. ( - ) ______________________14
1.8.1. ________________________________________________15
1.8.2. _______________________________15

1.9. _______________________________16
1.10. ________________________________________________16

2. ______________________________16
3. _______________________________________________________17
3.1. __________________________17
3.2. _______________________________________19
3.4. _______________________________________20
3.5. 3___________________________________________20
3.5.1. R C(a,b)________________________20
3.5.2. _________________________________________________21
3.5.3. , 60
(0,-2). , (,1) (2,5)_________________________21
3.5.4. ___________________________21
3.5.5. ,
(2,-5) (1,3)_____________________________________________________________________________21
3.5.6. __________________________________21
3.5.7. M(x,y,z), M1M2 , M1(1,2,3), M2(3,9,-2)
__________________________________________________________________________________________21
3.5.8. _____________________________________________________22
3.5.9. ___________________________________________22
3.5.10. , , :
). , ). _______________________________________________________22

3.6. __________________________________________22
3.7. 3_______________________________________23
3.6_________________________________________________________________________24
3.7_________________________________________________________________________24

-
4.
__________________________________________________________________24
4.1. _______________________________________24
4.2. _____________________________________________________25

5. __________________________________________________26
5.1. ________________________________________________________________27
5.2. ____________________________________________________________________27
5.3. __________________________________________________________________28
5.4. ____________________________________________29
5.5. ___________________________________________________________________30
5.6. ,
_____________________________________________________________31
5.7. _________________________________________________31
5.8. __________________________________________32
5.8___________________________________________________________________32
5.9. __________________________________________________33
5.9___________________________________________________________________34

6. ______________________________________34
6.1. _________________________________________________34
6.2. _______________________________________________________35
6.3. _________________________________35
6.4. ____________________________________________37
6.5. ______________________________________37
6.6. ___________________________________________________________37
6.7. , ___________________38
6.8. ____________________________________________39
6.8.1. _________________________________________________________39
6.8.2. __________________________________39
6.8.3. , _____________________________40

6.9. .
_____________________________________________________________________________40
6.10. .

_________________________________________________________________41
6.11. _____________41
6.11.1. _________________________________________________41
6.11.2. _____________________________________________42
6.11.3. _______________________________________________________43
6.11.2_______________________________________________________________________43
6.11.3_______________________________________________________________________44

7. ___________44
7.1. _________________________________________________45
7.2. ________________________________________________45

:
7.3. _____________________________________________________46
7.4. ________________________________________________47
7.5. _______________________________________________________________48
7.6. __________________________________________49
7.6_________________________________________________________________________50

______________________________________________________51
__________________________________________________________51
________________________________________________52
________________________________________________________________________53

______________________________________________________________54


.

,
.

1.
1.1.
,
, .. , ,
(. 1.1).

AB

. 1.1
, , AB a .
| AB |, | a |.
, , . ,
,

AB

b . ,

, .
(, , , ,
) , ,
.
, , .
a b = a ,
:
1).

b = a

2).

3).

a b , >0, -

<0.

:
1). a + b = b + a .
2). a + (b + c ) = (a + b ) + c = a + b + c .
3). a + 0 = a , 0 - .
4). a + ( a ) = 0 , ( a ) - , 0 - .

:
5). ( ) a = , , - . ( a )
6). ( + ) a = a + a .
7). (a + b ) = a + b .
8). 1 a = a .
1 - 8
.
.
. AB
, ,
, - . AB
AB .
. | AB |=| CD |=5 . ,
l , 1.2.
AB =5, CD =-5.

. 1.2
,
.
. AB CD , (.1.3) | AB |=3,
| CD |=5 .
.
AB + CD =3+(-5)=-2.
D

AB

C
A

. 1.3
:
AB , BC AC AB + BC = AC (
).
. 1.4,
A, B, C l.
AB + BC = AC
C

B
A

B
A

B
A

. 1.4

1.2.
M 1 M 2 l N 1 N 2
l (. 1.5).

a b a

, b (. 1.5).
M2

AB
M1

AB

N2
N1

. 1.5
. 1.5
M 1M 2 = N 1 N 2 = M 1M 2 cos , - M 1M 2 l.
:
1) , .. l
(a + b ) = l a + l b ;

AB

2) a
a , .. l a = l a .

1.3.

,
, ,
.
Ox , Oy - Oz - .
Ox, Oy, Oz, ,
xOy, yOz, xOz, .
P ,
Ox, Oy, Oz (
), O,
( ) x, y, z; P(x, y, z).
Ox, Oy, Oz .
Ox Oy , ,
, xOy -
Oz ( xOy). .1.6.


Z

Y
X

. 1.6
.
, ()

:
, .
:

x = cos
y = sin

, =

x 2 + y 2 , = arctg

y
x

(1.3.1)

1.4.
.
( ) Ox, Oy, Oz i, j , k

i = j = k = 1.
a .
OM , a .
O. ( )
. OM OA
3, OM . . 1.7
, OM = OA + AM OM = OM 1 + OM 2 + OM 3 .
z
M3
M
0

M1
x

M2

AB

. 1.7

OM 1 , OM 2 , OM 3
OM , | OM 1 |=, | OM 2 |=Y, | OM 3 |=Z .
1.
.
2.
.
OM i, j , k
: OM 1 =i, OM 2 =Yj, OM 3 =Zk .
OM = OM 1 + OM 2 + OM 3 OM
a :

a = X i +Y j + Z k

(1.4.1)

(1.4.1) :

a ( X ,Y , Z )

(1.4.2)

1. .
2. a (1.4.1)
.

a , ,
a ( X 1, Y 1, Z 1) b ( X 2, Y 2, Z 2 ) , ..
X 1 = X 2, Y 1 =Y 2, Z 1 = Z 2 , .
OM , M ( x, y , z ) (1.4.1)

,
M ( x, y , z ) (. 1.8), =, Y=y, Z=z.
z
M3
M
0

M2
y

M1
x

. 1.8

AB

OM = xi + yj + zk , OM = ( x, y , z ) . AB - ,
A( x1, y1, z1) B ( x 2, y 2, z 2 ) .

AB :
X = x 2 x1, Y = y 2 y1, Z = z 2 z1
. 1.9 ,
AB = r 2 r 1
z

Az

(1.4.3)
(1.4.4)

AB

. 1.9

(.1.2.),
:
X = ox AB = ox ( r 2 r 1) = x 2 x1 ,
Y = y 2 y1, Z = z 2 z1 .
AB :
(1.4.5)
AB =( x 2 x1) i +( y 2 y1) j +( z 2 z1) k
i , j , k , (1.4.1)

a a i , j , k .
. a i , j a = Xi + Yj .

10

1.5. ,

,
,
.
1. :
a = X 1i +Y1 j + Z1k , b = X 2i +Y2 j + Z 2 k ,

c = a + b = ( X 2 + X 1) i + (Y 2 + Y 1) j + ( Z 2 + Z 1) k

(1.5.1)

c =( X 2 + X 1, Y 2 +Y 1, Z 2 +Z 1)

a ( X 1, Y 1, Z 1) b ( X 2, Y 2, Z 2) ,
b a , ..
2.

a b = ( X 1 X 2, Y 1 Y 2, Z 1 Z 2)

a b = ( X 1 X 2) i + (Y 1 Y 2) j + ( Z 1 Z 2) k

(1.5.2)

3. a ,
, .. a = Xi +Yj + Zk , a = Xi + Yj + Zk .

1.6.

a b ,(

( a b ) ) :

( a b) = a b cos ,

(1.6.1)

- a b (.1.10).

. 1.10

1.6.1. :
1).

( a b ) = (b a )

( a b ) =0 a b ; ( a = 0 , b = 0 )
3). ( a b ) = a a b = b b a
2).

4).

(a b ) = ( a b ) , -

5).

(a a ) = a a = a

> 0 , a 0

6). a (b + c ) = ( a b ) + ( a c )
6.
a (b +c ) = a a (b +c ) = a a b + a a c =( a b ) +( a c )

1. .

11

-
2. 1, 3, 4, 6
, .
3.
. , , ( a b )c ,
,

c ,

(a b ) .

1.6.2. ,
() i , j , k Ox, Oy, Oz
, (1.6.1) :
(i j ) = ( ji ) = 0 , ( jk ) = (k j ) = 0 , (i k ) = (k i ) = 0
(1.6.2.1)

( a a ) = a 2 :
(1.6.2.2)
(i i ) = ( jj ) = (k k ) = 1
, a ( X 1, Y 1, Z 1) , b ( X 2, Y 2, Z 2 ) . (
,

1.6.2.1 1.6.2.2 ):

( a b ) = ( X 1i +Y1 j + Z1k ) ( X 2i +Y2 j + Z 2 k ) =


(1.6.2.3)
= X 1 X 2 +Y 1Y 2 + Z 1Z 2

,
.
(1.6.2.3) :
(1.6.2.4)
a 2 = X 2 +Y 2 + Z 2

(a = b ; X 1 = X 2 = X ; Y 1 = Y 2 = Y ; Z 1 = Z 2 = Z ) ,
.. .
(1.6.2.4) a ( X , Y , Z ) :

a =

X 2 +Y 2 + Z 2

(1.6.2.5)

1.6.3.
,

cos =

(a b )
a b

a b
(1.6.3.1) :

cos =

(1.6.3.1)

a ( X 1, Y 1, Z 1) b ( X 2, Y 2, Z 2) ,

X 1 X 2 +Y 1Y 2 + Z 1Z 2
X 1 +Y 1 + Z 1 X 2 +Y 2 + Z 2

(1.6.3.2)

1.6.4.
,
a b :

a = b ,

(1.6.4.1)

12

:
>0, a b
<0 .
: a ( X 1, Y 1, Z 1)

b ( X 2, Y 2, Z 2) .
(1.6.4.1) ,

a = b ; X 1 = X 2; Y 1 = Y 2; Z 1 = Z 2 ,
X 1 Y1
Z1
=
=
=

X 2 Y2 Z2

(1.6.4.2)
(1.6.4.3)

,
a b ,
.

a ( X 1, Y 1, Z 1) b ( X 2, Y 2, Z 2) :

(a b ) = 0

(1.6.4.4)

(1.6.4.4) :

X 1 X 2 + Y 1Y 2 + Z 1Z 2 = 0

(1.6.4.5)

1.7.

a b c ,

[ ]

c = a b c = a b

(1.7.1)

:
1) c ,
b ( ), ..

C = ab = a b sin ,

(1.7.2)

- a b (.1.11).

.1.11
2). c (..
a b ).
3). c ,
a b c ( )
, c .
a , b , c .
. , , , ,
;
a , b , c .

13

-

. ,
F , M
, (1.7.1)
M = r F , r - , .

1.7.1.

1).
2).

[a a ] = 0

[ a b ] = [b a ] , .. .

[c ( a + b ) ] = [ c a ] + [c b ] ,

3).

..

.
4). (a )b = a b

[ ]

1.7.2.
3- :

i j k

[a b ] = a a a
x

(1.7.2.1)

bxbybz
a x , a y , a z - a Oxyz
(.. a Ox, Oy, Oz); bx , by , bz -

b .

(1.7.2.1)
i , j , k :

[ i i ] = [ jj ] = [ k k ] = 0, [ i j ] = [ ji ] = k ,

[ i k ] = [ k i ] = j , [ jk ] = [ k j ] = i

(1.7.2.2)

i j k

[a b ] = a a a
x

= ( a y bz a z by )i +( a z bx a x bz ) j +( a x by a y bx ) k

bxbybz

[a b ] = (a b
y

a z by ; a z bx a x bz ; a x by a y bx )

(1.7.2.3)

1.8. ( - )

a , b c .
( ab c ) ,
(1.8.1)

[ ]

,
.
14

:
- .
a , b
c V , ,
: a , b c ,
; .

1.8.1.
1. :
). :

[ ]

[ ]

( a b c ) = ( b c a ) = ([c a ] b )

). :

[ ]

[ ]

( a b c ) = (a b c )
a b c
.
2.
:
a c b = a b c , b a c = a b c , c b a = a b c .
,

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

( a b c ) = ( b c a ) = ([c a ] b ) ; ( a b c ) = ( a b c )

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

a c b = ( a c b ) = ( a b c ) = ( b c a ) = a b c

b a c = (b [ a c ]) = (b [c a ]) = ([c a ]b ) = a b c
c b a = (c b a ) = (c a b ) = ( a b c ) = a b c
3. , :
). - ,
). ,
). .

1.8.2.
:

ax a y az
a b c = bxby bz

(1.8.2.1)

cx c y cz
1.
, :

V =
2. a ,
0.

1
ab c
6

b , c ,

15

ax a y az
a b c = 0

bxby bz = 0
cx c y cz

1.9.
:

[ ab ] c ]

(1.9.1)

, ,
, .. :

[a b ] c ] = (( a c )b ) (( b c )a )

(1.9.2)

[ a b ] c ] , a b .

1.10.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
, ?
.
? .
.
.
6. ?
.
7. .
8. . .
9. .
10. .
11. . . .
12. . . .
13. .
14. . .
15. .

2.

l. - ,
, XOY.
F(x,y)=0 XOY,
M, l,
, .
,

Ax + By + C = 0 ( A2 + B 2 0)

(2.1)

16

:
,

(2.2)
Ax 2 + 2 Bx +Cy 2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0
M(x,y) l
() t:
x = x (t ) , y = y (t )
(2.3)
t
, l, , x = x (t ) ,

y = y (t ) l.

. F(x,y)=0 S
Oxyz, S(s),
, , S , .

x = x(t )

y = y (t ) , t -
z = z (t )

(2.4)

x = x(u , v)

y = y (u , v ) , u, v -
z = z (u , v )

(2.5)

3.
3.1.
l M0 s ,
. s .
M - l, .. , ,
Oxyz - .
z
M

M0

AB

. 3.1

M 0 M s (. 3.1.).
M 0 M = ts , t -
M 0 M = ts , r r0 = ts r = r0 + ts

(3.1.1)
17

-
(3.1.1.) .
, (3.1.1.)
.
. M ( x, y ) M ( x0 , y0 ) ,
, M ( x, y , z ) M 0 ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) ,
,
S (m, n) S (m, n, p ) .
:

x x0 m x x0 = tm x = x0 + tm
= t
r r0 = ts

(3.1.2)
y y0 n y y0 = tn
y = y0 + tn

x x0 m x = x0 + tm


r r0 = ts y y0 = t n y = y0 + tn
(3.1.3)
z z p z = z + tp

0
0

t
(3.1.2) , :

x x0 y y0
=
(3.1.4)
m
n

x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
(3.1.5)
m
n
p

.
(3.1.2) ( t (3.1.2))
y y0 = n ( x x0 ) = k ( x x0 )
(3.1.6)
m
k = n m , k = tg , ,
l Ox, ,
Ox. ,
Ox , -
(3.1.2).

( )

(A,B)
M(x,y)

M00

+
x

AB

. 3.2.
(3.1.6),
y y0 = k ( x x0 ) y = kx + y0 kx0 y = kx + b , b = y0 kx0
(3.1.7)

18

:
, M ( x, y ) M ( x0 , y0 ) ,
(3.1.2) m ( x 2 x1 ) n ( y 2 y1 ) (
M 1 M 2 )

x x1
y y1
=
x2 x1 y2 y1

(3.1.8)

3.2.

, () (. 3.2).
(3.2.1)
M 0 M N M 0 M , N = 0 A( x x 0 ) + B( y y 0 ) = 0 Ax + By + C = 0

C = Ax 0 By 0 , M 0 M ( x x 0, y y 0 ) , N ( A, B )

++=0 .
, N ( A, B ) ,

x , ()
.
3.3.
1. l1 l2 ,
l1 . ,
, - (.3.3).

AB

. 3.3
. 3.3 , = 2 1 , tg ( 2 1 ) / 1 + tg 1tg 2 = ( k 2 k1 ) / (1 + k1 k 2 ) ,
y = k1 x + b1 ( l1 ) y = k 2 x + b2 ( l 2 ) .
, :
k k1
tg = 2
(3.3.1)
1 + k1 k 2
l1 l 2 : = 0 tg = 0 k 2 k1 = 0 k1 = k 2 , ..
.
l1 l2 :

1
1 + k1k 2
= ctg = 0 ctg =
=
= 0 k1k 2 = 1, ..
2
tg k 2 k1
-1.
2. ,
() :
( A1 A2 + B1 B2 )
N N
cos = 1 2 =
,
(3.3.2)
2
N1 N 2
A1 + B12 A22 + B22

)(

19

-
N1 ( A1 B1 ) N 2 ( A2 B2 ) l1 : A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 l2 : A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0 .
A1 B1
=
: l1 l2 N1 N 2 N1 = N 2
, ..
A2 B2
.
:
l3 l2 N1 N 2 cos = 0 N1 N 2 = 0 A1 A2 + B1 B2 = 0
3. M 1 ( x1, y1 ) ,

M 1 ,
MM 1 , M ( x, y ) - ,
Ax + By + C = 0 . (.3.4)
y

(A,B)

M1(x1,y1)
d
x

.3.4
d = N MM 1 = ( N MM 1 )

AB

N = [ A( x1 x2 ) + B ( y1 y2 )]

M(x,y)
A2 + B 2 = ( Ax1 + By1 + C )

A2 + B 2

(3.3.3)

.. , ,
M1 ,
- .

3.4.
, ( ),
, .
M 0 (x0, y0 ) ,
y y0 = k(x x0) , A( x x0 ) + B ( y y 0 ) = 0 .
A1x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C 2 = 0 ,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 + ( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 ) = 0
(3.4.1)
- .

3.5. 3
3.5.1. R C(a,b)
. M(x,y),
, C(a,b) R, .. CM=R.
CM CM=R
M:
(x a)2 + ( y b)2 = R (x a)2 + ( y b)2 = R2

20

:
3.5.2. x + y 2 = 0 x2 + y2 = 4
.
x+ y 2 = 0
: x1 = 0, y1 = 2 x1 = 0, y1 = 2 , ,
2 2
x + y = 4

M 1(0,2) M1(0,2) .
3.5.3. , 60
(0,-2). ,
( 3 ,1) (2,5)
. , b=-2,
k = tg60 = 3 , , (3.1.7) y = x 3 2 .

, 1=3-2, .. 1=1.
( 3 ,1).
, B, : 5 3 2 .
.
3.5.4. 15x 3 y + 2 = 0

. y , y = 5x + 23 .
, k = 5, b =

2
.
3

3.5.5. ,
(2,-5) (1,3)
. (3.8)
y (5) x 2
y+ 5
=

= (x 2) 8x + y 11= 0
3 (5) 1 2
8
3.5.6. M 0 (1,2)
1. S (3,4) .
2. N (2,3) .
.

x 1 y 2
=
4x 3y + 2 = 0.
3
4
2. (4.1): A(x x0 ) + B( y y0 ) = 0 . 2(x 1) 3( y 2) = 0
2x 3y + 4 = 0.
1. (3.5),

3.5.7. M(x,y,z), M1M2 = 13 ,


M1(1,2,3), M2(3,9,-2)
. .
3
15
7
x + x 2
y + y 2
z + z 2
x= 1
, y= 1
, z= 1
, x= , y= , z=
(3.5.7)
2
4
4
1+
1+
1+

21

-
3.5.8. y = 2x + 1 y = 0,5x + 3
.

(3.3.1)

3
tg = (k 2 k1 ) (1 + k1 k 2 ) = (2 0,5 ) (1 + 2 0,5) = , k1 = 2 , k2 = 0,5 , = arctg 3 4 .
4
y = 2x + 1.
3.5.9. B 2x + By+ 3 = 0
, :
1. 4x 3y + 5 = 0 .
2. x 5y 4 = 0 .
.
1.

3
A1 = B1 2 = B 4 B = 6
B= .
,
A2
B2

3
2
4
2. ,
B= 2 .
A1A2 + B1B2 = 0 2 1+ (5) B = 0,
5
3.5.10. ,
2x 3y + 5 = 0 x + 2y 1 = 0 , :
). M (2,3) , ). x + y 1= 0
.
a) ,
A1x + B1y + C1 + ( A2x + B2 y + C2 ) = 0 . 2x 3y + 5 + (x + 2y 1) = 0.
, M (2,3) :
(2) 3 3+ 5 + (2 + 2 3 1) = 0 = 8 = 8
3
3
,
2x 3y + 5 + 8 (x + 2y 1) = 0 2x + y + 1 = 0 .
3
b)

4
(2+ ) 1+ (2 3) 2 = 0 5 4 = 0 =
5 . ,
2x 3y + 5 + 4 (x + 2y 1) = 0 2x y + 3 = 0 .
5

3.6.
3.6.1. , :
2x 3y + 1= 0.
6x + 7y + 2 = 0 .
3y 4 = 0.
5x 8 = 0 .
3.6.2. , b = 2
2
= .
3
3.6.3. y = 2x + 3 y = 3x + 6 .
3.6.4.
2x + 3y + 7 = 0.
1.
2.
3.
4.

22

:
3.6.5. M (2,1) , y = 3x + 5.
3.6.6. x + y 3= 0 2x y + 5 = 0
, , , M (3,5) .
3.6.7. x + 2y 5 = 0 x y + 4 = 0


.
4
. (3.4.1) (3.3.1).
3.6.8. , M (3,2) I
, 16.
. :
x y
(3.6.8)
+ =1
a b
.

3.7. 3
3.7.1. ?
3.7.2.
.
3.7.3. ,
M 1 ( x1 , y1 ) , M 2 ( x2 , y2 ) , M 3 ( x3, y3 ). ( ,
).
: (3.5.7).
3.7.4. y=kx+b,
k b :
) , ;
) , ;
) , ;
) , .
3.7.5. ?
.
3.7.6. :
++=0
.
3.7.7. , A( x1 , y1 ) , B( x2 , y2 )
. , ,
, .
3.7.8. , .
3.7.9. l1 l2 .
.
3.7.10. ,
:
1) y = k1 x + b1 , y = k 2 x + b2 ;
2) A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0, A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0
x x1 y y1 x x2 y y2
=
;
=
.
3)
m1
n1
m2
n2
3.7.11.
Ax + By + C = 0 Ax + By + C1 = 0 .

23

-
3.6
2
3

6
7

3.6.1. 1)k = ;2) k = ;3) k = 0;4)

Oy ;

3.6.2. y = 3 x 2;

3.6.3. = ;
4
2
x
+
3 y = 0 3x 2 y = 0 ;
3.6.4.
3.6.5. x + 3 y + 1 = 0;
3.6.6. 4 x 11y + 43 = 0;
3.6.7. x 3 y + 10 = 0; 3 x + y = 0;
y
x
x y
+
=1;
3.6.8. + = 1
4 8
12 8 / 3
28
.
3.6.9.
5
3.7
x + x2 + x3
y + y 2 + y3
; yc = 1
;
3.7.3. xc = 1
3
3
3.7.4. ) b=0 => y=kx;
) k=0 => y=b;
) k=b=0 => y=0;
) x=a;
) x=0;
3.7.7. S ( x 2 x1 ; y 2 y1 ) - ,
, .
y3 y1 x3 x1
=
;
3.7.8.
y 2 y1 x2 x1
m1m2 + n1n2
= cos .
3.7.10. 3)
m12 + n12 m22 + n22
3.7.11. . Ox
C C1
d=
(3.3.3). :
B

4.


. , ,
.

4.1.
OXY O1 X 1Y1 (. 4.1.)

24

y1

01

x1

.4.1
. 4.1 , OM = OO1 + O1M , OM ( x, y ) ; OO1 ( a, b ) ; O1M ( x1, y1 ) .
:
x = a + x1
(4.1.1.)

y = b + y1
x1 = x a

(4.1.2.)

y1 = y b
( x, y ) - XOY
( x1 , y1 ) - X 1O1Y1
( a, b ) - X 1O1Y1
1. (5,-2) .
, , ,
O1 ( 2,3) ?
. ,
. (4.1.2.)
:
x1 = 5 2 = 3;
y1 = 2 3 = 5 M ( 3,5)
2. (-1,3)
(2,-5).
.
. (4.1.1.), a b O1
:
-1=2+, 3= -5+b, a=-3; b=8, .. O1 ( 3,8) .

4.2.
y

M
y1

x1
y1

x1

.4.2
.4.2 , x = OM cos , x1 = OM cos 1 , y = OM sin , y1 = OM sin 1 .
, = 1 + , :
x = OM cos = OM cos(1 + ) = OM cos 1 cos OM sin 1 sin = x1 cos y1 sin

25

-
x = OM cos = OM cos(1 + ) = OM cos 1 cos OM sin 1 sin = x1 cos y1 sin
, :
x = x1 cos y1 sin
(4.2.1)

y = x1 sin + y1 cos
x1 = x cos + y sin

(4.2.2)

y1 = x sin + y cos
1. (4.2.2) (4.2.1),
, x1 y1 x y , x1 y1 .
2. (4.2.2) ,
x1 y1 x y .
cos sin

Q =
X ( x, y ) X 1 ( x1 , y1 ) .
sin cos

Q , ..
cos sin

2
2
= cos + sin = 1 .

sin cos

(4.2.1) X = QX 1 , ..
cos sin

x1 x

= ,
sin cos y1 y

1
(4.2.2) X 1 = Q X , ..
cos sin

x x1

=
sin cos y y1

1
T
, Q = Q .
Q 1 - Q .
Q T - Q .
Q

= Q Q Q = Q Q = E,
T

(4.2.3)

(4.2.4)

1 0

E =
.
0 1

5.
2+2ocy+y2++D+F=0
. : , , , ,
, .
,
.

26

5.1.
- , (.5.1)
y
R


(-2)2+(y-2)=R2

(5.1.1)

. 5.1.

5.2.
- ,
F1 F2 , ,
, 2 , 2.
, .
5.2
M(x,y)

r1

F2(-,0)

F1(c,0)

M(x,y) -
.
F1M+F2M=2a, F1M F2M F1 ,F2 .

5.2

( M(x,y)
. M(x,y) - , r1 r2 .
M:
r1 =F1M; r2=F2M; r1 +r1=2 (. .5.2),
r1= - ; r1 = +
(5.2.1),

, - , - .

(5.2.1) .)
2
2 ; r2 = F2M =
2
2
r1 = F1M =

( +) +y

F1M + F2M =

( ) +y

( +) 2 +y2

( ) 2 +y2

= 2

:
, :
2
2 + x2 - 2xc2 + y2;
x2 + 2xc + c2 + y2 = 4a2 - 4a

( ) +y

xc - a2 =-a

( ) 2 +y2

x2(c2 - a2) - a2y2 = a2c2 - a4;

x2c2 - 2xca2 + a4 = a2(x2 - 2xc + c2) + a2y;


x2(a2 - c2) + a2y2 = a2(a2 - c2);

x2b2 + a2y2 = a2b2,

27

-
2 - 2 = b2. a2b2,

x 2 y2
+ =1
a2 b2

(5.2.2)

OX OY, ..
(x,y) (-x,-y), (-x, y), (x, -y).
x = 0; y = b;
y = 0; x
= a
(5.2.3)
:
.

, =

(5.2.4)

.
(0, 1).
Y

(x, y)

r2

5.3.

F1

r1
F2

5.3

5.3.
,
F1, F1,
, , 2 ,
2.
, , :

2 2
=1
2 2

(5.3.1), 2 = 2 - 2

5.4.
Y
b

F1

F2

-b

5.4

28

. =

>1.

2 2
=1
2 2

2 2
2 = 1
2

(5.3.2)
(5.3.3)

(5..3.4)

2
2

. 5.4
2 = 1
2

5.4.
(), F,
d, ,
, F (. 5.5 5.6).

29

d1

d2

d1

d2

j
F1

F2

F1

F2

5.6

5.5

, - . d1,
d2 ( F1, F2)

= ;

= ;

(5.4.1.)

( <1) , .
( >1) , .

5.5.
,
, ,
, .
:
y2=2,
(5.5.1)
- .
. 5.7
Y
M

r
j

5.7

=1.

(5.5.2)

30

5.6. ,

, () :
r=

p
1 cos

(5.6.1)

r- .
- FM , .. , -
- ,
2

. =
;
(5.6.2)

,
. (. . 5.5: 5.6: 5.7)
(5.6.1) .

5.7.
1. , ,
. .
2=10 = 08
: (5.2.4) = =5 0.8 = 4, b b2 = 2 - 2 = 25
- 16 = 9b =3. =5, b=3 (5.2.2),

2 2
+
=1
25 9

2. = 1
= 2.
: 2 + b2 = 2 b: 1 + b2 = 4 b = 3 .

2 2

=1
1
3

3. = -52
: :
-2,

2 =
1
20.

1
1
= .
5
10

1
2 =
5

, 2 =

1
,0

20

4. , =2+4+1.
.
: : = (2 + 4 + 4) - 4 + 1
+3=(+2)2. (-3,-2).
= -2.
5. ,
1350 (2,-3).
: (4.2.1) :
= 2 cos1350 - (-3) sin1350
y= 2 sin1350 +(-3) cos1350 ,

31

x = 2

2
2
2
,
+3
=
2
2
2

2 5 2
.
,

2
2

y=2

2
2 5 2
,
+3
=
2
2
2

5.8.
1. :
) 2x2+2y2+6x-3y-8=0
) x2+y2-2y+1=0
) x2+y2+2x+10=0
2. .
3. x2+16y2=16. ,
.
4.
41
b=5 =
.
4
5. y2=5x.
6. , : 4x2+y2-8x+2y-11=0.
7. : (0,0), (2,2), (-2,2). ,

, 16. .
8. (7,0) (0,4).
, , .
9. ,
7,2
12,8.
: ,

() .

= .

10 , ,
b.
11. x=7, y=-5.
,
(3,-5).

5.8
3 4
, R= 109 ;
4
2 3

1. )
:

2x2 + 2y2 + 6x - 3y - 8 = 0 x2 + y2 + 3x-

3
y-4=0
2

2
2
3
9 9 2
3
9 9
3
3
109
2
4 = 0 x + + y + =
x + 2 x + + y + 2 y +

2
4 4
4
16 16

2
4
16

) (0,1);

32

:
) ,
x y, .
2.

= 1 2

3. F1(- 15,0 ),

F1( 15,0 );

2=8; 2=2;

2 2

= 1;
16 25

y = 5x ;

y = 5x

1
,0 ;
20

9.

x2 + y2

x2 + y2

10.

x2 + y
2

4.

5.

15
.
4

1
.
20

( x 1) 2 ( y + 1) 2
(1,-1) = 2, b = 4.
+
= 1.
4
16
7. (0,1) a = 14 b = 14 ,
.
( x 7) 2 ( y 4) 2
8.
+
=1
49
16
6.

36

64

=1

36

64

= 1

=1

11. (4;0).

5.9.
1. (x,y), :
) , ;
) -
?
2. ,
, ?
3. , =0.
4. , =1
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

2
2

2
2

= 1. .

.
, ..
b
, , ?
a
: y2 = -2px x2 =
-2py.
, (x1,y1),
.
?
Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0,
:
) , ;
) , ?

33

5.9
1. ) x=x1; y=-y1;
) x=y1; y=x1;
2. 1(3,-3).
3. .
4. 2.
5. = , .
6. , . ,
b
,
,
a
.
7. .

(-1, -1)
( x 1) 2 ( y 1) 2
+
=1
2
2

8. ) =0 =0;
) =0 =0.

6.
6.1.
,
. Mo(x0,y0,z0) N (A,B,C)
(.6.1)
N(A,B,C)

M
M0

. 6.1

M(x,y,z), M 0 M
M 0 M N .
M 0M N ( M 0M , N ) = 0
(6.1.1) .
M 0 M (x0-x, y0-y, z-z0), N (A, B, C)

(6.1.1)

( M 0 M , N ) = A(x-x0) + B(y0-y) + C(z-z0)


, Ax+By+Cz+D=0
(6.1.2)
D=-Ax0-By0-Cz0
(6.1.2) .
, ,
Ax+By+Cz+D=0,
.

34

:
1. A=0. N=Bj+Ck; j k, ..
Oyz, Ox.
, B = 0, Oy, = 0,
Oz.
2. D=0. .
3. A=0, B=0 Oxy ( Oz);
z = c.
, A=C=0, Oy; B=C=0,
Ox.
y = b; x = a.
4. A=D=0. Ox, Ox(A=0)
(D=0).
, B=D=0, Oy. C=D=0,
Oz.
5. A=B=D=0. Oxy, z = 0.
A=C=D=0. Oxz, z = 0.
B=C=D=0. Oyz, x = 0.

6.2.
Ax+By+Cz+D = 0 , A 0 , B 0 , C 0 , D 0,
.. .
: Ax + By + Cz = -D
x/(-D/A) + y(-D/B) + z(-D/C) = 1, a = (-D/A); b = (-D/B); c = (-D/C),
x/a+y/b+c/z=1
(6.2.1)
(6.2.1) .

6.3.

(. 6.2), n ,
OD, ,
p .

35

. 6.2
:
M(x,y,z), - OM = r ;
, r =x i + y j + z k .
r
n r = p
n p:
(6.3.1)
.
n r p = (r,n) - p = 0
(6.3.2)
.
.
, , n i , j , k .
cos, cos cos :
n = i cos + j cos + k cos
(6.3.3)
, ,
r = xi + y j + zk
(6.3.4)
(6.3.3) (6.3.4) ( r - n ) - p = 0 :
( r , n ) - p = x cos + y cos + z cos p = 0
(6.3.5)
.
- : Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
(6.1.2)
, ,
?
(6.3.5) (6.1.2) ,
, ..
cos = A
cos = B

(6.3.7)

cos = C
p = D
36

:
, (6.3.7) : =

(6.3.8)
A + B2 + C 2
D 0 (6.3.7); p>0,
D<0 , , , D.
1
: ,
,
2
A + B2 + C 2
D, (6.1.2).
D=0 .
: , (6.1.2)
(6.3.5), (6.1.2)
.
2

6.4.
,
.
: M(x0,y0) ,
(6.3.5) , , (6.3.5)
x = x0, y = y0, z = z0, .. d =x0 cos+y0 cos+z0 cos-p
(6.4.1)
(6.1.2),
d =Ax0+By0+Cz0+D/ A 2 + B 2 + C 2

6.5.
A1x + B1y + C1z + D1 = 0
(6.5.1)
A2x + B2y + C2z + D2 = 0
(6.5.2)
.
.
N 1 (A1, B1, C1) N 2 (A2, B2, C2),
(6.5.1) (6.5.2), - 1=1800-.
: ( N 1 , N 2 )=N 1 N 2 cos
cos =

( N ,N )
1

A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2

(6.5.3)
A12 + B12 + C12 A22 + B22 + C22
, 0 , ,
N 1 N 2
A1/A2 = B1/B2 = C1/C2
(6.5.4)
=2 , (6.5.3)
A1A2 + B1B2 + C1C2 = 0
(6.5.5)
: A1/A2=B1/B2=C1/C2=D1/D2,
.
| N 1 || N 2 |

6.6.
,
. :
(A1x + B1y + C1z + D1) + (A2x + B2y + C2z + D2) = 0,
- .

.

37

-
:
1. ,
x + y - z - 2 = 0 2x - 3y + z - 7 = 0 M0(1; 3; -2).
. x + y - z - 2 + (2x - 3y + z - 7) = 0
, 0 :
1 + 3 - ( - 2) + (2*1-3*3 - 2 - 7)=0 = 1/4
: x + y - z - 2 + 1/4(2x - 3y + z - 7) = 0,
: 6x + y - 3z - 15 = 0.
2. ,
2x + y - z = 0 2y + z - 2 = 0 x + 3y + z = 0
. 2x + y - z + (2y + z - 2) = 0
(6.5.5), :
A1 = 2,
B1 = (1 + 2),
C1 = (-1 + )
A2 = 1,
B2 = 3,
C2 = 1
A1A2 + B1B2 + C1C2 = 0 2 + 3(1 + 2) + ( - 1) = 0 = -4/7
: 14x - y - 11z + 8 = 0

6.7. ,

M1(x1,y1,z1), M2(x2,y2,z2), M3(x3,y3,z3),


, .
.
M(x,y,z) (. 6.3) .

. 6.3
M 1 M = r - r1 , M 1 M 2 = r2 - r1 , M 1 M 3 = r3 - r1
(
).

38

:
M 1 M , M 1 M 2 M 1 M 3
, ( M 1 M (x - x1, y - y1, z - z1); M 1 M 2 (x2 - x1, y2 - y1, z2 - z1); M 1 M 3 (x3-x1, y3-y1, z3z1)), , :
x x1
y y1 z z1
(6.7.1)
x 2 x1 y 2 y1 z2 z1 = 0
x 3 x1

y 3 y1

z3 z1

6.8.
, ,
.
.

6.8.1.
:
A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0
(6.8.11)

A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0

6.8.2.
M0(x0, y0, z0) l S (m, n, p)
( S l).
z
M

M0

y
. 6.4

l. (x,y,z)
- OM 1 = r0 (x0,y0,z0) OM = r (x,y,z). M 0 M = OM - OM 0 = r - r0
l, S,
(6.8.2.1)
M 0 M = ts
t - . (6.8.2.1) :
(6.8.2.2)
r - r0 = ts r = r0 + ts
.
(6.8.2.2.) :
x = x0 + mt, y = y0 + nt, z = z0 + pt
(6.8.2.3.)
.
t (6.8.2.3.), :
(x - x0)/m = (y - y0)/n = (z-z0)/p
(6.8.2.4)
(6.8.2.4.) .
(6.8.2.4.) s = m 2 + n 2 + p 2 :
(x - x0)/m/s = (y - y0)/n/s = (z - z0)/p/s (x - x0)/cos = (y - y0)/cos = (z - z0)/cos,

39

-
,, - , Ox, Oy, Oz. cos, cos,
cos :
m
m
cos = =
2
s
m + n2 + p2
cos =

n
=
s

cos =

p
=
s

(6.8.2.5.)

m2 + n 2 + p 2
p

m + n2 + p2
. (6.8.2.4.) (x-x0)/0 = (y-y0)/0 = (z-z0)/p
Oz.
2

6.8.3. ,
1(x1,y1,z1) 2(x2,y2,z2).
, S = M 1 M 2 (x2 - x1, y2 - y1, z2 - z1)
(6.8.2.4.) m = x2-x1, n = y2 - y1, p = z2 - z1, x0 = x1, y0 = y1, z0 = z1,

(x - x1)/(x2 - x1) = (y - y1)/(y2 - y1) = (z - z1)/(z2 - z1)


(6.8.3.1)
, .
. 1. 1 ,2 ,3 ,
(x3 - x1)/(x2 - x1) = (y3 - y1)/(y2 - y1) = (z3 - z1)/(z2 - z1)
2. (6.8.1.1.)
(6.8.2.4) .

6.9. .

l1 l2:
(x-x1)/m1=(y-y1)/n1=(z-z1)/p1
(6.9.1)
(x-x2)/m2=(y-y2)/n2=(z-z2)/p2
(6.9.2)
. l1 l2
S1 (m1,n1,p1) S 2 (m2,n2,p2) (.6.5.).
l2

l2

1
l1

l1
.6.5

cos =

( S1 , S 2 )
=
| S1 || S 2 |

m1m2 + n1n2 + p1 p2
m12 + n12 + p12 m22 + n22 + p22

(6.9.3)

(6.9.1) (6.9.2) , S1 S 2 .
:
m1/m2 = n1/n2 = p1/p2
(6.9.4)
(6.9.1.) (6.9.2.) , S1 S 2
, .. ( S1 S 2 ) = 0
m1m2 + n1n2 + p1p2 = 0

(6.9.5.)

40

6.10. .


:
(x-x0)/m = (y-y0)/n = (z-z0)/p
(6.10.1)

Ax + By + Cz + D
(6.10.2)
l (0<=<=/2),
(.6.6.)
l| - l

/2-

AB

6.6.

. 6.6. , N (A,B,C) S (m,n,p) -


/2 - ,
Am + Bn + Cp

(S, N )
sin = cos =
=
(6.10.3)
2
2
2
|S|| N|
m + n + p 2 A 2 + B2 + C 2
(6.10.1) (6.10.2)
S N , :

A/m = B/n = C/p


(6.10.4)
N = S
(6.10.1) (6.10.2)
S N ; , :
(S , N ) = 0

Am + Bn + Cp = 0
(6.10.5)

6.11.


, ,
; : ,
, , .

6.11.1.
1. 2x + 3y - 6z + 14 = 0

41

-
. (6.3) (6.3.8) = -1/7.

2
3
6
2
3
6
x y+ z2 = 0
(n = i j + k ,
p = 2)
7
4
7
7
7
7
2. 1(1,2,3) 2x + y - 3z + 5 = 0
. (6.4.) (6.4.2)
2 1 + 2 3 3 + 5
8
d=
=
4 +1+ 9
14
3. .
.
A1x + B1 y + C1z + D1 = 0

A2 x + B2 y + C2z + D2 = 0
x z y.
z=(y-y0)/n1 (y0,n1-).
x x0
y z x; z =
(x0, m1 m1
).
:
(x-x0)/m1 = (y-y0)/n1 = z/1
: 0 (x0, y0 ,0)
(m
1,n1,1)
S
4. (x-1)/2 = (y+1)/3 = (z-2)/-1 2x-3y4z+5=0. .
.
x 1 y+ 1
2 = 3
3x 2y 5 = 0

x 1 = z 2 x + 2z 5 = 0
2
1
, (6.6): 3x - 2y 5 + (x + 2z - 5) = 0.
, 2x - 3y - 4z + 5 = 0.
(6.5.5)
2(3 + ) + (-3)(-2) + (-4)2 = 0 12 - 6=0 = 2
= 2 , :
5x - 2y + 4z - 15 = 0
,
2x 3y 4z + 5 = 0

5x 2y + 4z 15 = 0
.
, 3.
: (x - 5)/20 = (y - 5)/28 = (-7)/11

6.11.2.
1. , 0 (2, -3, 1)
N (5, 0, 4).
2. , y (2, -1, 3).
, .
3. 3x - 3y - z + 1 = 0 x + 2y - 3z + 4 = 0
4.
42

:
(x - 1)/1 = (y + 5)/(-2) = z/3 (x + 3)/(-2) = y/4 = (z - 1)/(-6)
3x z + 1 = 0
5.
x - 2y - z + 4 = 0.
2x y 3 = 0
2x 3y 3z 9 = 0
6.
.
x 2y + z + 3 = 0
7. , (4,-3,1)
: x/6 = y/2 = z/(-3) (x + 1)/5 = (y - 3)/4 = (z - 4)/2.
8. , (3,1,-2)
(x - 4)/5 = (y + 3)/2 = z/1.
9. , (2, 0, -1) (1, -1, 3)
3x + 2y - z + 5 = 0
10. , (3,-1,-5),
3x - 2y + 2z + 7 = 0 5x - 4y + 3z + 1 = 0.

6.11.3.
1. . , , ,
x,y,z?
2. , (x0,y0,z0)
N (A,B,C) .
3. .
4. (x - x0)/m = (y - y0)/n = (z - z0)/p.
m = 0 (x - x0)/m = (y - y0)/o = (z - z0)/p.
?
5. x/1 = y/1 = z/0 ?
6. : (x - x0)/0 = (y - y0)/0 = (z - z0)/p.
?
7.
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0

A1x + B1 y + C1z + D1 = 0
: 1) x
2) Oxz
3) Oyz
8. :
Ax + By + Cz = 0
Ax + Cz = 0
)
)
A1x + B1 y + C1z = 0
A1x + C1z = 0
9. , Oxz
(2, -5, 3).
10. , :
(3,1,0); (0,7,2); (-1,0,-5); (4,1,5)

6.11.2
1. 5x - 4z 6 = 0
2. 3x - 2z = 0; cos =

3 13
2 13
, cos = 0, cos =
13
13

1
14
4.
3. cos =

43

-
21
7
6. x/9 = y/5 = z + 3/1
7. 16x - 27y + 14z - 159 = 0
8. 8x - 9y - 22z - 59 = 0
9. . N
, AB (-1,-1,4) N1 (3,2,-1)
5. sin =

. N AB N1 :
N = [ AB , N1 ] = 11i - 7j - 2k
, , ,
N (6.1.).
: 7x - 11y - z - 15 = 0.
10. . N
, . 9.
: 2x + y - 2z - 15 = 0

6.11.3
1. , , x, y, z Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
N (A,B,C), .
2. Ax + By + Cz + D = 0; M 0 M = r - r0 ( N ,( r - r0 )) = 0
4. , x.
x = x0, x - x0 = 0.
5. .
6. z.
7. 1) = 0; 1 = 0
2) /1 = /1 = D/D1
3) /1 = /1
8. ) .
) y.
9. y + 5 = 0.
10. . (x1, y1, z1), (x2,y2,z2), (x3,y3,z3), (x4,y4,z4)
, :
x1 y1 z1 1
x2 y2 z2 1
=0
x3 y3 z3 1
x4 y4 z4 1
.

7.


.
x, y, z,

, .
44

:
,
F(x,y,z)=0,
(7.1.)
.
.
.

7.1.
F(x,y,z) :
F(x,y,z)=(A1x+B1y+C1z+D1)(A2x+B2y+C2z+D2)
(7.1.1.),
: Ax1+B1y+C1z+D1=0 Ax2+B2y+C2z+D2=0.

7.2.

:
F(x,y)=0
(7.2.1.)
, (7.2.1.) Oxy,
. ,
, ,
(. 7.1.), , (. 7.2.)
(. 7.3.) ,
.

x2 y2
.7.1. . 2 + 2 = 1
a
b

45

0
X
Y
.7.2. .

x2 y2

= 1.
a2 b2

0
X
Y

.7.3. . x2=2pZ.
. (7.2.1) ,
(,
,

).

7.3.

, :
x2 y2 z 2
+

=0
a2 b2 c2
(7.3.1.)
, ,
(.7.4.).

46

.7.4.
,
:
x2+y2-k2z2=0, k=tga
(7.3.2.)
, Oxy, (7.3.2.) .
, Oyz Oxz,
.
. 1. ,
, , x2+y2-Z2=0 ( k=1),
, x-z+1=0 .
2.
,
x2 y2 z 2
+
+
=0
a2 b2 c2

7.4.
() ,
("" ) ("") :
x2 y2 z 2
+
+
=1
a2 b2 c2
(7.4.1.)(.7.5)

.7.5.
a=b=c .

47

-
,
x2 y2 z 2
+
+
= 1
a2 b2 c2
(7.4.2.)
.
,

,
x2 y2 z 2
- ( (.7.6.)), (7.4.3.)
+

=1
a2 b2 c2
x2 y2 z 2
- ( (.7.7.)), (7.4.4.)
2 2 + 2 =1
a
b
c

0
Y
X

.7.6.

.7.7.

7.5.
,
,
x2 y2
2z =
+
- ,
(7.5.1.)
p
q
48

:
x2 y2

- ,
p
q
p q - ( ).
. 7.8.
2z =

(7.5.2.)

. 7.8.
.7.9.

. 7.9.

7.6.
:
( I, 5.3), ( II,
4.1-4.2)
1. .
x2+2xy+6xz+5y2+2yz+z2=6
.
:
1
1
3
1 1 3

A = 1 5 1 , A E = 1
5
1 = =- 3+7 2-36=-( +2)( -3)( -6)=0
3 1 1
3
1
1

49

-
, 1=-2, 2=3, 3=6,
:
y2 y2 y2
-212 +322 +632=6 3 + 2 1 = 1
1
2
1
=1, b= 2 , = 3 .
2. :
2.1. 22-2-4z+5y2+2yz+2z2=3
2.2. 72-4+62-4z+5z2=18
2.3. x2+4xy-8xy-2y2-4yz+z2=6
7.6
2.1. .
2.2. .
2.3. .

50


1. : x = 2( a - 2 b ) + 6 b
2. (-1, -2, 4), B(-4, -1, 2) C(-5, 4, -6); BD- .
D ( ).
3. F = 2 i - 4 j +5 k (4, -2, 3).
(3, 2, -1).
4. : F1 (2, -1, -3), F2 (3, 2, -1) F3 (-4, 1, 3), (-1,
4, 2).
(2, 3, -1).
5. l: x - 1/2 = y/1 = z + 1/0 (0, 1, 2).
1. ,
l.
2. , l .
6. , : ,
, :
2 x - y - 3 = 0, x/16 + y/9 = 1
7. , ,
F1(-3, -4) F2( 3, 4), 3.6.
8. , F(4, 3) d: y + 1 = 0.
9. x + y =ax .
10. , :
) z + 5 = 0
) ( x - 2 ) + y + ( z + 1 ) = 16
) x + 2y + 2z + 7 = 0
) x - 4z = 0


1. .
2. , .
a (1, 2, -3), b (0, -2, 5), (4, 0, -2)
:
3. .
.
4. .
?
5. .
6. , a (4, 0, -3) , ..
i (1, ,0, 0), j (0, 1, 0), k (0, 0, 1).
7. .
8. . .
.
9*. , [ a - b , a + b ] =2 [ a , b ]
.
10*. [ a , [ b , ]]
. , [ a , [ b , ]] = b ( a , ) - ( a , b ).
11.* :
, ..
[ a , b ] = [b , ] a = [ , a ]b
[ a , b ] = a , b , . ?

51

-
12. .
13. l M0 (x0, y0) N (A, B).
1. , .
2.
.
14. l M0 (x0, y0) S (m, n).
, ..
15. l M1 (x1, y1) M2 (x2, y2).
.
16. l M. :
1. M .
2. l1,
l.
3. l1,
l.
17. .
18. , M0(x0, y0, z0)
M1(x1, y1, z1) a (x, y, z).
19. l
A1x + B1 y + C1z + D1 = 0

A2 x + B2 y + C2z + D2 = 0
.
20. 0. 1,
0, . (P: Ax + By + Cz + D= 0; M0 (x0, y0, z0)).
21.
2x + 2y z 10 = 0
l1:
l2: (x + 7)/3 = (y - 5)/-1 = (z - 9)/4
x y z 22 = 0
.
22. a b
(x0, y0),
, Ox Oy
.
23. y=12x OX ,
tg = 3/4. , ,
.
24. , :
a) ;
) .
25. , x = a cos t y = a sin t t

[0.2],
x + a = a.
26. .
27. .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

2( a + b )
(-2, 0, 2)
4i + 3 j + 4 k
66 , cos = 1/ 66 , cos = -4/ 66 , cos = -7/ 66
1. 2x + y = 0
2. x - 2y = z = 0
52

:
6. .
7. 7y + 24xy - 144 = 0
8. y = 1/8x - x + 3
9. r = a cos
10.
a) z = -5xOy
) . R = 4 O (2, 0, -1)
)
) .

3. F
= ,
,

A = F a = F a cos =a a F . d = 0 .
, ..
A =| F || a |.
11. [ a , b ] = a , b , ( ,
.
).
18. . M 0M1 (x1 - x0, y1 - y0, z1 - z0) a (x3y3z3) .
N = [ M 0M1 , a ].
: M 0M , M 0M1 , a .
x x0
M 0M M 0 M1 a = x1 x0
x3

y y0
y1 y0
y3

z z0
z1 z0 = 0
z3

19. . S = [ N1 , N2 ],
.
( x x0 )2 ( y y0 ) 2
22.

=1
a2
b2
23, y - 18 = 0
24. a) k = tg
) r = P/cos( - )

25. x cos + y cos - P = 0.


, cos = sin .

53

1. .. . - .: ,
1990.
2. .., ..
. - .: , 1990.
3. .. . - .: , 1975.

54