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24

3
.

- 2004

.
.............................................................................................................2
3.......................................................................................3
...................................3
1 .............................................................................................3
1.1 .. 3
1.2 . ...........8
1.3 .............................14
1.4 ......19
1.5 R- ..........................................................25
1.6 L- ..........................................................28
1.7 C- ..........................................................31
1.8 .....................................................................................33
1.9 ......................34
1.10
......................................................................................................................36
1.11 ..........................................38
2 ........................................................................44
3 ........................................................................................46

3

.

1 .
1.1

.
70- XIX ,
,
. ,
, .
,
,
. 1876 . . . ,
,
" "
.

.

,

.


, ,
.
1 ,
,
.

A +++ +++ +++ +++

B - - - - - - - - - - - 1 , ,
.
, ,
C .
u ,
q :
q = C u

(1)

( ). 1
ur
E ,
ur
q . E
,

. ,
, , , . .
,
.
1 .
.
4

, .
,

.
:
i = C du dt .

(2)

,
.
,
1 .

,
.
,
, , , i ( 2).

2
.

. 2
ur
B .
, ,
, ,
5

. .
, ,
eL ,

:
eL = d dt .

(3)

= k ,

(4)

w - , k - ,
ur
B ,
k- . (),
().
, ,

,
= Li .

(5)

eL = L di dt .

(6)

(5)

(),
().
,
,
.

.

.
.
6

1.2 .
.

, . .
.

,
, .
.
, , ,
, . ,
,

,
,
, ,
. ,

, , ,
. ( C = 0 ,
L = 0)

.

R, R. R
:
8

u = R i .

(7)

R
.
.

, , R-
- .
,
;
,
, .
.

.
.
. ,
,

, .

-.
-
(2).

, 3.

C1
0.5

C2
10,0 x 30

C3
5-30

3 :
C1 0.5 ;
10 , U = 10 ;
5 30 .

.

, . .
, ,
. ,
, ,
.

L-.
L,
, .

(6).

,
4.
10

L2

L1

L3

4 :

;
.

.
,
, .

,
,
.
, ,
,
- L- , R

.
R-, -, L-
5.
, ,
,
, , ,
, .
11

,
,
,

. ,
,
, .
, -

,
.
R-

,
, . . ,
R- , . , L

.
L- ,

, .

5
:
(), (),
()
12


,
,
.
,
, .

.

.
, .

13

1.3 .

. 6

i ,

t
t .
- , ,

i (t ) = i (t + T ) .

, 2 .
. , ,
f. (
f = 1 T ) ().
, , .

50 . 50 ,
, T = 0.02 . ,
60 .
,
"" ,

.
,
400 .
- .
, , .

14


i = I m sin(t + i ) . I m
. ( t + i ) ,
,
t , i ,
(t = 0), .

, .

.

i
Im

T
t
0'

i'
2

6 .

( i 6), (
i' 6). i > 0 , i' < 0 .
, , < .
. ,
15

, 6 0' ,
.
,
= 2 T = 2 f .
. , 50
= 314 /.

u(t ) e(t ) . 7
, .
7 .

u , i, e

e
u

i
T
2

i
e

2
7
, .
(t = 0)
, . . ( u = 0) .
,
, . .
16

( i < 0) . 7
,
( e > 0) .


, . . ,
.
.
, .
, 7 u i ,
. ,
; , ,


. ,
() ,
, . . .

.

. ,
, m . ,
, :
T

1
I=
[i (t )]2 dt .
T o

(8)

,
,

.
17


. i = I m sin t ,
T

i dt = I (sin
2

2
m

t )dt = I m2 T 2 ,

(9)

, (8),
I = Im

2.

(10)

:
U = Um

2,

(11)

E = Em

2.

(12)

,
,

18

1.4
.
,
, ,
,
.

.

. 8,
, .

i0

i1

I0

i2

I1

I2

8 .
:
i1 = I1m sin(t + 1 ) i2 = I 2 m sin(t + 2 ) ,
i0 (t ) . ,

i1 + i2 i0 = 0

i0 = I1m sin(t + 1 ) + I 2 m sin(t + 2 ) .

(13)

(13) ,
, :
i0 = I 0 m sin(t + 0 ) .

(14)
19

- I 0m 0 . ,
,
1 2 . ,
, ,
(13).
, ,

.

sin = ( e j e j ) 2 j ,

(15)

; j = 1 ;
.

(13)

2j


I1m e j (t +1 ) + I 2 m e j (t + 2 ) I 0 m e j (t +0 ) =
= I1m e j (t +1 ) + I 2 m e j (t + 2 ) I 0 m e j (t +0 ) .

(16)

,
,
, .

I1m e j (t +1 ) + I 2 m e j (t + 2 ) I 0 m e j (t +0 ) = 0 .

(17)

(17), e jt ,

I 0 m e j0 = I1m e j1 + I 2 m e j 2 .

(18)

20

(18).
, I1m
i1 , 1 ;
, i2 .
,
, ,
I 0m , 0 .

.

(18)

,
,

(19)

I 0 m = I 0 m e j0 , I1m = I1m e j1 , I 2 m = I 2 m e j 2
(18) :

I 0 m = I1m + I 2 m .

(20)


8, .

(. 8).

,

Im = Im e

j i

, Um = Um e

j u

, E m = E m e j e .

(21)

, :

Am sin(t + a ) B Am = Am e j a .

(22)

21


, - .

I = I e j i ; U = U e j u ; E = E e j e ;
I = Im

2 ; U = Um

2 ; E = Em

(23)

2.


,
. ,
,
; ,
, , . . = 314 .

(21),

(23)

.

e j = cos + j sin ,

(24)

I m = I m e j = I m (cos + j sin ) .

(25)

.


.

.

22

,

:

Z = Um Im .

(26)

Z
U m I m , . ,

Z = U m I m = U m e j u I m e j i = ( U m I m ) e

j ( u i )

= ( U m I m ) e j = Z e j ,
Z , a .

Z,

,
:
Z = Z = Um Im .

(27)

= u i .

(28)

Z =U I .

(29)

,

.

, ,
.

Um = Z Im U = Z I ,

(30)
23

9
.

9.

24

1.5 R- .
R- ,
10,
u = U m sin(t + u ) .

+j

u
R

U = RI

+1

10

, ,
. ,

,
: ()

i > 0 (u > 0) ,

, i < 0 (u < 0) . ,
,
, ,
.
R- ,
10,
: u = R i . ,

:
25

i = u R = ( U m R ) sin(t + u ) =

(31)

= I m sin(t + i ).

(31) ,
,
:
Um = R Im ;

(32)

i = u = u i = 0 .

(33)

(32)

2 ,

:
U = RI .

(34)

R-

. U m = U m e ju I m = I m e ji ,

j ( )
j0
Z = ( U m I m ) e u i = R e , .. Z = R ,

Z = U m I m
,

Um = R Im U = R I .

(35)

R.

(35)


.
10 10
R- .
R- . ,
,
, .. p = u i .

, , . . R-

26

.
:
p = u i = U m sin tI m sin t = U m I m sin 2 t =

(36)

= U I (1 cos 2t ).

2 0 2 U I .

,
:
T

1
1
P = pdt = UI (1 cos 2t )dt = UI .
T 0
T 0

(37)

(34)
P = UI = RI 2 .

(38)
,

, . . W,
:
T

W = pdt = PT = RI 2T .

(39)

, I
, I .

27

1.6 L- .
,
L- ,
11. ,
, . .
i = I m sin(t + i ) .

+j

= 2

+1

EL

11

:
= L i = LI m sin(t + i ) = m sin(t + ) ,

(40)

m = LI m , = i ; ,

, .

eL = d dt = L di dt = L I m cos(t + i )

(41)

eL = E Lm sin(t + i 2) ,

(42)

ELm = L I m .

, .
28

L (. 11)

f1 = f 2 eL

f1 f 2 = eL .

u ,
, u = f1 f 2 = eL = L di dt .
,
u = L di dt = L I m sin(t + i + 2) =

(43)

= U m sin(t + u ).

(43) ,
:
;
u = i + 2 , = u i = 2 .

U m = L I m . L , , X L
.
Um = X L Im .

(44)

(44)
. ,
:
U = X LI .

(45)

U m = U m e ju = X L I m e j ( i +

2)

I = I m e j i ,

Z = U m I m = X L e j 2 = jX L . ,

U m = jX L I m U m = jX L I .

(46)

, X L .
11
2
29

.
L- .

p = ui = U m I m sin t sin(t + 2) =

= UI [ cos( 2) cos(2t + 2)] = UI sin 2t.

(47)

,

, :
T

1
1
P = pdt = UI sin 2tdt = 0 .
T 0
T 0

(48)

,
,
.

, . .
, QL :
QL = UI = X L I 2 .

(49)

, ,
- ,
.
", - ", "".

30

1.7 C- .
- ,

12. , -

u = U m sin(t + u ) .


q = C u , ,
i = dq dt = C du dt = CU m cos(t + u )

i = CU m sin(t + u + 2) = I m sin(t + i ) ,

(50)

I m = CU m , i = u + 2 .

+j

i
u

+1

= 2

12

(50) ,
;
; ,

= u i = 2 ;
I m = CU m .
1 (C ) , , X C

.
31

Um = X C Im .

(51)

(51)
. ,
:
U = XCI .

(52)

. U m = U m e ju

I m = I m e ji = I m e j ( u + 2) , Z = U m I m = X C e j 2 = jX C . ,

U m = jX C I m U = jX C I .

(53)

, X C .
12
2 .
- .

p = ui = U m I m sin(t 2)sin t =

(54)

= UI [ cos( 2) cos(2t 2) ] = UI sin 2t.


, :
T

1
1
P = pdt = UI sin 2tdt = 0 .
T 0
T 0

(55)

,
,
.

, . .
, QC :
32

QC = UI = X C I 2 .

(56)

,
, - .

1.8 .

1.

1 .

u=

=0

1
idt
C

U = R I

u = R i

u=L

di
dt

U = jX C I

U = jX L I

1
C

X L = L

XC =

i
u

= 2

= 2

33

1.9 .
,
, ,
.


n

k =1

k =1

ik = I km sin( ik + t ) = 0 ,

(57)

n , .

(, )
n

Ik = Ik e
k =1

j ik

=0.

(58)

k =1

(58) ,
: ,
, , ,
.

,
.

,
. ,
, ,
, , . .
;
. ,
,
:
34

k =1

k =1

uk = U km sin(t + ku ) = 0 ,

(59)

m , .

(,

)
m

U k = U k e juk = 0 .
k =1

(60)

k =1


:

, :

Z I = E .

(61)

(60) (61)
, :
,
, .

35

1.10

.

, .
, 13.
u i ,
.

i
u

uR

uL

uC
13

:

U = U R + U L + UC .

(62)

I ,
:

U R = R I , U L = j L I , U C = ( j C ) I ,
(62)

U = R I + jX L I + ( jX C ) I = ( R + jX L jX C ) I

36

U = Z I .

(63)

(63)
, Z

Z = U I = R + jX L jX C= Z e j .

(64)

,

, . .

.
,
.

37

1.11 .
,
14.

L1

C3

R2

e1

e3

L2

b
C1

R3
C5

R1
d

14
:
e1 (t ) = E1m sin(t + e1 )
e2 (t ) = E2 m sin(t + e 2 )

(65)

- .
14 ,
.

38

.
14 .
(, ).
14 .
R -, L -, C - .
15.

I2

I1

Z2

I3

II

E3

E1

I II

I5

Z3

I III

Z5

Z0

Z1

I0

15
15
Z 1 = R1 + j L1 + ( j C1 )
Z 2 = R2 + j L2

Z 3 = R3 + j L3 + ( j C3 ) ,

(66)

Z0 = R
Z 5 = j C5

39

E1m j e1
e
= E1 e j e1
2
.

E2 m j e 2
j e 2
E2 =
e
= E2 e
2

E1 =

(67)


:
( Z + Z ) I Z I 0 I = E E
3
3
I
II
III
1
3
1

I
+
(
Z
+
Z
+
Z
)

I
=
E
3 I
3
2
5
5
II
III
3 .

0 I I Z 5 I II + ( Z 0 + Z 5 ) I III = 0

(68)

:
Z1 + Z 3
Z
3

I E E
0 I 1 3

Z 5 I II = E3

Z 0 + Z 5 0
I III

Z 3
Z3 + Z2 + Z5
Z 5

(69)

[Z ] [ I ] = [E ] .

(70)

(70)

[ I ] = [Z ] [E ] .
1

(71)

I1 = I I , I 2 = I II , I 3 = I II I I ,

(72)

I 5 = I II I III , I 0 = I III .

40

.
, ,
, 16.

f1

I2

Z2

I1

I3

E3

E1

I5

f2

Z3
Z1

Z5

f3

Z0

I0

16

( 16)

f 3 = 0 .

,
. :

1
1 E1 E3
1
1
+
+
f2 =
+
f1
Z2
Z1 Z 3
Z 1 Z 2 Z 3
.

1
1
1
1
Z f1 + Z + Z + Z f 2 = 0
2
2
5
0

(73)

(73)
:
41

1
1
1
+
+
Z
Z2 Z3
1
1

Z2

E3
f
1

1 = Z + Z .
1
3
1
1
1

f
+
+
2 0
Z 0 Z 2 Z 5

1
Z2

(74)

[Y ] [ F ] = [ J ] ,

(75)

[Y ] - , [ J ] -

, [ F ] - .
(75)

[ F ] = [Y ] [ J ] .
1

(76)

I1 =

I5 =

f1 + E1
ff
f +E
, I2 = 1 2 , I3 = 1 3
Z1
Z1
Z3

(77)

f2
f
, I0 = 2 .
Z5
Z0
.

:
2

S p = Pp + j Q p = I1 Z 1 + I 2 Z 2 + I 3 Z 3 +



2

+ I 5 Z 5 + I 0 Z 0 ,

(78)

P - , Q - .
:

Si = Pi + j Qi = E1 I1 + E3 I 3 ,

(79)

I I - .
1
3

42

17, ( 14).

I1

I3

C3

L1

U L1

UC3 6

E3

E1
3

7
C1

R3

U R3

U C1

R1

U R1

17
( 17)

f1 = 0, f 2 = f1 I1 R1 , f 3 = f 2 I1 ( j C1 ) ,

f 4 = f 3 + E1 , f 5 = f 4 I1 j L1 , f 6 = f 5 + I 3 ( j C3 ) ,

(80)

f 7 = f 6 E3 , f 8 = f 7 + I 3 R3 .
(80) ,

. , f 8 f1 = 0 .

43

2 .
1.

Electronic Workbench
.
.

2.

, R
(, 18).

2
1 8

360o - T
0
- t0
t0

0 =(360 t0)/T

18
,
, ..
U = IR ( ).
( 18) U 21 = I1 R1 ,
U 51 .
, .
U 51 U 21 ,
.
44

3.

(. lab3.mcd )
( ).
.

4.

(. lab3.mcd).

5.


, R , L , C
(. lab3.mcd).

6.

7.

,
.


, .
MCAD lab3.mcd.

45

3 .
1.

.
?

2.

3.

?
4.

5.

6.

, ,
. ,
.

7.

.
?

8.

9.

10.

11.

, .

12.

,
.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

, .

19.

R- , L- C.

20.

21.

.
46

22.

R- , L- C- .

47