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CHAITANYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE P ARUNTEZ

SWINBURNES TEST
AIM:
1.Predetermine the efficiency of the machine at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 125% full load as a motor
and as a generator by conducting Swinburnes test on other given D.C. Shunt motor.
2. To determine the resistance of the armature by drop test.
3. Draw the efficiency curves of the machine as a generator and as a motor.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
DC SHUNT MOTOR: HP Rated Voltage: 230 V
Rated Current: 17 A Rated Speed: 1500 RPM
Excitation Voltage: 230 V DC
SL.NO. APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1 Ammeter MC 1 No.
2. Ammeter MC 1 No.
3. Voltmeter MC 1 No.
4 Voltmeter MC 1 No.
4. Rheostat MC 1 No.
5. Rheostat MC 1 No.
6. Tachometer Digital 1 No.
7. DC SHUNT MOTOR
8. DPST SWITCH
9. Plug key
10. Connecting Wires



FUSE RATING:
Fuse rating = 125 % of rated current



CHAITANYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE P ARUNTEZ



CIRCUIT DIAGRAM




Theory: After a D.C.Motor is received from the manufacturer, it is necessary to test the motor before
putting it into actual service, in order to know whether the motor is functioning according to
requirements or specifications. The methods of testing the electrical machines can be divided into 3
classes; direct, indirect and regenerative. The testing of large machines by direct methods entails a
considerable loss of power.
The indirect method consist in determining the losses and predetermine the efficiency. The
amount of power required is that to supply losses only, so that there is no difficulty in applying the
method even to very large machines. The disadvantage is that the machine is running light during the
test so that, although the efficiency can be calculated with fair, accuracy from the result obtained, no
indication is given to the temperature raise on no-load or to the commutating quantities of the machine.
CHAITANYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE P ARUNTEZ

The simplest of indirect tests is the Swinburnes test, and it can only be applied to shunt or
compound machines. The machine is run light as a motor and the line current I
o
, field current I
f
, the
input voltage V, are measured. The armature resistance is also measured; at room temperature, since
the machines will be not under working conditions, the probable resistance is calculated taking the
temperature rise of 40
0
C.
Let ' V ' be the input voltage.
' I
o
' be the line current at no-load.
' I
F
' be the field current
' R
a
' be the hot resistance of the armature.
Input at no-load = V I
o
watts
no-load armature current = I
ao
= I
o
- I
F

no-load armature copper loss = I
ao
2
R
a
= W
ao
say
constant loss = W
c
= No-load input - no-load armature copper loss
= ( V I
o
) - W
ao
.
The efficiency of the machine as a motor.
I). At full load :
Let I
L
be the full load current
Input = V I
L
watts
Armature current = I
a
= I
L
- I
F
Armature copperloss = W
a
= I
a
2
R
a
watts
constant loss = W
c
watts.
Total loss = W
a
+ W
c

Output = Input - total loss = ( V I
L
) - ( W
a
+ W
c
)
Efficiency = Output/Input
(Input - total loss ) / Input = ( V I
L
) - ( W
a
+ W
c
) / ( V I
L
)


CHAITANYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE P ARUNTEZ

II). At any desired load : ( say x % of full load )
Input = ( V I
L
. x/100 ) watts.
Armature copperloss = W
a
' = W
a
( x/100 )
2
watts
constant loss = W
c
.
Total loss = W
a
' + W
c
.
output = Input - total loss = ( V I
L
. x/100 ) (W
a
' + W
c
).
Efficiency =
(Input - total loss ) / Input = {( V I
L
. x/100 ) - ( W
a
' + W
c
)} / {( V I
L
) x/100}
B. Efficiency as a Generator :
I). At full load :
output = V I
L
watts
Armature current = I
a
= I
L
+ I
F

Armature copper loss = W
a
= I
a
2
R
a
watts.
constant loss = W
c

Total loss = W
a
+ W
c

Input = output + total loss
= ( V I
L
) + ( W
a
+ W
c
)
Efficiency = output / output + total loss
= V I
L
/ (V I
L
) + ( W
a
+ W
c
)

II) At any desired load ( say x % of full load )
Output=V I
L
x/100
Armature copper losses =W
a
(x/100)
2
=W
a
(say)
Constant losses =W
c

Total Losses =W
a
+W
c

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Input =Output+total losses
=(V I
L
x/100) +(W
a
+W
c
)
Efficiency=
uutput
uutput+|uxxex
=
(FI
|

X
1
, )
(FI
|

X
1
, )+(W"
a
+W
c
)

The efficiency curves of a D.C. Machine as a motor and as a generator are as shown in Fig
PROCEDURE:
I). Swinburne's Test:
1. Perform the connections as per the circuit diagram as shown in Fig 1.
2. Start the motor keeping the SPST switch closed across the ammeter.
3. Adjust the speed to the rated speed with the help of field regulator.
4. Open the SPST switch and note the readings on all meters.
II). To determine the armature resistance.
1. Perform the connections as per the circuit diagram shown in Fig 2.
2. Adjust the potential divider to pass currents with in the rated current of the armature.
3. Note the readings on Voltmeter and Ammeter at each variation of the current and tabulate.
4. Find the average value of the resistance.
TABULATIONS:-
No-Load Test (Swinburnes Test)
S.No. Reading of voltmeter
(V)
Reading of
ammeter In the
line(I
0
)
Reading of ammeter In the Field
circuit (I
F
)

To determine armature resistance(Ra)
Sl.No. Reading of
voltmeter (V)
Reading of
ammeter (I)
Resistance of
armature R
a
=V/I



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Sl.No. Output in watts
or% output
Efficiency as motor Efficiency as
generator


PRECAUTIONS:
1. The field rheostat must be kept in minimum resistance position.
2. The starter handle must be kept in OFF position before switching ON the supply.
3. The motor must be started at no load condition.
Graphs:-Draw the efficiency Vs output in watts or %outputs curves .Take efficiency on Yaxis and
output on X axis.

RESULT:
Thus the efficiency of the D.C machine is predetermined by Swinburnes test.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is the purpose of Swinburnes test?
2. What are the constant losses in a DC machine?
3. What are the assumptions made in Swinburnes test?
4. Why is the indirect method preferred to the direct loading test?
5. The efficiency of DC machine is generally higher when it works as a generator than when it works as a motor. Is
this statement true or false? Justify your answer with proper reasons