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..

..


GERAN/UTRAN
LTE

?
.

,
.

,
.

, .
1.

GSM (
)
. ,

FDD.
PLMN, GSM ,

CS (Circuit Switching)
SS7.
: ,
. ,

PS (Packet Switching).

TDD,
IP.
OSI[1]

( 1,2), .

(/ /).

:

( );

( ;
; ; -
; -
..);
;
;
(,
,

),
-
(, );
.
GSM :
MSK - c

200

;

TDM;

( ,
- );

TDM SS7.
GSM
GPRS ( 384 /c)
EDGE. 3
MSK
8PSK. ,
(

EDGE

,


( ) .

UMTS,
2,048 /c. UMTS
GSM/EDGE/GPRS
() 5 (B >> 1).
WCDMA/ UMTS - DS-CDMA
(Direct Sequence).

, UMTS
: ,
( ,

UMTS ).
,
CDM.

, UMTS
CDMA
. UMTS
.
UMTS [1]:
UTRAN;

QoS Bearer Service;

;
Core Network
MGW SoftSwitch
IP;
(AMR-NB,
AMR-WB, AMR-WB+);
( SS7
MTP3 Sigtran);
VoIP.
UMTS

(User-plane, Controlplane) HSPA (HSDPA/HSUPA),

16QAM, 64QAM.


MAC.
OFDM
WiFi/WiMAX
. HSOPA (High
Speed OFDM Packet Access)
LTE (Long Term Evolution) UMTS.
2.

UTRAN/HSPA LTE

3GPP-

RAN, 2 - 3 2004 ().
UMTS
:
;

;

;
, ;

.


.
, 3G
Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)
,
.

LTE
(Downlink).
LTE
: FDD TDD [2-4].
E-UTRAN

OFDMA,


. (TTI) EUTRAN 0.5 (
HSDPA).

.
: QPSK, 16QAM 64QAM.
MIMO
(Multiple Input Multiple Output). MIMO

.
4- 2-4
. MIMO
(MU-MIMO),
(SU-MIMO).
E-UTRAN
[2]:
PDSCH (Physical downlink shared channel)
;
PDCCH (Physical downlink control channel)
;
CCPCH (Common control physical channels)
.
. 1.
E-UTRAN LTE
:
BCH (Broadcast Channel) ;
PCH (Paging Channel) ();
DL-SCH (Downlink Shared Channel)
;
MCH (Multicast Channel) .

BCH

CCPCH

PCH

DL-SCH

MCH


PDSCH

PDCCH

. 1:
E-UTRA
. 1, LTE
,

. OFDM/QAM
E-UTRAN
OFDM/OQAM.

OFDM/QAM

OFDM (Orthogonal
Frequency
Division
Multiplexing)

, ,
n 1
f = n
2

,
(n
n- ).
OFDM
Tu N ,

N .
,
.
N .
,

.

(
). ,

(, -),

. - OFDM
. 2.

(DFT - Discrete Fourier Transform).

5
FFT

. 2: - OFDM
5 .
, OFDM
.

,
(OFDM-).
OFDM :
1.

(
),
(QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM);
2. (
), , , (
);
3. OFDM-
.

( ).
OFDM- . 3.
QAM

e j 0 t
QAM

s(t)

e j n t
QAM

=1/Tu
/

e j N 1t

. 3: OFDM-.
OFDM-
( Inverse Fast Fourier
Transform IFFT) N (. 4).
OFDM.

mTu

(m+1)Tu

a(mN+0)
a(mN+1)

mTu

a(mN+2)

(m+1)Tu

IFFT

sm(0), sm(1), sm(2),,sm(N-1),


sm

a(mN+N-1)

. 4: IFFT
OFDM-.
. 4 a(mN+n) n-
Tu mTu < t <
(m+1)Tu. sm IFFT OFDM-.
OFDM-
E-UTRAN . 5.
QAM- =
N/Tu /
QAM

1:N

1/Tu

IFFT

OFDM

1/Tu

N:1

OFDM

. 5: OFDM-
E-UTRAN.
OFDM TDD
CP (yclic-Prefix)
TCP 4.7/16.7 (
15 ). ( 10 )
20 Tsub-frame = 0.5 .
OFDM TDD
1 [1].
1: OFDM/OQAM
OFDM/OQAM

BW

1.25

2.5

10

0.5

15

1.92

3.84

7.68

15.36

15

20

23.04

30.72

(
)

(1/2
3.84
)

FFT

128

76

(2
3.84
)

(4
3.84
)

(6
3.84
)

(8
3.84
)

256

512

1024

1536

2048

151

301

601

901

1201

OFDM

(Short/Long CP)
CP
(/samples*)

7/6

(4.69/9
) 6,

(4.69/1
8) 6,

(4.69/3
6) 6,

(4.69/7
2) 6,

(4.69/1 (4.69/14
08) 6, 4) 6,

(5.21/1
0) 1*

(5.21/2
0) 1

(5.21/4
0) 1

(5.21/8
0) 1

(5.21/1
20) 1

(5.21/16
0) 1

(16.67/
32)

(16.67/
64)

(16.67/
128)

(16.67/
256)

(16.67/
384)

(16.67/5
12)

*) FFT =
).

(samples

OFDM

OFDM/OQAM .
OFDM/OQAM,

OFDM,

( ).
Offset QAM (OQAM)

, (. 6).
OFDM/OQAM QAM (cmn)
:
Re{cmn} = amn Im{cmn}= bmn,
Tu/2 .
OFDM (
):

s( t ) =

n = + m = N u 1

n =

m =0

mn

e j 2m f t g ( t nTu ) ,

1, nTu < t < (n + 1)Tu


g ( t nTu ) =
.
0,

(1)

OFDM
OFDM

OFDM-OQAM

OFDM Offset QAM

. 6 . OFDM/OQAM
OFDM/QAM.
OFDM/OQAM cmn
:

s( t ) =
=

n = + m = N u 1

n =

m =0

n = + m = N u 1

n =

m =0

mn

mn

j m e j 2m f t g ( t nTu ) + jbmn j m e j 2m f t g ( t + Tu 2 nTu ) =

j m e j 2m f t g ( t nTu ) + bmn j m +1e j 2m f t g ( t + Tu 2 nTu ) .

(2)

(2)
N u 1

s( t ) = d m, n j
n

m =0

m+ n

j 2m f t

N u 1

( t n 0 ) = d m , n m, n ( t ) , 0 = Tu 2
n

(3)

m=0

dm,n = am,n bm,n n;


jm+n : real ( m+n ) imaginer
( m+n );

m, n ( t ) - IOTA (Isotropic Orthogonal Transfer

Algorithm), OFDM, FDM-.


m, n ( t )

Re m, n ( t ) *m, n ( t ) dt = m, m n , n .

OFDM/OQAM OFDM ,
( 0 = Tu 2 ).
OFDM/OQAM
E-UTRAN . 7.

OQAM
N/0 /

QAM

1:N

1/0

IFFT

OFDM/OQAM

1/0

N/2 :1

OFDM/OQAM

. 7: OFDM/OQAM
E-UTRAN.
, . 7, N
(real) 0 = Tu/2. ( IFFT)
im+n,
m+n , (
, ). . 8
- OFDM/OQAM
OFDM/QAM.

OFDM/QAM

OFDM/OQAM

0
0
20 = Tu

. 8: - OFDM/OQAM
OFDM/OQAM.
OFDM/OQAM OFDM
(
IOTA - g) IFFT,
.
OFDM/OQAM . 9.

.

.
.

.
(

. 9:
OFDM/OQAM.
(
IOTA), ,
.

IOTA

( OFDM),

. . 10
OFDM/OQAM OFDM 5 (512
, 300 ).

OFDM
OFDM/IOTA

. 10:
OFDM/OQAM OFDM.
OFDM/OQAM 15
OFDM.

LTE
(Uplink)

DFT
NTX

(sub-carrier mapping)

E-UTRAN
SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency
Division Multiple Access) c
PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio).

.
TTI E-UTRAN
TTI 0.5 .
TTI
().

MIMO

.
OFDM
SC-FDMA DFT (. 11).

NTX

IFFT

CP

NFFT

. 11:
SC-FDMA
E-UTRAN.
0

0
DFT

IFFT

DFT

L-1

IFFT

L-1

L-1

. 12:
OFDM-: ()
().

, (
), ( ) (. . 12).
L-1
.

L=1 (. 12,
), DFT

(L-1=0).

(. 15, ) L>1.
E-UTRAN
:
PRACH (Physical random access channel)
() ;
PUCCH (Physical uplink control channel)
;
PUSCH (Physical uplink shared channels)
.
. 13.
E-UTRAN LTE
:
RACH (Random Access Channel) ;
UL-SCH (Uplink Shared Channel)
.
RACH

PRACH

UL-SCH

PUCCH

PUSCH

. 13:
E-UTRAN

LTE

LTE
,
(Network Perfomances)
(Quality of Service). LTE
E-UTRAN
,
QoS, ,
, ,
.
() Peak
Data Rates.
2.

( ,
, ),
. ,

(L1/L2 ,
HARQ,
CQI).
2: EUTRA

2 TX MIMO, 64 QAM,
TX, 16QAM,
R=1
R=1
10 %
14 %


/
//
/
//

20
20

100
5.0
50
2.5

182
9.1
57
2.9
(
,

,
)

144
7.2
48
2.4
L1/L2 29 %

2

(C/I > 20 dB),
16QAM, 64QAM. C/I
(. 14 , 15
;).

120
QRM-MLD using ASESS
MMSE

, /
Throughput
(Mbps)

100

QPSK R = 1/2
QPSK R = 2/3
QPSK R = 3/4
16QAM R = 1/2
16QAM R = 2/3
16QAM R = 3/4
16QAM R = 4/5
64QAM R = 2/3
64QAM R = 3/4
64QAM R = 4/5

80
60
40
20

10

15

20

25

30

Average
received
Es/N0 per receiver
branch

/
Es/N0,
dB (dB)
. 14.
- ( 20 ,
3 /). : ETSI

. 14

. :
MMSE (Minimum Mean Squared Error)
MIMO
;
QRM-MLD c ASESS (Adaptive Selection of the Surviving Symbol Replica Candidates)
QRM (QR decomposition and the M-algorithm)

MIMO

MLD (Maximum Likelihood Detection).

Throughput (Mbps)

, /

50

40

30

QPSK R = 1/3
QPSK R = 1/2
QPSK R = 3/4
16QAM R = 1/2
16QAM R = 3/4
16QAM R = 4/5
16QAM R = 8/9

20

10

0
-5

10

15

20

25

Average
received /
Es/N0 per receiver
branch

Es/N0,
dB (dB)

. 15:
- ( 20 ,
3 /). : ETSI


.

E-UTRAN 3 4
(
2 ).
3:
,
//

2.6
(22 MIMO)

0.27
( 5 %
CDF
)
4:
,
//

0.9

0.15
( 5 %
CDF
)

(User Plane Latency).


,
(TCP/IP).

IP ( , GW) IP .
,
. 5.
EUTRAN 4.0 (
).
1.0
WINNER.
5:

0


1

1

2

0.25
3

0.5
4
HARQ
0.3*2.5
5

1

6

Ts1u (1 15
GW
)
7

0.5

4 + Ts1u

E-UTRAN
TDD
EUTRAN , (sub-)
0.5 . 20 sub-.
E-UTRAN TDD
. 16.

1010ms

Radio Frame

sub-frames
(0.5ms)
sub-
(0.5
)
OFDMA DL

SC-FDMA / OFDM UL

IPIPsub-

sub-frame
.

e.g. 4 standard
sub-

sub-frames

e.g. 5 sub-
standard
sub-frames

sub-channel index

sub-frame

sub-frame

7 symbols

6 symbols + IP

Tsn

idle period (IP)

Tsn
Tsf

Tsf

. 16: E-UTRAN TDD.


TDD

.
(

).
,
.


TDD
FDD.
. 16 E-UTRAN
sub- DUSP
(Switching point from downlink to uplink). TDD
,

E-UTRAN,

sub UDSP (Switching point from uplink to downlink).


HSPA( HSDPA HSUPA)
UMTS Release 5

LTE.

LTE
. HSPA+
LTE

UMTS,
, .
LTE UMTS

,
(Fixed Mobile Convergence - FMC)
(
).
LTE
IMT-2000/UMTS
,
LTE
ETSI/3GPP 2009 , 2011-2012
LTE.

1.

. ., ..
GPRS/UMTS. .: - , 2007. 400 . .

2. 3GPP TR 25.814 Physical layer aspects for evolved Universal Terrestrial


Radio Access (UTRA), Release 7, V7.1.0, 2006

3. 3GPP

TR 25.813 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA)


and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN);
Radio interface protocol aspects, Release 7, V7.1.0, 2006

4. 3GPP TR 25.913 Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved


UTRAN (E-UTRAN), Release 7, V7.3.0, 2006