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. .

2004
17685.. . .

512.62:514.112
22.151.5
56

56

. .
:
, . .: ,
2004. 160 .: . ISBN 5-94057-152-2.
- . ,
, . 60 .
200 ,
.
,
.
.

22.151.5

ISBN 5-94057-152-2

. . , 2004.
, 2004.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.

1.1. (8). 1.2. (9). 1.3. ,


(9). 1.4.
(10). 1.5. (11).
(11).

2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

2.1. (12). 2.2.


(12). 2.3. (13). (14).

3.

, ,

. .

15

3.1. (15). 3.2. (16).


3.3. () (17). (18).

4.

. . . . . . .

19

4.1. (19). 4.2. (19). 4.3.


(20). 4.4. (20). (21).

5.

. . . . . . .

22

(26).

6.

. . . . .

26

6.1. (26). 6.2. (27). 6.3. c (28). 6.4. (28). 6.5. (29). 6.6.
(30). (31).

7.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

7.1. (32). 7.2. (33). 7.3. (33). 7.4. (34). 7.5. (34). (36).

1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1*7685.. . .

38
3

2.
8.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

40
40

8.1. (40). 8.2. (41). (43).

9.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

9.1. (44). 9.2. (45).


(49).

10.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

10.1. n- (50). 10.2. n- (51). (56).

2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

11. az+bz+c=0

59

. . . . .

11.1. . (59).
11.2. (61).

12. .

. . . . . .

62

12.1. (62). 12.2.


(62). 12.3. (63). (66).

13.

. . . . . .

68

13.1. (68). 13.2. (68).


13.3. (69). (72).

14. zz+az+bz+c=0

. . .

72

14.1. (72). 14.2. (74).


14.3. (74). (77).

15.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

78

15.1. (78). 15.2. (79). (81).

16.

. . . . . .

81

16.1. (81). 16.2.


(82). 16.3. . (82). 16.4. (83). 16.5.
(85). (86).

17.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17.1. (86). 17.2.


(87). 17.3. (88).
17.4. (89). 17.5. (90). (93).
4

86

4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

18.1. (94). 18.2. (94). 18.3. (96). 18.4. (96). 18.5. (98). (101).

19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
19.1. (101). 19.2.
(103).

20.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

20.1. (105). 20.2.


(107). (110).

21.

. . . . 111

21.1. (111). 21.2.


(113). 21.3. (114).

22.
. . . . . . . . . . . 115
22.1.
(115). 22.2.
(117). 22.3. (117).

23.

. . . . . . . 119

23.1. (119). 23.2. (121). 23.3. (122). 23.4. (124). (125).

24.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

24.1. (126). 24.2.


(128). 24.3. (129). (132).

25.

. . . . . . . . . 132

25.1. (132). 25.2.


(133). 25.3. (135).

26.

. . . . . . . . . 139

26.1. (139).
26.2. (141). 26.3. (143). (145).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

, , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
5

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2004 .

1.

1.1. . Oxy. z, z=x+iy
(x, y ; i2 =1), M (x, y) (. 1):
z=x+iy M(x, y). z M : M(z).
,
. . O

.
y=0 z . Ox,
. x=0 z : z=iy.
Oy,
. .
O M(z) z |z| r:
p
|z|=r=|OM|= x2 +y2 .

, OM
Ox, y

sin =y/r, cos =x/r, x=r cos ,


M(z)
y
y=r sin ,
z=r(cos +i sin ).

x
x

O
. 1
8

.

arg z: =arg z.

y
1.2. . z=
z
z
=x+iy, z=xiy (
+
) z. ,
O
, z z. M(z)
x

M1 (z) Ox
(. 2).
z=z y=0 .
, , z
z
, .
z z . 2
O.
, z z Oy. z=z
x=0 . z=z
. z

|z|=|z|=|z|=|z|.
: z+z=2x, zz=x2 +y2 =|z|2 .
, ,
, , , :
z1 +z2 =z1 +z2 ,

z1 z2 =z1 z2 ,

z1 :z2 =z1 :z2 .

,
.
. z1 =x1 +iy1 , z2 =x2 +iy2 .
z
x x +y1 y2
y x x1 y2
z1 =x1 iy1 , z2 =x2 iy2 1 = 1 22
+i 1 22
.
z2
x2 +y22
x2 +y22

z1 :z2 =

x1 x2 +y1 y2
(y1 )x2 x1 (y2 )
+i
=z1 :z2 .
x22 +y22
x22 +y22

(< >) .
1.3. , . M(z)

OM
O. , , ,
9

y
C

B
A

O
D
. 3
y
C(ab)

, , ,
.
, a b A B, c=a+b

C , OC = OA+ OB
(. 3). d=ab

D, OD= OA OB.
1.4.
. a=|a|(cos +i sin ) b=
=|b|(cos +i sin )
ab=|a||b|(cos(+)+i sin(+)),

. . |ab|=|a||b| arg(ab)=arg a+arg b. , C(ab)


A(a) O =arg b
A(a)
O k=|b| (. 4). ba=ab,
C(ab) B(b)
x
O
E (1)
O
=arg a O . 4
|a|.
C E(1). :
|ab|
|b|
=
EOA BOC ; |a|
1
, EOA BOC ,
C(ab) A(a), B(b) E(1).
a , z
,
z =az
(1.1)
B(b)

=arg a
|a| O. .
, a (a=a), z =az
O a. a |a|=1, z =az O

=arg a. , R90

O

z =iz, R90
z =iz.
O
10

1.5. . C

AB AC =CB (= 1), , C


AB (=).
C, A B

a b. AC =CB


OC OA=(OB OC). , : ca=(bc),
c=

a+b
,
1+

=.

(1.2)

=1 C AB
c=

1
(a+b).
2

1
=
1+

=, (1.2)
1+


c=a+b,

+=1,

=,

=.

(1.3)

, (1.3) ,
A(a), B(b), C(c) .

1.1. , a b
:
|a+b||a|+|b|,

|ab||a|+|b|.

?
1.2. , ABCD , a, b, c,
d a+c=b+d.
1.3. ABCD A1 B1 C1 D1 . ,
, AA1 , BB1 , CC1 , DD1
, .
1.4. AB DC ABCD
M N , A D.
, MN
, .
1.5. ABCD a b A B.
C D ( O).
11

1.6. ABC
a A. B
ABC,
a 1) C, 2)
ABC, 3) A1 AA1 .
1.7. AC ABC A
+90 AC1 . BC B 90 BC2 . ,
C1 C2 C.
1.8. B1 B(b) A(a)
. , b1 =a+(ba), =cos +i sin .
1.9. A(a), B(b), C(c). D(d),
a+bi=c+di.
2.

2.1. A(a) B(b) |BA|=

=|OD|=|ab| (. . 3):

|z|2 =zz,

AB=|ab|.

(2.1)

AB2 =(ab)(ab).

(2.2)

zz=r2 O r.
A(a) R
(za)(za)=R2 .

(2.3)

2.2. .

OA OB a b
A B. a=x1 +iy1 , b=x2 +iy2 .

ab+ab=(x1 +iy1 )(x2 iy2 )+(x1 iy1 )(x2 +iy2 )=2(x1 x2 +y1 y2 )=2OA OB.
,

1
OA OB= (ab+ab).
2

(2.4)

A(a), B(b), C(c),


D(d) .

AB CD :


AB CD=(OB OA)(OD OC)= OB OD OB OC OA OD+ OA OC.
12

(2.4), :

1
AB CD= (bd+bdbcbcadad+ac+ac)=
2
1
= ((ab)(cd)+(ab)(cd)).
2
, :


2AB CD=(ab)(cd)+(ab)(cd).

(2.5)

2.3. . .
1. D ABC AB. ,
CD
CD2 =R2 +AC 2 +BC 2 AB2 ,
R .
O ABC ,
zz=R2 (. 5). OADB ,

, OD= OA+ OB, , d=a+b.


C
:
CD2 =(dc)(dc)=(a+bc)(a+bc)=
=3R2 +(ab+ab)(ac+ac)(bc+bc).

:

R2 +AC 2 +BC 2 AB2 =R2 +(ac)(ac)+


+(bc)(bc)(ab)(ab)=
=3R2 (ac+ac)(bc+bc)+(ab+ab).
2. M AB
. , N

|AM 2 MN 2 |=AN BN.


O
. M, A, B,
N 1, a, b, n
(. 6).

D
. 5
y
A

M
x

B
. 6
13

zz=1, a=b, b=a. :


AN BN =|an||bn|=|(an)(an)|=
=|aanana+n2 |=|1+n2 n(a+a)|.
AM 2 =(a1)(a1) MN 2 =(n1)(n1), |AM 2 MN 2 |=
=|n+n(a+a)|. |n|=1, :
|AM 2 MN 2 |=|n2 +1n(a+a)|=AN BN.
3. M N AC BD
ABCD. ,
AB2 +BC 2 +CD2 +DA2 =AC 2 +BD2 +4MN 2 .
1
1
. m= (a+c) n= (b+d),
2
2
AB2 +BC 2 +CD2 +DA2 =
=(ab)(ab)+(bc)(bc)+(cd)(cd)+(da)(da)=
=2(aa+bb+cc+dd)(ab+ab+bc+bc+cd+cd+da+da),
AC 2 +BD2 +4MN 2 =(ac)(ac)+(bd)(bd)+4(mn)(mn)=
=(aa+bb+cc+dd)(ac+ac+bd+bd)+(a+cbd)(a+cbd)=
=2(aa+bb+cc+dd)(ab+ab+bc+bc+cd+cd+da+da).

1.10. . , ,

1.11. ,
3
.
4
1.12. ,
.
1.13. , .
1.14. ABCD
M, MA2 +MC 2 =MB2 +MD2 , . .
1.15. M , AB ABC. ,
MA2 BC 2 +MB2 AC 2 =MC 2 AB2 .
1.16. A B
. , M
MA2 +MB2 .
14

3. , ,
3.1. .
A(a) B(b), O.

OA OB , arg a=arg b,
a
. . arg aarg b=arg
=0. ,
b
,
a
=. 0, ,
arg aarg b=arg
b
.
, , A(a) B(b) a
O, ,

b
. ,
a
a
= ,
b
b

ab=ab

(3.1)

O, A, B. ,
, a=0 b=0.
a

=k (k= 0) , (3.1) b
:
a=kb, k= 0, k=k.
(3.2)

A(a), B(b), C(c), D(d). BA DC


, , ab cd, O.
(3.1) :


AB CD (ab)(cd)=(ab)(cd).
(3.3)
, A, B, C, D 1
1
1
1
zz=1, a= , b= , c , d= , (3.3)
a
b
c
d


AB CD ab=cd.
(3.4)
(3.3) :
ab
ab
=
.
cd
cd
, AB CD ,
ab

.
cd
15

3.2. . 1
(1.3) .
.
A, B, C


AB AC. (3.3)
(ab)(ac)=(ab)(ac).

(3.5)

A, B, C .
:
a(bc)+b(ca)+c(ab)=0,

(3.6)



a a 1


 b b 1  =0.


c c 1

(3.7)

A B zz=1,
1
1
a=
b= . (3.5), (3.6), (3.7)
a
b
ab :
c+abc=a+b.

(3.8)

A B , C ,
z. (3.5)(3.8) AB. ,
(ab)z+(ba)z+abba=0,


z z 1


 a a 1  =0


b b 1
,
OA

z

a

0

(3.9)
(3.10)

A(a) B(b).


z 1 
a 1  =0,
0 1

az=az.

(3.11)

z+abz=a+b

(3.12)

, AB .
16

3.3. (). ,

OA OB arg aarg b=arg


= . b
2


. (. 1.2)
2
2
:

OA OB

a
a
= ,
b
b


OA OB

ab+ab=0.

(3.13)

AB CD ,
ab cd . (3.13) :
ABCD

(ab)(cd)+(ab)(cd)=0.

(3.14)

(3.14) (2.5).
A, B, C, D zz=1,
(3.14) :
ABCD

ab+cd=0.

(3.15)

(3.14) :
ab
ab
=
.
cd
cd
, AB CD
ab
,
.
cd
, O, P(p),
O. M(z) OPMP, :
p(pz)+p(pz)=0,

pz+pz=2pp.

(3.16)


zz=|p|2 P(p). , |p|=1, :
pz+pz=2.

(3.17)

(3.12) a=b=p.
27685.. . .

17


1.17. , () A(a), B(b), C(c)
, ,
, , ,
8>
>< a+b+c=0,
>: ++=0.
.
1.18. ,
,
.
1.19. , ,
.
1.20. , , ,
.
1.21. , ,
, .
1.22. , ABCD A1 B1 C1 D1 ,
AA21 +CC12 =BB21 +DD21 .
1.23.
,
. , .
1.24. ABCD. t
AB, AC, AD B1 , C1 , D1 ;

AB1 =AB,

AD1 =AD,

AC1 =AC.

, .
1.25. O M. ,
M , OM, .
1.26. ABC M. M , MA, MB, MC. ,
BC, CA, AB .
18

4.
,
.
4.1. . AB CD zz=1, A, B, C, D .
(3.12)
8>
>< z+abz=a+b,
>>:
z+cdz=c+d,
:
z=

(a+b)(c+d)
.
abcd

(4.1)

, ABCD, (3.15) ab=cd


(4.1)


1
1
1
1
1
z=
+ + +
,
2
a
b
c
d

z=

1
(a+b+c+d).
2

(4.2)

ABCD A,
B, C. (4.2) :


1
ab
z=
a+b+c
.
(4.3)
2
c
4.2. .
zz=1 A(a) B(b). (3.17) z
8>
>< az+az=2,
>>:
bz+bz=2,
z=

2(ab)
1
1
. a= , b= ,
a
b
abab

:
2ab
z=
,
a+b
2*7685.. . .

1
1
=
z
2

1
1
+
a
b


.

(4.4)
19

4.3. . M(m) ,
A(a) B(b). z ,
(3.6) (3.14) :
8>
>< z(ab)+a(bz)+b(za)=0,
>>
: (ab)(mz)+(ab)(mz)=0,

8>
>< z(ab)z(ab)+abab=0,
>>
: z(ab)+z(ab)(ab)m(ab)m=0,

z=

a(mb)b(ma)
m
+
.
2
2(ab)

(4.5)

, A B zz=1,
(4.5) :
z=

1
(a+b+mabm).
2

(4.6)

m=0, P(p) M AB
:
p=

abab
.
2(ab)

(4.7)

,
M(m) pz+pz=2pp. N(z) , OPMN,
8>
>< (zm)p=(zm)p,
>>:
pz+pz=2pp,

z=p+

pm
m

.
2
2p

(4.8)

4.4. . , G ( ) ABC
O
1


OG= (OA+ OB+ OC).
3
g G
1
g= (a+b+c).
(4.9)
3
20

h H ( ) ABC a, b, c .
AH, BH, CH
A1 , B1 , C1 .
zz=1, (3.15) :
a1 =

bc
,
a

b1 =

ca
,
b

c1 =

ab
.
c

(4.1)
h=

(a+a1 )(b+b1)
ab+bc+ca
1
1
1
=
= + + ,
aa1 bb1
abc
a
b
c

h=a+b+c.

(4.10)


, . , (4.10)
,
.

1.27. , O
, G H
1
( ), OG= GH.
2
1.28. , , ,
.
1.29. M AB ABC, H
. ,
1
MC MH = AB2 .
4
1.30. , , ,
, .
1.31. ,
.
1.32. .
, . ,
,
.
21

1.33. , ,
, .
1.34.
OA OB. , M
A B, OB OA

B1 A1 . , OB1 =OB, OA1 =OA.


1.35. , , , ,
.
1.36. , ABC
OH 2 =9R2 (AB2 +BC 2 +CA2 ),
O , R , H
.
1.37. ,

.
1.38. ABCD . ,
BCD, CDA, DAB, ABC
, .
1.39. , ,
, , ( ).
1.40. , AA1 BB1 ABC H ,
AA1 AH +BB1 BH =AB2 .
.
5.
1. 90 O
AB A1 B1 . , OM
OAB1 A1 B (. 7).
O, A, B , , 0, 1, b.
A1 B1 a1 =i b1 =bi (. 1.4), 1
M AB1 m= (1+bi). :
2
a1 b
2i(ib)
ib
=
=
=2i.
1
m0
(ib)
(1+bi)
2

22

A1

. (. 3.3)
OM A1 B .
2. AB ABC
(. 8). C
Q ,
BC AC , , a b.
C ,
CA CB .
A B b ai,
b=b a=a. 90

QB QA.
(aiq)i=bq, q a+b
Q. q=
. :
1i
CQ2 =qq=

a+b a+b
1

= (a+b)2 ,
1i 1+i
2
a+b
CQ= .
2

3.

,
. ,
.
ABC (. 9),

zz=1.
CD 

1
ab
, d=
a+b+c
.
2
c
M N
, D
AC BC , m=
=(a+c+dacd)/2 n=(b+c+dbcd)/2.
:
1
(ab+cd(ba))=
2
(ab)(ac)(bc)
1
= (ab)(1cd)=
.
2
4ab

mn=

B1

B
M

A
. 7

A
. 8

M
N
A

. 9
23

|a|=|b|=1, |mn|=|(ab)
(bc)(ca)|/4. a, b, c, . .
MN .
4. C1
C
ABC A1 B1 C1
, AA1 BB1 CC1 . ,

, A
A1
,

P
Q
, , . 10
. ,
, S
,
AA1 (. 10).
, zz=1.
C1
(3.4)
A

aa1 =bb1 =cc1 . ,
A, B, C
A1
B1 C1 , C1 A1 , A1 B1 , B1
A2 , B2 , C2 . a2 =b1 c1 /a, b2 =a1 c1 /b,
B
C
c2 =a1 b1 /c. b1 /a=a1 /b
. 11
c1 /b=b1/c, a2 =b2 =c2 =p,
pp=1. , ,
A1 , B1 , C1 BC, CA, AB,
Q, q=bc/a1 =ac/b1 =ab/c1 , qq=1. pq=
aa1 bb1
=
, bb1 =cc1 , , pq=aa1 . , PQAA1 .
cc1
5. A1 , B1 , C1 A, B, C l. ,
, A1 , B1 , C1 BC,
CA, AB , , l (. 11).
ABC zz=1, l pz+pz=2pp.
pa
a
, (4.8), a1 =p+
. , 2
2p
z BC, A1 ,
,
B1

za1
2pz2ppap+pa
=
bc
2p(bc)
24

. , ,
,


abcp
1
z=z0 =
a+b+c+2p+
.
(5.1)
2
p
,
z0 a1
z a1
(p+abp)(p+acp)
=
= 0
.
bc
2app(bc)
bc
, S(z0 ) .
, (5.1) a, b, c ABC , S(z0 )
.
, l
O. M(m) ABC . l


1
m2
a+
.
m (4.3) a1 =
2
a
(5.1)


1
abc
z=z0 =
(5.2)
a+b+c 2 ,
2
m
.
6.
, . , ,
, , , .
zz=1. A0 ,
B0 , C0 , D0 , E0 , F0 M(m)
AB, BC, CD, DA, AC, BD.




1
ab
1
cd
a+b+m
, c0 =
c+d+m
.
a0 =
2
m
2
m
:
MA20 MC02 =(ma0 )(ma0 )(mc0)(mc)=
=

(ma)(mb) (am)(bm) (mc)(md) (cm)(dm)

=
2m
2abm
2m
2cdm
=

((ma)(mb)(mc)(md))2
.
16m4 abcd

a, b, c, d ,
MB20 MD20 ME02 MF02 .
25


1.41. ABC .
C AB D. ,
D AB ,
.
1.42. A B C D . ,
AC BD .
1.43. , CF ABC, , F AC BC
AD BE, .
1.44. C M
, AB .
AB M AC BC D E.
, M DE.
1.45. CA CB ABC
CAMN CBPQ O1 O2 . D F MP NQ. , ABD O1 O2 F
.
1.46. BC AD ABCD
90 B1 C1 A1 D1 . , A1 B1 =C1 D1 .
1.47. .
, , ,
, .
1.48. . , ,
,
.
6.
6.1. . .
zz=1. ,
A0 B0 C0 D0 A, B, C, D
A0 B0 , B0 C0 , C0 D0 , D0 A0 (. 12). M N
A0 C0 B0 D0 . (4.4)
A0 , B0 , C0 , D0 , ,
a0 =

2ad
,
a+d

b0 =

2ab
,
a+b

1
ad
bc
m= (a0 +c0 )=
+
,
2
a+d
b+c
26

c0 =

n=

2bc
,
b+c

d0 =

2cd
.
c+d

1
ab
cd
(b +d0 )=
+
.
2 0
a+b
c+d

(a+b)(c+d)
m
=
. a=
n
(b+c)(d+a)
1
1
1
1
= , b= , c= , d= , ,
a
b
c
d
m
m
=
. (3.1) O, M,
n
n
N .
6.2. .
,
BC, CA, AB ABC,
A1 , B1 , C1 ,
AA1 , BB1 , CC1 (. 13).
(3.6),
A, B1 , C; C,
A1 , B; B, C1 , A; A1 , B1 , C1 :
9
a(b1 c)+b1 (ca)+c(ab1 )=0, ???
??
?
c(a1 b)+a1 (bc)+b(ca1 )=0, ???
??=
b(c1 a)+c1 (ab)+a(bc1 )=0, ?? (6.1)
??
??
??
a1 (b1 c1 )+b1(c1 a1 )+
??
+c (a b )=0. ?;

D0

C0

D
B
M

A0

B0

. 12
C
B1
P
N

A1

M
A

C1

. 13

M, N, P AA1 , BB1 , CC1 , ,


m(np)+n(pm)+p(mn)=0,
(6.2)
1
1
1
(a+a1 ), n= (b+b1 ), p= (c+c1 ),
2
2
2
(6.2) :
m=

(a+a1)(b+b1cc1)+(b+b1)(c+c1aa1)+(c+c1)(a+a1bb1)=0,
, ,
a(b1 c) + a(b c1) + a1(b1 c1) + a1(b c) + b(c1 a) + b(c a1) +
+b1(c1a1)+b1(ca)+c(a1b)+c(ab1)+c1(a1b1)+c1(ab)=0. (6.3)
, (6.3)
(6.1).
AB, BC, CA, A1 B1 . ,
, ,
AA1 , BB1 , CC1 . :
27

A1

B1

C1

. 14

.
.
6.3. .
,
, , , .
O ,
1. A1 , B1 , C1
M BC, CA, AB,
ABC (. 14). (4.3), a1 =




1
bc
1
ac
=
b+c+m
, b1 =
a+c+m
,
2
m
2
m


ab
. :
m



a1 c1
(ca)(mb) a1 c1
abbc
abac
= ca+
: cb+
=
=
.
b1 c1
m
m
(cb)(ma) b1 c1

c1 =

1
2

a+b+m

(3.5) A1 , B1 , C1 .
M
ABC.
: , ,
, ,
, .
1
1
(4.6) a1 = (b+c+mbcm), b1 = (a+c+macm),
2
2
1
c1 = (a+b+mabm). A1 , B1 , C1 ,
2
a1 c1
(ca)(1bm)
=
. b1 c1
(cb)(1am)
(ca)(1bm)
(ca)(1bm)
:
,
=
(cb)(1am)
(cb)(1am)
b(1bm)
1bm
=
,
1am
a(1am)

1bm
bm
=
.
1am
am

mm=1, M zz=1,
ABC.
6.4. . ,
, .
28

E
D

. 15

ABCDEF
ABDE=M, BC EF =N, CDFA=P (. 15).
, .
(4.1) :
m=

a+b(d+e)
,
abde

n=

b+c(e+f)
,
bcef

p=

c+d(f +a)
.
cdfa

mn=

(be)(bccd+deef +faab)
.
(abde)(bcef)

np=

(cf)(cdde+ef fa+abbc)
.
(bcef)(cdfa)

(be)(cdfa)
mn
=
.
np
(f c)(abde)
a, b, c, d, e, f , , 1/a, 1/b, 1/c,
1/d, 1/e, 1/f, , , . .
. M, N, P.
6.5. . ,
, , ,
, .
29

ABCD
, . M(z)
1
(a+b)
2

z
AB

(. 3.3). ,
ab
a+b
z=0
. N(z) 2(ab)
, CD AB,
z
,

1
(c+d)
2

.
ab
1
a+b
z= (a+b+c+d)
, , . 2
2(ab)
1
(a+b+c+d)
, E
2
1
.
(a+b+c+d) 2
a, b, c, d,
E.
6.6. . ABC A1 B1 C1 , AA1 , BB1 , CC1
, P=ABA1 B1 , Q=BC B1 C1 , R=CAC1 A1
, ,
,
.
AA1 BB1 CC1 =S (. 16). S . a1 =a, b1 =b, c1 =c, , ,
, . , = = .
S
P, A1 , B1 ,
(. 1.5):
A

p=a1 +(1)b1 =a+(1)b,


B

= +(1)=1,
1
1
=
, 1=
,

p=

B1
A1

()p=(1)a+(1)b.

C1
. 16
30

(1)
(1)
a+
b,

a, b, c,

, , :
()q=(1)b+(1)c,
()r=(1)c+(1)a.
1, 1, 1 :
()(1)p+()(1)q+
+()(1)r=0.
,
p, q, r :

C
A
B
Q

B1
A1

C1
()(1)+()(1)+
+()(1)=0.
. 17
1.17 P,
Q, R .
, , == , a1 b1 =(ab) (=), A1 B1 AB. P .
QR. , = :
()q=(1)b+(1)c, ()r=(1)c+(1)a.
:
()(qr)=(1)(ba).
(1)
qr

=
, QRAB.
ba

== ABC A1 B1 C1 .
,
AA1 , BB1 , CC1 .
, S . P,
. (. 17)
,
== . .
. AA1 R BB1 Q.

:
1.49 ( ). , A1 , B1 , C1 , BC, CA, AB,
ABC, , ,


AB1 CA1 BC1
=1.
B1 C A1 B C1 A
31

1.50 ( ). ,
,
.
1.51 ( ). , ,
.
1.52 ( ). A, B, C , A1 , B1 , C1 ,
AB1 A1 B, BC1 B1 C, CA1 C1 A .
, .
7.
7.1. .


k
AB, CD ,


AB, CD. OP= AB OQ=

= CD, P Q ba dc
(. 18). ,


k
dc
.
= AB, CD =arg(dc)arg(ba)=arg
ba

(7.1)

ABC :
b
ca
A=arg
,
ba

b
ab
B=arg
,
cb

b
bc
C =arg
.
ac

(7.2)

z=r(cos +i sin ), z=r(cos i sin ).


sin =

y
D

z=

z+z
. (7.3)
2r

dc
:
ba
dc

B
x

P
. 18
32

cos =

zz
,
2ir

dc



ba
k
ba


=
sin AB, CD =
 dc 

2i 
ba 
=

(dc)(ba)(dc)(ba)
,
2i|dc||ba|

(ba)(ba)=|ba|2 . ,

 (dc)(ba)(dc)(ba)
k
sin AB, CD =
.
2i|dc||ba|

(7.4)

. (2.5):

 (dc)(ba)+(dc)(ba)
k
cos AB, CD =
.
(7.5)
2|dc||ba|
7.2. .
S ABC:


k
1
1
S = ABAC sin AB, AC =
((ca)(ba)(ba)(ca))=
2
4i
1
(a(bc)+b(ca)+c(ab)).
=
4i
,
S=

i
(a(bc)+b(ca)+c(ab)),
4

i
S=
4



a a 1


b b 1.


c c 1

(7.6)

(7.7)

ABC zz=1,
(7.6)
S=

i (ab)(bc)(ca)

.
4
abc

(7.8)

S ABCD :

k

1
1
S = AC BD sin AC, BD =
((db)(ca)(ca)(db)). (7.9)
2
4i
ABCD zz=1, (7.9)
:
1 (ca)(db)(acbd)
S=

.
(7.10)
4i
abcd
7.3. . ABCD
b b
(AC BD)2 =(ABCD)2 +(BC AD)2 2ABBC CDDA cos(A+ C),
(7.11)
. .
37685.. . .

33

A .
(7.2) :
b b
d(bc)
d
bc
A+ C =arg
+arg
=arg
b
dc
b(dc)

b b
db(bc)(dc)+db(bc)(dc)
cos(A+ C)=
,
2ABBC CDDA
(7.11)
bb(dc)(dc)+dd(bc)(bc)db(bc)(dc)db(bc)(dc)=
=cc(db)(db).
AC 2 BD2 =cc(db)(db).
7.4. . ABCD
b b
b b
, A+ C =180 cos(A+ C)=1.
(7.11) :
(AC BD)2 =(ABCD+BC AD)2,
AC BD=ABCD+BC AD.

(7.12)

, (
).
b b
b b
(7.12) (7.11) , cos(A+ C)=1, A+ C =
d
d
=180 . , , , BAD=0 , BCD=
d
d
=180 , BAD=180, BCD=0. A,
B, C, D . ,
A, B, C, D (7.12), ABCD
, . . .
7.5. .
1.
AA1 , BB1 , CC1 . , M
MA1 , MB1 , MC1 BC, CA,
AB .
zz=1.
(3.4) : aa1 =bb1 =cc1 . ,
k
k
k

 
 

MA1 , CB = MB1 , CA = MC1 , BA (. 19).
:
arg
34

bc
ac
=arg
,
a1 m
b1 m

C1

arg

(bc)(b1 m)
=0.
(ac)(a1 m)

, . ,

A1

B1

B
M

(cb)(mb1)aa1 (bc)(b1 m)
=
(ca)(ma1)bb1 (ac)(a1 m)

. 19

. .
2. , M1
M2 ABC
, M1 M2 .
M1 (. 6.3), A1 , B1 , C1 M1 BC,
CA, AB, M2 , A2 , B2 , C2 M2 (. 20).
zz=1,
2b1 =a+c+m1

ac
,
m1

2c1 =a+b+m1

ab
,
m1

2b2 =a+c+m2

ac
,
m2

2c2 =a+b+m2

ab
.
m2

2B1 C1 2B2 C2 2(c1 b1 )=


=(bc)(1am1 ) 2(c2 b2 )=(bc)(1am2 ).
,
k
c b2
=
B1 C1 , B2 C2 =arg 2
c1 b1
C
1am2
m (m a)
=arg
=arg 1 2
.
1am1
m2 (m1 a)
k
,
AM1 , AM2 =
m2 a
=arg
.
m1 a
k k
B1 C1 , B2 C2 AM1 , AM2 =
k
m
=arg 1 = OM2 , OM1 =
m2
k
k
= OM1 , OM2 =2 AM1 , AM2 .
3*7685.. . .

M1

A1
C2
M2
A2
B2 C

B1

. 20
35

k
k
B1 C1 , B2 C2 = AM1 , AM2 . ,
, .
3. , , ,
. ,
.
M N BC DA k

 k

ABCD NM, AB = DC, NM . (7.1),
arg

ba
mn
=arg
mn
cd

arg

(ba)(cd)
=0.
(mn)2

(ba)(cd)
. m=
(mn)2
(ba)(cd)
4(ba)(cd)
1
1
= (b+c), n= (a+d), ,
=
.
2
2
2
(mn)
((ba)+(cd))2
pq
ba=p, cd=q.

(p+q)2
(p+q)2
(p+q)2
=
. :

pq
pq
(ppqq)(pqpq)=0. ABCD
, AB  CD pq= pq, , , pp=qq AB=CD.
,

1.53. ,
, .
1.54.
, , ,
.
1.55. , ,
.
1.56. A B ABC 90 . , , AB,
.
1.57. D CD ABC
AB 3:1. ACD BCD.
ABC.
36

1.58. A1 , B1 , C1 ABC,
A2 , B2 , C2 . ,
A2 B2 C2
A1 B1 C1 .
1.59. a, b, c
ABC. ,
.
1.60. , ABC

b
b
b
AB2 +BC 2 +CA2 =4S(ctg A+ctg B+ctg C).
1.61. , ,
, -
,
.
1.62. P O, ABC,
OA, OB, OC A1 , B1 , C1 . ,
A1 B1 C1 P ,
AB1 A1 B, BC1 B1 C, AC1 A1 C .
1.63. M AA1 ABC
1:2, A. BM AC N.
ABN BCN.
1.64. , ,
,
.
1.65. B A ABC 90 . , , ,
AC 2 BC 2

.
AB
1.66. , ,
, , , ,
.
1.67. ,
AH
BH
CH
AB2 +BC 2 +CA2
+
+
=
,
BC
AC
AB
4S
H , S . .
1.68. ABC tg Atg B=
=2. , ,
AB.
37

1.69. ABC 3 tg Atg B=


=1. , ,
AB, .
1.70. , ABC
:

HA tg A+ HB tg B+ HC tg C = 0 .
1
1.71. , ABC
,
A1 , B1 , C1 . , A1 B AB1 , B1 C BC1 , C1 A CA1 ,
.
1.72. AA1 BB1 ABC A B AA2 BB2 , BC AC
. , CA2 CB2
.
1.73. , M ABC MH (H ABC).
1.74. ABCD . ,
D ABC ,
, ,
.
1.75. . , ,
, .
1.76. . , ,
,
.
1.77 ( ). ,
ABC, M N. ,
M AB, P, NP AB C1 .
, , A1 B1 . , A1 , B1 , C1
.
1.78. ABC, ,
A1 B1 C1 . , ABC
A1 B1 C1 .
38

1.79. ABC AA1 ,


BB1 , CC1 . A1 , B1 , C1
BC, CA, AB A2 , B2 , C2 . , A2 , B2 ,
C2 .
1.80. ABC,
AA1 BB1 , BC CA, .
1.81.
, .
,

.
1.82. O ABC. , DE, AB, , DC OE.
1.83. , , , ,
, , .
1.84. A1 B1 ,
A2 B2 , A3 B3 . B1 , B2 , B3 C1 , C2 , C3 ,
A2 A3 , A3 A1 , A1 A2
. , C1 , C2 , C3 , A1 B1 .
1.85. ABC M. ,
MA, MB, MC
. , M
,
, .

8.
8.1. . ABC A1 B1 C1 ( ),
k
k
A1 B1 =kAB, A1 B1 =kAC B1 A1 C1 = BAC ( ).
:
c a1
ca
|a1 b1 |=k|ab|, |a1 c1 |=k|ac|, arg 1
=arg
.
b1 a1
ba

|c1 a1 |
|ca|
=

|b1 a1 |
|ba|

c1 a1
b1 a1

c1 a1
=
ca

arg

c1 a1
ca
=arg
b1 a1
ba

ca
,
ba

b1 a1
=,
ba

(8.1)

, ||=k .
c a1 c1 a1
, , , = 1
=
ca
ca
(3.3) AC A1 C1 .
ABA1 B1 BC B1 C1 . , ABC A1 B1 C1 .
(8.1) ,
ABC A1 B1 C1
.


a a 1
1


 b b 1  =0,
(8.2)

1

c c 1
1

ab1 +bc1 +ca1 =ba1 +cb1 +ac1 .


(8.2)
40

ABC A1 B1 C1 ( ), A1 B1 =kAB, A1 C1 =
k
k
=kAC B1 A1 C1 =BAC. :
c a1
ca
ca
= arg
=arg
arg 1
.
b1 a1
ba
ba

|c1 a1 |
|ca|
=

|b1 a1 |
|ba|

c1 a1
b1 a1

c1 a1
=
ca

arg

c1 a1
ca
=arg
b1 a1
ba

ca
,
ba

b1 a1
=,
(8.3)
ba
, ||=k .
(8.3)
, ABC A1 B1 C1 . :


a a 1
1


 b b 1  =0.
(8.4)
1


c c 1
1

8.2. . ||=1, ABC


A1 B1 C1 (). (8.1) ,
(8.3) .
1. , A1 B1 C1 , ABC
,
A2 , B2 , C2 C1
ABC (. 21).
,
.
(4.4) (4.3) :
A
C2


B
2bc
1
bc
a1 =
, a2 =
a+b+c
,
b+c
2
a


B2
A2
2ac
1
ac
b1 =
, b2 =
a+b+c
,
a+c
2
b


A1
B1
C
2ab
1
ab
c1 =
, c2 =
a+b+c
.
. 21
a+b
2
c
41

(8.1):
a1 b1
a c1
4abc
= 1
=
=,
a2 b2
a2 c2
(a+b)(b+c)(c+a)
=, . . . ,
A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 .
2. A1 , B1 , C1
. ,
A1 B1 C1 ABC.
O , a1 =b+c, b1 =a+c, c1 =a+b. ,
a1 b1 a1 c1
=
=1. ab
ac
A1 B1 C1 ABC , . . -1
1
.
(a+a1 )= (a+b+c) 2
2
OH, ABC
(. 1.39).
3. ABC A1 B1 C1 . AA1 , BB1 , CC1 AA1 A2 , BB1 B2 ,
CC1 C2 . , A2 B2 C2 ABC.
(8.2) :






 a b 1
 a c 1
a a 1
1






 b b 1  =0,  a b 1  =0,  a c 1  =0.
(8.5)

1

 1 1 
 1 1 
c c 1
a b 1
a c 1
1

,


a a 1
2


 b b 1  =0.
2


c c 1

(8.6)

, . , (8.5) , (a1 , b1 , c1 )
(a, b, c) (1, 1, 1). (8.5) , (a2 , b2 ) (a, b)
(a1 , b1 ), (a2 , c2 ) (a, c) (a1 , c1 ). (a2 , b2 , c2 )
(a, b, c) (1, 1, 1). , (8.6) .
4. ABC A1 B1 C1 . M


MA0 , MB0 , MC0 , , AA1 , BB1 , CC1 . , A0 B0 C0
.
42

m=0. a0 =a1 a, b0 =b1 b, c0 =c1 c,


bo a0 =b1 a1 (ba), c0 a0 =c1 a1 (ca),
b0 a0
b a1
= 1
1,
ba
ba

c0 a0
c a1
= 1
1.
ca
ca

(8.1) :
b1 a1
c a1
= 1
.
ba
ca
,
b0 a0
c a0
= 0
.
ba
ca
, (8.1), A0 B0 C0 ABC
.
5. ABC A1 B1 C1 . ,
BC B1 C1 ,
CA C1 A1 , AB A1 B1 .
zz=1. A1 B1 C1 ABC
arg , ||=1. a1 =a, b1 =b, c1 =c. A2 , B2 , C2 BC B1 C1 , CA C1 A1 , AB
A1 B1 , , (4.1),
a2 =
a2 =

b+c(b+c)
b+c
=
,
bc(1+)
bc2 bc

b+c
a+c
a+b
. , b2 =
, c =
.
1+
1+ 2
1+




a a 1
 a b+c 1 
2




 b b 1 = 1


2

 1+  b c+a 1  =0
 c a+b 1 
c c 1
2

( ).

2.1. , ,
, .
2.2. ABC A1 B1 C1 . ,
AA1 BC BB1 CA+CC1 AB.
43

2.3. ABCD
AA1 B, CB1 B, CC1 D AD1 D.
, A1 B1 C1 D1 .
2.4. ABCD ABK, BCN, CDL,
DAM. , ,
MN KL .
2.5. C1 , A1 , B1 P, ABC, , , AB, BC,
CA. A2 , B2 , C2 AA1 , BB1 , CC1 . ,
A2 B2 C2 ABC . P ,
A2 B2 C2 ABC k.
2.6. , ABC,
M. , M () ABC,
A1 , B1 , C1 . , ABC A1 B1 C1 , ,
, .
2.7. ABC PQR. F PQR.
ABC1 , BCA1 , CAB1 , F PQ, QR, RP . , PQR A1 B1 C1 .
9.
9.1. . , ABC
BCA, ABC .
(8.2)


a b 1


 b c 1  =0
(9.1)


c a 1
, ABC .
:
(9.2)
a2 +b2 +c2 =ab+bc+ca,

(ab)2 +(bc)2 +(ca)2 =0


(9.3)
2
2
=cos
+i sin
,
3
3
3
z =1, 2
2
1 2 ==cos
i sin
, ||=|2 |=1.
3
3
44

z3 1=0 :
1++2 =0 ( ).
(9.2) :

cb

, 2 ,
(9.4)

, , ABC ,
:
a+b+c2 =0

B
A

(a+b2 +c)(a2 +b+c)=0,


(a+b+c2)(a2 +b+c)=0.

ba
O
ac
. 22

(9.5)


a2 +b+c=0.

(9.6)

, , ABC ,
. 2
, ,
3
ba=(ac), cb=(ba)
(. 22), a=ba+c, b=cb+a, a+b+c2 =
=c(1++2)=0. (9.6)
ABC.
, (9.5) (9.6) .
ABC zz=1,
b=c c2 =b, b=a a2 =b. (9.5)
(9.6)
a+b+c=0.
(9.7)
9.2. . , M , ABC,
, MA, MB,
MC .

(. 7.4). .
M . ABC . , (9.5), a+b+
+c2 =0 (3 =1, 1++2 =0). MA>MB MA>MC, MA=MB+MC |a|=|b|+|c|.
|a|=|b+c2 |=|||b+c|=|b+c| |c|=|c|, |a|=|b|+|c| :
|b+c|=|b|+|c|.
45

,
B C1 (c) M
(. 23).
CMB 120, M M
, ABC.
1. BC, CA, AB ABC B
BCA1 ,
CAB1 , ABC1 . , A0 , B0 ,
C1
C0 . 23

(. 24).
(9.5),
a+b1 +c2 =0,

, a0 =

b+c+a1 2 =0,

c1 +a+b2 =0.

1
1
1
(b+c+a1), b0 = (c+a+b1), c0 = (a+b+c1).
3
3
3

:
3(c0 +b0 +2 a0 )=a+b+c1 +(c+a+b1)+2 (b+c+a1)=
=(c1 +a+2 b)+(b+c+2a1 )+(a+b1 +2 c)=0,
. . C0 B0 A0 ,
, , A0 B0 C0
.
2. , A , B , C  AA0 , BB0 , CC0
, (. . 24).
:


1
1
1
a+ (b+c+a1) = (3a+b+cb2c),
a =
2
3
6


1
1
1
b =
b+ (c+a+b1) = (3b+c+ac2a),
2
3
6


1
1
1

c=
c+ (a+b+c1) = (3c+a+ba2b).
2
3
6

6(a +b +2 c )=3a+b+cb2c+3b+c+a2ca+32 c+


+2 a+2 bab=a(1++2)+b(1++2)+c(1++2)=0.
, A B C 
, .
46

3. ABC.
A0 B0 C0 , A0 B0 C, B0 C0 A, C0 A0 B
(. 25).
a0 , b0 , c0
:
a+b0 +2 c0 =0,

b+c0 +2 a0 =0,

c+a0 +2 b0 =0.

c0 , :
ab+b0 a0 =0.
b0
, :
c+a0 a+2 b+a0 =0,

2a0 =a2 bc.


CA B:
c+a +2 b=0.

2a0 =a+a ,

a0 =

1
(a+a ).
2

AB C BC  A, ,
1
1
b0 = (b+b ) c0 = (c+c ). ,
2
2
A0 B0 C0 , BC, CA, AB
C

C1
B

C0

C0

A1

A

A0

C

A0

A B 
A

B0

B0

B1
. 24

B
. 25
47

CA B, AB C
BC  A ,
.
AA , BB , CC  A0 , B0 , C0 .
4 ( ). Q
P
, ,
R
, , A
B
(. 26). ( . 26
,
1:2.)

zz=1. a=3 , b=33 , c=3 3 3 =1.
, AB, R
A1 B1 . a1 =
=b=3 3 , b1 =2 c=2 . (2.20) :
C

r=

b+b1 (a+a1 )
3 3 +2 3 3 3
=
,
bb1 aa1
5 3 6 3

1
1
1
1
+ 2 3
+3 3 1 3
3 3

3 3
=
=
r=
1
1
1
5 3
6 3

4 3 3 +3 3 3 3 3 3
=3 3 (2 2 ++12 ).
1

P , BC:
1
1
1
+1 3 3

3 2

p=
=(2 2 ++12 )
1
1

3 2
4 3

Q , CA:
1
1
1
+1 3 2 3 3
2 2 1+2(133 ) 3
3


q=
=
=
1
1
2 3 2 (1)
2 6 3
3

=3 (2 2 ++12).
, p+q+2 r=0, =, ()2 ++1=0.
48

,
p+q+2 r=(2 2 ++12 )+
+4 2 (2 2 ++12)+22 (2 2 ++12 )=
=2 (1++22 2 )=0.

2.8. ABC M, N, K


, AM =AB, BN =BC, CK =CA. ,
MNK ,
.
2.9. ABC A1 B1 C1 . , AA1 , BB1 , CC1
.
2.10. A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 . A1 B1 , A2 B2 , A3 B3
A1 B1 C1 , A2 B2 C2 , A3 B3 C3 . , C1 C2 C3
.
2.11. AB, CD, EF ABCDEF ABP, CDQ, EFR. , PQR
.
2.12. M , ABC. ,
MA4 +MB4 +MC 4 =18R4 .
2.13. ABC. BC
D, AB E , AE=BD
k

BD, AE =60 . , EC =ED.
2.14. AB AD ABCD
ABM ADN. ,
MNC .
2.15. OAB, OCD OEF. ,
BC, DE, FA ,
.
2.16. AKL, BMN CPQ, A, B, C
. , LM, NP, QK ,
.
47685.. . .

49

2.17. A1 , B1 , C1 BC, CA, AB ABC , CA1 =2BA1 , AB1 =2CB1 , BC1 =


=2AC1 . A2 B1 C1 , C1 A2 =2B1 A2 . ,
d
AA2 A1 A2 AA2 A1 =120.
2.18. AB CD ABCD
ABM CDN, BC DA BCP DAQ,

BC DA . , MPNQ .
2.19. C1 AB ABC
3:2, A. B1 AC 3:14, A. BB1 CC1
P. , PA CC1 .
10.
10.1. n-. n-
z=r(cos +i sin ) n ,




+2k
+2k
zk = n r cos
+i sin
,
n
n
k 0, 1, 2, . . . , n1. n z0 , z1 ,

z2 , . . . , zn1 n r. z0

, zi
n
2

. z0 ,
n
z1 , . . . , zn1 n-,
n r O.
0,

1. OM O z M
=cos +i sin , A0 , A1 , A2 , . . . , An1
zk =cos

2k
2k
+i sin
,
n
n

k=0, 1, 2, . . . , n1,

(10.1)

zn 1=0. zk =zk1 ,
A0 , A1 , A2 , . . . , An1 1, z, z2 , . . . , zn1 .
50

zn 1=0
(z1)(zn1 +zn2 +. . .+z2 +z+1)=0.
1+z+z2 +. . .+zn1 =0 A1 ,
A2 , . . . , An1 .
, zk =znk . ,
z=cos

2
2
+i sin
,
n
n

2(nk)
2(nk)
+i sin
=
n
n




2k
2k
2k
2k
+i sin 2
=cos
i sin
=zk .
=cos 2
n
n
n
n

znk =cos

n=2m, zm =1, n- 1, z, z2 , . . . , zm1 , 1, z, z2 , . . . , zm1 ,


1
zk = k =z2mk =zm zmk =zmk . z2m 1=0
z
(zm 1)(zm +1)=0. zm 1=0 n- ,
zm +1=0 n- .
10.2. n-. (2.2):
A0 A2k =(zk 1)(zk 1).
zk zk =1,
A0 A2k =2(zk +zk ),

(10.2)

2k
. zk +zk =uk . n
zk zn1 +zn2 +. . .+z2 +z+1=0. ,
znk =zk , n :
zk +zk =2 cos

z+z2 +. . .+z(n1)/2 +z(n1)/2 +. . .+z2 +z+1=0,

(z(n1)/2 +z(n1)/2 )+. . .+(z2 +z2 )+(z+z)+1=0.


z+z=u, :

z2 +z2 =u2 2,

(10.3)

z3 +z3 =u3 3u,

. . .
1
, ,
(n1)
2
4*7685.. . .

51

1
(n1) u. 2
(10.2), A0 A1 ,
1
A0 A2 , . . . , A0 Am , m= (n1).
2
n , n=2m, zm 1=0 , zm +1=0
. zk +zk
zm +1=0.
.
n=5, (10.3) : (z2 +z2 )+(z+z)+1=0,

1
2k
u2 +u1=0, u1,2 = (1 5). uk =zk +zk =2 cos
,
2
n
2
4
u1 =z1 +z1 =2 cos
>0, u2 =z2 +z2 =2 cos
<0, , u1 =
5
5

1
1
1p
= (1 5) u2 = (1+ 5). |A0 A1 |=
102 5,
2
2
2
p

|A0 A2 |= 10+2 5.
u,

n=12, z6 +1=0, z3 +z3 =0, u3 3u=0,


p

u1 = 3, u3 =0, u5 = 3. , A0 A1 = 2 3, A0 A3 = 2, A0 A5 =
p

= 2+ 3. z6 1=0 (z1)(z+1)
(z2 +z+1)(z2 z+1)=0. , z=1 z=1 A0 A6 . z2 z+1=0 z+z=1,
A0 A2=1, z2 +z+1=0 z+z=1.
, A0 A4 = 3.
1. ,
P n- A0 A1 . . . An1
n(R2 +d2 ), R , d P .
R=1 P p.
pp=d2
PA20+PA21+. . .+PA2n1=(1p)(1p)+(zp)(zp)+(z2p)(z2p)+. . .
. . .+(zn1 p)(zn1 p)=1+npp+zz+(zz)2 +. . .
. . .+(zz)n1 p(1+z+z2+. . .+zn1)p(1+z+z2 +. . .+zn1)=
=1+nd2 +(n1)=n(1+d2)=n(R2 +d2),
zz=1 1+z+z2 +. . .+zn1 =0.
. P ,
2nR2 .
2. ,
n- n2 R2 .
52

R=1. , n


2
. ,

(A0A21 +A0A22 +. . .+A0A2n1)

n
=
2

n
((z1)(z1)+(z21)(z2 1)+. . .+(zn1 1)(zn1 1))=
2
n
= ((z1)(zn11)+(z21)(zn21)+. . .+(zn1 1)(z1))=
2
n
n
= (2(n1)2(z+z2+z3 +. . .+zn1))= (2(n1)+2)=n2=n2R2.
2
2
=

3. ,
.
,
|z1|=|z4 1||z2 1|.
, z9 1=0, , (z3 1)(z6 +z3 +1)=0. z6 +z3 +
+1=0 1+z3 =z6 . ,
|z4 1||z2 1|=|z4 1||z3 z|.
, z4 1
z3 z, , :
|z4 1||z2 1|=|z4 1z3 +z|=|(1+z3)(z1)|=|z6(z1)|=|z1|.
4. ,
A0 A1 . . . A11
A0 A1 +A0 A3 =2r,
r .
z12 1=0 , z6 +1=0, z4 z2 +
+1=0. ,
A0 A1 +A0 A3 =|z1|+|z3 1|=|z2 z|+|z3 1|=|z2 z+z3 1|=
=|(z2 1)(z+1)|=|z4||z+1|=|z+1|.

z+1 OA0 + OA1 , ,
, 2r.
z (|z|=1)
z2 z z3 1, .
53

5. ,
A0 A1 . . . A14
1
1
1
1
=
+
+
.
A0 A1
A0 A2
A0 A4
A0 A7
:
1
1
1
1
= 2
+ 4
,
7
|z1|
|z 1|
|z 1|
|z 1|

|z7 1||z1|
|z4 1|+|z2 1|
= 2
,
7
|z1||z 1|
|z 1||z4 1|

|z7 1||z4 z3 |
|z4 1|+|z3 z|
= 2
.
7
|z1||z 1|
|z 1||z4 1|
, , , :
|z7 1z4 +z3 |
|z4 1+z3 z|
= 2
,
7
|z1||z 1|
|z 1||z4 1|
|z3 1||z+1|
|z4 +1||z3 1|
= 2
.
7
|z1||z 1|
|z 1||z4 1|
:
|z4 +1|
1
= 4
,
|z7 1|
|z 1|

|z8 1|=|z7 1|.

, A0 A7
A0 A8 .
6.
A0 A1 . . . A2n . , A0 A1
A0 A2 , A0 A3 , . . . , A0 An .
1. A0 Ak
1
|1+zk |. : zz=1. ,
2
1
1
1
1
1
|1+z| |1+z2|+ |1+z3 |. . .+ (1)n+1|1+zn |= ,
2
2
2
2
2

S =|1+z||1+z2|+|1+z3|. . .+(1)n+1|1+zn |=1.


, 2 =z. ||=|z|=1,
54

,
S =|1+z||||1+z2||2 |+|1+z3||3 |. . .+(1)n+1|1+zn ||n |.
(1+zk)k ,


k
1
k
k
k
k
arg(1+z ) =arg(1+z )+arg = arg zk arg =k
arg z arg =
2
2
= 0. :
S=(2 +3 . . .+(1)n+1n )+(zz2 2 +z3 3 . . .+(1)n+1zn n ).

z . ,
1
, z=2 = , :

S=

(1()n )
z(1(z)n )
n +(1)n+1
+
=
+
1+
1+z
(1+)n



+(1)n+1n+1
1
1
n+1
n+1
+
=
(1+)+(1)
+
.
1+
1+
n

z2n+1 =1 , 4n+2 =1, , 2n+1 =1.


1
, n +n+1 =0, S =1.

2.
2
3
, , R cos
, R cos
, R cos
, ...
2n+1
2n+1
2n+1
n
. . . , R cos
. S
2n+1



2
3
n
n1
R cos
cos
+cos
. . .+(1)
cos
.
2n+1
2n+1
2n+1
2n+1

+i sin
. 2n+1
2n+1
(7.3) , ||=1, :


2 +1
4 +1
6 +1
2n +1
n1
S =R

+
. . .+(1)
=
2
2n
22
23



R
1 1
1
1
= (2+3. . .+(1)n1n)+ 2 + 3 . . .+(1)n1 n =
2




0
1
1 n 1
1
4
55
R 4 (1()n)

55= R (1+)n+(1)n+1(2n+1+1) .
= 444
+
53 2
1
2
2
1+
(1+)n
1+
=cos

2n+1 =cos +i sin =1, S =R/2.


55


2.20. ,
n-,
n=8, 10.
2.21. , P R,
ABCD
PA2 PC 2 +PB2 PD2 =10R4 .
2.22. , .
2.23. n- A0 A1 . . . An1 O
M. ,
MA40 +MA41 +. . .+MA4n1 =n(OM 4 +4R2 OM 2 +R4 ).
2.24. ,
.
2.25. , A0 A1 . . . A14
A0 A1 =A0 A6 A0 A4 .
2.26. , A0 A1 . . . A6
1
1
1
=
+
.
A0 A1
A0 A2
A0 A3
2.27. , , ,
.
2.28. ABCDEF M N
CD DE. AM BN.
2.29. - . , ,
.
d
2.30. ABC, AB=AC BAC =45. , , ,
, .
2.31. R 26-
A0 A1 . . . A25 . , A0 A24 A1 A5 . ,

R 3.
56

2.32. A0 , A1 , . . . , A41 42 .
, A3 A6 =A7 A9 , Ak Ak
A0 A21 .
2.33. ( ) .
, ()
. , .
2.34. ABC. M, ,
M . .
2
2.35. ABCD AB CD
d
O, AOB=60. , OA, OD, BC
.
2.36. AB ABC. D AB 1:2. CD
, ABC,
E. , AE , BE
.
2.37. d , an bn n-. ,



1
1
2
b2n =d

.
an
bn
2.38. ABC
BCA1 , CAB1 ABC1 , A
A1 , B B1 BC CA , C C1 AB. M
ABC1 . , A1 B1 M 120 .
2.39. AC BC ABC
ACM BCN. ,
AB, M BCN , ABC.
2.40. ABCD
57

ABM, BCN, CDP, DAQ. , MP NQ


.
2.41. AB CD ABCD
ABMN CDKL. , ABCD MNKL ( ).
2.42. A1 A2 . . . An B1 B2 . . . Bn . , ,
A1 B1 , A2 B2 , . . . , An Bn , , .
2.43. ABC AB
C, 80 , D E ,
d
d
d
d
d
DAB= ABE=10, EAB=20, DBA=30 . , DCB=10
d
ECA=20 .
2.44. ABC .
A1 B1 C1
. , A2 B2 C2 ABC.

11. az+bz+c=0
11.1. . . z=x+iy z=xiy x y M z z:
x=

1
(z+z),
2

y=

i
(zz).
2

(11.1)

z z M.
z z.
(11.1)

.

.
,

az+bz+c=0,
(11.2)
a b .
, c=0. z z:
8>
>< az+bz=0,
>>:
bz+az=0,
. z
, :
(aabb)z=0.
aa= bb, . . |a|= |b|,
z=0, az+bz=0. aa=bb az+bz=0
59


b
arg z=arg
+
a


1
b
+arg z arg z=
arg
. 2
a
,



1
b
=
arg
2
a
. ,
az+bz=0 z z
.
,
b
z= z,
a

y
B

A
m
x

O
A1

B1
K

az+bz=0,

. 27

aa=bb,

(11.3)

m,
.
, ,
K(ab) (. 27), OK = OA1 + OB1 , A1 (a), B1 (b).
K, , m

BA1 , OK = BA1 ( ab). , b=a (a=b), az+bz=0
bz+bz=0, z=bi.
OB.
c= 0. (11.2)
c.
c=c= 0. :
8>
>< az+bz+c=0,
>>:
bz+az+c=0,
:
(ab)z+(ba)z=0.
.
ab
a= b, z=
z,
ab
:
b(ab)
az+
z+c=0,
ab

(aabb)z+c(ab)=0.
|a|= |b| : z=
(c= 0, a= b) .
60

c(ba)
, |a|=|b|
aabb

a=b, aa=bb, . . |a|=|b|.


 (11.2)
c
c=c . , Q
2a

- OB B(b) M(z),
MQOB:




c
c
b+ z+
b=0.
(11.4)
z+
2a
2a
, . a=b c=c
(11.4) (11.2).
, a=b c=c
(11.2)



c
, Q

2a

OB(b).
, , a=b, c= c.
8>
>< az+bz+c=0,
>>:
bz+az+c=0
: c=c.
. az+bz+c=0,
a b ,
1) |a|=|b|, c=0, a=b, c=c,
2) |a|= |b|,
3) (. . |a|=|b|, c= 0, a= b,
a=b, c= c).
11.2. .
8>
>< az+bz+c=0,
>>:
bz+az+c=0,
a, b, c, ,
a b .
z, :
(aabb)z=bcac,
) aa= bb, ) aa=bb bc=ac.
, az+bz+c=0 )
aa= bb, ) aa=bb bc=ac, )
aa=bb bc= ac.

uz+uz+v=0, v=v,
(11.5)
),
61

. .
(3.16). (3.9) , i.
(3.12) a+b.
az+bz+c=0 (aa=bb, bc=ac) (11.5), c= 0.
az+bz=0 (aa=bb)
, .

(a+b)z+(a+b)z=0, a+b= 0.
(11.6)
, az+bz=0 az+bz=0 (11.6).
(11.6) aa=bb:
a(aa+ab)z+b(ab+bb)z=0,

az+bz=0.
a+b=0 az+bz=0 bz+bz=0,
bizbiz=0. .
12. .
12.1. . m az+az+b=0, b=b.

OA(a) ( 11), OP(ai) (. 28). , Ox m


ai:

=arg ai= +arg a.


(12.1)
2
a1 z+a1 z+b1 =
=0 a2 z+a2 z+b2 =0
a1 i a2 i.
(7.1),
y
P(ai )

=arg
m
A(a)
arg a
O

x
. 28

62

a2 i
a
=arg 2 .
a1 i
a1

(12.2)

(12.1) (12.2)
.
12.2. .
(12.2)
-

m1 m2 . ,
=

a2
.
a1

,
m1 m2

a2
a
= 2 ,
a1
a1

m1 m2

a1
a
= 2 .
a1
a2

(12.3)

a1
a
= 1 .
a2
a2

(12.4)

=0 = :
m1 m2

az+az+b=0 M0 (z0 ),
az0 +az0 +b=0,
a(zz0)+a(zz0 )=0.

(12.5)

(12.3) , , z z , ,
a a. (12.5)
a(zz0)a(zz0 )=0

(12.6)

, M0 (z0 )
az+az+b=0.
12.3. .
8>
>< az+az+b=0,
>>
: a(zz0)a(zz0 )=0

z1 =

az0 az0 b
2a

(12.7)

M1 , M0 (z0 ) az+az+b=0.
d M0 |M0 M1 |, . .
d=|z1 z0 |=

|az0 +az0 +b|


.
2|a|

(12.8)


a1 z+a1 z+b1 =0,

a2 z+a2 z+b2 =0,

a3 z+a3 z+b3 =0

( ) 63




a a b 
 1 1 1
 a a b  =0.
 2 2 2
a a b 

A
Q

.
1. AB PQ C.
M AP BQ, A,
B, C , P Q (. 29).
z
M
zz=1.
(3.8),
c+cab=a+b,
z+zap=a+p,

. 29

(12.9)

c+cpq=p+q,
z+zbq=b+q,

za
zb
, q=
.
1az
1bz
, :

p=

c+

(za)(zb)c
za
zb
=
+
,
(1az)(1bz)
1az
1bz

c(1az)(1bz)+c(za)(zb)=(za)(1bz)+(zb)(1az).
c+cab=a+b,

(z+abzab)(cz+cz2)=0
, ,
AB,
cz+cz2=0.

(12.10)

, AB,
C. C
zz=1. 16.
2. , OH
ABC , a, b, c .
, ABC,
. H ABC h=
=a+b+c. OH AB hz=hz z+abz=a+b
64

.
ihzihz=0,
(a+b)z+(a+b)z(a+b)(a+b)=0.
(12.2),
k


i(a+b)
a+b

a+b
OH, AB =arg
=arg
= +arg
.
ih
a+b+c
2
a+b+c
3. ABCD. A1 ,
B1 , C1 , D1 A, B, C, D . ,
AA1 CC1 =BB1 DD1 .
. , AB, BC, CD, DA
i, 1, i, 1 .
A, B, C, D 1+i, 1+i, 1i, 1i.
P(p) pz+pz2=0, pp=1. (12.8), :
1
1
|p(1+i)+p(1i)2| |p(1i)+p(1+i)2|=
2
2
1
= |(p(1+i)+p(1i)2)(p(1+i)+p(1i)+2)|=
4
1
1
= |p2 (1+i)2 +p2 (1i)2|= |p2 p2 |.
4
2

|AA1 ||CC1 |=

:
|BB1 ||DD1 |=

1 2
1
1
|p (1+i)2 +p2 (1i)2|= |p2 +p2 |= |p2 p2 |.
4
2
2

4. A B
ABC l
, C , A1 B1 . ,
CA21 +CB21
y

AB.
B(ai )
Ox, C
A(a)
O. l
O
P(p), |p|=1. pz=pz. A
C
x
B1
A1
a, |a|=r, B . 30
ai (. 30).
57685.. . .

65

AA1 BB1
p(za)=p(za)

p(zai)=p(z+ai).

, Ox , z=z. A1 B1 :
a1 =

papa
,
pp

b1 =

i(pa+pa)
.
pp

:
CA21 +CB21 =a1 a1 +b1 b1 =a21 +b21 =
=

(papa)2 (pa+pa)2
4ppaa
r2
,
=
=
2
2
(pp)
(2i sin )
sin2

=arg p .
5. ABC , AB. , C
A B.
ABC , a+b+c=0. A1 , B1 , C1
A, B, C pz+pz=0, |p|=1, ,
CC1 =AA1 +BB1 . (12.8) :
|pc+pc|=|pa+pa|+|pb+pb|.
c=ab, ,
|(pa+pa)+(pb+pb)|=|pa+pa|+|pb+pb|.
A B pz+pz=0, pa+pa pb+pb
. ,
ux+vy+w=0 pz+pz+q=0, q=q , ux+vy+w>0 ux+vy+w<0, ux+vy+w=0,
pz+pz+q>0 pz+pz+q<0.

3.1. (1+ 3i)z+(1 3i)z3=0


.
3.2. , 135
.
3.3. ,
A(35i) (2i)z+(2+i)z7=0.
66

3.4. ,
M(43i) (5+2i)z+(52i)z+20=0.
3.5. , ,
(1+i)z+(1i)z12=0,
(35i)z+(3+5i)z+28=0,
(53i)z+(5+3i)z28=0.
3.6. (3+5i)z+(35i)z+7=0
(106i)z+(10+6i)z3=0.
3.7. P(2+i) z+iz=0.
3.8. , A(5+i)
(2i)z+(2+i)z4=0 45 .
3.9. . , ,
, ,
.
3.10. C1 C ABC
90 A, C2
C 90 B. ,
AC2 BC1 ,
, C.
3.11. M AB O OM . A B, ,
P Q. , M PQ.
3.12. ,
A B .
3.13. AB CD.
M, MAB MDC
.
3.14. ABCD AMNP, M
AB, P AD. ,
MD, BP, NC .
3.15. ABC.
A1 B1 C1 . ,

.
3.16. C ABC
, . ,
AB
.
5*7685.. . .

67

13.
13.1. .
A, B, C, D a, b, c, d .
=

(ac)(bd)
ac ad
:
=
bc bd
(bc)(ad)

(13.1)

A, B, C, D
(AB, CD). .
:
9?
(AB, CD)=(CD, AB)=(BA, DC)=,
??
??
??
1
1
=
,
(BA, CD)=(AB, DC)=
??
??
(AB, CD)

??
??
(AC, BD)=1(AB, CD)=1,
??
?=
1
?? (13.2)
(AC, DB)=
=(BC, AD),
??
1
??
??
1
??
(AD, BC)=1 ,
??

??
??
1

(AD, CB)=1
=
.
?;
1
1
, 1)
, 2)
, 3)
.
,
:
1
1

1
1
, 1,
, 1
=
1
.
,

1
1
1

13.2. A, B, C, D. A, B, C
A, B, D .
, 1 2 (. 31).
k
 k

ac
ad 
arg =arg
arg
= CB, CA DB, DA .
bc
bd
t1 t2 1 2
A, k  k
k 

k
 

 

CB, CA = AB, t1 DB, DA = AB, t2 ( 68

). ,

t1

k  
k 


k
arg = AB, t1 AB, t2 =(t2 , t1 ).

A
D

, t2
C

.
1
, B
(AB, CD) A,
2
B, C, D
. 31
ABC ABD.
, ,
( ) ,
.
, (AB, CD)
, ABC ABD
, . . , ,
, ,
.

. ,


 ac ad  |ac| |ad|
=
||= 
:
:
.
bc bd 
|bc| |bd|
||
A C, B C, A D, B D.
13.3.
. ,
, ,
.
ac
A, B, C, D ,
bc
ad

( 3). ,
bd
(13.1).
A, B, C, D ,
: 1) C D AB, 2) C D
AB. k
k
k
k
BCA BDA , BCA+ ADB=,

k
k
 k
k

. . BCA BDA=. CB, CA DB, DA
69

. , (7.1),


ac
ad
ac ad
arg
arg
=arg
:
=arg ,
bc
bd
bc bd
.
: , , .
ac
ad
,

,
bc
bd
. 3 A, B, C , A, B, D , , ,
ac
ad
.
,
bc
bd
, . A, B,
C A, B, D .



ac ad
ac
ad
arg
:
=arg
arg
=0 .
bc bd
bc
bd
k
k
k
k
k
k
, BCA=BDA, BCABDA=, . . BCA+ABD=
=. AB C D
, , ,
AB.
ACBD ,
.
. , A, B, C, D , ,
, . .
ac ad
ac ad
:
=
:
,
bc bd
bc bd

(13.3)

ac
ac
=
.
bc
bc

k
k
ac ad
:
>0, BCA BDA
bc bd
ac ad
,
:
<0
bc bd
. , 1) C D
A, B, 2) C D
A B. ,
A, B C, D , ,
.
A, B, C , M(z) ,
(13.3)
,

70

A, B, C:
za zc
za zc
:
=
:
(13.4)
ba bc
ba bc
ac
ac

=
.
bc
bc
.
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 1 2 A1 B1 ,
2 3 A2 B2 , 3 4 A3 B3 4 1
A4 B4 . ,
A1 , A2 , A3 , A4
, B1 ,
B2 , B3 , B4 (. 32).


12 =

a1 a2 a1 b1
:
,
b2 a2 b2 b1

23 =

a2 a3 a2 b2
:
,
b3 a3 b3 b2

34 =

a3 a4 a3 b3
:
,
b4 a4 b4 b3

41 =

a4 a1 a4 b4
:
.
b1 a1 a1 b4





1234
a1a2 a1a4 b1b2 b1b4
=
:
:
=
2341
a3a2 a3a4 b3b2 b3b4

A1
A4

B4 B1

B3 B2

A3

A2

3
. 32
4
1
A4
A3
A1
A2

=(A1 A3 , A2 A4 )(B1 B3 , B2 B4 ).
, (A1 A3 , A2 A4 )

(B1 B3 , B2 B4 ).
. 1 2 , 2 3 , 3 4 , 4 1
, A1 B1 , A2 B2 , A3
B3 , A4 B4 .
12 34
=(A1 A3 , A2 A4 )2
23 41
, A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 (. 33)
(. 34).

. 33
A3
4

A4

A1
A2

. 34
71


3.17. A,

1
B, C, D,
(1+i 3). , 2
ABCD
.
3.18. A B ABC , AC BC M N.
M , BC, N , AC.
AB P Q. , M, N, P, Q
.
3.19. . ,
.
3.20. A, B, C. M, (MA, BC) .
14. zz+az+bz+c=0
14.1.
. S(s) R
(zs)(zs)=R2 ,

(14.1)

z .

(14.2)

zz+az+bz+c=0,

a, b, c
. , .
:
(z+b)(z+a)=abc.

(14.3)

a, b, c.
1. (14.3) (14.1) ,
, (14.3), ,
(14.2) , a=b abc
. abc=aac, , c
. ,
zz+bz+bz+c=0,

c=c, bb>c,

(14.4)

s=b R= bbc.
72

2. a=b c=ab (14.3) (z+b)(z+b)=0 s=b. ,


a=b=c=0. , , (z+b)
(z+b)=0 s=b .

3. a=b, c=c, bb<c, bbc .

bbc=iR, (14.3) :
(z+b)(z+b)=R2.

(14.5)

(14.5) ,
, z.
iR
, s=b.
4. a=b, c= c, (14.3) :
, .
( !).
5. , a= b.
(14.2) zz+az+bz+c=0, (14.2)
, :
(ab)z+(ba)z+cc=0,

z=

(ab)z+cc
.
ab

(14.2),

(14.6)
(ab)z2 +(aabb+cc)z+acbc=0.
a= b (14.2) (14.6) .
,
D=(aabb+cc)2 4(ab)(acbc)
(14.6),
(!) . D=0

z=

aabb+cc
.
2(ba)

, c=ab (14.3),
(14.6) z1 =b z2 =a.
, (14.2) (, , ), (
), .
73

14.2. .
zz+z+z+=0, = A, B, C,
aa+a+a+=0,
bb+b+b+=0,
cc+c+c+=0.

8>
>> 1zz+z+z+=0,
>>
< 1aa+a+a+=0,
>>
>> 1bb+b+b+=0,
>:
1cc+c+c+=0
1, , , (
), :
 zz z z 1 




 aa a a 1 

 =0.
(14.7)
 bb b b 1 


cc c c 1

(13.4) .
14.3. . ,
. , ,
.
, (A, R) (B, r) ,
, |AB|2 =R2 +r2 ,
(ab)(ab)=R2 +r2 .

(14.8)

1
P

1
M
. 35
74

zz+z+z+0 =0,

0 =0 ,

a=, b=, R2 =0 , r2 =
=0 , (14.8)
:

0 =0

zz+z+z+0 =0,

O 1

A
x

+=0 +0 .

(14.9)

1.
,
A B .

M(z) , A B 1 1.
MA/MB==const, MA2 =2 MB2 . ,
(z1)(z1)=2(z+1)(z+1),

zz(12 )(z+z)(1+2)=2 1.

(14.10)

=1 :
z+z=0.
, AB.
= 1, (14.10) :
zz

1+2
(z+z)+1=0.
12

(14.11)

(14.2), , 

 2 

1+2


s=

R=
=
 12 .
12
, s. , (14.11) AB.
AB .
,

 

1+
1
Q
, AB
P
1+
1
. PQ
(. 35).
2.
A, B, C, D. 1 , 2 , 3 A, B, C ,
D, M1 , M2 , M3 (. 36). ,
M1 , M2 , M3 .
,
A
D d=1.
(14.1) , 1
D
M3
A(a) D(1), M2

C

(za)(za)=(1a)(1a),

M1

zzazaz=1aa.
,

. 36
75

zzbzbz=1bb

C1

B1
O

zzczcz=1cc.

1
2 , M3 :
m3 =a+bab.

A1

,
. 37

m2 =c+aca,

m1 =b+cbc.


m2 m1
(ab)(1c)
=
.
m3 m1
(ac)(1b)
, ,
M1 , M2 , M3 .
3. O
A, B, C. , ,
ABC, (. 37).
O . OBC, OCA, OAB A1 , B1 , C1 . AB1 OC1 , a=b1 +c1 b=c1 +a1 , c=a1 +b1 . ,
|a1 |=|b1 |=|c1 |=1. a1 +b1 +c1 =s. , A, B, C
(zs)(zs)=1 s 1.
, A1 , B1 , C1 zz=1, ABC. (4.10) S
A1 B1 C1 . ,
ABC O. , H ABC, , ,


SH = SA+ SB+ SC.


,
hs=as+bs+cs=a+b+c3s=2(a1 +b1 +c1 )3s=s, h=0.
4. ,
M(m)
zz+z+z+0 =0.
zz+z+z+0 =0 ,
8>
>>< mm+m+m+0 =0,
>>
>: += + .
0

76

0 , :
(+m)+(+m)+mm0 =0. (14.12)

+m,

AM, A() . , (14.12) AM (. 38).

T
M
M
NN

3.21.

. 38

,
c+i
z=
, c 2ci
.
3.22. ,
ABC, A.
3.23. ABCD. M, , ,
? M, a, b, c, d A, B, C, D.
3.24. AB ABC
P. , ,
APC BPC, .
3.25. S S1 A B.
SA S1 A S1 S
C D. , B, S, D, C, S1
.
3.26. (S, R) (S1 , R1 )
A B. t (S, R) C C1 ,
(S1 , R1 ) D D1 . , DAC1
D1 BC , 180.
3.27. ,
.
3.28. ,
.
3.29. ABC, (O, R), A B , C .
3.30. , ,
,
, .
77

b
3.31. ABC, C =90. M ,
BA BC M1 M2 , C.
3.32. A B.

M AA1 BB1 (AM =MA1 , BM =MB1 ),


+=2.
15.
15.1. .
, A, B, C, D :
,

1
,

1,

1
,

1
1

1
1

( 13), = 1, . =
=1 : 1, 2 1/2. , A, B, C, D (
) .
=(AB, CD)=1 ,
( 13).
A(a), B(b), C(c), D(d) (AB, CD)=
ca da
ca
da
=1, . .
:
=1,
=
. , C
bc bd
bc
bd
D AB M
(
). , C, D
m
N
A, B. (CD, AB)=1, A, B, ,
C, D.
A
B
D
C
A, B, C ,
P
n
C M
A, B, AB
(. 39): A
m
B
P
m n. ,
A
D
B
C
C,
N
M P . n
n
BN BP. MN
AB D,
. 39
78

C AB. (AB, CD)=1 AMC BPC,


AMD BND.
, A, B, C, D
, (AB, CD)=1.
. A, B C, D ,
( 13).
15.2. .
ACBD , A, B C, D
.
?
1.
a, c, b, d A, C, B, D
:
C
ac ad
:
=1,
bc bd
A
B

O
(ac)(bd)=(bc)(ad),
(15.1)

|ac||bd|=|bc||ad|,

. .

. 40

|AC||BD|=|BC||AD|.
,
. ( 7)

ACBD
.
ACBD
AC BD=BC AD=

1
ABCD.
2

. 41

(15.2)

, (. 40). ,
.
,
,
(. 41): AC =BD, AC 2 =ADBC.
79

2. AB CD
ACBD M. , :
a+b(c+d)
m=
,
abcd

ab(c+d)cd(a+b)
m=
.
abcd
am
=
, M AB:
mb
=

b(ac)(ad)
am
=
.
mb
a(cb)(bd)

b(ac)2
ad
ac
=
, =
. ,

bd
bc
a(cb)2


(bc)2
1
1
AC 2
AC 2 =(ac)

BC 2 =
, : =
=
a
c
bc
BC 2
AD2
=
. ,
BD2
ma
AC 2
AD2
=
=
2
bm
BC
BD2

mc
CB2
AC 2
=
=
,
dm
BD2
AD2
. .
,
.
3.
.
C D 2cd

, z+abz=a+b
c+d
AB. ,
2cd
2
+ab
=a+b,
c+d
c+d

2(ab+cd)=(a+b)(c+d),
(15.1)
ACBD.
A, B, C. 80

D P AB ABC C:
, P (. 42).

C
A

3.33. , . 42

, .
3.34. , ( 14), .
16.
16.1. . A B
(S, R),
(as)(bs)+(as)(bs)=2R2.

(16.1)

, .
, . .
S , (16.1) :
ab+ab=2R2.

(16.2)

.
1. a=b aa=R2 , . . A. , A
, .

k ab+ab
2. (2.4), cos OA, OB =
, cos =
2|a||b|
d
R2
. , = AOB , .
=
|a||b|
R2
3. |b|=
, |a|<R |b|>R. ,
|a| cos
A= O , B
.
4. ,
a=0 (16.2) b,
(16.1) a=s.
67685.. . .

81

16.2. . A, ,
M(z),
(as)(zs)+(zs)(as)=2R2,
az+az=2R2

(16.3)
(16.4)

( 11). (16.3)
(as)z+(as)z=2(R2 ss)+aa+as,
(16.5)

z z ,
.
, ,
A (S, R) A= S, ,
A .
(16.3) (16.5) A
, (16.4) S =O.
16.3. . . A , OA,
azaz=0, ( 11) R2
C c=
. C
a
: A ,
OA, T(t) (. 43). T OA C.
, OAT OTC
. (6.3) ao
to
:
=
, ac=tt=R2 . ac=R2 ac=R2 .
to
co
C. A ,
( A C ).
A, (16.4) (3.17)
, A T
.
, A=
= O , A
C
, O
A.

, :
, . 43
O , 82

A, .
A .
m,
, p P O m. M =pOP
m.
: A B, B
A. , A
(16.4), bz+bz=2R2 B.
A B B
A (16.2).

. , , l, ( ,
O l).
16.4. .
A B zz=R2 ,
ab+ab=2R2. AB
( ). AB ( 1):
z=

a+b
,
1+

=,

(16.6)

a+b
. z z zz=R2
1+
, :

z=

(1+b)(a+b)
=R2 .
(1+)2
, ab+ab=2R2 ,
2 (bbR2 )=R2 aa.
,
u
=

R2 aa
.
bbR2

|OA|<R, |OB|>R, . . aa<R2 bb>R2 , AB


, .
|OA|>R, |OB| , R.
,
, (16.6) .
, |OA|<R , . , M N
6*7685.. . .

83

AB AB
:
ma
na
=
,
bm
bn

am an
:
=1
bm bn

(16.7)

, A, B, M, N ( 15).
, , .
. A B ( ,
), MN,
AB.
, (16.1) (16.2). ,
ma
na
=
=
(16.7)
bm
bn
= ( M N AB).
a+b
ab
m=
, n=
. M N
1+
1
zz=R2 , , mm=nn=R2 , (a+b)(a+b)=(1+)2R2
(ab)(ab)=(1)2R2 . , : ab+ab=2R2 .
, A (
|OA|<R)
A ,
,
A.
A .
A , ,
, ,
, A.
,
(16.1) (16.2)
(A, B) (M, N) . :


,
.
84

16.5. .
:
ABCD
P, AB CD Q, P Q
.
. (2.20) :
a+c(b+d)
,
acbd

q=

a+b(c+d)
,
abcd

ac(b+d)bd(a+c)
,
acbd

q=

ab(c+d)cd(a+b)
.
abcd

p=

p=

, pq+pq=2 (, R2 =1). :
(ac(b+d)bd(a+c))(a+bcd)+(a+cbd)(ab(c+d)cd(a+b))
=
pq+pq=
(acbd)(abcd)
(b+d)(c(a+b)(a+d)a(b+c)(c+d))+(a+c)(b(c+d)(a+d)d(a+b)(b+c))
=
=
(acbd)(abcd)
(b+d)(ac)(acbd)+(a+c)(bd)(acbd)
=
=
(acbd)(abcd)
(b+d)(ac)+(a+c)(bd)
=
=2.
abcd
A,

B.
A , C, A (. 44, 45). BC
A .
A,
,
A, .
.
1. . ,

.
zz=1
(zs)(zs)=R2 .

BBBB
A

CC
CC

. 44

C
A

. 45
85

, : R2 =ss1. a a.
, (16.1):
(as)(as)+(as)(as)=2aa+2ss=2R2 ,
aa=1 1+ss=R2 .
2. M AB ABC,
H . ,
1
2
MH MC= AB .
4
(2.5)
A B (S, R)

(16.8)
SA SB=R2 .
, M R=
1
= |AB|. A1 B1
2
ABC, A B. ABA1 B1
H, AB1 BA1 C.
H C


1
1
AB . (16.8) MH MC= AB2 .
M,
2
4

3.35. ABCD
P=AC BD,
M =ABCD,
N =ADBC.
,

O
MNP.
3.36. A AP B
O, B BQ A .

, OA BQ= OB AP.
17.
17.1. . M
(S, R), SM 2 R2 M
. SM 2 R2 =(M).
M , (M)>0 (M)
,
M. M , (M)=0. 86

M , (M)<0 |(M)| , M SM.


, M, A B,

(M)= MA MB.
,
(M)=(sm)(sm)R2

(17.1)

17.2. ,
.
(A, R) (B, r) P(z)
, :
(az)(az)R2 =(bz)(bz)r2 ,

(ab)z+(ab)zaa+bb+R2 r2 =0.

(17.2)

a= b, ab. ,
(az)(az)=R2

(bz)(bz)=r2

(17.2), .
a=b R= r (17.2) , . . .

zz+z+z+0 =0,

0 =0

zz+z+z+0 =0,

0 =0 ,

a=, b=, R2 =0 , r2 =0 ,
(17.2) :
()z+()z+0 0 =0.

(17.3)


.
,
, , , . ,
,
, .
, ,
.
87

:
) |Rr|<||<R+r, ;
) |Rr|=|| ;
) ||=R+r ;
) |Rr|>||, ,
;
) ||>R+r, ,
.
17.3. .
, , , . ,

,
. .

zz+z+z+0 =0,  1 


zz+z+z+0 =0,  1  = 0,
 1
zz+z+z+0 =0,
:
9?
??=
()z+()z+0 0 =0,
?? (17.4)
;
()z+()z+0 0 =0.
()z+()z+0 0 =0
(17.4).


 1
0




 
 1
0
0
 0



 
 1
0
0
0
 = 

z0 = 
(17.5)

 1 .
 


 
 1


 1
: zz1=0,
z0 =

(1+0 )(1+0)
.

(17.6)


.
, ,
(. 46).
88

S
. 46

17.4. .
zz+z+z+0 =0 zz+z+z+0 =0
,
(zz+z+z+0 )+(1)(zz+z+z+0 )=0,

(17.7)

, =.
,
. , 1 = 2 , ,
1 2 ,
(1 +(11 )2 (12 ))z+(1 +(11 )2 (12 ))z+
+1 0 +(11)0 2 0 (12)0 =0.
1 2 , ,
()z+()z+0 0 =0.

(17.8)

,
(17.7) ( ).
. ,
, .
(17.7) +(1), , ,
. ,
.



 z
z 1 

 1  =0,


 1 

()z+()z+=0.
(17.9)
.
, .
89

(. 47). , (. 48). .
, (. 49). .

.
(17.3) (17.9) c:
c=

0 +0
.
2()

(17.10)

,
,
. (17.7) .
,
,
.
, .
17.5. .
zz+z+z+0 =0 zz+
+z+z+0 =0 zz+z+z+0 =0,

(zz+z+z+0 )+(1)(zz+z+z+0 )=0.
, (14.9), :
+=0 +0

+=0 +0 .

zz+z+
+z+0 =0 :
(+(1))+(+(1))=0 +0 +(1)0.
, :
(+)+(1)(+)=0 +0 +(1)0,
.
, ,
,
()()+()()+0 0 =(+)+(+)+0 0 =
=(0 +0 )+(0 +0 )+0 0 =0.
, ,
.
90

. 47

. 48

. 49
91

. 50

, , (. 50).
zz+sz+sz+=0, =, zz+z+z+0 =0 (17.7), . .
s+s=0 +,
:
()(s)+()(s)+0 0 =0.
s:
s=

(0 0 )()(0 +)
.

zz+sz+sz+=0
zz+

0 0 ()
0 ()
z+ 0
z+=0,

(17.11)

. (17.11)
, ( 1 = 2 )
:
()z+()z+=0,
(17.7).
92

d
, T

, M
. 

O
P
Q
.
C
S
.

d.
,
. 51
M.

(. 51), l P Q.
()
, PQM S (S d).
, M,
. C l CM SM.

3.37. ,

.
3.38. ,
.
3.39. , ,
, .
3.40. ,
.

18.
18.1. . ( ) , A B A B ,
A B =kAB, k , .
, k=1 AB A B , . .
. k (k= 0)
|k|.
F  F, , F F  . ,
.
, k,
1
.
k
k1 k2 k1 k2 .
, , . . .
.

() ,
.
,
,
, .
: A A , B B , C
 C  , ,



A B C ABC.
(), .
18.2. .
, z z
M M  . (8.1) 94

ABM A B M  :
z a
b a
=
=,
za
ba

z =z+,

=a a.

(18.1)

:
z a
b a
=
=,
za
ba

z =z+,

=a a.

(18.2)

(18.1) (18.2) M
AB. ,

za
z a
= 
.
ba
b a
A, B, M
za
za
.
=
ba
ba

z a
b a
=
,
za
ba

z a
b a
=
,
za
ba

(18.1) (18.2).
, M(z) M(z ) z z (18.1)
(18.2) .
:

z =z+ z =z+,
, = 0. , ,
. , A(a) B(b) A (a )
B (b ), |a b |=|||ab|,
|a b |=|||ab|=|||ab|. ,
|A B |=|||AB|.
.
, ||=k=1, (18.1) (18.2)
.
95

18.3. . ( 11)
pz+pz+q=0,

q=q.

(18.3)

z=(z )/,


(18.1)
(18.3) (18.3):
pz+pz+(qpp)=0,

(18.4)

. ,
z z
( ).
(18.2) (18.3)
pz+pz+(qpp)=0.

(18.5)

, (18.3),
(18.4), (18.5) , (12.4)
, .
(18.3)
(18.4) z =z+ =arg .
p
, (12.2), =arg
=arg .
p
.
, p
, p, . .
arg
p
. . , m,
Ox (l) pz+pz+q=0, pz+pz+q=0. l
Ox (18.5) l
p
arg
=arg =.
p
18.4. .
(18.1) (18.2)
z =z. = 1 S,
,

s=
.
(18.6)
1
S .
1, , ( 1),

(. 52).
1
=1, (18.1) :
z =z+.
96

(18.7)

, ,
z z==const.
||=1, = 1. (18.1)
S (18.6), =arg . , ||=1 = 1
z =z+
s=/(1) =arg .

, z+=z+(1)
. 1
s=/(1)

z =z+(1)s,

||=1,

= 1.

1
1 x

. 52

(18.8)

s . =1.
=1,
z =z+
(18.9)

. 53

+
/2.
z =z+
+ s.
x
, ||=1,
1
O
0, 1,
=arg O (. 53). z=0 z =,
s
0, , s
. 54
s.
s 0, 1, , .
(18.1)
, .

z =z+(1)s,

=,

(18.10)

s=/(1) , , z, z , s . , (18.1) s
, (18.10).
s ? O , 1
+ z =z+, =,
s , O
, 1 + (. 54).
77685.. . .

97

18.5. . z =z+. z =z
z=z+.

(18.11)

z=z+, (18.11) z :
z(1)=+.

(18.12)

.
1. +=0, = 0, +=0 =, =1, . . ||=1. (18.12)
z, (18.11) ,
zz=0
(11.5) , =. , +=0 z =
=z+ (18.11)
, . . 1
.
.
2

+=0, z=z+ z =z+
z+z=.
1
.
2
2. += 0, =1, (18.12) .
, ,
, . .
.
3. 1= 0, . . ||= 1, ,

s=

+
.
1

(18.13)


z =z+,

+= 0,

||=1.

(18.14)

, , :
z =z++().
+=0, z1 =z+ , z=z+, zz=0. = : ()+()=0.
98


8>
>< ()+()=0,
>>:
+=0,
1
1
(), = (+). ,
2
2
(18.14)
=

z =z+

1
1
()+ (+),
2
2

+= 0.

,
z1 =z+

1
()
2

(18.15)

z=z+

1
()
2

(18.16)

1
1
(+)
(+),
2
2
. /2.
1. ,
pz+pz+q=0, q=q.
 
M
 (z )  M(z) l,

z+z
M0
l M  M l.
2

8
>> z+z
z+z
>< p
+p
+q=0.
2
2
>>
>>:
p(zz )p(zz )=0.
z =z1 +

, : pz +pz+q=0,
z =

p
q
z .
p
p

(18.17)

2. , A(a)
B(b) .
z =z+ +=0.
a b. b=a+ a=b+,
ab
aabb
ba=(ab), =
, =ba=
.
ab
ab
,
ab
aabb
z =
z+
.
(18.18)
ab
ab
7*7685.. . .

99

+=0 :
aabb
ab aabb

=0.
ab
ab
ab
3. ,
A(a) B(b).
. :
z =

ab
abab
z+
.
ab
ab

(18.19)

4. ,
pz+pz+q=0, q=q, ,
r.

(18.17) z =z+r, . (18.17) z z+r :
z =

p
q
(z+r) .
p
p

p r , pr=pr,
z =

p
q
z+r ,
p
p

(18.20)

pz +pz+q=pr. += 0 :




q
p
q
pr
r
r
=r
=2r= 0.
p
p
p
p
5. F F1
. O

OM = XX1 , X X1 F F1 .
, X, M
, F.
F
 F1 z1 =z+ . z1 z=
=( 1)z+, , m=( 1)z+, m
M . , F, | 1|.
6. ,
.
A , B , C  , D A, B, C, D z =
=z+. a =a+, b =b+, c =c+, d =d+. :
a c a d
:
=
b c b d
(a+)(c+) (a+)(d+)
ac ad
=
:
=
:
.
(b+)(c+) (b+)(d+)
bc bd
100


4.1. a=1+2i c=3+6i .
.
4.2. , AB CD, A, B, C, D.
4.3. . ,
?
4.4. A B. ,
, B,
, A, .
4.5. ABC M. ,
BCM, CAM ABM ABC. .
4.6. l t .
,
l, t.
4.7. S S1 A B.
, A, C D . CD M
, AB SS1 . , M AB.
4.8. A A1
B B1 , A B A1
 B1 . ,
.
4.9. S.
M , MM1 , M M1 , S.
19. .

19.1. .
, .
z =z+ z =z+ = ||= 1.
=k(cos +i sin )=k, k=||, =cos +i sin , :







z =k z+
z =k z+
.
(19.1)
k
k
, 101

z1 =z+/k /(k) =arg


z =kz1 , .
z1 =z+/k z =kz1.


z =z1 + z =z1 +,
(19.2)
z1 =kz. , z1 =kz ,
; , ,
.
z =z1 + /(1) =arg =arg .

, .
1. ,
, .
,
:




z =k z+ +k.
(19.3)
k

z1 =z+
k
k
. z =kz1 +
k

k
. ,
1k
, :

+k

k
k
=
=s,
k
1k

(1k)
k(1)

s=

.
1

, .
,
:

=z+=z,
k
(1k)
=
.
k(1)
(kz+k)+

102

(19.4)


.
2. , ,
, .
z =z+ :
z =k(z+/k)+k,

(19.5)

. ,
z1 =z+/k
, . . /k+(/k)=0,
+=k+, z=z+/k
k/(1k)=s z =kz1 +k.
8>
>> k+=+,
><
>> k

>>:
=
+
1k
1k
k

+
=
.
k(1+k)

kz=z+

k
1+k

(19.6)

s=

+
+
=
.
2
1
1k

(19.7)

. ,
:
(kz+k)+/k=z+=z ,
. z1 =kz+k
, , z =z1 +/k
.
,
, .
19.2. .
z =z+ , .
2 ,
. , . , ,
103

() . (19.6)
kzz=
,

k
,
1+k

k=||.


+
k(zs)+(zs)=0, s=
,
1k2
kz+z=

(19.6)

k+
.
1+k

(19.8)

, =k, z =z+
:

z=z+
,
(19.9)
1+k
+
(19.10)
z=z+
1k
. P(z),
k k ,

M (z0 ) M(z0 ) ,
.

z=

z0 +kz0
.
1+k

z0 =z0 +, :
(1+k)z=z0 ++kz0.
:
(1+k)z=z0 ++kz0 .
z0 z0 ,
k,
:
k(1+k)z(1+k)z=k,

k
kzz=
,
1+k
(19.6) .
k
:
k+
kz+z=
.
1k
104

1111
OO
OO
N

Q
x

PPPP
k

S
. 55

.
, , 0 1 +. . 55
P Q, [, 0] [ +, 1] k:1, M N, (k):1,
k=||.
20.
20.1. .
1 2 z =1 z+1 z =2 z+2 . 2 1 ,
z 1 z+1 M(z) 1 :
z =2 (1 z+1)+2 .
, 2 1
z =1 2 z+2 1 +2

(20.1)

( 1 , 2 ). ,
k=|1 2 |=|1 ||2 |=k1 k2 =arg 1 2 =arg 1 +
+arg 2 =1 +2 . 1 2 = 1, . . , (20.1)
s=

2 +2 1
.
11 2

(20.2)

, .
1. 1 =2 =1, 1 2 1 2 .
(20.1) z =z+(1 +2 ),
, 2 1 1 +2 . ,
.
105

2. |1 |=|2 |=1, 1 = 1 2 = 1,
1 2 1 =arg 1 2 =
1
2
=arg 2 s1 =
s2 =
.
1
1
1
2
2 /2
1 /2
|1 2 |=1, , (20.1), S1
1 /2
2 /2 S2
2 1 1 2 = 1
1 2 =1 s1 = s2 . 1 2 =1 arg 1 +arg 2 =0
arg 1 +arg 2 =2. 1 2 = 1,
S
S
(20.2). s1 =s2 s=
. 56
=s1 =s2 .
,
,
.
, 2,
.
S S1
S2 1 2 . , C S
S1 1 , C
S (. 56). SS1 =CS1 SS2 =CS2 .
, S C
k
k
S1 S2 , : SS1 S2 =1 /2 S1 S2 S =2 /2.
S.
3. 1 = 1, ||1 =2 =1,
, 1
C

s=

1 +2
.
11

(20.3)

4. 1 =1 =k1 2 = 2 =k2 , 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 1 2 k1 k2 . k1 k2 = 1
k1 k2 .
s1 =

1
,
11

s2 =

2
,
12

s=

2 1 +2
11 2

( s1 =s2 ) ( s1 = s2 ),




s s 1

1
1
11 
 1 1 

1
 s s 1 =

2
2
12  =0
 2 2  (1 )(1 )(1 ) 
 s s 1
 + + 1 
1
2
1 2
2 1

2 1

1 2

( ).
k1 k2 =1 ,
s1 = s2 , , s1 =s2 .
106

.
.
5. 1 =1 2 = 2 .
1 2 =2 = 2 =1 2 ,
.
6) z =z+
z =k2 z++

(20.4)

, , ,
, k2 =. f
f 2 , . . (20.4),
( 18).
20.2. . z =1 z+1 z =2 z+2

z =2 ( 1 z+1 )+2,

(20.5)
z = 1 2 z+2 1 +2 ,
, , k=
=| 1 2 |=k1 k2 =arg 1 2 =arg 2 arg 1 =arg(2 /1 ).
,
1 +1 1 =0 2 +2 2 =0.
z=1 z+1

z=2 z+2 .

|1 |=|2 |=1 ( 18). 1 2 =1,


2 1 +2 .
1 2 =1 : z=z/ 1 +2 ,
z=2 z+2 . , .
1 2 = 1, . . , =arg(2 /1 )
s=

2
2 1 +2
= 1
,
1 1 2
2 1

(20.6)

.

1 z=1 1 z+1 1

2 z=2 2 z+2 2 .

:
2 2

=arg 2 ,
1 1
1

=arg

=arg 2 =arg
1


2 1

:
=2 arg 2 =2.
2 2
1
107

, ,
,

.
1 z =1 z+1
2 z =2 z+2 .
z =2 ( 1 z+1 )+2,

z = 1 2 z+2 1 +2 ,

(20.7)

, .
, 1 (1 =1), 2
(2 +2 2 =0), (20.7) :
z =2 z+2 (1 2 ).

1
1
( ( 2 )+2 2 (1 2 ))= (1 +2 1 )
2 2 1
2

z=2 z+

1
( 1 )+2.
2 2 1

1.
1) , 2) ?

z =1 z+1 ,

z =2 z+2,

z =3 z+3

(i = i , i=1, 2, 3)


z =3 (2 (1 z+1 )+2)+3 ,

z =1 2 3 z+2 3 1 +3 2 +3 .

,
1 2 3 =1 3 2 1 +3 2 +3 =0.

3 2 (11 )s1 +3 (12)s2 +(13)s3 =0,

s1 =

1
,
11

s2 =

2
,
12

s3 =

3
13

,
(2 3 1)s1 +3 (12 )s2 +(13)s3 =0,

s1 =
108

3 (12 )s2 +(13)s3


.
12 3

(20.10)

1 , 2 , 3
3 (12 )+13
=1,
12 3
s1 , s2 , s3 ,

S2 S1 =

13
S S .
3 (12 ) 1 3

1 2 3 =1, 3 2 1 +3 2 +3 = 0,
(20.10) .
2.
, , 1) , 2) , 3) ?
z =1 z+1 z =2 z+2.
S1 S2 ,
1 =s1 (11 ),

2 =s2 (12 ).

, :
z =1 z+(11)s1

z =2 z+(12)s2 .


z =1 2 z+2 (11 )s1 +(12 )s2 .
, 1 2 =1 2 (11 )s1 +
+(12 )s2 =0. (2 1)s1 +
+(12 )s2 =0, (2 1)(s1 s2 )=0. 2 = 1,
, : s1 =s2 .
1 2 =1, s1 = s2 , (1 1)(s1 s2 ).
, 1 2 = 1, |1 2 |=1,

(11)s1 +(12)s2
s= 2
11 2
=arg 1 +arg 2 .
3. , ,
, , .
ABCD zz=1. ,
(3.12), AB, BC, CD, DA , ,
z=abz+a+b,
z=cdz+c+d,

z=bcz+b+c,
z=adz+a+d.

(18.17)
109

z =abz+a+b,
z =cdz+c+d,

z =bcz+b+c,
z =adz+a+d.

:
z =ad(cd(bc(abz+a+b)+b+c)+c+d)+d+a,

z =z+(bd)(ac1).

(bd)(ac1).

4.10. A B.
4.11. ,
.
4.12. AB
A.
4.13. ,
.
4.14. , .
4.15.
?
4.16. , . , /2 .
4.17. , .
4.18. 1 , 2 , 3 P
A12 , A23 , A31 . A 1 AA12 AA13 ,
2 3 B C. , B, C, A23
.
4.19. 1 , 2 , 3 C,
A, B . , C,
1 2 M1 M2 . AM2
3 M3 , BM3 1
N. , M1 N .
4.20. 1 A
B. C CA
CB, 1 A1 B1 .
, AB1 A1 B .
110

4.21. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
A12 , A23 , A34 , A41 . ,
A12 , 1 2 M1
M2 . M2 A23 3 M3 ,
M3 A34 4 M4 . ,
M4 , A41 , M1 .
4.22. A(a) B(b). C(c) ,
a2 +ab+b2 =3c(a+bc).
21.
21.1. .
, ( )
. .
, . . z
M(z) z M. , ( ,
)


a b 
x =a1 x+b1 y+c1 ,
 1 1  = 0.
=
(21.1)
a b 
y =a2 x+b2 y+c2 ,
2
2
a1 =u1 +v1 , b1 =v2 u2 , a2 =u2 +v2 , b2 =u1 v1 . u1 , v1 ,
u2 , v2 . :
x =(u1 +v1 )x+i2 (u2 v2 )y+c1,
y =(u2 +v2 )x+(u1 v1 )y+c2.
x +iy =(u1 +iu2 )(x+iy)+(v1 +iv2 )(xiy)+(c1 +ic2 ).
u1 +iu2 =a, v1 +iv2 =b, c1 +ic2 =c, :
z =az+bz+c,

aa= bb.

(21.2)

= 0 (21.2)

 

 a b   u +v v u 
2  =(u2 +u2 )(v2 +v2 )=aabb.
 1 1 = 1 1 2
 a b   u +v u v 
1
2
1
2
2

8>
>< az+bz+c=z ,
>:
bz+az+c=z

z z ,
z =

1
(azbz+bcac).

(21.3)
111

1
1
(aabb)= . (21.3)

2
, (21.2). , ,
, .
b=0 a=0 , , .
() .
, .
. (21.2).

:
, , .

. , M, N, P .
M  , N  , P . p=m+
+(a)n, =, :

m p
(am+bm+c)(ap+bp+c)
a(mp)+b(mp)
=
=
.
n p
(an+bn+c)(ap+bp+c)
a(np)+b(np)
mp=(1)(mn) np=(mn),
m p
(1)(a(mn)+b(mn))
mp
1

=
=
.
n p
(a(mn)+b(mn))

np
M, N, P . M  , N  , P (21.1).
M  N  P
MNP. ( 7),
S(M  N  P )=

i
((m n )(m p )(m n )(m p )).
4


m =am+bm+c, m =am+bm+c,
n =an+bn+c,
n =an+bn+c,

p =ap+bp+c,
p =ap+bp+c,
:
S(M  N  P )=

i
(aabb)((mn)(mp)(mn)(mp)),
4

. .
S(M  N  P )= S(MNP).
112

(21.4)

, .
, :
S(ABC)
S(A B C  )
=
.
S(MNP)
S(M  N  P )

(21.5)

, .
=1
.
(21.4) , >0 MNP
M  N  P , <0
. ,
, ,
. , >0
(21.1) , <0 .
21.2. . a, b, c (21.1). ,
M1 , M2 , M3 M1 , M2 ,
M3 . a, b, c:
8>
>> az1 +bz1 +c=z1,
><
>> az2 +bz2 +c=z2,
>>
: az +bz +c=z ,
3

zi Mi , zi Mi (i=1, 2, 3).




z z 1
 1 1 
z z 1
 2 2 
z z 1
3

, M1 , M2 , M3 , ,
(a, b, c.)
,
. , ,
M1 , M2 , M3
M1 , M2 , M3 .
M  M .
M MN1 MN2 , M1 M2 M1 M3 (. 57), N1 M1 M3 , N2 M1 M2 .
87685.. . .

113

N1 N2 N1 N2 ,
M1 M3 M1 M2 ,
N1 N2 M1 M3 M1 M2 N1
M
. , M  ,

N1 N2 , M3
, M1 M2 M1 M3 .
M1
M2
N2

N1
. 58. .
21.3.
M
. , a=1 b=c=
M1
=0 z =z
M2

( ).
N2
, . 57

(21.6)
z=az+bz+c, aabb= 0,
z . :
(a1)z+bz+c=0,
(21.6a)

(a1)z+bz+c=0.
z, a= 1:
((a1)(a1)bb)z+(a1)cbc=0,
M3

. 58
114


(+1aa)z=bc+c(1a).

(21.7)

.
1. |b|= |a1|, (21.7) , , (21.6)
bc+c(1a)
,
+1aa

s=

a= 1.

(21.8)

, , ,
. ,
b=0 a= 1, . . , .
(21.8) (18.6).
2. |b|=|a1|, bc+c(1a)= 0, (21.7) .
3. |b|=|a1|, a=1 bc+c(1a)=0. (21.6)
c ( 11). ,
c= 0, c , z z , cc
. c=0, |b|=|a1| .
. , , .
, z =az+bz+c
(a1)z+bz+c=0

|b|=|a1|,

a= 1 bc+c(1a)=0.

(21.9)

a=1, (21.6) : bz+c=0, bz=c.


b= 0 z=c/b ( ), b=0 c= 0 (), b=c=0 .
22.

22.1. . , , . , .

. .
8*7685.. . .

115

M N M1 N1 . ,

MN M1 N1 .
O. O
z =az+bz+c c, OM(z)
az+bz. ,

z =az+bz.

(22.1)


p (z), (22.1)

p , =.
az+bz=z,

=.


z z:
8>
>< (a)z+bz=0,
(22.2)
>>:
bz+(a)z=0.
,



 a b 


(22.3)
 b a  =0,

(22.3a)
(a)(a)bb=0,

(22.3)
2 (a+a)+=0.
(22.3) , 1 2
.
(a+a)2
4=(aa)2 +4bb. a+a , . (22.3), (a+a)2 4
0. , , <0. ,
.
, , 1 2
(22.2), . ., ,
(a)z+bz=0,
=1 =1 =2 =2 .
116

bz+(a)z=0

(22.4)

, z z
.
(22.4) ,
z =az+bz+c
. ,

(a)z+bz+=0,

(22.5)

,
( ).
, ,
, , , .
, (22.5) z .
22.2. . 1 2

(za)(za)=bb

(22.6)

a |b|. (22.6)
z=z==, (22.3).
, , ,
(22.6) z=z. (22.6)
. :
zzazaz+=0.

(22.6a)

= 0, O.
=aabb<0, O .
>0, O . K(a+b).
22.3. . (>0) :
1)
P(1 ) Q(2 ), 2) :
1 =2 , P Q , 3)
.
. .
, PK QK (. 59).
117

y
K

, PK


 z
z 1 


1 1  =0.
 1
 a+b a+b 1 

B
A
x
P(1 )

Q(2 )

z z
1 ab a+b1

(22.4)
2 :

1 ab
a+b1
=
,
a2
b
1 +
+2 =a+a,
21 (a+a)1 +aabb=0. , QK , (22.4) =1 .
a=0, PQ , K =B, B.
, , , .
1 =2 .
:
. , ,
= 1 , ,
.

M(m) M  (am+bm+c) M  N =NM, =. z


N,
am+bm+cm
z=
,
1

(1)z=(a)m+bm+c.

m:
(1)(a)z(1)bz=((a)(a)bb)m+c(a)bc.
(a)(a)bb=0,
. , N(z)
c(a)bc
(a)zbz=
, = 1,
(22.7)
1

c(a)+bc
(a)z+bz=
,
(22.8)
1
.
. 59

118

=1 , (22.7) , (22.5) 2 , , =2
(22.7) (22.5) 1 ,
a1
b
=
a2
b

1 +2 =a+a.

(22.7) :
N N  ,
(22.7) N  N, .
(a=0) 1 =k, 2 =k,
(22.7) (19.6) (19.8) .
b=0, a=a=k= 1, z =az+c
( 18). (22.4)
0z+0z=0. ,
.
b=0, a=a=1, z =z+c. 2 2+1=0 1 =2 =1 (22.4) . ,
.
.
23.
23.1. . z =az+bz+c,
. (21.9):
|b|=|a1|,

a= 1,

bc+c(1a)=0.

(a1)z+bz+c=0 Ox: zz=0. , , c=0, b=1a. , z=z


z =az+(1a)z,

a= 1

(23.1)

.
1. (23.1) :
z z=(a1)(zz)

(23.2)

(a1)(zz)
z z
a1
=
=
,
z z
(a1)(zz)
a1
(z z)(a1)+(z z)(a1)=0.

, z z a1 . M  , M,
A, E z , z, a, 1, MM  AE.
119

A E , , M M  , .
. ,
, (a1)i ( ). .
a1 , . . a1=(a1),
a+a=2, a= 1, .
. ,
.
(23.1) ,
a p=(1a)i :
z =(1+pi)zpiz.
M N

(23.3)

2. MN

. . , l MN l=L,
L =L, M  , N  , L ,
M, N, L. MN l, M  N  l ( ).
, , N  M
l D D . MDl=
=F. M 
FD , M M
DD (. 60, 61).
D
M

, (23.1)
F

? D
A(a) |1a|.
E(1), ,
M
( )
. 60
, , , E.
1 =1,
.
M
M
2 =a+a1= . D(i) D ((2a1)i),

D
D
(. 62): C, E, 2a1,

D C F
90 . D D
. 61
M.
120

3. , M  M, M  M, 2 =1aa:

M  N =(1aa)NM,

M  N =(a+a1)MN.

D

D(i)
A

Q x

E (1)

= 0, a+a= 1. 2 =
=a+a1=
. 62
.
a , . .
4. (a+a=2, a= 1) , 1a
( ). , E(1).
1 =2 =1 (. 63), (=1).
(23.2) ,
|zz|
,
2
. . |z z|, |zz|/2 .
2|a1| ( ) .
23.2. . f 1 ,
f (23.1),
|z z|=2|a1|

z =

a
a1
z+
z,
a+a1
a+a1

(23.4)

. . .
f 1 =f ,
a
=a,
a+a1
a=a, . . a
.
, (23.1) a+a=0
.
=a+a1=1. ,
,

y
C
D

D(i)
A
O

E (1)

. 63
121

. 1 1.
. 64. a=0 M
.
A
p=(1a)i a+a=0, a=
x
E N
O
=1+pi, a=1pi, (1+pi)+(1pi)=0,
p+p
2
1+pi=
,
i=
M
pp
pp
2p
. 64
pi=
.
,

pp
(23.3) z=z p :

z =

p+p
2p
z
z.
pp
pp

(23.5)

a=0, p=i (23.5) z =z


.
=1<0, ( 21).
uz+uz+v=0 (v=
=v) p. p
: pu+pu= 0 ( p u
). M(z) M  (z ), z z p , (z +z)/2 .
8> 
>> z z=p (=),
><
>> z +z
z +z
>>: u
+u
+v=0.
2
2
z , :
z =

(pupu)z2puz2pv
,
pu+pu

(23.6)

(23.5).
23.3. .
. () g
z =az+(1a)z,

a=a,

a= 1,

=2a1= 0.

(23.7)

g 1 :
z =
122

1
(az+(a1)z).
2a1

(23.8)

zz=R2 g (. 65).
,
z
(23.8):
(az+(a1)z)(az+(a1)z)=
=R2 (2a1)2 .

P
K

N1
N

M1
M

x
D

T
Q

(z+z)2
(zz)2

=1. (23.9)
(2R)2
(2R(2a1))2

. 65

|OK|
=2a1.
|OP|
2R 2R(2a1)=|KT| , ,
(23.9), ||<1.
N N1 . M
M1 g. N N1
f O t:
=2a1, ,

z =z,

arg =t,

||=1,

= .

(23.10)

, M M1
=gf g 1 (M
 N
 N1
 M1 ).
, (23.8), (23.10) (23.7).
f g 1 :
z =

(az+(a1)z),
2a1

:
z =

a2 (1a)2
a(a1)()
z+
z.
2a1
2a1

(23.11)

, ,
=1 ( ).
O ,
(+)2 4<
<0, |+|<||+||=2. ,
.
M (M = O) , .
.
123

:
z =az+bz,

|a+a|<2,

aabb=1.

:

 

a
a

z+ 1
z .
z =(a+b)
a+b
a+b

(23.12)

(23.13)



a
a

z=
z+ 1
z
a+b
a+b

z =(a+b)z
O.
23.4. . ,
, .
,
z =az+(1a)z,

a+a=2,

a= 1.

(23.14)

z =z+c,

c= c,

a= 1.

(23.15)

z =az+(1a)z+c, a+a=2,

(23.15)
=aa(1a)(1a)=a+a1=1,
.
2 2+1=0
N
1 =2 =1,

M
,
N
(23.14).
N1
M
,
M1
,

,
, .

. 66
(. 66).
124


4.23.




1
3

z = 2+ i z+ 1+ i z(2+6i).
2
2
,
.
.
4.24.
z =

1
1
(57i)z (5+5i)z(4+22i).
2
2

4.25. ,




13
5

+i z+ +5i z+1+2i
z=
2
2
. , .
4.26. ,
z =(1+2i)z+2z+2+2i
. .
4.27. ,
z =2iz(2+i)z+3i
. .
4.28.
()
(1i)z+(1+i)z=0
A(1+2i) A (1+i). .
4.29. ,
(1+i)z+(1i)z+2=0,
(2+i)z+(2i)z=0 iziz+4=0.
4.30. ,
1)
;
2)
.
4.31. , ,
, , .
4.32. , , .
125

24.

24.1. . S R ,
M , S,
M
M  , SM SM  =R2 M 
S
SM. (S, R) , S
( ) .
M  M
. 67
. 67. M
(S, R), , T TM 
SM. STM  STM
SM
ST

=
, SM SM  =R2 .
ST
SM 
M M  . , M  M, . .
.
. S, M, M  s, z, z .
SM SM  =R2 :
T

(sz)(sz)(sz )(sz )=R4 ,


S, M,

M

(24.1)

(sz)(sz )=(sz)(sz ).

(24.2)

(24.1) (24.2) :
(sz)(sz )=R2 ,

R2
+s,
zs

(24.3)

zs+R2 ss
.
zs

(24.4)

z =

z =

SM SM  , . .
M  SM, ,
(24.2) ( R2 ).
, (S, R) (24.3) (24.4).
126

, s=0, :
z =

R2
.
z

(24.5)

(24.4) (24.5) ,
. .
, ,
z =

az+b
,
za

b=b,

b+aa>0,

(24.6)


S(a)

R= b+aa.
, b+aa>
>0 b+aa= 0. ,
b+aa<0,
:

b+aa=iR. (24.3) :
z =

(iR)2
+s,
zs

z =

R2
+s.
z+s

(24.3a)


(24.3) z =z+2s S.
,
z =

az+b
,
za

b=b,

b+aa= 0.

(24.6a)

.
AB A B ,
A, B , A , B .
O,
(24.5).


1
1
ba
a b =R2

=R2
,
a
b
ab

|a b |=R2

|ba|
|ab|
,
=R2
|a||b|
|a||b|

,
A B =R2

AB
.
OAOB

(24.7)
127

m
M

M

. 68

24.2.
.
zz=1.
z =1/z, .
, z= 0.
l pz+
+pz+q=0, q=q.
z=1/z , z=1/z ,
:
qzz+pz+pz=0,

q=q.

(24.8)

q=0 ,
l. q= 0, ( 14),
O . (24.8), l, p/q |p|/|q|. ,
pz=pz,
l.
l: m l (. 68), M  M =ml
, OM 
(24.8).
, 1) , ,
, 2) , , , .
, 3) , , , .

(zs)(zs)=r2 ,

ss= r2 ,

(24.9)

z =1/z.




1
1
s
s =r2 ,
z
z

( ),
(ssr2 )zzszsz+1=0.
ssr2 = 0,

(24.10)



s
r

, O .
ssr2
|ssr2 |
, (24.9)
(24.10) , ssr2 .
, (. 69).
128

B

A

. 69

(24.9) (24.10)
r:

r
=|ssr2 |=|OS 2 r2 |.
|ssr2 |

, (24.9) zz=1 ( s=0, r=1), (24.10)


zz=1, . .
. ,
,
z =1/z zz=1 ,
z =z.
s=0 r= 1 (24.10) :
zz=

1
.
r2

, r, , 1/r,
.
24.3. : ,
, .
( ),
A, B, C, A,
B, D. A , B , C  , D z =1/z,
 ,
A, B, C, D:
 =

a c a d
ac ad
:
=
:
=.
b c b d
bc bd


( 13) (
) ABC ABD,
arg  =arg = arg .
97685.. . .

129

,
( ).
| |=||, .
1. ,
, .
zz=1 ,
(zs)(zs)=r2 , A(a). aa=
=1 (as)(as)=r2. OASA

a(as)+a(as)=0,

sa+sa=2,

(as)(as)=r2

(24.11)

ssr2 =1.

(24.12)

(24.9) (24.10)
.
, , ssr2 =1. zz=1 .
2. , ,
, .
1
z =
zz=1 z
A B B A, ab=ab=1.
(zs)(zs)=r2 A B:
8>
>< aasasa+ssr2 =1,
>>:
bbsbsb+ssr2 =1.
b, a :
(ab)+(ssr2 )(ba)=0,

ssr2 =1,
.
3. , AB CD ABCD, P.
, ADP BCP, Q. , Q M
(. 70).
130

P .
, (3.1), ab=ab cd=cd.
aabb=ccdd.

(24.13)

ab=ab=cd=cd.

ADP BCP:
8>
>< zz(adad)zad(ad)+zad(ad)=0,
>>
: zz(bcbc)zbc(bc)+zbc(bc)=0.

BBBB
Q

CC
CC

. 70


(24.13). ,
, P .

acbd
q=
.
(24.14)
a+c(b+d)
, A, B, C, D, P,
Q a1 , b1 , c1 , d1 ,
p1 , q1 , a=a1 +, b=b1 +, c=c1 +, d=d1 +, p=p1 +, q=
=q1 +. (24.14),
:
a1 c1 b1 d1
q1 =
.
a1 +c1 (b1 +d1 )
, (24.14) , . , (4.1),
m=

a+c(b+d)
.
acbd

, q=1/m. , Q M , ABCD.
4.
.

zz=1,

(za)(za)=r2,

(zb)(zb)=R2 ,

:
aar2 =1,

bbR2 =1,

(ab)(ab)=R2 +r2 .

ab+ab=2,
1ab=ab1.
9*7685.. . .

131

f1 , f2 , f3
:
z =

1
,
z

r2
+a,
za

z =

z =

R2
+b.
zb

f2 f1 :
z =

(r2 aa)z+a
,
1az

z =

za
az1

f3 (f2 f1 ):
z =

R2
za
b
az1

+b.


z =

z(ab)+1ab
.
z(ab1)+ab

ab

ab1

R2 +r2 +(ab1)2
. (ab1)2
, ab1 .

, 2 =

4.33. A A1 , B B1 O. , OAB OB1 A1


.
4.34. R r.
4.35. A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2
A, B, C . ,
.
25.
25.1. . ,
, . ,
132

, .
<>, Q,
. 1
, ,
=.
0
,
Q, . , Q, .
, Q .
, , ,
< >, Q,
Q. , .

, . .
:
z
z+=,
(25.1)
z= 0
z=,

(25.2)

z=
z=,

=,
z

z
=0.

(25.3)

0
,

0
-
.
25.2. . ,
, 0

z =

az+b
,
cz+d

(25.4)



a b
=
a, b, c, d = 
 0.
c d
adbc=0 z =const
.
133

az+b
cz+d
- .
=adbc .
c=0 (25.4) ,
18. , , c= 0.
(25.4) z z . , z=d/c , z= a/c. c=0,
z= z =.
, (25.4),

f(z)=

z =

dz+b
,
cza

(25.5)

. . -


 d b 

 =adbc.


c

1. -
.
az+b
, z =
cz+d



R2

z =
+s +,
zs
R2
+s z =z+ zs
. ,
. . z =

az+b
bcad
1
a
=

+ .
2
d
cz+d
c
c
z+
c

d(bcad)
d
bcad
a
a
, = 2 2 , = s= +
.
c
c
c
c R
c2 cR2
, - : .
,
- .
1. -
.

134

s=

- -
.
2. ,
.
3. .
4.
,
.
2.
.
, .
z =f(z) (25.4) f(zi )=zi (i=1, 2, 3, 4),
i= j
zi zj =

azj +b
(adbc)(zi zj )
azi +b

=
.
czi +d
czj +b
(czi +d)(czj +d)

z1 z3 z1 z4


z z3 z1 z4
:
= 1
:
.
z2 z3 z2 z4
z2 z3 z2 z4
Q(), (25.1)(25.3) , .
, .
25.3. . (25.4) z =z
z=

az+b
,
cz+d

cz2 +(da)zb=0.

(25.6)

c= 0. (25.6) :

ad m
z1,2 =
, m=(da)2 +4bc.
(25.7)
2c
(25.4) , .
, m= 0,
. m=0 .
c=0 a= 0 d= 0, . (25.4) ,
. a= d, (25.6) b

.
da
135

b
d
. ,
, c=0, ,
m= 0, , m=0.
, ,
, .
. ,
, .

, , .
3.
P Q, (PQ, MM  )
M M  .

A A .
(MA, PQ)=(M  A , PQ), , ,
c=0 d=a, (25.4) z =z+

mp mq
m p m q
:
= 
:
,
ap aq
a p a q

mp m p
(ap)(a q)
: 
=
=const=k,
mq m q
(aq)(a p)

(25.8)

. . (MM  , PQ)=(PQ, MM  )=k.


. PQ,
, /|k|.
(25.8) :
m p
mp
=k 
,
mq
m q

MP
MP
=|k|  .
MQ
MQ
MP
==const, = 1,
MQ
( 14, 1). M P

M  ,
=
,
MQ
|k|
PQ, /|k|. k=1 .
M,

136

1. A B. AC BD
.
. .
1. AC BD ,
c
d
bc
= , d=
. M
a
b
a
AC BD:
a+c(b+d)
a+c
m=
=
.
acbd
c(a+b)
b=a. ,
C, M, c=z
m=z , :
z =

a
1
+
,
z(a+a)
a+a

z =

a
1
z+
,
a+a
a+a

1/z=z. . , C(z)
1
|a|

.
M(z )  s=
a+a
a+a
:
zz(a+a)(z+z)=0.
 , , O
A(a) B(a).
2. AC BD ,
c
b

= . c=b a=d, AC BD .
a
d
c= b, b=a, c=z M(z )
AC BD:
a+z(b+d)
z+a
z =
=
azbd
az+1
. C(z), a+z
z =
=z , ,
az+1
M(z ) ,
AB.
137

2.
. ?

zz=1. S R.
:
z =

1
z

z =

R2
+s.
zs


R2

z =

1
s
z

+s,

(R2 ss)z+s
.
1sz

z =

(25.9)


 2

 R ss s 

 =R2 = 0.
= 

s

, ,
z =

zs
.
sz+R2 ss

(25.10)

R2 ss=1, . . , (25.9) (25.10) .


3.
1
z = .
z
z =z
 
1
1
z = . M 
M(z)
z
z
 
1
(. 71): M(z) M1(z) M 
.
z
zz=1 .
138

y
4. g2 g1
M
g f x
O
g1
E

g2 . , g
M
g2
M1
g1 .
g1 . 71
(zz=1), g2
(zs)(zs)=R2 .
(25.9). ,
g2 g1 =f g, f sz+sz+R2
ss1=0 ( 17).
( 18)

z =

s
1+ssR2
z+
.
s
s

g f (g2 g1 ):
z =

s (R2 ss)z+s
1+ssR2

+
.
s
1sz
s


sz+(R2 ss1)
,
sszs
 2

1
R
1
z+
1

z =

z =

ss

1
z
s

ss

(24.4) , 1/s
R2
1.
r, r2 =
ss
26.
26.1.
. -
az+b
z =
,
(26.1)
cz+d


a b
 = 0.
a, b, c, d = 
c d
(24.6).
139

(26.1) ( c= 0):


z =

a
b
z+
c
c
.
d
z+
c

,
b
b
= ,
c
c

a
d
= ,
c
c

b
aa
+
= 0,
c
cc


bc=bc,

ac+cd=0,

c= 0.

(26.2)

= 0. ab+bd=0
, , ac+cd=0 ab+bd=0 bc=bc.
c= 0.
c=0 ab+bd=0 (26.1) dz=az+b.
() , .
c=0 (26.1) . , , c= 0.
, (26.1),
z =

dz+b
,
cza

(26.3)

. .


 d b 


 c a  =adbc=,
(26.1).
, - (26.1)
z =z - (25.4) .
. -
.
(26.1)


R2
z =
+s +,
zs
. . z =
140

R2
+s z =z+
zs

. ,
az+b
a
bcad
1
= +

.
d
cz+d
c
c2
z+
c

d(bcad)
d
bcad
a
a
, = 2 2 , = s= +
.
c
c
c
c R
c2 cR2
z =z+

s=

s1 =

accR2 +d(bcad)
=
.
1
c(c2 R2 bc+ad)

s1 s ,
accR2 +d(bcad)
d
= ,
c
c(c2 R2 bc+ad)

accR2 +d(bcad)+d(c2 R2 bc+ad)=0,


. .
ac+cd=0.
- :
.
1. -
.
.
2.
,
, .
3.

.
26.2. f (26.1)
z =z,
z=

az+b
,
cz+d

=adbc= 0,

(26.4)

czz+dzazb=0.

(26.5)


: c= 0 c=0 ( f ).
141

I. c= 0. (26.1) ,
f. (26.5)
zz+

d
a
b
z z =0.
c
c
c

(26.6)

14, :
d
a
b
b
ad
b
bcad
1.
= ,
=
2 + =
>0. . .
c
c
c
c
c
c
c2
ac+cd=0, bc=bc <0 (26.6), , (26.5)
a

s=
R, R2 = 2 .
c
c
f ,
.
2. ac+cd=0, bc=bc, >0, (26.6) (26.5)
.
, f



a
a

z
= 2
z
c
c
c
a
.
c
3. ac+cd=0, bc= bc, .
az+b
4. ac+cd= 0, (26.6) z=
cz+d

s=

(ac+cd)z2 (aadd+bcbc)z(ab+bd)=0.

(26.7)


.
II. c=0. a= 0 d= 0, a
b
=0. f z = z+ , d
d
. (26.5) :
dzazb=0.

(26.8)

11, :
1. |a|=|d| ab+bd=0, (26.8)
, , . . f
. .
2. |a|=|d| ab+bd= 0 , , , f .
142

3. |a|= |d|, , , f
ab+bd

( ).
ddaa
, ,
, .
,

.
26.3.
.
.
, M1 , M2 , M3
N1 , N2 , N3 .
M1
 N1 ,
M2
 N2 , M3
 N3 M(z) M  (z ),
(MM1 , M2 M3 )=(M  N1 , N2 N3 ),
. .
zm3
z n3
zm2
z n2
:
=
:
,
m1 m2 m1 m3
n1 n2 n1 n3

(26.9)

z =

az+b
,
cz+d

a=(m1 m2 )n1 n2 +(m2 m3 )n2 n3 +(m3 m1 )n3 n1 ,


b=(m1 m3 )((m3 m2 )n3 n2 +(n2 n3 )m2 n2 +n1 (m2 n3 m3 n2 )),
c=(n1 m2 n2 m1 )+(n2 m3 n3 m2 )+(n3m1 n1 m3 ),
d=(n1 n3 )(m1 m3 )(m2 m3 ).


zm3
z n3
zm2
z n2
:
=
:
,
m1 m2 m1 m3
n1 n2 n1 n3

(26.10)


a, b, c, d (26.1).
(26.9) (26.10) .

, Mi
 Ni (i=1, 2, 3).
143

, ( )

. , , -
. , ,
.
, A, B, C, D A1 , B1 , C1 , D1 , ,
, .
( 13),
: , ABC ABD)
A1 B1 C1 A1 B1 D1 ( )
A, B, C, D A1 , B1 , C1 , D1 .
k
k
ABC ABD BCA BDA (. . 36,
. 75), A, B, C, D
AC BD

, , ,
BC AD
k
k
k
k
BCA BDA= B1 C1 A1 B1 D1 A1
( )
A C B D
AC BD
= 1 1 1 1 .
BC AD
B1 C1 A1 D1
ACBD , BCA BDA

C D ACBD. , , ACBD
A1 C1 B1 D1 ,
, C D
C1 D1 ,
.
, , ,
.
144


4.36. , ( 7).
4.37. . ,
, .
?
4.38. ,
1
, z = .
z
4.39.
z+1
z =
.
z1
4.40. ,
0, 1, i i, 0, 1 .
,
?
4.41.
, i, 0, , 1, i .
4.42. , ,
, , ( ).
4.43. , ,
,
, .
?

107685.. . .

5.1. ABCD. AD BC M,
B D N. ,
AB MN .
5.2. ABC. A1 , B1 , C1 M BC, CA, AB.
O , ABC.
, A1 B1 C1
OM.
5.3. AB CD. AD M,
, M , .
5.4. BC, CA, AB ABC
BA1 CA2 , CB1 AB2
AC1 BC2 . , AA1 , BB1 , CC1
A1 B1 C1 , AA2 , BB2 , CC2
A2 B2 C2 , AA1 =B1 C1 , BB1 =C1 A1 , CC1 =A1 B1 .
5.5. A(a), B(b), C(c).
D(d) ,
ac
ad
+
=0.
bc
bd
5.6. ABC
BCMN, CAPQ, ABRS. X, Y , Z O , ABC,



MN, PQ, RS. , AX + BY + CZ= 0 .
5.7. A0 A1 . . . A6 . :
A0 A22 =A0 A21 +A0 A1 A0 A3 ,

A0 A23 =A0 A21 +A0 A2 A0 A3 .

5.8. AB M N
. , P
PM 2 +PN 2 .
146

5.9. ABC. , h2c =


=mn, m n A B
C.
5.10. ,

,
.
5.11. AB ABC C1 , AC1 :C1 B=3:2, AC B1 ,
AB1 :B1 C =3:14. BB1 CC1 P. PA CC1 .
5.12. 1, a, b ab P, A,

B C. OC OA, OB, OP.


5.13. ,
.
5.14 ( ). A ABC
, AB
AC BC M N. ,
BM BN
AB2

=
.
CM CN
AC 2
5.15. (O, R) ABC.
O l, AC BC M N
, OM =ON. MN R .
5.16 ( ).
. , , . ,
.
5.17. P ,
ABC, , BC,
CA, AB ,
ABC A1 , B1 , C1 . A2 , B2 , C2 A, B,
C B1 C1 , C1 A1 , A1 B1 . ,
1) ABC A2 B2 C2 ;
2) OO2 =PH, O O2 ABC A2 B2 C2 ,
H ABC.
5.18. ABC 2. , .
10*7685.. . .

147

5.19. ABCD O.
A B AA2 BB2 CD, B C BB1 CC1 DA, C D
CC2 DD2 AB, , D A DD1 AA1 BC. ,
1) A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 , D1 D2
, O
ABCD;
2) A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 ABCD
.
5.20. .

. ,
,
.
5.21. .
, , ,
, .
5.22. . , , , .
5.23. , ( 15)
.

, ,

1
1.5. c=ia+(1+i)b, d=(1i)a+ib.
1.6.

ABC: 1) a(1+i 3)/2, 2) a(1+i


3)/2, 3) ai 3/3;

ABC: 1) a(1i 3)/2, 2) a(1+i 3)/2, 3) ai 3/3.


1.14. ,
aa=bb. 1.15. a=1, b=1, cc=
=1, m=m. 1.16. MA2 +MB2 =2mm+2aa=2R2 +AB2 /2. 1.22. a=1,
b=i, c=1, d=i. b1 a1 =(ba) (=). b1 =
=a1 +(i1), c1 =a1 2, d1 =a1 (i+1). 1.23. =2. 1.24. /(+).
1.25. 2(OM 2 +R2 ), R
. 1.26. m=0, :
a(bcbc)
b(caca)
c(abab)
,
,
. 1.31. a(cb)+a(cb) b(ac)+b(ac) c(ba)+c(ba)
|a2 b2 |/2, a , b
. 1.34. (+1)/(1). 1.35. ABCD (a+b+c+d)/2. 1.38. ABCD zz=1,
, ,
a+b+c+d. 1.39.

OH, R/2. 1.40. AA1 AH ,

a+b2c
AA1 AH = AA1 AH. B , AA1 AH BB1 BH =AB2 . 1.41. d=
,
abc2

2
2
AD
da b(ca)
CA
2
=
=
. 1.42. AC BD=R . 1.44. a=1, b=1. m=
=
db a(cb)2 CB2
BD
2
=m=2c/(1+c )=2/(c+c). 1.451.47. . . 1.4 1.5. 1.48.
1.28. , ,
abc/(mn), m n .
1.54. cos =4/5. 1.55.
ABC,  A1 , B1 , C1

k
ha1 c1 a1

A1 B1 , A1 H = A1 H, A1 C1 ,
:
b1 a1 ha1
b b
. 1.56. A B=/2
(ca)(cb)
arg
=/2. ABC zz=1.
(ba)(ab)
ab=c2 . D , E AB, c=
(a2 b2 )(b2 c2 )(c2 a2 )
=de DE 2 =cc=1. 1.57. 30 , 60 , 90 . 1.58. S(A1 B1 C1 )=
. 1.59.
16ia2 b2 c2
ba
bc
ca
arg
, arg
, arg
. 1.60. ABC a+b+c
a+b+c
a+b+c
b b+a
b c+b
b a+c
zz=1, ctg A=
i, ctg B=
i, ctg C =
i.
cb
ac
ba
149

1.61. ABCDE,
(ac)(bd)(ce)(eb)i
(a2 b2 )(b2 c2 )(c2 a2 )i
.
1.63. 1/4.
.
1.62. S(A1 B1 C1 )=
8abcde
4a2 b2 c2
1.64. ABC zz=1, , C, P M.
b:m=m:p=p:a. p=ab:c, , b:m=(cm):(ab)=b:c,
m=c ab=c3 . AB CM (a+b)
(abc2 )=0. ab=c2 a=b=c, . . ABC .
b d
a+b=0 . c:b=m:a. , A= ACM =60
b

B=30 . 1.65. . 1.56. 1.66. . 1.64. 1.67. .


b
b
bc ca
i
i=2,
1.60. 1.68. tg A tg B=2
b+c c+a
2
3bc+3ca+ab+c =0, ab/c=3a+3b+c. M CC1 ,
m=(c+c1 )/2=(a+b+3cab/c)/4=a+b+c=h. 1.69. . 1.68. 1.71.
zz=1. a1 =bc/a, b1 =ca/b, c1 =ab/c, (a+b1 )(a1 +b)
ab+bc+ca
=
D AB1 A1 B d=
,
ab1 a1 b
c(a2 +ab+b2 )
a+b+c
1
1
d=
=
h.
,
1+ab+ab 1+ab+ab
1+ab+ab
O, H, D . 1.73. . 6.3 ( ) , A1 B1 MH. 1.74. M N
D BC AC. m=(b+c+dbc/d)/2
n=(a+c+dac/d)/2 mn=(ab)(cd)/(2d). OH MN,
(mn)h+(mn)h=0, h=a+b+c. ab+ac+ad+bc+bd+cd=0
a, b, c, d. ,
ABCD . 1.75. A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 M, a2 =
a m
= 1
. A A1 A2 . a=
ma1 1
2(ma1 1)
. b c
=2/(a1 +a2 )=
ma21 m
. , (ab)/(ac) .
1.76. 1.73. 1.78. A1 B1 C1 b
b
b b
abc(a+b+c)

. 1.80. 1) A= C, 2) C =60 C =120 . 1.81.


(a+b)(b+c)(c+a)
zz=1 BC, CA, AB, , A1 A2 , B1 B2 ,
C1 C2 , A1 , B1 , C1 M . (4.6) a2 a1 +ma1 a2 m=0, b2 b1 +mb1 b2 m=0, c2 c1 +mc1 c2 m=0.
a1 a2 +za1 a2 z=0, b1 b2 +zb1 b2 z=
=0, c1 c2 +zc1 c2 z=0 z=m. ,
, M . 1.82. abc=e3 . 1.85.
MA, MB, MC A1 , B1 , C1 .
, AA1 A,
A2 , A1 A2 BC. abcm(ab+bc+ca)+m(a+b+c)
,
.
mm1
2
2.2. BB1 CA+CC1 AB=|(b1 b)(ac)|+|(c1c)(ba)||ab1abcb1 +bc1 ac1 +ac|.
(8.1) (ab)/(bc)=(a1 b1 )/(b1 c1 ), ab1 ac1 +bc1 a1 b+
+a1 c+cb1 =0 BB1 CA+CC1 AB|ab1 abcb1 +bc1 ac1 +ac(ab1 ac1 +
+bc1 a1 b+a1 c+cb1 )|=|a1 ba1 cab+ac|=|a1 a||bc|=AA1 BC. 2.3.
150

a1 a c1 c b1 c d1 a
=
=
=
=, a1 +c1 =b1 +d1 . 2.5.
ba
dc
bc
da
ABC 2k . 2.6. A1 B1 =|bc/mca/m|=|c/m||ba|=AB. ABC A1 B1 C1 , AA1 , BB1 , CC1 . 2.7. f =0.
ac1 q
apbq
ABC1 QPF
= , c1 =
.
bc1 p
pq
b a1 qp
a1 b1 , 1
=
. 2.9. a+b+2c=
c1 a1 rp
=0 a1 +b1 +2 c1 =0 aa1 +(bb1)+2 (cc1 )=0. AA1 =|aa1 |=
=|(bb1 )+2 (cc1 )|=|(bb1 )+(cc1 )||bb1 |+|cc1 |=BB1 +CC1 .
. 2.11. ABCDEF , d=a, e=b, f =c.
a+b+2p=0, ca+2q=0, bc+2r=0. , , , 1, 2 , p+r+2q=0, 3 =1 4 =.
P, Q, R . 2.12. a=1, b=, c=2 . mm=1, a+b+c=0.
, 3((mm)2 +4mm+1). 2.13.
b=0, c=1, a==cos /3+i sin /3. d=d ea=d. ED2 =EC 2 =
=1+d+d2 . 2.14. ABCD a=0.
c=b+d, m=b, n=2d c+n+2m=0. 2.17. a=0, b=1, c=
==cos /3+i sin /3, . . 3 =1 2 +1=0, a1 =(+2)/3, b1 =2/3, c1 =1/3,
d
a2 =(1+4)/9. a2 a1 =2 (a2 a). , A2 A1 =A2 A AA2 A1 =arg 2 =2/3.
p
p

2.20. n=8, A0 A1 =R 2 2, A0 A3 =R 2+ 2. n=10 A0 A1 =( 51)

R/2, A0 A3 =( 5+1)R/2. 2.21. 1, i, 1, i.


ABCD a=1+i, b=a, c=a, d=a. 2.22.
24R4 . 2.23. R=1, OM =d, n1

1, z, z2 , . . . , zn1 . (zk m)2 (zk m)2 .


k=0

, , zk zk =1, mm=d2 , 1+z+z2 +. . .+zn1 =0 1+z2 +z4 +. . .+(z2 )n1 =0.


2.24. , |z+1|=|z4 +1|+|z2 +1|. . 3 10. 2.25.
, 15- z10 +z5 +1=0. 2.26. .
5 10. 2.27. (4.3), , zk =znk . nR2 /2. 2.28. 60 .
2.29. .
60 , . . =cos /3+i sin /3.
. 2.30. ABC . a=1, b=3 , =cos /4+i sin /4. c=5 =, 4 =1.
Mk (k=0, 1, 2, . . . , 7) , , mk mk1 =(mk1 mk2 ). 2.31. ak =zk , z13 =1. P Q
, O A0 A24 A1 A5 , p=1+z24 =1z11 , q=
=z+z5 . , (pq)(pq)=3. 2.32. ak =zk , z=cos /21+i sin /21.
, z21 =1, z14 z7 +1=0 z18 z15 +z12 z9 +z6 z3 +1=0. ak =
=(zk +zk )/2=(zk z21k )/2 . 2.33. ABCDEF
Gk (k=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) .
g1 =(2a+c+(ae))/3, g3 =(2c+e+(ec))/3, g5 =(2e+a+(ae))/3, =
=cos /3+i sin /3. g3 g1 =(g5 g1 ). , G1 G3 G5
. , G2 G4 G6 .
2.34. a=1, b=1, cc=1. A1 , B1 , C1 M BC,
CA, AB, a1 =(m1+c+cm)/2, b1 =(m+1+ccm)/2, c1 =(m+m)/2.
m=(a1 +b1 +c1 )/3, 3m=2c+m m=(3c+c)/4. CD ABC, c+c=2d, m=(c+d)/2, . . M
CD. 2.35. O . b=a, c=a, d=c=a,
151

=cos /3+i sin /3 =. M, N, K OA, OD, BC,


(km)=a(+3 )/2=a(1)/2=nm. , MNK .
2.36. a=1, b=1. d=1/3 c=21, =cos /3+i sin /3.
CD z=c+(1)d, =. , E . 2.37. 2n- A0 A1 . . . A2n1
zk (k=0, 1, 2, . . . , 2n1), z=cos /n+i sin /n.
2n- 2z2
2z

, n-

1+z
1+z




 1z2 
 1z 
2z2
2z4
2





2
2 . , an =|1z |, bn =2 
2 , b2n =2 
2 .
1+z
1+z
1+z
1+z
, , d=2.
2.38. a=0 =cos /3+i sin /3. a1 =c+(bc), b1 =c, c1 =b.
m=(b+c1 )/3=b(1+)/3 a1 m=b(21)/3+c(1), b1 m=cb
(1+)/3. 3 =1 2 +1=0, , (a1 m)2 =b1 m,
. 2.39. c=0, n=b, m=a=2 a,
=cos /3+i sin /3. , , abi
/2, /3, /6. 2.40. , am=(bm)i, m=
, ,
1i
cdi
dai
bci
, p=
, q=
. R S MP NQ
n=
1i
1i
1i
a+ci(b+d)
b+di(a+c)
r=
s=
. RS 2(1i)
2(1i)
ris
sir
URV S, v=
=(b+d)/2, u=
=(a+c)/2. ,
1i
1i
U V . 2.41. :
m=b+(ba)i, n=a+(ba)i, l=c+(dc)i, k=d+(dc)i , , m+k
(b+d)=(a+c(b+d))(i), n+l(a+c)=(b+d(a+c))i.
ABCD (a+c= b+d), , ABCD MNKL .
ABCD (a+c=b+d),
(m+k=b+d, n+l=a+c). 2.42. a1 a2 =(a2 a3 ), b1 b2 =(b2 b3 ). 2.43. ABC zz=1
a=1, b=8 , c=13 =4 , =cos /9+i sin /9, . . 18 =1, 9 =1, 6 3 +1=
=0. A1 , B1 , C1 A2 , B2 , C2 AE, BE, CE AD,
BD, CD . a1 =10 =, b1 =17 =8 , a2 =9 =1, b2 =15 =6 .
(1)(8 8 ) 1
E AA1 BB1 : e=
= 4 . +16

d
d
ce
: c1 =
=2 . , ACE=20 . , DCB=10 .
ce1
3
3.1. 30 . 3.2. z+iz=0. 3.3. (2i)z+(2+i)z2=0. 3.4. (2+5i)z+(25i)z
14=0. 3.5. (5+3i)z+(53i)z52=0, (3+5i)z+(35i)z52=0, (1i)z+(1+i)z=0.

42i, 24i, 77i. 3.6. 90 . 3.7. 2/2. 3.8.


: (3+i)z+(3i)z28=0 (13i)z+(1+3i)z16=0. 3.9. ABC zz=1 t u(zh)+
+u(zh)=0, h=a+b+c. AB
ab/c AB , AB t.
t . uabc/u. a, b, c
. 3.10. aa=bb=cc=1, c1 =a+i(ca),
c2 =b+i(bc). AC2 , BC1 CH (ac2 )z(ac2 )z=ac2 ac2 ,
152

(bc1 )z(bc1 )z=bc1 bc1 , (zc)(ba)+(zc)(ba)=0. . ,


. 3.11.
2am
2bm
1
, p=
, q=
. , m= (p+q). 3.12. a+b
a+b
2
a=1, b=1. |MA|2 |MB|2 =s,
z+z=s/2. , AB s/4.
3.13. , AB CD. 3.14. a=0, b=b.
m=m, p=d =, c=b+d, n=p+m=d+m. DM, BP CN ,
, (dm)z+(md)z+m(dd)=0, (bd)z+(db)z+b
(dd)=0, (dm+bd)z+(md+db)z+b(dd)+m(dd)=0. ,
() .
. 3.17. (1+i 3)/2 (1i
3)/2.
ABCD

, |(1+i 3)/2|=|(1i 3)/2|=1. 3.18. 



bm ba
:
=
MP NQ . 3.20. arg
cm ca
d
d
ba
bm
arg
==CAB. CMB= arg
=+.
ca
cm
, CB +. 3.21. c+i
ci
c z=
, z=
, 4zz+z+z=2,
2ci
2c+i
(z+1/4)(z+1/4)=9/16. S(1/4) R=
=3/4. z=1/2. 3.22. (14.7);
s=bc(bc)/(bcbc). 3.23. M , ABCD
. ( 7). BCAD=P, M
PAB PCD. m P (14.7); m=
=(acbd)/(a+c(b+d)). ,
. 3.24. c=0, a=1, b=b, p=1+b. (14.7), PAC PBC (14.9).
3.25. a=0, b=1. B s+s=1 s1 +s1 =1. A, C, S , c=s =.
C S1 =s1 /s+s1 /s ,
B, C, S, S1 . D c a cb
C. 3.26. 1

.
da d1 b
a=0, b=1. 3.27.
n- zz=1
k2 , zz=k2 /n1, . . k2 >n ,
. 3.28. zz=2k2 /n1/2 ( ). 3.29. , ABC AB. 3.31.
, ABC. 3.32. (z(a+b)/4)
(z(a+b)/4)=(a+b)(a+b)/16. O zz=1
, O c AB.
3.37. . 3.38. , = 1, (
) =1. 3.39. A zz=1.

B C, c=b. a=a,
(14.7). OA
z=z, az2 a2 z+za=0, (za)(az+1)=0,
z1 =a z2 =1/a. D(1/a) BC. ,
A(a) D.
153

4
4.1. 4+3i, 5i. 4.2. A C B D,

adbc
. 4.3. 2: 3:1. 4.4. a=0, b=1. S S1 a+d(b+c)
, s+s=s1 +s1 =1 (. 3.25).
ms m1 s1
M S M1 S1 .
=
=
as
as1
=, ||=1, m=s(1), m1 =s1 (1). M, M1 , B.
4.5. 1/3, ABCM.
4.6. lt=O , l , t uz+uz=0. A B l, D t, d=ud/u,
a=(d+d)/2=d(1u/u)/2, cd=i(ad), c=d(1i/2ui/(2u)). ,
D C , t . 4.7. S
, , S1
zzs1 (z+z)=1s1 (a+a). z+acz=
=a+c AC z=a,


d=c+s1 acs1 . p=(a+a)/2, SP: PS1 =(a+a):(2s1 (a+a))=. , m=
=(c+d)/(1+)=(aa)c/(2a)+(a+a)/2. z =(aa)z/(2a)+(a+a)/2
, M S
, . . . z=0, z =(a+a)/2=p. z=a, z =a.
, P A. 4.9.
. m1 =m.
M, M1 , S : ( )mm+s( 1)m+s(1)m=0. ,
, . . = , M , O . S S

. 4.10. 2AB. 4.11. A, B, C , , ,


ab+c. 4.12. AB A. 4.13.

.
4.14. z =z+, =1,
z =zv z =z++v , v
. 4.15. . 4.16. ABCD ca=i(db). (18.8) =i.
4.17. , A1 A2 ,
A1 A2 . . . A2k , z =a1 a2 z+
+a1 +a2 . 4.18. 4.4 . 4.19.
C, A, B. 4.20. BA1
M. 4.4, A B,
. . C
. 4.21.
. 4.22. c,

c1,2 =(a+b)/2i(ab)/(2 3). M AB, MA



a(a+b)/2=(ab)/2.

M,

/2
1/ 3 A C1 . C1 C2
, AB . 4.23. : z =(2i/2)z+(13i/2)z+2i, 1+2i,
: (2+i)z+(2i)z4=0, : (2+3i)z+(23i)z+12=
=0. 4.24. (2+i)z+(2i)z+14=0, (3+i)z+(3i)z+20=0. 4.25. . 23. :

(34i)z+(3+4i)z+2=0. OA a=1+2i,
12. 4.26. (1+i)z+(1i)z+2=0,

OA=2+2i, , 4. 4.27. :

154

(1i)z+(1+i)z2=0, OA=3i, 1. 4.28. z =


=3(1i)z/2+(3+i)z/2. 4.29. z =(1+2i)z+2z+2+2i. 4.31. f g l m .
f1 l g. f1 f = l,
gf1 = ( l) ( 4.30). (gf1 )(f1 f )=, gf =
=. 4.32. z =b1 z+c1 z =b2 z+c2
. (22.4) ,
, : z =|b1 ||b2 |z+b2 c1 +c2 ,
. 4.36. (24.7). 4.37. , ,
. ,
. 4.38. , . 4.39.
izi
,
( ), 1 1. 4.40. z =
(2i1)z+1
izi
az+b

. 4.41. z =
. 4.42. z =
,
zi
cz+d


c= 0, z =z+, =1, (z s)(zs)=R2
||
c
d
a
a
, =
+ , =adbc.
s= , R2 = , =
c
cc
c||
c|| c

5.3. M=ADBC. 5.6. AX=bai(cb)+(cb)/2, O . 5.8.


2
20R /9. 5.11. APBC =A1 . ,


BA1 : A1 C =1:7. a=1, b=, c=2 , =cos 2/3+i sin 2/3. 1++2 =0.


A1 C1 , , AA1 CC1 . 5.12. OC =(OB OP)OA+
p
b
b
b
b
b

2R
2
2
+(OA OP)OB(OA OB)OP. 5.15. MN =
b cos A+cos B2 cos A cos B cos C. sin C
, MN =2DH R/AB,p H , D ,
b
b
b b
C O, DH =2R 4 cos2 A cos2 Bsin2 (B A). 5.17. ABC zz=1 p=1, a1 =bc, b1 =ac, c1 =ab,
(18.19) a2 =a(b+cbc), b2 =b(c+aca), c2 =c(a+bab).
A2 B2 C2 ab+bc+caabc. 5.18. A, B, C .
ABC.

8

69
111
133
78
79
90
10, 94
40
10
103
68
69
119
103
8
10
-
134
139
115
126
15
11, 15, 15
156

8
106
139
108
107

108
105
106
106
105
107
133
19
50

50
121
121
121

9
() 15
63

() 17
63

64

69
9


135
139
8
69
8
120

114

136, 141
127
75
21
111
69, 74
90

24
21
103
115
11
124
90
98, 100
8
33
33
40
10
83
64, 82
81, 84
44
50

62
11

20
20
10
28
21
121
89
41
87
88
12
63

83
120
120
12

116
33
() 9
59
86
27
30
29
48
26
28, 32
45
34
28
157

8
32
69
62
96
17
12, 72, 74
59
,
63
87
126, 127
133
139
98, 99


100
10, 97
95
116

117
115
96, 98

115
20
113
122
123
90

[1] . . , . . . :
910 . . .: , 1968. . 197239.
[2] . . , . . .
. .: , 1979.
[3] : 10 . /
. . . . .: , 1980.
[4] . . . . . ., , 1966.
[5] . . . , . . .
. .: , 1978.
[6] . . . // .
1968. 5. . 7983.
[7] . . .
. .: , 1979.
[8] / . . // . 19671983.
[9] . . . . --: , 1997.
[10] . . , . . .
. : , 1981.
[11] . . . //
. 1991. 2. . 4654.
[12] . . , . . . . .: , 1962.
[13] . . . // . 1967. 1.
. 6371.
[14] . . . . .: , 1990.
[15] . . . . ..: , 1936.
[16] . . . // .
1970. 1. . 7479.
[17] . . . . .: , 1963.
159

.

.
***
. . .
. . . .
01335 24/III 2000 .

15/IV 2004 .
6088 1/16 . 10,00 . . . =
= 9,78 . . . = 9,48 .-. .
1. . .
. 2000 . 7685.

. 119002, ,
-2, . ., 11. . 241 72 85.

<-
>. 140010, . .,
-, 403. . 554 21 86.