Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 123

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I
21 2004 .


1
1.1 . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . .
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1.3 . . . . . . . . . . .

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4
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5
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6
7
8
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9

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12
12
12
14
14
16
17
19
20

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21
21
23
24
24
25

4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27
27
28
28

2
2.1 . . . . . .
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2.2 . . .
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2.3 . . . .

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3
3.1 . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 . . . . . . . .
3.3 . . . . . . . . .
3.4 . . . . . . . .
3.5

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5 2-
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30
30
33

6
6.1 . . . . . . . . .
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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36
36
36
36
38
39
40

7
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42
42
44

8
8.1 . . .
8.2 . . . . . . . .
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49
49
51
51
52
52
55

9
9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56
56
56
60

10
10.1 . . .
10.2 . .
10.3 . . . . . . .
10.4 . . . . .
10.5

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62
62
63
65
67
68

11
11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2
11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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70
70
71
72
72
72
73
74

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11.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

12
12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77
77
78
81

13
13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84
84
85
87

14
14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92
93
96
96

15
15.1 .
15.2 . . . . . .

15.3 . . . .

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A
A.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2 . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 F1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.3 . . . . . . . .
J Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jn . .
I
K . . .
A.4 . . . . . . . .
Pl Plm . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hn . . . . . . . . . . .
Ln . . . . . . . . . .

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99
99
100
102
105

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108
108
108
108
109
109
109
111

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111
112
112
114
115

116

120

1

1.1
1.1.


u
u 2 u 2 u
mu
,
F x; u;
= 0,
(1.1)
,...,
;
, . . . , k1
x1
xn x21 x1 x2
x1 . . . xknn
F , , x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) n- Rn , u = u(x) ,1 k1 + k2 + + kn = m.
F, , . m , (1.1). , .
= b(x),
Lu

= a0 (x) +
L

n
X
i=1

ai1 (x)

+
xi k

a2k1 k2 ... kn (x)

1 .k2 ,...,kn >0


k1 +k2 +=2

2
+ ...
xk11 . . . xknn

akm1 k2 ... kn (x)

k1 .k2 ,...,kn >0


k1 +k2 +=m

m
.
xk11 . . . xknn

b = 0, .
, .
,
1

x, y, z , .

1.

. m, n 1. ( ) . ,
.
.
1.1.
u
=0
x
(x, y) u(x, y) = f (y), f
. , .
m = 1, n = 2,
.
u(0, y) = sin y, f (y) = sin y .

1.2

m

m, . . .
k
k
k
k
k
l1 l
l+1
(.
?
ul
[1, 7]). ul
l- .
d2
(1.2)
m 2 ul = kul1 + 2kul kul+1 .
dt
Fl = T ul /a, a
, T , k = T /a. ,
m a, . x = la, l-
a 0 T, ,

...

ul1 = ul

u
2 u a2
a + 2 + ....
x
x 2

(1.2),
1 2u 2u
2 = 0,
c2 t2
x

(1.3)

1.

p
c = T / .
, (
) .

,
(r, t) v(r, t)
r t ( 
). V . . v,
Z
I

dV = v dS.
t
S ,
. , .

+ div (v) = 0.
(1.4)
t
, ,
, [2, 2]
p
v
+ (v)v =
.
t

(1.5)

, . 4 5 . ,
(1.5) w, w () [2]. p = p(, v)
( ) .
= 0 =
const, p = p0 = const, v = 0.
(r, t) = 0 + 1 (r, t),

p(r, t) = p0 + p1 (r, t),

,
1
+ 0 div v = 0,
t

v
p1
=
.
t
0

1.

,
,
1 2
(1.6)
 1 = 0,  = 2 2 4,
c t
, , . c
c2 = p/. .


[3]
1 H
,
c t
1 E
,
rot H =
c t

rot E =

div E = 0,

(1.7)

div H = 0

(1.8)

8 6 , E, H.
, (r, t), A(r, t)
,
1 A
E =
, H = rot A.
(1.9)
c t
, [3, 18].
1
+ divA = 0
c t
, , (1.9) (1.7), (1.8). (1.7) rot E . (1.8) rot H,
rot rot A = 4 A + div A,
A = 0.
, . , , . ,
. .

1.



(r, t), r t [4].

i~

= H,
t


~ . H
U (r)
2
= p
= i~.
H
+ U (r), p
2m

, . , ,
t = 0 , .
(r, t) = eiEt/~ (r),
E,
= E.
H

(1.10)

, E, . .


cp T (cp , T
) V . ,

Z
I

cp T dV = Q dS.
t
, ,
Q = T . cp , ,
T
= 4 T,
t

(1.11)

1.

1.1: .

1


2

3

4
, - ,

5


6


= /cp .
, , , .
, , . ,
.
4u = 0, (1.11) , .
(). .
.

1.3
1.1
.
. , . .
, ( , ) .
. 2 5. , . 6. , ,
. 7.

1.

10

.
, 7 8 9, , . , .
, ,
. .
.
, . , , . ,
. 103 ,
106 , 109 , . . ,
.

.
. , . 9/8
/ . : , , , . 10, 11 , , . , .
12, ( ), 13,
, 14,
. 15 ,
.

1.

11


- . , ,
[5], . , , , , [611]. , ,
, [12] .
[1316]. [1721] , .
[22,23], . [24]. .

2

2.1


u
= 0,
(2.1)
x
a(x) = (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ), x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) n- , ,
a u.
a(x)

2.1.
x = a(x),
(2.2)
,
.
(2.2) n , n ( x, , ). n 1
, : F1 (x) = const, . . . , Fn1 (x) =
const. . Rn , Fi , .
Fi , (2.1). g

u(x) = g(F1 (x), . . . , Fn1 (x)).

(2.3)

, (2.3) . , (2.3) (2.1),


12

2.
3

2.5

2.5

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

(a)0

13

(b)

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

. 2.1: (a) (b) 2.1.


a(x) (2.2) Fi :
n

n1

n1

X X g Fj X g dFj
u X u
a
=
=
=
= 0.
xi
xi
x
xi
Fj xi
Fj d
i=1
i=1 j=1
j=1
, , .
, , ,
[25, 26]. (2.1) , u(x)
a. (2.1)
. (2.1)
, . ( ) n1 (F1 , . . . , Fn1 ). du/d = 0, (2.3).
2.1. a = (sin x, cos y) sin xux +cos yuy = 0 (x, y) R2 , . 2.1(a). x = sin x, y = cos y .
, , : F (x, y) = tg (x/2)[1tg (y/2)]/[1+tg (y/2)].
g u(x, y) = g(F ), 2.1(b).

2.

14


, (2.1)
, S
u|S = f (x).

(2.4)

, , (dim S = n 1). . (2.1)


(2.4) .
(2.3) (2.4),
, . ,
, , . :
x0 , .
2.2. , ,
.
2.1. (2.1), (2.4) x0 S
, x0
S.
, , [25]. , a
b
S , . x0
x0
S. S a b. ,
b, , a. , , .
2.1. 2.1 u(/2, y) =
y. u(0, y) = y?



a(x)

u
= b(x)
x

(2.5)

2.

15

(2.1) b(x) . (2.2) u


x = a(x),
u = b(x).

(2.6)

n + 1 n + 1- . x1 , x2 , . . . , xn u.
(2.2), x( ) (2.6)
R . u( ) = b(x( )) d + const.
Fi ,
x, (2.5)
(2.3)
Z
b(x( 0 )) d 0 .
u(x) = g(F1 , . . . , Fn1 ) +
0

2.2.
1
ux yuy = y,
x
x = x1 , y = y, u = y.
3 C, C1 , C2 :
x2
= + C1 ,
2

y = C2 e ,

u = C2 e + C.

F = y exp(x2 /2) = const, C


F:
 2 
u(x, y) = y + g yex /2
2.2. 2.2 u(0, y) = y 2 . y = 0?

, . .
, .
, ,
. , , , .

2.

16

Rn . a(y/x)uy = b,
y = a(y/x). , (x/y)y = a. , , ..
J = det (yi /xj ) .

2.2


a(x, u)

u
= b(x, u)
x

(2.7)

, . ,
, ( ).

x = a(x, u),

u = b(x, u),

(2.8)

.
.
n , :
F1 (x, u) = const, . . . , Fn (x, u) = const.
,
Rn+1 . (2.7) n
G(F1 (x, u), . . . , Fn (x, u)) = 0.
, ,
.. u.
, , . xi


G Fk Fk u
+
= 0,
Fk xi
u xi
,
k = 1 k = n. uxi

2.

17

(2.7), x i Fk /xi =
dFk /d uF
k /u,
dFk
Fk
u
G d b u
u
= x i
=

a
= b,
g Fk
x
xi
Fk
Fk u
dFk /d .
(2.8) 6u
. @
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@

@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
u = 0 u = const , u x2 . x = a ,
x1
u = 0.
. , . .



u
u
+u
=0
t
x

(2.9)

, , ,
, (1.5) .

t = 1,

x = u,

u = 0


x ut = F1 (x, t, u) = const,

u = F2 (x, t, u) = const.

, u = const . G(x ut, u) = 0


, u: u = g(x ut).
u(x, 0) = arcctg x. g g(x) =
arcctg x,
u = arcctg (x ut).
(2.10)

2.

18

u
3

2.5

1.5
2
1

(a)
-4

-2

0.5
2

(b)
0.5

1.5

2.5

t3

. 2.2: (a): t = 0, 1, 2, 3. (b).


, . 2.2, , -
t > 0 ux .
u x .
. ux , x (2.10):
ux =

1
,
1 + 2 t

= x ut.

(2.11)

t = t = 1, u =
/2 x = /2.
t > t (. . 2.2a). . , u = arcctg , 1 + 2
t = 0  1. |x t/2| 6 (t 1)3/2 , t > 1.
. t < t ,
t > t , . 2.2b .
. u(x, 0)
u(x, 0)/x < 0, ( u)
. ,
. [27].
(x, t, u)
(u, 1, 0), . . , t = 0
u(x, 0). u(x, 0) =

2.

19

-2
0

x
2
4
3
2

u
1
2
1.5
1
0.5 t
0

. 2.3: .
arcctg x 2.3. t < 1
, t > 1
. ,
. (x , t , u ) = (/2, 1, /2),
, .

2.3

2.3.


u
u
u
F (x, p, u) = 0, x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), p =
=
.
(2.12)
,...,
x
x1
xn
2n + 1- (n xi , n pi u).
1.1, , . (2.7)
(2.12) p F = a(x, u)p
b(x, u).
, (2.12) xk
F
F pi
F u
F
F pk F
+
+
=
+
+
pk = 0.
xk pi xk
u xk
xk pi xi
u

2.

20

(2.7),
xi =

F
,
pi

pi =

F
F
pi ,

xi
u

u =

F
pi .
pi

(2.13)

, pi ,
u = ux x.

x = Fp , p = Fx pFu , u = pFp .
2n
(2.13) F1 (x, p, u), F2 (x, p, u), . . . , F2n (x, p, u),
:
G(F1 , . . . , F2n ) = 0.
(2.14)

(2.14) n pi = u/xi pi . , , ,
.


[28]
1
St + Sx2 = 0.
2

S(x, 0) = x2 .

(2.12) , F
u. p0 = St , p1 = Sx . F = p0 + p21 /2 = 0,

t = 1, x = p1 , p0 = p1 = 0, S = p0 + p21 p21 /2.
, p0
S

p2
t = g(x pt),
2

p = g 0 (x pt);

p p1 .

, p. g = x2 ,
S

p2 t
= (x pt)2 ,
2

p = 2(x pt) p =

2x
,
1 + 2t

S = x2 /(1 + 2t).

, , [25, 29].

3

, . ( )
x t. , 5, .

3.1
3.1.

A
+B
= b,
(3.1)
t
x
A, B mm, A , = (1 , . . . , m )| , b = (b1 , . . . , bm )|
, .1 A, B, b
x, t, , .
, ,
(x, t), .
, d = t dt + x dx.
(3.1) 2m t , x .
2m (2m + 1)



A
B b
.
(3.2)
Edt Edx d

,
E .
1

| .

21

3.

22

3.1: .

, (x0 , t0 )?
(x, t) (x0 , t0 )+x (xx0 )+t (tt0 ),
,
. , , .
(
(3.2) ).


dx
A

B



Edt Edx = 0 A dt B = 0.

:


A B


C D = |AD CB| ,

A, B, C, D , A C .
, C = A1 B


E C = 0,

dx
.
dt

(3.3)

, C.
, 3.1. ,
, ,
. .
, (3.3) , (3.2)





A
B
A
B b
.
(3.4)
rang
= rang
Edt Edx
Edt Edx d

. , dx/dt (3.3). , .

3.

3.2

23


p (1.4), (1.5) ,
c =
dp/d,
: p = p(). (x, t) u(x, t)
t + ux + ux = 0, ut +

c2
x + uux = 0.

(3.5)

u 
- = (, u)| , A , B = c2 / u .
1,2 = u c(). u 
c,
.
, ,





1 0

0
u




2

dt

0 1 c /
d
u
0

=


= 0,



dt 0 dx
dx u dt du x=uc
0 d

0 dt 0 dx du

du = c d. . ,
Z
c() d
J = u
.
(3.6)

(3.5) c/
.
J+
J+
+ (u + c)
= 0,
t
x

J
J
+ (u c)
= 0.
t
x

, , .
, u, c() J .
, , , .
, -
,
. , ut + (u + c)ux = 0, .
. , p = const.

( 4).

3.

3.3

24

,
C .
C ,
(3.7)

t + Cx = f,

f (x, t) , b
(3.1) A1 . C

C = T T 1 ,

1 0 ...
0 2 ...

0
0

= .. .. .. .. .
. . . .
0

0 ... m

- = T , , (3.7) T 1 ,
t + x = f,
. f =
T 1 f T 1 Tt T 1 CTx , . , .
, ,
-.

3.4


wtt wxx = 0
(3.8)
, wt u, wx v.
,
ut vx = 0,

vt ux = 0.


0 1
1
C = 1
T = ( 11 1
):
0
1 0
= ( 0 1 ), t x = 0, t + x = 0,
= (u + v)/2, = (u v)/2. , ,

w(x, t) = f (x t) + g(x + t).

(3.9)

3.

25

, . , . ,
.
(3.8). ,
w(x, 0) = q(x), wt (x, 0) = h(x).
(3.10)
(3.9), f, g
f (x) + g(x) = q(x),

f 0 (x) + g 0 (x) = h(x).

, g 0 = 12 (q 0 + h), f 0 = 21 (q 0 h).

1
1
w(x, t) = [q(x t) + q(x + t)] +
2
2

Zx+t
h(x0 ) dx0 .

(3.11)

xt

x ct x + ct.
, .
- O, . t > 0
O, ..
-x
, ,
O. t < 0 O
, .. ,
O.

t6

3.5


tt xx = p(x, t),

(x, 0) = q(x), t (x, 0) = h(x)

(3.12)

. ,
wtt wxx = 0,
vtt vxx = p(x, t),

w(x, 0) = q(x), wt (x, 0) = h(x)


v(x, 0) = 0, vt (x, 0) = 0.

(3.13)
(3.14)

3.

26

, . (3.13), (3.14) = w(x, t) + v(x, t)


(3.12).
(3.13) , (3.11).
(3.14),
utt uxx = 0,

u(x, t, )|t= = 0, ut (x, t, )|t= = p(x, ).

(3.15)

, , t =
. (3.11),
,
t :
x+(t
Z )

1
u(x, t, ) =
2

p(x0 , ) dx0 .

x(t )

, u
v(x, t) =

Zt

u(x, t, ) d

(3.14). , vt = u(x, t, )| =t +
Rt
u (x, t, ) d.
0 t
Rt
(3.15). vtt = ut (x, t, )| =t + 0 utt d.
p(x, t) (3.15).
x .
,
v vtt vxx =

Zt

u(x, t, ) d = p(x, t).

, (3.12)

1
1
(x, t) = [q(x t) + q(x + t)] +
2
2

Zx+t
Zt
1
h(x0 , t) dx0 +
d
2

xt

x+(t
Z )

p(x0 , ) dx0 .

x(t )

4

4.1
(3.5) ,
:
. (t, x) (, u), u ,
(x, t)

u
t
x
t
x
= 1 = t
+ x ,
= 0 = ut
+ ux ;

t
x
u
t
x

= 0 = t
+ x ,
= 1 = ut
+ vx .
u
u
u
u
u
u
t, x

t x


(t, x)

J =
.
t
x
(, u)
u
u
J 6= 0, ,
1 t
1 x
1 t
1 x
, x =
, ut =
, ux =
.
t =
J u
J u
J
J
, ,
t
t
x c2 t
t
x
u
+
= 0,

+u
= 0.
(4.1)
u
u

,
t, x.
.
.
27

4.

28

4.2
,
u = x . w , dw = c2 () d/.

2x
+ w = 0.
(4.2)
2
, . .

 2
u
+ w dt + u dx.
d t dt + x dx =
2
t +

t, x, , u.
w(). , [30]:
 2

u
(w, u) = +
+ w t ux, d = t dw (x ut) d,
2

t=
, x ut = .
w
u
(4.1)
w (/ = (c2 /)/w) , .
, (4.2).
2 2

+
= 0.
(4.3)
w2 u2 w

c .
, . , .
c2

4.3
,
(p = const),
Z 2
c d
dp
p
p
2
c =
= , w=
=
c2 = ( 1)w.
d

4.

29

,
=

2n + 3
5 7
= 3, , , . . . ,
2n + 1
3 5

n , .
n = 1, 2 . ,
n = 0, n n + 1.
n = 0 (4.3)
2w

2 0 2 0 0

+
= 0,
w2
u2
w

n. =

2 0 2 0

= 0,
2
u2

2w

(3.9) .

0 (w, u) = f ( 2w u) + g( 2w + u).
, 5.
n
2w 2 n 2 n n

+
=0
2n + 1 w2
u2
w
w, (2n+1)/(2n+3):
2w 3 n 2n + 1 3 n
2 n

+
= 0.
2n + 3 w3
2n + 3 wu2
w2
, n /w (n + 1)- .
p , 0
u u = u (2n + 3)/(2n + 1).
!
r
2n + 3

u, w =
n (u, w).
n+1
2n + 1
w
0 n.

5
2-

5.1
u = u(x, y) n = 2 ,
= f,
Lu

a uxx + 2b uxy + c uyy


Lu

f = Aux + Buy + Cu + f0 ,

(5.1)

, a, b, c, A, B, C, D, f0 x, y, Lu
,
. .
,
, ..
y
(x0 , y0 ),

(x 0 , y0 )
x

u
u
(x x0 ) +
(y y0 )
x
y
2u
1 2u
1 2u
2
(x

x
)
+
(x

x
)(y

y
)
+
(y y0 )2 + . . . .
+
0
0
0
2 x2
xy
2 y 2
u(x, y) = u(x0 , y0 ) +

, ,
. , , .
, =
(x, y), = (x, y),
J=

(, )
6= 0, .
(x, y)
30

5. 2-

31

(x, y), (x, y) .



x = x + x ,

y = y + y ,


L = a (x + x )2 + 2b (x + x ) (y + y ) + c (y + y )2 ,
,
. ,

L = a
2 + 2b + c 2
a
, b, c,
a
= a x2 + 2b x y + c y2 ,
b = a x x + b (x y + y x ) + c y y ,
c = a x2 + 2b x y + c y2 ,

(5.2)

a
= 0, u ,
.

a
= a x2 + 2b x y + c y2 = 0.

(5.3)

, D = b2 ac > 0.
D > 0, D = 0, D < 0
.
1 . D > 0
(5.3)

b D
x =
y .
(5.4)
a
, , a
= c = 0.
(5.4) ,

5. 2-

32

. b = 2Dy y /a. 2b u = f. f
, .
2b,

u = f.
f , .
, = 21 ( + ), = 21 ( ),

u u = f.
, (3.12) , .
2 . D = 0
(5.3) x = by /a. = ,
. u
u ,

u = f,
,
. (1.11):
ut = uxx .
(5.5)
,
.
2 . D < 0
(5.3)

b + i D
x =
y , = + i,
a

(x, y).
a
= a (x + ix )2 + 2b (x + ix )(y + iy ) + c (y + iy )2 =
= a (x2 x2 ) + 2b (x y x y ) + c (y2 y2 ) + 2i [ax x + b(x y + y x ) + cy y ] = 0.
(5.2),
b, c.
, , a

5. 2-

33

= c. a

b = 0, a

u + u = f,
.

(5.6)

uxx + uyy = 0.

5.1. , (5.1)
, .

5.2

n > 2
aij (x)

2u
u
= f(x) = bk (x)
+ c(x)u + f (x),
xi xj
xk

i, j, k 1 n,
. ,
2u
aij
= 0.
xi xj

yk
=
xi
xi yk

y = y(x),

a
kl

2u

= f,
yk yl

a
kl = aij

yk yl
,
xi xj

f .
Q = aij pi pj .
. , [31],
Q=

p
X
k=1

qk2

m
X

qk2 ,

k=p+1

m 6 n , .. aij , p 6 m , .. . :

5. 2-

34

1 . p = n ( ) .
2 . m < n ( ) .
3 . m = n, p < n ( ,
) .
5.1. .
5.1.
4u

2u 2u 2u
+
+
=0
x2 y 2 z 2

( ). , z ,
x0 = x cos + y sin , y 0 = x sin + y cos
x = cos x0 sin y0 , y = sin x0 + cos y0 x2 + y2 = x20 + y20 .
, .
5.2. 1 (c = 1)
u =

2u
4u = 0
t2

t = ch t0 + sh x0 ,

t0 = t ch + x sh , x0 = t sh + x ch
x = sh t0 + ch x0 t2 x2 = t20 x20

5.2.
,
. . , xuyy uxx = 0 .
5.3.
, .
1

.
.

5. 2-

35


= utt uxx uyy = 0
Lu

= (t, x, y), = (t, x, y), = (t, x, y)


t = t + t + t ,

x = x + x + x , y = y + y + y ,
2 ,
L

a
= t2 x2 y2 = 0.

, ,
(t, x, y) =
const.
.
(, , ) = (x , y , z )
2 2 2 = 0.

. . .
t = const t
, , , . , . , t, o
y
, .
x
5.4. . , (1.6)
1 = exp(iS), S ,

1
2
S
+
iS
i 4 S (S)2 = 0.
tt
t
2
c
,
 2
S
(S)2 = 0.
t
,
().
(,,)

6

6.1
6.1. , .
n = 2 l(t)
u(t) ,
x
u(x, t) = A(t)f (), =
.
(6.1)
l(t)
,
.
, .

,
, .. . u(x, t) =
A(t)g(x V t), g . . ,
, ,
. , [32, 33].

6.2



ut = uxx ,

u(x, 0) = (x).
36

6.

37

,
t t,

x x,

u u.

(6.2)

, = 2 . ,
= 1 ( - ). : = 1/2 , = 1/2 , (6.1)
u(x, t) = t1/2 f (), = xt1/2 .
,
f ()
1
1
f 00 + f 0 + f = 0.
2
2

(6.3)

t +0, x 6= 0 , f .
-
1=

u(x, t) dx =

f () d.

(6.3) . f 0 + 12 f = 0,
. : ln f = 2 /4 + const, .
 2
1
x
u(x, t) =
exp
4t
4t
6.1. l(t) t1/2 ,
A(t) t1/2 , .

6.1. -.
, , u(x, 0) = Q exp (x2 /a2 ) ,
a, , ,
l(t)  a, a
.
: u(L, t) = 0. , . , l(t)  L.

6.

38

u
2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

x
1.5

. 6.1: :
t = 0.025, t = 0.05, t = 0.1.
, ,
(a  L), a  l(t)  L.


, ,
u


u
u

u
, u(x, 0) = (x).
=
t
x
x
(6.2) , =
1/3 , = 1/3 .
u(x, t) = t1/3 f (xt1/3 )

1
1
(f f 0 )0 + f 0 + f = 0.
3
3
, , : f f 0 + 31 f = 0. f = 0,

6.

39

-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5

0.5

1.5

. 6.2: :
t = 0.02, t = 0.1, t = 0.5.
,
f = C 2 /6.

2
, 2 6 6C,
C

f () =
6
0,
2 > 6C.

C C = 61/3 /4.
6.2 .
6.1, . l(t) t1/3 .
, , .



ut + uux = uxx

. () u(x, t) = f (), = x V t,
V ,
lim u = 1,

lim u = 0.

x+

6.

40

f()
1

-2

-1

. 6.3: : = 0.01, = 0.03, = 0.1.


f , f 00 f f 0 + V f 0 = 0, :
f 0 f 2 /2 + V f = C1 . C1 = 0
x +, f f 0 . V = 1/2. 2 f 0 = f (f 1)
ln f ln(1 f ) = /2
1
 .
f () =

1 + exp
2

6.3, , .
, . : 2.

ut + 6uux + uxxx = 0
, ,
.
u(x, t) = f (x V t), . -

6.

12

41

f()

10
8
6
4
2
-2

-1

. 6.4: V : V = 3, V = 6, V = 12,
v = 24.

f 000 + 6f f 0 V f 0 = 0,

f 00 + 3f 2 V f + C1 = 0,

1 02
1
f + f 3 V f 2 + C1 f + C2 = 0.
2
2

C1 , C2 , , .. f = f 0 = f 00 = 0, .

V + V 2f
1
C3 = ln
.

V
V V 2f
C3 . C3 ,

V

.
f () =
2 ch2 2V
, solitary
wave , , , V . . 6.4 , V .

7

7.1
(1.1).

u(x1 , x2 . . . , xn ) = 1 (x1 )(x2 , . . . , xn ).
7.1.





2
d1 d2 1
, . . . = F2 x2 , . . . , xn ;
... ,
F1 x1 , 1 ,
,
,...,
;
dx1 dx21
x2
xn x22
x1 , , .
C ( ), , F1 = C. ,
x2 x3 , . . . , xn , x2 . , x3 .., xn1 . , .
.

E,
2
e2
= p
+ eEr.
H
2m
r
m, e . , e = m = ~ = 1.
42

7.

43

, 1.10 E < 0.
x=

p
cos ,

y=

p
sin ,

z=

,
2

(7.1)

0 6 , < , 0 6 < 2 .
(x, z), .. = 0,
= const
1
z
= const, . z,
0.5

= const = const.
0
= const , z.
, -0.5
.

-1
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
qi = qi (x, y, z), x

s 
 2  2
2
y
z
x
+
+
.
hi =
qi
qi
qi
,


3
1X
h
4=
,
h i=1 qi h2i qi

h = h1 h2 h3 .

s
s
p
1 +
1 +
1
h =
, h =
, h = , h = ( + ),
2



4
1 2


4=
+
.

+
2



2
4 + 2Ez = 2 , 2 = 2E.
r

(, , ) = X()Y ()(), .
00 + m2 = 0 () = eim ,

m = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

(7.2)

7.

44

7.1: , .

1
x, y
2
x = r cos , y = r sin
3 x = 21 ( 2 2 ), y =
4
x = d ch cos , y = d sh sin
m ( ) , 2- .
(7.1) , r = ( + )/2.

(X 0 )0 m2 E 2 2

+ C1 = 0,
X
4
4
4

(Y 0 )0 m2 E 2 2

+ C2 = 0,
Y
4
4
4

(7.3)

C1 + C2 = 1. E = 0 , 11.
,
.
,
. . ,
= p2 /2 1/r
H
,
= p2 /2 + r2 /2 H
[4].

4u + k 2 u = 0
(7.4)

k , . , [34]. . 44 45 , .
z.

7.2

, , .

7.

45

7.2: , . 7.1, .

1
2
3

10

x y z
x = r cos y = r sin z = z
x = 21 ( 2 2 )
y =
z=z
x = d ch cos
y = d sh sin
z=z
x = r sin cos
y = r sin sin
z = r cos
x = a sh sin cos
y = a sh sin sin
z = a ch cos
x = a ch sin cos
y = a ch sin sin
z = a sh cos
x = cos
y = sin
z = ( 2 2 )/2
x = 2c ch cos sh
y = 2c sh sin ch
c
z=q
2 (ch 2 + cos 2 ch 2)
x=
y=
z=

11

(a)(a)(a)
a(a1)
(1)(1)(1)
1a
q

x = r (b1)(b1)
1b
q
b(1)(1)
y=r
b1

z = r b

7.

46


= aij
L

+ bk
+ c,
xi xj
xk

aij , bk , c x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), Q = aij pi pj . n (x)


n D Rn
n = n n
L
S = D


u
= f,
u+
n xS

(7.5)

(7.6)

/n S,
f (x) S.
= 1, = 0 I ( )
= 0, = 1 II ( )
6= 0
III .
(7.6) f = 0, . ,
S = S1 Sm
= k , = k , f = fk ; k = 1, . . . , m. .
, .. n < 0, .1

utt = Lu,

u(x, 0) = 0 (x), ut (x, 0) = 1 (x)

(7.7)

(7.6). , .
u(x, t) = T (t)(x), t

T
L
=
= 2 ,
T

L.
T (t) = A cos t + B sin t. ,
1

. ,
n , n . , , [19].

7.

47

,
t, , :
X
u(x, t) =
cn (t)n (x) cn = n cn .
(7.8)
n

n = n2 , cn (t) = An cos n t + Bn sin n t. t = 0


X
X
0 (x) =
An n (x), 1 (x) =
n Bn n (x).
n

, ,
An , Bn (7.7).
7.1. ,

ut = Lu,

(7.9)

u(x, 0) = (x),

, , ,

cn = n cn cn = An e|n |t .
An
X
(x) =
An n (x).
n

7.2.
t. , (7.9)

Z
up (x) =
u(x, t)ept dt,
0


P pup = Lup + (x).P
up = cn n = an n , cn = an /(p
n ),
I
X an
X
dp ept
up =
n u(x, t) =
an n
,
p n
2i
p

n
n


R , , . 7.1a.
R ,
.

p = ii = i i , . 7.1b.

7.

48

i 3
i 2
i 1

(a)

2 1

(b)

-i 1
-i 2
-i 3

. 7.1: p-: (a) , (b)


.
7.3. , , n .
7.1.
+ f ut = Lu
+ f.
utt = Lu

8


8.1
. ,
, z .
a .
1 2u
42 u = 0, u(a, , t) = 0,
c2 t2
c ,
1 2
1
r + 2 2
42 =
r r r r
.
, u(r, , t) = U (r, )eit .
U (r, ) ,

42 U = k 2 U,

k2 =

2
,
c2

U (a, ) = 0.

(8.1)

U = R(r)(),
00
(rR0 )0
+ 2 = k 2 ,
rR
r
() 00 + m2 = 0, m , , (7.2).
49

8.

50

Yn

Jn
1

1
0.8

0.6

-1

0.4

-2

0.2
2

-3

-0.2

-4

-0.4

-5

. 8.1: Jn (x) Yn (x): n = 0,


n = 1, n = 2, n = 3.



1 0
m2
2
R + R + k 2 R = 0.
r
r
00

x = kr , k



1 0
m2
00
R + R + 1 2 R = 0,
(8.2)
x
x

. Jm (x) Ym (x),1 8.1.


, x = 0,
.
Jm (ka) = 0 kmn = jmn /a,, jmn n-
m.
X
u(r, , t) =
(Amn cos mn t + Bmn sin mn t) Jm (kmn r)eim ,
m,n

Amn , Bmn .
, , , . [35, 36]. .
[37].
1

, , Nm .

8.

51

8.2

, ,
R x , x 0. (8.2) x2 . ,
2 m2 = 0, = +|m|, , x 0
Ym (x).
R = xm w(x), , m 0,
w00 +

2m + 1 0
w + w = 0.
x

P
x: w =
cn xn ,

x1 :

c1 = 0

1:

2c2 + 2(2m + 1)c2 + c0 = 0

x:

6c3 + 3(2m + 1)c3 + c1 = 0

x2 :

12c4 + 4(2m + 1)c4 + c2 = 0

c2 =

c0
4(m + 1)

c4 =

c2
8(m + 2)

x, , ,
, . , .
, c0 , . c0 = 2m /m!, ,

Jm (x) =

(1)n

n=0

 x 2n+m
2

1
.
n!(m + n)!

-
Z
(z) =
tz1 et dt,

(8.3)

(8.4)

(8.3)
J (x) =

X
n=0

(1)n

 x 2n+
2

1
.
(n + 1)( + n + 1)

(8.5)

8.

52

, = m n0 = n m = 0, 1, . . . . n0 = 0,
- - .
(8.3), Jm (x) = (1)m Jm (x).


(8.3)
 
X
x 2n+m1

 
X
(1)n
(1)n
x 2n+m+1
Jm1 + Jm+1 =
+
=
2
n!(m
+
n

1)!
2
n!(m
+
n
+
1)!
n=0
n=0
 


X
m1
2n+m1
x
(1)n
x
1
+
=
(m 1)! 2
2
n!(m + n 1)!
n=1
0
  0
X
2m
(1)n 1
x 2n +m1
=
Jm .
+
0 1)!(m + n0 )!
2
(n
x
0
n =1

, n0 = n + 1. .

2m
Jm1 + Jm+1 =
Jm .
(8.6)
x
8.1.
0
Jm1 Jm+1 = 2Jm
.
(8.7)



(8.1) U (r, ) = eiky ,
.

e

ikr sin

cm eim Jm (kr).

m=

, ,
cm Jm (kr) =

exp(ikr sin im)

d
.
2

8.

53

. 8.2: s
.
x = kr, x 0,
xm
cm m
= lim
2 m! x0

im

n
 i
X
e ei
(ix)n d
.
2i
n! 2
n=0

, , n = m
( eim , eim ). 2, cm = 1.
Jm (x) =

ix sin im

d
,
2

ix sin

eim Jm (x).

(8.8)

m=

, m.
, . (8.4):
Z
1
1
es sz ds,
(8.9)
=
(z)
2i
(
) , 8.2. c 0,
, -

8.

54


1
2i

es sz dz =

Z Z
Z
h
z
z i
1
dt =
+ =
tei
et te+i
+
2i

sin z
=

tz et dt =

sin z
(1 z).

(8.9),
-

(z)(1 z) =
.
(8.10)
sin z
B-
(x)(y)
=
B(x, y) =
(x + y)

Z1

tx1 (1 t)y1 dt,


B(z, 1 z) = (z)(1 z) =

Z1

tz1 (1 t)z dt.


t = e / 1 + e
Z z
e d
,
1 + e


= i, 3i, 5i, . . . .

2i

X
ez(2n+1)i
n=0

e(2n+1)i

,
sin z

(8.10), (8.9).
. (8.5), 1/(n + + 1) .
s = xt/2. , :
 

Z
1
1
x
dt
J (x) =
exp
t
.
(8.11)
+1
2i
2
t
t

8.

55

.
. 8.2 , , z = ei
(8.8).


, k, Jm (k1 a) = Jm (k2 a) = 0 :




1 d d
m2
m2
1 d d
2
r 2 Jm (k1 r) = k1 Jm (k1 r),
r 2 Jm (k2 r) = k22 Jm (k2 r).
r dr dr
r
r dr dr
r
Jm (k2 r), Jm (k1 r)
r dr 0 a.

a
Za
dJm (k1 r)
dJm (k2 r)
2
2
r Jm (k2 r)
Jm (k1 r)
= (k2 k1 ) Jm (k1 r)Jm (k2 r)r dr.
dr
dr
0
0

, k1 6= k2 . k

. ,
Za
0



a2 0
r
r
2
Jm jmn2
r dr =
[J (jmn1 )] n1 n2 .
Jm jmn1
a
a
2 m

8.2. 0
0
Jm
(k1 a) = Jm
(k2 a) = 0.

9


9.1

, ..
2
= p + U (r),
H
2m
U r , ~ = m = 1.
4 :
1
1

1 2
1 2
.
+ 4 , 4 =
sin
+
4= 2 r
r r r r2
sin
sin2 2
, (1.10) = R(r)()():


(r2 R0 )0
1 (sin 0 )0
1 00
2 (E U (r)) = 2
.
(9.1)
+ 2
+
r R
r
sin
sin2

() 00 + m2 = 0. :
= eim , m .
() R(r).

9.2

,
(sin 0 )0
m2

= .
sin
sin2
56

(9.2)

9.

57

x = cos
m2
d
2 d
(1 x )

= .
dx
dx
1 x2
x 1.
x = 1 , x = 1 + , 0.
, 2 2 + m2 /2 = 0,
= m/2. m , +,
0. x = 1,
.
m

= (1 x2 ) 2 u(x)
u
(1 x2 )u00 2x(m + 1)u0 [m(m + 1) + ]u = 0.

(9.3)


(1 x2 )y 00 2xy 0 y = 0,
(9.4)
,

(1 x2 )y 000 4xy 00 [2 + ]y 0 = 0

(1 x2 )y IV 6xy 000 [2 + 4 + ]y 00 = 0 . . .

(1 x2 )y (m+2) 2x(m + 1)y (m+1) [m(m + 1) + ] y (m) = 0.

, m-
(9.3) u = y (m) . , (9.3)
m- . .
P
y = cn xn ,
:
1:
x:

2c2 c0 = 0 c2 = 2 c0
2 3c3 (2 + )c1 = 0 c3 =

x2 : 3 4c4 (2 + 4 + )c2 = 0 c4 =

+2
c
23 1
+4+2
c2
34

,
2 + 4 + + 2m = m(m + 1) m2 , m , (m + 1)(m + 2) m2 .
c0 6= 0, c1 = 0, .
x2 < 1, 1 + x2 + x4 + = 1/(1 x2 ),

9.

58

Pl
1
0.75

Ql
1
0.75

0.5

0.5

0.25
-1 -0.75-0.5-0.25
-0.25

0.25 0.5 0.75 1

0.25

-1 -0.75-0.5-0.25
-0.25

-0.5

-0.5

-0.75

-0.75

-1

-1

0.25 0.5 0.75 1

. 9.1: Pl (x) Ql (x):


l = 0, l = 1, l = 2, l = 3.
x 1.
, c0 = 0, c1 6= 0. , . , = l(l + 1).
, x2 1,
.
.
Pl (x) =

1 dl 2
(x 1)l .
l
l
2 l! dx

(9.5)

l = 0, 1, 2, . . . , , .
Ql (x), x = 1
.
, . 9.1.
, (9.5) (9.4).
Wl (x) = (x2 1)l . ,
(x2 1)Wl0 2lxWl = 0.
l + 1 :

(x2 1)Wl00 + (2 2l)xWl0 2lWl = 0


(x2 1)Wl000 + (4 2l)xWl00 + (2 4l)Wl0 = 0

(x2 1)WlIV + (6 2l)xWl000 + (4 + 2 6l)Wl00 = 0 . . .


(l+2)

(1 x2 )Wl

(l+1)

+ 2xWl

(l)

l(l + 1)Wl

= 0.

(l)

, Wl
(9.4) (9.5) .

9.

59

l=0

l=1

l=2

m=0

m=1

m=2

. 9.2: |Ylm (, )| l = 0, 1, 2, 0 6 m 6 l.

9.

60

(9.3),
Plm (x)

dm
Pl (x),
= (1 x )
dxm
2

m
2

m 0.

, 4 ,
4 Ylm (, ) = l(l + 1)Ylm (, ),
.
|m|

Ylm (, ) = Clm eim Pl (cos ),


Cml , ,

Z

Ylm
(, )Yl0 m0 (, ) sin d d = ll0 mm0 .
l 6 2
9.2. l = 0 , l
. m = l . , |Ylm |,
-,
. .
[38],
.
9.1. Clm .

9.3

(9.1) U = 0,


2 0
l(l + 1)
00
2
R = 0.
(9.6)
R + R + k
r
r2
x = kr (r) = R(r)r.



l(l + 1)
00
l = 0,
l + 1
r2

9.

61

jl
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
2

-0.2

. 9.3: jl (x): l = 0,
l = 1, l = 2, l = 3.
l = 0, 1, . . . . l = 0 :
0 = sin x, R = cos x/x
x = 0.

R = u(x)/ x
"
 #
1 2
l
+
1
2
u00 + u0 + 1
u = 0.
x
x2
(8.2), u = Jl+1/2 (x). l = 0, J1/2
r
2
sin x.
(9.7)
J 1 (x) =
2
x
, x 0 .
, l + 1/2 x. (8.6) (8.7),


d
x J .
J+1 = x
dx


2 1
J
1 d
1/2 d 1/2
5/2
2
J 3 = x
x
J1 , J5 = x
,...
2
2
2
dx
x dx x1/2
r

l
2 l+1/2 1 d
sin x
l
Jl+ 1 = (1)
x
.
2

x dx
x
,
.
r

l
1 d
sin x

l
jl =
Jl+ 1 , jl = x
.
2
2x
x dx
x
. 9.3.

10


, . , ,
, ..
, ,
. , , , ,
.. , , , . .
. ,
. ,
.

10.1


a(z), b(z), c(z)
a(z)w00 + b(z)w0 + c(z)w = 0
, .
w00 + p(z)w0 + q(z)w = 0,

62

(10.1)

10.

63

p(z) q(z) . ,
w(z) = (z)u(z).
,

 00

 0
0

0
00
+ p + q u = 0.
u + 2 +p u +

,
R
. , = exp( 21 p dz).

u00 + I(z)u = 0,

I(z) = q

p2 p0

4
2

, I(z) .

10.2

10.1. z = z0
(10.1), p(z), q(z) .
10.1. z0 (10.1), , ,
.
. , [26, 29, 39]. ,
z0 = 0
w00 + I(z)w = 0,

w(0) = c0 , w0 (0) = c1 .

(10.2)

, ,

w = c0 + c1 z +

Zz

(z z 0 )I(z 0 )w(z 0 ) dz 0 .


wn+1 (z) = c0 + c1 z +

Zz
0

(z z 0 )I(z 0 )wn (z 0 ) dz 0 .

10.

64

M = max I(z),
|z|<R

m = max w0 (z),
|z|<R

R , I(z),
w0 = c0 + c1 z.
wn+1 (z) wn (z) =

Zz

(z z 0 )I(z 0 ) (wn (z 0 ) wn1 (z 0 )) dz 0 .

, . ,

z

Z

Z


2


|w1 w0 | 6 mM d 6 mM
0 d0 = mM ,
2
0


0
 2 n
4

1
n
2
, . . . , |wn wn1 | 6 mM
,
|w2 w1 | 6 mM
24
2
n!
= |z| < R. , wn = w0 + (w1 w0 ) + (w2 w1 ) + + (wn wn1 ),
. ,

n
n 
X
M 2
1
M 2
|wn | 6 m
6 m exp
.
2
n!
2
k=0

, wn , ,
, , . , (10.2) .
, (10.2) w = c0 +
c1 z + . . . , I(z) = a0 + a1 z + . . . . ,
1:

2c2 + a0 c0 = 0 c2 = 21 a0 c0

z:

6c3 + a0 c1 + a1 c0 = 0 c3 = 61 (a0 c1 + a1 c0 )

z2

1
12c4 + a0 c2 + a1 c1 + a2 c0 = 0 c4 = 12
(a0 c2 + a1 c1 + a2 c0 )

, ,
.

10.

65

z0

z1

. 10.1: .

10.3

10.2. z0 (10.1),
z = z0 p(z) q(z).
,
. D z0 , . z1 D
(. 10.1) .
z2
.
z . , .
. .
, w1
w2 . ,
(10.1)
w100 + pw10 + qw1 = 0,

w200 + pw20 + qw2 = 0.

w2 , w1 ,


w1 w2
0

.
+ p = 0, = 0
w1 w20
(z)

z
Z
(z) = (z1 ) exp p(z 0 ) dz 0 .
z1

10.

66

, (z) 6= 0, (z1 ) 6= 0.
, , . , w1,2
+
w1,2
.
,

w1+ = a11 w1 + a12 w2 , w2+ = a21 w1 + a22 w2 .


, w1,2 ,
w1+ = a11 w1 + a12 w2 = w1 ,

w2+ = a21 w1 + a22 w2 = w2 .

a12
, A = ( aa11
21 a22 ) ,
.

: A A 01 02 , A ( 0 1 ). .
1 . w1,2 1,2 . f (z) = z , :
f + = f e2i . , 0 , .

1
1,2 =
ln 1,2 .
2i
, z0 = 0 (
),
.

w1,2 = z

1,2

cn(1,2) z n ,

(10.3)

n=
(1,2)

cn .
2 .
w1+ = w1 + w2 ,

w2 = w2 .

w2 ,
(10.3) , .
, ,
1
w1
u+ = u + , u
.

w2

10.

67

f (z) = ln z, f + = f + 2i. , 1/2i, u(z) ln z/2i


. , u

X
w1
ln z
+
=
cn z n
w2
2i n=

(10.4)

.
10.3. (10.3) (10.4) , z0 (10.1).
, z0 .

10.4

: , ? .
10.2. . z0
(10.1) , p(z) z = z0
, q(z) .
z0 = 0
p0
q0
w00 + w0 + 2 w = 0,
(10.5)
z
z
p0 , q0 . , w(z)
w = z
2 + (p0 1) + q0 = 0,
.
(10.5) w = z u(z), u
, = 1 2 .
, u = const , z = 0
. ,
,
. q0 = 0,
.

10.

68

,
w1,2 = z 1,2 u1,2 (z).
p(z) p = (ln )0 = (1 + 2 1)/z ,
. q(z) q = w00 /w
pw0 /w .
10.1.
. t = 1/z t =
0.


2 p(1/t)
q(1/t)
w = 0.

w +
w +
2
t
t
t4
, z = p(z)
, q(z)
.

10.5

, , . , ( )
.
10.4. , .
, 10.2
z = k p, q:

X Ak
X  Bk
Ck
p(z) =
+
, q(z) =
2
z

(z

z k
k
k)
k
k
Ak , Bk , Ck ,
P
Ck : k Ck = 0.
1. . 1 z
1/(z 1 ), A1 = B1 = C1 = 0 w00 = 0.
w(z) = c0 + c1 z.

2. . 1 0, 2
z (z 1 )/(z 2 ), C0 = 0 w00 +
A0 0
w + Bz20 w = 0. , = ln z
z
.

10.

69

3. . 1 0, 2 1, 3 : z (z 1 )(2 3 )/(z 3 )(2 1 ).


,
.
4. . -
, .
, , .

. C
, .
, , , .

11

11.1

z(1 z)w00 + [ ( + + 1)z] w0 w = 0.

(11.1)

z = 0, 1, . . , c0 = 1
, ()
w = 2 F1 (, ; ; z) = 1 +

z
( + 1)( + 1) z 2
+
+ .
1!
( + 1)
2!

(11.2)

, , , z . , .
, .
, . , .
.
[38].
1. |z| < 1 .
2. , : 2 F1 (, ; ; z) = 2 F1 (, ; ; z).
3. , . = n ,
(11.2)
w = z n+1 2 F1 ( + n + 1, + n + 1; n + 2; z).
70

11.

71

w(z) = z u(z), , .

11.2


( ) ,
1 F1 (; ; z) = lim

z
z
( + 1) z 2
F
(,
;
;
)
=
1
+
+
+ .
2 1

1! ( + 1) 2!

(11.3)

(11.1) . z z/
z = 1 z = .
.
zw00 + ( z)w0 w = 0.
(11.4)
1. . (11.3)
.
2. (11.4) : z = 0
1 = 0, 2 = 1 z =
. - . w ez .
3. w(z) = ez u(z) , z,
z
1 F1 (; ; z) = e 1 F1 ( ; ; z).
4. w(z) = z u(z) , ,
w2 (z) = z 1 1 F1 ( + 1; 2 ; z).

11.

11.3

72


(1 x2 )u00 2xu0 u = 0

(9.4) x = 1, . x = 1 p(z), q(z)


, x = p(x) , q(x)
. ,
, .

00
0
z = (x + 1)/2,
q z(z 1)u + (2z 1)u + u = 0. -

(11.1), 1,2 = 21 14 ,
, . 9
l, l = 0, 1, 2, = l(l + 1).



x2 y 00 + xy 0 + (x2 2 )y = 0
x = 0 p(x) , q(x) . x = p , q :
q(x) 1, x . . .
y = x , 1,2 = . y 00 + y = 0, y1,2 = exp(ix).
y = x exp(ix)u(x).
xu00 + [(2 + 1) + 2ix] u0 + i(2 + 1)u = 0,
2ix = z. (11.4), = + 21 , =
2 + 1


1
ix
J (x) = Cx e 1 F1 + ; 2 + 1; 2ix .
2
= 2, .

11.

73


= p2 /2m + m 2 x2 /2
H
00 x2 = k 2 ,

k 2 = 2E, ~ = m = = 1

(11.5)

.
, .
x = . x = 0 , = 0, 1. , , .
= exp(x ), . (11.5),
2 2 x22 + ( 1)x2 x2 = k 2 .
x x2 , , > 0.
= 2, = 21 .
, x .
1 . . = exp(x2 /2)u(x)
u00 2xu0 + (k 2 1)u = 0,
.
x , t = x2 .



1
k2 1
t
u+
t u +
u = 0,
2
4

t.
, u = 1 F1 ((1 k 2 )/4; 1/2; x2 ) ,
x exp(x2 ). exp(x2 /2)
. k, = n ,
kn2 = 4n + 1. En = 2n + 21 .
2 . . = x exp(x2 /2)u(x)
x2 = t


3
k2 3
t u +
u = 0,
t
u+
2
4

11.

74

n
0.6
0.4
0.2
-3

-2

-1

-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

. 11.1: n (x): n = 0,
n = 1, n = 2, n = 3.
u = 1 F1 ((3 k 2 )/4; 3/2; x2 ). ,
kn2 = 4n+3 (En = 2n+1+ 21 ). 1 F1 (n; 12 ; x2 ), x 1 F1 (n; 32 ; x2 )
.
Hn (x) = (1)n ex

dn x2
e .
dxn

11.1. .

H = p2 /2 1/r ( , e = ~ = m = 1). , :


2
4+
= 2 , = R(r)Ylm (, ).
r

2
R + R0
r
00


l(l + 1) 2
2
+ R=0
r2
r

(11.4), .
r 0 R = r , 1 = l, 2 = l 1. , . r
R00 2 R = 0, R = exp(r), .
, R = rl er u(r)

ru00 + 2(l + 1 r)u0 2(l 1 + )u = 0.

11.

75

Rnl
0.15
0.1
0.05
5

10

15

20

-0.05

. 11.2: Rnl (r) n = 3:


l = 0, l = 1, l = 2.
z = 2r


1
u = 1 F1 l + 1 ; 2l + 2; 2r .

, nr , nr = 0, 1, 2, . . . , En = 1/2n2 , n = nr + l + 1 , nr .

( ) = n, n = 0, 1, . . .
xy 00 + ( + 1 x)y 0 + ny = 0

(11.6)

, y = Ln . = 0 .

2l+1
Rnl (r) = Cnl rl er Lnl1
(2r), 0 6 l < n, Cnl , , [5].
. 11.2.
11.1. E = 0 (7.3) , .

11.4

( = 0),
. (11.6),
d
p,
dx

d
,
dp

11.

76

d
d 2
p w + pw + pw + nw = 0 p(1 p)w0 + (n + 1 p)w = 0,
dp
dp

w(p) y(x). , w = (1p)n /pn+1 .


I
n
dp px (1 p)n
1 dn
px (1 p)
y(x) =
e
=
Res
e
=
[(1 p)n epx ]p=0 ,
p=0
2i
pn+1
pn+1
n! dpn
, p = 0 . , q = px, z = x q:


(1)n dn n xz
xn dn 
q n q
=
.
y(x) =
e
1
z e
n! dq n
x
n! dz n
q=0
z=x

exp x ,
z x .
(1)n :

ex dn
Ln (x) =
xn ex .
n
n! dx
11.2.

hx

e 1h
F (x, h) =
h Ln (x) =
.
1h
n=0
n

11.3. ,
x2 y 00 + (ax + b)y 0 + (Ax2 + Bx + C)y = 0
a, b, A, B, C.

12

, .
, . ,
, ( )
. ,
, , .
, (., , [4046]), ,
[47] .

12.1

12.1.
f (z) =

X
n=0

cn (z z0 )n

f (z) z z0 ,
RN = f (z)

N
X
n=0

lim

zz0

cn (z z0 )n = O (z z0 )N
RN
= 0.
(z z0 )N


lim RN = 0,

77

12.

78

,
. t = 1/z 0.
.
1 , . , ,
cn
c0 = lim f (z),
zz0

c1 = lim

zz0

f (z) c0
,
z z0

c2 = lim

zz0

f (z) c0 c1 (z z0 )
,....
(z z0 )2

2 . , exp(1/z) 0 z +0 ( ).1 , cn = lim z n exp(1/z) = 0.


3 , , , . f (x) =
ex sin ex . x +
, 2 , f 0 (x) = f (x) +
cos exp x . 1
, c0 .

12.2


F () =

Zb

A(t)eS(t) dt,

+,

(12.1)

A(t), S(t) , , , .
, ,
S(t).
1 S 0 (t) 6= 0, x [a, b], , , t = a,
a. . 12.1 (a) , 1/,
.
1

, =.

12.

(a)

0.8

0.8
0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2
0.4

0.6

0.8

(b)

0.6

0.2

79

t0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

. 12.1: (a) 1 , S = 3t + t3 . = 1, 3, 10
(, , )
a = 0. (b) 2 , S = (t 1/2)2 . = 10, 30, 100
t0 = 0.5.
2 S 0 (t0 ) = 0, t0
(a, b), S 00 (t0 ) < 0,

1
S(t) = S(t0 ) + S 00 (t0 )(t t0 )2
(12.2)
2
, |tt0 | . 1/1/2 . . 12.1 (b)
, , t0 .
1
b Z b 
0
Zb
A(t)
A(t)eS(t)
deS(t)

=
eS(t) dt.
F () = A(t) 0

0
0
S (t)
S (t) a
S (t)
a

1/. , S(a) > S(b), S 0 (t) 6= 0,


F

A(a)eS(a)
.
S 0 (a)

(12.3)

1/, .
2 S(t) (12.2), t0 .


Z
1 00
2
d,
exp S(t0 ) + S (t0 )
F () = A(t0 )
2

12.

80

t t0 = , . S 00 (t0 ) < 0,
.
s
2
A(t0 )eS(t0 ) ,
(12.4)
F
S 00 (t0 )
.. 1/1/2 , .
12.1.
F (a) =

Z
0


a
exp x2
dx. a +
x

, 1/x
x +0. (12.1), x = t, dx = dt. S = 2 (t2 + a/3 t). = (a/2)1/3 S(t) = t2 2/t, 2
= 2 .
S(t), S(t)
S 0 (t) = 2t +

2
= 0 t0 = 1,
t2

S(t0 ) = 3,

S 00 (t0 ) = 6

(12.4)
F (a)

3( a2 )2/3
e
.
3

, a = 0,
F (0) =
F (0) / 3.

/2, -

12.2. -
(x + 1) =

x e d,

x +

(12.1), x = ex ln = xt. d = x dt, S(t) = t + ln t, = x.


t0 = 1, S(t0 ) = S 00 (t0 ) = 1. (12.4)
 x x

,
(x + 1) = 2x
e

x . n! = (n + 1). x = 2
2! 1.919.

12.

0.5

0.5

cos(S)

cos(S)

-0.5

81

-0.5

(a)

t0

(b)

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

. 12.2: (a) 1 , S = t 4t2 . = 1, 3, 10


(, , )
a = 0.5, b = 1.5.
- eiS(t) . (b) 2 , S = t2 . = 10, 30, 100 t0 = 0. .

12.3


F () =

Zb

A(t)eiS(t) dt,

+,

(12.5)

A(t), S(t) , , S(t) (a, b).


1 2 12.2. , 1
1 , 2 1/2 .
1
F () =

Zb
a



deiS(t)
1 A(b)eiS(b) A(a)eiS(a)
A(t)
.

iS 0 (t)
i
S 0 (b)
S 0 (a)

2 (12.2) ,

Z
00
2
iS(t0 )
eiS (t0 ) /2 d.
F () = A(t0 )e

12.

82


= sei , d = ei ds, , s

. + S 00 > 0
00 2
eiS
@@
@@
@@
@@
@
@
. ,
@
@@
@@
@@
@@
@
@
@@
@@
@@
@@
, I III S 00 (t0 ) > 0
@
@
@
@
@@
@@@@
II IV S 00 (t0 ) < 0.
@
@
@@
@
@@
@
@
@@
@
@@
= /4, S 00 > 0
00
@@
@
@@
@@
@@
 = /4, S < 0 ( @
@
@@
@@
@@
@@

@
 ),
@@
@@
@
@@
@@
@
@
@
@

@@ S 00 < 0
@@@@
@
@
@
@@
@
@@
@
@
@@
@@
s
@@
@@
@@
@@
@
Z
@
@@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
2 i/4
00
2
@ = sei/4 :
@@
e|S |s /2 ds ei/4 =
e ,
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@@@ @
|S 00 |
@
@
@
@
@
@
@@@@@

R
@@
@@
@@
@
@@
s
Z
2 i/4
00
2
e
.
= sei/4 :
e|S |s /2 ds ei/4 =
|S 00 |


@
@@
@@
@@
@@

@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@
@@
@
@
@@
@
@@
@@
@
@
@
@@@@
@@
@
@
@
@
@@
@@
@
@@
@
@@


s
2
iS(t0 )+i 4 sgnS 00 (t0 )
F () =
A(t
)e
,
0
|S 00 (t0 )|

(12.6)

sgnS 00 (t0 ) .
12.1. , .
, .. S 00 (t0 ) = 0, S 000 (t0 ) = 0, . . . , S (n1) (t0 ) = 0, S (n) (t0 ) 6=
0, . ,
-, F
1/n .
, .
12.3 ( ). x ,

1
Jm (x) =
2

eix sin im d.

, , m . S() = sin .

S 0 = cos = 0 1,2 = ,
2

S(/2) = 1, S 00 (/2) = 1.

12.

83

(12.6)
, , = +/2,
r
r

2

1 2 ixim i
2
4 + .. =
e
cos x m
Jm (x) =
, x +.
2 x
x
2
4

12.4 ( ).
1
Ai(x) =
2

3 /3+xt)

ei(t

dt,

x .

t = , dt = d : S = 3 ( 3 /3 |x| /2 ) ,
, = |x|1/2 . S( ) = 3 /3 , = 3 . , S 0 = 2 1 = 0 1,2 = 1, S(1) =
2/3, S 00 (1) = 2.


1
2 3/2
Ai(x) =
, x .
cos
|x|
3
4
|x|1/4
x
. ,

|x|.

13

13.1

( , )

Z
F () = eS(z) dz, +,
(13.1)

S , , .
,

.
.
,
S(z) = u(z) + iv(z), z = x + iy. S(z) ,
u(x, y) v(x, y)
u
v
=
,
x
y

u
v
= ,
y
x

2v 2v
2u 2u
+
=
+
= 0,
x2 y 2
x2 y 2

u v u v
+
= 0.
x x y y

4u = 4v = u v = 0.
. -, z0 , S 0 (z0 ) = 0,
, , uxx > 0,
, uyy < 0.
, .

84

13.

85


u = u(x, y) z0 =
0 ,

0.4

0.2

1
S(z) S(z0 ) + S 00 (z0 )(z z0 )2 .
(13.2)
2
-0.2
, .. -0.4
u, . -0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
, ,
, . u(x, y)
.
v(x, y) , . , v u.
.
0

13.2

(13.1) .
1 . .
2 . .
. ,
, F ():
S
e = eu(z) 6 max eu(z) ,
(13.3)
z

z, .
, , . () , . S(z), .. .
, , . .
, (13.3) . ,
= ,
|exp S| 6 min max exp u(z).
z

(13.4)

13.

86

. . , , , , . , , ,
v S(z) , , u . , ,
. , u.
, . ,
. (13.2), .
S 00 (z0 ) = ei ,

z z0 = sei .

1
S(z) S(z0 ) = s2 ei+2i .
2
, S(z)S(z0 )
s, .. s2 /2. ,
1, cos( + 2) = 1,


.
(13.5)
2
, sin( + 2) = 0,
1,2 =

Im (S(z) S(z0 )) = 0 Im S(z) = Im S(z0 ).

.

s
2
eS(z0 )+i .
(13.6)
F ()
|S 00 (z0 )|
1,2 (13.5),
.
13.1. (13.1) A(z). , z0 . A(z)
, . ,
, I, .

13.

87

2 y

1 z
1

-3

-2

-2

-1

-4
-4

-2

-1

z2

-2
. 13.1: S = i(z 3 /3 + z). u(x, y). u(x, y) = const. , .
13.2. , ,
(13.6) .
13.3. S ,
, , . . [47], :
, , .

13.3

13.1 ( p +).

1
Ai(p) =
2

ei(t

) dt,

3 /3+pt

p +.


t = p1/2 z,

dt = p1/2 dz,

S = i(z 3 /3 + z),

= p3/2 .

13.

88

,
S 0 = i(z 2 + 1) = 0 z1,2 = i,

2
S(i) = ,
3

S 00 (i) = 2.

, ,
, , .. Im S(z) =
Im S(z1,2 ) :

 3
x3
x + 3ix2 y 3xy 2 iy 3
+ x + iy =
xy 2 + x = 0.
v(x, y) = Im S = Im i
3
3
x2 /3 y 2 = 1 ,
/6, x = 0, . 13.1.
.
z = Rei R , . (0, /3) (2/3, ) (4/3, 5/3).
, , , z1 = i. , , , .
, . , .
(13.6), 1,2 =
0, = 0,
2 3/2

e 3 p
Ai(p) 1/4 .
2 p

(13.7)

,
.
13.2 ( p ).
1
Ai(p) =
2

ei(t

) dt,

3 /3pt

p +,

, 12.4. t = p1/2 z S(z) = i(z 3 /3 z) z.


|z| , , .
2
S 0 = i(z 2 1) = 0 z1,2 = 1, S(1) = i, S 00 (i) = 2i.
3

13.

89

-2

-4
-4

-2

-3

-2

-1 2
z2

1 1

z1

-1

-2

-3
. 13.2: S = i(z 3 /3 z): v(x, y) = 2/3 ( ) v(x, y) = +2/3 (). u(x, y) = const.
, .
Im S(z) = Im S(z1 ) :
 3

x3
2
x + 3ix2 y 3xy 2 iy 3
v(x, y) = Im S = Im i
x iy =
xy 2 x = .
3
3
3

,
r
2
x2
y=
1+ .
3x
3
13.2 v = 2/3. , 1 2 . ,
= /4 z1 = 1 = 3/4 z2 = 1. , :


1
2 3/2
.
(13.8)
Ai(p) 1/4 cos
p
3
4
p

13.

90

y
1

z1

-1

-0.5

0.5

-1

-2
-2

-1

-1

z2

. 13.3: S = ln(z 2 1) ln(z cos ), = /3.


u(x, y) = const.
13.3 ( ).
, l + 1
Z
1 dl 2
1
dz (z 2 1)l
l
Pl () = l
(

1)
=
.
2 l! d l
2i
2l (z )l+1

z = cos .
A(z) = (z )1
S(z) = ln

z2 1
.
z cos

l  1 .
S0 =

2z
1
cos2 1 = ei ,

=
0

z
=
cos

1,2
2
z 1 z cos
ei
.
S(ei ) = ln 2ei = ln 2 + i, S 00 (ei ) =
i sin

13.

91

S 00 (z1 ) = ei =
/2. 1 = 3/4 + /2, 2 = /4 + /2. . 13.3 , 1 .

s



2
Pl (cos )
.
cos l +
l| sin |
2 4
, ,
, z = cos .
, 0, :


1


||,  .
2
l

0 . 0 z1,2 = ei . , ,
sin d.
0
(9.2) m = 0 :
1 d
du
sin
= l(l + 1)u.
sin d
d
ctg 1 , l(l + 1) (l + 1/2)2 l  1.

2

1
d2 u 1 du
u = 0.
+
+ l+
d2 d
2

, l  1

r


1

2
cos (l + )
u() = J0 ((l + 1/2))
.
l
2
4

, 1/l   1, .
, 0, : Pl (1) = 1, Pl (1) = (1)l .

14

. ,
  1,
 = 0 , .
. , .
,

sin ((1 + )t) = sin t + t cos t

(t)2
sin t + . . . .
2!

t 1, t 1/
. ,
, .
.
. . [25, .133], [48, .365].
x = v(x), x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) T 1.

x = v(x) + v1 (x),


 .
x(t), t 1/
92

14.

93

14.1
I,
I = 0,

(14.1)

= (I).

I , .
I = g(I, ),

= (I) + f (I, ),

f, g v1 (x).
(14.2)
R
g(J, ) d

R
J = G(J), G(J) =
.
d

(14.2)

(14.3)

J (14.2). ,
(14.3) , .
14.1. n = 1, I, , .
I = (a + b sin ),

= ,

I(0) = I0 ,

(0) = 0.

I = 0, = I(t) = I0 , (t) = t.

I(t) = at + b

Zt

sin(t0 ) dt0 + I0 = at +

b
(1 cos t) + I0 .



J =
2

Z2
(a + b sin ) d = a
0

. J(t) = I0 + at ,

|J(t) I(t)| =

b
|1 cos t| 6 const .

14.

94

n =
1.
T = 2/
1
I = I(t) I(0) = T
T

ZT

1
g(I, (t)) dt = T
2

Z2

g(I, ) d = T G(I).

: dt =
d/ = d/ I J. J

J
= G(J),
t
. , (14.3).

. , n = 1 0 6 6 2. n > 1
(14.1), (14.2), (14.3) , ,
I, I = (I1 , . . . , In ), = (1 , . . . , n ). = (1 (I), . . . , n (I)), = (1 , . . . , n ).
n = 2 (1 , 2 )

1 = 1 t + 1 (0),

2 = 2 t + 2 (0),

0 6 1 6 2,

0 6 2 6 2.

1 /2 = p/q, p, q Z .
,
p, q. . p, q

.
14.1 .
, , . AA . A
, . , 1 /2 = 0/1, .
14.2. , .

14.

95

. 14.1: (1 , 2 ) : 1 /2 = 0/1.
I,
t 1/ .
1 = I1 ,

2 = 1,

I1 = ,

I2 =  cos 1 .


I1 = I1 (0),

I2 = I2 (0),

1 = I1 (0)t + 1 (0),

2 = t + 2 (0).

1 /2 = I1 (0), I1 (0) = 0, 1, 2, . . . . I1 (0) = 0 ( 14.1).



J1 = , J2 = 0
J1 = t, J2 = const. ,
, , I2 . ,
t2
1 =  + 1 (0) I2 = 
2

I1 = t,

cos


t2
cos  + 1 (0) dt =
2


2
+ 1 (0) d =  (cos 1 (0) sin 1 (0)) .
2

I2 J2 = const, ,

|J2 I2 | 6 const .

, ,
1/2 0  0.
.

14.

96

14.2
, I, .
,
x + 02 x = 02 F (x, x),

F - , (, ),  . t 0 t,
x + x = F (x, x).

z = x+ix,

,
z = x + i
x = x + i(x + F ) = i(x + ix)
+ iF = iz + iF.
z = Iei
, (14.2)
F
cos .
(14.4)
I
(14.3) G(J),
I = F sin ,

J = G(J),

1
G(J) =
2

Z2

= 1 + 

F (J cos , J sin ) sin d = hF (J cos , J sin ) sin i ,

(14.5)
. - .

14.3
14.3 ().
F (x, x)
= cos t. (
) (14.4): (t) = t + 0 , 0
.
G(J) = hcos(0 ) sin i = h(cos 0 cos + sin 0 sin ) sin i =

1
sin 0 .
2

J =  sin 0 /2 : J(t) = J(0) + t sin 0 /2. J, , , 0 6= 0, .

14.

97

x(t)
1

20

40

60

80

100

t
-1
-2

. 14.2: : x(0) =
0, x(0)

= 1,  = 0.05.
14.4 ( ).
x + 02 (1 +  sin t) x = 0
F (x, x)
= x sin t/0 .
= 20 ,
G(J) = hJ cos sin 2( 0 ) sin i =
1
= J hcos sin (sin 20 cos 2 cos 20 sin 2)i = J cos 20 ;
4


cos
2
0
t
J J = J(0)e , = cos 20 .
J =
4
4
|0 | < /4, > 0 . , F F 2 x,
J = ( )J. :
> .
14.5 ( ).
x + x = (1 x2 )x
,
. F =
x(1
x2 ), (14.5)


1
1

G(J) = J sin 1 J 2 cos2 sin = J J 3 J = J(4 J 2 ).
2
8
8

, , J . , J = 0

14.

98

, J = 2 ( ). , , ,
, . 14.2.

15

. , . , , . [49]. [50]. [51], . [42].

15.1


00 + k 2 = 0,

k2 =

2m
(E U )
~2

(15.1)

E U (x) ,
k .
U(x)

. 15.1: U x.
99

15.

100

k ~ 0, . , , ,
w(x) = 0 /. w, (15.1)
w0 + k 2 (x) + w2 = 0.
(15.2)
1/k:
w = w0 + w1 + w2 + . . . ,
w0 k, w1 1, w2 1/k, .. (15.2)
, w0 = ik, w1 = k 0 /2k .. , k 0 /k  k, ..
= 2/k d/dk  1.
Z
eiS
= , S = k(x) dx.
(15.3)
k
, k 2 = 0, .. . 15.1
, . 4 , (E > U ) (E < U ).
, .
, , , [4].
,
.

15.2


U(x)

x0 ( q = 1) , k(x0 ) =
0, U 0 (x0 ) 6= 0. k 2 (x) 2mU 0 (x0 )(x
x0 )/~2 , x ,
x z,
00 + cz = 0,

(15.4)

15.

101

+
0

. 15.2: () ()
.
c . .
, ,
= A+ + B ,

= z 1/4 eiS ,

S = Cz 3/2 ,

C = 2 c/3, A, B . , z. , (0, ),
.
. 15.2
.
, S. , Im S = 0, .
, Re S = 0, .
, , . |z| ( ),
(). , ,
,
.

15.

102

.
, = |z|, = arg z,


3
3
3/2 3i/2
3/2
+ sin
.
S = C e
= C
cos
2
2
= 0, 2/3, =
/3, . q (U 0 = U 00 = = 0, U (q) 6=
0) q + 2 ,
2/(q + 2). .
. . , .
: 12 | |  |+ |, , , 23 |+ |  | |, 31 | |  |+ |. 15.2
.
,
. , , .
, . , ,
,
, .
, .
.
12 = A1 + +B1 , 23 = A2 + +
B2 , 31 = A3 + + B3 .

 
 
 
 
 
 
A3
A1
A2
A3
A1
A2
.
= 13
,
= 32
,
= 21
B3
B1
B2
B3
B1
B2

1. .
2. ,
.
3.
, .

15.

103

1, 2 , 3
1, 2. . , B2 = B1
( 1). A2 23
A2 = A1 +B1 , , A1 B1 = 0 ( 2). ,
.







1
1 0
1
21 =
, 32 =
, 13 =
.
(15.5)
0 1
1
0 1
.
.
z ze2i , i: z 1/4 z 1/4 ei/2 . :
z 3/2 z 3/2 e3i = z 3/2 . i
+ i ,

i+ .




0 i
13 32 21 =
.
i 0
(15.5), 4 , = i.
15.1. , q

.
(15.6)
= 2i cos
q+2

1. (q = 0):

z
-

00 2 = 0, = const 6= 0.

+ = ez , = ez ,
Re z = 0. , + , .
.
arg z . 1 = A1 + + B1 , : 2 = A2 + + B2 .





1
1 0
21 =
, 12 =
0 1
1

15.

104

,
 


1 0
1

=
= 0.
0 1
1 + 2

(15.6) .
2. (q = 1):
00 z = 0.

, , z = x < 0, . 15.2
180 . (13.7)

2 3/2

e 3 z
Ai(z) 1/4 ,
2 z

|z| +,

| arg z| <

2
.
3

,
z = |x| , ,
, (13.7)




ei/4
2 3/2 3i/2
2 3/2 3i/2
ei/4
Ai(z)
exp |x| e
exp
|x| e
+i
=
3
3
2 |x|1/4
2 |x|1/4





2 3/2
2 3/2
1
i|x|
exp
+ exp i|x|
=
=
3
3
2 |x|1/4


1
2 3/2
=
, |x| .
cos
|x|
3
4
|x|1/4

, , (13.8) 12.4.
:
 Z

Z

A

A
exp k(x) dx 1/2 cos
k(x) dx
.
2k 1/2
k
4

, -:
. , z zei , z 3/2 z 3/2 e3i/2 = iz 3/2 ,






2 3/2
1
2 3/2
i|x| i
+ exp i|x| + i
.
Ai(x)
exp
3
4
3
4
2 |x|1/4

.
, . :
.

15.

105

U(x)

B +
A -

B +
A -

E
a

bx

. 15.3: . , .

15.3

1. , ,
U 0.
R

ei k(x ) dx
= p
k(x)

eik0 |x| + e+ik0 |x| , k0 =


p
2mE/~2 . 15.3 a, b.
(x ) = A + B+ , (x +) = A0 + B 0 + .
, A0 = 0. R T
0 2
2
B
B
R = , T = .
A
A

. (. 15.1) .
, q = 1, ..
120 . ,
|z|  b a, 90 ,
q = 2. q = 2

2
= z 1/2 eiz .

15.

106

b
5

. 15.4: .
.
1, .
12 ,


1
21 =
.
0 1
23 , , ,
. ,
b a.



exp i

a
0

k(x ) dx

= e

Zb r

2m
(U (x) E) dx,
~2

. . ,



e
0
.
32 =
0 e
34 + .


1 0
43 =
.
1

15.

107




e
e
41 = 43 32 21 =
.
e 2 e + e

1, 41 . , :
z 1/2 z 1/2 ei ,


1 0
2
.
41 =
0 1

= i 1 + e2 .



1

,
41 = e
1
: A0 = e (A + B), B 0 = e (A B). A0 = 0
B/A = 1/ B 0 /A = e ( + 1/),

1
1
R=
,
T
=
.
1 + e2
1 + e+2
2. , (. 15.3), [a, b],
15.4 .

ei ,
I
Zb r
2m
x

=
k(z)
dz
=
2
(E U (x)) dx.
a
0
b
~2

U(x)
E

, = 2n + .
.
,

1 .
.

2 . .
3 . .

A.1

-
(x) =

dz z

1
1
=
(z)
2i

x1 z

e ,

dt tz et ,

. A.1.
(x + 1) = x (x),

A.2

(x)(1 x) =

.
sin x

2 F1
2 F1 (a, b; c; x):
h
i
x(1 x) y 00 + c (a + b + 1)x y 0 ab y = 0.
x = 0:
2 F1 (a, b; c; x)

=1+

ab x
a(a + 1)b(b + 1) x2
+
+ ...
c 1!
c(c + 1)
2!

:
2 F1 (a, b; c; x)

= (1 x)

2 F1

x
c a, b; c;
x1

A.

109

:
(c)
2 F1 (a, b; c; x) =
(a)(b)

Z1

dt

tb1 (1 t)cb1
.
(1 tx)a


1 F1
1 F1 (a; c; x):
x y 00 + (c x) y 0 a y = 0.
x = 0:
ax
a(a + 1) x2
+
+ ...
1 F1 (a; c; x) = lim 2 F1 (a, b; c; x/b) = 1 +
b
c 1! c(c + 1) 2!
:
y = x1c 1 F1 (a c + 1; 2 c; x).

1 F1 (a; c; x)

= ex 1 F1 (c a; c; x).

:
(c)
1 F1 (a; c; x) =
(a)(c a)

Z1

dt ta1 (1 t)ca1 ext ,

Re c > Re a > 0 .
:
(c) x ac
e x ,
x +,
(a)
(c)
(x)a , x .
1 F1 (a; c; x) '
(c a)
1 F1 (a; c; x)

A.3

'

J
Y
J (x):
x2 y 00 + x y 0 + (x2 2 ) y = 0.

A.

110

x = 0:

X
(1)n (x/2)2n+
J (x) =
.
n!(n + + 1)
n=0

:


1
(x/2) ix
e 1 F1 + ; 2 + 1; 2ix .
J (x) =
( + 1)
2

:
2
J (x) = J1 (x) + J+1 (x).
x
:
d
2 J (x) = J1 (x) J+1 (x) ,
dx

d
x J (x) = x J1 (x) .
dx
:

 
Z
1
dz
1
x
z
exp
J (x) =
2i z +1
2
z
Z
Z
d ix sin i sin
=
dt ex sh tt .
e

 x 
2
J (x) =
( + 1/2) 2
=

Z/2
d cos2 () cos (x sin())
0

 x  Z1

1
( + 1/2) 2

dt eix t (1 t2 )1/2 ,

1
Re > .
2

, . A.1, , z = 0 .
:
i
1 h
J (x) cos J (x) .
Y (x) =
sin
:
r

2

, x +.
J (x) '
cos x

x
2
4
:
r
r
2
2
J1/2 (x) =
sin x, J1/2 (x) =
cos x.
x
x

A.

111

0
. A.1: , < t 0 .

Jn
Jn (x) = (1)n Jn (x).
:
e

ix sin

eim Jm (x),

m=

 


X
x
1
exp
z
=
z n Jn (x).
2
z
n=
:
Z1

0
Z1

2

nm
dx xJk (n x)Jk (m x) =
2

nm
dx xJk (n x)Jk (m x) =
2



k2
1 2 Jk2 (m ),
m

dJk (m )
dm

I
K
I (x), K (x):
x2 y 00 + x y 0 (x2 + 2 ) y = 0.
x = 0:
I (x) =

X
n=0

(x/2)2n+
.
n!(n + + 1)

Jk (m ) = 0 ,
dJk (m )
= 0.
dm

A.

112

:
I (x) = ei/2 J (ix).
K I , I :
K (x) =

[I (x) I (x)]
.
2 sin

:
(x/2)
I (x) =
( + 1/2)
K (x) =

Z1

dt ext (1 t2 )1/2 ,

Re > 1/2 ,

dt ex ch t ch t,

Re x > 0 ,

K (2 pq) =
2

 /2 Z
p
x1 epxq/x dx,
q

Re p > 0, Re q > 0 .

:
r
x x
I (x) '
e ,
2
I (x) '

(x/2)
,
( + 1)

K (x) '

x
e ,
2x

K0 (x) ' ln x,

()  x 
,
K (x) '
2
2

A.4

x +.
x +0;

x +0, 6= 0.

Pl

Plm
Pl (x):
(1 x2 ) y 00 2x y 0 + l(l + 1) y = 0.
Plm (x):

2
00
0
(1 x ) y 2x y + l(l + 1)

m2
1 x2

y = 0.

A.

113

:
1 dl 2
(x 1)l ,
l
l
2 l! dx
dm
Plm (x) = (1 x2 )m/2 m Pl (x) .
dx

Pl (x) Pl0 (x) =

3 :
P0 (x) = 1,

P1 (x) = x,

P2 (x) =

3x2 1
.
2

:
Z1

dx Plm (x)Plm
0 (x) =

2 (l + m)!
ll0 .
2l + 1 (l m)!

:
x(2l + 1)Pl (x) = (l + 1)Pl+1 (x) + lPl1 (x).
:
d
d
Pl+1 (x) Pl1 (x) ,
dx
dx
d
d
lPl (x) = x Pl (x) Pl1 (x) .
dx
dx

(2l + 1)Pl (x) =

:

X

rl Pl (x),

r < 1;
1
l=0

X
1
1 2xr + r2

Pl (x), r > 1;

l+1

r
l=0

1 < x < 1.

I
dz z l1
1

Pl (x) =
,
2i
1 2xz + z 2
Z
1
d (cos + i sin cos )l .
Pl (cos ) =

t = 0 .
:
r



2 sin l + 12 + 4

Pl (cos ) '
, l|sin|  1.
l
sin

A.

114

Ylm
|m|

Ylm (, ) = Clm eim Pl (cos ).


Ylm :
Ylm = l(l + 1)Ylm ,

d
Ylm = mYlm ,
d

- .
:
Z

sin d d Ylm
(, )Yl0 m0 (, ) = ll0 mm0 .
:

l
X
X

l=0 m=l

Ylm (n)Ylm
(n0 ) = (n n0 ).

Hn
Hn (x):
y 00 2x y 0 + 2n y = 0.
:
Hn (x) = (1)n ex

dn x2
e .
dxn

3 :
H0 (x) = 1,

H1 (x) = 2x,

H2 (x) = 4x2 2.

:
Z

dx ex Hm (x)Hn (x) =

2n n! mn .

:
2

e(x +x

0 2 )/2

X
Hn (x)Hn (x0 )
n=0

2n n!

= (x x0 ).

Hn+1 (x) 2xHn (x) + 2nHn1 (x) = 0.

A.

115

:
d
Hn (x) = 2nHn1 (x).
dx
:

 X
zn
exp 2xz z 2 =
Hn (x).
n!
n=0

2n+1 ex

Hn (x) =

Z
0

2n
=


n 
2
dz z n ez cos 2xz
2
2

(x + it)n et dt.

Ln
Ln (x):
x y 00 + ( + 1 x) y 0 + n y = 0.
:
Ln (x) =

x ex dn x n+
e x .
n! dxn

3 :
L0 (x) = 1, L1 (x) = + 1 x,
L2 (x) = 12 ( + 1)( + 2) ( + 2)x + 12 x2 .
:
Z

dx ex x Lm (x)Ln (x) =

(n + + 1)
mn .
n!

:
0 /2 (x+x0 )/2

(xx )

X
n!L (x)L (x0 )
n

n=0

(n + + 1)

= (x x0 ).

:
(n + 1)Ln+1 (x) (2n + + 1 x)Ln (x) + (n + )Ln1 (x) = 0.

A.

116

:
x

d
L (x) = nLn (x) (n + )Ln1 (x) ,
dx n
d
Ln (x) = L+1
n1 (x) .
dx

:
1

(1 z)

exp

xz
z1

z n Ln (x).

n=0

:
Ln (x)



I 
t
x n t
dt
1
e
1+
1+
=
2i
t
x
t
n+
n I
dt
(1)
(1 t)
etx .
=
n
2i
t
t

t = 0 .


[1] . . , . . , , , , 1977.
[2] . . , . . , , . 4, , ,
1988.
[3] . . , . . , , . 4, , , 1988.
[4] . . , . . , , . 4, ,
, 1989.
[5] . . , . . , . . , . . , . .
, . . , . . , , , , 2002.
[6] . . , . . , . . , , , , 1955.
[7] . . , . . , . . , . . , . .
, . . ,
, , , 1974.
[8] . . , , ,
, 1976.
[9] .. , .. , , , , 1977.
[10] . . , . . , . . , , , , 1987.
[11] . . , . . , , .
, , 1998.
[12] . . , , , , 1971.
[13] . , . , , ,
, 1951.
117

118

[14] . , , , ,
1957.
[15] . . , . , , .I, , ,
1958.
[16] . , , , , 1964.
[17] . . , , ,
, 1961.
[18] . . , , , , 1966.
[19] . . , , , , 1968.
[20] . . , . . , , , , 1972.
[21] . . , , , , 1978.
[22] . , . , , ,
, 1972.
[23] R. B. Guenter, J. W. Lee, Partial differential equations of mathematical
physics and integral equations, Dover, New York, 1996.
[24] . , . .1,
, , 1982.
[25] . . , , , , 1978.
[26] . . ,
, 1984.

[27] . , , , , 1977.
[28] . . , . . , , . 4, , , 1988.
[29] . . ,
, , , 1964.
[30] . . , . . , , I, . 3,
, , 1978.
[31] . . , , , , 1970.
[32] . . , . . , , , , 1966.

119

[33] . . , , , ,
1967.
[34] . , , , , 1981.
[35] . , . , . , . , , , , , 1977.
[36] . , . , editors, ,
, , 1979.
[37] . , , . .II.
. . ,
, , , 1974.
[38] . , , . .I. . , , , , 1973.
[39] . , ,
, , 1976.
[40] . . , , , , 1961.
[41] . , , , , 1962.
[42] . , , , , 1965.
[43] . , , , , 1966.
[44] . , , , ,
1972.
[45] . , , , , 1976.
[46] . , , , , 1990.
[47] . . , . , , , ,
1987.
[48] . . , , ,
, 1989.
[49] . . , , .II, ,
, 1970.
[50] .. , . . , ( ), , , 1976.
[51] . . , , , , 1983.

, 27
, 47
, 46
, 86

, 36
, 36
- , 54
, 19
- , 51, 53
, 30
, 86, 102

, 14
, 14

, 25, 35
, 25, 35
, 4, 12
, 63
, 18
, 65
, 67
, 67

, 46
, 14
, 46
, 46

, 22
, 63

, 93
, 93

, 75
, 58
, 74
, 4

, 53

, 53
, 55

, 71
, 47


, 24

, 32
, 32
, 33
, 100
, 39
, 42
, 103

, 101
, 86
, 101
, 102
120


, 63, 71
, 28
, 53
, 38
, 23
, 42
, 15

, 101
, 101
, 41
, 22
, 60
, 100
, 100
, 19

, 50, 72
, 39
, 73
, 4
, 93

, 25
, 7, 24
, 7
, 20
, 70
, 44
, 69, 70
, 71
, 40
, 68
, 75
, 9, 33
, 57, 72
, 4
, 4
, 93
, 6

121
, 67

, 16
, 19
, 14
, 12
, 6
, 6
, 9
, 39
, 36
, 17
, 15
, 8, 43, 99
, 56
, 43, 74
, 73
, 6

, 6
, 7
, 106

, 25

, 76
, 58
, 74

, 50
, 61
, 70
, 71

, 58
, 60
, 50
, 50

, 22
, 16


, 12
, 20
2- , 31, 34
, 66
, 5, 14
, 103

122