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BIOS

Boot Sequence

BIOS
-
-
2002

681.3.06
32.973.26
65

65

. .
BIOS. .: -, 2002. 400 : .
ISBN 5-94157-170-4

BIOS (
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, , :
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.

65:
32.9"

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.

02429 24.07.00. 07.05.02.


70x100'/,. . . . . 32,25.
4000 . N212
"-", 198005| -, ., 29.
, 77.99.02.953..001537.03.02
13.03.2002 . .

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199034, -, 9 , 12.

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9
11
12
13
15
16

I. BIOS

19

1. BIOS

21

BIOS?
BIOS
BIOS

21
23
25

2. , ...

28

?
POST-
POST-
POST- AWARD BIOS

28
31
32
33

3. BIOS

37





AWARD BIOS
AMI BIOS
BIOS

37
39
42
45
46
47
47

. BIOS

49

4.

51

51
52

_4

5.

57

6.

69



-



""

69
73
80
85
101
104
112

7.

116

VLB
ISA
PCI
AGP
USB

116
116
120
131
134

8. /

135

9.

140

10.

147

11. -

151

12.

153

13.

156

14. SCSI-

160

15.

163

16.

168

168

175

17.

186

18.

190
190

193

19. BIOS

196

20.

201

III.

203

21.

205

AWARD BIOS
AMI BIOS
Phoenix BIOS

205
207
208

22.

212

212
233

23. "" BIOS

238

"" BIOS?

238
239
241

IV. BIOS

245

24.

247

BIOS?
, ?
BIOS?
?

247
248
249
251

25.

252

BIOS

Award Flash
AMI Flash
, BIOS

252
254
255
258
262

26. BIOS

264

BIOS?
BIOS

265
266

V.

269

27.

271

28.

276


BIOS



276
277
278
279
282
283

284
285
285
286
288
289
289

29.

291

Intel
Pentium II
Pentium III
Celeron
AMD
Athlon/Duron
Athlon XP/MP

291
292
293
294
296
296
299
299

30. ""

301

31.

304

304
304
305
307
308
308
311
311

VI.

313

32. ?

315

33. /

317



-
IDE
SCSI

Socket 370/423/A
Slot I/A
Socket 370-Slot I

SIMM
DIMM

317
318
319
321
324
327
328
329
330
330
331
332



ISA
EISA

VLB
PCI
AGP

333
333
334
335
335
336
336

337

... ?

""


SCSI



CD-ROM

337
339
339
340
346
347
347
366
367
368
370
370
371
371
373
374
375
376
377
379

381


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I. BIOS. , , ,
BIOS , CMOS Setup.
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CMOS Setup;
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BIOS.
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BIOS
1.

BIOS

2.

3.

BIOS

BIOS
BIOS?
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MS-DOS ( , ).

. Windows.
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BIOS. :
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BIOS
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22

I. BIOS

. BIOS , 30%.
BIOS?
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' 1. BIOS

23

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BIOS , ""
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BIOS
/OS ( . Basic Input/Output System, /)
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. BIOS: , -BIOS ,
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3 BIOS,
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Windows , . BIOS
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BIOS.

24_

I. BIOS

( Windows)
BIOS.
, ,
BIOS.
CMOS ( . Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor, )
.
.
. . BIOS CMOS. BIOS ,
, a CMOS ,
BIOS.
CMOS- , : , , , , , . .
ESCD ( . Extended System Configuration Data,
) Plug and Play.

"Updating ESCD... Success", ESCD. BIOS
.
NVRAM ( . Non Volatile, ) .
. .
EPROM ( . Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)
, . BIOS , .
EEPROM ( . Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)
,
.
. Flash ROM.
, , .
PnP BIOS (Plug and Play BIOS) BIOS,
Plug and Play. Flash
ROM.

1. BIOS

25

RTC (Real Time Clock) . ,


CMOS (
).
BIOS . (, IBM, Intel) BIOS. :
"J Award Software http://www.award.com/, AWARD BIOS;
Phoenix Technologies Ltd. http://www.ptltd.com/,
Phoenix BIOS;
American Megatrends Inc. http://www.megatrends.com/,
AMI BIOS;
3 Microid Research http://www.mrbios.com/, MR BIOS.
BIOS .

AWARD BIOS AMI BIOS Phoenix BIOS
.

BIOS
BIOS (ROM, Read
Only Memory ), .
ROM BIOS.
- , (28 32 )
: -, BIOS (, AWARD). .. ("") , CMOS. ( 1
1 128 256 ). . 1.1 : , .

. 1.1. ROM BIOS

BIOS - . -

26

I. BIOS

, .
: .
Flash- (
BIOS Flash- ), BIOS.
Flash BIOS.
BIOS,
.
Flash BIOS
.
. 28 29,
, Flash-. Flash.

. 1.2. , BIOS


CMOS- - , CMOS (. 1.2).
.
10 . , ( , ) ,
.
CMOS
.
. Dallas (. .

f 1. BIOS

27

Dallas Nov-RAM) ODIN. ,


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. 1.3. ,
CMOS

, BIOS, CMOS Setup Utility, , CMOS, .

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Power . ,
0,10,5 Power Good (" "),
Reset
("").
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( ), BIOS.

BIOS.
, .
, . -

2. ,

29_

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, POST
~> . Power-On Self Test, ).
, BIOS-.

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, ,

ID-ROM). BIOS .
3 BIOS
:, , ( ,
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- ,
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30

I. BIOS

( ), ,
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( ) (
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. BIOS
.

BIOS . , . (IRQ), DMA / (I/O).
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IDE;
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PCI, , .
<Pause>
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2. ,

31_

.

, ,
(NBR, Non-System Bootstrap), ,
(MBR, Master Boot Record).
FDISK.
NBR (SB,
System Bootstrap), (Boot Record).
,
, BIOS. To , , .

POST-
86
.

Manufacturing Test Port ( 0080). BIOS , , , , ().
BIOS
0080 .
. , BIOS , . ,
POST-, ,
.
. "" .
POST-. .

I. BIOS

32

,
, (
).
ISA P C I .

ISA , , P C I P O S T - (. 2.1).

. 2 . 1 . IC80+ PCI

ISA, PCI. , ,
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POST-
POST-,
,
:
3,3 , 5 , +12 , -12 ;
;
;

2. ,

33

D ;
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BIOS ;
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ISA PCI;
CMOS, DMA, , ;
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.

POST- AWARD BIOS


:
-, -;
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DMA, , . RTC . CMOS
,
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1 /
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256 ,
BIOS.
5 .
2 ;._ 12

34

I. BIOS

6 , .

8 BIOS.
BIOS,
.
CF , CMOS. - , , . .
.
01 BIOS . , . .
POST.
02 .
80386 ,
01.
03 EISA- , NMI.
04 .
05 , .
06
, BIOS.
07 CMOS- . ,
, BIOS . / CMOS- 07.
08 256 .
09 Cyrix.
BE .
0 , .
0 CMOS-. BIOS Plug and Play, ISA PnP . PCI- .

~~ 2. ,

35

BIOS.
~3 0D/0E . BIOS, .
. , , .
~3 OF .
"" PS/2.
3 20/2F EISA-.
.
3 30/31 , .
1 3D , PS/2.
3 41 .
3 42 . ,
IDE, CMOS-.
3 45 .
3 4 USB-.
.
"I 4F , . Energy Star .
52 BIOS.
53 DOS
.
60 Boot Sector, .
62 , NumLock .
63 PnP- ESCD, .
, , . , BIOS . -

36

I. BIOS

,
.
BF BIOS.
FF .

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BIOS , , , .


BIOS
BIOS ,

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, .
CMOS Setup Utility ( ,
CMOS-).
BIOS.
. ,
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.
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:< BIOS (AWARD AMI) , (Phoenix) .


CMOS Setup Utility . ,
"" , , . , -

38

I. BIOS

, , , . , , - .
"-", . , (, .), "" Windows
, .
,
"" BIOS?
.
BIOS
. , ,
833 336 !
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(, ). -, ,
""
CMOS-. -, , ,
"" .

( <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del> Reset) . ,
,
"Press Del to enter Setup". <Delete> (<Del> , )
CMOS Setup Utility, . <Del> NumLock . ,
<NumLock>.
, , ? .
1. BIOS ,
(, ).
<Delete>
( 600700

- 3. BIOS

39

). ,
,
.
. , , (
).
- . , Compaq
CMOS Setup
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del> .
, . . .
: <Ctrl>+<Esc>,
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Esc>, <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<S>, <Esc>.
, <F1>, <F2> <F10>.
,
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(
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( ). BIOS
( ). ,
-, ( , ).


CMOS Setup Utility
:- , , . 3.1 3.2.
. , , .
, .
; , . ,

40

I. BIOS

- BIOS.

. .1. AWARD BIOS 4.5

. 3.2. AWARD BIOS 6.0,


Pentium III/IV

AWARD BIOS 4.5* :


<t> <1> ;
D <Enter> ;
<Page Up> <Page Down> , , ;
<Esc>
;

" 3. BIOS

41_

<F10> ;
3 <F2> ,
.
AWARD BIOS 6.0 , . :
3 <> <d> .
,
<<-> <->;
3 <> <> (
<> <4>);
"3 <Enter> , .
-
<Enter> .
<> <1> <Enter>;
<Esc> Exit ();
<F1> <Alt>+<H> ;
3 <> ( ) ;
3 <+> ( ) ;
1 <> <Page Up>
;
<End> <Page Down>
;
D <F5> , ;
<F10> .
AMI BIOS :
<t> <1>
;
<Enter> ;
<Page Up> <Page Down> , , ;
<Esc>
;

42_

I. BIOS

<F10> ;

<F2> <F3> , ;
<F1> , .
-
, .



BIOS, , . , . ,
, , .

, .
BIOS AWARD BIOS 4.5 , , .

BIOS.
Standard CMOS Setup
.
( , ),
. , . BIOS ,
, , .
, CMOS-,
, , .
.
.
Main . ,

.

'' 3. BIOS

43

BIOS Features Setup

.
: , ( ),
"", -
. Boot.
3 Chipset Features Setup

. ,
.
( ). Advanced Chipset Setup Advanced.
3 Power Management Setup
, .
"" .
Power.
3 PnP/PCI Configuration
, (,
DMA, /).
3 Load BIOS Defaults
" BIOS ".
BIOS . , , .
. , ""

. " " BIOS - , . ,
,
. . , : Restore BIOS Defaults,
Load Fail Safe.
Load Setup Defaults
BIOS -
.

44

I. BIOS

<Enter>. BIOS ,
. . : Original, Auto

Configuration With Power-On Default, Load Perfomance Defaults.


Load Turbo Defaults

BIOS. . ,
,

. .
Integrated Peripherals
,
. BIOS ,
-
.
Password Setting
,
. : User Password,

Supervisor Password, Change Password.


Hard Disk Utility
, . , , SCSI.
BIOS HDD Low Format. ,
.
10
BIOS - , , - ,
.
HDD Auto Detection
IDE.

500 , . . . ( - ).

3. BIOS

45

3 Save And Exit Setup


<Enter> .
.
Write To CMOS And Exit.
3 Exit Without Saving
.
,
.
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del>.
Do Not Write To CMOS And Exit.
Save EEPROM Defaults
CMOS . , .
Load EEPROM Defaults
CMOS .
Save, .
II ,
.


BIOS
CMOS Setup Utility. . , , .
: ,
... , (
). ?
: " ! , !
". , ,
-? . ?
,
, , - -

46

I. BIOS

. BIOS ( AWARD BIOS 4.5 )


"" .
<Ins>. . ,
( Load BIOS Defaults ).
"" , . ? ,
, BIOS
. BIOS,
.
BIOS .
.
BIOS ( ).

AWARD BIOS
2.50:
AWARD_SW, j262, TTPTHA, 01322222, KDD, ZBAAACA, aPAf, lkwpeter,
t0ch88, t0ch20x, h6BB, J09F, TzqF.
2.51:
AWARD_WG, j256, BIOSTAR, HLT, ZAAADA, Syxz, ?award, 256256,
alfarome, SWITCHES_SW, Sxyz, SZYX, t0ch20x.
2.51G:
g6PJ, j322, ZJAAADC, Wodj, bios*, biosstar, h6BB, HELGA-S, HEWITT
RAND, HLT, tOch.88, zjaaadc.
2.51U:
lEAAh, condo, biostar, CONDO, CONCAT, djonet, efmukl, g6PJ, jO9F, j64,
zbaaaca.
4.5 ( ):
AWARD_SW, AWARD_PW, 589589, PASSWORD, SKYFOX, AWARD SW,
award.sw, AWARD7SW, award_?, award_pc, ZAAADA.
6.0:
AWARD_SW, lkwpeter, Wodj, aPAf, j262, Syxz, ZJAADC, j322, ?award,
TTPTHA, KDD, HLT, , , 01322222,
ZAAADA.

~isa 3. BIOS

47

, 4.51PG
. , , ~ 23.

AMI BIOS
\MI, SER, A.M.I., AMIISW, AMIPSWD, BIOSPASS, aammii, AMI.KEY,
-nipswd, CMOSPWD, ami.kez, AMI7SW, h e ^ s , HEWITT RAND, ami',
AMISETUP, bios310, KILLCMOS, amiami, AMI~, amidecod. ,
"" BIOS , <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del>+<Ins> <Ins> (
AMI_SW).

BIOS
AWARD AMI BIOS,
/ .
BIOS , . . :
3 AMPTON BIOS - Polity;
AST BIOS - SnuFG5;
BIOSTAR BIOS Biostar, Q54arwms;
COMPAQ BIOS- Compaq;
CONCORD BIOS - last;
CTX International BIOS CTX_123;
CyberMax BIOS Congress;
Daewoo BIOS Daewuu, Daewoo;
Daytec BIOS Daytec;
DELL BIOS - Dell;
Digital Equipment BIOS komprie;
EnoxBIOS xollnE;
Epox BIOS Central;
Freetech BIOS Posterie;
HP Vectra BIOS hewlpack;
IBM BIOS - IBM, MBIUO, sertafu;
Iwill BIOS - iwill;

48

I. BIOS

JetWay BIOS spooml;


Joss Technology BIOS 57gbz6, technology;
M Technology BIOS mMmM;
MachSpeed BIOS sp99dd;
Magic-Pro BIOS prost;
Megastar BIOS star, sldkj'754, xyzall;
Micronics BIOS dn_04rjc;
Nimble BIOS - xdfk9874t3;
Packard Bell BIOS - bell9;
QDI BIOS - QDI;
Quantex BIOS - teXl, xljlbj;
Research BIOS - Col2ogro2;
Shuttle BIOS Col2ogro2;
Siemens Nixdorf BIOS - SKY_FOX;
SpeedEasy BIOS lesarotl;
SuperMicro BIOS - ksdjfg934t;
Tinys BIOS tiny, tinys;
TMC BIOS - BIGO;
Toshiba BIOS Toshiba, 24Banc81, toshy99;
Vextrec Technology BIOS Vextrex;
Vobis BIOS merlin;
WIMBIOS v2.10 BIOS - Compleri;
Zenith BIOS 3098z, Zenith;
ZEOS BIOS - zeosx.

II
BIOS
4.
5.
6.

7.
8. /
9.
10.
11. -
12.
13.
14. SCSI-
15.
16.
17.
18.
19. BIOS
20.


, ( , ), .
,
.
, , ,

(RTC, Real Time Clock).
, RTC, log ( ), - ,
. . , , BIOS.


Date (mm:dd:yy) and Time (hh:mm:ss)
, Standard CMOS Setup, , , . , BIOS
. , BIOS , .
,
CMOS Setup Utility. (
) BIOS.

52

II. BIOS

BIOS
System Time System Date ( ).
Daylight Saving
BIOS
.
:
Enabled . MS-DOS;
Disabled . , . .
(, Windows 98) .



Floppy 3 Mode Support

. , .
1 /.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
BIOS Floppy 3 Mode.
Floppy Disk Drive

(Drive A, Drive ).
:

None ;

360 KB 5.25" 5,25


360 ;

1.2 MB 5.25" 5,25


1,2 ;

720 KB 3.5" 3,5


720 ;

1.44 MB 3.5" 3,5


1,44 ;

-: 4.

53

2.88 MB 3.5" 3,5


2,88 .

, , , (Drive ) 5,25", (Drive )


3,5". "". 3,5". BIOS , . . ,
Windows 95,
. ,
CMOS-. , "" .
, . , .
BIOS Legacy Diskette () ,
.
Hard Disks


IDE ( EIDE). ,
SCSI-, (SCSI-) BIOS.
IDE
,
IDE ( ).
( ) Primary, , , "" Secondary.
IDE- (Master) (Slave).
, ,
( ).
TYPE.
( ).
:

Auto BIOS . -

54

II. BIOS

.

, . ( 500 )
, . . . , , ;

None - ,
IDE. SCSI-
;

User (0-46)
. 0 45
. ,
. 46 .
,
. HDD Auto Detection
CMOS Setup Utility
;

CD-ROM BIOS, IDE -. BIOS


ATAPI, CD-ROM.
,
;

LS-120 LS-120;

ZIP-100 Iomega ZIP;


,
;

Other ATAPI Device , , .

CYLN. ,
IDE.

- 4.

55

HEAD. , IDE,
.
PRECOMP. , IDE
, , , . ,
. 65 535.
LANDZ. , "", , .
, "".
SECT. , .
SIZE. .
, ,
. LBA
.
MODE. ID - , . :
Auto "
.
,
.
;
a

Normal . BIOS 63,


1024, 504 ;

LBA , 1 . , .
LBA,
, . . .
BIOS 8 ;

56_

'

II. BIOS

Large IDE,
1 ,
LBA. 32, .
1 , Large
( -

). UNIX ;

, IDE .
, ;

None SCSI-.

Maximum LBA Capacity



, LBA- .
.
Set Device As...
,
.
:
Auto ;
Floppy -;

Hard Disk
.



: (, )
. , ,
, , , .
ATAPI CD-ROM
, CD-ROM .
:
Enabled .
CD-ROM.
<Enter> CD-ROM, ;
Disabled .
Above I Mb Memory Test
.
:
Enabled
1 ( XMS);

Disabled . ,

58

II. BIOS

- HIMEM.SYS
.
.
Boot From LAN First
().
:

Enabled
- ,
.
;

Disabled . . .
Boot Sequence

. -. , LS-120 Iomega
ZIP. , , D, F, (: , D: . .), . ,
, D: " ".
:
, .
:. - ,
( ) .
, , . ,
;
, , SCSI , , ,
SCSI- ( , CD-ROM);

only :.

. ;

' 5.

59_

,
;

, A, SCSI : IDE, -, SCSI. ,


SCSI,
IDE
;

, CD-ROM, A
CD-ROM, -;

CD-ROM, ,
-. ,
. - , ;

D, A, SCSI IDE.
(, , slave-);

, A, SCSI ,
IDE ;

F, A, SCSI IDE;

LS/ZIP, , LS-120
Iomega ZIP;

SCSI, , , SCSI;

SCSI, , ,
SCSI- IDE.

BIOS Boot Sequence



. : First Boot Device, Second Boot Device, Third Boot Device Boot Other

Device.
:
Floppy -;
HDD-0 IDE (Primary Master);

HDD-] IDE (Primary Slave);

60

II. BIOS

HDD-2 IDE (Secondary Master);

HDD-3 IDE (Secondary Slave);

LAN ;

SCSI SCSI;

LS/ZIP LS-120 Iomega ZIP;

CD-ROM -;

Enabled , (
,
);
Disabled .
AMI BIOS , : Floppy, Floptical (LS-120), CD-ROM, SCSI Device, Network, IDEO,
IDE1, IDE2, Try Other Boot Device Yes
, .

System Boot Sequence.


Boot Up Floppy Seek

.
,
-. 80 40 (
).
, , 1993 40
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
BIOS Floppy Drive Seek

At Boot.
Boot Up System Speed


.
:
High (
). ;
Low
- (

BIOS System
Boot Up CPU Speed.
Boot Warning

, , . , , .
. , , , - .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
,
boot-. Windows 9x
, ,
, . . BIOS
.
boot- ( , . .
boot-).
Boot Warning :
;
FDISK /MBR;
;

OS/2 (OS/2
Boot Manager);

,
boot- " ". SCSI-, BIOS .

62

II. BIOS

BIOS ChipAway
, Enabled, .
"ChipAway Virus
Enabled".
.
: Virus Warning, Virus Protection, Anti-Virus
Protection BootSector Virus Protection.
Boot Virus Protection
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Boot Warning.
BIOS - .
boot-
. , .

, .
BIOS BootSector Virus |
Detection.
Delay On Option ROMs
-1
BIOS, ]
.

:
Enabled . .|
, ]
;
Disabled . -1
.
Deturbo Mode
-1
tium Pro (, Pentium ). -!
( ]
).

5.

63_

Enabled -
;

Disabled ( -). .

AMI BIOS , :
Deturbo, Turbo ( ). : Turbo
Switch, Turbo Switch Function, Turbo/Deturbo Switch,
/ Turbo
.
Display Mode at Add-On ROM Init

, BIOS .
:
Force BIOS ;
Keep Current
.
Fast Decode
,

. BIOS Intel 286.
386 .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
HDD Sequence SCSI/IDE First
, (SCSI IDE) .
, .
:

IDE IDE-;

SCSI SCSI-.

, SCSI- ,
IDE--

64

II. BIOS

. IDE-,
SCSI IDE-, .
Halt On

. , .
:
Errors .
,
, ;
No Errors ,
. . , - ;
All But Keyboard , . , , ;
But Disk , .
, -
, ;
All But Disk/Keyboard
,
.
BIOS Error
Halt, POST Error Halt POST Errors. ,
:
Halt On All Errors
;

No Halt All Errors


.

Hard Disk 47 RAM Area


, ,
.

5.

65

:
DOS DOS;

BIOS ,
.
DOS-,
, -
.

3 Hit <Del> Message Display


,
( <Del>). .
.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled .
BIOS Setup
Prompt.
3 LAN Remote Boot

, .
:
BootP BootP;
LSA LSA;

Disabled . .

Memory Test Tick Sound



.

.
:
Enabled ;

Disabled .
.

66

II. BIOS

Option ROM Scan

BIOS,
. BIOS
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
, , SCSI-
BIOS, SCSI-.
, BIOS
.
Overclock Warning Message
, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
, . .
BIOS
.
Quick Power On Self Test

. BIOS ,
( ).
, . , - IDE .

.
:

Enabled ( ).
;

Disabled .
, .

5.

67_

BIOS ( AMI BIOS)


: Quick Boot, Quick Boot Mode.
RTC Y2K H/W Roll Over
2000 . 1998 ,
, BIOS
.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Removable Device
, .
:
Legacy Floppy ;
ATAPI CD-ROM - IDE;
LS-120 LS-120;
ZIP-100 Iomega ZIP;
ATAPI , IDE;
Disabled .
Scan User Flash Area
, BIOS
Flash-, POST- OEM-, .
, , . , .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
Speech POST Reporter
POST. , ,
.

68

II. BIOS

Enabled . ;
Disabled . .

Summary Screen


.
BIOS.
.
:
Enabled
;
Disabled
.
BIOS Boottime Diagnosis Screen.
System Performance
,
.
:
Standard
. ;
Fast
BIOS, .
.
Wait For If Any Error

.
:

Enabled

<F1>. Yes;

Disabled
.
, . No.


.
, (, _, -, ) BIOS :, ,
-: . ( 10%) . : ,
, . , ,
: ,
, , . .


. ,
.
Auto Configuration
. ,
(,
).

.

70

II. BIOS

:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Burst Copy-Back Option
, , - "", ( Burst-).
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
CPU: System Frequency Multiple
, .
BIOS.
Chipset I/O Wait States

/. ,
.
:
2WS ( 27) ;
4WS (4) ;
5WS (5) ;
6WS (6) .
Chipset Special Features
, 430 Intel (HX, VX ) FX. 430FX.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Drive NA# Before BRDY
NA# BRDY# /,
ADS# BRDY# .

6.

71

BRDY# (Bus-Ready) "" ,


,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
3 Extra AT Cycle WS


. , .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
ICH Decode Select
, .
:
Subtractive ;
Positive .
LOCK Function

Bus-Master.
LOCK, ,
master- /.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
MD Drive Strength
""
.
:
Hi . ;
Low . .

II. BIOS

72
NA# Enable

/ NA#.
:
Enabled ,
, , ,
. , ;
Disabled .
.
BIOS NA# Pin Assertion.
PCI-to-DRAM Prefetch
BIOS ,
, PCI-, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
PIIX4 SERR#
BIOS System Error.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Pipelined Function
, ,
,
. .
, , . .
.

.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .

6.

73

BIOS : CPU

Pipeline Function, CPU Addrr Pipelining.


Single ALE# Enable

/ ALE#.
ALE#
- ISA- ( / ).
808,
.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled . .
BIOS ALE During Bus
Conversion :
Single ;
Multiple . ISA- (. . /).
,
ALE#
.
Extended ALE : Enabled Disabled .
"" BIOS
Quick Mode.
VIO
/ "" .
. ,
. ( ) 3,3 .
BIOS
I/O Voltage.


, ,
.
, , -

74

II. BIOS

.
.
BIOS Update
6 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Celeron) , " ",
, / . BIOS
POST. BIOS
.
:

Enabled .
;

Disabled . .
BIOS : CPU Microcode Updation, Pentium II Microcode CPU Update
Data.
CPU FSB Clock
, .
BIOS. , : 66,
75, 83 . .
, ,
66, 100 133 , .
CPU Fast String

Pentium Pro (, Pentium II),
, .
, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .

6.

75

CPU Mstr Fast Interface



, Back-to-Back.
Bus-Master.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
CPU Mstr Post WR Buffer

Bus-Master.
:
N/A ;

/ ;

2 ;

4 .
.

CPU Mstr Post WR Burst Mode



Bus-Master, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
CPU Operating Frequency
.
:
Auto
;

User Define .

CPU Priority

master-.
:
Always Last ;

76

II. BIOS |

CPU 2nd -1
master-;

CPU 3rd ;

CPU 4th -1
.

, , ]
, |
. J
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS !
PCI Masters Priopity, :
Rotating ;
Fixed .
CPU Ratio
|
. . BIOS.,
, , , j
. , I
, BIOS ( J
).
CPU Speed
.
:
Auto
;
Manual |
.
CPUID Instruction
, . . , (OEM-, Overdrive.
Dual), , , ( ).
- -

6.

77

86 .
,
(
). ,
Cyrix.
:

Enabled ;

Disabled .
Command Per Cycle


, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Cyrix 6x86/MII CPU ID
Cyrix
BIOS.
:
Enabled .
Cyrix;
Disabled .
.
.
I/O Recovery Time

/.
:
Enabled . ,
;
Disabled . .
Master Retry Timer
,
, PCI-, . 1-.

78

II. BIOS

:
10 PCIClks ( ), 18 PCIClks, 34 PCIClks 66PCIClks - ,
.
Multiplier Factor
,
.


BIOS.
Numeric Processor Test
. . , 486DX, , ( ,
).
:
Enabled . ,
;
Disabled . 386SX,
386DX, 486SX, 486SLC, 486DLC
. , , .
Processor Number Feature

Pentium III
.
BIOS , Pentium III.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled . , , .
: Processor S/N, CPU Serial Number (Phoenix
BIOS) Processor Serial Number (AMI BIOS).
a Stop CPU at PCI Master
, PCI- .

6.

79_

:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
, BIOS.
Stop CPU when PCI Flush
, FLUSH,
, PCI .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
System Processor Type
, . BIOS ,
.
System Type
, . BIOS ,
.
:
UP . ,
;
DP .
Vcore Voltage
. ,
.

( ). , Auto , .
BIOS : CPU Core Voltage,
CPU Voltage.

II. BIOS

80
Weitek Coprocessor


Weitek. Weitek
, .
, 23
Intel.
:

Enabled . Weitek ,

;

Disabled .
.

-
- , , , -.
Burst SRAM Burst Cycle
/ -
Burst-. , .
:

4-1-1-1 . , ;

3-1-1-1 ,
.
Burst Write

Burst - .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
CPU Internal Cache, External Cache
, , -, , -, -

~~ 6.

81

. - , . .
:
Disabled -
; Internal -, ;
External -,
;
Both -. .
Cache Memory.
: External Cache Memory Internal
Cache Memory ( Enabled , Disabled ). -

.
CPU Level I Cache/CPU Level 2 Cache
/ - . , , ,
.
:
Enabled - . ;
Disabled - .
~\ CPU Level 2 Checking

-
. , Pentium II 333 . - ,
.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled .
, ,
.

82

II. BIOS

: CPU Level 2 Cache ECC Check, CPU L2


Cache ECC Checking.
Cache Early Rising
-
.
:
Enabled ,
;
Disabled .
.
Cache RD+CPU Wt Pipeline

- . .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Cache Read Timing
Wait-States.
:
WS . ;
1 WS . - Wait-States.
Cache Read Wait States.
Cache Timing Control
/ - .
:
Fast (Turbo) . -;
Medium . , - ;

Normal /. .

\/ 6.

83

Cache Write Cycle



- .
:

2 ;

.
Cache Write Timing
-
Wait-States.
:
WS . ;

/ WS . - Wait-States.

: Cache Write Wait States Cache Tag Hit Wait


States.
Cacheable Burst Read
, -
Burst.
:

IT (1CCLK) - 1 ;

2 (2CCLK) - 2 .

Cache Burst Read Cycle.


| Cacheable Range
BIOS BIOS
.
0 8 0 128 BIOS.
[3 Display Cache Window Size
,
.
:
32 MB 32 ;

64 MB 64 .

II. BIOS \

84
L1/L2 Cache Update Mode

- |
.
:

WriteBack - -|
;

WriteThru - !
. -|
, .

: Cache Update Policy Cache Write Policy. I


BIOS Cache Update I
Scheme W/B/ with dirty -[
WriteBack tag- dirty-.
L2 (WB) Tag Bit Length
L1/L2 Cache Update Mode, -j
- .
:
7 bit ( 7+7) ;
8 bit ( 8+0) .
Alt Bit In Tag RAM.
L2 Cache Banks
, -]
.
:
1 Banks - ;
2 Banks - .
SRAM Back-to-Back

- Back-to-Back.I
]
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
SYNC SRAM Support
-, .

6.

85

:
Standard -;
Pipelined -.
3 Sustained 3T Write
-,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .



, . , , . , PC 133 100 , ,
.
, .
3 Auto Configuration

"" .
:
Auto . . ,
, ;

60 ns
60 .
(70 ), ;

70 ns
70 . 60 ,
.

BIOS : DRAM Auto


Configuration Auto Configure EDO DRAM Tim.

86

II. BIOS

Bank 0/.../5 DRAM Timing

. (,
).
CAS# Latency
CAS (,
)
. ( 12%), .
:
2 ( 2 Clks) .
SDRAM 10 ;
( 3 Clks) . .
BIOS CAS# Latency Clocks.
SDRAM :
SDRAM CAS# Latency, SDRAM CAS# Latency Time.
CAS# Pulse Width
CAS# .
:

IT ;

2 .

BIOS : Write

CAS# Pulse Width Read CAS# Pulse Width .

CPU-to-DRAM Page Mode


, . ,
.
:
Use Paging No Paging, Always Open Closes, Page Closes, Stays Open
Closes If Idle, Normal Disabled
BIOS.

i8a 6.

87

BIOS : DRAM Page


Mode, DRAM Paging, DRAM Paging Mode, SDRAM Page Control ( SDRAM).
, , CPU-to-DRAM Page Mode.

, . : DRAM Enhanced Paging, Enhanced Page Mode, Enhanced
Paging.
CPU/Memory Frequency Ratio

. BIOS
, .
:
Auto ;

1:1 ;

3:4 100 133 .

DRAM Clock
.
:

Host CLK
. ;

66 MHz .

BIOS DRAM Speed.


DRAM Data Integrity Mode

.
, . .
, .
:

.
, , .

88

II. BIOS

, , . . |
. ;
Non-ECC . , |
, .
BIOS , -1
, : Parity ( ) |
( ).
DRAM ECC/Parity Select
/ .
BIOS , -1
(, I
440HX/FX/LX), -1
. !
DRAM Data Integrity Mode (PAR/ECC)]
.
:
Parity !
, -|
. ;
.1
. -1

. -1
|
%.
DRAM Interleave Mode
"" .
. , .
. KOH
^ -!
.
J

:
Banks 0+1 0 1;
Banks 2+3 2 3;
Both ;
No Interleave .

' 6.

89


SDRAM Bank Interleave : Disabled, 2 Banks 4 Banks.
DRAM Page Idle Timer
. FPM- .
:

IT ;

2 ;

4 ;

8 .

, . .
BIOS : Paging Delay
DRAM Idle Timer.
DRAM R/W Leadoff Timing

. ,
.
:

8/7 ;

7/5 .

BIOS :

5 - EDO DRAM
50 ( SDRAM
10 );

6 EDO DRAM
60 .

DRAM Read Burst Timing


.
, 4 8 .

90

II. BIOS

, . . ,
, . --- Normal
Burst, x-y-y-y-z-y-y-y Back-to-Back Burst.
. .
, , .
:
222 EDO DRAM;
444 FPM DRAM;

xlll 222 SDRAM.


, . ,
Triton "" , Triton FX. , , FX. . 6.1 Intel.
6.1.
Intel

FPM

EDO

SDRAM

430FX

7-3-3-3

7-2-2-2

430VX

6-3-3-3

6-2-2-2

7-1-1-1

430

5-3-3-3

5-2-2-2

430

5-3-3-3

5-2-2-2

5-1-1-1

440

-1-1-1

440

-1-1-1

440GX

-1-1-1

, .

DRAM Read Timing.


DRAM Read Latch Delay

. , .

6.

91

0.0 ns ;

0.5 ns 0,5 ;

1.0 ns 1 ;

1.5 ns 1,5 .

1 DRAM Speed Selection

.
:

50 ns 50 ;

60 ns 60 ;

70 ns 70 .

,
, ,
.
~\ DRAM Timing

/
. ,
.
:
Auto
;

70 ns 70 ;

60 ns 60 ;

50 ns 50 .

3 DRAM Write Burst Timing

DRAM Read Burst Timing,


.
3 Data Integrity (PAR/ECC)
/ .
DRAM ECC/Parity Select.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .

92

II. BIOS

EDO CAS# MA Wait State

CAS# EDO.
:
1 .
;
2 . .
EDO RAS# Wait State
RAS# EDO.
:
/ .
;
2 . .
EMS
EMS (Expanded Memory Specification).
286.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
EMS Page Reg I/O Base
/, EMS.

BIOS.
FSB/SDRAM/PCI Freq. (MHz)
,
PCI, , FSB: SDRAM: PCI. .
FSB: SDRAM: PCI Freq. Ratio

, PCI. BIOS
,
(, Intel i815e).

IPS

" 6.

93

:
66:100:33, 100:100:33, 133:133:33, 133:100:33 - , PCI.
, 100 , , 133 .
Fast EDO Path Select
EDO DRAM , .
, :
Enabled . ;
Disabled .
, . .
.
Fast MA to RAS# Delay
RAS#
(Memory Address). FPM.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS Fast MA to RAS# Delay CLK / CCLK 2 CCLK .
Gate A20 Option
20,
,
1 . . , MS-DOS,
, VDISK.SYS, , HIMEM.SYS, ,
, .
:
Fast , OS/2 Windows;

Normal .

94

II. BIOS

Fast Gate A20 Option


Enabled Disabled. BIOS
LowA20# Select ( , 20
).
MA Wait State

.
:
Slow . EDO DRAM;
Fast .
SDRAM.
BIOS MA Additional Wait State
: Enabled Disabled .
Memory Hole At 15-16M
, ISA, .

.
"" , ,
, / ,
.
, BIOS
:

Disabled ISA-,
. ;

14-15 15-16 "" -]


14 15 ( 15 16) .

: . |
- i
(, ). , BIOS - [
.

6.

95

BIOS Memory
Hole :
None ;
At 512 KB ""
512 639 ;
At 15 MB "" 15 .
: Local Memory 15-16M, Memory Hole at 15M
Addr.
3 Memory Parity Error Check
.
"Parity Error at
: System Halted" (" :,
").
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled . . - ,
, , "".
Gravis Ultra
Sound, ,
Sound Blaster.
~\ Memory Parity/ECC Check

,1 ,
.
.
:
Auto ,
.
- ;
Disabled .
3 Memory Read Wait State

. ,

96

II. BIOS

. , .
. , ,
, .
:
0, 1, 2 3 ,
.
Memory Write Wait State
, Memory Read Wait State,
. BIOS DRAM Wait State.
, .
RAMW# Timing
.
:
Fast , ,
;
Normal , , . .
,
.

BIOS

FPM/EDO RAMW# Timing, RAMW# Assertion Timing.


RAS# Pulse Width

RAS# .
:

IT ;

2 .

BIOS : Write

RAS# Pulse Width Read RAS# Pulse Width .


RDRAM Pool B State

"" !
Rambus.

6.

97

:
Nap "";
Standby
"".
Read Around Write

.
,
. , .
:
Enabled ;

Disabled . .

BIOS : DRAM Read


Around Write Extended Read Around Write.
~J SDRAM Bank Interleave

""
SDRAM. ""
, .
:

2 Bank .
32 ;

4 Bank . 64 ;

Disabled . .
SDRAM Banks Close Policy
.
440LX - ,
,
.
430 , . . .
:

Pare Miss ;

Arbitration .
.
4 . 2 1 2

98

II. BIOS

SDRAM Capability

.
.
.
:
100 , 100 ;
133 , 133 .
.
SDRAM Configuration

.
Auto Configuration.

:
Auto ;
7 ns BIOS,
7 ;
8 ns BIOS,
8 .

.
, .
SDRAM Cycle Length

SDRAM.

.
;

2 .
.

SDRAM Cycle Time (Tras, Trc)

(Tras)
(Precharge),
() RAS.

~ 6.

99

:
5, 7 6, 8 ,
.
,
.
SDRAM Operating Mode

. . , BIOS, . .
(, )
.
:

100 , ,
100 ;

PC 133 , ,
133 .
.
I SDRAM Precharge Control

,
SDRAM .
:
Enabled . ;

Disabled . .

I Speculative Leadoff

,
, ,
.
. , , .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
SDRAM Speculative Read.
J Super Bypass Function

DDR
SDRAM.

100

II. BIOS

:
Enabled
- , DDR-;
Disabled . .
Super Bypass Wait State
Super Bypass.
:
Enabled 133 ;
Disabled
100 .
.
Turbo Read Leadoff (TRL)
, , , .
:
Enabled . , ;
Disabled . .
Turbo Read Pipelining

, ,
.
:
Enabled . ,
;
Disabled . .
Turn-Around Insertion
,
/ ( ).

'iaea 6.

101_

:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
3 Vmem
,
DIMM.
BIOS.
3,5 V.


, , , ,
.
3 640KB to 1MB Cacheability
384 .
:
Enabled :
Disabled .
3 Cache Read Option
-.
,
.
BIOS SRAM Read Wait State.
3 Cache Write Option
, Cache Read Option, -.
BIOS SRAM Write Wait State.
Cacheable RAM Address Range
.
, , . . .
Initialize Display Cache Memory
-, , .

102

II.

:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Non Cacheable Block-1 Base
-1
.
/.
"" , "" -1
.
, 0.
Non Cacheable Block-1 Size
.)
, ]
-]
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS Block-1 Memory Cache-1
able Yes No .
Non Cacheable Block-2 Base
Non Cacheable Block-1 Base, |
.
, 0.
Non Cacheable Block-2 Size
Non Cacheable Block-1 Size, -1
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS Block-2 Memory Cache-1
able Yes () No ().
G System BIOS Cacheable
BIOS, . . -1
BIOS - -

'. 6.

103

. , . .
- ,
Celeron, Duron). , BIOS , , , , ,
,
.
:
Enabled . .
MS-DOS. - . - ,
BIOS, ;
Disabled . .

.
System ROM Cacheable.
Video BIOS Cacheable

BIOS , . .
BIOS - .
MS-DOS.
. ,
,
.
:
Enabled . .
- , BIOS,
;
Disabled . .
Video BIOS Area Cacheable.
Video Memory Cache Mode

.
Pentium Pro (, Pentium II). Pentium Pro
, Memory Type Range Registers MTRR.

II. BIOS

104

UC .
- ;

USWC . PCI ( 90 /
8 /).
, A0000H BFFFFH
(128 ) .


, , . .
Burst Refresh


. 15 ,
4 60 .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled . .
DRAM Burst at 4 Refresh.
CAS Before RAS Refresh
, CAS RAS. , . , .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
.

6.

105

CAS-to-RAS Refresh Delay



.
, CAS Before RAS Refresh.
:

IT ;

2 . .
, . ,
. . , .
.
CPU Cycle Cache Hit WS
- .
:
Normal -;
Fast . -, .
Concurrent Refresh
,
.
, . ,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
DRAM Ahead Refresh
,
. ,

.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .

106

II. BIOS

DRAM RAS# Only Refresh


CAS-before-RAS. BIOS , , . .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
DRAM RAS# Precharge Time
( ), RAS ( RAS).
.
, ,
, .
:
, IT, 2, , 4, 5 6 , , RAS.
(3, 4 . .)
(3 Clocks).
: DRAM RAS# Precharge Period,
RAS# Precharge Time, RAS# Precharge Period, FPM DRAM RAS# Precharge, FPM RAS# Precharge, RAS# Precharge, EDO RAS# Precharge,
EDO RAS# Precharge Time, EDO RAS# Precharge Time.
BEDO SDRAM BEDO RAS# Precharge, SDRAM
RAS# Precharge, SDRAM RAS# Precharge Time. , 3 Clocks BIOS : Same As FPM FPM-1T, Fast Normal,
Fast Slow. , Slow
, . Fast
.
DRAM Refresh Method
.
, ,
- .
:

CAS Before RAS, RAS Only, RAS Before CAS, Normal, Hidden , .

~.-~ 6.

107

: Refresh Type, DRAM Refresh Type, Refresh


Type Select.
DRAM Refresh Period
, . , . BIOS .
BIOS, ,
. :
For 50 MHz Bus, For 60 MHz Bus, For 66 MHz Bus, Disabled;
50/66 MHz, 60/60 MHz, 66/66 MHz;
15.6 us, 31.2 us, 62.4 us, 124.8 us, 249.6 us, Disabled;
15.6 us, 31.2 us, 62.4 us, 125 us, 250 us;
15.6 us, 62.4 us, 124.8 us, 187.2 us;
1040 Clocks, 1300 Clocks;
Disabled, Normal;
Fast, Slow.
, ,
. ,
.
: Refresh Cycle Time (us), DRAM
Refresh Cycle Time, Memory Refresh Rate, DRAM Refresh Rate.
DRAM Refresh Queue
,
4 . , .
:
Enabled .
(
);
Disabled .
BIOS DRAM
Refresh Queuing.
| DRAM Refresh Queue Depth
"" . , .

108

II. BIOS

:
, 4, 8, 12 ( , ) .
BIOS

Refresh Queue Depth.


Decoupled Refresh

ISA. -
ISA-, -
. .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
.
Extended Refresh
EDO.
125 , 15,6 , . .
:

Enabled ;

Disabled .
Fast RAS-to-CAS Delay

RAS CAS ( ).
, ,
.
:
2 ;
3 . .
DRAM RAS-to-CAS Delay.
Hi-Speed Refresh

, .

"asa 6.

109

:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
,
, .
Hidden Refresh

.
IBM AT ,
. , . .
: ,
, , (IRQ0), .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
, ,
Suspend. , . . , .
Optimization Method

.
, .
:

Normal ;

Turbo 1
;

Turbo 2
.

110

II. BIOS

RAS Precharge Control

. , .
:

Enabled ;

Disabled .
BIOS Precharge Closing

Policy.

RAS Precharge Time



.
, ,
"".
Ref/Act Command Delay
.
:
5 ;
6 . ;
7 ;
8 .
Refresh During PCI Cycles
, / PCI.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Refresh RAS Assertion
RAS .
:

IT, 2, , 4, 5( ), 6, 7, 8, 9 .

6.

111

, .
: Refresh Assertion, Refresh RAS Active Time.

Refresh Value

,
.
, ,
.
BIOS Refresh Divider.
Refresh When CPU Hold

, "" .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
SDRAM (CAS Lat/RAS-to-CAS)
CAS RAS CAS .
,
, . , . .
.
:
2/2, 3/3 ,
CAS RAS CAS.
SDRAM CAS-to-RAS Delay
RAS CAS . , .
, .
:

3 .
;
2 .

Slow Refresh

4 , .

II. BIOS

112


, .

. .

.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
: DRAM Slow Refresh, Slow Refresh.
Slow Memory Refresh Divider, Slow Refresh Enable.

:
Yes ;
No .

""
"" , ,
MS-DOS. Windows .
Base Memory Address
,
- PCI- .

BIOS.
Extended ROM RAM Area
,
: , 639- , , BIOS.
AMI BIOS.
:

RAM
;

BIOS BIOS.
,
. . .

" ~ 6.

113

""
BIOS, ""
.
BIOS RAM
Area.
PCI Master Accesses Shadow RAM
PCI . .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
Shadow C800H
800 (16 )
BIOS .
.
Shadow CC00H

.
Shadow D000H
.
Shadow D400H
.
Shadow D800H
.
Shadow DC00H
.
Shadow E000H
EMS,
.
Shadow E400H
.
Shadow E800H
.

114

II. BIOS

Shadow ECOOH
SCSI, .
System BIOS Shadow
BIOS
(
). MS-DOS, BIOS, . . .
:
Enabled . -
"" ;
Cached , , .
;
Disabled . , .
VGA Type
"" .
:

Standard ""
;

PCI "" , PCI-;

ISA/EISA , ISA EISA-.

Video ROM BIOS Shadow


-BIOS . MS-DOS.
. Flash ROM, "" , . .
, .

~~ 6.

115

:
Enabled . . -
, BIOS, .
EGA VGA;

Cached , ,
. ;

Disabled . .
BIOS "". , ,
- . , , SCSI-, ,
BIOS, .


, ,
. (, ),
, ( Bus-Master).
,
, .
: ,

,
.

VLB
Local Bus Ready Delay

VLB. VLB- .
:

72 ;

Disabled . .

ISA
3 16 Bit I/O Command WS

.

' 7.

117

, ,
. , -
, /
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . ,
,
.
, ISA.
BIOS ISA 16 Bit I/O
Wait States.
: 0,1,2,3.
1 16 Bit I/O Recovery Time
(
) / 8- . ,
/ / , .
1 4.
1,
- 16- .
1 16 Bit ISA Mem Command WS
16 Bit I/O Command WS,
,
ISA- /
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
1 8 Bit I/O Recovery Time
(
) / 8- . ,
/ / , . , 8-
( ) , , 16-.

118

II. BIOS

1 8.
1,
- 8- .
AT Cycle Wait State

ISA.
,
ISA- PCI-.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Back-to-Back I/O Delay

/. ISA- .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
CPU Dynamic Fast Cycle
"" ISA-, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Extended I/O Decode
16
/ 10-, ISA. PCI-
ISA-, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
ISA Bus Clock
ISA.
ISA- 8,33 . -

7.

1_19_

( ) PCI- "
". ,
,
PCI-. , ISA- , , . ,
). . PCI-
, : 25, 30,
;
3 . .
:
PC 1/2 ( PCICLK/2, CLK/2), PC 1/3. PCI/4, PCI/5, PCI/6, PCI/8,
PCI/10, PCI/12 , PCI. , 4.
: ISA Clock, ISA Clock
Frequency, ISA Bus Clock Frequency. ISA Bus Clock Option, ISA Bus Speed,
ISA Clock Select, ISA Clock Divisor. AT Bus Clock, AT Bus Clock Frequency,
AT Bus Clock Selection.
ISA Clock Select Enable,
, ISA : Enabled Disabled .
ISA Mem Block Base
, ISA.
:

No/ICU .
ISA Configuration Utility,
MS-DOS ;

800, , D000H, D800H, DC0OH ,


, .

ISA Mem Block Size, : 8 Kb, 16 Kb, 32 Kb, 64 Kb.

120

II. BIOS j

ISA-, - ]
.
Onboard ISA Bridge
ISA !
. , ISA. , |
, .
:
Enabled ISA- ;

Disabled ISA .

PCI
Bus Mastering
, ?'
PCI, master-. ,
, |
.
:
Enabled . ,
- (
);

Disabled . .

BIOS ISA , , Master


.
Byte Merge Support

!
PCI.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS : Byte MergeJ
PCI Write-bite-Merge, CPU-to-PCI Byte Merge.
CPU-to-PCI 6 DW FIFO
, !
PCI- 6-

7.

121

. " ".
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled . .
CPU-to-PCI Bridge Retry
, PCI ,
"" .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
CPU-to-PCI Burst Memory Write

PCI.
PCI- ,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS : CPU-to-PCI
Write Bursting, PCI Burst Write Combine. PCI Write Burst, PCI Burst Write
Combining, CPU Burst Write.
CPU-to-PCI IDE Posting
PCI/IDE .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
CPU-to-PCI Read Buffer
, PCI 4- , .
,
.

122

II. BIOS

:
Enabled . ;
Disabled . , , PCI
.
CPU-to-PCI Write Buffer
CPU-to-PCI Read Buffer, . . 4 PCI
PCI-.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled .
, PCI-
.
BIOS CPU-toPCI Buffer Enabled ( ) Disabled ( ).
CPU-to-PCI Write Latency

( ). , . .
:

IT ;

2 ;
.

Latency For CPU-to-PCI Write.


Delayed Transaction
BIOS ,
32-
PCI.
:

Enabled PCI 8- ISA. -

' 7.

123_

, . . ISA
5060 PCI. PCI 2.1;

Disabled , . PCI 2.1.

: PCI Delayed Transaction,


Delayed Transaction Optimization Delayed Transaction Timer.
1 High Priority PCI Mode

PCI . , , IEEE 1394 (FireWire).



PCI-.
:
Enabled ;

Disabled . .

1 Host Bus Fast Data Ready

,
.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
1 Master Enabled

, PCI
Bus-Master.
:

Enabled . BIOS PCI- Bus-Master;


Disabled . Bus-Master .

3 Master Prefetch And Posting

master-.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .

II. BIOS

124

Master Priority Rotation


PCI-.
:
1 PCI PCI
PCI-. ,
1-;
2 PCI PCI
PCI-;
3 PCI PCI
PCI-. .
2/2 Concurrency
,
PCI
, .
:

Enabled .
, ;

Disabled . .
PCI 2.1 Support
2.1 PCI.
2.0 66 PCI-PCI.
, 4- .
:
Enabled 2.1 PCI. ;
Disabled 2.1 .
PCI-.
BIOS PCI 2.1 Compliance.
PCI Bus Arbitration

PCI .

' 7.

125_

Favor CPU .
;

Favor PCI ,
PCI.

BIOS : Rotation
Fixed. Arbitration Priority.
""
:

PCI First master- PCI-;

ISA/DMA First master- ISA-.

DMA/ISA Master Before PCI:

Enabled master- ISA;

Disabled , master- PCI.



: PCI Arbiter Mode. PCI Arbitration Mode, PCI Arbit. Rotate
Priority.

PCI Bus Parking

PCI.
"" Bus-Master.
"" PCI-
, . , , , .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
PCI Clock Frequency

PCI.
BIOS Pentium,
486- AMD PCI. .
:
CPUCLK/1.5
1,5. ;

126

II. BIOS

CPUCLK/2
2;
CPUCLK/3
3;
14 MHz PCI. ( ).
PCI Clock/CPU FSB Clock
,
1-.
:
2/3, 1/3 1/4 PCI 33 .
, , . PCI- (. . ).
PCI Dynamic Bursting

PCI. ,
.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled .
PCI Dynamic Decoding
, PCI, . , PCI-.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
PCI Latency Timer
, ( ) Bus-Master PCI-
PCI, PCI-. ,
, PCI-
. -

7.

127

,
.
16 128 , 8.
, PCI-, , .
, PCI-, Bus-Master
(, SCSI ). , ,
Bus-Master. , , SCSI- ,
PCI-, . ,
. , , PCI-, BIOS, . , - .
BIOS : PCI Bus Time-Out, PCI Master Latency, Latency Timer, PCI Clocks,
PCI Initial Latency Timer.
: Disabled, 16 Clocks, 24 Clocks 32 Clocks.

\_

PCI Latency Timer ( ) PCI ISA-. ISA


master-. , , . PCI master. , ,
master- PCI-
ISA. -
ISA,
, . . . , AMI BIOS 0 255 . 66 ,
PCI- .

3 PCI Master WS Write


master- PCI .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled . .

128

II. BIOS

PCI Mstr Burst Mode


PCI master.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
PCI Preempt Timer
( ),
PCI-, Bus-Master, , .
, master-
"". , PCI Latency
Timer.

No Preemption ( Disabled) .
, , Bus-Master;

5, 12, 20, 36, 68, 132 260 , . {5LCLKs


).
BIOS PCI Preemption
Timer.
PCI#2 Access #1 Retry

, PCI-
, , . , "" .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled .
1-.
PCI-to-ISA Write Buffer
, ,
,

7.

129

.
PCI
ISA.
(, ) , ISA PCI , PCI , ISA- .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
3 Passive Release
,
PCI, , ISA,

PCI. , PCI ISA. ISA. BIOS Intel Triton VX/HX
master- - .
:
Enabled ;

Disabled . ISA, DMA (, , Arvid),


ISA- .

BIOS PCI Passive


Release.
3 Peer Concurrency

, PCI-. /. PCI- , .
.
PCI ISA. , PCI ISA-,
DMA- Bus-Master.
I = 3.1K. 2 1 2

1
130

II. BIOS

Enabled . ,
;

Disabled . ,
.

BIOS : PCI Concurrency, Bus Concurrency, Peer Concurrency & Chipset NA# Asserted. -

"" IDE.
PCI/IDE Concurrency

PCI-to-IDE Concurrency.

Preempt PCI Master Option


, /, master- (
), , , , .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
Snoop Ahead
1- . . - .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled . .
System/PCI Frequency (MHz)
(
PCI). ,
.
BIOS.

' 7.

131

LJjHHaAGP
3 AGP
AGP.
:

Enabled . ;

Disabled .
AGP.

3 AGP 2X Mode

AGP. 75 .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled AGP IX Mode.
.
3 AGP Aperture Size MB

,
.
.
:
4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 256
. AGP-
, 16 .
3 AGP Capability

AGP-.
, .
:

IX Mode AGP-.
, , ;

2 Mode
AGP ( , ).
, .
;

132

II. BIOS

4 Mode ( ) AGP-.
AGP Drive Strength P Ctrl (When AGP 4X Drive Strength Set to Manual)
AGP, . Manual AGP Signal Driving.
0 F.
,
,
.
AGP Drive Strength N
Ctrl (When AGP 4X Drive Strength Set to Manual).
, N-.
AGP Data Strobe P Ctrl (When AGP 4X Drive Strength Set to Manual)
, AGP Drive Strength P Ctrl, .
AGP Data Strobe Strength N Ctrl
(When AGP 4X Drive Strength Set to Manual),
N-.
AGP Driving Value
AGP.
, .

AGP .
.
, . . AGP-.
00 FF ( ).
DA.
nVidia GeForce 2 ,
, .
AGP Master 1WS Read

AGP.
:
Enabled 1. AGP-, ;

' 7.

133_

Disabled 2. AGP, .
3 AGP Master 1WS Write

AGP.
:

Enabled 1. AGP-, ;

Disabled 2. AGP, .
1 AGP Parity Error Response
AGP.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
AGP SERR#
, -
AGP SERR#, .
:
Enabled :
Disabled .
1 AGP Signal Driving

AGP. - AGP 4.
,
AGP Driving Value.
:
Auto AGP ;
Manual AGP.
BIOS AGP Driving
Control.

134

II. BIOS

AGPCLK/CPUCLK

AGP
.
:
1/1 100 ;
2/3 100 .
Vagp
AGP-.
BIOS.
:

3,5 V , 2;

1,5 V , 4.

LLlHHaUSB
USB Controller

USB.
:
Enabled , ,
USB. ;

Disabled . , USB.

USB-. , ,
.
, USB (, , ).
: USB Interface, Integrated
USB Controller, USB Function, USB Controller Resume.
USB Speed
USB.
:
24 MHz 48 MHz
.

/
) ,

, , ).

(, ).
1 1/2 MIDI
01 COM2
MIDI.
:

Enabled ;

Disabled .
BIOS Serial Port
1/2 MIDI.
D ECP DMA Select
1

DMA,
+.
:
1 DMA1;
3 DMA3.
BIOS
Mode Use DMA Channel 1 Channel 3.
I EPP Mode Select

LPT.

136

II. BIOS

:
1.7 1.7;
1.9 1.9.
, Parallel Port
Mode +.
IR Duplex

.
:
Full . , . .
;

Half .
- .
, UART2
Mode Select HPSIR.
BIOS :
UR2 Duplex Mode, UART 1/2 Duplex Mode, Duplex Select, InfraRed Duplex
Type, IR Function Duplex IR Transfer Mode. Half-Duplex Full-Duplex. Disabled, .

Onboard Parallel Port


/ , LPT.
Disabled , .
Onboard Serial Port 1
/ 01.
,
.
:

3F8/IRQ4 3E8/IRQ4 /
01;

Disabled , . IRQ4 ;
Auto BIOS /.

8. /

137

D Onboard Serial Port 2

/ COM2.
,
.
:
2F8/IRQ3 2E8/IRQ3 /
COM2;
Disabled , . IRQ3 ;
Auto BIOS /.
BIOS : Onboard Serial Port /, Onboard Serial UART 1/2, Onboard
UART 1/2.
Parallel Port Mode
Parallel Port Mode (ECP+EPP),
.
:

SPP . ,
;

. DMA;

+ EPP+SPP BIOS ;

1.9 1.9 .
,
IEEE 1284. ,
,
;
1.7 1.7 .

Parallel Port Mode (ECP+EPP)


IEEE 1284. -

138

II. BIOS

(,
Iomega ZIP Drive LPT).
:
Normal ;
, . DMA (
DMA3). ,
/ (
2,5 /);

. , DMA.
, . . /;

+ .

UART 2 Mode Select


IrDA ( ).
RxD, TxD Active, IR Transmission Delay.

Normal COM2;

Standard 118-232-, ;
IrDA 1.0 ,
1.0;
IrDA SIR SIR IrDA- IR-;
IrDA MIR MIR 1 /;

MIR 0.57M
0,57 /;

MIR 1.15M
1,15 /;
IrDA FIR FIR IrDA- Fast-IR-;

Sharp IR
1 /;
HPSIR
Hewlett-Packard;

Disabled .

' 8. /

139_

BIOS :
UART2 Mode, Onboard UART2 Mode, Infra Red Function, IR Mode Select,
UR2 Mode, Onboard IR Function IR Function.
1 x IR Transmission Delay
, .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled . . .
1 RxD, TxD Active
/ (RxD , a TxD ). ,
.
:
Hi,Lo, Lo,Hi, Lo,Lo, Hi,Hi
.
BIOS Use
IR Pins, : IR-RX2TX2 ( )

1R-RXTX.


, . , , , .
DMA Clock
DMA.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS : DMA Clock Select,
DMA Clock Speed.
DMA Line Buffer Mode
,
PCI.
:
Standard . ;

Enhanced 8- , . ;

Disabled . DMA.

9.

141

DMA Wait States



DMA. , .
:
IT, 2, 4 .
BIOS ,
8- 16- .
8-bit DMA Cycle Wait States 16-bit DMA
Cycle Wait States .
DMA n Assigned To
, DMA .
:
Legacy ISA ISA, Plug and Play (, ). , , DMA
, , , ;
PCI/ISA Plug and Play. .
.
DMA n Used By ISA
DMA n Assigned To.
:
No/lCU
. , MS-DOS ISA Configuration
Utility. Intel
, BIOS;
Yes DMA ISA, Plug and Play. ISA-,
BIOS DMA
.
Extended DMA Registers
DMA
16 .

142

II. BIOS

:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
ISA- .
IRQ n Assigned To
, IRQ .
:
Legacy ISA ISA, Plug and Play (, ). , ,
, , , .
;
PCI/ISA Plug and Play. . .
IRQ n Used By ISA
IRQ n Assigned To.
:
No/ICU
. , MS-DOS ISA Configuration
Utility. Intel
, BIOS;
Yes ISA, Plug and Play. ISA-,
BIOS
.
Interrupt Mode


, 24 16 . ,
( Windows 2000 )

9.

143

, . , , .
:

APIC . ;

PIC .
3 Modem Use IRQ
, . , "" . N/A.
3 PCI IDE IRQ Map To
, IDE PCI ( ) ,
ISA. IDE- IRQ 14
IRQ 15 .
:

PCI IDE IRQ Mapping IDE.


IDE,
. ;

PC AT (ISA) ISA.
- IDE.

3 PCI IRQ Activated By


, ,

PCI. "" .
:

Level . . ,
;

Edge .
PCI Slot IDE 2nd Channel
,
IDE, , .
.

144

II. BIOS

:
Enabled IDE. ;
Disabled IRQ15
.
PIRQ_0 Use IRQ No. ... PIRQ_3 Use IRQ No

PCI AGP-. , , , , . , .
:
Auto ( ), 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15 , . Auto
BIOS.
PS/2 Mouse Function Control
IRQ 12
, PS/2.
:
Enabled . .
, ;
Auto PS/2. , ,
-.
PnP OS Installed
(IRQ, DMA) , Plug and Play, BIOS.
:
Yes . Windows 9x, Windows 2000;
No BIOS. Windows NT,
Linux, OS/2.

9.

145

-
, .
Reset Configuration
"" ,
. .
:
Enabled
.
- ;
Disabled . .
.
Force
Update ESCD.
Resource Controlled By
( IRQ DMA).
:
Auto .
;
Manual .
- .
BIOS
PCI-: Slot I IRQ, Slot 2 IRQ, Slot 3 IRQ, Slot 4/5 IRQ (4- 5-
, ). PnP OS Installed , , Plug and Play.
1 Trigger Method
IRQ
1-.
:
Auto PCI-, Plug and Play.

146

II, BIOS

,
. ;

PCI-

Force
. , SCSI- NRC- , IRQ 15 ( ).

USB IRQ
USB.
:
Enabled US .
. ,
.
USB Aureal;
Disabled USB .
, .
BIOS :
Assign IRQ For USB, Use An IRQ For USB (
: Yes No ).

1 0


, , & . ,
, , . : - .
.
1 Assign IRQ For VGA

'

(IRQ9) .
:

Enabled IRQ9.

, ;

Disabled . ,
, , .

-.
, , , . , , MPEG-
( DVD-).
Bus-Master,
.

II. BIOS

148

BIOS
IRQ to PCI VGA.
D Graphics Aperture Size


AGP.
:
4MB, 8MB, 16MB, 32MB, 64MB ( ), 128MB 256MB , , .
50 25% ( ). .
Init AGP Display First
, AGP-, . , , PCI ISA-.
:

Enabled AGP;

Disabled PCI
ISA-.
BIOS Init Display, -,
:
AGP , AGP-;
PCI , 1-.
"" ]
Graphics Adapter : VL Bus -j
VESA PCI Bus PCI.

. , ,
. ,
PCI- .
PCI Pipeline

. , ,
1-.

10.

149

:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS PCI
Pipelining.
PCI/VGA Palette Snoop

, VGA.
, MPEG (
).
:
Enabled ;

Disabled .
.

USWC Write Posting

, . ,

. ,
. BIOS , ,
Pentium Pro (, Pentium II).
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
, . .
, .
VGA 128K Range Attribute

, ,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
VGA.
: VGA Performance
Mode, Turbo VGA (OWS at A/B), VGA Frame Buffer.

150

II. BIOS

VGA BIOS Sequence


, BIOS
AGP PCI. ,
.
:
AGP ( AGP/PCI) AGP. , BIOS .
;

PCI ( PCI/AGP) PCI. ,


BIOS .
.

Video
Standard CMOS Setup
() . ,
, BIOS .
:
Mono (-) ;
MDA - , ;

CGA 80 ,
80 ;

CGA 40 ,
40 ;

EGA/VGA , EGA, VGA SVGA. .


VGA/PGA/EGA.

Primary Display : VGA/EGA,


CGA40x25, CGA80x25, Mono, Absent.
(, ) LCD&CRT :
LCD ;

CRT - ;

Auto ;

LCD&CRT .

11


-
(FDD)
. FDD ,
. .
1 Onboard FDC (FDD) Controller


-.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled .
- .
Report No FDD Win 95

Windows 9x (ME)
-. Onboard FDC Controller Windows IRQ6, -, .
:

Yes .
- (, )
Windows;

No . !
IRQ6
.

152

II. BIOS

Swap Floppy Drive

. ,
, (3,5").
, ,
- .
,
.
:
Enabled ,
,
;
Disabled (
).
: Floppy Drive Swap, Onboard FDC
Swap A&B.

1 2


, , . .
Boot Up Numlock Status

, .

<NumLock>.
:
Enabled
.
( NumLock);

Disabled <Ins>,
<Del> . .

: System Boot Up Numlock


Status, Boot Up Num-Lock ( AMI BIOS) Numlock.
| Input Clock

. , , . ,
.
:
8 MHz . , ;

154

II. BIOS

12 MHz . ;
16 MHz . , .

: Input Clock Select,


Keyboard Controller Clock.
Keyboard
,
-, ,
.
:
Installed ,
. ;

Not Installed . .

AMI BIOS System Keyboard


Present ( ) Absent
.
Keyboard Reset Control

<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del>.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled .
Typematic Rate Setting

.
:
Enabled "" ,
;
Disabled - .
Typematic Rate (Chars/Sec)
.

, 6 30 , . . -

12.

755

. , ,
MS-DOS. Windows
.
:
6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30 , , ,
.
Keyboard Auto-Repeat Rate.
Typematic (Rate) Delay (Msec)
,
0,25 1 .
:
250, 500, 750 1000
.
Keyboard Auto-Repeat Delay.
USB Keyboard Support Via
, USB, BIOS,
.
:

OS USB- (, Windows 98);

BIOS USB- BIOS (, MS-DOS UNIX).


Phoenix BIOS . USB BIOS Legacy Support
Enabled () Disabled () USB- () BIOS.
USB Legacy Support (
Enabled/Disabled) .
I Port 64/60 Emulation
USB-.
:
Enabled Windows NT;

Disabled Windows 9.

13


. ,
, ,
. , , ,

( ).
Audio Controller
,
.
:
Enabled . . ;
Disabled . , , .
.
BIOS : Audio, Audio Device,
Onboard Audio, Onboard Audio Chip.
Graphics Mode Select
,
.
:
UMA 1MB 1 ;

UMA 512KB 512 .

[ 13.

157

| Init Display First

,
.
:

Onboard ;
PCI Slot , , 1-.

\\ Local Memory Freq

, .
BIOS.
Multiple Monitor Support

, .
:
Motherboard Primary ,
, ;

Motherboard Disabled , , ;

Adapter Monitor ,
, .
\"3 On-Chip Video Windows Size

, .
:

64 MB 64 ;

32 MB 32 ;

Disabled
.

\ Onboard AC97 Audio Controller


97.
:
Auto
;

158

II. BIOS

Disabled
.

Onboard AC97 Modem Controller


97.
:
Auto
;
Disabled .
Onboard Display Cache Setting
-, , .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
16-bit DMA Channel
16- DMA, -1
.
:
DMA5, DMA6, DMA7 DMA5.
Audio DMA Select.
8-bit DMA Channel
8- DMA, -|
.
:
DMAO, DMA1, DMA3 DMA3.
Base I/O Address
/, -|
.
, ,
, , 220.
: Audio I/O Base Address^
Onboard Audio Address.

13.

159

~) Interrupt

,
.
:
IRQ2, IRQ5, IRQ7, IRQ10 IRQ5.
BIOS Audio IRQ Select.
1 MPU I/O Address
/, ,
MPU-401 (MIDI Processing Unit).
.
:

300-301 330-331 330.

BIOS : MPU-401
Configuration, MPU-401 I/O Base Address.

14

SCSI-
SCSI , ,
, .
SCSI ,
SCSI, .
Embedded SCSI BIOS
BIOS SCSI- ,
BIOS. BIOS SCSI- .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
ONB AHA BIOS First
BIOS Adaptec SCSI- ( ).
:

Yes . SCSI- , BIOS ;

No . BIOS SCSI.

161

14. SCSI-

ONB SCSI LVD Term


SCSI- LVD- .
:
Enabled . . SCSI-;
Disabled . .
ONB SCSI SE Term

SCSI- SE- .
:
Enabled . SCSI-;
Disabled . .
Onboard AHA BIOS

SCSI- Adaptec , ,
BIOS- ( , . .).
:
Auto SCSI- Adaptec BIOS
;

Disabled
SCSI-.

SCSI- Adaptec
BIOS (, AHA-2940AU),
BIOS .
Onboard PCI/SCSI BIOS
SCSI, PCI-.

SCSI.
:

Enabled , SCSI-;

Disabled . IDE- .
. 212

162

II. BIOS

BIOS SCSI <Ctrl>+<A>.


Onboard SCSI
SCSI-, .
:
Enabled .
SCSI;
Disabled .
SCSI Parity Checking

SCSI-. .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Symbios SCSI BIOS
SCSI
NCR 810, (, , ASUS SC-200).
:
Auto . , BIOS;

Disabled SCSI- .

NCR SCSI BIOS.

15



IDE, ,
. 2 ,
"" .
~i 32-Bit Disk Access

, IDE-
16- .
PCI.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
Windows NT 4.0, . . 32- .
3 Delay IDE Initial
( ),
IDE BIOS
.
,

. AMI BIOS ,
.
:

Disabled . ;

164

II. BIOS

0-15, 0-30, 1-15 , .


. ,

Western Digital 430 .
: Hard Disk Pre-Delay, Delay For HDD (Sees).
SCSI- Delay For
SCSI/HDD (Sees) 0 60 .
HDD S.M.A.R.T. Capability
, .
.
:
Enabled . ,
66 ;
Disabled . .
IDE Buffer for DOS & Windows
IDE-
.
IDE, .
:
Enabled . ;

Disabled . IDE.

IDE Burst Mode

,
IDE. .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS IDE Bursting.
IDE DMA Transfer Mode
DMA- IDE.

' /5,

165

:
Standard ;
Disabled .
1 IDE Data Post Write
, , .
IDE.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS : IDE Data
Port Post Write IDE Fast Post Write.
"I IDE HDD Block Mode Sectors


IDE.
.
IDE-.
:

HDD MAX ;

Multi-Sector Transfers.
1 On-Chip PCI IDE Primary


IDE, .
:

Enabled . ;

Disabled .
SCSI IDE.
BIOS : On-Chip IDE
Channel 0 Onboard IDE-1 Controller.

On-Chip PCI IDE Secondary


IDE, .

166

II. BIOS

:
Enabled . ;
Disabled .
SCSI, IDE, .
BIOS : On-Chip IDE
Channel 1 Onboard IDE-2 Controller.
Onboard PCI IDE Enable
, IDE .
:
Primary ;
Secondary ;
Both ;
Disabled .
PCI IDE IRQ Map to
IRQ14 IRQ15 IDE, ISA.
:
PCI Auto IDE, ;
ISA IDE, ISA.
Primary Master , Primary Slave PIO, Secondary Master PIO,
Secondary Slave PIO

IDE.
:

Mode 0 3,3 /;

Mode 1 5,2 /;

Mode 2 8,3 /;
Mode 3 11,1 /;

Mode 4 16,6 /;

Auto BIOS . .

' 15.

167

BIOS : Mode
Master/Slave Drive PIO Mode.
Primary Master UDMA, Primary Slave UDMA, Secondary Master UDMA,
Secondary Slave UDMA
Ultra DMA IDE.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled .
IDE, . . .
BIOS :
UltraDMA PIO Mode, Master/Slave Drive UltraDMA.
UltraDMA-66/100 IDE Controller
IDE, Ultra DMA 66/100.
BIOS ,
.
:
Enabled . ;

Disabled .
.

16


, , , , ,
(,
"").

/
AC PWR Loss Restart
,
. ,
Power .
:
Enabled . , 220 ;
Disabled .
ACPI Function

ACPI BIOS.
:
Enabled .
, (, Windows 98);
Disabled . .

' 16.

169


Suspend Mode, HDD Power Down , .
3 ACPI I/O Device Mode

ACPI .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled . .
3 After G3 Enabled
, "" .
:
Yes ;
No .
3 Automatic Power Up

.
:

Everyday
. Time (hh:mm:ss) Alarm : , , ;

By Date . ,
( , Everyday)
(Date On Month Alarm);
Disabled .
1 IRQ 8 Resume By Suspend
, Alarm Time.
:

Enabled ;

Disabled .
1 Control By
( )
(
).

170

II. BIOS

:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
PWR Button < 4 Sees
Power .
:
Soft Off . Power
,
Windows;
Suspend . Power
4 Suspend;
No Function . Power
/ .
BIOS Soft-off By
PWRBTTN.
PWR Lost Resume State

220 .
:
Keep Off ,
Power ;
Turn On ;
Last State , .
BIOS PWR On After
PWR-Fail, :
On ;
Off
;
Former-sts
. Power

' ~ 16.

171

,
.
PWR Up On External Modem Act

,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
PWR Up On Modem Act

,
, . , .

, "" .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
BIOS : Resume
By Ring, Ring Resume From Soft Off. Power Up by Modem, Modem Ring On.
Power Button Function

, Power .
:
On/Off Power
. / ;
Suspend , Power Suspend.
( 4 ) .
Power Button Over Ride

.
:
Enabled ,
Power,
Power
4 . ;

172

II. BIOS

Disabled
Power .
Power Management
.
:
User Define ,
;
Min Saving (
, . .)
40120 BIOS;
Max Saving (
, . .) 3060
BIOS;
Disabled
.
Power Management Mode

ACPI.
:
. ,
Windows 95;
ACPI
ACPI. ,
Windows 98;
Disabled .
Power Supply Type
,
.
:
AT AT;
ATX .
Power Up By Keyboard
- .
. -

16.

173


( ). ,
+5 Standby
300 .
:
Power Key ( Disabled) . Power . ;

<Ctrl>+<Esc> . , . .
;

<Space Bar>
<>;

3 RTC Alarm Resume (From Soft)

, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
:
RTC Alarm Date ;
RTC Alarm Hour ;
RTC Alarm Minute
;
RTC Alarm Second
.

,
.
BIOS
RTC Wake Up Timer.
Soft Power Off
(, Windows).

174

II. BIOS

:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
State After Power Failure
, 220 .
:
Off
;
On
( );
Auto
, . .
Wake On LAN or PCI Modem
,
1-.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Wake On PS/2 KB/Mouse
<>
, PS/2,
PS/2-. , +5 Standby 300 . , ,
220 , . . (, Windows).
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
, ,
Mouse Wake-Up
Function.

16.

175


3 ACPI Suspend Type

"" .
:

SI (POS) Power On Suspend;

S3 (STR) Suspend To RAM.

"" Suspend To RAM.


Windows 98 (
) , , .
.
Auto Suspend Timeout


Suspend.
BIOS. , , ,
"" , .
CPU Sleep Pin Enable
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
CPUFAN Off in Suspend
, ,
Suspend.
ACPI.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .

176

II. BIOS

Doze Mode

,
(Doze),
33 .
:
30 Sec, I Min, 2Min, 4 Min, 8 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 40 Min, lHour "" (, Sec .
Min , Hour );
Disabled .
Doze Speed

"".
BIOS.
Green Switch
Green Switch . ( ).
:
Yes ;
No . .
Hard Disk Power Down Mode

"" .
:
Standby "" Standby;
Suspend "" Suspend;
Disabled "" .

.
BIOS HDD Off After.
Hard Disk Timeout
, , , -

16.

177

. IDE.

BIOS. ( Disabled), . .
.
BIOS : Hard Disk
Time Out (Minute) HDD Power Down.
D IRQ8 Break Suspend
, , IRQ8 ( ), Suspend.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Keyboard Wake-Up Function
""
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Keyboard/Mouse Power On
,
.
:
Disabled . ;

Password KB Power On
Password, , ;

Hot Key KB Power On Hot


Key, ""
;

Mouse Left
;

Mouse Right
;

Any Key ;

178

II. BIOS

Keyboard 98
<Wake Up> ( Windows).
, (
Windows 98- ). , , ,
Take Wake-On-Keyboard/Mouse (
).

,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Events
, , "" . - ( Enabled)
. ( Disabled) ""
.
:
IRQ 3 , , ,
COM2 (,
);
IRQ 4 , 01 (,
);
IRQ 5 ""
, LPT2 (,
);
IRQ 6 "" - (, , );
IRQ 7 "" , LPT1 ( , );

' 16.

179_

IRQ 8 . ,
, ""
;

IRQ 12 "",
PS/2;

IRQ 14 "", , IDE;


IRQ 15 "",
CD-ROM ,
IDE;
Serial Port .

PCI Bus ""


, PCI.

IRQ . .
, , .
IRQ 3 , -
, COM2;
IRQ 4 , -
, 01;
IRQ 5 , -
, LPT2;

IRQ 6
-;

IRQ 7 , -
, LPT1;
IRQ 8 , . ,
"" , ;

IRQ 9 , IRQ9;

IRQ 10
, IRQ10;

180

II. BIOS

IRQ 11
, IRQ 11;
IRQ 12 , PS/2,
"";
IRQ 13
;
IRQ 14
, IDE;
IRQ 15
CD-ROM ,
IDE.
Event Wake-Up
,
"" .
:

Enabled . ;

Disabled . .

, , -

Events, Wake-Up Events Reload Global


Timer Events. BIOS
, IRQ DMA.
Power LED in Suspend

LED
Suspend Standby.
:

Blinking "" ;
On ;

Off/Dual .
BIOS : 98 Power
LED, PC98 LED. :
Enabled Disabled.
Power Saving Type

16.

1_81_

:
POS Suspend;
Sleep ;
Stop Clock ;
Deep Sleep "".
, , .
Resume on PCI Event
"" -
PCI- ( ). Wake-Up
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Save To Disk

Suspend
. "" .
:

Enabled ;

Disabled .

Standby CPU Speed


"" .
:

Max ;

High 1/4
;

Medium
1/8 . ;

Low 1/16
.

182

II. BIOS

Standby Mode

,
(Standby), .
:
30 Sec, I Min, 2Min, 4 Min, 8 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 40 Min, 1 Hour
(, Sec ,
Min , Hour );
Disabled .
Stby Speed

Standby. BIOS.
Suspend Mode
,
(Suspend), .
:
30 Sec, I Min, 2 Min, 4 Min, 8 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 40 Min, 1 Hour
"" (, Sec , Min , Hour );
Disabled .
Suspend Power Saving Type
"" Suspend.
:
S1 , - (
"");
S2 ,
"" .
Suspend Switch

(Suspend) . -

16.

183

SMI
Sleep.
Turbo Suspend "". .
:
Enabled .
Suspend Sleep;
Disabled .
Suspend .
Suspend-to-RAM Capability

, ""
, . ( STR) .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Throttle Dute Cycle

"" Doze.
BIOS.
VGA Active Monitor

""
- .
:
Monitor ;
Ignore .
BIOS :
Display Activity, Video Detection.

Video Off Method

"" .
:
Black Screen ,
. , ;

184

II. BIOS

V/H SYNC+Blank ,
. ;
DPMS Supported DPMS, ;
DPMS Off ;
DPMS Reduce ON ;
DPMS Standby
;
DPMS Suspend .
Video Off Option
,
.
:
Always , ;
Suspend- Off' Suspend;
Susp, Stby-Off
Suspend Standby;
All Modes
.
BIOS Video Off After.
Wake On LAN
""
.
, ,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Resume On LAN.
Phoenix BIOS LAN Remote
Boot, :
BootP BIOS,

BootP;

16.

185

LSA BIOS,

LSA;
Disabled .
3 Wake On USB for STR State
"" - , USB (,
). ( ).
, 2 +5
Standby.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
ZZ Active In Suspend
ZZ,
Suspend (
ISA). , ISA, "" .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .

.
KB Power On Hot Key

""
.
<Ctrl>+<Fl> <Ctrl>+<F12>.
KB Power On Password


. Keyboard/Mouse Power On Password.
<Enter> , "" . , . . .

17


Auto Detect DIMM/PCI CLK
BIOS
PCI DIMM-. , PCI-,
. .
, .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
D Clock For Spread Spectrum


.
:
Disabled . ;
0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3% , .
Flash BIOS Protection
Flash BIOS
.
BIOS ( ).
CMOS Setup Utility, ,
.

17.

187

:
Enabled .
;

Disabled . .

Floppy Disk Access Control (R/W)


. ,
, .
, .
:
Read Only , ;

R/W /.

Hard Disk Access Control

Floppy Disk Access Control (R/W)


, IDE.
:

Read Only ,
;
R/W /.

Hardware Reset Protection

.
, ,
(, ).
:
Enabled ;

Disabled .

Language Support

.
:
English (US) . ;
Francais ;
Italiano ;
Deutsch ;
Espanol .

188

II. BIOS

,
.
, , .
.
MPS 1.4 Support
BIOS ,
. , , .
:

Enabled MPS 1.4,


,
PCI-.
(Windows NT,- 2000, Novell Netware);

Disabled MPS 1.1. Windows .


MPS Version Control For OS.
:

1.4 MPS 1.4;

1.1 MPS 1.1.


BIOS :
MPS Revision, MP Version, MPS Version, Use Multiprocessor Specifications.
OS/2 Onboard Memory > 64 MB

64
OS/2. .
:

'

Enabled 64 OS/2;
;
<-
-.;;
Disabled . .
Security Option

. , ,
AWARD BIOS.
:

System CMOS Setup Utility;


.
Setup .

~~ 17.

189

AMI BIOS Password Checking Option :


Disabled ;

Setup CMOS Setup


Utility;

Always ,
.
:
Smart Clock

AGP, PCI SDRAM


, (,
""). .
.. . ,
...,..:,
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
Spread Spectrum Modulated

( 6%). ,

, ,
SCSI.
:

Enabled .
.
Disabled . .
. <
Spread Spectrum.
Supervisor Password

()
CMOS Setup
Utility.
<Enter> - .
User Password

CMOS Setup Utility.


<Enter> .

1 8



, , - .
, . .


CPU Critical Temperature

, , Thermal Slow
Clock Ratio.
:
45 , 50 , 55 , 60 , 65 , 70 75 ,
(
, , 50C/122F);

Disabled , . . .

CPU Warning Temperature :


50/122% 53C/127F, 56/133% 60/140% 65/145% 66C/151F
70C/158F ,
;

Disabled .

" 18.

191

CPU Fan On Temp High


,
. , 1& ,
(F) ().
CPU Temperature
. .
:
Monitor (Enabled)

;
Ignore .
Hardware Monitor

() .

Enabled . ;

Disabled .
MB Temperature
.
.
:

Monitor (Enabled)

;
Ignore .
Shutdown Temperature
,
- .
System Thermal

.
:

Monitor . -

192

II. BIOS

, CPU Critical
Temperature. ,
Thermal Slow Clock Ratio (, 5062,5%);
Ignore . , . . ,
.
Temperature Monitoring
.,
.
:
,-.
,
,
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Thermal Sensor State
. ,
,
. , .
, :
;
None BIOS;
Fail .
Thermal Slow Clock Ratio
( ) .
:
0-12,5%, 12,5-25%, 25-37,5%, 37,5-50, 50-62,5%, 62,5-75%
7587,5% , , CPU Critical Temperature;
Disabled .

' 18.

193


CPU Fan Speed
,
. , .
:
. , .
., ;
Enabled .
BIOS
;
. ,
Ignore .
-,
. .
' ,
Chassis Fan Speed (xxxxRPM)
. , .
:
Enabled .
BIOS
;
Ignore .
-*'
. .
Fan Control
>
,
.
...... , . ; .? , ;- >;
-.' *
:
"
rw
Enhanced Cooling
;
Auto
;
" 2 I :

194

II. BIOS

Silent
, , . .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled ( ).
Fan OFF at Suspend
, ,
Suspend.
:
Enabled Suspend , , ;
Disabled Suspend , , .
CPUFAN Off In Suspend.
Fan Speed
Fan Control.
:
Auto ;
Full
.
.
,
Fan State
. ,
,
. , .
, :
-,,
;.!>
:
..-:-. .-' ,. V""
;
None BIOS. , ( );
Fail .

18.

195

Power Fan Speed


.
, - .
:

Enabled .
BIOS
;

Ignore .
.

19

BIOS

BIOS ,
, .
COM Port Address

, , , . ,
. ,
MS-DOS .
:
3F8 1;

2F8 COM2;
Disabled .
'
--;': ;
Clear Event Log

>

> :

.
:
Keep .
;
On Next Boot
, Keep.
Critical Events in Log

, .

19. BIOS

:
Single Bit ECC Events . ,
;
?

Multiple Bit ECC Events


. , ;

Parity Error Events ;


Pre-Boot Events ,
.
EMP Access Mode
, . EMP (Emergency Management Port)
, ,
, .
:

Pre-Boot Only . POST ;


Always Active .
;

Disabled . .

Direct Connect/Modem Mode


,
.
:

,. . <

Direct Connect
-
;
. Modem Mode
.
Escape Sequence
, . -

II. BIOS

198

, . EMP Direct
Connect/Modem Mode Modem Mode.
EMP Password
, () .
:

'

Enabled . ,
. A...Z
0-9;
Disabled .
BIOS
Password Switch.

Restricted Mode Access


/ .
;
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Event Count Granularity
, , ,
.
, 0.

' *'

BIOS
Event Log Count Granularity.
Event Log Capacity

, .
:
Full
;
Not Full .

199

19. BIOS

3 Event Log Control

. System Event Logging.


:
All Events ;

Events .

Event Time Granularity

'

'

,
.
,
.
, 0.
3 Flow Control

.
:

CTS/RTS ;

XON/XOFF ;

CTS/RTS+CD
( ).

No Flow Control .
1 IRQ 3/4

, COM Port Address.


:
3 IRQ3;

4 IRQ4.

1 Mark Existing Events as Read


" ". ,
.
:

Mark
" ". ;

Do Not Mark .

200

II. BIOS

System Event Logging

, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .

20


BIOS
, , , , .
Unerase Undelete.

, , , - . ,

, (,
). , MS-DOS, Windows.
3 Auto Detect Hard Disk
IDE
( , . .).
BIOS CMOS
Setup Utility. ( , 500 )
,
. .
3 Auto Interleave

MFM RLL. IDE SCSI
, - , .

202

II. BIOS

Hard Disk Format



(Low Level Format). IDE .

EIDE. MFM RLL. Hard Disk Utility Low
Level Format .
'
. FDISK
.
Low Level Format

IDE ( EIDE).
IDE-. , ,
, , .
*
'
,J;
Media Analysis
.
/ - FAT, . , , - .
MFM RLL. IDE SCSI ,
.

III

21.
22.
23. "" BIOS

21


BIOS
.
. , , , , , .
. BIOS.
,
,
.
POST
- ,
( ),
. .
( 30) . .

AWARD BIOS

.


. .

206
1

HI.
;';, > ['": ,~-?, . :

,..,, ., .<!.. ,-*--*'

. .
: .:/,, .;,.; : i-:/>* .
'
2

- . , ,
CMOS Setup Utility .
BIOS ,
.
3

?
><.
* .
Reset . , . .,.-,..
1 + 1
;
;
.
. , .
1 + 2
, , s ..;..,.,.-.
,
>
. ,
. , ( ). , .
? 1 + 3
< ;
.

.
1 + 9
. Reset
. , ,
"" ( )
.
G 1
. . , .
1
. , .

207

21.

AMI BIOS
1
. .
2
. Reset .
. ,
, .
,.- ;,.,
:
3
( 64 ).
Reset . .
, ,
.
4
.
Reset . , , .
5
. Reset .
. ,
6

. Reset . ,
, . . , .
7
.
Reset . .
8
.
.

208

III.

9
,
..,,,
BIOS.

. , , ( Flash-).
10
CMOS-. Reset .
CMOS .
;
11
- ( ). Reset . -.
G 1 + 2
.
Reset . ,
. , .
1 + 3
.
Reset . ,
. , .
1 + 8
, . .

:; ; '.

' ", *"

'
'

>
' :.-'-:':;

Phoenix BIOS
1-1-3 .,.,

..,<:',:.!:. -; ........,-. ,:
. ..,,.,
/ CMOS. Reset /.
, CMOS- .
, , CMOS-.

21.

209

1-1-4
BIOS.
, BIOS "" ( Flash-).
1-2-1
. . , .
i ; :
1-2-2
DMA.
Reset . , .
1-2-3
/ DMA. Reset .
, .
1-3-1
.
Reset . , .
1-3-3
64 . Reset .
, .

1 - 3 - 4 . ' : -- ...
; '.. = . ; '' .-..
64 . Reset .
, .
1_4_1


-: ' / : '
; .-.- ',- - - :.'.- -. . - '" -

. . , .
1-4-2
.
. , :
.

210

1-4-3

III.
-

.
Reset . , .
1-4-4
/. , .
3-1-1
DMA.
Reset . , .
>
3-1-2
,,...:
'...-.
, '.
DMA.
Reset . , .
3-1-4
. . , .
3 - 2 - 4 " ^ : '::;; - '-'-- - :' - ;
' - - ' '
.. -.-'-:
.
Reset . , ,
.
-;
:; .
3-3-4 ,
,- ...-, ;,: :'.-
; ''-
. , - j
. .
4-2-1
.
Reset . , .
4-2-3
' " '
"" : V " ' ' -
'
20. . -^
.

4-2-4

. , .

211

21.

4-3-1
.
. ,
.

4-3-4
.
Reset . , .
4-4-1
.
, .

4-4-2

- - ' -.

. , .

4-4-3
.
Reset .
, .

22



.
. , .
.

, , , , .
, .
.
. .
. .__, , / _,. , ,, , .. . ;; ; ,.;V . ..;
, C M O S - . , ,
10 , , ,
,
. ,
.
.
.

V- '
'
' "'"' '
. ,
CMOS- , . , ,
.
.
.

' 22.

213

, , BIOS , , , .
.
3 8042 Gate A20 Error
( 8042
, ). .
, , .
3 Address Line Short
.
. , ,
.
3 BIOS ROM Checksum Error System Halt

BIOS , .
Flash-, ( BIOS). .
BIOS Update For Installed CPU Failed

. - BIOS
. BIOS ( BIOS Update
) .
Bad PnP Serial ID Checksum


Plug and Play.
. .
, , , .
Boot Error Press <F1> To Retry
.

. CMOS Setup Utility , .
Bus Time-Out NMI At Slot X
, X, . -

III.

214

Reset . EISA.
-2 Timer Error
. , " . . .
CMOS Battery Failed
, CMOS- ( , -
). . , .

CMOS Battery Has Failed


, CMOS- ( , -
). . , .

CMOS Battery State Low


, CMOS- ( , -
). . , .
,
.
CMOS Checksum Bad
CMOS-.
, - , CMOS-. ,
J(
,, CMOS Setup Utility . ,
BIOS ( Flash-).
CMOS Checksum Error
CMOS-.
, - , CMOS-. ,
CMOS Setup Utility . ,
BIOS ( Flash-).
CMOS Checksum Failure
CMOS-.
, - , -

' 22.

15

CMOS-. ,
CMOS Setup Utility . ,
BIOS ( Flash-).
CMOS Date/Time Not Set
/ .
CMOS Setup Utility /.
CMOS Display Type
BIOS . CMOS Setup Utility
.
CMOS Display Type Mismatch
BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
( ).
CMOS Memory Size Mismatch

. CMOS Setup Utility , , , .
CMOS System Options Not Set
CMOS- . ,
- , CMOS. , CMOS
Setup Utility .
, BIOS (
Flash-).
- .
CMOS Time And Date Not Set
/ .
CMOS Setup Utility /.
Cache Memory Bad, Do Not Enable Cache
-,
.
Reset . - ( -).

216

III |

Checking NVRAM

. ,
,
BIOS .
DMA #1 Error
DMA . , , (, ).
DMA #2 Error
DMA . , , (, ).
DMA Bus Time-Out
- ( ) DMA .
.
DMA Error
DMA .
.
, , .
Disk Boot Failure, Insert System Disk And Press Enter
. CMOS
Setup Utility ( ).
- .
Diskette Boot Failure
(
). .

, BIOS .
,
Diskette Drive / Error
. CMOS Setup Utility

22.

217

.
. ,
, .
Diskette Drivers Or Types Mismatch Error Run Setup
, , , BIOS. CMOS Setup Utility
.
1 Display Switch Is Set Incorrectly
BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
( ).
3 Display Switch Not Proper
BIOS ( ). CMOS Setup Utility
(
).
Display Type Has Changed Since Last Boot

. CMOS Setup Utility .
Drive X: Error
. . , CMOS Setup
Utility (
HDD Auto Detection). .
.
3 Drive X: Failure
,
. , . .
EIDE ( IDE , . . ). SCSI- , BIOS SCSI.
Error
,
.

218

III.

( ). .
, , .
EISA CMOS Inoperational
/ CMOS- EISA.
, ,
CMOS-. , EISA Configuration Utility .
EISA Configuration Checksum Error
BIOS EISA.
EISA Configuration Utility .
EISA Configuration Is Not Complete
BIOS
EISA. EISA Configuration Utility
.
Error Encountered Initializing Hard Drive

IDE.
,
BIOS (master,
slave).
. ,
, ( ).
Error Initializing Hard Drive Controller
IDE. Power .

(master, slave).
Expansion Board Not Ready At Slot X
X. .
, , (
).
Extended RAM Failed At Offset: XXXX
.

' 22.

219

.
, , .
FDD Controller Failure
-. . , , ( ).
3 Fail-Safe Timer NMI Inoperational
.
.
, , .
3 Floppy Disk Controller Resource Conflict
, .
, (. . ) . , ,
. , ,
.
3 Floppy Disk(s) Fail
-
. Reset
.
.
Floppy Disk(s) Fail (40)

-.
( -). CMOS Setup Utility
.
Floppy Drive Cntrlr Error Or No Cntrlr Present
!

He .
CMOS Setup Utility , FDD.

.

220

III.

HDD Controller Failure

IDE. Power .

(master, slave).
Hard Disk Install Failure
. . CMOS Setup Utility ( HDD Auto

Detection).
Hard Disk(s) Diagnosis Fail
He ( ).
- . CMOS Setup Utility .
HDD Auto Detection.
Hard Disk(s) Fail (20)
. . , , .
Hard Disk(s) Fail (40)
IDE ,
.
Reset .
I/O Card Parity Error at XXXX
( ) , . . .
INTR #1 Error
. . , IRQ0
IRQ7. , , .
INTR #2 Error
. . -

^ 22.

221

, IRQ8
IRQ15. , , .
3 Incorrect Drive / Run Setup
. CMOS Setup Utility
.
. ,
, .
3 Invalid Boot Diskette
, , (
).
3 Invalid Drive Specification
.
. , , .
FDISK*
Invalid Media In Drive X:
,
.
-. FDISK .
Invalid System Configuration Data
CMOS-,
Plug and Play. CMOS
Setup Utility Reset Configuration Data ( ) Yes. .
Invalid System Configuration Data Run Configuration Utility
Press <F1> to Resume, <F2> to Setup
CMOS-, Plug and Play. <F1> , <F2> CMOS Setup Utility ESCD.
/ Interface Error

'

. , .
.
< < -.
*

222

III. ^

Keyboard Error

. ,
,
.
, .
AT XT. , .
Keyboard Error Or No Keyboard Present
, .
, All, But
Keyboard Halt On . , , , -
. .
Keyboard Failure, Press [Fl] To Continue
.
"" - (, <> <Enter>),
, . ,
. ,
(
) (
Typematic Rate Typematic Delay).
Keyboard Is Locked Out Unlock The Key

"" - . <> <Enter>. , - (, , . .).


Keyboard Is Locked... Unlock It
"" - . <> <Enter>. , - (, , . .).
,
,

22.

223

3 Memory Address Error at XXXX



. . .
3 Memory Parity Error at

.
, .
.
3 Memory Size Decreased


. CMOS Setup Utility , , , .
3 Memory Size Has Changed Since Last Boot

. CMOS Setup Utility , , , .
3 Memory Size Increased

. CMOS Setup Utility , , , .
Memory Test Fail
.
. CMOS Setup
Utility .
, , .
3 Memory Verify Error at
. .
, ,
.
D Missing Operation System
.
.

III.

224

FDISK
( , ,
).
- .
G Monitor Type Does Not Match CMOS Run Setup

BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
( ).
NVRAM Checksum Error
(NVRAM),
Plug and Play (ESCD). .
, BIOS.
NVRAM Cleared

- - , Plug and Play,


.
, .
NVRAM Data Invalid

(NVRAM),
Plug and Play (ESCD). .

, BIOS.
No ROM Basic
.
-
.
Not Boot Device Available

He . , , ,

. CMOS Setup Utility
.

22

225

3 Off Board Parity Error

,
, ( -)
.

3 Offending Address Not Found

( /).
, Plug and Play,
PnP OS Installed . ,
,
BIOS.
3 Offending Segment

( /).
, Plug and Play,
PnP OS Installed . ,
,
BIOS.
3 On Board Parity Error

,
. IDE, PCI . .
. , ,
3 Onboard PCI VGA Not Configured For Bus Master

, , ""
PCI. CMOS Setup Utility
Bus-Master (
, ).
3 Onboard Parity Error XXXX

, ,
, . ,
, BIOS .
J Operating System Not Found

He . CMOS Setup
Utility ( , , I I 3 . i k 212

226

III.

). -
.
- . FDISK.
Override Enabled Default Loaded
,
BIOS.
( -), , , Load BIOS
Defaults.
PCI I/O Port Conflict
PCI
/.
CMOS Setup Utility . , ,
,
.
PCI IRQ Conflict

PCI
IRQ. CMOS Setup Utility
. , , , .
PCI Memory Conflict
PCI
.
CMOS Setup Utility . , , ,
.
Parallel Port Resource Conflict
, ,
, .
CMOS Setup Utility . , ,
,
(, DMA
/).

'' 22.

3 Parity Error
.
. .
, CMOS Setup
Utility , . , . , .
3 Press A Key To Reboot
, . .
, ,
, .
"3 Press ESC To Skip Memory Test
,
Quick Power On Self Test . <Esc> .
3 Press Fl To Disable NMI, F2 Reboot
. , , . NMI ( <F1>)
, ( <F2>).
Primary Boot Device Not Found
He .
BIOS,
. ,
, . CMOS Setup Utility .
Primary Master Hard Disk Fail
, IDE (primary) master. Reset
. , . .

228

III.

Primary Slave Hard Disk Fail

, IDE (primary) slave. Reset


. , . .
Primary/Secondary IDE Controller Resource Conflict
IDE .

. CMOS Setup Utility .
, , IDE,
.
RAM Parity Error Checking For Segment


. ,
. , CMOS Setup Utility
, .
,
Reset . , , .
Real Time Clock Error
"
. CMOS Setup Utility . , , .
Real Time Clock Failure
. CMOS Setup Utility . , , ,
Secondary Master Hard Disk Fail
, IDE (secondary)
master-.
Reset . , . .

22.

229

D Secondary Slave Hard Disk Fail


, IDE (secondary)
slave-.
Reset . , . .
3 Serial Port I Resource Conflict
01 (, /).
CMOS Setup Utility . , ,
,
.
3 Serial Port 2 Resource Conflict
COM2 (, /).
CMOS Setup Utility . , ,
,
.
3 Should Be Empty But EISA Board Found
EISA
, BIOS, .
EISA Configuration Utility .
1 Should Have EISA Board But Not Found
EISA .
EISA Configuration Utility . , ,
.
1 Slot Not Empty
EISA.
EISA Configuration Utility .
~3 Software Port NMI Inoperational
He NMI. .
, , .

230

III.

State Battery CMOS Low

, CMOS- ( , -
). . , .
Static Device Resource Conflict
ISA,
Plug and Play, , .
- .
System Battery Is Dead
, CMOS- ( , -
). . , .
System Battery Is Dead Replace And Run Setup

, CMOS- ( , -
). . , .
System CMOS Checksum Bad
CMOS-.
, - , CMOS-. ,
CMOS Setup Utility . ,
BIOS ( Flash-).
System Device Resource Conflict

ISA, Plug and


Play, , .
- .
System Halted, (Ctrl-Alt-Del) To Reboot
. <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del> ("
"). , . , .

nitllllllllllltlltllllllllllllllllllt

' 22.

231

System RAM Failed At Offset: XXXX

.

.
, , .
Type Display CMOS Mismatch

BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
( ).
Uncorrectable ECC DRAM Error

DRAM , .

(
). .
, , .
Unknown PCI Error

PCI. .

PCI- . ,
, .
Update Failed

Plug and Play . , . . , .


Update OK!

Plug and Play . .


Wrong Board In Slot

EISA .
EISA Configuration Utility
. , , .

232

III.

BIOS :
Error at [code], code .

. 22.1.

22.1.

01
02

'

(MDA, Hercules)

CGA

LPT1

10

LPT2

11

12

COM2

13

(,
)

14

17

18

30

74

VGA

85

EMS

22.

233


, ,
. , , BIOS.
, , .
- , .
, :
1. - .
2 - .
, , , .

:
1. Defaults CMOS Setup
CMOS Setup Utility. ,
-
.
2. ,
(
).
3.
, .
, .
4. " " (, - - ),
.
.
.
5.
SiSoft Sandra Pro, Dr.Hardware . . . ,

illllllllllllllllllllllliinilHHIIIIIHHIIIIIIIIIIilllllllll

' 22.

235


().
,
: ,
, ,
. .
.
3


.
, ,
, (
). ,
Power Good, ,
. , Flash-, BIOS.
POST-, ISA PCI
.
~3

, . , / .
, , .
.
3 , CMOS-

. ( 286486). ,
3 . 2,72,8 . , CMOS "".

-
.
, -

236

III. ^ ~,

. - ]

.
LPT-
-1
Windows, MS-DOS -
. ( -1
) , noprj
. ""
. , ]
.

,
( ), . , 180. . , (
). / .
'
IDE-
IDE
. IDE , - .

. , , /
, . .
( ). / ,


(100-200 ).
(. 22.2),
.

237

' 22.

22.2.

,

,

,
-
,




220 .

,


,
,


,
,



"Keyboard Failure"
"Keyboard Error"



"Non-System Disk Or Disk
Error"

,
-

,
.


,
.





"Boot Failure", "Insert the
System Diskette and Press
Any Key"



-
BIOS,

HIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII

23

"" BIOS
"" BIOS?
BIOS . , , ,

BIOS. .
( "") ,
, ,
. ,
, Power
( ). ,
. ? , .
"" BIOS , - .
:
1.
AT (,

BIOS).
2. , -
(,
, . .).
3. , . ,
(, -

23. "" BIOS

239

,
).
4. BIOS (,
, . .).
5. , CMOS Setup
Utility .
6. ,
.
, ,
, .
BIOS "" , : . , .


"" BIOS
. , , , CMOS-
. 100%
.
,
. , .
, , BIOS
, :
, ,
.
.
.
,
CMOS-,
BIOS.
Load Defaults BIOS CMOS Setup Utility.
.
,
Dallas Odin ( CMOS- -

240

III.

) . : ,
(,
), , ,
( ). 24 , . , BIOS
"" .

, . , CMOS , . , ,
,
CMOS , . ,
, . .
.
,
BIOS.
'
, .
82206 Chip
, .
AT: DMA-, ,
, CMOS RAM. CMOS-
12 32 74 75 (, ). 1
, (
).
. ,_,
F82C206 Chip
. AT: DMA-, , ,
CMOS RAM. CMOS- 3 26 ( ).
Dallas DS1287A, DS12887A, Benchmarq bq3287AMT
. CMOS, 10 . .
CMOS- 12 21 (
, ),

"* ^ 1 ' 23. "" BIOS

241

Dallas DS1287, DS12887, Benchmarq bq3287MT


. CMOS, 10 . .
CMOS- "" , .
3 Motorolla MC126818AP, Hitachi HD146818AP, Samsung KS82C6818A
. CMOS-
12 24 (
).
CMOS (
6818).
Dallas DS12885S, Benchmarq bq3258S
. CMOS-
12 20 12 24 (
)


"" CMOS-
. , , MSDOS. , CMOS Setup
Utility , , BIOS.
, ( ,
). , ,
BIOS.
CMOS- ,
, "".
.
, .

1
(Pascal, Assembler . .)
70 2FH, 71
, . , -

242

III.

Borland Pascal 7.0, ,


, :
Port[$70]:=$10
Port[$71]:=Port[$71] xor $FF

CMOS-. , BIOS
, - . , CMOS Setup Utility ,
BIOS.
Turbo Pascal,
:
Begin
Port[$70]:=$2E;
Port[$71]:=$00;
Port[$70]:=$2F;
Port[$71]:=$00;
end

2

DEBUG, .
CMOS-.
BIOS: AWARD AMI
:
DEBUG
- 7 0 17
- 7 1 17

3
,
CMOS Setup Utility , .
-
NC, DN, VC FAR, , , killcmos.com.

- 23. "" BIOS

243

- <Alt>
_ ( <Alt>, , <Alt> . .):
"s, 112, 50, 246, 176, 46, 238, 66, 50, 192, 238, 205, 32
- .

4
-
BIOS. ~ .

IV

BIOS
24.
25.
26. BIOS

"!

24


BIOS?
, BIOS.
3

, * , .
( !)) . BIOS . ,
Pentium II,
Peniium . BIOS.
,
" , BIOS. , ,
BIDS. , BIOS (, Pentium S ), CD-ROM,
BIOS . .
I

, BIOS
, Windows 95, Hi" -

248

IV. BfOS

Plug and Play.


- BfOS.
PnP-BlOS,
. , , Windows 2000 BfOS
ACPI.

BIOS - ,
,
.
U *
BIOS . .
, BIOS
(, . .).

BIOS ,
Intel ( tium II, Celeron, Pentium III). , , BIOS Updale, -
,
, .
BIOS Intel
.
.

,
?
BFOS, , ,
, , . ;
. .
, 1997 ,
Flasli-, -

24.

249

. , , .
, Flash-BIOS,
. BIOS
, . , , BIOS.
, .
, .
BIOS ,
27,
Flash-.
,
. BIOS .

. 28 29 , ,
, Flash-.


BIOS?
BIOS, , .
? ;
1. BIOS, BIOS .
, ,
BIOS.
2. . BIOS,
,
.
3. BIOS , , .

250

IV. BIOS


/.
(, BIOS ""), . . "" BIOS.
4. BIOS.
BIOS (
,
BIOS).
. , . <Pause> .
BIOS.
BIOS , , , , .
AMI BIOS :
61-0414-008031-0011 1-071595-440BX-CRBX014-H
BIOS.
, BIOS
( 15 1995 ). 440 ,
.
AWARD BIOS
:
02/15/2000-i440BX-ITE867-2A59CQlCC-00
9 (2A59CQ1CC).
( 259) ,
(QI) ,
() .
, BIOS (, http://www.award.com).

( ,
PCI). , , BIOS
, ,
.

' 24

251

?
Flash-, , BIOS .
, /. , , Windows,
BIOS .

BIOS.
? Flash-
MS-DOS, Windows.
. ,
- BIOS,
. , ,
, , ,
, .
, BIOS
MS-DOS. , BIOS .
100- .
Flash- .
MS-DOS ( BIOS
).
. .
(
).

25



BIOS
BIOS
, . ,
, BIOS .
, .
.
DOS-
/s. DOS.
ScanDisk Bad-.
BIOS,
(, award.exe) .
, BIOS
(, new.bin). ,
BIOS, , , ,
old.bin.
. ( autoexec.bat). :

253

25.
off
if exist old.bin goto old
sward.exe new.bin old.bin /py /sy /cc /cp /cd /sb /r
goto end
: old
award.exe old.bin /py /sn /cc /cp /cd /sb /r
:end

@echo off
f
if exist old.bin goto old
_
ami.exe new.bin old.bin /b /c /d /e /g /i /1 /n /r /v
goto end
:old
ami.exe old.bin /b /c /d /e /g /i /1 /n /r /v
:end

_ *

, , BIOS old.bin
( new.bin).

BIOS old.bin, (
) .
,
. ( )
BIOS. , ,
.
MS-DOS,
( ,
. .). <F8> . , , autoexec.bat config.sys (
Safe Mode Command Prompt Only). .
BIOS,
.
, -
( . ,
1
, ,
. Flash BIOS Protection.
| Disabled, -

254

IV. BIOS

BIOS.
/
Flash-BIOS (
). ,
,
BIOS. BIOS ( System BIOS Cacheable), -BIOS ( Video BIOS Cacheable) , "" (Shadow). ( Power Management Setup).
BIOS , , ,
(, , . .). ,
, , . BIOS , . . MS-DOS. BIOS .


,

. .
, . ,
.
Flash- .
BIOS (Award AMI BIOS) MSDOS BIOS.
""
, BIOS
.
Flash- Windows.
.

"" MS-DOS. Windows NT (2000), Windows 9x (ME). .

25

255

, . . , Windows
1000/, , - ( , Windows 9x) .
BIOS . , BIOS.
DOS- Flash-BIOS Award AMI BIOS.
Award BIOS 6.0 Rash-, "" BIOS. "Press Del to enter Setup"
<Alt>+<F2>.

BIOS, .

Award Flash
AWARD BIOS, Award Flash,
MS-DOS,
, . . BIOS
, .
,
BIOS , . ,

.
Award Flash
:
[file_l]

[file_2]

[/key]

t/key]...]

fiie_i , BIOS
( );
fiie_2 ,
BIOS ( );
/key , .
DOS-, Award Flash
,

256

IV. BIOS

. .
/? . .
.
>fiie__name.txt,
filename ,
.
/ /
, " BIOS ?". /
. / , BIOS (, ), . ,
.
/sy /sn BIOS.
( ). /sn "" BIOS ,

(
autoexec.bat).
/ "" CMOS-.
BIOS.
"" , .
G / ESCD,
, Plug and Play.
(
Reset Configuration Data).
/cd "" DMI, ( ,
. .). BIOS
(, "" )
.
/sb Boot Block. ,
, . , -

25.

257

BIOS. ,
Boot Block, }'
.
ft /sd DMI
.
BIOS, .
/ "" ( Reset ). ,
. ,
,
. " BIOS" .
/tiny . BIOS
. , ( ).
/ MS-DOS . , . .
, BIOS .
/f ,
BIOS ( BIOS
Flash-). , AwardFIash

"" BIOS.
/id "" CMOS-.
BIOS.
"" , . / ,
"" "Press Fl to continue or Del to
Setup".
/cks (). /,
Flash-.
/cksxxxx
, . BIOS
. -

IV. BIOS

258

"The Program
File's Fart Number Does Not Match With Your System!".
D /qi. , BIOS, ,
.
/bw Boot
,
(
,
BIOS).

Block
BIOS

/count
awdflash.txt, Flash.
/device Flash ROM.
, .

AMI Flash
AMI Flash , , AMI
BIOS, BIOS . ,

Flash-. BIOS

Award Flash . ,
, - , AMI Flash .
-,
DOS/4GW,
command.com. :

( "" MS-DOS
640 );
;
(, PCI-to-ISA ), BIOS.
, 32- -

25

259

/, . Flash-BIOS
/ .
AMI Flash
BIOS . , .
Flash-.

, BIOS . ,
500
BIOS ( 1,44 ).
AMI Flash
:
Tini.exe

[file_name]

[/key]

[/Key]...]

<>
. AMI Flash
,
.
AMI Flash, , , . ,
( Award Flash).
.
:
3 Main Menu ;
Go Ahead , ,
Information
Flash-, . Unknown
,
BIOS ,
;

260

IV. BIOS

Help/Message .



.
, . :
Go Ahead .
,
BIOS, , , ,
.
FUe , BIOS,
, , ,
.
Switch ,
Flash-BIOS. .
Part List
Flash-. , ,
, .
Chipset list . ,
, , .
Auto Detect .
Module : , .
, MS-DOS, AMI Flash
,
.
/ Boot Block.
,
BIOS .
, . . Boot
Block BIOS . Boot Block Programming
.

25.

261

/ ESCD,
Plug and Play. , .
NVRAM Programming .
/ , - .
Defaults CMOS Setup
CMOS Setup Utility. Load CMOS
Defaults .
/d CMOS Setup
Utility (. . -).
/. Clear
Passwords During Loading CMOS Defaults .
/ "" ( Reset ). ,
. , , .
" BIOS" .
Re-Boot After Programming Done ,
/v
BiOS. "The BIOS ROM File Checksum Is Bad".
BIOS File Checksum Verify .
/i , BIOS, .
, DMI ,
BIOS.
BIOS, .
BIOS File Tag Check .
D / "" CMOS-.
BIOS. "" , . Clear CMOS
After Programming Done .
/g , .

( ). GPNV Data Area Reserving .

262

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335

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ECU (EISA Configuration Utility).
.
( Plug and Play)
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. PS/2
, .

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VLB
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50 40 ,
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336

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PCI . Pentium
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AGP , 32
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, 286-
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338

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( 5-) . .
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340

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, , ,

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EISA ISA.
4 . - ,
. ISA-.

341

, , , EISA
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Intel 386
MCA IBM PS/2
ISA. ISA/EISA . PS/2.
VLB .


486, . . .
D PCI , . ,
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ISA

,
(PCI 2.0 PCI 2.1).
AGP .
.
(AGP IX, 4).
USB . 127
Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel,
Microsoft NEC. Plug and Play,
.
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, , , , .
, "" (
, .).
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342

-, , .
, . OPTi495SLC, SiS471 .
: , SiS471 SiS85C471.
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. South Bridge ("" )
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, , .
Intel Via. -
, .
.
:
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2. Pentium II/III.
3. Athlon/Duron.
4. Pentium .
, , .
:
, ;
;
,
;
,
.

343


.
:
Intel 1850
Pentium IV. ,
RDRAM.
.
AMD-760 Athlon
DDR SDRAM. DDR 266
Pentium III. Pentium IV , Athlon
Pentium IV.

Via Apollo 26 Pentium Ill/Celeron


DDR SDRAM.
Pentium III
DDR-,
Intel . , Pentium III.
, , .

:
Intel i81S , Pentium III.
Celeron, , . .
440.

Intel J440BX , , Pentium II, Celeron.


100 , Ultra ATA66 . .

Via Apollo KT133A Athlon SDRAM.


AMD-760 .
Ali MAGiK I/Aladdin Pro 5 :
Pentium Ill/Celeron, Athlon/Duron.
: SDRAM
DDR SDRAM. .

344

Intel i440ZX "" 440. , ,


-
256 .

AMD-750 Athlon/Duron.
, Athlon
ThunderBird,
.
Via Apollo KT133 Via Athlon/Duron. , .
SiS 630S/730S
: Pentium /Celeron,
Athlon/Duron.
Via.
:
Intel i810x
. ,
, , .
Intel i440LX/EX . 66 , "" Celeron.
Via Apollo PLE133 .

.
, .
: -, ,
IDE, USB,
.

.
AMD (Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.) http://wwff.amd.coin/;
Ali (Acer Laboratories Inc.) http://www.ali.com.tw/;

345

Intel http://www.intel.com/;
OPTi http://www.opti.com/;

SiS (Silicon Integrated System Corporation) http://www.sis.com.tw/;


VIA http://www.via.com.tw/.

, .
, . ,

, , ,
. . , ,
.
ASUSTeK
.
. http://www.asuscom.ru/.


, http://

www.abit.com.tw/rassian.
ACORP

, .
http://www.acorp.ru/.
A-Trend
, ,
. ,
.

http://www.atrend.com.tw/.
Chaintech

, -

346

, http://www.chaintech.nl/.

, . http://www.epox.ru/.
Gigabyte
. Intel AMD http://www.gigabyte.ru/.
Intel
,
. .
, . .

http://www.intel.ru/.

, ""
, , / '

, ,
;
, ,
, BIOS,
, ;
,
"" BIOS, , .
,
.

347


, ,
Intel AMD.
1 Via Transmeta, ,
, , , , Cyrix, Centaur Rise

Intel, , "" . Intel Celeron,
- ,
66 Intel
AMD Athlon Duron
Intel Intel

RDRAM, . AMD
Intel " ".
Pentium III 1,13 - AMD
Via Cyrix
Centaur, ,
Crusoe (Transmeta)

Intel AMD

'

'
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,
i



,
IBM PC,
, -
, , ,

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348


.

.
,
. ,
.
Pentium III/IV,
Athlon, Duron, Celeron. . ( ) ,
ThunderBird, Coppermine, Katmai,
Mendocino.
, . , , ,
. ,
(
).
,
.

Intel
1968 . http://
www.intel.com.
4004 108 . .
. " " Intel
IBM PC. , Intel, -
IBM- . , .
?
Intel IBM PC.
. IBM-
, Intel. ,
.
, .
Intel.
(AMD, Cyrix . .) -

349


. ,
. , , Intel .
, , ,
.
Intel, . . ""
. , , Intel.
IBM
PC Intel . - . , , , Intel.
, , . Intel .
( AMD)
.
Intel IBM PC
. Intel
,
.
8086,
86 ( 86). , . .
.

Intel 286. , 80286, 80 . ,
. , ,
.
IBM . , Intel IBM PC, -

350

. 386- , . 386-
Intel
.
Intel- , , 486- "" .
Intel ( ). : Intel 386SX Intel
386DX. SX "", a DX . ? SX
16- ,
, ,
DX. ,
"". ,
386DX -. 32-, , ,
32- (, Windows 3.11). SX DX.
Intel 386 , , .
Intel 486 ( 1989 )
-,
.
.
.
486- SX DX
. SX ,
DX . SX
DX ( ,
DX
)- SX
, .
SX
DX, .

351



SX2, DX2 DX4 (,
). ,
- .
.
. DX2-66
DX-33 -
. 486-
Windows,
, .
1993 Pentium. , Intel 586,
Intel .
Pentium. 486 ( 1994 Intel 486DX4),
Pentium.
Pentium ?
(
).

.
Pentium 64- , -
.
32- . , 16- ,
32-.
Pentium
: 75, 100, 120, 133, 150, 166 200 .
. , (, ).

( Windows 3.x, Windows 95 NT Windows 98, ME, 2000 ). , -

352

Pentium, Intel, :
'



-




API

, . . , Pentium .

Pentium 166 ,
66
,
,
, (MultiMedia eXtention). Pentium MMX
1997 Pentium 166,
200 233 ,
, . 233
- : , ,
:
Pentium ( 1020% 60% ,
).

Pentium

353

,
Pentium, Intel 486 Intel 386
, ,
. , ,
Intel Pentium MMX ,
Tillamook.
133 266 . Pentium MMX.
1997 .
Intel () Pentram Pro. .
: 150, 166, 180
200 .
,
Pentium Pro :
( )

(, ), , . , . ,
. .
D 32- , 32-

, , , , , , ,
. Intel
.
-

354

4
.
: (), .
- 256 512
1995 , , 1997 , , !
-, .
Pentium II.
1997 . , Pentium Pro ,
16- . ,
Pentium II
. .
233 266 , 300
. Pentium II

Windows 95 Windows NT, .
:
Pentium Pro .
Pentium II 266 ,
, 1,6 2
Pentium-200.
32-
.
- .
64
.
- .
,
.
Pentium II, .
Klamath.
Pentium II
. Pentium II
& Deschutes.
450 , -

355

100 (
,
).
Pentium 11
, . Tonga 233 300
66

,
100 Katmai , Deschutes
Katmai 450 600 .
1999
133 533 600 .
Intel
.
Pentium II Pentium II
Deschutes. - 400
450 100 .
. ,
Pentium,
"" Intel 486. , , , , " ".
Intel Celeron,
, Covington ( , Intel
). , Celeron
Deschutes - , .
Pentium II -.
266 300 66
Celeron 1998 . Celeron Intel -

356

. -, ,
, . -,
Coppermine,
Intel .
, , -
Celeron Covington.
- . Celeron
Mendocino. - 128 , . 300533 ,
66 . Celeron
1998 . , 300
,
( Celeron-
Mendocino).
, .
Celeron .
300 500 . Dixon.
, Intel Celeron Timna.
Coppermine 128
SDRAM.
.
Celeron:
Pentium Pentium II, - . Celeron
Pentium II , Pentium MMX.
.
SSE, - , .
Coppermine Celeron, , AMD.

357

IBM- , . , 66 ,
100 . 86 Pentium .
Katmai.
450 600
100 133 . 256 - , . 600 Katmai, Coppermine. Co ( 500 1
) -, . ,
, ,
. SSE
(Streaming SIMD Enhancements SIMD).
Coppermine ,
,
Celeron. Coppermine 128. , Pentium III. Celeron Coppermine 128 , 533 .
533 Mendocino, A (Celeron 533A Celeron Coppermine). SSE.
Intel Celeron 100133 ,
Pentium III. , -
, ,
, ,
""
, . , 66
Celeron,
Intel 100 . Celeron 800
1,2 . Intel 2 .
, - Celeron Coppermine 128
, - Pentium III. ,

358

Celemii Pentium III, - .


.
Pentium III, Intel , . Tualatin 256 ( - ).
Pentium III.
1,13, 1,2, 1,3 1,26
133 . Tualatin 512.
, Pentium IV.
, Intel Pentium III Pentium III Xeon.
Tanner ( Katmai -
) 500 550
100 . Cascades (, Coppermine)
600 ( 1 ).
133 . .
IBM- Intel ,
.
Pentium. ,
Pentium IV ,
2000 . 1,4 1,5 . , ,
Intel Pentium Pro.
, 400 .

, SSE2.
Pentium IV
Willamette. 2 .
Pentium IV . (, - , ), , ,
Athlon . -

,
.
Intel
. ,
, AMD.

AMD
AMD (Advanced Micro Device) 1969 . http://www.amd.com. AMD Intel 86.
. , AMD Intel ,
1999 AMD : " 25% Intel".
, AMD Intel,
386- . , "" .
AMD , 486SX, ,
, , Intel.
.
86 AMD ,
586. AMD. Krypton-5 , , 5.
.
-5 Intel,
. " "
. Pentium
.
.
5x86 SSA/5 , 75, 90 100 ,
5 -
( AMD K5-PR75,
AMD K5-PR90 AMD K5-PR100, ). 5 90, 100, 120 133 .
5 . Divide

360

overflow ( 0). ,
, AMD, " ".
" "
, . ,
, "" 5 ,
, . , ,
, 0, - , , , .
, .
.5 ( , Intel,

).
,
Pentium .
5 100
Pentium 133
D AMD , Intel, AMD.
Pentium .
AMD
. .
166 233 . 266 300 66 . Intel, ,
5 Pentium .
,
:
,
, Pentium Pro,
Pentium II Intel.
D - , , .

361_

- AMD Intel , ,

.
Pentium Pro, AMD 16-
32- ,
, -
Windows DOS.
, Pentium II,

Intel.
AMD
6-2 200 550
66 100 -
AMD 3D Now! . PowerNow1,
.
Intel
AMD - .
6- (
Sharptooth) - .
350 475 100 ,

Intel.

6-. 6-+.
- ,
450 100 .
K6-III+,
-
Athlon AMD ,


Argon (K7)

362


. Athlon
-
, 400 . Athlon Duron (
) ThunderBird ( ). Intel,
AMD ,
, .
Duron Athlon . 550
100 . Spitfire. , , , Duron
Morgan.
SSE, Intel. 3D Now! Professional.
.
:
,
Intel.
, Celeron,
Duron - .
AMD Intel .
SIMD - 3D Now!
ThunderBird Athlon . ,
Duron, - 750
( 2 ).
:
Athlon, - , .
2 ,
, .
Athlon, SIMD 3D Now!
AMD Athlon XP
Palomino. Athlon 4.
1,5 .

363

:

,

Intel.
-, .
3D Now! Professional, SSE.
PowerNow!, ,
, . . .
Athlon MP, , .
, . Athlon
Duron .

Cyrix
Cyrix 1988 . http://
www.cyrix.com. , . . 1999 Cyrix
,
VIA.
AMD Intel-
. ,
Intel. Cyrix , ,
, , .
Cyrix 6x86 Ml. 80 150 50 75 . -
. , .
AMD K5, ,
""
Divide Overflow . 6x86, Cyrix -

364

. 6x86L , (
25%) .
Cyrix
Pentium,
. . ,
Cyrix ,
Media GX.
PCI, 180 233 .
6x86 MX,
2 -
,
133 250 , 60 75 .
, ,
, , , Cyrix .

Via

. http://www.via.com.tw. 2000
. 1999 Cyrix Centaur, . .
, ,
Via Cyrix III Cyrix
Samuel,
Centaur, Via Cyrix . Cyrix III Joshua
Cyrix,
500, 650 667 100 133 -

, , . ( ) , , ,
. Cyrix

_ ^ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

36S

AMD 3D Now1 Intel MMX.


Intel (SSE/SSE2) .

Centaur
Centaur 1995 IDT
(Integrated Device Technology). http://www.wincbip.com.
, 1999
IDT Via.
WinChip .
1997 180
240 60, 66 75 .
.
WinChip
WinChip 2. . 200 300
100 -
. 3D Now! 1998 . WinChip 2A 3D Now!
Centaur Via.
Cyrix III.

Rise Technologies

1993 . , ,
166, 233 266 .
, , . . .

Transmeta
,
Crusoe.
Crusoe , -
( ).
jt86.
, , ,
Crusoe .

366

3120 333
450 , 5400 500 700 .
-
- . 5600
- . 3200
: - , ,
333 400 .


IBM
, ( ,
.)
. ,
. , IBM .
286- .
. . , -, ,
, - . , . . , , , ,
. , , ,
.
,
. .
Socket ZIF (Zero Input Force, , )
, .
Socket 7 ZIF 296 .
5- : Intel Pentium, Pentium MMX, AMD K5,
, 6-2+ 6-3+, Cyrix Ml , WinChip .
Socket 8 ZIF. 387
Socket 7. Pentium Pro.

367

Socket 370 ZIF ( Socket 7,


Socket 8) 370 , Socket 7. Celeron, , Coppermine.
Socket FC-PGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array)
Socket 370, , , .
, Coppermine (Intel Pentium III, Celeron).
Socket 423 Pentium
IV Socket 478.
Slot , . , , [ntel
- ,
Slot 1 Pentium II
Celeron.
Slot 2 , Pentium II
Slot Slot 1.
Athlon AMD.


,

,
, , ,
""
"".
,
( , -
. ) ,
( ,
, ) , , ,
,

.

368

, ,
.
? , ,
, , .
IBM PC . ,
, , .
,



, ,
(,
).
IBM-
. ,
,
.


Page Mode DRAM.
. ,
, .
,
. , .
, , Fast Page Mode DRAM
(FPM DRAM). . .
Intel 486 .
, ,
, Pentium II .

369

EDO
DRAM (Extended Data Out DRAM). , FPM
DRAM. 1995 Pentium
90 , 1015%, FPM ,
EDO DRAM
66 .
,
, 100 133
.
SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic
RAM). , SDRAM .
100 . , SDRAM
EDO DRAM,

, SDRAM Intel, Via Acer , 100 133 . SDRAM
66 .
SDRAM
BEDO DRAM (Burst Extended Data Output DRAM).
(
) BEDO DRAM
66 ,
SDRAM, ,
BEDO

VRAM (Video RAM) , . WRAM (Windows RAM),

Windows. 25%.
in.it ' I '

370

SDRAM DDR
SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM) , , SDRAM II
SDRAM
, . , ,
. , , nVIDIA GeForce 256.
AMD Athlon
Direct RDRAM (Direct Rambus
DRAM). , . Intel
1999
Direct RDRAM RDRAM
,
, DDR SDRAM.
Direct RDRAM , . , Pentium IV,
. , , , , ,
Direct RDRAM Pentium IV
.


, : Micron, Texas Instruments, NEC,
Samsung, Motorola Toshiba.
. .
-
.



:
SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module) ,
SIMM 30- 72-.
Pentium .
FPM, EDO, BEDO.
DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module) ,
SIMM, . -

371

.
SDRAM, BEDO, EDO FPM.


,
. , , .
() .
, . - ,
IDE SCSI, ,
- . . , ( ,
).
. (,
IC80+ PCI POST- PCI).
ISA/EISA . - , , ,
Plug and Play.

. ,
SCSI- (CD-ROM,
). , . . BIOS . ,
SCSI,
. , - . .
.
..
.,,
. ,
.

, , . . IBM PC, -

372


. , ,
,
.
. ISA,
IBM PC, . .
,

.
, , BIOS.
ISA ,
PCI AGP. . ,
.
"",
. .
,
,
, , . , , ,
.
, "" "" .
. - , . -.
ATI
, Rage 128 .
Voodoo 3 TNT2. http://www.ati.com.
S3
PCI. ,
Savage,
. http://www.s3.com.

373

3dfx , . nVIDIA,

3dfe. Voodoo Velocity,


. http://www.3db.com.
nViDIA
. Riva, . http://www.nvworld.ru/.


,
- , , . .
, .
,
.
. , .
Sound Blaster. , .
. , .
ISA PCI. ( , - ),

.
.
.
Creative Labs
Sound Blaster.
. http://
www.creative.ru/.

374

Yamaha

http://www.yamaha,com
d ESS
ISA,
,
http://www.esstech.com.

SCSI
SCSI- ISA PCI, ,
SCSI ( , CD-ROM, CD-RW ).
BIOS, BIOS.
SCSI- , , ,
IDE-. SCSI, , BIOS,

.
-,
,
;
.
,
-.
Adaptec SCSI-. http://
www.adaptec.com/;
Terkatn SCSI- SCSI. http://www.tekram.com/;
Iwill SCSI- SCSI
http://www.iwill.com.tw/;
ASUSTeK SCSI- SCSI. http://www.asus.com/;
Seagate SCSI. http://www.seagate.com/,
Western Digital
www.wdc.com/,

SCSI

http://


IBM SCSI. http://www.storage.ibm.com/;
Quantum

www.quantum.com/.

SCSI.

http://


, ,
.
:
, , . BIOS, CMOS-;
, (, Iomega ZIP . .) . , .
, ;
-, . -, ;
,
.
, ,
.
:
IDE ,
CD-ROM, Iomega Zip .
, , ,
. IDE, , CMOS Setup Utility.

IDE:
IDE ( ). IBM
PC 504 ;

376

IDE EIDE ( ATA 2).


504
;
ATAPI (ATA Package Interface, ). CD-ROM;

Ultra ATA (-33, -66, -). . , .

SCSI , IDE- ( , -
). ,
CD-ROM . ,
IDE-.
, , , BIOS .
SCSI. BIOS.
. :
SCSI-1;
.

' "

:..,-

SCSI-2 ( Fast SCSI);

Wide S C S I ;
.- .
: . .
Ultra SCSI/Ultra Wide SCSI ( SCSI-3);
--.
:
Ultra2SCSI.
'
. . '
. .

"

USB . ( CD-RW). , , ,
. . .
._, . ,
. . . . .

: -, - CD-ROM, Iomega ZIP.
.


-
. IBM PC
5,25 3,5 .

377


. -
. ,
. .
.
Iomega ZIP
. ( 250 ).
IDE, SCSI USB, , .
- .


() . , . .
, , , : , , ,
.
: IDE SCSI.
. SCSI ,
. , ,
, .
IDE USB .
, ,
. , , . : 5400 7200 /.
,
, , ,
.
(10 00015 000 /), (, ).
.
.

378

IDE. : PIO0 3,3 /;

DMA MW-2 - 16,6 /;

1 5,2 /;

a UDMA0 - 16,6 /;

PIO2 8,3 /;

UDMA1 - 25 /;

- 11,1 /;

UDMA2 - 33,3 /;

PIO4 - 16,6 /;

UDMA3 - 44,4 /;

PIOS - 33,3 /;

UDMA4 - 66,6 /;

DMA MW-l - 13,3 /;

UDMA5 - 100 /.

, . , .
. ( UltraATA)
, , , . , Ultra ATA-100
Pentium II 440 , . . Ultra ATA-66. (. 1 2).
1. Intel

ATA-100

Intel

t850
I815E
i815EP

ATA-66
1810 ,
2
i815

i810E2

VIA

Apollo Pro
Apollo Pro 133A
VIA 686
PM133
VIA 686B

Apollo Pro 13
VIA 686A
133
VIA 686A

SiS

SiS 630

All

Aladdin Pro5

Aladdin TNT2

379

2. AMD

-100

-66

AMD

AMD 760

AMD 750

VIA

266

133
VIA 686A

133
VIA 686B
133

133
VIA 686A

133
VIA 686B
SiS

SiS 730

AN MAGiK 1

, , , , .
, .
.


Western Digital http://www.wdc.com;
Seagate Technology http://www.seagate.com;
Quantum http://www.quantum.ru/;
Samsung http://www.samsung.ru/;
Fujitsu http://www.fujitsu-siemens.ru/;
IBM http://www.ibm.ru/;
Maxtor http://www.maxtor.com;
Hitachi http://www.hitachi.ru/;
Toshiba http://www.toshiba.com.

CD-ROM
CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) . , . -

380

(CD-R) (CD-RW) -.
CD-ROM IDE SCSI.
IDE-to-USB. , ,
- ( , ). .

CD-ROM
Acer http://www.acer.ru/;
ASUS http://www.asus.ru/;
Creative http://www.creative.ru/;
HP http://www.hp.com;
Mitsumi http://www.mitsumi.ru/;
NEC http://www.nec.co.jp;
Panasonic http://www.panasonic.ru;
Ricoh http://www.ricob.ru/;

'
'

Samsung http://www.samsung.ru/;
http://www.teac.ru/;
Yamaha http://www.yamaha.com.

'


AC (Alternating Current) . 220 .
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface,
)

. , "" , ,
. . Windows 9S, . , .
ADMA (Advanced DMA, DMA) DMA.
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port, ) , , , "" . . AGP
( ). .
(Advanced Power Management, )
. Windows 95. ACPI.
ARLL (Advanced RLL, RLL) ~ . ,

382

_^

RLL. 34
. .
ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming Interface, SCSI) SCSI- SCSI-.
SCSI.
AT (Advanced Technology, ) IBM PC ( XT).
ATA (AT Attachment, AT)
IBM AT.

-2 IDE,
IDE/ATA. : PIO3, PIO4, MW1 DMA, MW2
DMA, LBA
.
ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface, ) IDE, -2. , (CD-ROM, ). BIOS -2 ( 4
MW2 DMA).
ATX (AT Extension, AT) , .
Slim ( 305x244). .
(
. .).
B&W (BW) (Black and White, ) -, .
.
BEDO (Burst EDO, EDO ) EDO
DRAM, , /.
( , 1 ). ,
.
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System, /)
,
.

383

Block Mode ( ) ~
( IDE). , , ,
.
,
.
Burst Mode . ,
. .
Bus-Mastering , , ( ,
. .). , (
).
DMA. DMA- , Bus-Master,
.
CAS (Column Access Strobe) .
,
.
CAS Before RAS Refresh , CAS RAS.
, .
CAS Latency ( CAS)
.
SDRAMCD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory, ) , .
CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) , .
640x200 320x200,
640x200 320x200 (16 ). EGA.
CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) ,
.

384

:
, .
COM port (Communication port)
. i 15 /.
01, COM2, COM3, COM4 ,
/.
CPU

:,'i

CPU Burst Write /


PCI.
, ,
/.
CPU Frequency ( ) ,
.
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) - . CRT-
- ().
Cache ()
. -
( ).
Chip () .
Chipset ( ) ,
"" .
, , , ,
( )
: , -,
. .
DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM, SDRAM ) SDRAM .
Direct RDRAM Intel.
DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module, ) . SIMM , .
DMA (Direct Memory Access, ) 1 , -

385

, / . 2. , . DMA SW (Single Word, )


MW (MultiWord, ). : SWO DMA ( ), SW1 DMA, SW2 DMA, MWO
DMA, MW1 DMA, MW2 DMA, MW3 DMA ( ).
DMI (Desktop Management Interface, ) BIOS,
, (, ).
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory,
) ,
, . .
Default ( ) , ,
.
- .
Direct RDRAM {Direct Rambus DRAM) . ,
,
,
.
Doze Mode ( ) .
(Error Checking and Correcting, )
,
. .
,
-
(Enhanced Capability Port, )
, DMA
RLE. , .
EDO (Extended Data Output, ) FPM
: -

386

,

15%. .
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM,
) ,
. , Flash,
.
EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter, ) ,
CGA. 16 /
640x350 640x200, 320x200,
640x350 320x350 (16 ). VGA SVGA.
(Enhanced IDE, IDE) IDE,
-2 ATAPI.
EISA (Extended ISA, ISA) 32- ISA.

,
. .
EMS (Expanded Memory Specification) , 32 . . , .
32 .
EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port, ) , . FIFO-.
EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM, )
,
ESDI (Extended Small Device Interface, )
(, ). MFM/RLL
34- 20-
.

387

Expansion Bus ( )
,
, ,
,
.
FAT (File Allocation Table, ) , .
FC-PGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array) Intel.
FDD (Floppy Disk Drive)
FIFO (First Input First Output, )
,
. , / .
FPM (Fast Page Mode, )
, ,
. . ,
.
FSB (Front Side Bus) , "" .
Fast SCSI ( SCSI) SCSI (SCSI-1). 5 10 /.
, 10 / (SCSI-2).
Green Motherboard . BIOS , , , . .
HDD (Hard Disk Drive) , .
, , . .
Hidden Refresh ( )
, (, , ).

388

Host Bridge , PCI


( ).
I/O (Input/Output, /) / /
.
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics, )
, .
.
IDE Prefetch Buffer ( IDE) - ,
.
IDE/ATA IDE
IBM AT. : , 1, PIO2, SWO DMA, SW1 DMA, SW2 DMA, MWO DMA
528 .
INT13 (Interrupt 13) ,
DOS BIOS
IDE BIOS SCSI- SCSI.
IR Connector / (
COM2),
, /. ,
.
IRQ (Interrupt ReQuest, ) ,
. - /, .
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture, ) IBM PC AT (
AT-Bus). XT-Bus ( XT).
ISA Clock Frequency ISA.
. 8 ,
.
Interleave () ,
, .
IFDA (Infrared Data Association, ) ,
. IrDA.

389

Jumper () , .
LI (Level 1) - .
L2 (Level 2) - , .
LBA (Logical Block Addressing, ) ,
528 .
LED (Light Emitting Diode, ) , . ,
. .
LPT (Line PrinTer, ) .
LVD (Low Voltage Differential, ) SCSI, ( SE).
12 . SCSI.
Large , 1 ,
LBA. 32, .
MCA (MicroChannel Architecture, )
, PS/2 IBM. -
MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter, )
, 720x350.
MFM (Modified Frequency Modulation, ) , 17 512 .
IBM XT,
.
MHz (MegaHertz, )

390

(MultiMedia extension, ) Intel


Pentium ( ).
Memory Hole at 15-16 MB , ""
1516 . (, ). .
Memory Relocation
.
IBM PC, ( )
. 640
"" (Shadow). Shadow , 384
( , ).
Motherboard ( ) . ,
,
. .
NVRAM (Non-Volatile Random Access Memory, ) ( ),
.
Narrow () 8- SCSI.
Non-System Disk ( ) ,
, .
NorthBridge ("" )
, ,
, AGP PCI, -.
, , .
OEM (Original Equipment Manufactured,
) ,

.
Overcloeking ()
.
PC (Personal Computer) , " ".

391

100 , Intel
100 . , Intel
, 100 100
133 , 100, SDRAM,
133 .
266 DDR SDRAM 266 .
, 100
,
66
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect, )
, Pentium.

PCI Latency Timer , ,
Bus-Master, PCI ( )

.
PCI Read/Write Burst / PCI. , ,
/
PIO (Programmed Input/Output, /)
/, - PIO0 ( ), PIO1, PIO2, PIO3, PIO4 (
). , . . .
POST (Power-On Self Test)
Parity () .
Passive Release , Bus-Master, .

392

Peer-to- Bridge ,
PCI.
Pipeline () , .
(Plug and Play, ) ,
. BIOS
, ,
IRQ, DMA, , , , .
R/W (Read/Write) /
RAM (Random Access Memory, ) , .
IBM PC (DRAM),
RAS (Row Access Strobe) .
, .
RAS Precharge Time SDRAM,
.
RAS-Only Refresh , , .
RAS-to-CAS Delay SDRAM,
.
RIMM (Rambus dual Inline Memory Module,
Rambus) ,
Direct RDRAM

RLE (Run-Length Encoding, )
, .
RLL (Run Length Limited, ) 27 512 .

MFM

393

RTC (Real Time Clock, ) , .


Refresh Rate ( ) ,
.
S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology,
) .
.
S/N (Serial Number, ) (, ).
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface,
) , , CD-ROM, , ,
. .
SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM, )
, (FPM/EDO/BEDO).
SE (Single Ended, )
SCSI, . SCSI-.
SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge) "" , Slot 1.
SECC 2 , SECC, .
SIMM (Single In line Memory Module, ) , .
, (, ). SIMM ,
, .
SPD (Serial Presence Detect) ,
, , .
SPP (Standard Parallel Port, )
IBM PC. 8- .
SRAM ( )
(
).

394

.
-.
Shadow Memory .
640 1 , , BIOS. , , - .
, BIOS ,
(, BIOS Update ,
Intel).
Single-Ended SCSI ( SCSI)
SCSI, "" SCSI. LVD SCSI SCSI
( ,
).
Sleep Mode . Suspend Mode.
Slim , "" Slim
Desktop Baby,
, . . , , PS/2 IBM.
Slot () ,
. . , . .
Socket () .
, .
SonthBridge ("" )
, EIDE, ,
PCI-to-PCI, , USB
.
Standby Mode ( ) , ( 30%).
: , , , , - . .
Super 7
Socket 7, 100 -

395

AGP. Socket 7 66 .
Suspend Mode ( ) , Standby, :
,
. .
System Disk ( ) & .
USB (Universal Serial Bus, ) .
127 USB.
.
UltraATA- Ultra DMA, Ultra DMA/33, ATA/33, DMA/33.
MW3 DMA.
VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association,
) VESA.
VGA (Video Graphics Array, )
.
VLB (VESA Local Bus, VESA) 32- ISA, Intel 486, .
Wait State ( ) ,
.
.
Wide () 16-
SCSI.
WriteBack - .
,
.
"". ,
, .
-, . ,
. ,
.

396

WriteThru - .
, - (. . -)
, , WriteBack
XGA (eXtended Graphics Array, ) , IBM 1990 .
XGA-2 800x600 16 .
XMS (extended Memory Specification) , . EMS, .
'
Y2K (Year 2000, 2000 ) 2000 .
,
. .

, . ,
( . UpGrade) ,
.
(, , . ) , .
, , , .
, 8 ,
(, ) .
, ,

}
'
j

397

, , 0 1, .
, , 0 1.
, .

.
.
.
,
.
, , .

1024 .
1024 .
,

().
,

.

. , , interleave, ECC .
, . ,

, .
. , ,
,

, ,
( , 8 ),
.
,
, . .

398

,

. , .
/ , ,
.
1024 .
1024
, 1
( ISA) ().
, , ,
, , , .
( ) ,
,

,

,
.
,
, , .


,
.
,
-
(, AT ).

399

, . .
.-*.-.
/,
. .
, .