Solution Function of Complex variable second edition by John B Conway.

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Solution Function of Complex variable second edition by John B Conway.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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- Conway, John B - Functions of One Complex Variables I (1).pdf
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- Rudin - Real and Complex Analysis - Solutions
- Complex Analysis (Solutions) - Stein
- Real and Complex Analysis Solutions Manual
- Hoffman Kunze, Linear Algebra Chapter 3.5 - 3.7 Solutions
- Zill Complex Analysis Solutions 3 (Misc, Ch. 2.5-3.2 without 2.7)
- A First Course in Complex Analysis With Applications_nodrm
- Solutions : Stein and Shakarchi, Complex Analysis
- Zill Complex Analysis (ed 2) Solutions 4 (Chapter 4.1-4.4)
- Solution's Manual Abstract Algebra Rotman
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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 166

1

Copyright by Andreas Kleefeld, 2009

All Rights Reserved

2

1

by John B. Conway

2

Last updated on January, 7th 2013

PREFACE

Most of the exercises I solved were assigned homeworks in the graduate courses Math 713 and Math 714

Complex Analysis I and II at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee taught by Professor Dashan Fan

in Fall 2008 and Spring 2009.

The solutions manual is intented for all students taking a graduate level Complex Analysis course. Students

can check their answers to homework problems assigned from the excellent book Functions of One Com-

plex Variable I, Second Edition by John B. Conway. Furthermore students can prepare for quizzes, tests,

exams and nal exams by solving additional exercises and check their results. Maybe students even study

for preliminary exams for their doctoral studies.

However, I have to warn you not to copy straight of this book and turn in your homework, because this

would violate the purpose of homeworks. Of course, that is up to you.

I strongly encourage you to send me solutions that are still missing to kleefeld@tu-cottbus.de (L

A

T

E

Xpreferred

but not mandatory) in order to complete this solutions manual. Think about the contribution you will give

to other students.

If you nd typing errors or mathematical mistakes pop an email to kleefeld@tu-cottbus.de. The recent

version of this solutions manual can be found at

http://www.math.tu-cottbus.de/INSTITUT/kleefeld/Files/Solution.html.

The goal of this project is to give solutions to all of the 452 exercises.

CONTRIBUTION

I thank (without special order)

Christopher T. Alvin

Martin J. Michael

David Perkins

for contributions to this book.

2

Contents

1 The Complex Number System 1

1.1 The real numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 The eld of complex numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.3 The complex plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.4 Polar representation and roots of complex numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.5 Lines and half planes in the complex plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.6 The extended plane and its spherical representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2 Metric Spaces and the Topology of C 9

2.1 Denitions and examples of metric spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.2 Connectedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.3 Sequences and completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.4 Compactness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.5 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.6 Uniform convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3 Elementary Properties and Examples of Analytic Functions 21

3.1 Power series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3.2 Analytic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.3 Analytic functions as mappings. Mbius transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4 Complex Integration 42

4.1 Riemann-Stieltjes integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4.2 Power series representation of analytic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

4.3 Zeros of an analytic function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.4 The index of a closed curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.5 Cauchys Theorem and Integral Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

4.6 The homotopic version of Cauchys Theorem and simple connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4.7 Counting zeros; the Open Mapping Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

4.8 Goursats Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

5 Singularities 68

5.1 Classication of singularities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

5.2 Residues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

5.3 The Argument Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

3

6 The Maximum Modulus Theorem 84

6.1 The Maximum Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

6.2 Schwarzs Lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

6.3 Convex functions and Hadamards Three Circles Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

6.4 The Phragmn-Lindelf Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

7 Compactness and Convergence in the Space of Analytic Functions 93

7.1 The space of continuous functions C(G, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

7.2 Spaces of analytic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

7.3 Spaces of meromorphic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

7.4 The Riemann Mapping Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

7.5 The Weierstrass Factorization Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

7.6 Factorization of the sine function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

7.7 The gamma function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

7.8 The Riemann zeta function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

8 Runges Theorem 123

8.1 Runges Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

8.2 Simple connectedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

8.3 Mittag-Leers Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

9 Analytic Continuation and Riemann Surfaces 130

9.1 Schwarz Reection Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

9.2 Analytic Continuation Along a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

9.3 Monodromy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

9.4 Topological Spaces and Neighborhood Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

9.5 The Sheaf of Germs of Analytic Functions on an Open Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

9.6 Analytic Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

9.7 Covering spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

10 Harmonic Functions 137

10.1 Basic properties of harmonic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

10.2 Harmonic functions on a disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

10.3 Subharmonic and superharmonic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

10.4 The Dirichlet Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

10.5 Greens Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

11 Entire Functions 151

11.1 Jensens Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

11.2 The genus and order of an entire function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

11.3 Hadamard Factorization Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

12 The Range of an Analytic Function 161

12.1 Blochs Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

12.2 The Little Picard Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

12.3 Schottkys Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

12.4 The Great Picard Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

4

Chapter 1

The Complex Number System

1.1 The real numbers

No exercises are assigned in this section.

1.2 The eld of complex numbers

Exercise 1. Find the real and imaginary parts of the following:

1

z

;

z a

z + a

(a R); z

3

;

3 + 5i

7i + 1

;

_

_

1 + i

3

2

_

_

3

;

_

_

1 i

3

2

_

_

6

; i

n

;

_

1 + i

2

_

n

for 2 n 8.

Solution. Let z = x + iy. Then

a)

Re

_

1

z

_

=

x

x

2

+ y

2

=

Re(z)

z

2

Im

_

1

z

_

=

y

x

2

+ y

2

=

Im(z)

z

2

b)

Re

_

z a

z + a

_

=

x

2

+ y

2

a

2

x

2

+ y

2

+ 2ax + a

2

=

z

2

a

2

z

2

+ 2aRe(z) + a

2

Im

_

z a

z + a

_

=

2ya

x

2

+ y

2

+ 2xa + a

2

=

2Im(z)a

z

2

+ 2aRe(z) + a

2

c)

Re

_

z

3

_

= x

3

3xy

2

= Re(z)

3

3Re(z)Im(z)

2

Im

_

z

3

_

= 3x

2

y y

3

= 3Re(z)

2

Im(z) Im(z)

3

1

d)

Re

_

3 + 5i

7i + 1

_

=

19

25

Im

_

3 + 5i

7i + 1

_

=

8

25

e)

Re

_

_

_

_

1 + i

3

2

_

_

3

_

_

= 1

Im

_

_

_

_

1 + i

3

2

_

_

3

_

_

= 0

f)

Re

_

_

_

_

1 i

3

2

_

_

6

_

_

= 1

Im

_

_

_

_

1 i

3

2

_

_

6

_

_

= 0

g)

Re (i

n

) =

_

_

0, n is odd

1, n 4k : k Z

1, n 2 + 4k : k Z

Im(i

n

) =

_

_

0, n is even

1, n 1 + 4k : k Z

1, n 3 + 4k : k Z

2

h)

Re

__

1 + i

2

_

n

_

=

_

_

0, n = 2

2

2

, n = 3

1, n = 4

2

2

, n = 5

0, n = 6

2

2

, n = 7

1, n = 8

Im

__

1 + i

2

_

n

_

=

_

_

1, n = 2

2

2

, n = 3

0, n = 4

2

2

, n = 5

1, n = 6

2

2

, n = 7

0, n = 8

Exercise 2. Find the absolute value and conjugate of each of the following:

2 + i; 3; (2 + i)(4 + 3i);

3 i

2 + 3i

;

i

i + 3

; (1 + i)

6

; i

17

.

Solution. It is easy to calculate:

a)

z = 2 + i, z =

5, z = 2 i

b)

z = 3, z = 3, z = 3

c)

z = (2 + i)(4 + 3i) = 5 + 10i, z = 5

5, z = 5 10i

d

z =

3 i

2 + 3i

, z =

1

11

110, z =

3 + i

2 3i

e)

z =

i

i + 3

=

1

10

+

3

10

i, z =

1

10

10, z =

1

10

3

10

i

f)

z = (1 + i)

6

= 8i, z = 8, z = 8i

g)

i

17

= i, z = 1, z = i

Exercise 3. Show that z is a real number if and only if z = z.

3

Solution. Let z = x + iy.

: If z is a real number, then z = x (y = 0). This implies z = x and therefore z = z.

: If z = z, then we must have x +iy = x iy for all x, y R. This implies y = y which is true if y = 0 and

therefore z = x. This means that z is a real number.

Exercise 4. If z and w are complex numbers, prove the following equations:

z + w

2

= z

2

+ 2Re(z w) + w

2

.

z w

2

= z

2

2Re(z w) + w

2

.

z + w

2

+ z w

2

= 2

_

z

2

+ w

2

_

.

Solution. We can easily verify that

z = z. Thus

z + w

2

= (z + w)(z + w) = (z + w)( z + w) = z z + z w + w z + w w

= z

2

+ w

2

+ z w + zw = z

2

+ w

2

+ z w + z

w

= z

2

+ w

2

+ z w + z w = z

2

+ w

2

+ 2

z w + z w

2

= z

2

+ w

2

+ 2Re(z w) = z

2

+ 2Re(z w) + w

2

.

z w

2

= (z w)(z w) = (z w)( z w) = z z z w w z + w w

= z

2

+ w

2

z w zw = z

2

+ w

2

z w z

w

= z

2

+ w

2

z w z w = z

2

+ w

2

2

z w + z w

2

= z

2

+ w

2

2Re(z w) = z

2

2Re(z w) + w

2

.

z + w

2

+ z w

2

= z

2

+ Re(z w) + w

2

+ z

2

Re(z w) + w

2

= z

2

+ w

2

+ z

2

+ w

2

= 2z

2

+ 2w

2

= 2

_

z

2

+ w

2

_

.

Exercise 5. Use induction to prove that for z = z

1

+ . . . + z

n

; w = w

1

w

2

. . . w

n

:

w = w

1

. . . w

n

; z = z

1

+ . . . + z

n

; w = w

1

. . . w

n

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let R(z) be a rational function of z. Show that R(z) = R( z) if all the coecients in R(z) are real.

Solution. Let R(z) be a rational function of z, that is

R(z) =

a

n

z

n

+ a

n1

z

n1

+ . . . a

0

b

m

z

m

+ b

m1

z

m1

+ . . . b

0

where n, m are nonnegative integers. Let all coecients of R(z) be real, that is

a

0

, a

1

, . . . , a

n

, b

0

, b

1

, . . . , b

m

R.

Then

R(z) =

a

n

z

n

+ a

n1

z

n1

+ . . . a

0

b

m

z

m

+ b

m1

z

m1

+ . . . b

0

=

a

n

z

n

+ a

n1

z

n1

+ . . . a

0

b

m

z

m

+ b

m1

z

m1

+ . . . b

0

=

a

n

z

n

+ a

n1

z

n1

+ . . . a

0

b

m

z

m

+ b

m1

z

m1

+ . . . b

0

=

a

n

z

n

+ a

n1

z

n1

+ . . . a

0

b

m

z

m

+ b

m1

z

m1

+ . . . b

0

= R( z).

4

1.3 The complex plane

Exercise 1. Prove (3.4) and give necessary and sucient conditions for equality.

Solution. Let z and w be complex numbers. Then

z w = z w + w w

z w + w w

= z w

= z w

Notice that z and w is the distance from z and w, respectively, to the origin while z w is the distance

between z and w. Considering the construction of the implied triangle, in order to guarantee equality, it is

necessary and sucient that

z w = z w

(z w)

2

= z w

2

(z w)

2

= z

2

2Re(z w) + w

2

z

2

2zw + w

2

= z

2

2Re(z w) + w

2

zw = Re(z w)

z w = Re(z w)

Equivalently, this is z w 0. Multiplying this by

w

w

, we get z w

w

w

= w

2

z

w

0 if w 0. If

t =

z

w

=

_

1

w

2

_

w

2

z

w

. Then t 0 and z = tw.

Exercise 2. Show that equality occurs in (3.3) if and only if z

k

/z

l

0 for any integers k and l, 1 k, l n,

for which z

l

0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let a R and c > 0 be xed. Describe the set of points z satisfying

z a z + a = 2c

for every possible choice of a and c. Now let a be any complex number and, using a rotation of the plane,

describe the locus of points satisfying the above equation.

Solution. Not available.

1.4 Polar representation and roots of complex numbers

Exercise 1. Find the sixth roots of unity.

Solution. Start with z

6

= 1 and z = rcis(), therefore r

6

cis(6) = 1. Hence r = 1 and =

2k

6

with k

3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2. The following table gives a list of principle values of arguments and the corresponding

value of the root of the equation z

6

= 1.

0

= 0 z

0

= 1

1

=

3

z

1

= cis(

3

)

2

=

2

3

z

2

= cis(

2

3

)

3

= z

3

= cis() = 1

4

=

2

3

z

4

= cis(

2

3

)

5

=

3

z

5

= cis(

3

)

5

Exercise 2. Calculate the following:

a) the square roots of i

b) the cube roots of i

c) the square roots of

3 + 3i

Solution. c) The square roots of

3 + 3i.

Let z =

3 + 3i. Then r = z =

_

_

3

_

2

+ 3

2

=

12 and = tan

1

_

3

3

_

=

3

. So, the 2 distinct roots of z

are given by

2

r

_

cos

+2k

n

+ i sin

+2k

n

_

where k = 0, 1. Specically,

z =

4

12

_

cos

3

+ 2k

2

+ i sin

3

+ 2k

2

_

.

Therefore, the square roots of z, z

k

, are given by

z

0

=

4

12

_

cos

6

+ i sin

6

_

=

4

12

_

3

2

+

1

2

i

_

z

1

=

4

12

_

cos

7

6

+ i sin

7

6

_

=

4

12

_

3

2

1

2

i

_

.

So, in rectangular form, the second roots of z are given by

_

4

108

2

,

4

12

2

_

and

_

108

2

,

4

12

2

_

.

Exercise 3. A primitive nth root of unity is a complex number a such that 1, a, a

2

, ..., a

n1

are distinct nth

roots of unity. Show that if a and b are primitive nth and mth roots of unity, respectively, then ab is a kth root

of unity for some integer k. What is the smallest value of k? What can be said if a and b are nonprimitive

roots of unity?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Use the binomial equation

(a + b)

n

=

n

k=0

_

n

k

_

a

nk

b

k

,

where

_

n

k

_

=

n!

k!(n k)!

,

and compare the real and imaginary parts of each side of de Moivres formula to obtain the formulas:

cos n = cos

n

_

n

2

_

cos

n2

sin

2

+

_

n

4

_

cos

n4

sin

4

. . .

sin n =

_

n

1

_

cos

n1

sin

_

n

3

_

cos

n3

sin

3

+ . . .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let z = cis

2

n

for an integer n 2. Show that 1 + z + . . . + z

n1

= 0.

6

Solution. The summation of the nite geometric sequence 1, z, z

2

, . . . , z

n1

can be calculated as

_

n

j=1

z

j1

=

z

n

1

z1

. We want to show that z

n

is an n

th

root of unity. So, using de Moivres formula, z

n

=

_

cis

_

2

n

__

n

=

cis

_

n

2

n

_

= cis(2) = 1. It follows that 1 + z + z

2

+ ... + z

n1

=

z

n

1

z1

=

11

z1

= 0 as required.

Exercise 6. Show that (t) = cis t is a group homomorphism of the additive group R onto the multiplicative

group T = z : z = 1.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. If z C and Re(z

n

) 0 for every positive integer n, show that z is a non-negative real number.

Solution. Let n be an arbitrary but xed positive integer and let z C and Re(z

n

) 0. Since z

n

=

r

n

(cos(n) + i sin(n)), we have

Re(z

n

) = r

n

cos(n) 0.

If z = 0, then we are done, since r = 0 and Re(z

n

) = 0. Therefore, assume z 0, then r > 0. Thus

Re(z

n

) = r

n

cos(n) 0

implies cos(n) 0 for all n. This implies = 0 as we will show next. Clearly, [/2, 3/2]. If

(0, /2), then there exists a k 2, 3, . . . such that

k+1

<

k

. If we choose n = k + 1, we have

n <

(k + 1)

k

which is impossible since cos(n) 0. Similarly, we can derive a contradiction if we assume (3/2, 2).

Then 2 /k < 2 /(k + 1) for some k 2, 3, . . ..

1.5 Lines and half planes in the complex plane

Exercise 1. Let C be the circle z : z c = r, r > 0; let a = c + rcis and put

L

=

_

z : Im

_

z a

b

_

= 0

_

where b = cis. Find necessary and sucient conditions in terms of that L

be tangent to C at a.

Solution. Not available.

1.6 The extended plane and its spherical representation

Exercise 1. Give the details in the derivation of (6.7) and (6.8).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. For each of the following points in C, give the corresponding point of S : 0, 1 + i, 3 + 2i.

Solution. We have

(z) =

_

2x

z

2

+ 1

,

2y

z

2

+ 1

,

z

2

1

z

2

+ 1

_

.

If z

1

= 0, then z

1

= 0 and therefore

(z

1

) = (0, 0, 1).

7

Thus, z

1

= 0 corresponds to the point (0, 0, 1) on the sphere S .

If z

2

= 1 + i, then z

2

=

2 and therefore

(z

2

) =

_

2

3

,

2

3

,

1

3

_

.

Thus, z

2

= 1 + i corresponds to the point

_

2

3

,

2

3

,

1

3

_

on the sphere S .

If z

3

= 3 + 2i, then z

3

=

13 and therefore

(z

3

) =

_

3

7

,

2

7

,

6

7

_

.

Thus, z

3

= 3 + 2i corresponds to the point

_

3

7

,

2

7

,

6

7

_

on the sphere S .

Exercise 3. Which subsets of S correspond to the real and imaginary axes in C.

Solution. If z is on the real axes, then z = x which implies z

2

= x

2

. Thus

(z) =

_

2x

x

2

+ 1

, 0,

x

2

1

x

2

+ 1

_

.

Therefore the set

__

2x

x

2

+ 1

, 0,

x

2

1

x

2

+ 1

_

x R

_

S

corresponds to the real axes in C. That means the unit circle x

2

+ z

2

= 1 lying in the xzplane corresponds

to the real axes in C.

If z is on the imaginary axes, then z = iy which implies z

2

= y

2

. Thus

(z) =

_

0,

2y

y

2

+ 1

,

y

2

1

y

2

+ 1

_

.

Therefore the set

__

0,

2y

y

2

+ 1

,

y

2

1

y

2

+ 1

_

y R

_

S

corresponds to the imaginary axes in C. That means the unit circle y

2

+ z

2

= 1 lying in the yzplane

corresponds to the imaginary axes in C.

Exercise 4. Let be a circle lying in S . Then there is a unique plane P in R

3

such that P S = . Recall

from analytic geometry that

P = (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) : x

1

1

+ x

2

2

+ x

3

3

= l

where (

1

,

2

,

3

) is a vector orthogonal to P and l is some real number. It can be assumed that

2

1

+

2

2

+

2

3

=

1. Use this information to show that if contains the point N then its projection on C is a straight line.

Otherwise, projects onto a circle in C.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let Z and Z

corresponding to z + z

.

Solution. Not available.

8

Chapter 2

Metric Spaces and the Topology of C

2.1 Denitions and examples of metric spaces

Exercise 1. Show that each of the examples of metric spaces given in (1.2)-(1.6) is, indeed, a metric space.

Example (1.6) is the only one likely to give any diculty. Also, describe B(x; r) for each of these examples.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Which of the following subsets of C are open and which are closed: (a) z : z < 1; (b) the

real axis; (c) z : z

n

= 1 for some integer n 1; (d) z C is real and 0 z < 1; (e) z C : z is real and

0 z 1?

Solution. We have

(a) A := z C : z < 1

Let z A and set

z

=

1z

2

, then B(z,

z

) A is open and therefore A =

_

zA

B(z,

z

) is open also. A

cannot be closed, otherwise A and C A were both closed and open sets yet C is connected.

(b) B := z C : z = x + iy, y = 0 (the real axis)

Let z C B, then Imz 0. Set

z

=

Imz

2

, then B(z,

z

) C B.Hence B is closed since its

complement is open.

For any real x and any > 0 the point x + i

2

B(x, ) but x + i

2

C R. Thus B is not open.

(c) C := z C : z

n

= 1 for some integer n 1

Claim: C is neither closed nor open.

C is not open because if z

n

= 1 then z = rcis() with r = 1 and any -ball around z would contain an

element z

:= (1 +

4

)cis().

To show that C cannot be closed, note that for

p

q

Q with p Z and q N the number z :=

cis

_

p

q

2

_

C since

z

q

= cis(p2) = cos(p2) + i sin(p2) = 1.

Now x x R Q and let x

n

n

be a rational sequence that converges to x. Let m be any natural

number. Now z

m

= 1 implies that sin(mx2) = 0 which in turn means that mx Z contradicting the

choice x R Q. We have constructed a sequence of elements of C that converges to a point that is

not element of C. Hence C is not closed.

9

(d) D := z C : z is real and 0 z < 1

The set cannot be open by the argument given in 2.1) and it is not closed because z

n

:= 1

1

n

is a

sequence in D that converges to a point outside of D.

(e) E := z C : z is real and 0 z 1

This set E is not open by the observation in 2.1) and it is closed because its complement is open: If

z E and z real, then B(z,

minx,x1

2

) is contained in the complement of E, if z is imaginary then

B(z,

Imy

2

) is completely contained in the complement of E.

Exercise 3. If (X, d) is any metric space show that every open ball is, in fact, an open set. Also, show that

every closed ball is a closed set.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Give the details of the proof of (1.9c).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Prove Proposition 1.11.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Prove that a set G X is open if and only if X G is closed.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Show that (C

Solution. To show (C

, d) with d(z, z

) =

2zz

[(1+z

2

)(1+z

2

)]

1/2

for z, z

C and d(z, ) =

2

(1+z

2

)

1/2

, z C is a

metric space.

i) d(z, z

) 0.

Since zz

0, we have d(z, z

) =

2zz

[(1+z

2

)(1+z

2

)]

1/2

0 for all z, z

Obviously, d(z, ) =

2

(1+z

2

)

1/2

0 for all z C.

ii) d(z, z

) = 0 i z = z

.

We have 2z z

= 0 i z = z

. Therefore, d(z, z

) =

2zz

[(1+z

2

)(1+z

2

)]

1/2

= 0 i z = z

. d(, ) =

lim

z

2

(1+z

2

)

1/2

= 0. Thus, d(, 0) = 0 i z = .

iii) d(z, z

) = d(z

, z).

We have d(z, z

) =

2zz

[(1+z

2

)(1+z

2

)]

1/2

=

2z

z

[(1+z

2

)(1+z

2

)]

1/2

= d(z

, z) for all z, z

C. Also d(z, ) =

2

(1+z

2

)

1/2

=

d(, z) by the symmetry of d(z, z

) in general.

iv) d(z, z

) d(z, x) + d(x, z

).

We have

d(z, z

) =

2z z

[(1 + z

2

)(1 + z

2

)]

1/2

2z x

[(1 + z

2

)(1 + x

2

)]

1/2

+

2x z

[(1 + x

2

)(1 + z

2

)]

1/2

= d(z, x) + d(x, z

)

for all x, z, z

First, we need the following equation

(z z

) + (x z

10

which follows from a simple computation

(z x)(1 + xz

) + (x z

)(1 + xz) = z x + xz

z + x xz

+ x z

+ x xz xz

z

= z + x xz z

x xz

= (z z

)(1 + xx).

Using (2.1) and taking norms gives

(z z

)(1 + xx) = (z z

)(1 + x

2

) = (z z

)(1 + x

2

)

= (z x)(1 + xz

) + (x z

)(1 + xz)

z x(1 + x

2

)

1/2

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

+ x z

(1 + x

2

)

1/2

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

(2.2)

where the last inequality follows by

z + xz

(1 + x

2

)

1/2

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

(1 + xz

)(1 + x z

) (1 + x

2

)(1 + z

2

)

and

z + xz (1 + x

2

)

1/2

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

(1 + xz)(1 + x z) (1 + x

2

)(1 + z

2

)

since

(1 + xz)(1 + x z) (1 + x

2

)(1 + z

2

)

xz + x z x

2

+ y

2

2Re(x z) x

2

+ y

2

which is true by Exercise 4 part 2 on page 3. Thus, dividing (2.2) by (1 + x

2

)

1/2

yields

z z

(1 + x

2

)

1/2

z x(1 + z

2

)

1/2

+ x z

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

.

Multiplying this by

2

(1 + x

2

)

1/2

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

gives the assertion above.

Exercise 8. Let (X, d) be a metric space and Y X. Suppose G X is open; show that G Y is open in

(Y, d). Conversely, show that if G

1

Y is open in (Y, d), there is an open set G X such that G

1

= G Y.

Solution. Set G

1

= G Y, let G be open in (X, d) and Y X. In order to show that G

1

is open in (Y, d),

pick an arbitrary point p G

1

. Then p G and since G is open, there exists an > 0 such that

B

X

(p; ) G.

But then

B

Y

(p; ) = B

X

(p; ) Y G Y = G

1

which proves that p is an interior point of G

1

in the metric d. Thus G

1

is open in Y (Proposition 1.13a).

Let G

1

be an open set in Y. Then, for every p G

1

, there exists an ball

B

Y

(p : ) G

1

.

11

Thus

G

1

=

_

pG

1

B

Y

(p; ).

Since we can write

B

Y

(p; ) = B

X

(p; ) Y,

we get

G

1

=

_

pG

1

B

Y

(p; ) =

_

pG

1

_

B

X

(p; ) Y

_

=

_

pG

1

B

X

(p; ) Y = G Y

where G =

_

pG

1

B

X

(p; ) is open in (X, d). (Proposition 1.9c since each B

X

(p; ) is open).

Exercise 9. Do Exercise 8 with closed in place of open.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 10. Prove Proposition 1.13.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 11. Show that cis k : k a non-negative integer is dense in T = z C : z = 1. For which

values of is cis(k) : k a non-negative integer dense in T?

Solution. Not available.

2.2 Connectedness

Exercise 1. The purpose of this exercise is to show that a connected subset of R is an interval.

(a) Show that a set A R is an interval i for any two points a and b in A with a < b, the interval

[a, b] A.

(b) Use part (a) to show that if a set A R is connected then it is an interval.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Show that the sets S and T in the proof of Theorem 2.3 are open.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Which of the following subsets X of C are connected; if X is not connected, what are its

components: (a) X = z : z 1 z : z 2 < 1. (b) X = [0, 1)

_

1 +

1

n

: n 1

_

. (c) X = C (A B)

where A = [0, ) and B = z = r cis : r = , 0 ?

Solution. a) Dene X = z : z 1 z : z 2 < 1 := AB. It suces to show that X is path-connected.

Obviously A is path-connected and B is path-connected. Next, we will show that X is path-connected.

Recall that a space is path-connected if for any two points x and y there exists a continuous function f from

the interval [0, 1] to X with f (0) = x and f (1) = y (this function f is called the path from x to y).

Let x A and y B and dene the function f (t) : [0, 1] X by

f (t) =

_

_

(1 3t)x + 3tRe(x), 0 t

1

3

(2 3t)Re(x) + (3t 1)Re(y),

1

3

< t

2

3

(3 3t)Re(y) + (3t 2)y,

2

3

< t 1.

12

This function is obviously continuous, since f (1/3) = lim

t

1

3

f (t) = lim

t

1

3

+ f (t) = Re(x) X and

f (2/3) = lim

t

2

3

f (t) = lim

t

2

3

+ f (t) = Re(y) X. In addition, we have f (0) = x and f (1) = y. Therefore

X is path-connected and hence X is connected.

b) There is no way to connect 2 and

3

2

. Therefore X is not connected. The components are [0, 1), 2,

3

2

,

4

3

, . . ., 1 +

1

n

.

c) X is not connected, since there is no way to connect (2, 1) and (1, 2). The k th component is given by

C A B where

A = [2k 2, 2k)

and

B = z = r cis : r = , 2k 2 < 2k, k 1, 2, 3, . . ..

Exercise 4. Prove the following generalization of Lemma 2.6. If D

j

: j J is a collection of connected

subsets of X and if for each j and k in J we have D

j

D

k

then D =

_

D

j

: j J is connected.

Solution. Let D =

_

jJ

D

j

and ( = D

j

: j J. If D is connected, we could write D as the disjoint union

A B where A and B are nonempty subsets of X. Thus, for each C ( either C A or C B.

We have C A C ( or C B C (. If not, then there exist E, F ( such that E A and F B.

But, we assume A B is disjoint and thus E F is disjoint which contradicts the assumption E F .

Therefore, all members of ( are contained in either A or all B. Thus, either D = A and B = or D = B and

A = . Both contradicting the fact that A, B are assumed to be nonempty. Hence,

D =

_

jJ

D

j

is connected.

Exercise 5. Show that if F X is closed and connected then for every pair of points a, b in F and each

> 0 there are points z

0

, z

1

, . . . , z

n

in F with z

0

= a, z

n

= b and d(z

k1

, z

k

) < for 1 k n. Is the

hypothesis that F be closed needed? If F is a set which satises this property then F is not necessarily

connected, even if F is closed. Give an example to illustrate this.

Solution. Not available.

2.3 Sequences and completeness

Exercise 1. Prove Proposition 3.4.

Solution. a) A set is closed i it contains all its limit points.

Let S X be a set.

: Assume S contains all its limit points. We have to show that S is closed or that S

c

is open. Let

x S

c

. By assumption x is not a limit point and hence there exists an open ball around x, B(x; ) such

that B(x; ) S = (negation of Proposition 1.13f). So B(x; ) S

c

and therefore S

c

is open.

: Let S be closed and x be a limit point. We claim x S . If not, S

c

(open) would be an open

neighborhood of x, that does not intersect S . (Proposition 1.13f again) which contradicts the fact that x is

a limit point of S .

b) If A X, then A

= A x : x is a limit point of A := A A

.

Let A X be a set.

: Let x

A. We want to show x A A

. If x A, then obviously x A A

. Suppose x A. Since

x

A, we have (Proposition 1.13f) that for every > 0, B(x; ) A . Because x A, B(x; ) must

13

intersect A in a point dierent from x. In particular, for every integer n there is a point x

n

in B(x;

1

n

) A.

Thus d(x, x

n

) <

1

n

which implies x

n

x (see Proof of Proposition 3.2). Then x A

, so x A A

.

: To show A A

. Let x A A

. If x A, then x A

(A A

). Now, assume x A

but not

in A. Then there exists x

n

A with lim

n

x

n

= x. It follows, > 0 B(x; ) A since x

n

A. By

Proposition 1.13f we get x A

.

Exercise 2. Furnish the details of the proof of Proposition 3.8.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Show that diam A = diam A

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let z

n

, z be points in C and let d be the metric on C

. Show that z

n

z 0 if and only if

d(z

n

, z) 0. Also show that if z

n

then z

n

is Cauchy in C

. (Must z

n

converge in C

?)

Solution. First assume that z

n

z 0, then

d(z

n

, z) =

2

_

(1 + z

n

2

)(1 + z

2

)

z

n

z 0

since the denominator

_

(1 + z

n

2

)(1 + z

2

) 1 is bounded below away from 0. To see the converse, let

d(z

n

, z) 0 or equivalently d

2

(z

n

, z) 0. We need to show that if z

n

z in the d-norm, then z

n

because otherwise the denominator grows without bounds. In fact we will show that if z

n

, then

d(z

n

, z) 0 for any z C. Then

d

2

(z

n

, z) =

4

_

z

n

2

z

n

z z

n

z + z

2

_

_

1 + z

n

2

_ _

1 + z

2

_

=

4

_

z

n

2

2Re(z

n

z) + z

2

_

_

1 + z

2

_

z

n

2

+ 1 + z

2

=

4

_

1

2Re(z

n

z)

z

n

2

+

z

2

z

n

2

_

1 + z

2

+

1+z

2

z

n

2

if z

n

0

in particular if z

n

, d(z

n

, z)

4

1+z

2

0. This shows that the denominator remains bounded as

d(z

n

, z) 0 and therefore the numerator 2z

n

z 0. Hence convergence in d-norm implies convergence

in -norm for numbers z

n

, z C. Next assume that z

n

. Then clearly also

_

1 + z

n

2

and

therefore d(z

n

, ) =

2

1+z

n

2

0. The last thing to show is that if z

n

in (C

, d), also z

n

. But

d(z

n

, ) 0 implies

_

1 + z

n

2

which is equivalent to z

n

.

Exercise 5. Show that every convergent sequence in (X, d) is a Cauchy sequence.

Solution. Let x

n

be a convergent sequence with limit x. That is, given > 0 N such that d(x

n

, x) <

2

if

n > N and d(x, x

m

) <

2

if m > N. Thus

d(x

n

, x

m

) d(x

n

, x) + d(x, x

m

) <

2

+

2

= , n, m N

and therefore x

n

is a Cauchy sequence.

14

Exercise 6. Give three examples of non complete metric spaces.

Solution. Example 1: Let X = C[1, 1] and the metric d( f , g) =

_

_

1

1

[ f (x) g(x)]

2

dx, f , g X. Consider

the Cauchy sequence

f

n

(x) =

_

_

0, 1 x 0

nx, 0 < x

1

n

1,

1

n

< x 1

.

It is obvious that the limit function f is discontinuous. Hence, the metric space (X, d) is not complete.

Example 2: Let X = (0, 1] with metric d(x, y) = x y, x, y X. The sequence

1

n

is Cauchy, but converges

to 0, which is not in the space. Thus, the metric space is not complete.

Example 3: Let X = Q, the rationals, with metric d(x, y) = x y, x, y X. The sequence dened by x

1

= 1,

x

n+1

=

x

n

2

+

1

x

n

is a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers. The limit

2 is not a rational number. Therefore,

the metric space is not complete.

Exercise 7. Put a metric d on R such that x

n

x 0 if and only if d(x

n

, x) 0, but that x

n

is a Cauchy

sequence in (R, d) when x

n

. (Hint: Take inspiration from C

.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Suppose x

n

is a Cauchy sequence and x

n

k

is a subsequence that is convergent. Show that

x

n

must be convergent.

Solution. Since x

n

k

is convergent, there is a x such that x

n

k

x as k . We have to show that x

n

x

as n x. Let > 0. Then we have N N such that d(x

n

, x

m

) <

2

n, m N since x

n

is Cauchy and

M N such that d(x

n

k

, x) <

2

n

k

M since x

n

k

x as k . Now, x n

k

0

> M + N, then

d(x

n

, x) d(x

n

, x

n

k

0

) + d(x

n

k

0

, x) <

2

+

2

= , n N.

Thus, x

n

x as n and therefore x

n

is convergent.

2.4 Compactness

Exercise 1. Finish the proof of Proposition 4.4.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let p = (p

1

, . . . , p

n

) and q = (q

1

, . . . , q

n

) be points in R

n

with p

k

< q

k

for each k. Let

R = [p

1

, q

1

] . . . [p

n

, q

n

] and show that

diam R = d(p, q) =

_

_

n

k=1

(q

k

p

k

)

2

_

_

1

2

.

Solution. By denition

diam(R) = sup

xR,yR

d(x, y).

Obviously, R is compact, so we have

diam(R) = max

xR,yR

d(x, y).

15

Let x = (x

1

, . . . , x

n

) R and y = (y

1

, . . . , y

n

) R. Then clearly, p

i

x

i

q

i

and p

i

y

i

q

i

for all

i = 1, . . . , n. We also have

(y

i

x

i

)

2

(q

i

p

i

)

2

, i = 1, . . . , n. (2.3)

Therefore, by (2.3) we obtain

d(x, y) =

_

n

i=1

(y

i

x

i

)

2

_

n

i=1

(q

i

p

i

)

2

= d(p, q).

Note that we get equality if for example x

i

= p

i

and y

i

= q

i

for all i = 1, . . . , n. Thus the maximum distance

is obtained, so

diam(R) = sup

xR,yR

d(x, y) =

_

n

i=1

(q

i

p

i

)

2

= d(p, q).

Exercise 3. Let F = [a

1

, b

1

] . . . [a

n

, b

n

] R

n

and let > 0; use Exercise 2 to show that there are

rectangles R

1

, . . . , R

m

such that F =

_

m

k=1

R

k

and diam R

k

< for each k. If x

k

R

k

then it follows that

R

k

B(x

k

; ).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Show that the union of a nite number of compact sets is compact.

Solution. Let K =

_

n

i=1

K

i

be a nite union of compact sets. Let G

K

_

.

Of course, G

i

, i = 1, . . . , n, that is

K

i

_

, i = 1, . . . , n.

Since each K

i

is compact,

K

i

k

i

_

j=1

G

i, j

for each i = 1, . . . , n. Thus

K =

n

_

j=1

K

i

n

_

i=1

k

i

_

j=1

G

i, j

which is a nite union and therefore K is compact.

Exercise 5. Let X be the set of all bounded sequences of complex numbers. That is, x

n

X i supx

n

:

n 1 < . If x = x

n

and y = y

n

, dene d(x, y) = supx

n

y

n

: n 1. Show that for each x in X and

> 0,

B(x; ) is not totally bounded although it is complete. (Hint: you might have an easier time of it if

you rst show that you can assume x = (0, 0, . . .).)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Show that the closure of a totally bounded set is totally bounded.

16

Solution. Let (X, d) be a given metric space and let S X be totally bounded. Let > 0. Since S is totally

bounded, we have by Theorem 4.9 d) p. 22 that there exist a nite number of points x

1

, . . . , x

n

S such that

S

n

_

k=1

B(x

k

; /2).

Taking the closure, gives the desired result

S

n

_

k=1

B(x

k

; ).

2.5 Continuity

Exercise 1. Prove Proposition 5.2.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Show that if f and g are uniformly continuous (Lipschitz) functions from X into C then so is

f + g.

Solution. The distance in C is (x, y) = x y. The distance in X is d(x, y). Let f : X C be Lipschitz,

that is, there is a constant M > 0 such that

( f (x), f (y)) = f (x) f (y) Md(x, y), x, y X

and g : X C be Lipschitz, that is, there is a constant N > 0 such that

(g(x), g(y)) = g(x) g(y) Nd(x, y), x, y X.

We have

( f (x) + g(x), f (y) + g(y)) = f (x) + g(x) f (y) g(y) = f (x) f (y) + g(x) g(y)

f (x) f (y) + g(x) g(y)

Md(x, y) + Nd(x, y) = (M + N)d(x, y), x, y X.

Since there is a constant K = M + N > 0 such that

( f (x) + g(x), f (y) + g(y)) Kd(x, y), x, y X,

we have that f + g is Lipschitz.

Now, let f , g be both uniformly continuous, that is,

1

> 0

1

> 0 such that ( f (x), f (y)) = f (x) f (y) <

1

whenever d(x, y) <

1

and

2

> 0

2

> 0 such that ( f (x), f (y)) = f (x) f (y) <

2

whenever d(x, y) <

2

.

We have

( f (x) + g(x), f (y) + g(y)) = f (x) + g(x) f (y) g(y) = f (x) f (y) + g(x) g(y)

f (x) f (y) + g(x) g(y)

1

+

2

,

17

whenever d(x, y) <

1

and d(x, y) <

2

, that is, whenever d(x, y) < min(

1

,

2

). So, choosing =

1

+

2

and

= min(

1

,

2

), we have shown that

> 0 > 0 such that ( f (x), f (y)) = f (x) f (y) < whenever d(x, y) < .

Thus f + g is uniformly continuous.

Exercise 3. We say that f : X C is bounded if there is a constant M > 0 with f (x) M for all x in X.

Show that if f and g are bounded uniformly continuous (Lipschitz) functions from X into C then so is f g.

Solution. Let f be bounded, that is, there exists a constant M

1

> 0 with f (x) < M

1

for all x X and let g

be bounded, that is, there exists a constant M

2

> 0 with g(x) < M

2

for all x X. Obviously f g is bounded,

because

f (x)g(x) f (x) g(x) M

1

M

2

x X.

So, there exists a constant M = M

1

M

2

with

f (x)g(x) M x X.

Let f be Lipschitz, that is, there exists a constant N

1

> 0 such that

( f (x), f (y)) N

1

d(x, y) x, y X

and let g be Lipschitz, that is, there exists a constant N

2

> 0 such that

(g(x), g(y)) N

1

d(x, y) x, y X.

Now,

( f (x)g(x), f (y)g(y)) = f (x)g(x) f (y)g(y) =

= f (x)g(x) f (x)g(y) + f (x)g(y) f (y)g(y)

f (x)g(x) f (x)g(y) + f (x)g(y) f (y)g(y)

f (x) g(x) g(y) + f (x) g(y) g(y)

M

1

N

2

d(x, y) + M

2

N

1

d(x, y) = (M

1

N

2

+ M

2

N

1

)d(x, y) x, y X.

Thus, there exists a constant K = M

1

N

2

+ M

2

N

1

> 0 with

( f (x)g(x), f (y)g(y)) Kd(x, y) x, y X,

so f g is Lipschitz and bounded.

Now, let f and g be both bounded and uniformly continuous, that is

M

1

such that f (x) M

1

x X

M

2

such that g(x) M

2

x X

1

> 0

1

> 0 such that ( f (x), f (y)) = f (x) f (y) <

1

whenever d(x, y) <

1

2

> 0

2

> 0 such that ( f (x), f (y)) = f (x) f (y) <

2

whenever d(x, y) <

2

.

18

It remains to verify that f g is uniformly continuous, since we have already shown that f g is bounded. We

have

( f (x)g(x), f (y)g(y)) = f (x)g(x) f (y)g(y) =

= f (x)g(x) f (x)g(y) + f (x)g(y) f (y)g(y)

f (x)g(x) f (x)g(y) + f (x)g(y) f (y)g(y)

f (x) g(x) g(y) + f (x) g(y) g(y)

M

1

2

+ M

2

1

,

whenever d(x, y) < min(

1

,

2

). So choosing = M

1

2

+ M

2

1

and = min(

1

,

2

), we have > 0 > 0

such that

f (x)g(x) f (y)g(y) <

whenever d(x, y) < . Thus, f g is uniformly continuous and bounded.

Exercise 4. Is the composition of two uniformly continuous (Lipschitz) functions again uniformly continu-

ous (Lipschitz)?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Suppose f : X is uniformly continuous; show that if x

n

is a Cauchy sequence in X then

f (x

n

) is a Cauchy sequence in . Is this still true if we only assume that f is continuous? (Prove or give

a counterexample.)

Solution. Assume f : X is uniformly continuous, that is, for every > 0 there exists > 0 such that

( f (x), f (y)) < if d(x, y) < . If x

n

is a Cauchy sequence in X, we have, for every

1

> 0 there exists

N N such that d(x

n

, x

m

) <

1

for all n, m N. But then, by the uniform continuity, we have that

( f (x

n

), f (x

m

)) < n, m N

whenever d(x

n

, x

m

) < which tells us that f (x

n

) is a Cauchy sequence in .

If f is continuous, the statement is not true. Here is a counterexample: Let f (x) =

1

x

which is continuous

on (0, 1). The sequence x

n

=

1

n

is apparently convergent and therefore a Cauchy sequence in X. But

f (x

n

) = f (

1

n

) = n is obviously not Cauchy. Note that f (x) =

1

x

is not uniformly continuous on (0, 1).

To see that pick = 1. Then there is no > 0 such that f (x) f (y) < 1 whenever x y < . Assume there

exists such a . WLOG assume < 1 since the interval (0, 1) is considered. Let y = x +/2 and set x = /2,

then

f (x) f (y) =

1

x

1

y

=

y x

xy

=

/2

/2

=

1

> 1,

that is no matter what < 1 we choose, we always obtain f (x) f (y) > 1. Therefore f (x) =

1

x

cannot be

uniformly continuous.

Exercise 6. Recall the denition of a dense set (1.14). Suppose that is a complete metric space and that

f : (D, d) (; ) is uniformly continuous, where D is dense in (X, d). Use Exercise 5 to show that there

is a uniformly continuous function g : X with g(x) = f (x) for every x in D.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Let G be an open subset of C and let P be a polygon in G from a to b. Use Theorems 5.15

and 5.17 to show that there is a polygon Q G from a to b which is composed of line segments which are

parallel to either the real or imaginary axes.

19

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Use Lebesgues Covering Lemma (4.8) to give another proof of Theorem 5.15.

Solution. Suppose f : X is continuous and X is compact. To show f is uniformly continuous. Let

> 0. Since f is continuous, we have for all x X there is a

x

> 0 such that ( f (x), f (y)) < /2 whenever

d(x, y) <

x

. In addition,

X =

_

xX

B(x;

x

)

is an open cover of X. Since X is by assumption compact (it is also sequentially compact as stated in

Theorem 4.9 p. 22), we can use Lebesgues Covering Lemma 4.8 p. 21 to obtain a > 0 such that x X

implies that B(x, ) B(z;

z

) for some z X. More precisely, x, y B(z;

z

) and therefore

( f (x), f (z)) ( f (x), f (z)) + ( f (z), f (y)) <

2

+

2

=

and hence f is uniformly continuous on X.

Exercise 9. Prove the following converse to Exercise 2.5. Suppose (X, d) is a compact metric space having

the property that for every > 0 and for any points a, b in X, there are points z

0

, z

1

, . . . , z

n

in X with z

0

= a,

z

n

= b, and d(z

kl

, z

k

) < for 1 k n. Then (X, d) is connected. (Hint: Use Theorem 5.17.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 10. Let f and g be continuous functions from (X, d) to (, p) and let D be a dense subset of X.

Prove that if f (x) = g(x) for x in D then f = g. Use this to show that the function g obtained in Exercise 6

is unique.

Solution. Not available.

2.6 Uniform convergence

Exercise 1. Let f

n

be a sequence of uniformly continuous functions from (X, d) into (, ) and suppose

that f = u lim f

n

exists. Prove that f is uniformly continuous. If each f

n

is a Lipschitz function with

constant M

n

and sup M

n

< , show that f is a Lipschitz function. If sup M

n

= , show that f may fail to

be Lipschitz.

Solution. Not available.

20

Chapter 3

Elementary Properties and Examples of

Analytic Functions

3.1 Power series

Exercise 1. Prove Proposition 1.5.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Give the details of the proof of Proposition 1.6.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Prove that limsup(a

n

+b

n

) limsup a

n

+limsup b

n

and liminf(a

n

+b

n

) liminf a

n

+liminf b

n

for bounded sequences of real numbers a

n

and b

n

.

Solution. Let r > limsup

n

a

n

(we know there are only nitely many by denition) and let s > limsup

n

(same here, there are only nitely many by denition). Then r + s > a

n

+ b

n

for all but nitely many ns.

This however, implies that

r + s limsup

n

(a

n

+ b

n

).

Since this holds for any r > limsup

n

a

n

and s > limsup

n

b

n

, we have

limsup

n

(a

n

+ b

n

) limsup

n

a

n

+ limsup

n

b

n

.

Let r < liminf

n

a

n

(we know there are only nitely many by denition) and let s < liminf

n

(same

here, there are only nitely many by denition). Then r + s < a

n

+ b

n

for all but nitely many ns. This

however, implies that

r + s liminf

n

(a

n

+ b

n

).

Since this holds for any r < liminf

n

a

n

and s < liminf

n

b

n

, we have

liminf

n

(a

n

+ b

n

) liminf

n

a

n

+ liminf

n

b

n

.

Exercise 4. Show that liminf a

n

limsup a

n

for any sequence in R.

21

Solution. Let m = liminf

n

a

n

and b

n

= infa

n

, a

n+1

, . . .. Let M = limsup

n

a

n

. Take any s > M.

Then, by denition of the limsup

n

a

n

= M, we obtain that a

n

< s for innitely many ns which implies

that b

n

< s for all n and hence limsup

n

b

n

= m < s. This holds for all s > M. But the inmum of all

these ss is M. Therefore m M which is

liminf

n

a

n

limsup

n

a

n

.

Exercise 5. If a

n

is a convergent sequence in R and a = lima

n

, show that a = liminf a

n

= limsup a

n

.

Solution. Suppose that a

n

is a convergent sequence in R with limit a = lim

n

a

n

. Then by denition, we

have: > 0 N > 0 such that n N, we have a

n

a , that is a a

n

a +. This means that all

but nitely many a

n

s are a + and a . This shows that

a liminf

n

a

n

.,,.

=:m

a +

and

a limsup

n

a

n

.,,.

=:M

a + .

By the previous Exercise 4, we also have

a m M a + .

Hence,

0 M m 2.

Since > 0 is arbitrary, we obtain m = M and further

a liminf

n

a

n

limsup

n

a

n

a + ,

we obtain

liminf

n

a

n

= limsup

n

a

n

= a.

Exercise 6. Find the radius of convergence for each of the following power series: (a)

_

n=0

a

n

z

n

, a C;

(b)

_

n=0

a

n

2

z

n

, a C; (c)

_

n=0

k

n

z

n

, k an integer 0; (d)

_

n=0

z

n!

.

Solution. a) We have

_

n=0

a

n

z

n

=

_

k=0

b

k

z

n

with b

k

= a

k

, a C. We also have,

limsup

k

b

k

1/k

= limsup

k

a

k

1/k

= limsup

k

a = a.

Therefore, R = 1/a, so

R =

_

_

1

a

, a 0

, a = 0

.

b) In this case, b

n

= a

n

2

where a C.

R = lim

n

b

n

b

n+1

= lim

n

a

n

2

a

(n+1)

2

= lim

n

a

n

2

a

n

2

+2n+1

= lim

n

1

a

2n+1

= lim

n

1

a

2n+1

=

_

_

0, a > 1

1, a = 1

, a < 1

.

22

c) Now, b

n

= k

n

, k is an integer 0. We have

R = limsup

n

b

n

1/n

= limsup

n

k

n

1/n

= limsup

n

k = k.

So

R =

1

k

=

_

_

1

k

, k > 0, k integer

1

k

, k < 0, k integer

.

d) We can write

_

n=0

z

n!

=

_

k=0

a

k

z

k

where

a

k

=

_

_

0, k = 0

2, k = 1

1, k = n!, n N, n > 1

0, otherwise

Thus,

limsup

k

a

k

1/k

= limsup

k

1

1/k!

= 1.

Therefore 1/R = 1 which implies R = 1.

Exercise 7. Show that the radius of convergence of the power series

n=1

(1)

n

n

z

n(n+1)

is 1, and discuss convergence for z = 1, 1, and i. (Hint: The nth coecient of this series is not (1)

n

/n.)

Solution. Rewrite the power series in standard form, then

n=1

(1)

n

n

z

n(n+1)

=

n=1

a

k

z

k

with a

k

=

_

_

(1)

n

n

if n N s.t. k = n(n + 1)

0 else

.

To nd the radius of convergence we use the root criterion and therefore need the estimates

1

n(n+1)

n

n

n for n N.

The rst inequality is immediate from the fact that n 1 and hence n

1

n(n+1)

1. For the second inequality

note that

n n

n+1

n

1

n(n+1)

n

1

n

n(n+1)

n

n

n .

Using this one obtains

n(n+1)

_

(1)

n

n

=

1

n(n+1)

n

1

and

n(n+1)

_

(1)

n

n

=

1

n(n+1)

n

1

n

n

.

23

Vague memories of calculus classes tell me that

n

n 1, thus

1

R

= limsup

n(n+1)

a

n

= 1, i.e. R = 1.

If z = 1 the series reduces to

_

n=1

(1)

n

n

which converges with the Leibniz Criterion.

If z = 1 we note that the exponents n(n + 1) are always even integers and therefore the series is the

same as in the previous case of z = 1.

Now let z = i. The expression i

n(n+1)

will always be real, so if the series converges at z = i, it converges

to a real number. We also note that formally

n=1

(1)

n

n

i

n(n+1)

=

n=1

c

n

with

_

_

1

n

ifn mod 4 0, 1

1

n

if n mod 4 2, 3

.

Dene the partial sums S

k

:=

_

k

n=0

c

k

. We claim that the following chain of inequalities holds

0 S

4k+3

a)

< S

4k

b)

< S

4k+4

c)

< S

4k+2

d)

< S

4k+1

1.

To verify this, note that

S

4k+3

S

4k

= c

4k+1

+ c

4k+2

+ c

4k+3

=

16k

2

+ 8k 1

(4k + 1)(4k + 2)(4k + 3)

< 0, hence a)

S

4k+4

S

4k

= c

4k+3

+ c

4k+4

=

1

4k + 3

+

1

4k + 4

< 0, hence c)

S

4k+2

S

4k+1

= c

4k+2

< 0, hence d).

Relation b) is obvious and so are the upper bound c

1

= 1 and the non-negativity constraint. We remark that

S

4k+l

k1

, l 0, 1, 2, 3 describe bounded and monotone subsequences that converge to some point. Now

that c

n

0 the dierence between S

4k+l

and S

4k+m

, l, m 0, 1, 2, 3 tends to zero, i.e. all subsequences

converge to the same limit. Therefore the power series converges also in the case of z = i.

3.2 Analytic functions

Exercise 1. Show that f (z) = z

2

= x

2

+ y

2

has a derivative only at the origin.

Solution. The derivative of f at z is given by

f

(z) = lim

h0

f (z + h) f (z)

h

, h C

provided the limit exist. We have

f (z + h) f (z)

h

=

z + h

2

z

2

h

=

(z + h)( z +

h) z z

h

=

z z + h z + z

h + h

h z z

h

= z +

h + z

h

h

=: D.

If the limit of D exists, it may be found by letting the point h = (x, y) approach the origin (0,0) in the complex

plane C in any manner.

1.) Take the path along the real axes, that is y = 0. Then

h = h and thus

D = z + h + z

h

h

= z + h + z

24

and therefore, if the limit of D exists, its value has to be z + z.

2.) Take the path along the imaginary axes, that is x = 0. Then

h = h and thus

D = z h z

h

h

= z h z

and therefore, if the limit of D exists, its value has to be z z.

Because of the uniqueness of the limit of D, we must have

z + z = z z z = z z = 0,

if the limit of D exists. It remains to show that the limit of D exists at z = 0. Since z = 0, we have that D =

h

and thus the limit of D is 0.

In summary, the function f (z) = z

2

= x

2

+ y

2

has a derivative only at the origin with value 0.

Exercise 2. Prove that if b

n

, a

n

are real and positive and 0 < b = limb

n

< , a = limsup a

n

then

ab = limsup(a

n

b

n

). Docs this remain true if the requirement of positivity is dropped?

Solution. Let a = limsup

n

a

n

< . Then there exists a monotonic subsequence a

n

k

of a

n

that converges

to a. Since lim

k

b

n

k

= b, lim

n

a

n

k

b

n

k

= ab. Hence, a

n

k

b

n

k

is a subsequence of a

n

b

n

that converges to ab. So

ab limsup

n

a

n

b

n

. Hence, limsup

n

a

n

b

n

b limsup

n

a

n

.

Now, let a = limsup

n

a

n

= . Then there exists a subsequence a

n

k

of a

n

such that lim

k

a

n

k

= a > 0.

And, since lim

n

b

n

> 0, lim

k

a

n

k

b

n

k

= . Hence limsup

n

a

n

b

n

= . In this second case, limsup

n

a

n

b

n

b limsup

n

a

n

.

In both cases, we have established that ab limsup

n

a

n

b

n

. Now, since for all n N, a

n

> 0 and b

n

> 0,

consider lim

n

1

b

n

=

1

b

. Applying the inequality we have established replacing b

n

with

1

b

n

and a

n

replaced

with a

n

b

n

:

limsup

n

a

n

= limsup

n

1

b

n

(a

n

b

n

)

1

b

limsup

n

a

n

b

n

.

Rearranging,

limsup

n

a

n

b

n

b limsup

n

a

n

.

It follows that ab = limsup

n

a

n

b

n

as required.

Now, consider the case where we drop the positivity requirement. Let b

n

= 0,

1

2

, 0,

1

3

, 0,

1

4

, . . . and

note 0 = b = lim

n

b

n

< . Also let a

n

= 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 4 . . . and note limsup

n

a

n

= a = 0. In this case,

ab = 0 1 = limsup

n

a

n

b

n

.

Exercise 3. Show that limn

1/n

= 1.

25

Solution. Let n N. Also let a = n

1/n

. Then

a = n

1/n

log a = log n

1/n

log a =

log n

n

lim

n

log a = lim

n

log n

n

Now, let f (x) =

log(x)

x

. Then lim

n

f (x) = 0 by LHopitals Rule. Thus, lim

n

log n

n

= lim

n

f (n) = 0 also. So

lim

n

a = lim

n

n

1/n

= 1.

Exercise 4. Show that (cos z)

= cos z.

Solution. We have by denition

(cos z)

=

_

1

2

_

e

iz

+ e

iz

_

_

=

i

2

_

e

iz

e

iz

_

=

1

2i

_

e

iz

e

iz

_

= sin z

and similarly

(sin z)

=

_

1

2i

_

e

iz

e

iz

_

_

=

i

2i

_

e

iz

+ e

iz

_

=

1

2

_

e

iz

+ e

iz

_

= cos z.

Exercise 5. Derive formulas (2.14).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Describe the following sets: z : e

z

= i, z : e

z

= 1, z : e

z

= i, z : cos z = 0,

z : sin z = 0.

Solution. Using the denition we obtain

z : e

z

= i =

__

1

2

+ 2k

_

i

_

, z : e

z

= 1 = (1 + 2k) i ,

z : e

z

= i =

__

1

2

+ 2k

_

i

_

, z : cos z = 0 =

__

1

2

+ k

_

_

,

and

z : sin z = 0 = k

where k Z.

Exercise 7. Prove formulas for cos(z + w) and sin(z + w).

Solution. We have

cos(z) =

e

iz

+ e

iz

2

sin(z) =

e

iz

e

iz

2i

.

26

1. Claim: cos(z) cos(w) sin(z) sin(w) = cos(z + w).

Proof:

cos(z) cos(w) sin(z) sin(w) =

e

iz

+ e

iz

2

e

iw

+ e

iw

2

e

iz

e

iz

2i

e

iw

e

iw

2i

=

1

4

_

e

iz

e

iw

+ e

iz

e

iw

_

+

1

4

_

e

iz

e

iw

+ e

iz

e

iw

_

=

1

2

e

iz

e

iw

+

1

2

e

iz

e

iw

=

1

2

_

e

iz

e

iw

+ e

iz

e

iw

_

= cos(z + w).

2. Claim: sin(z) cos(w) + cos(z) sin(w) = sin(z + w).

Proof:

sin(z) cos(w) + cos(z) sin(w) =

e

iz

e

iz

2i

e

iw

+ e

iw

2

+

e

iz

+ e

iz

2

e

iw

e

iw

2i

=

1

4i

_

e

iz

e

iw

e

iz

e

iw

_

+

1

4i

_

e

iz

e

iw

e

iz

e

iw

_

=

1

2i

e

iz

e

iw

1

2

e

iz

e

iw

=

1

2i

_

e

iz

e

iw

e

iz

e

iw

_

= sin(z + w).

Exercise 8. Dene tan z =

sin z

cos z

; where is this function dened and analytic?

Solution. Since both sin z and cos z are analytic in the entire complex plane, it follows from the discussion

in the text following Denition 2.3 that tan z =

sin z

cos z

is analytic wherever cos z 0. Now, cos z = 0 implies

that z is real and equal to an odd multiple of

2

. Thus let

G

_

(2k + 1)

2

k Z

_

.

Then tan z is dened and analytic on CG. If z G, then cos z = 0 so tan z is undened on the non-extended

complex plane.

Exercise 9. Suppose that z

n

, z G = C z : z 0 and z

n

= r

n

e

i

n

, z = re

i

where < ,

n

< . Prove

that if z

n

z then

n

and r

n

r.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 10. Prove the following generalization of Proposition 2.20. Let G and be open in C and suppose

f and h are functions dened on G, g : C and suppose that f (G) . Suppose that g and h are

analytic, g

() 0 for any , that f is continuous, h is one-one, and that they satisfy h(z) = g( f (z)) for z in

G. Show that f is analytic. Give a formula for f

(z).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 11. Suppose that f : G C is a branch of the logarithm and that n is an integer. Prove that

z

n

= exp(nf (z)) for all z in G.

27

Solution. Let f (z) be a branch of the logarithm so that e

f (z)

= z. Let n Z and consider e

nf (z)

. In the

following cases we shall apply several of the properties of the complex exponential function developed in

the discussion on page 38 in the text.

CASE 1: Assume n > 0. Then we note that

e

nf (z)

= e

f (z)+f (z)++f (z) (n times)

= e

f (z)

e

f (z)

e

f (z)

(n times)

=

_

e

f (z)

_

n

= x

n

.

CASE 2: Assume n < 0. Then let m = n so that m > 0 and

e

nf (z)

=

1

e

mf (z)

=

1

z

m

= z

n

,

the middle step following from Case 1.

CASE 3: Assume n = 0. Then e

nf (z)

= e

0

= 1 = z

0

= z

n

.

Exercise 12. Show that the real part of the function z

1

2

is always positive.

Solution. We know that we can write z = re

i

0, < < and Log(z) = ln(r) + i. Thus

z

1

2

= e

Logz

1

2

= e

1

2

Logz

= e

1

2

(lnr+i)

= e

1

2

lnr

e

1

2

i

= e

1

2

lnr

_

cos

_

2

_

+ i sin

_

2

__

.

Hence,

Re(z) = e

1

2

lnr

cos

_

2

_

> 0,

since e

1

2

lnr

> 0 and cos

_

2

_

> 0 since < < . Thus, the real part of the function z

1

2

is always positive.

Exercise 13. Let G = C z R : z 0 and let n be a positive integer. Find all analytic functions

f : G C such that z = ( f (z))

n

for all z G.

Solution. Let Log(z) be the principal branch, then log(z) = Log(z) + 2ki for some k Z. Thus, we can

write

f (z) = z

1/n

= e

log(z)/n

= e

(Log(z)+2ki)/n

= e

Log(z)/n

e

2ki/n

.

We know that the latter factor are the n-th roots of unity and depend only on k and n. They correspond to

the n distinct powers of the expression = e

2i/n

. Therefore, the branches of z

1/n

on the set U are given by

f (z) =

k

e

Log(z)/n

,

where k = 0, . . . , n 1 and therefore they are all constant multiples of each other.

Exercise 14. Suppose f : G C is analytic and that G is connected. Show that if f (z) is real for all z in

G then f is constant.

Solution. First of all, we can write f : G C as

f (z) = u(z) + iv(z)

28

where u, v are real-valued functions. Since f : G C is analytic, that is f is continuously dierentiable

(Denition 2.3), we have that u and v have continuous partial derivatives. By Theorem 2.29, this implies

that u, v satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations. That is,

u

x

=

v

y

and

u

y

=

v

x

. (3.1)

Since f (z) is real z G, this implies

v(z) 0

and therefore f (z) = u(z). So, since v(z) = 0, we have

v

x

=

v

y

= 0

and by (3.1) we obtain

u

x

=

u

y

= 0

and thus u

(z) = 0 (see reasoning of equation 2.22 and 2.23 on page 41). Hence f

(z) = 0. Since G is

connected and f : G C is dierentiable with f

Exercise 15. For r > 0 1et A =

_

: = exp

_

1

z

_

where 0 < z < r

_

; determine the set A.

Solution. Dene the set S = z : 0 < z < r where r > 0. The image of this set under 1/z is clearly

T =

_

z :

1

r

< z

_

.

To nd the image of A is the same as nding the image of T under e

z

.

Claim: The image of A is C 0 (thus not depending on r).

To proof the claim, we need to show that for w 0, the equation e

z

= w has a solution z T. Using polar

coordinates we can write w = we

i

. We have to nd a complex number z = x +iy such that x

2

+y

2

>

1

r

and

e

x

e

iy

= w = we

i

. We want e

x

= w and y = + 2k, for some k Z. Using x = log w and k > 0 such

that (log w)

2

+ ( + 2k)

2

>

1

r

, then we found z = x + iy.

Exercise 16. Find an open connected set G C and two continuous functions f and g dened on G such

that f (z)

2

= g(z)

2

= 1 z

2

for all z in G. Can you make G maximal? Are f and g analytic?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 17. Give the principal branch of

1 z.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 18. Let f : G C and g : G C be branches of z

a

and z

b

respectively. Show that f g is a branch

of z

a+b

and f /g is a branch of z

ab

. Suppose that f (G) G and g(G) G and prove that both f g and

g f are branches of z

ab

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 19. Let G be a region and dene G

f

: G

C, dened by f

29

Solution. Let z = x + iy and let f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y). By assumption f is analytic and therefore

u and v have continuous partial derivatives. In addition the Cauchy-Riemann Equations u

x

= v

y

and

u

y

= v

x

are satised. Since f

(z) = u

(x, y) + iv

(x, y) where u

(x, y) = u(x, y)

and v

x

(x, y) = u

x

(x, y) = v

y

(x, y), u

y

(x, y) = u

y

(x, y) = v

x

(x, y),

v

x

(x, y) = v

x

(x, y) and v

y

(x, y) = v

y

(x, y) and therefore u

x

= v

y

and u

y

= v

x

so f

is analytic.

Exercise 20. Let z

1

, z

2

, . . . , z

n

be complex numbers such that Re z

k

> 0 and Re(z

l

. . . z

k

) > 0 for 1 k n.

Show that log(z

1

. . . z

n

) = log z

1

+ . . . + log z

n

, where log z is the principal branch of the logarithm. If the

restrictions on the z

k

are removed, does the formula remain valid?

Solution. Let z

1

, . . . , z

n

C such that Re(z

j

) > 0 and Re(z

1

z

j

) > 0 for 1 j n. The proof will be

by induction. Consider rst the case where n = 2. Let z

1

, z

2

C as above. Then

2

< arg z

1

<

2

,

2

<

arg z

2

<

2

and

2

< arg(z

1

z

2

) <

2

. But note arg(z

1

z

2

) = arg z

1

+arg z

2

implies that < arg z

1

+arg z

2

< .

Now, recall

log(z

1

z

2

) = ln z

1

z

2

+ i arg(z

1

z

2

)

= ln z

1

+ ln z

2

+ i arg(z

1

) + i arg(z

2

)

= log(z

1

) + log(z

2

)

Assume this formula is true for n = k 1. Let z

1

, . . . , z

k

C as above. Then

log(z

1

. . . z

k

) = log((z

1

z

k1

)z

k

)

= log(z

1

z

k1

) + log z

k

by the case when n = 2

= log z

1

+ log z

2

+ . . . + log z

k1

+ log z

k

by the case when n = k 1

Hence, this is true for all n such that z

i

, 1 i n, satisfy the restrictions.

If the restriction on the z

k

are removed, does the formula remain valid? Consider the complex numbers

z

1

= 1 + 2i, z

2

= 2 + i. Then z

1

z

2

= 0 5i. Clearly, z

1

, z

2

, and z

1

z

2

do not meet the restrictions as stated

above. Now,

log(z

1

) = ln z

1

+ i arg z

1

log(z

2

) = ln z

2

+ i arg z

2

Thus log z

1

+ log z

2

= ln

5 + ln

5 + i(

3

2

) = ln 5 + i(

3

2

), but note that

3

2

(, ) and log(z

1

z

2

) =

ln 5 + i(

2

). Thus log z

1

+ log z

2

log(z

1

z

2

) where log z is the principal branch of the logarithm. Hence,

the formula is invalid.

Exercise 21. Prove that there is no branch of the logarithm dened on G = C 0. (Hint: Suppose such a

branch exists and compare this with the principal branch.)

Solution. Dene the subset

G of G by

G = C z R : z 0. We use the notation Log for the principal

part of the log on

G, that is

Log(z) = log z + i arg(z)

where arg(z) (, ). We will prove the statement above by contradiction.

Assume f (z) is a branch of the logarithm dened on G. Then restricting f to

G gives us a branch of the log

on

G. Therefore its only dierence to the principal branch is 2ik for some k Z. This yields

f (z) = log z + i arg(z) + 2ik

where z

G. Since f is analytic in G, it is continuous at 1. But we can check that this is not the case, thus

we have derived a contradiction

30

3.3 Analytic functions as mappings. Mbius transformations

Exercise 1. 1. Find the image of z : Re z < 0, Im z < under the exponential function.

Solution. We have

z : Re z < 0, Im z < = z = x + iy : x < 0, < y < .

The image of z = x + iy : x < 0, < y < under the exponential function is given by

e

x+iy

: x < 0, < y < = e

x

e

iy

: x < 0, < y <

= e

x

(cos(y) + i sin(y)) : x < 0, < y <

= r(cos(y) + i sin(y)) : 0 < r < 1, < y < .

If 0 < r < 1 is xed, then r(cos(y) + i sin(y)) describes a circle with radius r without the point (r, 0)

centered at (0, 0).

Since r varies between 0 and 1, we get that the image is a solid circle with radius 1, where the boundary

does not belong to it, the negative x-axis does not belong to it and the origin does not belong to is.

Exercise 2. Do exercise 1 for the set z : Im z < /2.

Solution. We have

z : Im z < /2 = z = x + iy : x R,

2

< y <

2

.

The image of z = x + iy : x R,

2

< y <

2

under the exponential function is given by

e

x+iy

: x R,

2

< y <

2

= e

x

(cos(y) + i sin(y)) : x R,

2

< y <

2

< y <

2

.

If r > 0 is xed, then r(cos(y) + i sin(y)) describes a half circle with radius r centered at (0, 0) lying in the

right half plane not touching the imaginary axis.

Since r varies between 0 and innity, we get that the image is the right half plane without the imaginary

axis.

Exercise 3. Discuss the mapping properties of cos z and sin z.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Discuss the mapping properties of z

n

and z

1/n

for n 2. (Hint: use polar coordinates.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Find the xed points of a dilation, a translation and the inversion on C

.

Solution. In general, we have

S (z) =

az + b

cz + d

.

To get a dilation S (z) = az, we have that b = 0, c = 0, d = 1 and a > 0. To nd a xed point, we have to nd

all z such that S (z) = z. In this case az = z. Obviously z = 0 is a xed point. Also z = is a xed point,

since a = (a > 0) or S () =

a

c

=

a

0

= .

To get a translation S (z) = z + b, we have that a = 1, c = 0, d = 1 and b R. To nd a xed point, we have

to nd all z such that S (z) = z. In this case z +b = z, which is true if z = . To see that S () =

a

c

=

1

0

= .

To get a inversion S (z) =

1

z

, we have that a = 0, b = 1, c = 1 and d = 0. To nd a xed point, we have to

nd all z such that S (z) = z. In this case

1

z

= z which is equivalent to z

2

= 1 and thus z = 1 and z = 1 are

xed points.

31

Exercise 6. Evaluate the following cross ratios: (a) (7 + i, 1, 0, ) (b) (2, 1 i, 1, 1 + i) (c) (0, 1, i, 1) (d)

(i 1, , 1 + i, 0).

Solution. We have

S (z) =

z z

3

z z

4

/

z

2

z

3

z

2

z

4

, if z

2

, z

3

, z

4

C (3.2)

S (z) =

z z

3

z z

4

, if z

2

= (3.3)

S (z) =

z z

3

z

2

z

3

, if z

4

= . (3.4)

a) By (3.4) we get

(7 + i, 1, 0, ) =

7 + i 0

1 0

= 7 + i.

b) By (3.2) we get

(2, 1 i, 1, 1 + i) =

2 1

2 1 i

/

1 i 1

1 i 1 i

=

1

1 i

/

i

2i

=

2

1 i

= 2

1 + i

(1 i)(i + 1)

= 2

1 + i

2

= 1 + i.

c) By (3.2) we get

(0, 1, i, 1) =

0 i

0 + 1

/

1 i

1 + 1

= i/

1 i

2

= i

2

1 i

1 + i

1 + i

= i

2

2

(1 + i) = i i

2

= 1 i.

d) By (3.3) we get

(i 1, , 1 + i, 0) =

i 1 1 i

i 1 0

=

2

i 1

i + 1

i + 1

=

2

2

(i + 1) = 1 + i.

Exercise 7. If Tz =

az+b

cz+d

, nd z

2

, z

3

, z

4

(in terms of a, b, c, d) such that Tz = (z, z

2

, z

3

, z

4

).

Solution. The inverse of T is given by

T

1

(z) =

dz b

cz + a

as shown on p. 47. We have T

1

(1) =

db

ac

, T

1

(0) =

b

a

and T

1

() =

d

c

. Set z

2

=

db

ac

, z

3

=

b

a

and

z

4

=

d

c

to obtain Tz = (z, z

2

, z

3

, z

4

).

Exercise 8. If Tz =

az+b

cz+d

show that T(R

) = R

Solution. Let Tz =

az + b

cz + d

. Assume T(R

) = R

. Then let z

0

R

such that Tz

0

= 0. Observe that this

implies az

0

= b, so

b

a

R

and r

1

b

a

R

as well. Likewise, if z

such that Tz

= , then

32

r

2

d

c

R

. Now let z

1

R

such that Tz

1

= 1. Then

az

1

+ b

cz

1

+ d

= 1

az

1

+ b = cz

1

+ d

z

1

_

1

c

a

_

=

d

a

b

a

z

1

c

z

1

a

r

2

a

+

r

1

c

= 0

z

1

+ r

1

c

=

z

1

+ r

2

a

z

1

+ r

1

z

1

+ r

2

=

c

a

R

.

Let r

3

=

c

a

. Then

d

a

=

d

c

c

a

= r

2

r

3

R

. Thus

Tz =

az + b

cz + d

=

z +

b

a

c

a

z +

d

a

=

z + r

1

r

3

z + r

2

r

3

and we have thus found real coecients for T.

Now to prove the converse, assume T(R

) R

is a circle in C

, by

Theorem 3.14 we conclude that T(R

)

(C

c

R

for which Tz

c

R

.

Now, suppose by way of contradiction that there is some representation of T in which a, b, c, and d are

all real. Then

Tz

c

=

az

c

+ b

cz

c

+ d

is clearly an element of R

c

is not real. We see, therefore, that there

is a real choice for a, b, c, and d simultaneously if and only if T(R

) = R

.

Exercise 9. If Tz =

az+b

cz+d

, nd necessary and sucient conditions that T() = where is the unit circle

z : z = 1.

Solution. We want if z z = 1, then T(z)T(z) = 1.

T(z)T(z) = 1

az + b

cz + d

az + b

cz + d

= 1

(az + b)( a z +

b)

(cz + d)( c z +

d)

= 1

az a z + b a z + az

b + b

b = cz c z + d c z +

dcz + d

d

z z(a a c c) + z(a

b c

d) + z(b a + d c) d

d = 0.

This is the same as the equation z z 1 = 0 if

a

b c

d = 0

b a d c = 0

and

a a c c = 1

b

b d

d = 1

33

which is equivalent to a

2

c

2

= 1 and 1 = d

2

b

2

. Hence, we have the two conditions

a

b c

d = 0 and a

2

+ b

2

= c

2

+ d

2

.

These are the sucient conditions. Let c =

b, then a

b c

d = 0 yields a

b

d = 0 i a =

d i d =

a

.

Insert this into c

2

+ d

2

= a

2

+ b

2

yields

2

b

2

+

a

2

2

= a

2

+ b

2

,

and therefore we can take = 1. Then

1

T(z) =

az + b

(

bz + a)

, where = 1

or

T(z) =

az + b

bz + a

, where = 1.

Take = e

i

, then

T(z) = e

i

az + b

bz + a

, for some .

This mapping transforms z = 1 into T(z) = 1.

Exercise 10. Let D = z : z < 1 and nd all Mbius transformations T such that T(D) = D.

Solution. Take an D = z : z < 1 such that T() = 0. Its symmetric point with respect to the unit

circle is

=

1

since

z

a =

R

2

z a

(see page 51) with a = 0 and R = 1 (the unit circle). Therefore T(

T(z) = K

z

z 1

where K is a constant. (It is easy to check that T() = 0 and T(

) = T(

1

) = ). Finally, we are going to

choose the constant K in such a way that T(z

0

) = 1 where z

0

= e

i

. We have

T(z

0

) = K

e

i

e

i

1

and therefore

1 = T(z

0

) = K

e

i

e

i

1

= K

_

e

i

_ _

e

i

_

e

i

e

i

= K

_

e

i

_ _

e

i

_

_

e

i

_ _

e

i

_ = K.

So K = 1 implies K = e

i

for some real . We arrive at

T(z) = e

i

z

z 1

, for some real .

34

Exercise 11. Show that the denition of symmetry (3.17) does not depend on the choice of points z

2

, z

3

, z

4

.

That is, showthat if

2

,

3

,

4

are also in then equation (3.18) is satised i (z

,

2

,

3

,

4

) = (z,

2

,

3

,

4

).

(Hint: Use Exercise 8.)

Solution. Let be a circle in C

containing points z

2

, z

3

, z

4

, w

2

, w

3

, and w

4

, with all z

i

distinct and all w

i

distinct. Let z C

and consider z

i

. We know that

(z

, z

2

, z

3

, z

4

) = (z, z

2

, z

3

, z

4

)

Recall that the above left-hand cross-ratio implies a unique Mbius transformation T for which Tz

2

= 1,

Tz

3

= 0, and Tz

4

= . By Proposition 3.10, T maps to R

rewritten as

Tz

= Tz.

or

z

= T

1

Tz (3.5)

Likewise, there is some transformation S for which S w

2

= 1, S w

3

= 0, and S w

4

= . Again, S maps to

R

z

= S

1

S z. (3.6)

Now, we proceed by showing that the right hand sides of (3.5) and (3.6) must be equal:

T

1

Tz = T

1

TS

1

S z

Observe here that TS

1

must have real coecients by Exercise 8 because R

under TS

1

. Thus we

observe that TS

1

= TS

1

so

T

1

Tz = T

1

TS

1

S z = S

1

S z.

Hence we have the desired result.

Exercise 12. Prove Theorem 3.4.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 13. Give a discussion of the mapping f (z) =

1

2

(z + 1/z).

Solution. The function f (z) =

1

2

_

z +

1

z

_

=

z

2

+1

2z

can be dened for all z C 0 and therefore also in the

punctured disk 0 < z < 1. To see that in this domain the function is injective, let z

1

, z

2

be two numbers in

the domain of f with the same image, then

0 =f (z

1

) f (z

2

) =

z

2

1

+ 1

z

1

z

2

2

+ 1

z

2

=

z

2

1

z

2

+ z

2

z

1

z

2

2

z

1

z

1

z

2

=

(z

1

z

2

1)(z

1

z

2

)

z

1

z

2

.

With the assumption 0 < z

i

< 1, i = 1, 2 the factor z

1

z

2

1, is always nonzero and we conclude that z

1

= z

2

;

hence f (z) is injective.

The range of the function is C z C Tz [1, 1] and Imz = 0. To see this, write z = re

i

in polar

coordinates and let f (z) = w = a + ib, a, b R.

f (z) = f (re

i

) =

1

2

_

re

i

+

1

r

e

i

_

=

1

2

__

r +

1

r

_

cos + i

_

r

1

r

_

sin

_

.

35

For the real and imaginary part of w the following equations must hold

a =

1

2

_

r +

1

r

_

cos

b =

1

2

_

r

1

r

_

sin .

(3.7)

If f (z) = w has imaginary part b = 0 then sin = 0 and cos = 1. Therefore points of the form

a + ib, a [1, 1], b = 0 cannot be in the range of f . For all other points the equations (3.7) can be solved

for r and uniquely (after restricting the argument to [, )).

Given any value of r (0, 1), the graph of f (re

i

) as a function of looks like an ellipse. In fact from

formulas (3.7) we see that

_

a

1

2

(r+

1

r

)

_

2

+

_

b

1

2

(1

1

r

)

_

2

= 1.

If we x the argument and let r vary in (0, 1) it follows from from equation (3.7) that the graph of f (re

i

)

is a hyperbola and it degenerates to rays if z is purely real or imaginary. In the case (2k + 1) k Z

the graph of f in dependence on r is on the imaginary axis and for 2k k Z the graph of f (re

i

) is

either (, 1) or (1, ). If cos 0 and sin 0 then

_

a

cos

_

2

_

b

sin

_

2

= 1.

Exercise 14. Suppose that one circle is contained inside another and that they are tangent at the point a.

Let G be the region between the two circles and map G conformally onto the open unit disk. (Hint: rst try

(z a)

1

.)

Solution. Using the hint, dene the Mbius transformation T(z) = (z a)

1

which sends the region G

between two lines. Afterward applying a rotation followed by a translation, it is possible to send this region

to any region bounded by two parallel lines we want. Hence, choose S (z) = cz + d where c = 1 such that

S (T(G)) =

_

x + iy : 0 < y <

2

_

.

Applying the exponential function to this region yields the right half plane

exp(S (T(G))) = x + iy : x > 0.

Finally, the Mbius transformation

R(z) =

z 1

z + 1

maps the right half plane onto the unit disk (see page 53). Hence the function f dened by R(exp(S (T(z))))

maps G onto D and is the desired conformal mapping ( f is a composition of conformal mappings). Doing

some simplications, we obtain

f (z) =

e

c

za

+d

1

e

c

za

+d

+ 1

where the constants c and d will depend on the circle location.

Exercise 15. Can you map the open unit disk conformally onto z : 0 < z < 1?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 16. Map G = C z : 1 z 1 onto the open unit disk by an analytic function f . Can f be

one-one?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 17. Let G be a region and suppose that f : G C is analytic such that f (G) is a subset of a

circle. Show that f is constant.

36

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 18. Let < a < b < and put Mz =

zia

zib

. Dene the lines L

1

= z : Im z = b, L

2

= z : Im z =

a and L

3

= z : Re z = 0. Determine which of the regions A, B, C, D, E, F in Figure 1, are mapped by M

onto the regions U, V, W, X, Y, Z in Figure 2.

Solution. We easily see that we have M(ia) = 0. Therefore the region B, C, E and F which touch the line

ia are mapped somehow to the region U, V, X and Y which touch 0. Similarly we have M(ib) = and

therefore the region B and E which touch the line ib are mapped somehow to the region U and X which

touch . Thus we conclude that C or F goes to either V or Y. Let us nd out. Let x, y be small positive

real numbers such that the poin z = x + iy + ia E. Thus, the imaginary part of Mz is a positive number

multiplied by x(b a) and therefore also positive. Therefore we conclude that M maps E to U and B to X.

Because B and C meet at the line ia, we conclude that X and M(C) do, too. Hence, M maps C to Y and F

to V. By a similar argument, we obtain that M maps A to Z and D to W.

Exercise 19. Let a, b, and M be as in Exercise 18 and let log be the principal branch of the logarithm.

(a) Show that log(Mz) is dened for all z except z = ic, a c b; and if h(z) = Im [log Mz] then

0 < h(z) < for Re z > 0.

(b) Show that log(z ic) is dened for Re z > 0 and any real number c; also prove that Imlog(z ic) <

2

if Re z > 0.

(c) Let h be as in (a) and prove that h(z) = Im [log(z ia) log(z ib)].

(d) Show that

_

b

a

dt

z it

= i[log(z ib) log(z ia)]

(Hint: Use the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.)

(e) Combine (c) and (d) to get that

h(x + iy) =

_

b

a

x

x

2

+ (y t)

2

dt = arctan

_

y a

x

_

arctan

_

y b

x

_

(f) Interpret part (e) geometrically and show that for Re z > 0, h(z) is the angle depicted in the gure.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 20. Let S z =

az+b

cz+d

and Tz =

z+

z+

, show that S = T i there is a non zero complex number such

that = a, = b, = c, = d.

Solution. : Let 0 be a complex number such that

= a

= b

= c

= d.

Then

T(z) =

z +

z +

=

az + b

cz + d

=

(az + b)

(cz + d)

=

(az + b)

(cz + d)

= S (z).

Thus, S = T.

: Let S = T, that is S (z) = T(z). Then S (0) = T(0), S (1) = T(1) and S () = T() which is equivalent

37

to

b

d

=

=

1

b =

1

d, =

1

(3.8)

a + b

c + d

=

+

+

(3.9)

a

c

=

=

3

a =

3

c, =

3

. (3.10)

Insert b =

1

d, =

1

, a =

3

c and =

3

into (3.9), then

3

c +

1

d

c + d

=

3

+

1

+

3

c +

1

d +

3

c +

1

d =

3

c +

1

c +

3

d +

1

d

1

d +

3

c

1

c

3

d = 0

1

(d c)

3

(d c) = 0

(

1

3

)(d c) = 0.

Thus, either

1

3

= 0 or d c = 0.

If

1

3

= 0, then from (3.8) and (3.9), we get

3

=

a

c

=

b

d

=

1

which implies ad bc = 0 a contradiction

(Not possible, otherwise we do not have a Mbius transformation).

Thus, d c = 0

c

d

=

c

=

d

:= , 0 or

= c (3.11)

= d. (3.12)

Insert (3.11) and (3.12) into (3.8) to obtain

b

d

=

b

d

=

d

= b.

Insert (3.11) and (3.12) into (3.10) to obtain

a

c

=

a

c

=

c

= a.

Therefore, we have

= a, = b, = c, = d.

Exercise 21. Let T be a Mbius transformation with xed points z

1

and z

2

. If S is a Mbius transformation

show that S

1

TS has xed points S

1

z

1

, and S

1

z

2

.

Solution. To show

S

1

TS (S

1

z

1

) = S

1

z

1

.

We have

S

1

TS (S

1

z

1

) = S

1

TS S

1

z

1

= S

1

Tz

1

= S

1

z

1

,

where the rst step follows by the associativity of compositions, the second step since S S

1

= id and the

last step by Tz

1

= z

1

since z

1

is a xed point of T.

To show

S

1

TS (S

1

z

2

) = S

1

z

2

.

38

We have

S

1

TS (S

1

z

2

) = S

1

TS S

1

z

2

= S

1

Tz

2

= S

1

z

2

,

where the rst step follows by the associativity of compositions, the second step since S S

1

= id and the

last step by Tz

2

= z

2

since z

2

is a xed point of T.

Note that S

1

TS is a well dened Mbius transformation, since S and T are Mbius transformation. The

composition of Mbius transformation is a Mbius transformation.

Exercise 22. (a) Show that a Mbius transformation has 0 and as its only xed points i it is a dilation,

but not the identity.

(b) Show that a Mbius transformation has as its only xed point i it is a translation, but not the identity.

Solution. a) Let M be a Mbius transformation with exactly two xed points, at 0 and . We know that

Mz =

az + b

cz + d

with a, b, c, d C. We know that M(0) = 0 so

b

d

= 0, whence we conclude that b = 0. But we also

know that M() = so

a

c

= , meaning c = 0. Thus Mz =

az

d

= z for some C. Since both

b and c were 0, we know that both a and d are nonzero so is likewise nonzero and nite. Suppose

by way of contradiction that = 1. Then for any z C

points, a contradiction. Thus 1 and M is a (complex) dilation not equal to the identity.

On the other hand, assume M is a dilation not equal to the identity. In this case, we are free to express

M as Mz = z with 1. It is clear from this representation that M has xed points at 0 and and,

of course, at no other points.

b) Let M be a Mbius transformation with exactly one xed point at . Again, we know that

Mz =

az + b

cz + d

and we can see that c = 0 as before. This time, however, we also examine the lack of a second xed

point. Recall that if z is a xed point of M, then z satises c z

2

+ (d a) z b = 0, which in the case

of c = 0 reduces to (d a) z b = 0 or z =

b

d a

. We note that b 0 because 0 is not a xed point

of M. Suppose that d a. In such a case, there is a nite value of z that is a xed point of M, a

contradiction. Thus, it must be the case that d = a and

Mz = z +

b

d

.

Thus M is a translation.

Now assume M is a translation. Then we can express M as Mz = z + . Here, in the convention of

the text, we have a = 1, b = , c = 0, and d = 1. The xed points z of M satisfy c z

2

+(d a) z b = 0,

but no nite z satises this equation for the given coecients. Clearly, however, M has as a xed

point, so is the only xed point of M.

Exercise 23. Show that a Mbius transformation T satises T(0) = and T() = 0 i Tz = az

1

for

some a in C.

Solution. Not available.

39

Exercise 24. Let T be a Mbius transformation, T the identity. Show that a Mbius transformation S

commutes with T if S and T have the same xed points. (Hint: Use Exercises 21 and 22.)

Solution. Let T and S have the same xed points. To show TS = S T, T id.

: Suppose T and S have two xed points, say z

1

and z

2

. Let M be a Mbius transformation with M(z

1

) = 0

and M(z

2

) = . Then

MS M

1

(0) = MS M

1

Mz

1

= MS z

1

= Mz

1

= 0

and

MS M

1

() = MS M

1

Mz

2

= MS z

2

= Mz

2

= .

Thus MS M

1

is a dilation by exercise 22 a) since MS M

1

has 0 and as its only xed points. Similar,

we obtain MT M

1

(0) = 0 and MT M

1

() = and therefore is also a dilation. It is easy to check that

dilations commute (dene C(z) = az, a > 0 and D(z) = bz, b > 0, then CD(z) = abz = baz = DC(z)), thus

(MT M

1

)(MS M

1

) = (MS M

1

)(MT M

1

)

MTS M

1

= MS T M

1

TS = S T.

: Suppose T and S have one xed points, say z. Let M be a Mbius transformation with M(z) = . Then

MS M

1

() = MS M

1

Mz = MS z = Mz = .

Thus MS M

1

is a translation by exercise 22 b) since MS M

1

has as its only xed point. Similar, we

obtain MT M

1

() = and therefore is also a translation. It is easy to check that translations commute

(dene C(z) = z + 1 and D(z) = z + b, b > 0, then CD(z) = z + a + b = z + b + a = DC(z)), thus

(MT M

1

)(MS M

1

) = (MS M

1

)(MT M

1

)

MTS M

1

= MS T M

1

TS = S T.

Exercise 25. Find all the abelian subgroups of the group of Mbius transformations.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 26. 26. (a) Let GL

2

(C) = all invertible 2 2 matrices with entries in C and let A be the group

of Mbius transformations. Dene : GL

2

(C) A by

_

a b

c d

_

=

az+b

cz+d

. Show that is a group

homomorphism of GL

2

(C) onto A. Find the kernel of .

(b) Let S L

2

(C) be the subgroup of GL

2

(C) consisting of all matrices of determinant 1. Show that the image

of S L

2

(C) under is all of A. What part of the kernel of is in S L

2

(C)?

Solution. a) We have to check that if

A =

_

a b

c d

_

and B =

_

a

b

c

d

_

then (AB) = (A) (B). A simple calculation shows that this is true. To nd the kernel of the group

homomorphism we have to nd all z such that

az+b

cz+d

= z. This is equivalent to az + b = cz

2

+ dz and by

comparing coecients we obtain b = c = 0 and a = d. Therefore, the kernel is given by N = ker() = I :

C

2

(C).

b) Restricting to S L

2

(C) still yields a surjective map since for any matrix A GL

2

(C) both A and

the modication M =

1

det A

A have the same image and the modication matrix M has by construction

determinant 1. The kernel of the restriction is simply N S L

2

(C) = I.

40

Exercise 27. If gis a group and A is a subgroup then A is said to be a normal subgroup of gif S

1

TS A

whenever T A and S g. g is a simple group if the only normal subgroups of g are I (I = the identity

of g) and g itself. Prove that the group Aof Mbius transformations is a simple group.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 28. Discuss the mapping properties of (1 z)

i

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 29. For complex numbers and with

2

+

2

= 1

u

,

=

z

z +

and let U = u

,

:

2

+

2

= 1

(a) Show that U is a group under composition.

(b) If S U

2

is the set of all unitary matrices with determinant 1, show that S U

2

is a group under matrix

multiplication and that for each A in S U

2

there are unique complex numbers and with

2

+

2

= 1

and

A =

_

_

(c) Show that

_

_

u

,

is an isomorphism of the group S U

2

onto U. What is its kernel?

(d) If l 0,

1

2

, 1,

3

2

, . . . let H

l

= all the polynomials of degree 2l. For u

,

= u in U dene T

(l)

u

: H

l

H

l

,

by (T

(l)

u

f )(z) = (z + )

2l

f (u(z)). Show that T

(l)

u

is an invertible linear transformation on H

l

, and u T

(l)

u

is an injective homomorphism of U into the group of invertible linear transformations of H

l

, onto H

l

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 30. For z < l dene f (z) by

f (z) = exp

_

_

i log

_

i

_

1 + z

1 z

__

1/2

_

_

(a) Show that f maps D = z : z < 1 conformally onto an annulus G.

(b) Find all Mbius transformations S (z) that map D onto D and such that f (S (z)) = f (z) when z < 1.

Solution. Not available.

41

Chapter 4

Complex Integration

4.1 Riemann-Stieltjes integrals

Exercise 1. Let : [a, b] R be non decreasing. Show that is of bounded variation and V() =

(b) (a).

Solution. Let : [a, b] R be a monotone, non-decreasing function. For a given partition of [a, b],

a = t

0

< t

1

< . . . < t

m

= b, for all n N, (t

n

) (t

n1

). Therefore, (t

n

) (t

n1

) = (t

n

) (t

n1

) 0.

Let P = a = t

0

< t

1

< . . . < t

m

= b, any partition of [a, b]. Then,

m

n=1

(t

n

) (t

n1

) = [(t

m

) (t

m1

)] + [(t

m1

) (t

m2

)] + . . . + [(t

2

) (t

1

)] + [(t

1

) (t

0

)]

= [(b) (t

m1

)] + [(t

m1

) (t

m2

)] + . . . + [(t

2

) (t

1

)] + [(t

1

) (a)]

= (b) (a)

Since (a), (b) R, (b) (a) < . It follows that is of bounded variation for any partition P. And

also v(; P) = supv(; P) : P a partition of [a, b] = V() = (b) (a).

Exercise 2. Prove Proposition 1.2.

Solution. Let : [a, b] C be of bounded variation.

(a) If P and Q are partitions of [a, b] and P Q then v(; P) v(; Q).

Proof will be by induction. Let P = a = t

0

< t

1

< . . . < t

m

= b. Suppose Q = P x, where t

k

< x < t

k+1

.

Then,

v(; P) =

ik+1

(t

i

) (t

i1

) + (t

k+1

) (t

k

)

ik+1

(t

i

) (t

i1

) + (x) (t

k

) + (t

k+1

) (x)

= v(; Q)

Now consider the general case on the number of elements of Q \ P. The smallest partition set for Q \ P

contains the trivial partition composed of a, b. Using the case dened above, we have v(; Q) v(; P)

v(; Q \ P) (b) (a), whenever P Q.

(b) If : [a, b] C is also of bounded variation and , C, then + is of bounded variation and

42

V( + ) V() + V().

Let P = a = t

0

< t

1

< . . . < t

m

= b be a partition. Since and are of bounded variation for [a, b] R,

there exists constants M

> 0 and M

m

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

) M

and

v(; P) =

m

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

) M

. Then,

v( + ; P) =

m

k=1

( + )(t

k

) ( + )(t

k1

)

=

m

k=1

(t

k

) + (t

k

) (t

k1

) (t

k1

)

=

m

k=1

((t

k

) (t

k1

)) + ((t

k

) (t

k1

))

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

) + (t

k

) (t

k1

)

=

m

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

) +

m

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

)

=

m

k=1

((t

k

) (t

k1

)) +

m

k=1

((t

k

) (t

k1

))

=

m

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

) +

m

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

)

= v(; P) + v(; P)

supv(; P) : P a partition of [a, b] + supv(; P) : P a partition of [a, b]

= V() + V()

<

The result is two-fold, V( + ) V() + V() and it follows + is of bounded variation by

V() + V().

Exercise 3. Prove Proposition 1.7.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Prove Proposition 1.8 (Use induction).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let (t) = exp((1 + i)/t

1

) for 0 < t 1 and (0) = 0. Show that is a rectiable path and

nd V(). Give a rough sketch of the trace of .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Show that if : [a, b] C is a Lipschitz function then is of bounded variation.

43

Solution. Let : [a, b] C be Lipschitz, that is a constant C > 0 such that

(x) (y) Cx y, x, y [a, b].

Then, for any partition P = a = t

0

< t

1

< . . . < t

m

= b of [a, b], we have

v(; P) =

m

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

)

m

k=1

Ct

k

t

k1

= C

m

k=1

t

k

t

k1

= C(b a) =: M > 0.

Hence, the function : [a, b] C, for [a, b] R, is of bounded variation, since there is a constant M > 0

such that for any partition P = a = t

0

< t

1

< . . . < t

m

= b of [a, b]

v(; P) =

m

k=1

(t

k

) (t

k1

) M.

Exercise 7. Show that : [0, 1] C, dened by (t) = t + it sin

1

t

for t 0 and (0) = 0, is a path but is

not rectiable. Sketch this path.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Let and be the two polygons [1, i] and [1, 1 + i, i]. Express and as paths and calculate

_

f and

_

f where f (z) = z

2

.

Solution. For we have (t) = (1 t) + it for 0 t 1. So

(t) = 1 + i. Therefore,

_

z

2

dz =

_

1

0

((1 t)

2

+ t

2

)(1 + i)dt

= (1 + i)

_

1

0

(2t

2

2t + 1)dt

= (1 + i)

_

2

3

t

3

t

2

+ t

_

1

0

= (1 + i)

_

2

3

1 + 1

_

=

2

3

+ i

2

3

.

Since is composed of multiple lines, the path is given by

1

(t) = 1 + it : 0 t 1;

2

(t) = (1 t) + i :

44

0 t 1. So

1

(t) = i and

2

(t) = 1. Therefore,

_

f =

_

1

f +

_

2

f

=

_

1

z

2

dz +

_

2

z

2

dz

=

_

1

0

(t

2

+ 1)(i)dt +

_

1

0

((1 t)

2

+ 1)(1)dt

= i

_

1

0

(t

2

+ 1)dt

_

1

0

(t

2

2t + 2)dt

= i

_

t

3

3

+ t

_

1

0

_

t

3

3

t

2

+ 2t

_

1

0

=

4

3

i

_

1

3

1 + 2

_

=

4

3

i

4

3

=

4

3

(1 + i)

Exercise 9. Dene : [0, 2] C by (t) = exp(int) where n is some integer (positive, negative, or zero).

Show that

_

1

z

dz = 2in.

Solution. Clearly, (t) = e

int

is continuous and smooth on [0, 2]. Thus

_

z

1

dz =

_

2

0

e

int

ine

int

dt =

_

2

0

in dt = in(2 0) = 2in.

Exercise 10. Dene (t) = e

it

for 0 t 2 and nd

_

z

n

dz for every integer n.

Solution. Clearly, (t) = e

int

is continuous and smooth on [0, 2] (It is the unit circle).

Case 1: n = 1

_

z

1

dz =

_

2

0

e

it

ie

it

dt = i

_

2

0

dt = 2i.

Case 2: n 1

_

z

n

dz =

_

2

0

e

int

ie

it

dt = i

_

2

0

e

i(n+1)t

dt = t

_

e

i(n+1)t

i(n + 1)

_

2

0

=

1

n + 1

_

e

i(n+1)t

_

2

0

=

1

n + 1

_

e

i(n+1)2

1

_

=

1

n + 1

[cos((n + 1)2) i sin((n + 1)2)1] =

1

n + 1

[1 i 0 1]

= 0.

Exercise 11. Let be the closed polygon [1 i, 1 + i, 1 + i, 1 i, 1 i]. Find

_

1

z

dz.

45

Solution. Dene

1

(t) = 1 + it, t from 1 to 1

1

(t) = i

2

(t) = t + i, t from 1 to 1

2

(t) = 1

3

(t) = 1 + it, t from 1 to 1

3

(t) = i

4

(t) = t i, t from 1 to 1

4

(t) = 1.

Thus

_

1

z

dz

=

_

1

1

1

1 + it

i dt +

_

1

1

1

t + i

dt +

_

1

1

1

1 + it

i dt +

_

1

1

1

t i

dt

=

_

1

1

_

1

t + i

+

1

t i

_

dt + i

_

1

1

_

1

1 + it

1

1 + it

_

dt

=

_

1

1

t + i + t + i

(t + i)(t i)

dt + i

_

1

1

1 + it 1 it

(1 + it)(1 + it)

dt

= 2i

_

1

1

1

t

2

+ 1

dt 2i

_

1

1

1

1 t

2

dt

= 2i

_

1

1

1

t

2

+ 1

dt + 2i

_

1

1

1

t

2

+ 1

dt

= 4i

_

1

1

1

t

2

+ 1

dt = 4i [arctan(z)]

1

1

= 4i

_

4

_

4

__

= 4i

2

= 2i.

Exercise 12. Let I(r) =

_

e

iz

z

dz where : [0, ] C is dened by (t) = re

it

. Show that lim

r

I(r) = 0.

Solution. To show lim

r

I(r) = 0 which is equivalent to > 0, n N such that if r > N, then I(r) < .

Let > 0, then

I(r) 0 = I(r) =

e

iz

z

dz

_

0

e

ire

it

re

it

rie

it

dt

i

_

0

e

ire

it

dt

_

0

e

ire

it

dt.

Now, recall that e

z

= e

Re(z)

(p. 38 eq. 2.13), so

e

ire

it

= e

Re(ire

it

)

= e

Re(ir cos(t)+iri sin(t))

= e

Re(ir cos(t)r sin(t))

= e

r sin(t)

.

Hence,

_

0

e

ire

it

dt =

_

0

e

r sin(t)

dt =

_

1

0

e

r sin(t)

dt +

_

2

1

e

r sin(t)

dt +

_

2

e

r sin(t)

dt

for

1

> 0 and

2

> 0. Since e

r sin(t)

is continuous, so

1

> 0 can be chosen such that

_

1

0

e

r sin(t)

dt <

3

, r > 0.

Similar,

2

> 0 can be chosen such that

_

2

e

r sin(t)

dt <

3

, r > 0.

46

Finally, because of the Lebesgues dominated convergence Theorem

lim

r

_

2

1

e

r sin(t)

dt =

_

2

1

lim

r

e

r sin(t)

dt

we have

lim

r

_

2

1

e

r sin(t)

dt <

3

.

Hence,

lim

r

I(r) = 0.

Exercise 13. Find

_

1

2

dz where: (a) is the upper half of the unit circle from +1 to 1: (b) is the

lower half of the unit circle from +1 to 1.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 14. Prove that if : [a, b] [c, d] is continuous and (a) = c, (b) = d then is one-one i is

strictly increasing.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 15. Show that the relation in Denition 1.16 is an equivalence relation.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 16. Show that if and are equivalent rectiable paths then V() = V().

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 17. Show that if : [a, b] C is a path then there is an equivalent path : [0, 1] C.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 18. Prove Proposition 1.17.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 19. Let = 1 + e

it

for 0 t 2 and nd

_

(z

2

1)

1

dz.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 20. Let = 2e

it

for t and nd

_

(z

2

1)

1

dz.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 21. Show that if F

1

and F

2

are primitives for f : G C and G is open end connected then there

is a constant c such that F

1

(z) = c + F

2

(z) for each z in G.

Solution. Let F

1

and F

2

be primitives for f : G C. Recall then that F

1

= f = F

2

. Let h = F

1

F

2

for

all z G. Then for all z G,

h

(z) = F

1

(z) F

2

(z) = f (z) f (z) = 0

Since G is open and connected with h

h = F

1

F

2

= c and F

1

(z) = F

2

(z) + c for all z G.

47

Exercise 22. Let be a closed rectiable curve in an open set G and a G. Show that for n 2,

_

(z a)

n

dz = 0.

Solution. Let f (z) = (z a)

n

for all z G. Then f has the antiderivative F(z) =

(z a)

1n

1 n

on G. Since

F

(z) = f (z) where n 2 (note F is undened for n = 1). Now, let be a closed rectiable curve in G with

endpoints z

1

, z

2

C. Since z

1

= z

2

, F(z

1

) = F(z

2

). So,

_

(z a)

n

dz = F(z

2

) F(z

1

) = 0.

Exercise 23. Prove the following integration by parts formula. Let f and g be analytic in G and let be a

rectiable curve from a to b in G. Then

_

f g

= f (b)g(b) f (a)g(a)

_

g.

Solution. Let f , g be analytic in G and let be a rectiable curve from a to b in G. Then

_

f g

+

_

g =

(def)

_

b

a

f ((t))g

((t)) d(t) +

_

b

a

f

((t))g((t)) d(t)

=

Prop. 1.7 (a)

_

b

a

f ((t))g

((t)) + f

((t))g((t)) d(t)

=

(def)

_

f g

+ f

g =

_

( f g)

Since ( f g)

_

( f g)

Hence,

_

f g

= f (b)g(b) f (a)g(a)

_

g.

4.2 Power series representation of analytic functions

Exercise 1. Show that the function dened by (2.2) is continuous.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Prove the following analogue of Leibniz.s rule (this exercise will be frequently used in the later

sections.) Let G be an open set and let be a rectiable curve in C. Suppose that : y G C is a

continuous function and dene g : G C by

g(z) =

_

(w, z) dw

then g is continuous. If

z

exists for each (w, z) in G and is continuous then g is analytic and

g

(z) =

_

z

(w, z) dw.

Solution. Not available.

48

Exercise 3. Suppose that is a rectiable curve in C and is dened and continuous on . Use Exercise

2 to show that

g(z) =

_

(w)

w z

dw

is analytic on C and

g

(n)

(z) = n!

_

(w)

(w z)

n+1

dw.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. (a) Prove Abels Theorem: Let

_

a

n

(z a)

n

have radius of convergence 1 and suppose that

_

a

n

converges to A. Prove that

lim

r1

a

n

r

n

= A.

(Hint: Find a summation formula which is the analogue of integration by parts.)

(b) Use Abels Theorem to prove that log 2 = 1

1

2

+

1

3

. . ..

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Give the power series expansion of log z about z = i and nd its radius of convergence.

Solution. Assume a C is not zero, then

1

z

=

1

a + z a

=

1

a

1

a+za

a

=

1

a

1

1 +

za

a

=

1

a

n=0

(1)

n

a

n

(z a)

n

=

n=0

(1)

n

a

n+1

(z a)

n

,

where the radius of convergence is a. Let a = i, then integrate term by term yields

log(z) =

2

i +

n=0

_

i

2

_

n

(n + 1)i

n+1

(z i)

n+1

+

2

i

n=0

i

n+1

n + z

(z i)

n+1

=

2

i

n=1

(1 + iz)

n

n

,

since Log(i) =

2

i. The convergence radius is i = 1.

Exercise 6. Give the power series expansion of

z about z = 1 and nd its radius of convergence.

Solution. From the denition of numbers with rational exponents z

a

= exp(a log z) we see that the square

root cannot be analytic on all of C. In fact, taking the rst derivatives we see that f

(n)

(z) = 2

n

n1

k=0

(1

2k)z

n+

1

2

and therefore

a

n

=

1

n!

f

(n)

(1) =

1

n!2

n

n1

_

k=0

,

and with these a

n

,

f (z) =

z =

n=0

a

n

(z 1)

z

=

k=0

1

n!2

n

n1

_

k=0

(1 2k)(z 1)

n

.

Note that the logarithm is undened at zero. Thus, of all branch cuts of the logarithm, the best radius of

convergence we can achieve is 1.

49

Exercise 7. Use the results of this section to evaluate the following integrals:

(a)

_

e

iz

z

2

dz, (t) = e

it

, 0 t 2;

(b)

_

dz

z a

, (t) = a + re

it

, 0 t 2;

(c)

_

sin(z)

z

3

dz, (t) = e

it

, 0 t 2;

(d)

_

log z

z

n

dz, (t) = 1 +

1

2

e

it

, 0 t 2 and n 0.

Solution. a) Let a = 0, r = 1, n = 1, f (z) = e

iz

and f

(z) = ie

iz

. Clearly f (z) is analytic on C and

f

(0) =

1!

2i

_

e

iz

(z 0)

2

dz i =

1

2i

_

e

iz

z

2

dz

_

e

iz

z

2

dz = 2.

b) Let a = a, r = r, n = 0, and f (z) = 1. Clearly f (z) is analytic on C and

B(a; r) C. Now use Corollary

2.13.

f

(0)

(a) =

0!

2i

_

1

(z a)

1

dz 1 =

1

2i

_

1

z a

dz

_

1

z a

dz = 2i.

c) Let a = 0, r = 1, n = 2 and f (z) = sin(z). Then f

analytic on C (p. 38) and

B(0; 1) C. Now use Corollary 2.13.

f

(0) =

2!

2i

_

sin(z)

(z 0)

3

dz sin(0) =

1

i

_

sin(z)

z

3

dz 0 =

1

i

_

sin(z)

z

3

dz

sin(z)

z

3

dz = 0.

d) We have that

f (z) =

log(z)

z

n

is analytic in the disk B(1;

1

2

) where n 0. Furthermore, is a closed rectiable curve ((t) is a circle with

radius r = 1/2 and center (1, 0) in C). Obviously (t) = 1 +

1

2

e

it

B(1;

1

2

). Hence, by Proposition 2.15, f

has a primitive and therefore

_

f = 0. Therefore,

_

log(z)

z

n

dz = 0.

Exercise 8. Use a Mbuis transformation to show that Proposition 2.15 holds if the disk B(a; R) is replaced

by a half plane.

Solution. Not available.

50

Exercise 9. Evaluate the following integrals:

(a)

_

e

z

e

z

z

n

dz where n is a positive integer and (t) = e

it

, 0 t 2;

(b)

_

dz

_

z

1

2

_

n

where n is a positive integer and (t) =

1

2

+ e

it

, 0 t 2;

(c)

_

dz

z

2

+ 1

where (t) = 2e

it

, 0 t 2. (Hint: expand (z

2

+ 1)

1

by means of partial fractions);

(d)

_

sin z

z

dz where (t) = e

it

, 0 t 2;

(e)

_

z

1/m

(z 1)

m

dz where (t) = 1 +

1

2

e

it

, 0 t 2;

Solution. a) Let a = 0, r = 1, n = m 1 and

f (z) = e

z

e

z

f

(z) = e

z

+ e

z

f

(z) = e

z

e

z

.

.

.

f

(m1)

(z) = e

z

(1)

m+1

e

z

.

Clearly f (z) is analytic on C and

B(0; 1) C. Now use Corollary 2.13.

f

(m1)

(0) =

(m 1)!

2i

_

e

z

e

z

(z 0)

m

dz

(m 1)!

2i

_

e

z

e

z

z

m

dz =

_

_

0 , m odd

2 , m even

e

z

e

z

z

m

dz =

_

_

0 , m odd

4i

(m1)!

, m even

(m > 0).

b) Let a = 1/2, r = 1, n = m 1 and

f (z) = 1

f

(z) = 0

f

(z) = 0

.

.

.

f

(m1)

(z) = 0.

51

Clearly f (z) is analytic on C and

B(

1

2

; 1) C. Now use Corollary 2.13.

f

(m1)

_

1

2

_

=

(m 1)!

2i

_

1

_

z

1

2

_

m

dz

(m 1)!

2i

_

1

_

z

1

2

_

m

dz =

_

_

1 , m = 1

0 , m > 1

1

_

z

1

2

_

m

dz =

_

_

2i , m = 1

0 , m > 1

.

c) Using partial fraction decomposition, we obtain

1

z

2

+ 1

!

=

A

z i

+

B

z + i

=

Az + Ai + Bz Bi

z

2

+ 1

which implies

A + B = 0 (4.1)

Ai Bi = 1. (4.2)

From (4.1), we get A = B inserted into (4.2) yields 2Bi = 1 and therefore B =

1

2i

and A =

1

2i

. Thus

_

dz

z

2

+ 1

=

1

2i

_

dz

z i

1

2i

_

dz

z + i

.

For the rst integral on the right side, use Proposition 2.6. Let a = 0, r = 2 and f (w) = 1, (t) = 2e

it

,

0 t 2. Clearly f (z) is analytic on C. We also have

B(0; 2) C. Then

f (z) =

1

2i

_

f (w)

w i

dw 1 =

1

2i

_

1

w i

dw

_

1

z i

dz = 2i,

where i 0 < 2 1 < 2.

For the second integral on the right side, use Proposition 2.6. Let a = 0, r = 2 and f (w) = 1, (t) = 2e

it

,

0 t 2. Clearly f (z) is analytic on C. We also have

B(0; 2) C. Then

f (z) =

1

2i

_

f (w)

w + i

dw 1 =

1

2i

_

1

w + i

dw

_

1

z + i

dz = 2i,

where i < 2 1 < 2. Hence

_

dz

z

2

+ 1

=

1

2i

_

dz

z i

1

2i

_

dz

z + i

=

1

2i

2i

1

2i

2i = = 0.

So

_

dz

z

2

+ 1

= 0.

d) Let a = 0, r = 1, n = 0 and f (z) = sin(z). Clearly f (z) is analytic on C and

B(0; 1) C. Now use

Corollary 2.13.

f

(0)

(0) =

0!

2i

_

sin(z)

(z 0)

1

dz 0 =

1

2i

_

sin(z)

z

dz

_

sin(z)

z

dz = 0.

52

e) Let a = 1, r = 1/2, n = m 1 and

f (z) = z

1/m

f

(z) =

1

m

z

1/m1

f

(z) =

1

m

_

1

m

1

_

z

1/m2

.

.

.

f

(m1)

(z) =

1

m

_

1

m

1

_

. . .

_

1

m

(m 2)

_

z

1/m(m1)

.

Clearly f (z) is analytic on C and

B(1;

1

2

) C. Now use Corollary 2.13.

f

(m1)

(1) =

(m 1)!

2i

_

z

1/m

(z 1)

m

dz

1

m

_

1

m

1

_

. . .

_

1

m

(m 2)

_

1 =

(m 1)!

2i

_

z

1/m

(z 1)

m

dz

z

1/m

(z 1)

m

dz =

2i

(m 1)!

1

m

_

1 m

m

_ _

1 2m

m

_

. . .

_

1 (m 1)m

m

_

z

1/m

(z 1)

m

dz =

2i

(m 1)!m

m1

m2

_

i=0

(1 im).

Exercise 10. Evaluate

_

z

2

+1

z(z

2

+4)

dz where (t) = re

it

, 0 t 2, for all possible values of r, 0 < r < 2 and

2 < r < .

Solution. Let f (z) =

z

2

+ 1

z(z

2

+ 4)

. Then f (z) can be decomposed using partial fractions as

f (z) =

z

2

+ 1

z(z

2

+ 4)

=

1/4

z

+

3/8

z 2i

+

3/8

z + 2i

.

It follows,

_

z

2

+ 1

z(z

2

+ 4)

dz =

1

4

_

1

z

dz +

3

8

_

1

z 2i

dz +

3

8

_

1

z + 2i

dz. By Proposition 2.6,

_

1

z

dz =

2i f (0) = 2i where f 1 as f 1 is analytic on B(0, 2) and = 0 + re

it

with 0 < r < 2. Now, note

1

z2i

is

analytic on B(0, 2) and for 0 < r < 2 is in B(0, 2). Thus, by Proposition 2.15,

_

1

z 2i

dz = 0. Similarly,

_

1

z + 2i

dz = 0. It follows for 0 < r < 2,

_

z

2

+ 1

z(z

2

+ 4)

dz =

1

4

2i =

2

i. Now, for 2 < r < , note (t) = re

it

so

(t) = ire

it

. Calculating the integrals in turn,

_

1

z

dz =

_

2

0

ire

it

re

it

dt = i

_

2

0

dt = 2i.

For the second integral, we use Proposition 2.6 with a = 0, 2 < r < , f (w) = 1, and (t) = 0 + re

it

for

53

0 t 2. Clearly f (z) is analytic on C and

B(0; 2 < r < ) C. Then,

f (2i) =

1

2i

_

f (w)

w + 2i

dw 1 =

1

2i

_

f (w)

w + 2i

dw

1

z + 2i

dz = 2i

if 2 < r < . Similarly,

f (2i) =

1

2i

_

f (w)

w 2i

dw

_

1

z 2i

dz = 2i.

It follows that,

_

z

2

+ 1

z(z

2

+ 4)

dz =

1

4

_

1

z

dz +

3

8

_

1

z 2i

dz +

3

8

_

1

z + 2i

dz

=

1

4

(2i) +

3

8

(2i) +

3

8

(2i)

= 2i

Exercise 11. Find the domain of analyticity of

f (z) =

1

2i

log

_

1 + iz

1 iz

_

;

also, show that tan f (z) = z (i.e., f is a branch of arctan z). Show that

f (z) =

k=0

(1)

k

z

2k+1

2k + 1

, for z < 1

(Hint: see Exercise III. 3.19.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 12. Show that

sec z = 1 +

k=1

E

2k

(2k)!

z

2k

for some constants E

2

, E

4

, . These numbers are called Eulers constants. What is the radius of conver-

gence of this series? Use the fact that 1 = cos z sec z to show that

E

2n

_

2n

2n 2

_

E

2n2

+

_

2n

2n 4

_

E

2n4

+ + (1)

n1

_

2n

2

_

E

2

+ (1)

n

= 0.

Evaluate E

2

, E

4

, E

6

, E

8

. (E

10

= 50521 and E

12

= 2702765).

Solution. It is easily seen that

sec z = 1 +

k=1

E

2k

(2k)!

z

2k

, (for some E

2

, E

4

, . . .),

54

since sec(0) =

1

cos(0)

=

1

1

= 1 and sec z =

1

cos z

is an even function. The radius of convergence is the closest

distance from 0 to the nearest non-analytic point which is precisely

2

.

Since 1 = cos z sec z, we can multiply the series for sec z and cos z together to obtain

1 =

i=0

_

_

n

k=0

(1)

ik

E

2k

(2k)!(2i 2k)!

_

_

z

2i

.

Finally, we can compare the coecients of z

2i

and multiply by (2i)! to obtain the formula

n

i=0

(1)

nk

E

2k

_

2n

2k

_

= 0

which is equivalent to

E

2n

_

2n

2n 2

_

E

2n2

+

_

2n

2n 4

_

E

2n4

+ + (1)

n1

_

2n

2

_

E

2

+ (1)

n

= 0.

In addition, we have E

2

= 1, E

4

= 5, E

6

= 61 and E

8

= 1285.

Exercise 13. Find the series expansion of

e

z

1

z

about zero and determine its radius of convergence. Consider

f (z) =

z

e

z

1

and let

f (z) =

k=0

a

k

k!

z

k

be its power series expansion about zero. What is the radius of convergence? Show that

0 = a

0

+

_

n + 1

1

_

a

1

+ +

_

n + 1

n

_

a

n

.

Using the fact that f (z) +

1

2

z is an even function show that a

k

= 0 for k odd and k > 1. The numbers

B

2n

= (1)

n1

a

2n

are called the Bernoulli numbers for n 1. Calculate B

2

, B

4

, , B

l0

.

Solution. The Bernoulli numbers B

n

are dened by

B

n

= lim

z

d

n z

e

z

1

dz

n

, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

We determine the largest R such that

z

e

z

1

=

k=0

B

k

k!

z

k

for 0 < z < R.

The function f (z) =

z

e

z

1

has a removable singularity at z = 0, because it can be extended to 0 by an

analytic function g on a small neighborhood B(0, r) of 0, setting

g(z) :=

_

_

z

e

z

1

if 0 < z < r

1 if x = 0

.

Furthermore the function f has essential singularities exactly at z = 2k, k Z 0. Therefore f (z) has

a Laurent series expansion on the punctured disk ann(0; 0, 2) and the negative indices disappear because

the singularity at the origin is a removable one. The uniqueness of the Laurent expression together with the

55

formula for the coecients in the expansion (Theorem 2.8, p. 72) give the desired result.

First we compute B

0

= lim

z0

z

e

z

1

= 1 and note that the result in question does not hold for B

0

. Also

compute B

1

. Taking the limits, B

1

= lim

z0

(1z)e

z

1

(e

z

1)

2

=

1

2

. Consider the equation

z

e

z

1

=

_

k=0

B

k

k!

z

k

for

z ann(0; 0, 2). This is equivalent to

z =

_

l=1

z

l

l!

_

_

_

k=0

B

k

k!

z

k

_

_

.

Divide by z 0, then

1 =

_

l=1

z

l1

l!

_

_

_

k=0

B

k

k!

_

_

=

_

l=0

z

l

(l + 1)!

_

_

_

k=0

B

k

k!

_

_

=

n=0

n

m=0

B

m

m!

z

m

z

nm

(n + 1 m)!

=

n=0

z

n

n

m=0

B

m

m!(n + 1 m)!

=

n=0

z

n

(n + 1)!

n

m=0

_

n + 1

m

_

B

m

= B

0

+

n=1

z

n

(n + 1)!

n

m=0

_

n + 1

m

_

B

m

.

Since B

0

= 0 conclude that

0 =

n=1

z

n

(n + 1)!

n

m=0

_

n + 1

m

_

B

m

for all nonzero z ann(0; 0, 2). This can only happen if the inner summation equals zero for all n N.

This prove the rst part of the statement. For the second claim, one only needs to show that f (z) +

1

2

z is an

even function. It is true that

f (z) +

1

2

z =

2z + (e

z

1)z

2(e

z

1)

=

z(e

z

+ 1)

2(e

z

1)

.

as well as t

f (z)

1

2

z =

z(e

z

+ 1)

e

z

1

=

z(1 + e

z

)

2(1 e

z

)

=

z(1 + e

z

)

2(e

z

1)

= f (z) +

1

2

z.

With the power series expansion of f and recalling that B

1

=

1

2

this is the same as saying

1 +

k=2

B

k

k!

(z)

k

= 1 +

k=2

B

k

k!

(z)

k

or, yet in other terms,

B

k

= B

k

= 0 for k odd , k > 1.

56

In part b) the values of B

0

= 1 and B

1

=

1

2

have been computed already. Also B

3

= B

5

= B

7

= 0 by

the second statement of part b). It remains to compute B

2

, B

4

, B

6

and B

8

. The formula involving binomial

coecients in the part above can be solved for B

n

and

B

n

=

1

n + 1

_

_

n1

k=0

_

n + 1

k

_

B

k

_

_

.

This gives

B

2

=

1

3

(B

0

+ 3B

1

) =

1

3

_

1

3

2

_

=

1

6

,

B

4

=

1

5

(B

0

+ 5B

1

+ 10B

2

) =

1

30

,

B

6

=

1

7

(B

0

+ 7B

1

+ 21B

2

+ 35B

4

) =

1

42

,

and

B

8

=

1

9

(B

0

+ 9B

1

+ 36B

2

+ 126B

4

+ 84B

6

) =

1

30

.

Exercise 14. Find the power series expansion of tan z about z = 0, expressing the coecients in terms of

Bernoulli numbers. (Hint: use Exercise 13 and the formula cot 2z =

1

2

cot z

1

2

tan z.)

Solution. To nd the power series expansion of tan z about z = 0, we replace z by 2iz in the function

f (z) =

z(e

z

+ 1)

2(e

z

1)

which we obtained in the previous problem. We obtain

f (2iz) =

2iz(e

2iz

+ 1)

2(e

2iz

1)

=

iz(e

iz

+ e

iz

)

e

iz

e

iz

= z

cos(z)

sin(z)

= z cot(z).

Next, we replace z by 2iz of the power series expansion for f (z) to obtain

z cot(z) = 1

n=1

4

n

B

2n

(2n)!

z

2n

.

Multiplying the formula cot 2z =

1

2

cot z

1

2

tan z with 2z gives

z tan z = z cot z 2z cot 2z

and therefore

z tan z =

_

_

1

n=1

4

n

B

2n

(2n)!

z

2n

_

_

1

n=1

4

2n

B

2n

(2n)!

z

2n

_

_

=

n=1

4

n

(4

n

1)B

2n

(2n)!

z

2n

.

Hence,

tan(z) =

n=1

4

n

(4

n

1)B

2n

(2n)!

z

2n1

.

57

4.3 Zeros of an analytic function

Exercise 1. Let f be an entire function and suppose there is a constant M, an R > 0, and an integer n 1

such that f (z) Mz

n

for z > R. Show that f is a polynomial of degree n.

Solution. Since f is an entire function, that is f A(C), we have by Proposition 3.3 p. 77, that f has a

power series expansion

f (z) =

k=0

a

k

z

k

, wherea

k

=

f

(k)

(0)

k!

with innite radius of convergence. We have to show that f

(k)

(0) = 0 for k n + 1, then we are done. Let

r > R and let (t) = re

it

, 0 t 2. Note that is a closed and rectiable curve. Then

f

(k)

(0) =

Corollary 2.13 p.73

k!

2i

_

f (z)

z

k+1

dz

k!

2

_

f (z)

z

k+1

dz.

Since r > R, (t) = re

it

= r > R, 0 t 2. So f (z) Mz

n

, z , we get

k!

2

_

f (z)

z

k+1

dz

k!

2

_

Mz

n

z

k+1

dz =

k!M

2

_

z

nk1

dz

=

z=r

k!M

2

r

nk1

_

dz =

k!M

2

r

nk1

2r

= k!Mr

nk

= k!M

1

r

kn

0

as r since k n + 1 k n 1. Hence, f

(k)

(0) = 0 k n + 1 and thus

f (z) =

n

k=0

f

(k)

(0)

k!

z

k

;

a polynomial of degree less or equal n.

Exercise 2. Give an example to show that G must be assumed to be connected in Theorem 3.7.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Find all entire functions f such that f (x) = e

x

for x in R.

Solution. Let f (z) = e

z

. Clearly f is analytic on C since it is entire. Then for all x R, f (x) = e

x

. Now let

g be an entire function such that g(x) = e

x

for all x R. Now, set H = z G : f (z) = g(z). So, R H.

Clearly 0 is a limit point of H and 0 G. Hence, by Corollary 3.8, f (z) g(z). So f (z) = e

z

is the set of all

entire functions f such that f (x) = e

x

for all x R.

Exercise 4. Prove that e

z+a

= e

z

e

a

by applying Corollary 3.8.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Prove that cos(a + b) = cos a cos b sin a sin b by applying Corollary 3.8.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let G be a region and suppose that f : G C is analytic and a G such that f (a) f (z)

for all z in G. Show that either f (a) = 0 or f is constant.

58

Solution. Let f : G C be analytic, where G is a region. Let a G such that

f (a) f (z) z G. (4.3)

Obviously, f (a) satises (4.3) since 0 f (z) z G is true.

Now, suppose f (a) 0 a G. Dene

g(z) =

1

f (z)

.

Clearly, g A(G) (since f (a) 0 a G) and

g(z) =

(def)

1

f (z)

(4.3)

1

f (a)

=

(def)

g(a), z G.

According to the Maximum Modulus Theorem 3.11 p. 79, g is constant and thus f is constant. Thus, we

conclude: Either f (a) = 0 or f is constant.

Exercise 7. Give an elementary proof of the Maximum Modulus Theorem for polynomials.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Let G be a region and let f and g be analytic functions on G such that f (z)g(z) = 0 for all z in

G. Show that either f 0 or g 0.

Solution. It is easy to verify the following claim:

If f (z) =constant in B(a; R) G, then f (z) =same constant for all z G.

Proof: Suppose f (z) = c in B(a; R). Dene g(z) = f (z) c, then g(z) A(G). g

(n)

(a) = 0 for all

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .. So g(z) = f (z) c 0 on G.

Let G be a region and let f , g A(G) such that

f (z)g(z) = 0, z G.

Assume f (z) 0, z G. Let a G such that f (a) 0, then (since f is continuous, because f A(G))

there is an R > 0 such that f (z) 0 whenever z B(a; R). Hence g(z) = 0 z B(a; R) to fulll f (z)g(z) = 0

z B(a; R). By the claim above we obtain that

g(z) = 0, z G.

So g 0.

Similar, assume g(z) 0 z G, then by the same reasoning, we obtain f 0. Thus, we conclude: Either

f 0 or g 0.

Exercise 9. Let U : C R be a harmonic function such that U(z) 0 for all z in C; prove that U is

constant.

Solution. There exists an analytic function f : C C such that

U(z) = Re( f (z)),

since U : C R is assumed to be harmonic. Hence, Re( f (z)) 0 z C by assumption. For all z C,

dene g(z) = e

f (z)

A(C). Then

g(z) =

(def)

e

f (z)

= e

Re(f (z))

= e

Re( f (z))

1, z C,

where the last step follows since Re( f (z)) 0 by assumption. Thus, g(z) is bounded and an entire function,

and therefore g is constant according to Liouvilles Theorem 3.4 p. 77 and hence f (z) is constant, too. It

follows that U is constant.

59

Exercise 10. Show that if f and g are analytic functions on a region G such that

f g is analytic then either

f is constant or g 0.

Solution. Not available.

4.4 The index of a closed curve

Exercise 1. Prove Proposition 4.3.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Give an example of a closed rectiable curve in C such that for any integer k there is a point

a with n(; a) = k.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let p(z) be a polynomial of degree n and let R > 0 be suciently large so that p never vanishes

in z : z R. If (t) = Re

it

, 0 t 2, show that

_

(z)

p(z)

dz = 2in.

Solution. Since p(z) is a polynomial of degree n, we can write

p(z) = c

n

_

k=1

(z a

k

)

for some constant c (see Corollary 3.6 p. 77) where a

1

, . . . , a

n

are the zeros of p(z). By the product rule we

obtain

p

(z) = c

n

k=1

(z a

k

)

n

_

l=1

lk

(z a

l

) = c

n

k=1

n

_

l=1

lk

(z a

l

).

Thus

_

(z)

p(z)

dz =

_

c

_

n

k=1

n

l=1

lk

(z a

l

)

c

n

k=1

(z a

k

)

dz

=

_

_

1

z a

1

+

1

z a

2

+ . . . +

1

z a

n

_

dz

=

_

(z a

1

)

1

dz +

_

(z a

2

)

1

dz + . . . +

_

(z a

n

)

1

dz

= n(, a

1

)2i + n(, a

2

)2i + . . . + n(, a

n

)2i =

n

k=1

2i = 2in,

since by Denition 4.2 p. 81 (t) = Re

it

, 0 t 2 or (t) = Re

2it

, 0 t 1 is a closed and rectiable

curve and a

1

, . . . , a

n

since R > 0 suciently large so that p never vanishes in z : z R. In addition,

we have n(; a

i

) = 1 1 i n. Hence,

_

(z)

p(z)

dz = 2in.

Exercise 4. Fix w = re

i

0 and let be a rectiable path in C 0 from 1 to w. Show that there is an

integer k such that

_

z

1

dz = log r + i + 2ik.

Solution. Not available.

60

4.5 Cauchys Theorem and Integral Formula

Exercise 1. Suppose f : G C is analytic and dene : G G C by (z, w) = [ f (z) f (w)](z w)

1

if z w and (z, z) = f

(z). Prove that is continuous and for each xed w, z (z, w) is analytic.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Give the details of the proof of Theorem 5.6.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let B

=

B(1;

1

2

), G = B(0; 3)(B

+

B

). Let

1

,

2

,

3

be curves whose traces are z1 = 1,

z+1 = 1, and z = 2, respectively. Give

1

,

2

, and

3

orientations such that n(

1

; w)+n(

2

; w)+n(

3

; w) =

0 for all w in C G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Show that the Integral Formula follows from Cauchys Theorem.

Solution. Assume the conditions of Cauchys Theorem, that is: Let G be an open subset of the plane and

f : G C an analytic function. If is a closed rectiable curve in G such that n(; w) = 0 w G C,

then

_

f = 0.

Now, let a G, where a . Dene

g(z) =

_

_

f (z)f (a)

za

, z a

f

(a), z = a

.

Clearly, g A(G). (Check the power series of f (z) like in the proof of Theorem 3.7 c) b) p. 78) By

Cauchys Theorem, we obtain

_

g = 0

a

_

f (z) f (a)

z a

dz = 0

f (z)

z a

dz

_

f (a)

z a

dz = 0

f (z)

z a

dz = f (a)

_

1

z a

dz

_

f (z)

z a

dz = f (a)n(; a)2i

1

2i

_

f (z)

z a

dz = n(; a) f (a).

This is exactly Cauchys Integral Formula.

Exercise 5. Let be a closed rectiable curve in C and a . Show that for n 2

_

(z a)

n

dz = 0.

Solution. Since is a closed rectiable curve in C, is bounded. So there exists R > 0 such that

B(a; R). Hence C\B(a; R) belongs to the unbounded component of B(a; R). Therefore n(; w) = 0

w C\B(a; R) by Theorem 4.4 p.82. We can apply Corollary 5.9 p.86 if we let G = B(a; R) the open set

and f : G C given by f (z) = 1 is analytic. Further is a closed and rectiable curve in G such that

n(; w) = 0, w C\G,

61

then for a in B(a; R)\

f

(n1)

(a)n(; a) =

(n 1)!

2i

_

1

(z a)

n

dz

0 n(; a) =

(n 1)!

2i

_

1

(z a)

n

dz

since f

(n1)

(a) = 0 if n 2. Hence

_

(z a)

n

dz = 0, for n 2.

Exercise 6. Let f be analytic on D = B(0; 1) and suppose f (z) 1 for z < 1. Show f

(0) 1.

Solution. We can directly apply Cauchys estimate 2.14 p. 73 with a = 0, R = 1, M = 1 and N = 1, that is

by assumption f is analytic on B(0; 1) and f (z) 1 for all z in B(0; 1) (since z < 1). Then

f

(0)

1! 1

1

1

= 1.

So f

(0) 1.

Exercise 7. Let (t) = 1 + e

it

for 0 t 2. Find

_

_

z

z1

_

n

dz for all positive integers n.

Solution. Let G = B(1; R) (open) where 1 < R < and let f : G C be given by f (z) = z

n

which

is analytic on G. By Theorem 4.4 p. 82, n(; w) = 0 w C\G since C\G belongs to the unbounded

component of G and is a closed and rectiable curve in C.

Now, we can apply Corollary 5.9 with G and f dened above such that n(; w) = 0 w C\G and is a

closed rectiable curve in G, then for a = 1 in G\

f

(n1)

(1)n(; a) =

(n 1)!

2i

_

z

n

(z 1)

n

dz =

(n 1)!

2i

_

_

z

z 1

_

n

dz

n! =

(n 1)!

2i

_

_

z

z 1

_

n

dz

_

z

z 1

_

n

dz = 2in,

since f

(n1)

(1) = n! and n(; a) = 1.

Exercise 8. Let G be a region and suppose f

n

: G C is analytic for each n 1. Suppose that f

n

Solution. Let G be a region and suppose f

n

: G C is analytic for each n 1, that us f

n

is continuous for

each n 1.

Let T be an arbitrary triangular path in G. Then T is closed and rectiable. We also have, that n(T; w) = 0

w C\G, since w is an element of the unbounded component of G (Theorem 4.4 p. 82).

By Cauchys Theorem (First Version), p. 85 with m = 1, we have

_

T

f

n

= 0, n N, (4.4)

62

since we suppose f

n

: G C is analytic for each n 1 and T is closed and rectiable. We also have

_

T

f = lim

n

_

T

f

n

=

(4.4)

lim

n

0 = 0

The rst equality follows by Lemma 2.7 p. 71 since T is closed and rectiable and since each f

n

A(G),

we have f

n

is continuous for each f

n

and by the uniform convergence to a function f , we get f is continuous

(Theorem 6.1 p. 29).

Finally, we can apply Moreras Theorem 5.10 p. 86 to obtain that f is analytic in G, since f is continuous

and

_

Exercise 9. Show that if f : C C is a continuous function such that f is analytic o [1, 1] then f is an

entire function.

Solution. By Moreras Theorem, it suce to show that for every triangular path T in C, we have

_

T

f = 0,

since we already assume f is continuous. There are several cases to consider:

Case 1: A triangle does not intersect I. In this case, we obtain by Cauchys Theorem, that

_

T

f = 0,

since we can nd an open neighborhood G containing T (is closed and rectiable) such that f A(G) (by

assumption) and n(T; w) = 0 w C\G (by Theorem 4.4 p. 82).

Case 2: A triangle touches I exactly at one point P. This single point of intersection P is a removable

singularity, since f is continuous. Again apply Cauchys Theoremto obtain

_

T

f = 0. (Procedure: Translate

the triangle by i depending if it lies above or below the x-axis. By Cauchys Theorem

_

T

f = 0 over the

translated triangle and let 0 since f is continuous).

Case 3: One edge of the triangle touches I. Like in case 2 we can translate the triangle by We can

also argue this way: Let G be an open neighborhood containing the triangle T. Let T

n

be a sequence of

triangles that are not intersecting I, but whose limit is the given T. Then by the continuity of f , we get

_

T

f = lim

n

_

T

n

f = lim

n

0 = 0,

where the rst equality follows by Lemma 2.7 and the second one by case 1.

Case 4: A triangle T is cut into 2 parts by I. Then, we can always decompose the triangle T in three parts.

Two triangles are of the kind explained in case 3 and one is of the kind explained in case 2 (a sketch might

help). Thus,

_

T

f = 0 again.

Case 5: A triangle T contains parts of I (also here a sketch might help). In this instance, we can decompose

the triangle into 5 parts. Two triangles are of the kind explained in case 3 and the other three triangles are

of the kind explained in case 2. Hence,

_

T

f = 0.

Summary: Since

_

T

f = 0 for every triangular path in C and f is continuous, we get by Moreras Theorem:

f A(C), that is f is an entire function.

Exercise 10. Use Cauchys Integral Formula to prove the CayleyHamilton Theorem: If A is an n n

matrix over C and f (z) = det(z A) is the characteristic polynomial of A then f (A) = 0. (This exercise was

taken from a paper by C. A. McCarthy, Amer. Math. Monthly, 82 (1975), 390391).

Solution. Not available.

4.6 The homotopic version of Cauchys Theorem and simple connec-

tivity

Exercise 1. Let G be a region and let

1

,

2

: [0, 1] G be the constant curves

1

(t) a,

2

(t) b.

Show that if is closed rectiable curve in G and

1

, then

2

. (Hint: connect a and b by a curve.)

63

Solution. Assume is a closed and rectiable curve in G and

1

. Since

1

(t) a and

2

(t) b, we

surely have that

1

and

2

are closed and rectiable curves in G. If we can show that

1

2

, then we get

2

, since is an equivalence relation, that is:

1

and

1

2

2

.

So, now we show

1

2

, that is, we have to nd a continuous function : [0, 1] [0, 1] G such that

(s, 0) =

1

(s) = a and (s, 1) =

2

(s) = b, for 0 s 1

and (0, t) = (1, t) for 0 t 1. Let (s, t) = tb + (1 t)a. Clearly is a continuous function. (it is

constant with respect to s and a line with respect to t). In addition, it satises (s, 0) = a 0 s 1 and

(s, 1) = b 0 s 1 and (0, t) = tb + (1 t)a = (1, t) 0 t 1. So

1

2

.

Exercise 2. Show that if we remove the requirement (0, t) = (1, t) for all t from Denition6.1 then the

curve

0

(t) = e

2it

, 0 t 1, is homotopic to the constant curve

1

(t) 1 in the region G = C 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. 3. Let ( = all rectiable curves in G joining a to b and show that Denition 6.11 gives an

equivalence relation on (.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let G = C 0 and show that every closed curve in G is homotopic to a closed curve whose

trace is contained in z : z = 1.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Evaluate the integral

_

dz

z

2

+1

where () = 2 cos 2e

i

for 0 2.

Solution. A sketch shows that the two zeros of z

2

+ 1 (they are i) are inside of the closed and rectiable

curve (The region looks like a clover with four leaves ). Using partial fraction decompositions gives

_

dz

z

2

+ 1

=

1

2i

_

1

z i

dz

1

2i

_

1

z + i

dz

=

1

2i

_

1

z i

dz

1

2i

_

1

z + i

dz

=

Def 4.2 p. 81

(n(; i) n(; i))

= 0 = 0,

since n(; i) = n(; i) since i and i are contained in the region generated by . Hence

_

dz

z

2

+ 1

= 0.

Exercise 6. Let () = e

i

for 0 2 and () = 4 for 2 4. Evaluate

_

dz

z

2

+

2

.

Solution. A sketch reveals that the zero i is inside the region and the zero i is outside the region. Using

partial fraction decomposition yields

_

dz

z

2

+

2

=

1

2i

_

1

z i

dz

1

2i

_

1

z + i

dz

=

Def 4.2 p. 81

n(; i) n(; i) = 0 1 = 1,

64

since i is not contained in the region generated by , so n(; i) = 0 and i is contained in the region, so

n(; i) = 1. Hence,

_

dz

z

2

+

2

= 1.

Exercise 7. Let f (z) = [(z

1

2

i) (z1

3

2

i) (z1

i

2

) (z

3

2

i)]

1

and let be the polygon [0, 2, 2+2i, 2i, 0].

Find

_

f .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Let G = C a, b, a b, and let be the curve in the gure below.

(a) Show that n(; a) = n(; b) = 0.

(b) Convince yourself that is not homotopic to zero. (Notice that the word is convince and not prove.

Can you prove it?) Notice that this example shows that it is possible to have a closed curve in a region

such that n(; z) = 0 for all z not in G without being homotopic to zero. That is, the converse to Corollary

6.10 is false.

Solution. Let be the path depicted on p. 96. We can write it as a sum of 6 paths. Two of them will

be closed and have a and b in their unbounded component. Therefore, two integrals will be zero and we

will have another 2 pair of non-closed paths. The rst pair begins at the leftmost crossing pair and goes

around a in opposite direction. The second pair begins at the middle crossing pair and goes around b in

opposite direction. They also meet at the rightmost crossing point. If we integrate over the path around a

is equivalent to evaluate

_

2

1

za

dz where

1

(t) = a + re

it

, 0 t and

2

(t) = a + re

it

, t 2 for

some r > 0. It is easily seen that we have

_

1

1

z a

dz =

_

2

1

z a

dz = i

and therefore n(; a) = 0 and similarly we obtain n(; b) = 0.

Exercise 9. Let G be a region and let

0

and

1

be two closed smooth curves in G. Suppose

0

1

, and

satises (6.2). Also suppose that

t

(s) = (s, t) is smooth for each t. If w CG dene h(t) = n(

t

; w) and

show that h : [0, 1] Z is continuous.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 10. Find all possible values of

_

dz

1+z

2

, where is any closed rectiable curve in C not passing

through i.

Solution. Let be a closed rectiable curve in C not passing through i. Using partial fraction decompo-

sition and the denition of the winding number we obtain

_

dz

1 + z

2

=

1

2i

__

1

z 1

dz

_

1

z + i

dz

_

=

1

2i

(2in(; i) 2in(; i)) = (n(; i) n(; i)) .

Exercise 11. Evaluate

_

e

z

e

z

z

4

dz where is one of the curves depicted below. (Justify your answer.)

Solution. Using Corollary 5.9 p. 86 we have a G

_

f (z)

(z a)

k+1

dz = 2i f

(k)

(a)n(; a)

1

k!

,

65

where is a closed rectiable curve in G (open) such that n(; w) = 0 for all w C G and f : G C is

analytic.

In our case a = 0 and satises the above assumptions for exercise a), b) and c). Let f (z) = e

z

e

z

which

is clearly analytic on any region G. We have f

(3)

(0) = e

0

+ e

0

= 2 and using the formula above for k = 3

we obtain

_

e

z

e

z

z

4

dz = 2i 2n(; 0)

1

6

=

2i

3

n(; 0).

Hence, n(; 0) = 1 for part a) and thus the result is

2i

3

. We have n(; 0) = 1 for part b) and thus the result

is

4i

3

. We obtain the same result for part c).

4.7 Counting zeros; the Open Mapping Theorem

Exercise 1. Show that if f : G C is analytic and is a rectiable curve in G then f is also a

rectiable curve.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let G be open and suppose that is a closed rectiable curve in G such that 0. Set

r = d(, G) and H = z C : n(; z) = 0. (a) Show that z : d(z, G) <

1

2

r H. (b) Use part (a)

to show that if f : G C is analytic then f (z) = has at most a nite number of solutions z such that

n(; z) 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let f be analytic in B(a; R) and suppose that f (a) = 0. Show that a is a zero of multiplicity m

i f

(m1)

(a) = . . . = f (a) = 0 and f

(a)

(a) 0.

Solution. : Let f

(n)

(a) = 0 for all n = 1, 2, . . . , m 1 (we also have f (a) = 0) and f

(m)

(a) 0. Since

f A(B(a; R)), we can write

f (z) =

k=0

a

k

(z a)

k

where a

k

=

f

(k)

(a)

k!

and z a < R

=

k=0

f

(k)

(a)

k!

(z a)

k

=

k=m

f

(k)

(a)

k!

(z a)

k

= (z a)

m

k=0

f

(k)

(a)

k!

(z a)

km

.,,.

g(z)

=

g(a)0, since f

(m)

0

(z a)

m

g(z)

where g A(B(a; R)). Hence, a is a zero of multiplicity m.

: Suppose a is a zero of multiplicity m 1 of f . By denition, there exists g A(B(0; R)) such that

f (z) = (z a)

m

g(z), g(a) 0 (p. 97).

Then after a lengthy calculation, we obtain

f

(n)

(z) =

n

k=0

_

n

k

_

m!

(m (n k))!

(z a)

m(nk)

g

(k)

(z), n = 1, 2, . . . , m.

66

If z = a, then clearly f

(n)

(a) = 0 for m(n k) > 0 and f

(n)

(a) 0 for m(n k) = 0. If k = 0 and m = n,

then f

(m)

(a) = f

(n)

(a) = m!g(a) 0 since g(a) 0 by assumption. Hence, f

(n)

(a) = 0 for n = 1, 2, . . . , m1

and f

(n)

(a) 0 for n = m.

Exercise 4. Suppose that f : G C is analytic and one-one; show that f

Solution. Assume f

F(z) = f (z) .

Then F(a) = f (a) = = 0 and F

(a) = f

multiplicity m 2.

Then, we can use Theorem 7.4 p. 98 to argue that there is an > 0 and > 0 such that for 0 < a < ,

the equation f (z) = has exactly m simple roots in B(a; ), since f is analytic in B(a; R) and = f (a). Also

f (z) has a zero of order m 2 at z = a.

Since f (z) = has exactly m (our case m 2) simple roots in B(a; ), we can nd at least two distinct

points z

1

, z

2

B(a; ) G such that

f (z

1

) = = f (z

2

)

contradicting that f is 1 1. So f

Exercise 5. Let X and be metric spaces and suppose that f : X , is one-one and onto. Show that f

is an open map i f is a closed map. (A function f is a closed map if it takes closed sets onto closed sets.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let P : C R be dened by P(z) = Re z; show that P is an open map but is not a closed map.

(Hint: Consider the set F = z : Im z = (Re z)

1

and Re z 0.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Use Theorem 7.2 to give another proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.

Solution. Not available.

4.8 Goursats Theorem

No exercises are assigned in this section.

67

Chapter 5

Singularities

5.1 Classication of singularities

Exercise 1. Each of the following functions f has an isolated singularity at z = 0. Determine its nature; if

it is a removable singularity dene f (0) so that f is analytic at z = 0; if it is a pole nd the singular part; if

it is an essential singularity determine f (z : 0 < z < ) for arbitrarily small values of .

a)

f (z) =

sin z

z

;

b)

f (z) =

cos z

z

;

c)

f (z) =

cos z 1

z

;

d)

f (z) = exp(z

1

);

e)

f (z) =

log(z + 1)

z

2

;

f)

f (z) =

cos(z

1

)

z

1

;

g)

f (z) =

z

2

+ 1

z(z 1)

;

h)

f (z) = (1 e

z

)

1

;

i)

f (z) = z sin

1

z

;

68

j)

f (z) = z

n

sin

1

z

.

Solution. a) According to Theorem 1.2 p.103, z = 0 is a removable singularity, since

lim

z

(z 0)

sin(z)

z

= lim

z

z

sin(z)

z

= lim

z

sin(z) = 0.

If we dene,

f (z) =

_

_

sin(z)

z

, z 0

1, z = 0

,

then f is analytic at z = 0. A simple computation using LHospitals rule yields lim

z0

sin(z)

z

= 1.

b) We have (see p. 38)

cos(z) =

k=0

(1)

k

z

2k

(2k)!

and therefore

cos(z)

z

=

k=0

(1)

k

z

2k1

(2k)!

=

1

z

+ analytic part.

Thus

cos z

z

has a simple pole at z = 0.

c) According to Theorem 1.2 p.103, z = 0 is a removable singularity, since

lim

z

(z 0)

cos(z) 1

z

= lim

z

z

cos(z) 1

z

= lim

z

cos(z) 1 = 1 1 = 0.

If we dene,

f (z) =

_

_

cos(z)1

z

, z 0

1, z = 0

,

then f is analytic at z = 0. A simple computation using LHospitals rule yields lim

z0

cos(z)1

z

= 0.

e) We know

log(1 + z) =

k=1

(1)

k+1

z

k

k

.

So we can write

log(1 + z)

z

2

=

1

z

2

k=1

(1)

k+1

z

k

k

=

k=1

(1)

k+1

z

k2

k

=

1

z

1

2

+

k=3

(1)

k+1

z

k2

k

and hence f (z) =

log(1+z)

z

2

has a pole of order 1 at z = 0 and the singular part is

1

z

(by Equation 1.7 and

Denition 1.8 p. 105).

g) First, we simplify

z

2

+1

z

2

z

= 1 +

z+1

z(z1)

. Now partial fraction decomposition of

z+1

z(z1)

yields

z + 1

z(z 1)

=

1

z

+

2

z 1

so

f (z) = 1

1

z

+

2

z 1

69

and hence f (z) =

z

2

+1

z

2

z

has poles of order 1 at z = 0 and z = 1 and the singular part is

2

z1

1

z

(by Equation

1.7 and Denition 1.8 p. 105).

i) We know (see p. 38)

sin(z) =

k=0

(1)

k

z

2k+1

(2k + 1)!

so

f (z) = z sin

1

z

= z

k=0

(1)

k

_

1

z

_

2k+1

(2k + 1)!

=

k=0

(1)

k

_

1

z

_

2k

(2k + 1)!

= 1

1

3!z

2

+

1

5!z

4

1

7!z

6

+ . . .

Therefore f (z) = z sin

1

z

has an essential singularity at z = 0 (it is neither a pole nor a removable singularity

by Corollary 1.18c). We have

f (z : 0 < z < ) = f [ann(0; 0, )] = C

by the Casorati-Weierstrass Theorem p. 109. But f (z : 0 < z < ) = f [ann(0; 0, )] is either C or C\a

for one a C by the Great Picard Theorem (p. 300). In this case,

f (z : 0 < z < ) = f [ann(0; 0, )] = C.

Exercise 2. Give the partial fraction expansion of r(z) =

z

2

+1

(z

2

+z+1)(z1)

2

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Give the details of the derivation of (1.17) from (1.16).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let f (z) =

1

z(z1)(z2)

; give the Laurent Expansion of f (z) in each of the following annuli: (a)

ann(0; 0, 1); (b) ann(0; 1, 2); (c) ann(0; 2, ).

Solution. a) We have 0 < z < 1 and using partial fraction decomposition yields

f (z) =

1

z(z 1)(z 2)

=

1

z

1

(z 1)(z 2)

=

1

z

_

1

z 1

+

1

z 2

_

=

1

z

_

1

1 z

1

2

1

1

z

2

_

=

z<1and z/2<1

1

z

_

n=0

z

n

1

2

n=0

_

z

2

_

n

_

_

=

n=0

z

n1

n=0

_

1

2

_

n+1

z

n1

=

n=1

_

_

1

_

1

2

_

n+2

_

_

z

n

=

n=1

_

1 2

n2

_

z

n

, (0 < z < 1).

b) We have 1 < z < 2 and thus

f (z) =

1

z(z 1)(z 2)

=

1

z

_

1

z

1

1

1

z

1

2

1

1

z

2

_

_

=

1/z<1and z/2<1

1

z

_

1

z

n=0

_

1

z

_

n

1

2

n=0

_

z

2

_

n

_

_

=

n=0

_

1

z

_

n+2

n=0

_

1

2

_

n+1

z

n1

=

n=0

z

n2

n=0

_

1

2

_

n+1

z

n1

=

2

n=

z

n

n=1

_

1

2

_

n+2

z

n

, (1 < z < 2).

70

c) We have 2 < z < and thus

f (z) =

1

z(z 1)(z 2)

=

1

z

_

1

z

1

1

1

z

+

1

z

1

1

2

z

_

_

=

1/z<1and 2/z<1

1

z

_

1

z

n=0

_

1

z

_

n

+

1

z

n=0

_

2

z

_

n

_

_

=

n=0

_

1

z

_

n+2

+

n=0

2

n

_

1

z

_

n+2

=

n=0

(2

n

1)z

n2

=

2

n=

(2

n2

1)z

n

, (2 < z < ).

Exercise 5. Show that f (z) = tan z is analytic in C except for simple poles at z =

2

+ n, for each integer

n. Determine the singular part of f at each of these poles.

Solution. Dene z

n

=

2

+ n. We know tan(z) =

sin(z)

cos(z)

and (cos(z))

pole at each z

n

with residue 1 and with singular part

1

zz

n

at each z

n

.

Exercise 6. If f : G C is analytic except for poles show that the poles of f cannot have a limit point in

G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Let f have an isolated singularity at z = a and suppose f (z) 0. Show that if either (1.19) or

(1.20) holds for some s in R then there is an integer m such that (1.19) holds if s > m and (1.20) holds if

s < m.

Solution. Let lim

za

z a

s

f (z) = 0 hold, that is lim

za

(z a)

s

f (z) = 0 for some s in R. Then it holds

obviously for any greater ss. Hence, there exist an integer n > 0 such that

lim

za

(z a)

n

f (z) = 0 (5.1)

and

lim

za

(z a)

n+1

f (z) = 0 (5.2)

(In fact we are free to choose any positive integer greater than s). Now, (z a)

n

f (z) thus has a removable

singularity at z = a (by Theorem 1.2 p. 103) applied to (5.2)) and its extended value is also zero by (5.2).

Thus (z a)

n

f (z) has a zero of nite order k at z a. So

(z a)

n

f (z) = (z a)

k

h(z)

where h(z) is analytic at a and h(a) 0. Hence

lim

za

(z a)

s

f (z) = lim

za

(z a)

sn

(z a)

n

f (z) = lim

za

(z a)

sn+k

h(z) =

_

_

0, s > n k

, s < n k

h(a) 0, s = n k.

Thus,

lim

za

z a

s

f (z) =

_

_

0, s > m

, s < m

71

where m = n k.

Now let lim

za

z a

s

f (z) = for some s in R. Then there exists an integer n < 0 so that

lim

za

z a

n

f (z) = (5.3)

(In fact we are free to choose any negative integer less than s). Now (z a)

n

f (z) thus has a pole at z = a

(by Denition 1.3 p.105 and (5.1)) and (z a)

n

f (z) has a pole of nite order l at z = a and so

(z a)

n

f (z) = (z a)

l

k(z)

where k(z) is analytic at a and k(a) 0 (Proposition 1.4 p.105). Hence

lim

za

(z a)

s

f (z) = lim

za

(z a)

sn+n

f (z) = lim

za

(z a)

snl

k(z) =

_

_

0, s > n + l

, s < n + l

k(a) 0, s = n + l.

Thus,

lim

za

z a

s

f (z) =

_

_

0, s > m

, s < m

where m = n + l.

Exercise 8. Let f , a, and m be as in Exercise 7. Show: (a) m = 0 i z = a is a removable singularity and

f (a) 0; (b) m < 0 i z = a is a removable singularity and f has a zero at z = a of order m; (c) m > 0 i

r = a is a pole of f of order m.

Solution. a) : Let m = 0. Then by Exercise 7, we have

lim

za

(z a)

2

f (z) =

_

_

0, s > 0 = m

0, s = 0 = m

. (5.4)

Thus using s = 1, f (z) has a removable singularity (by Theorem 1.2 p. 103) with the extended value equal

to f (a) = lim

za

f (z) 0.

: Let z = a be a removable singularity and f (a) = lim

za

f (z) 0. Then lim

za

(z a) f (z) = 0 by

Theorem 1.2 p.103. By Exercise 7, we obtain that there is an integer m such that

lim

za

z a

s

f (z) =

_

_

0, s > m

, s < m

.

But m = 0, since

lim

za

(z a)

s

f (z) =

_

_

0, s > 0

, s < 0

,

which follows by (5.4).

b) : Let the algebraic order be dened at z = a and be equal to m (m > 0). Then by Exercise 7, we have

lim

za

f (z) = 0 and lim

za

(z a) f (z) = 0.

Recall lim

za

(z a)

s

f (z) = 0 if s > m so it is true of s = 0 and s = 1. Thus, f (z) has a removable

singularity at z = a and also the extended function has the value lim

za

f (z) = 0 at z = a (p. 103 Theorem

72

1.2). Now h(z) := (z a)

m

f (z) has a removable singularity at z = a (since lim

za

(z a)

m+1

f (z) = 0) but

h(z) has extended value

h(a) = lim

za

(z a)

m

f (z) 0

(by Exercise 7). Therefore f (z) = (z a)

m

h(z) has a zero of order m at z = a.

: Assume f (z) has a removable singularity at z = a and let z = a be a zero of order m > 0. Then

f (z) = (z a)

m

h(z) where h(z) is analytic in z a < , > 0 and h(a) 0. Then

lim

za

z a

s

f (z) = lim

za

z a

s+m

h(z) =

_

_

0, s > m

, s < m

by Exercise 7. Hence, the algebraic order of f at z = a is equal to m (m > 0).

c) : Let the algebraic order be m > 0. Then

lim

za

(z a)

s

f (z) = 0

for s > m by Exercise 7, that is

lim

za

(z a)

m+1

f (z) = 0 and lim

za

(z a)

m

f (z) 0

by Exercise 7. Then for z a, we have h(z) = (z a)

m

f (z) has a removable singularity at z = a with

h(a) 0. Now f (z) = (z a)

m

h(z) where h A(B(a; )) and h(a) 0. Thus f (z) has a pole of order m at

z = a.

: Let f (z) have a pole of order m at z = a. Then f (z) = (za)

m

g(z) where g(z) A(B(a; )) and g(a) 0.

Thus lim

za

(z a)

m

f (z) = g(a) 0 and

lim

za

(z a)

m+1

f (z) = lim

za

(z a)g(z) = 0.

So

lim

za

z a

s

f (z) = lim

za

z a

sm

z a

m

f (z) =

_

_

0, s > m

, s < m

by Exercise 7. Therefore, m > 0 is the algebraic order of f at z = a.

Exercise 9. A function f has an essential singularity at z = a i neither (1.19) nor (1.20) holds for any real

number s.

Solution. : We prove this direction by proving the contrapositive (P Q Q P). Assume

(1.19) or (1.20) hold for some real number s. Then by Exercise 7, there exists an integer m such that (1.19)

holds if s > m and (1.20) holds if s < m. Then by Exercise 8, z = a is either a removable singularity or a

pole. Hence z = a is not an essential singularity (by Denition 1.3 p.105).

: Also this direction by is being proved by showing the contrapositive. Assume that f has an isolated

singularity at z = a which is not an essential singularity. Then either z = a is a removable singularity or a

pole (by Denition 1.3 p.105). Again by Problem 7 and 8, in either case there exists an m such that (1.19)

or (1.20) holds. (If z = a is removable, then either m = 0 or m < 0; if z = a is a pole, then m > 0 by

Exercise 8).

Exercise 10. Suppose that f has an essential singularity at z = a. Prove the following strengthened version

of the CasoratiWeierstrass Theorem. If c C and > 0 are given then for each > 0 there is a number ,

c < , such that f (z) = has innitely many solutions in B(a; ).

73

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 11. Give the Laurent series development of f (z) = exp

_

1

z

_

. Can you generalize this result?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 12. (a) Let C and show that

exp

_

1

2

_

z +

1

z

__

= a

0

+

n=1

a

n

_

z

n

+

1

z

n

_

for 0 < z < , where for n 0

a

n

=

1

_

0

e

cos t

cos nt dt.

(b) Similarly, show

exp

_

1

2

_

z

1

z

__

= b

0

+

n=1

b

n

_

z

n

+

(1)

n

z

n

_

for 0 < z < , where

b

n

=

1

_

0

cos(nt sin t) dt.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 13. Let R > 0 and G = z : z > R; a function f : G C has a removable singularity, a pole, or

an essential singularity at innity if f (z

1

) has, respectively, a removable singularity, a pole, or an essential

singularity at z = 0. If f has a pole at then the order of the pole is the order of the pole of f (z

1

) at z = 0.

(a) Prove that an entire function has a removable singularity at innity i it is a constant.

(b) Prove that an entire function has a pole at innity of order m i it is a polynomial of degree m.

(c) Characterize those rational functions which have a removable singularity at innity.

(d) Characterize those rational functions which have a pole of order m at innity.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 14. Let G = z : 0 < z < 1 and let f : G C be analytic. Suppose that is a closed rectiable

curve in G such that n(; a) = 0 for all a in C G. What is

_

f ? Why?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 15. Let f be analytic in G = z : 0 < z a < r except that there is a sequence of poles a

n

in G

with a

n

a. Show that for any in C there is a sequence z

n

in G with a = limz

n

and = lim f (z

n

).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 16. Determine the regions in which the functions f (z) =

_

sin

1

z

_

1

and g(z) =

_

1

0

(t z)

1

dt are

analytic. Do they have any isolated singularities? Do they have any singularities that are not isolated?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 17. Let f be analytic in the region G =ann(a; 0, R). Show that if

G

f (x +iy)

2

dx dy < then f

has a removable singularity at z = a. Suppose that p > 0 and

G

f (x + iy)

p

dx dy < ; what can be said

about the nature of the singularity at z = a?

Solution. Not available.

74

5.2 Residues

Exercise 1. Calculate the following integrals:

a)

_

0

x

2

dx

x

4

+ x

2

+ 1

b)

_

0

cos x 1

x

2

dx

c)

_

0

cos 2 d

1 2a cos + a

2

where a

2

< 1

d)

_

0

d

(a + cos )

2

where a > 1.

Solution. Note that

_

0

x

2

dx

x

4

+ x

2

+ 1

=

1

2

_

x

2

dx

x

4

+ x

2

+ 1

since

x

2

x

4

+x

2

+1

is even. Let

R

= [R, R] C

R

where C

R

= Re

it

, 0 t and R > 0 (draw a sketch).

f (z) =

z

2

z

4

+z

2

+1

has two simple poles at a

1

= e

i

3

, a

2

= e

i

2

3

enclosed by

R

. By the residual Theorem, we have

2i(Res( f , a

1

) + Res( f , a

2

)) =

_

R

f =

_

R

R

x

2

x

4

+ x

2

+ 1

dx +

_

C

R

z

2

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

dz.

Thus,

_

x

2

dx

x

4

+ x

2

+ 1

= lim

R

_

C

R

z

2

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

dz + 2i

2

k=1

Res( f , a

k

).

We have

_

C

R

f (z) dz =

_

C

R

z

2

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

dz

_

C

R

z

2

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

dz

_

C

R

z

2

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

dz

_

C

R

z

2

z

4

z

2

1

dz

=

R

2

R

4

R

2

1

_

C

R

dz =

R

3

R

4

R

2

1

0 as R .

Next, we calculate Res( f , a

1

).

Res( f , e

i

3

) = lim

ze

i

3

(z e

i

3

)

z

2

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

= e

i

2

3

lim

ze

i

3

(z e

i

3

)

1

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

= e

i

2

3

lim

ze

i

3

1

4z

3

+ 2z

=

e

i

2

3

4e

i

3

3

+ 2e

i

3

=

e

i

3

4e

i

2

3

+ 2

=

1

2

+

1

2

3i

4(

1

2

+

1

2

3i) + 2

=

1

2

+

1

2

3i

2

3i

=

1

4

3i

+

1

4

=

1

4

1

4

3

i.

75

Finally, we calculate Res( f , a

2

).

Res( f , e

i

2

3

) = lim

ze

i

2

3

(z e

i

2

3

)

z

2

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

= e

i

4

3

lim

ze

i

2

3

(z e

i

2

3

)

1

z

4

+ z

2

+ 1

= e

i

4

3

lim

ze

i

2

3

1

4z

3

+ 2z

=

e

i

4

3

4e

i

6

3

+ 2e

i

2

3

=

e

i

2

3

4e

i

4

3

+ 2

=

1

2

+

1

2

3i

4(

1

2

1

2

3i) + 2

=

1

2

+

1

2

3i

2

3i

=

1

4

3i

1

4

=

1

4

1

4

3

i.

So

2i

2

k=1

Res( f , a

k

) = 2i

_

1

4

1

4

3

i +

1

4

3i

1

4

_

= 2i

_

1

2

3

i

_

=

3

i

2

=

3

.

Hence,

_

0

x

2

dx

x

4

+ x

2

+ 1

=

1

2

3

.

b) Let f (z) =

e

iz

1

z

2

and = [R, r] +

r

+ [r, R] +

R

where

R

= Re

it

, 0 t and

r

= re

it

, 0 t

and 0 < r < R (A sketch might help to see that is a closed and rectiable curve). Clearly

_

f (z) dz = 0

since f is analytic on the region enclosed by . Also

_

f (z) dz =

_

r

R

e

ix

1

x

2

dx +

_

R

r

e

ix

1

x

2

dx +

_

r

f +

_

R

f .

We have

_

r

R

e

ix

1

x

2

dx =

_

R

r

e

ix

1

x

2

dx.

So

_

r

R

e

ix

1

x

2

dx +

_

R

r

e

ix

1

x

2

dx =

_

R

r

e

ix

+ e

ix

2

x

2

dx = 2

_

R

r

e

ix

+e

ix

2

1

x

2

dx

= 2

_

R

r

cos(x) 1

x

2

dx

Therefore,

_

R

r

cos(x) 1

x

2

dx =

1

2

_

R

e

iz

1

z

2

dz

1

2

_

r

e

iz

1

z

2

dz

which implies that

_

0

cos(x) 1

x

2

dx = lim

R

_

1

2

_

R

e

iz

1

z

2

dz

_

lim

r0

_

1

2

_

r

e

iz

1

z

2

dz

_

The rst term on the right hand side is zero, since

R

e

iz

1

z

2

dz

R

e

iz

1

z

2

dz

1

R

2

__

R

dz +

_

R

e

iz

dz

_

1

R

2

(R + R) =

2

R

0 as R .

76

The second term on the right hand side is , since

lim

r0

__

r

e

iz

1

z

2

dz

_

=

1

2

2i Res( f (z), 0) = i

2

=

( f (z) can be written as

i

z

+analytic part and therefore Res( f (z), 0) = i). Hence,

_

0

cos(x) 1

x

2

dx =

1

2

0

1

2

=

2

.

c) If a = 0, then

_

0

cos 2 d

1 2a cos + a

2

=

_

0

cos 2 d =

1

2

[sin 2]

0

=

1

2

[0 0] = 0.

Assume a 0. We can write

_

0

cos 2 d

1 2a cos + a

2

=

1

2

_

2

0

cos 2 d

1 2a cos + a

2

=

1

2

_

2

0

e

2i

+e

2i

2

1 2a

e

i

+e

i

2

+ a

2

d.

Let z = e

i

. Then dz = iz d = d =

dz

iz

. Hence,

1

2

_

2

0

e

2i

+e

2i

2

1 2a

e

i

+e

i

2

+ a

2

d =

1

2

_

z=1

z

2

+

1

z

2

2

1 a

_

z +

1

z

_

+ a

2

dz

iz

=

1

4i

_

z=1

z

4

+ 1

z

2

_

z az

2

a + a

2

z

_ dz

=

1

4ia

_

z=1

z

4

+ 1

z

2

_

z

2

1+a

2

a

z + 1

_ dz =

1

4ia

_

z=1

z

4

+ 1

z

2

(z a)

_

z

1

a

_ dz

By the Residue Theorem and the fact that a < 1, since a

2

< 1

_

z=1

z

4

+ 1

z

2

(z a)

_

z

1

a

_ dz = 2i

_

Res f ( f , 0) + Res( f , a)

_

where f (z) =

z

4

+1

z

2

(za)(z

1

a

)

. It is easily obtained

Res( f , 0) = lim

z0

d

dz

_

_

z

2

z

4

+ 1

z

2

(z a)

_

z

1

a

_

_

_

= lim

z0

d

dz

_

_

z

4

+ 1

(z a)

_

z

1

a

_

_

_

= lim

z0

4z

3

_

z

2

az

1

a

z + 1

_

(z

4

1)

_

2z a

1

a

_

_

z

2

az

1

a

z + 1

_

2

= a +

1

a

and

Res( f , a) = lim

za

(z a)

z

4

+ 1

z

2

(z a)

_

z

1

a

_ = lim

za

z

4

+ 1

z

2

_

z

1

a

_ =

a

4

+ 1

a

2

_

a

1

a

_ =

a

4

+ 1

a(a

2

1)

.

So

_

z=1

z

4

+ 1

z

2

(z a)

_

z

1

a

_ dz = 2i

_

a +

1

a

+

a

4

+ 1

a(a

2

1)

_

= 2i

2a

4

a(a

2

= 1)

=

4ia

3

1 a

2

.

Finally,

_

0

cos 2 d

1 2a cos + a

2

=

1

4ia

4ia

3

1 a

2

_

=

a

2

1 a

2

.

77

Exercise 2. Verify the following equations:

a)

_

0

dx

(x

2

+ a

2

)

2

=

4a

3

, a > 0;

b)

_

0

(log x)

3

1 + x

2

dx = 0;

c)

_

0

cos ax

(1 + x

2

)

2

dx =

(a + 1)e

a

4

, if a > 0;

d)

_

/2

0

d

a + sin

2

2 [a(a + 1)]

1

2

, if a > 0;

e)

_

0

log x

(1 + x

2

)

2

dx =

4

;

f)

_

0

dx

1 + x

2

=

2

;

g)

_

e

ax

1 + e

x

dx =

sin a

, if 0 < a < 1;

h)

_

2

0

log sin

2

2 d = 4

_

4

0

log sin d = 4 log 2.

Solution. a) Let f (z) =

1

(z

2

+a

2

)

2

and

R

= [R, R] + C

R

where C

R

= Re

it

, 0 t . So f has z

1

= ai as a

pole of order 2 enclosed by

R

. So we have by the Residue Theorem

_

R

f (z) dz = 2i Res( f , z

1

)

where

Res( f , z

1

) = lim

zai

d

dz

_

(z ai)

2

1

(z ai)

2

(z + ai)

2

_

= lim

zai

d

dz

_

1

(z + ai)

2

_

= lim

zai

2

(z + ai)

3

=

2

(2ai)

3

=

1

4a

3

i

.

Also

2i

1

4a

3

i

=

2a

3

=

_

R

R

dx

(x

2

+ a

2

)

2

+

_

C

R

f (z) dz

where the latter integral on the right hand side is zero since

_

C

R

1

(z

2

+ a

2

)

2

dz

_

C

R

1

z

2

+ a

2

2

dz

_

C

R

1

(z

2

a

2

)

2

dz

1

(R

2

a

2

)

2

_

C

R

dz

=

R

(R

2

a

2

)

2

0 as R .

78

Hence,

_

0

dx

(x

2

+ a

2

)

2

=

1

2

_

dx

(x

2

+ a

2

)

2

=

1

2

lim

R

_

R

R

dx

(x

2

+ a

2

)

2

=

1

2

2a

3

=

4a

3

.

c) Let f (z) =

e

iaz

(1+z

2

)

2

and

R

= [R, R] + C

R

where C

R

= Re

it

, 0 t . So f has z

1

= i as a pole of order 2

enclosed by

R

. By the Residue Theorem, we have

_

R

f (z) dz = 2 Res( f , z

1

)

where

Res( f , z

1

) = lim

zi

d

dz

_

(z i)

2

e

iaz

(z i)

2

(z + i)

2

_

= lim

zi

d

dz

_

e

iaz

(z + i)

2

_

= lim

zi

_

(z + i)

2

iae

iaz

2(z + i)e

iaz

(z + i)

4

_

= lim

zi

_

(z + i)iae

iaz

2e

iaz

(z + i)

3

_

=

2i

2

ae

i

2

a

2e

i

2

a

(2i)

3

=

2ae

a

2e

a

8i

=

(a + 1)e

a

4i

.

Also

2i

(a + 1)e

a

4i

=

(a + 1)e

a

2

=

_

R

R

f (x) dx +

_

C

R

f (z) dz

where the latter integral on the right hand side is zero since

_

C

R

f (z) dz

_

C

R

e

iaz

(1 + z

2

)

2

dz

_

C

R

e

iaz

1 + z

2

2

dz

_

C

R

1

(z

2

1)

2

dz

=

1

(R

2

1)

2

R 0 as R ,

since e

iaz

= e

Im(az)

1 since Im(az) 0 (a > 0 by assumption). Hence

_

0

cos ax

(1 + x

2

)

2

dx =

1

2

_

cos ax

(1 + x

2

)

2

dx =

1

2

lim

R

_

R

R

cos ax

(1 + x

2

)

2

dx =

1

2

(a + 1)e

a

2

=

(a + 1)e

a

4

provided a > 0.

g) First of all substitute u = e

x

, so

_

e

ax

1 + e

x

dx =

_

0

u

a

1 + u

du

u

=

_

0

u

a1

1 + u

du.

Now, let u = t

2

, then

_

0

u

a1

1 + u

du = 2

_

0

t

2a2

t

1 + t

2

dt = 2

_

0

t

2a1

1 + t

2

dt.

Hence,

_

e

ax

1 + e

x

dx = 2

_

0

x

2a1

1 + x

2

dx.

Let f (z) =

z

2a1

1+z

2

and = [R, r] +

r

+ [r, R] +

R

(0 < r < R). Dene log z on G = z C : z 0,

2

<

arg(z) <

3

2

with log(z) = log z + i, = arg(z). f (z) has a simple pole i enclosed by . By the Residue

79

Theorem

_

zi

(z i)

z

2a1

(z i)(z + i)

= 2i

i

2a1

2i

= i

2a1

= e

(2a1) log i

= e

(2a1)(0+i

2

)

= e

ai

e

i

2

= ie

ai

.

Also

_

f (z) dz =

_

r

R

f (x) dx

.,,.

I

+

_

r

f (z) dz

.,,.

II

+

_

R

r

f (x) dx

.,,.

III

+

_

R

f (z) dz

.,,.

IV

.

I)

_

r

R

f (x) dx =

_

R

r

f (x) dx =

_

R

r

(x)

2a1

1 + x

2

dx =

_

R

r

e

(2a1)(log x+i)

1 + x

2

dx

= e

(2a1)i

_

R

r

e

(2a1) log x

1 + x

2

dx = e

2ai

_

R

r

e

(2a1) log x

1 + x

2

dx

= e

2ai

_

R

r

x

2a1

1 + x

2

dx.

IV)

R

f (z) dz

R

z

2a1

1 + z

2

dz

R

z

2a1

1 + z

2

dz

R

2a1

R

2

1

R =

R

2a

R

2

1

0 as R

since a < 1.

II) Similar to IV)

r

f (z) dz

r

2a

r

2

1

0 as r 0

since a > 0.

Hence, if r 0 and R , we get

ie

ai

=

_

f (z) dz = e

2ai

_

0

f (x) dx + 0 +

_

0

f (x) dx + 0 = (1 e

2ai

)

_

0

f (x) dx.

Thus,

ie

ai

= (1 e

2ai

)

_

0

f (x) dx

and so

_

0

f (x) dx =

ie

ai

1 e

2ai

=

i

e

ai

e

ai

=

i

e

ai

e

ai

=

i

2i sin(a)

=

2 sin(a)

.

Therefore,

_

e

ax

1 + e

x

dx = 2

_

0

x

2a1

1 + x

2

dx = 2

2 sin(a)

=

sin(a)

provided 0 < a < 1.

Exercise 3. Find all possible values of

_

exp z

1

dz where is any closed curve not passing through z = 0.

Solution. Not available.

80

Exercise 4. Suppose that f has a simple pole at z = a and let g be analytic in an open set containing a.

Show that Res( f g; a) = g(a)Res( f ; a).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Use Exercise 4 to show that if G is a region and f is analytic in G except for simple poles at

a

1

, . . . , a

n

; and if g is analytic in G then

1

2i

_

f g =

n

k=1

n(; a

k

)g(a

k

)Res( f ; a

k

)

for any closed rectiable curve not passing through a

1

, . . . , a

n

such that 0 in G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let be the rectangular path [n +

1

2

+ ni, n

1

2

+ ni, n

1

2

ni, n +

1

2

ni, n + i + ni] and

evaluate the integral

_

(z + a)

2

cot z dz for a an integer. Show that lim

n

_

(z + a)

2

cot z dz = 0

and, by using the rst part, deduce that

2

sin

2

a

=

n=

1

(a + n)

2

(Hint: Use the fact that for z = x + iy, cos z

2

= cos

2

x + sinh

2

y and sin z

2

= sin

2

x + sinh

2

y to show that

cot z 2 for z on if n is suciently large.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Use Exercise 6 to deduce that

2

8

=

n=0

1

(2n + 1)

2

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Let be the polygonal path dened in Exercise 6 and evaluate

_

(z

2

a

2

)

1

cot z dz for a

an integer. Show that lim

n

(z

2

a

2

)

1

cot z dz = 0, and consequently

cot a =

1

a

+

n=1

2a

a

2

n

2

for a an integer.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 9. Use methods similar to those of Exercises 6 and 8 to show that

sin a

=

1

a

+

n=1

2(1)

n

a

a

2

n

2

for a an integer.

Solution. Not available.

81

Exercise 10. Let be the circle z = 1 and let m and n be non-negative integers. Show that

1

2i

_

(z

2

1)

m

dz

z

m+n+1

=

_

_

(1)

p

(n+2p)!

p!(n+p)!

, if m = 2p + n, p 0

0, otherwise

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 11. In Exercise 1.12, consider a

n

and b

n

as functions of the parameter and use Exercise 10 to

compute power series expansions for a

n

() and b

n

(). (b

n

() is called a Bessel function.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 12. Let f be analytic in the plane except for isolated singularities at a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

m

. Show that

Res( f ; ) =

k=1

Res( f , a

k

).

(Res( f ; ) is dened as the residue of z

2

f (z

1

) at z = 0. Equivalently, Res( f ; ) =

1

2i

_

f when

(t) = Re

it

, 0 t 2, for suciently large R.) What can you say if f has innitely many isolated

singularities?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 13. Let f be an entire function and let a, b C such that a < R and b < R. If (t) = Re

it

,

0 t 2pi, evaluate

_

1

f (z) dz. Use this result to give another proof of Liouvilles

Theorem.

Solution. Not available.

5.3 The Argument Principle

Exercise 1. Prove Theorem 3.6.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Suppose f is analytic on

B(0; 1) and satises f (z) < 1 for z = l. Find the number of solutions

(counting multiplicities) of the equation f (z) = z

n

where n is an integer larger than or equal to 1.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let f be analytic in

B(0; R) with f (0) = 0, f

= min f (z) : z = R > 0. Dene g : B(0; ) C by

g() =

1

2i

_

z f

(z)

f (z)

dz

where is the circle z = R. Show that g is analytic and discuss the properties of g.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. If f is meromorphic on G and

f : G C

is dened by

f (z) = when z is a pole of f and

f is continuous.

82

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let f be meromorphic on the region G and not constant; show that neither the poles nor the

zeros of f have a limit point in G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let G be a region and let H(G) denote the set of all analytic functions on G. (The letter

H stands for holomorphic. Some authors call a dierentiable function holomorphic and call functions

analytic if they have a power series expansion about each point of their domain. Others reserve the term

analytic for what many call the complete analytic function, which we will not describe here.) Show that

H(G) is an integral domain; that is, H(G) is a commutative ring with no zero divisors. Show that M(G), the

meromorphic functions on G, is a eld.

We have said that analytic functions are like polynomials; similarly, meromorphic functions are analogues

of rational functions. The question arises, is every meromorphic function on G the quotient of two analytic

functions on G? Alternately, is M(G) the quotient eld of H(G)? The answer is yes but some additional

theory will be required before this answer can be proved.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. State and prove a more general version of Rouches Theorem for curves other than circles in

G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Is a non-constant meromorphic function on a region G an open mapping of G into C? Is it an

open mapping of G into C

?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 9. Let > 1 and show that the equation z e

z

= 0 has exactly one solution in the half plane

z : Re z > 0. Show that this solution must be real. What happens to the solution as 1?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 10. Let f be analytic in a neighborhood of D =

B(0; 1). If f (z) < 1 for z = 1, show that there is

a unique z with z < 1 and f (z) = z. If f (z) 1 for z = 1, what can you say?

Solution. Let g(z) = f (z) z and h(z) = z. Clearly g, h are analytic in a neighborhood of

B(0, 1) since f is

analytic. Note that g, h have no poles. Let = z : z = 1. We have

g(z) + h(z) = f (z) z + z = f (z) < 1 = z = h(z) g(z) + h(z)

on since f (z) < 1 for z = 1. By Rochs Theorem, we get

Z

g

P

g

= Z

h

P

h

.

But P

g

= P

h

= 0, so

Z

g

= Z

h

(inside the unit circle).

Since h(z) = z has only one zero (z = 0) inside the unit circle, we get that

g(z) = f (z) z

has exactly one zero inside the unit circle. Hence, there is a unique z such that f (z) z = 0 f (z) = z

with z < 1.

If we choose f (z) = z, then f (z) 1 for z = 1 and therefore we have innitely many xed points.

If we choose f (z) = 1, then f (z) 1 for z = 1 and therefore we do not have any xed points.

83

Chapter 6

The Maximum Modulus Theorem

6.1 The Maximum Principle

Exercise 1. Prove the following Minimum Principle. If f is a non-constant analytic function on a bounded

open set G and is continuous on G

(See Exercise IV. 3.6.)

Solution. Since f C(

G) we have f C(

G). Hence a

G such that f (a) f (z) z

G.

If a G, then f assumes its minimum value on G and we are done. Otherwise, if a G, then a G

and we can write G =

_

A

i

where A

i

are the components of G, that is a A

i

for some i. But each A

i

is a

region, so we can use Exercise IV 3.6 which yields either f (a) = 0 or f is constant. But f was assumed

to be non-constant, so f has to have a zero in G. Therefore, either f has a zero in G or f assumes its

minimum value on G.

Exercise 2. Let G be a bounded region and suppose f is continuous on G

if there is a constant c 0 such that f (z) = c for all z on the boundary of G then either f is a constant

function or f has a zero in G.

Solution. Assume there is a constant c 0 such that f (z) = c for all z G. According to the Maximum

Modulus Theorem (Version 2), we get

max f (z) : z

G = max f (z) : z G = c.

So

f (z) c, z

G. (6.1)

Since f C(G) which implies f C(

G) and hence there exists an a G such that

f (a) f (z)

(6.1)

c,

then by Exercise IV 3.6 either f is constant of f has a zero in G.

Exercise 3. (a) Let f be entire and non-constant. For any positive real number c show that the closure of

z : f (z) < c is the set z : f (z) c.

(b) Let p be a polynomial and show that each component of z : p(z) < c contains a zero of p. (Hint: Use

84

Exercise 2.)

(c) If p is a polynomial and c > 0 show that z : p(z) = c is the union of a nite number of closed paths.

Discuss the behavior of these paths as c .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let 0 < r < R and put A = z : r z R. Show that there is a positive number > 0 such

that for each polynomial p,

sup p(z) z

1

: z A

This says that z

1

is not the uniform limit of polynomials on A.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let f be analytic on

B(0; R) with f (z) M for z R and f (0) = a > 0. Show that the

number of zeros of f in B(0;

1

3

R) is less than or equal to

1

log 2

log

_

M

a

_

. Hint: If z

1

, . . . , z

n

are the zeros of f

in B(0;

1

3

R); consider the function

g(z) = f (z)

_

_

n

_

k=1

_

1

z

z

k

_

_

_

1

,

and note that g(0) = f (0). (Notation:

n

k=1

a

k

= a

1

a

2

. . . a

n

.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Suppose that both f and g are analytic on

B(0; R) with f (z) = g(z) for z = R. Show that if

neither f nor g vanishes in B(0; R) then there is a constant , = 1, such that f = g.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Let f be analytic in the disk B(0; R) and for 0 r < R dene A(r) = maxRe f (z) : z = r.

Show that unless f is a constant, A(r) is a strictly increasing function of r.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Suppose G is a region, f : G C is analytic, and M is a constant such that whenever z is on

G and z

n

is a sequence in G with z = limz

n

we have limsup f (z

n

) M. Show that f (z) M, for

each z in G.

Solution. We need to show

limsup

za

f (z) M u

G.

Then we can use the Maximum Modulus Theorem (Version 3). Instead of showing that

limsup f (z

n

) M limsup

za

f (z) M,

we show the contrapositive, that is

limsup

za

f (z) > M limsup f (z

n

) > M.

So assume limsup

za

f (z) > M. But this implies limsup

za

f (z

n

) > M since z

n

z as z , that is z

n

gets arbitrarily close to z and since f is analytic, that is continuous, we have f (z

n

) gets arbitrarily close to

f (z).

85

6.2 Schwarzs Lemma

Exercise 1. Suppose f (z) 1 for z < 1 and f is a non-constant analytic function. By considering the

function g : D D dened by

g(z) =

f (z) a

1 af (z)

where a = f (0), prove that

f (0) z

1 + f (0) z

f (z)

f (0) + z

1 f (0) z

for z < 1.

Solution. We claim that g(z) 1 and g(0) = 0. It is easy to check that g(0) = 0 since

g(0) =

f (0) a

1 af (0)

=

a a

1 aa

= 0.

We also have

g(z) =

f (z) a

1 af (z)

1

since f (z) 1. (Can you see it?) Now, apply Schwarz Lemma.

g(z) z for z < 1

f (z) a z 1 a f (z)

f (z) a f (z) a z 1 af (z) z + z a f (z)

f (z) a z + z a f (z)

z z a f (z) f (z) a z + z a f (z)

a z

1 + a z

f (z)

a + z

1 a z

.

Set a = f (0) to obtain the desired result.

Exercise 2. Does there exist an analytic function f : D D with f (

1

2

) =

3

4

and f

(

1

2

) =

2

3

?

Solution. The answer is no. Assume there exist an analytic function f : D D with f (

1

2

) =

3

4

. According

to the denition, we have

E

a

In our case, we have a =

1

2

and =

3

4

. We know,

(a)

1

2

1 a

2

and therefore we must have

_

1

2

_

1

_

3

4

_

2

1

_

1

2

_

2

=

7

16

3

4

=

7

16

3

4

=

7

12

= 0.58

3.

But f

(

1

2

) =

2

3

= 0.

86

Exercise 3. Suppose f : D C satises Re f (z) 0 for all z in D and suppose that f is analytic.

(a) Show that Re f (z) > 0 for all z in D.

(b) By using an appropriate Mbius transformation, apply Schwarzs Lemma to prove that if f (0) = 1 then

f (z)

1 + z

1 z

for z < 1. What can be said if f (0) 1?

(c) Show that f (0) = 1, f also satises

f (z)

1 z

1 + z

(Hint: Use part (a)).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Prove Caratheodorys Inequality whose statement is as follows: Let f be analytic on

B(0; R)

and let M(r) = max f (z) : z = r, A(r) = maxRe f (z) : z = r; then for 0 < r < R, if A(r) 0,

M(r)

R + r

R r

[A(R) + f (0)]

(Hint: First consider the case where f (0) = 0 and examine the function g(z) = f (Rz)[2A(R) + f (Rz)]

1

for

z < 1.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let f be analytic in D = z : z < 1 and suppose that f (z) M for all z in D. (a) If f (z

k

) = 0

for 1 k n show that

f (z) M

n

_

k=1

z z

k

1 z

k

z

for z < 1. (b) If f (z

k

) = 0 for 1 k n, each z

k

0, and f (0) = Me

ia

(z

1

z

2

, . . . , z

n

), nd a formula for f .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Suppose f is analytic in some region containing

B(0; 1) and f (z) = 1 where z = 1. Find a

formula for f . (Hint: First consider the case where f has no zeros in B(0; 1).)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Suppose f is analytic in a region containing

B(0; 1) and f (z) = 1 when z = 1. Suppose that

f has a zero at z =

1

4

(1 + i) and a double zero at z =

1

2

. Can f (0) =

1

2

?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Is there an analytic function f on B(0; 1) such that f (z) < 1 for z < 1, f (0) =

1

2

, and

f

(0) =

3

4

? If so, nd such an f . Is it unique?

Solution. Not available.

87

6.3 Convex functions and Hadamards Three Circles Theorem

Exercise 1. Let f : [a, b] R and suppose that f (x) > 0 for all x and that f has a continuous second

derivative. Show that f is logarithmically convex i f

(x) f (x) [ f

(x)]

2

0 for all x.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Show that if f : (a, b) R is convex then f is continuous. Does this remain true if f is dened

on the closed interval [a, b]?

Solution. Since f is convex on (a, b) and if a < s < t < u < b, we have

f (t) f (s)

t s

f (u) f (s)

u s

f (u) f (t)

u t

(6.2)

which we show now. Let a < s < t < u < b, t = s + (1 )u with =

ut

us

(0, 1). Since f is convex on

(a, b), we get

f (t)

u t

u s

f (s) +

t s

u s

f (u)

which implies

(t s) f (u) + (u t) f (s) (u s) f (t) 0

which is equivalent to

t f (u) s f (u) + uf (s) t f (s) uf (t) + s f (t) 0. (6.3)

From (6.3), we get (rearrange terms and add/subtract a term)

t f (u) t f (s) s f (u) + s f (s) uf (t) uf (s) + s f (t) s f (s) 0

(t s)( f (u) f (s)) (u s)( f (t) f (s)) 0

f (t) f (s)

t s

f (u) f (s)

u s

.

Similar, from (6.3), we get

uf (u) s f (u) uf (t) + s f (t) uf (u) + uf (s) + t f (u) t f (s) 0

(u s)( f (u) f (t)) (u t)( f (u) f (s)) 0

f (u) f (s)

u s

f (u) f (t)

u t

.

Thus, we have proved (6.2).

Given x (a, b) choose > 0 such that [x , x + ] (a, b).

Claim:

f (x) f (x )

f (z) f (x)

z x

f (x + ) f (x)

z (x , x + ). (6.4)

If the claim is true, (6.4) is equivalent to

f (x) f (x )

(z x) f (z) f (x)

f (x + ) f (x)

(z x).

Taking the limit z x, we have that

f (x)f (x)

(z x) 0 and

f (x+)f (x)

that is z x < f (z) f (x) < which shows that f is continuous.

88

Thus it remains to show the claim. The proof uses (6.2).

First, consider a point z (x , x) and apply the second inequality in (6.2) gives

f (x) f (x )

f (z) f (x)

z x

which gives the rst inequality in (6.4).

Applying the outer inequality in (6.2) to the three points z < x < x + gives

f (x) f (z)

x z

f (x + ) f (x)

x + x

f (z) f (x)

z x

f (x + ) f (x)

Now, consider the case x < z < x + . Then, the rst inequality in (6.4) follows from the outer inequality in

(6.2) applied to the three points x , x, z.

f (x) f (x )

x x +

f (z) f (x)

z x

f (x) f (x )

f (z) f (x)

z x

.

The second inequality in (6.4) follows from the rst inequality in (6.2) applied to x, z, x + .

f (z) f (x)

z x

f (x + ) f (x)

x + x

f (z) f (x)

z x

f (x + ) f (x)

.

Thus, we have proved the claim.

The statement is not true if f is dened on the closed interval [a, b]! Here is a counterexample: Dene

f : [a, b] R by

f (x) =

_

_

0, x [a, b)

1, x = b

.

Clearly, f is convex on [a, b], but f is not continuous at x = b (but the function is continuous on (a, b)).

Exercise 3. Show that a function f : [a, b] R is convex i any of the following equivalent conditions is

satised:

(a) a x < u < y b gives det

_

_

f (u) u 1

f (x) x 1

f (y) y 1

_

_

0;

(b) a x < u < y b gives

f (u)f (x)

ux

f (y)f (x)

yx

;

(c) a x < u < y b gives

f (u)f (x)

ux

f (y)f (u)

yu

;

Interpret these conditions geometrically.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Supply the details in the proof of Hadamards Three Circle Theorem.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Give necessary and sucient conditions on the function f such that equality occurs in the

conclusion of Hadamards Three Circle Theorem.

Solution. Not available.

89

Exercise 6. Prove Hardys Theorem: If f is analytic on

B(0; R) and not constant then

I(r) =

1

2

_

2

0

f (re

i

) d

is strictly increasing and log I(r) is a convex function of log r. Hint: If 0 < r

1

< r < r

2

nd a con-

tinuous function : [0, 2] C such that () f (re

i

) = f (re

i

) and consider the function F(z) =

_

2

0

f (ze

i

)() d. (Note that r is xed, so may depend on r.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Let f be analytic in ann(0; R

1

, R

2

) and not identically zero; dene

I

2

(r) =

1

2

_

2

0

f (re

i

)

2

d.

Show that log I

2

(r) is a convex function of log r, R

1

< r < R

2

.

Solution. Not available.

6.4 The Phragmn-Lindelf Theorem

Exercise 1. In the statement of the Phragmn-Lindelf Theorem, the requirement that G be simply con-

nected is not necessary. Extend Theorem 4.1 to regions G with the property that for each z in

G there is

a sphere V in C

centered at z such that V G is simply connected. Give some examples of regions that

are not simply connected but have this property and some which dont.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. In Theorem 4.1 suppose there are bounded analytic functions

1

,

2

, . . . ,

n

on G that never

vanish and

G = A B

1

. . . B

n

such that condition (a) is satised and condition (b) is also satised

for each

k

and B

k

. Prove that f (z) M for all z in G.

Solution. We have

1

, . . . ,

n

A(G), bounded and

k

0 by assumption. Hence,

k

(z)

k

z in G for

each k = 1, . . . , n. Further a) for every a in A, limsup

za

f (z) M and b) for every b in B

k

and

k

> 0,

limsup

zb

f (z)

k

(z)

k

M k = 1, . . . , n.

Also because G is simply connected, there is an analytic branch of log

k

(z) on G for each k = 1, . . . , n

(Corollary IV 6.17). Hence, g

k

(z) = exp

k

log

k

(z) is an analytic branch of

k

(z)

k

for

k

> 0 and

g

k

(z) =

k

(z)

k

k = 1, . . . , n. Dene F : G C by

F(z) = f (z)

n

_

k=1

g

k

(z)

k

k

;

then F is analytic on G and

F(z) f (z)

n

_

k=1

k

(z)

k

k

k

(z)

k

k

f (z)

n

_

k=1

k

k

k

k

k

(z) = f (z) z G.

Hence,

limsup

za

f (z) =

(a),(b)

_

_

M, a A

M

k

k

, a B

k

k

.

90

By the Maximum Modulus Theorem III, we have

F(z) maxM, M

1

1

, . . . , M

n

n

z G.

Thus,

f (z) = F(z)

n

_

k=1

g

k

(z)

1

k

k

n

_

k=1

k

(z)

k

maxM, M

1

1

, . . . , M

n

n

for all z in G and for all

k

> 0. Letting

k

0

+

k = 1, . . . , n gives that f (z) M for all z in G.

Exercise 3. Let G = z : Im z <

1

2

and suppose f : G C is analytic and limsup

zw

f (z) M for w

in G. Also, suppose A < and a < 1 can be found such that

f (z) < exp[Aexp(aRe z)]

for all z in G. Show that f (z) M for all z in G. Examine exp(exp z) to see that this is the best possible

growth condition. Can we take a = 1 above?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let f : G C be analytic and suppose M is a constant such that limsup f (z

n

) M for each

sequence z

n

in G which converges to a point in

Solution. Claim: Let M be a constant such that limsup

n

f (z

n

) M for each sequence z

n

in G with

z = lim

n

z

n

, z

G (6.5)

implies

limsup

za

f (z) M for all a

G. (6.6)

If G would be a region together with the claim would give f (z) M z G by the Maximum Modulus

Theorem III.

However, G is assumed to be an open set. But every open set can be written as a union of components

(components are open and connected). So each component is a region.

Therefore, we can apply the Maximum Modulus Theorem III to each component once we have shown the

claim and additionally we have to show that the boundary of G is the same as taking the boundaries of the

components:

Clearly, since the components of G add up to G, we have that the boundary of the components must include

the boundary of G.

So it remains to show that the boundary of the component does not include more than the boundary of G.

Assume it would be the case. Then there needs to be a boundary of a component lying inside G (since every

component is lying inside G). But this would imply that it must be connected to another component of G

contradicting the fact a component is a maximally connected subset.

Hence, the boundary of G equals the boundary of all its components.

It remains to show the claim which we will do by showing the contrapositive.

Proof of the claim: Assume not (6.6), that is

M > 0 a

G : limsup

za

f (z) > M

which is equivalent to

M > 0 a

G : lim

r0

+

sup f (z) : z G B(a; r) > M

91

by denition. Then, clearly > 0 such that lim

r0

+ sup f (z) : z G B(a; r) > M + . Let z

n

be a

sequence with lim

n

= a and let r

n

= 2z

n

a. Obviously, we have lim

n

r

n

= 0. Next, consider the

sequence

n

= sup f (z) : z F B(a; r

n

). Then lim

n

n

> M + . In addition,

n

is a nonincreasing

sequence, therefore lim

n

n

> M + implies

n

> M + n. Thus, y

n

G B(a; r

n

) such that

f (y

n

) > M + . Taking limsup in this inequality yields

limsup

n

f (y

n

) M + ,

that is

limsup

n

f (y

n

) M

where lim

n

y

n

= a, which gives not (6.5). Hence (6.5) implies (6.6).

Exercise 5. Let f : G C be analytic and suppose that G is bounded. Fix z

0

in G and suppose that

limsup

zw

f (z) M for w in G, w z

0

. Show that if lim

zz

0

z z

0

f (z) M for every z in G. (Hint: If a G, consider (z) = (z z

0

)(z a)

1

.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let G = z : Re z > 0 and let f : G C be an analytic function with limsup

zw

f (z) M

for w in G, and also suppose that for every > 0,

lim

r

supexp(/r) f (re

i

) : <

1

2

= 0.

Show that f (z) M for all z in G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Let G = z : Re z > 0 and let f : G C be analytic such that f (1) = 0 and such that

limsup

zw

f (z) M for w in G. Also, suppose that for every , 0 < < 1, there is a constant P such that

f (z) Pexp(z

1

).

Prove that

f (z) M

_

(1 x)

2

+ y

2

(1 + x)

2

+ y

2

_

1

2

.

Hint: Consider f (z)

_

1+z

1z

_

.

Solution. Not available.

92

Chapter 7

Compactness and Convergence in the

Space of Analytic Functions

7.1 The space of continuous functions C(G, )

Exercise 1. Prove Lemma 1.5 (Hint: Study the function f (t) =

t

1+t

for t > 1.)

Solution. To show that : S S R, (s, t) =

d(s,t)

1+d(s,t)

is a metric we proof that satises the conditions

of a metric function.

For s, t S the value (s, t) =

d(s,t)

1+d(s,t)

is well dened in the nonnegative real numbers because d is a metric.

Also (s, t) = 0 if and only if d(s, t) = 0 and since d is a metric it follows that s = t. The metric d is

symmetric and therefore is also. It remains to show the triangle inequality. Let therefore s, t, u S . The

metric d satises the triangle inequality

d(s, u) d(s, t) + d(t, u). (7.1)

The function f (t) =

t

1+t

is a strictly increasing, concave function on the interval [0, ). Thus if d(s, u)

maxd(s, t), d(t, u), then also (s, u) max(s, t), (t, u) and by nonnegativity of also

(s, u) (s, t) + (t, u).

If instead maxd(s, t), d(t, u) < d(s, u) then

1

1 + d(s, u)

< min

_

1

1 + d(s, t)

,

1

1 + d(t, u)

_

.

Together with equation (7.1) we have

(s, u) =

d(s, u)

1 + d(s, u)

d(s, t) + d(t, u)

1 + d(s, u)

=

d(s, t)

1 + d(s, u)

+

d(t, u)

1 + d(s, u)

d(s, t)

1 + d(s, t)

+

d(t, u)

1 + d(t, u)

= (s, t) + (t, u),

which gives the triangle inequality.

To show that the metrics d and are equivalent on S , let O be on open set in (S, d) and let x O. There is

93

(0, 1) such that B

d

(x, ) O. Choose positive such that <

1+

, then B

(x, ) B

d

(x, ). Similarly, if

O is an open set in (S, ) and is such that x B

1

which implies

B

d

(x, ) B

(x, ). Since this can be done for any element x O, open sets in (S, d) are open in (S, ) and

vice-versa.

The fact that exactly the open sets in (S, d) are open in (S, ) leads to the statement about Cauchy sequences.

Assume that x

n

n

is a Cauchy sequence in (S, d). To see that it is Cauchy in (S, ), let > 0 be arbitrary

but xed. By the above there is a small enough that B

d

(x, ) B

on x S . Since x

n

n

is Cauchy in (S, d) there is N N such that d(x

m

, x

n

) < whenever m, n N and

therefore also (x

m

, x

n

) < for m, n N. The opposite statement holds with a similar argument.

Exercise 2. Find the sets K

n

obtained in Proposition 1.2 for each of the following choices of G: (a) G is an

open disk; (b) G is an open annulus; (c) G is the plane with n pairwise disjoint closed disks removed; (d) G

is an innite strip; (e) G = C Z.

Solution. a) G is an open disk,

Let a C and r > 0 such that G = B(a, r). Set

K

n

= B

_

a, r

1

n

_

where a ball of negative radius is to be understood as the empty set. Depending on the size of r, a

nite number of K

n

may be empty, not violating the condition K

n

int K

n+1

, and obviously G =

_

n=1

.

b) G is an open annulus,

Let a C be the center of the annulus with radii r, R, 0 r < R < so that G = ann(a, r, R). Dene

K

n

= ann

_

a, r +

1

n

, R

1

n

_

,

again with the interpretation that an annulus with inner radius larger than the outer radius is the

empty set.

d) G = z C : Imz < 1,

For this open set G dene

K

n

= z = x + iy C : x, y R, x n

_

z = x + iy C : x, y Ry 1

1

n

_

.

Although G is unbounded each K

n

is bounded and closed and hence compact and G =

_

n=1

K

n

.

e) G = C Z.

Here we can dene

K

n

= z C : z n

_

_

n

_

j=n

B

_

( j,

1

n

_

_

_

C

,

an intersection of closed set, one of which is bounded, hence K

n

is compact. Also K

n

int K

n+1

by

denition and G =

_

n=1

.

Exercise 3. Supply the omitted details in the proof of Proposition 1.18.

94

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let F be a subset of a metric space (X, d) such that F

bounded.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Suppose f

n

is a sequence in C(G, ) which converges to f and z

n

is a sequence in G which

converges to a point z in G. Show lim f

n

(z

n

) = f (z).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. (Dinis Theorem) Consider C(G, R) and suppose that f

n

is a sequence in C(G, R) which is

monotonically increasing (i.e., f

n

(z) f

n+1

(z) for all z in G) and lim f

n

(z) = f (z) for all z in G where

f C(G, R). Show that f

n

f .

Solution. By Proposition 1.2 we can nd a sequence K

n

of compact subsets of G such that

_

n=1

K

n

. Thus,

WLOG we can assume that G is compact. Dene g

n

= f f

n

n. Clearly g

n

is continuous n, since f

and f

n

are continuous by assumption. Since f

n

is monotonically increasing, g

n

is monotonically decreasing.

Since f

n

converges to f , g

n

converges pointwise to zero, that is

> 0 N N x G : 0 g

N

(x) <

2

.

Since g

N

is continuous, there is an open neighborhood B(x; r) around x (with r < ). For any y B(x; r)

we have g

N

(y) < , that is

> 0 x G N N B(x; r) : y B(x; r) : g

N

(y) < .

Since g

N

is monotonically decreasing, we surely get g

n

(y) < for every n N and for every y B(x; r).

These open neighborhoods will cover G. Since G is compact, we can nd nitely many x

1

, . . . , x

k

such that

B(x

i

; r) cover G for every value of . Note that the values of N can change the chosen center x of each

those neighborhoods, say N

i

. Therefore, let M = max

i

N

i

. Because of the monotonicity of g

n

, we have that

g

n

(y) < n M in every open neighborhood B(x

i

; r), that is, for every value in G. Hence,

> 0 M N, n M x G : f

n

(x) f (x) < ,

which shows f

n

f .

Exercise 7. Let f

n

C(G, ) and suppose that f

n

is equicontinuous at each point of G. If f C(G, )

and f (z) = lim f

n

(z) for each z then show that f

n

f .

Solution. By Proposition 1.2 we can nd a sequence K

n

of compact subsets of G such that

_

n=1

K

n

. Thus,

WLOG we can assume that G is compact. Since f

n

is equicontiuous at each point of G, we have that

> 0 > 0 : d( f

n

(x), f

n

(y)) <

3

whenever x y < . (7.2)

Taking the limit as n , we also get

d( f (x), f (y)) <

3

whenever x y < . (7.3)

by the pointwise convergence ( f (z) = lim f

n

(z) z G by assumption). As in the previous exercise, we

can nd nitely many points y

1

, . . . , y

k

G such that the open neighborhoods B(y

i

; ) cover G, since G is

95

compact. To be more precise: For every point x in G, we can nd an open neighborhood B(y

i

; ) for some

i = 1, . . . , k. Since f

n

f pointwise, we have

d( f

n

(y

i

), f (y

i

)) <

3

n N

i

.

Set N = max

i

N

i

, then we have

d( f

n

(y

i

), f (y

i

)) <

3

n N i = 1, . . . , k. (7.4)

Finally, for an arbitrary x G and n N we have

d( f

n

(x), f (x)) d( f

n

(x), f

n

(y

i

)) + d( f

n

(y

i

), f (y

i

)) + d( f (y

i

), f (x)) <

(7.2),(7.3),(7.4)

3

+

3

+

3

=

where we choose y

i

such that x y

i

< . This shows f

n

f .

Exercise 8. (a) Let f be analytic on B(0; R) and let f (z) =

_

n=0

a

n

z

n

for z < R. If f

n

(z) =

_

n

k=0

a

k

z

k

, show

that f

n

f in C(G; C).

(b) Let G = ann(0; 0, R) and let f be analytic on G with Laurent series development f (z) =

_

n=

a

n

z

n

. Put

f

n

(z) =

_

n

k=

a

k

z

k

and show that f

n

f in C(G; C).

Solution. a) Let G = B(0; R). This result is proved with the Arzela-Ascoli Theorem. With the given function

f dene an analytic function

g : G C, g(z) :=

k=0

a

k

z

k

. (7.5)

Let z G and dene r :=

z+R

2

(< R) then z B(0; r). Let / = f

n

n

. Then for this xed z and for any n N

we have

f

n

(z) =

n

k=0

a

k

z

k

n

k=0

a

k

z

k

= g(z) < .

Thus for a given z G, f

n

(z) : f

n

/ is bounded and therefore has compact closure.

Next, we want to show equicontinuity at each point of G. Fix z

0

G and let be positive. Let r > 0 be such

that B(z

0

; r) G. With the function g(z) dened in equation (7.5) and the computations from above we have

for all w B(z

0

; r) and for all n N

f

n

(w) g(w).

The boundary of the disk with radius r is compact and so is g(B(z

0

; r)). Thus there is a positive number M

such that g(B(z

0

, r)) M.

Choose

_

0, min

r

2

,

r

2M

_

and let z z

0

< then as in the proof of Montels theorem the following

estimate holds

f

n

(z) f

n

(z

0

) =

1

2i

_

wz

0

=r

f

n

(w)(z z

0

)

(w z)(w z

0

)

dw

2M

r

.

By Arzela-Ascoli the sequence f

n

is normal in C(G) so there is a subsequence f

n

k

that converges in C(G).

Since f is analytic and f

n

is the sequence of partial sums of f , f

n

itself is an analytic Cauchy sequence

in C(G). Hence every subsequence converges to the same limit, which shows that f

n

f in C(G). As a last

step recall that H(G) is complete as a subspace of C(G) (Corollary 2.3) and f

n

H(G) thus also the limit

function f H(G).

96

7.2 Spaces of analytic functions

Exercise 1. Let f , f

1

, f

2

, . . . be elements of H(G) and show that f

n

f i for each closed rectiable curve

in G, f

n

(z) f (z) uniformly for z in .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let G be a region, let a R, and suppose that f : [a, ] G C is a continuous func-

tion. Dene the integral F(z) =

_

a

f (t, z) dt to be uniformly convergent on compact subsets of G if

lim

b

_

b

a

f (t, z) dt exists uniformly for z in any compact subset of G. Suppose that this integral does con-

verge uniformly on compact subsets of G and that for each t in (a, ), f (t, ) is analytic on G. Prove that F

is analytic and

F

(k)

(z) =

_

a

k

f (t, z)

z

k

dt

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. The proof of Montels Theorem can be broken up into the following sequence of denitions and

propositions: (a) Denition. A set / C(G, C) is locally Lipschitz if for each a in G there are constants

M and r > 0 such that f (z) f (a) Mz a for all f in / and z a < r. (b) If / C(G, C) is locally

Lipschitz then / is equicontinuous at each point of G. (c) If / H(G) is locally bounded then / is locally

Lipschitz.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Prove Vitalis Theorem: If G is a region and f

n

H(G) is locally bounded and f H(G) that

has the property that A = z G : lim f

n

(z) = f (z) has a limit point in G then f

n

f .

Solution. The sequence f

n

is a locally bounded sequence in H(G) and by Montels Theorem then f

n

is

normal, so there is a subsequence f

n

k

f

n

that converges to f in H(G).

Suppose that f

n

f in H(G) then there must be a compact set K G the convergence is not uniform on

K. In other words there must be an > 0 so that for all n N there is z

n

K with f

n

(z

n

) f (z

n

) . By

compactness of K extract a subsequence of z

n

, say z

n

m

that converges to a point z

0

K.

The sequence f

n

is locally bounded, so in particular the subsequence f

n

m

with indices corresponding

to z

n

m

is, and again by Montels Theorem now applied to the subsequence and again the completeness

of H(G) there is an analytic function g such that f

n

m

g in H(G). On the set A of points of pointwise

convergence f

n

(z) f and f

n

(z) g.

Now G is a region and A has a limit point in G so by the Identity Theorem (Chapter 4, Corollary 3.8)

already f = g on G which gives a contradiction on the set K and the point z

0

because

f

n

m

(z

n

m

) f (z

n

m

) g(z

0

) f (z

0

) .

Hence we can conclude that f

n

f in H(G).

Exercise 5. Show that for a set / H(G) the following are equivalent conditions:

(a) / is normal;

(b) For every > 0 there is a number c > 0 such that c f : f / B(0; ) (here B(0; ) is the ball in

H(G) with center at 0 and radius ).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Show that if / H(G) is normal then /

= f

Can you add something to the hypothesis that /

97

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Suppose / is normal in H(G) and is open in C such that f (G) for every f in /. Show

that if g is analytic on and is bounded on bounded sets then g f : f / is normal.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Let D = z : z < 1 and show that / H(D) is normal i there is a sequence M

n

of positive

constants such that limsup

n

M

n

1 and if f (z) =

_

0

a

n

z

n

is in / then a

n

M

n

for all n.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 9. Let D = B(0; 1) and for 0 < r < 1 let

r

(t) = re

2it

, 0 t 1. Show that a sequence f

n

in

H(D) converges to f i

_

r

f (r) f

n

(z) dz 0 as n for each r, 0 < r < 1.

Solution. : Assume lim

n

f

n

(z) = f (z) z D. Then

_

r

f (z) f

n

(z) dz sup

z

r

f (z) f

n

(z)

_

r

dz

=

r

=re

2it

,0t1

sup

z

r

f (z) f

n

(z) 2r, 0 < r < 1.

But sup

z

r

f (z) f

n

(z) as n since lim

n

f

n

(z) = f (z) z D. Therefore,

_

r

f (z) f

n

(z) dz 0

as n for each r, 0 < r < 1.

: Assume

_

r

f (z) f

n

(z) dz 0 as n for each r, 0 < r < 1. Let K be an arbitrary compact subset

of D = B(0; 1) and choose 0 < r < 1 such that K B(0; r) and denote the shortest distance between an

arbitrary point in K and an arbitrary point on B by > 0. By the assumption, we have

_

B

f (z) f

n

(z) dz < 2. (7.6)

Let a K, then by Cauchys Integral formula, we have

f (a) f

n

(a) =

1

2i

_

B

f (z) f

n

(z)

z a

dz.

Thus,

f (a) f

n

(a)

1

2

_

B

f (z) f

n

(z)

z a

dz

1

2

_

B

f (z) f

n

(z) dz <

(7.6)

2

2

= .

Hence, f

n

(a) f (z) uniformly a K. Since it converges uniformly on all compact subsets of D, Proposi-

tion 1.10 b) yields that f

n

converges to f z D.

Exercise 10. Let f

n

H(G) be a sequence of one-one functions which converge to f . If G is a region,

show that either f is one-one or f is a constant function.

Solution. Assume f

n

H(G) is a sequence of one-one functions which converge to f where G is a region

(open and connected). Suppose f is not the constant function. Then, we have to show that f is one-one.

Choose an arbitrary point z

0

G and dene the sequence g

n

(z) = f

n

(z) f

n

(z

0

). Clearly, the sequence g

n

0

) on the open connected set G\z

0

, which is again a region. In addition, we

98

have that g

n

never vanishes on G\z

0

, since f

n

are assumed to be one-one functions.

Therefore, the sequence g

n

satises the conditions of the Corollary 2.6 resulting from Hurwitzs Theorem,

where the region is G\z

0

. Thus, either g 0 or g never vanishes (g has no zeros). Since g(z) = f (z) f (z

0

)

is not identically zero on G\z

0

, we must have g(z) = f (z) f (z

0

) has no zeros in G\z

0

. This implies

f (z) f (z

0

) z G\z

0

.

Since z

0

was an arbitrary point in G, we have shown that f is one-one on G.

Exercise 11. Suppose that f

n

is a sequence in H(G), f is a non-constant function, and f

n

f in H(G).

Let a G and = f (a); show that there is a sequence a

n

in G such that: (i) a = lima

n

; (ii) f

n

(a

n

) =

for suciently large n.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 12. Show that limtan nz = i uniformly for z in any compact subset of G = z : Im z > 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 13. (a) Show that if f is analytic on an open set containing the disk

B(a; R) then

f (a)

2

1

R

2

_

2

0

_

R

0

f (a + re

i

)

2

r dr d.

(b) Let G be a region and let M be a xed positive constant. Let / be the family of all functions f in H(G)

such that

G

f (z)

2

dx dy M. Show that / is normal.

Solution. a) Let

B(a; R) G and f : G C be analytic. Let (t) = a + re

it

for 0 t 2, then by

Cauchys Integral Formula we have

g(a) =

1

2i

_

g(w)

w a

dw =

1

2

_

2

0

f (a + re

it

) dt.

Thus, letting g(z) = f (z)

2

, we obtain

f

2

(a) =

1

2

_

2

0

_

f (a + re

it

)

_

2

dt.

Multiply by r, we get

f

2

(a)r =

1

2

_

2

0

_

f (a + re

i

)

_

2

r d (7.7)

and then integrate with respect to r yields

_

R

0

f

2

(a)r dr = f

2

(a)

R

2

2

=

(7.7)

_

R

0

1

2

_

2

0

_

f (a + re

i

)

_

2

r d dr =

1

2

_

2

0

_

R

0

_

f (a + re

i

)

_

2

r dr d

which implies

f

2

(a) =

1

R

2

_

2

0

_

R

0

_

f (a + re

i

)

_

2

r dr d.

So

f (a)

2

1

R

2

_

2

0

_

R

0

f (a + re

i

)

2

r dr d.

99

b) Let G be a region and M be a xed constant. Let / be the family of all functions f in H(G) such that

G

f (z)

2

dx dy M. (7.8)

To show that / is normal.

According to Montels Theorem, it suces to show that / is locally bounded, that is r > 0 such that

sup f (z) : z a < r, f / < (p. 153). We will prove this fact by contradiction:

Assume / is not locally bounded. Then there is a compact set K G such that sup f (z) : z K, f / =

. That is, there is a sequence f

n

in / such that sup f

n

(z) : z K n. Therefore, z

n

K such that

f

n

(z

n

)

n

2

. (7.9)

Every sequence has a convergence subsequence, say z

n

k

, with z

n

k

z

0

K since K is compact. WLOG,

we write z

n

k

= z

n

. Clearly z

0

G since z

0

K (K G), hence R > 0 such that B(z

0

; R) G (since

G is open). If we pick n large enough, we can get z

n

B(z

0

;

R

2

) (a picture might help). In addition, we can

nd an

R > 0 such that B(z

n

;

R) B(z

0

;

R

2

) because B(z

0

;

R

2

) is open. Apply part a) to the ball B(z

n

;

R) to

obtain:

f

n

(z

n

)

2

R

2

_

2

0

_

R

0

f

n

(z

n

+ re

i

)

2

r dr d

B(z

n

;

R)G

1

R

2

G

f

n

(z)

2

dx dy

(7.8)

1

R

3

M < .

So

f

n

(z

n

)

_

M

R

< .

But by (7.9) we have

f

n

(z

n

)

n

2

.

This gives a contradiction if we let n . Thus, / is locally bounded and therefore normal.

7.3 Spaces of meromorphic functions

Exercise 1. Prove Proposition 3.3.

Solution. a) Let a C and r > 0. To show: There is a number > 0 such that B

R > 0 such that B(a; r) B(0; R) and B

Claim: Pick

=

2r

1 + R

2

_

1 + a

2

to obtain

B

Proof of the claim: Let z B

2z a

_

1 + z

2

_

1 + a

2

<

2z a

_

1 + z

2

_

1 + a

2

<

2r

1 + R

2

_

1 + a

2

z a <

r

1 + R

2

_

1 + z

2

100

which implies (z B

z a <

r

1 + R

2

1 + R

2

z a < r.

So z B(a; r). Therefore

B

b) Let > 0 and a C. To show: There is a number r > 0 such that B(a; r) B

(a; ).

Claim: Pick r <

2

to obtain

B(a; r) B

(a; ).

Proof of the claim: Let z B(a; r). This is equivalent to

z a < r

r<

2

z a <

2

z a <

2

1

1+z

2

1+a

2

z a <

2

_

1 + z

2

_

1 + a

2

2z a

_

1 + z

2

_

1 + a

2

<

d(z, a) < .

So z B

(a; ). Therefore,

B(a; r) B

(a; ).

c) Let > 0. To show: There is a compact set K C such that C

K B

(; ).

Claim: Choose K = B(0; r) where r >

_

4

2

1 to obtain

C

K B

(; ).

(Clearly K is compact and r > 0 since 2.)

101

Proof of the claim:

C

K = C

B(0; r)

= C B(0; r)

= C z C : z r

r>

_

4

2

1

_

_

C

_

_

z C : z

_

4

2

1

_

_

_

_

=

_

_

z C : z >

_

4

2

1

_

_

=

_

_

z C :

_

4

2

1 < z

_

_

=

_

_

z C :

2

_

1 + z

2

<

_

_

= z C : d(, z) <

= B

(; ).

Therefore,

C

K B

(; ).

d) Let K C where K is compact. To show: There is a number > 0 such that B

(; ) C

K. Let

B(0; r) such that B(0; r) K where r > 0. Clearly

C

B(0; r) C

K.

So it suces to show: There is a number > 0 such that

B

(; ) C

B(0; r)

for a given r > 0.

Claim: Choose

2

r

2

+1

to obtain

B

(; ) C

B(0; r)

and hence

B

(; ) C

K.

Proof of the claim:

B

(; ) = z C : d(, z) <

=

_

_

z C :

2

_

1 + z

2

<

_

r

2

+1

_

_

z C :

2

_

1 + z

2

<

2

r

2

+ 1

_

_

= z C : r z

= C z C : z < r

= C

z C : z < r

= C

B(0; r).

102

Therefore,

B

(; ) C

B(0; r).

Exercise 2. Show that if / M(G) is a normal family in C(G, C

Solution. Not available.

7.4 The Riemann Mapping Theorem

Exercise 1. Let G and be open sets in the plane and let f : G be a continuous function which

is one-one, onto, and such that f

1

: G is also continuous (a homeomorphism). Suppose z

n

is

a sequence in G which converges to a point z in G; also suppose that w = lim f (z

n

) exists. Prove that

w .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. (a) Let G be a region, let a G and suppose that f : (G a) C is an analytic function

such that f (G a) = is bounded. Show that f has a removable singularity at z = a. If f is one-one,

show that f (a) .

(b) Show that there is no one-one analytic function which maps G = z : 0 < z < 1 onto an annulus

= z : r < z < R where r > 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let G be a simply connected region which is not the whole plane and suppose that z G

whenever z G. Let a G R and suppose that f : G D = z : z < 1 is a one-one analytic function

with f (a) = 0, f

+

= z G : Im z > 0. Show that f (G

+

) must lie entirely

above or entirely below the real axis.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Find an analytic function f which maps z : z < 1, Re z > 0 onto B(0; 1) in a one-one fashion.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let f be analytic on G = z : Re z > 0, one-one, with Re f (z) > 0 for all z in G, and f (a) = a

for some real number a. Show that f

(a) 1.

Solution. Clearly G is a simply connected region (not the whole plane). Let a G. Then, there is a unique

analytic function g : G D having the properties

a) g(a) = 0 and g

(a) > 0

b) g is 1-1

c) g(G) = D

(by the Riemann Mapping Theorem). Since, we have f : G

11

G (since Re f (z) > 0) and g :

11

onto

D so g

1

: D

11

onto

G we can dene h(z) = g( f (g

1

(z))). Clearly h(z) is analytic and one-

one, since f and g are analytic and one-one, and we have

h(D) = D

by construction. We have

h(0) = g( f (g

1

(0))) =

g

1

(0)=a

g( f (a)) =

f (a)=a

g(a) = 0.

103

We also have

h(z) 1 z D

since h : D D. Thus, the hypothesis of Schwarzs Lemma are satised, and hence, we get

h

(0) 1.

We have

h

(z) =

_

g( f (g

1

(z)))

_

= g

( f (g

1

(z))) f

(g

1

(z))

_

g

1

(z)

_

= g

( f (g

1

(z))) f

(g

1

(z))

1

g

(g

1

(z))

where the last step follows from Proposition 2.20 provided g

(g

1

(z)) 0. So

h

(0) = g

( f (g

1

(0))) f

(g

1

(0))

1

g

(g

1

(0))

= g

( f (a)) f

(a)

1

g

(a)

= g

(a) f

(a)

1

g

(a)

= f

(a)

(g

h

(0) = f

(a) 1.

Thus, we have shown that

f

(a) 1.

Exercise 6. Let G

1

and G

2

be simply connected regions neither of which is the whole plane. Let f be a

one-one analytic mapping of G

1

onto G

2

. Let a G

1

and put = f (a). Prove that for any one-one analytic

map h of G

1

into G

2

with h(a) = it follows that h

(a) f

what can be said?

Solution. Dene the function F(z) = f

1

(h(z)). This is well-dened since f : G

1

11

onto

G

2

and h :

G

1

11

G

2

. Clearly F(z) is analytic since f and h are analytic, F(z) is one-one and F : G

1

G

1

by

construction. We have

F(a) = f

1

(h(a)) = f

1

() = a.

Thus by Exercise 5, we get

F

(a) 1.

We have

F

(z) =

_

f

1

(h(z))

_

= f

(h(z))h

(z) =

1

f

( f

1

(h(z)))

h

(z)

where the last step follows by Proposition 2.20 provided f

( f

1

(h(z))) 0. So

F

(a) =

1

f

( f

1

(h(a)))

h

(a) =

h

(a)

f

( f

1

())

=

h

(a)

f

(a)

which is well-denes since f

F

(a) =

h

(a)

f

(a)

1

104

gives

h

(a) f

(a).

If h is not one-one, then we get the same result, since I do not need the assumption that F(z) has to be

one-one for exercise 5.

Exercise 7. Let G be a simply connected region and suppose that G is not the whole plane. Let = :

< 1 and suppose that f is an analytic, one-one map of G onto with f (a) = 0 and f

point a in G. Let g be any other analytic, one-one map of G onto and express g in terms of f .

Solution. Let a G such that f (a) = 0 and f

clearly have g(a) = , where ( does not have to be zero). Next, dene

g

1

(z) =

z

1 z

.

Clearly, g

1

is a Mbius transformation mapping to and in addition g

1

is one-one and analytic. Now

dene

g

2

(z) = g

1

(g(z)).

Then, g

2

is one-one and analytic and maps G onto . In addition, we have

g

2

(a) = g

1

(g(a)) = g

1

() = 0. (7.10)

But g

2

(a) need not necessarily satisfy g

2

(a) > 0. However, g

2

(a) 0 z G since g

2

is one-one. Therefore,

dene the rotation

g

3

(z) = e

i

z

for [0, 2). Clearly g

3

maps onto . g

3

is one-one and analytic. Finally, let

h(z) = g

3

(g

2

(z)).

Also h is one-one, analytic and maps G onto . We have

h(a) = g

3

(g

2

(a)) =

(7.10)

g

3

(0) = 0.

And,

h

(z) = (g

3

(g

2

(z)))

= (g

3

(g

1

(g(z))))

= g

3

(g

1

(g(z)))g

1

(g(z))g

(z)

= e

i

(1 g(z)) 1 (g(z) ) ( )

(1 g(z))

2

g

(z).

So,

h

(a) = e

i

(1 ) 0

(1 )

2

g

(a) = e

i

1

2

(1

2

)

2

g

(a) = e

i

1

1

2

g

(a).

Clearly, we can choose a [0, 2) such that h

(a). Recall g

(a) 0

since g is one-one and , so

1

1

2

> 0). For example: If g

i

= 1 or

= Arg(g

By uniqueness of the map f ( f satises the properties of the Riemann Mapping Theorem), we have

f (z) = h(z)

105

since h satises the properties of the Riemann Mapping Theorem, too. Thus,

f (z) = h(z) = g

3

(g

2

(z)) = e

i

g

2

(z) = e

i

g

1

(g(z)) = e

i

g(z)

1 g(z)

.

So

1 g(z) = e

i

g(z) e

i

f (z) g(z) f (z) = e

i

g(z) e

i

(e

i

+ f (z))g(z) = f (z) + e

i

g(z) =

f (z) + e

i

e

i

+ f (z)

.

Exercise 8. Let r

1

, r

2

, R

1

, R

2

, be positive numbers such that R

1

/r

1

= R

2

/r

2

; show that ann(0; r

1

, R

1

) and

ann(0; r

2

, R

2

) are conformally equivalent.

Solution. The function f : C C; f (z) =

r

2

r

1

z is analytic and it maps the annulus ann(0; r

1

, R

1

) bijectively

into ann(0; r

2

, R

2

). The inner boundary z : z = r

1

of the domain is mapped to the inner boundary of

ann(0; r

2

, R

2

). For the outer boundary note that by assumption R

1

=

R

2

r

1

r

2

, so if z = R

1

then f (z) =

r

2

r

1

R

1

=

R

2

. The inverse function is f

1

(z) =

r

1

r

2

z, an analytic and non-constant function also. Therefore the result is

proved.

Exercise 9. Show that there is an analytic function f dened on G =ann(0; 0, 1) such that f

never vanishes

and f (G) = B(0; 1).

Solution. Not available.

7.5 The Weierstrass Factorization Theorem

Exercise 1. Show that

(1 + z

n

) converges absolutely i

(1 + z

n

) converges.

Solution. Assume Re(z

n

) > 1. Then the product

(1 + z

n

) converges absolutely i

_

k=1

z

n

converges

absolutely (by Corollary 5.6 p. 166 applied to w

n

= 1 + z

n

).

_

k=1

z

n

converges absolutely i

_

n=1

z

n

Claim:

_

n=1

z

n

converges i

_

n=1

log(1 + z

n

) converges.

Then

_

n=1

log(1+z

n

) converges i

(1+z

n

) converges (by Proposition 5.2 p.165 applied to w

n

= 1+z

n

).

Thus, ones we have proved the claim, we obtain:

(1 + z

n

) converges absolutely i

(1 + z

n

) converges.

Proof of the claim: Let x

n

= z

n

for convenience. Clearly x

n

0 n N.

: Assume

_

z

n

converges, that is

_

x

n

converges. Therefore, we have x

n

0. So given > 0, we have

0 log(1 + x

n

) (1 + )x

n

for suciently large n where the last inequality follows since lim

z0

log(1+z)

z

= 1 by Exercise 2. By the

comparison test,

_

log(1 + x

n

) converges, that is

_

log(1 + z

n

) converges.

: Assume

_

log(1 + z

n

) converges, that is

_

log(1 + x

n

) converges. Therefore, we have log(1 + x

n

) 0

and therefore x

n

0. So given > 0, we have

(1 )x

n

log(1 + x

n

)

for suciently large n where the last inequality follows since lim

z0

log(1+z)

z

= 1 by Exercise 2. By the

comparison test,

_

x

n

converges, that is

_

z

n

converges.

Therefore,

_

n=1

z

n

converges i

_

n=1

log(1 + z

n

) converges.

106

Exercise 2. Prove that lim

z0

log(1+z)

z

= 1.

Solution. First note that,

f (z) =

log(1 + z)

z

has a removable singularity at z = 0, since

lim

z0

z f (z) = lim

z0

z

log(1 + z)

z

= lim

z0

log(1 + z) = log(1) = 0

(by Theorem 1.2 Chapter 5 p. 103). We know

log(1 + z) =

p.165

k=1

(1)

k+1

z

k

k

if z < 1. Therefore,

f (z) =

log(1 + z)

z

=

_

k=1

(1)

k+1 z

k

k

z

=

k=1

(1)

k+1

z

k1

k

= 1 +

k=2

(1)

k+2

z

k1

k

= 1 +

k=1

(1)

k

z

k

k + 1

where the sum is an analytic function. Hence,

lim

z0

f (z) = lim

z0

_

_

1 +

k=1

(1)

k

z

k

k + 1

_

_

= 1 +

k=1

(1)

k

(lim

z0

z)

k

k + 1

= 1 +

k=1

0 = 1

and therefore

lim

z0

log(1 + z)

z

= 1.

Exercise 3. Let f and g be analytic functions on a region G and show that there are analytic functions

f

1

, g

1

, and h on G such that f (z) = h(z) f

1

(z) and g(z) = h(z)g

1

(z) for all z in G; and f

1

and g

1

have no

common zeros.

Solution. Let f and g be analytic functions on the region G. Let a

j

be the zeros of f with multiplicity n

j

.

Let b

j

be the zeros of g with multiplicity n

j

.

If f and g have no common zeros, let h = 1. Then f

1

= f and g

1

= g. Clearly f

1

, g

1

and h are analytic on

G such that f (z) = h(z) f

1

(z) and g(z) = h(z)g

1

(z) for all z in G and f

1

and g

1

have no common zeros.

Otherwise let z

j

be the set of common zeros of f and g with multiplicity m

j

= min(n

j

, n

j

). Then z

j

form

a sequence of distinct points in G with no limit points on G (since the zeros are isolated). Then there is an

analytic function h dened on G whose only zeros are at the points z

j

with multiplicity m

j

(by Theorem 5.15

p. 170). Let f

1

=

f

h

and g

1

=

g

h

, then clearly f

1

and g

1

are analytic functions on G such that f (z) = h(z) f

1

(z)

and g(z) = h(z)g

1

(z) for all z in G. (since f

1

and g

1

have removable singularities at the z

j

s by construction;

the multiplicity of z

j

s in f and g is greater or equal than the multiplicity of z

j

s in h). In addition, we have

that f

1

and g

1

have no common zeros by construction.

Exercise 4. (a) Let 0 < a < 1 and z r < 1; show that

a + az

(1 az)a

1 + r

1 r

(b) Let a

n

be a sequence of complex numbers with 0 < a

n

< 1 and

_

(1 a

n

) < . Show that the innite

product

B(z) =

_

n=1

a

n

a

n

_

a

n

z

1 a

n

z

_

107

converges in H(B(0; 1)) and that B(z) 1. What are the zeros of B? (B(z) is called a Blaschke Product.)

(c) Find a sequence a

n

in B(0; 1) such that

_

(1 a

n

) < and every number e

i

is a limit point of a

n

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Discuss the convergence of the innite product

n=1

1

n

p

for p > 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Discuss the convergence of the innite products

_

1 +

i

n

_

and

1 +

i

n

.

Solution. First consider

n=1

_

1 +

i

n

_

. We claim that this product does not converge.

Let z

n

:= 1 +

i

n

= r

n

e

i

n

with r

n

=

_

1 +

1

n

2

and = arctan

_

1

n

_

. If there is z = re

i

such that

n=1

z

n

= z,

then

n=1

r

n

= r and

_

n=1

n

= .

Since

arctan(x)

x

1

2

for all values x (0, 1] the estimate

n=1

n

=

n=1

arctan

_

1

n

_

1

2

n

1

1

n

is valid. The right hand side does not converge, therefore the angles do not converge and there is no z C

with the desired properties (note that r

n

> 1 for all n, thus z 0).

The second innite product is a product of real numbers and z

n

= 1 +

i

n

=

_

1 +

1

n

2

. The estimate

1 +

1

n

2

_

1 +

1

n

2

_

2

implies that 1 z

n

1 +

1

n

2

. Thus for any integer N N

N

_

n=1

1

N

_

n=1

z

n

N

_

n=1

_

1 +

1

n

2

_

where the last term is absolutely convergent by an example in class. Therefore the sequence of the partial

products

N

n=1

z

n

is an increasing, bounded sequence that converges in the real numbers. With log(z

n

) > 0

for all n, the comparison with the sum of logarithms (Proposition 5.4) gives absolute convergence.

Exercise 7. Show that

n=2

_

1

1

n

2

_

=

1

2

.

Solution. Consider

P

n

=

n

_

k=2

_

1

1

k

2

_

=

n

_

k=2

_

1

1

k

_ _

1 +

1

k

_

=

n

_

k=2

_

k 1

k

_ _

k + 1

k

_

= exp

_

_

log

n

_

k=2

_

k 1

k

_ _

k + 1

k

_

_

_

= exp

_

_

n

k=2

log

__

k 1

k

_ _

k + 1

k

__

_

_

= exp

_

_

n

k=2

_

log(k 1) log(k)

_

_

_

+ exp

_

_

n

k=2

_

log(k + 1) log(k)

_

_

_

= exp

__

log(1) log(n)

__

+ exp

__

log(2) + log(n + 1)

__

= exp

__

log(2n) + log(n + 1)

__

= exp

_

log

_

n + 1

2n

__

=

n + 1

2n

.

So,

_

n=2

_

1

1

n

2

_

= lim

n

P

n

= lim

n

n + 1

2n

=

1

2

.

108

Exercise 8. For which values of z do the products

(1 z

n

) and

(1 + z

2n

) converge? Is there an open

set G such that the product converges uniformly on each compact subset of G? If so, give the largest such

open.

Solution. Consider the innite product

n=1

(1 z

n

). By denition and Corollary 5.6 this converges abso-

lutely if and only if

_

n=1

z

n

converges absolutely. From Calculus it is known that the convergence is also

uniform for z r < 1 with r [0, 1).

If z is an n

th

root of unity for a positive integer n, then one of the factors in the innite product becomes 0

and the product converges to 0, but not absolutely according to Denition 5.5. If there is no n such that z

is n

th

root of unity then no factor of the innite product equals zero and there is a subsequence (1 z

n

k

k

such that 1 z

n

k

> 1.5. We conclude that

n=1

(1 + z

n

) does not converge.

With the denseness of

_

nN

z C : z is n

th

root of unity in the unit sphere it follows that the maximal set G

such that the convergence is uniform on compact subsets is the unit disk.

The behavior of

n=1

(1 + z

2n

) is almost the same as the previous one. Substitute w := z

2

, then the conver-

gence is uniform for w r < 1, so z sqrtr < 1. Also if z -and hence w- is greater than 1, then the

innite product diverges. Similar to the previous case one factor equals 0 if z is a 2n

th

root of 1.

The maximal region G such that the convergence is uniform on compact sets is again the open unit disk.

Exercise 9. Use Theorem 5.15 to show there is an analytic function f on D = z : z < 1 which is not

analytic on any open set G which properly contains D.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 10. Suppose G is an open set and f

n

is a sequence in H(G) such that f (z) =

f

n

(z) converges

in H(G). (a) Show that

k=1

_

_

f

k

(z)

_

nk

f

n

(z)

_

_

converges in H(G) and equals f

(z). (b) Assume that f is not the identically zero function and let K be a

compact subset of G such that f (z) 0 for all z in K. Show that

f

(z)

f (z)

=

n=1

f

n

(z)

f

n

(z)

and the convergence is uniform over K.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 11. A subset _ of H(G), G a region, is an ideal i: (i) f and g in _ implies af + bg is in _ for

all complex numbers a and b; (ii) f in _ and g any function in H(G) implies f g is in _. _ is called a

proper ideal if _ (0) and _ H(G); _ is a maximal ideal if _ is a proper ideal and whenever [ is an

ideal with _ [ then either [ = _ or [ = H(G); _ is a prime ideal if whenever f and g H(G) and

f g _ then either f _ or g _. If f H(G) let ( f ) be the set of zeros of f counted according to

their multiplicity. So ((z a)

3

) = a, a, a. If S H(G) then (S) = ( f ) : f S, where the zeros

are again counted according to their multiplicity. So if S = (z a)

3

(z b), (z a)

2

then (S) = a, a.

(a) If f and g H(G) then f divides g (in symbols, f g if there is an h in H(G) such that g = f h. Show that

f g i (g).

(b) If S H(G) and S contains a non-zero function then f is a greatest common divisor of S if: (i) f g for

each g in S and (ii) whenever hg for each g in S, h f . In symbols, f = g.c.d.S. Prove that f = g.c.d.S. i

( f ) = (S) and show that each non-empty subset of H(G) has a g.c.d.

(c) If A G let _(a) = f H(G) : ( f ) A. Show that _(A) is a closed ideal in H(G) and _(A) = (0)

109

i A has a limit point in G.

(d) Let a G and _ = _(a). Show that _ is a maximal ideal.

(e) Show that every maximal ideal in H(G) is a prime ideal.

(f) Give an example of an ideal which is not a prime ideal.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 12. Find an entire function f such that f (n + in) = 0 for every integer n (positive, negative or

zero). Give the most elementary example possible (i.e., choose the p

n

to be as small as possible).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 13. Find an entire function f such that f (m+ in) = 0 for all possible integers m, n. Find the most

elementary solution possible.

Solution. Not available.

7.6 Factorization of the sine function

Exercise 1. Show that cos z =

n=1

_

1

4z

2

(2n1)

2

_

.

Solution. We know by the double-angle identity of sine sin(2z) = 2 sin(z) cos(z) (this is proved easily by

using the denition) or sin(2z) = 2 sin(z) cos(z). Since, we know sin(z) = z

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

, we obtain

sin(2z) = 2 sin(z) cos(z)

2z

_

n=1

_

1

4z

2

n

2

_

= 2z

_

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

cos(z)

2z

_

m=1

_

1

4z

2

(2m)

2

_

_

m=1

_

1

4z

2

(2m 1)

2

_

= 2z

_

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

cos(z)

where the last statement follows by splitting the product into a product of the even and odd terms (rear-

rangement of the terms is allowed). Hence

2z

_

n=1

_

1

4z

2

(2n)

2

_

_

n=1

_

1

4z

2

(2n 1)

2

_

= 2z

_

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

cos(z)

2z

_

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

_

n=1

_

1

4z

2

(2n 1)

2

_

= 2z

_

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

cos(z).

Thus,

cos(z) =

_

n=1

_

1

4z

2

(2n 1)

2

_

.

Exercise 2. Find a factorization for sinh z and cosh z.

110

Solution. We know

sinh(z) =

e

z

e

z

2

=

e

i(iz)

e

(i)(iz)

2

=

e

i(iz)

+ e

i(iz)

2

= i

e

i(iz)

+ e

i(iz)

2i

= i

e

i(iz)

e

i(iz)

2i

= i sin(iz)

= i(iz)

_

n=1

_

1

(iz)

2

n

2

2

_

= z

_

n=1

_

1 +

z

2

n

2

2

_

since by p. 175 Equation 6.2

sin(z) = z

_

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

sin(z) = z

_

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

2

_

.

Therefore,

sinh(z) = z

_

n=1

_

1 +

z

2

n

2

2

_

.

We have

cosh(z) =

e

z

+ e

z

2

=

e

i(iz)

+ e

(i)(iz)

2

=

e

i(iz)

+ e

i(iz)

2

= cos(iz)

=

_

n=1

_

1

4(iz)

2

(2n 1)

2

2

_

=

_

n=1

_

1 +

4z

2

(2n 1)

2

2

_

since by Exercise 1 p. 176

cos(z) =

_

n=1

_

1

4z

2

(2n 1)

2

_

cos(z) =

_

n=1

_

1

4z

2

(2n 1)

2

2

_

.

Therefore,

cosh(z) =

_

n=1

_

1 +

4z

2

(2n 1)

2

2

_

.

Exercise 3. Find a factorization of the function cos

_

z

4

_

sin

_

z

4

_

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Prove Walliss formula:

2

=

n=1

(2n)

2

(2n1)(2n+1)

.

Solution. Not available.

111

7.7 The gamma function

Exercise 1. Show that 0 < < 1. (An approximation to is .57722. It is unknown whether is rational or

irrational.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Show that (z)(1 z) = csc z for z not an integer. Deduce from this that (

1

2

) =

.

Solution. Assume z is not an integer, then by Gausss Formula p. 178 we get

(z)(1 z) = lim

n

n!n

z

z(z + 1) (z + n)

lim

m

m!m

1z

(1 z)(2 z) (m + 1 z)

= lim

n

n!n!n

z+1z

z(1 + z)(1 z)(2 + z)(2 z) (n + z)(n z)(n + 1 z)

= lim

n

(n!)

2

n

z(1

2

z

2

)(2

2

z

2

) (n

2

z

2

)(n + 1 z)

= lim

n

(n!)

2

n

z(n!n!)

_

1

z

2

1

2

_ _

1

z

2

2

2

_ _

1

z

2

2

3

_

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

(n + 1 z)

= lim

n

1

z

_

1

z

2

1

2

_ _

1

z

2

2

2

_ _

1

z

2

3

2

_

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

n+1z

n

=

1

z lim

n

_

1

z

2

1

2

_ _

1

z

2

2

2

_ _

1

z

2

3

2

_

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

lim

n

n + 1 z

n

.,,.

=1

=

1

z

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_ =

n=1

_

1

z

2

n

2

_

=

sin(z)

= csc(z)

where the step before the last step follows by p. 175 Equation 6.2. So

(z)(1 z) = csc(z)

for z not an integer. Now, let z =

1

2

, then

_

1

2

_

_

1

1

2

_

= csc

_

2

_

which implies

_

1

2

_

=

1 =

.

Exercise 3. Show:

(2z) = 2

2z1

(z)(z +

1

2

). (Hint: Consider the function (z)(z +

1

2

)(2z)

1

.)

Solution. Following the hint dene a function f on its domain G = z C : z (Z N) by

f (z) =

2

z1

_

z

2

_

_

z

2

+

1

2

_

.

112

Let x be a positive real number. It suces to show that f (x) satises the Bohr-Mollerup Theorem. By the

logarithmic convexity of is follows that

log f (x) = (x 1) log 2 log

+ log

_

x

2

_

+ log

_

x

2

+

1

2

_

is a convex function. Also f satises the functional equation of the Gamma-function:

f (x + 1) =

2

x

_

x

2

+

1

2

_

_

x

2

+ 1

_

=

2

x

_

x

2

+

1

2

_

x

2

_

x

2

_

=

x2

x1

_

x

2

+

1

2

_

_

x

2

_

= x f (x).

Lastly, also f (1) =

(

1

2

)

= 1; thus by Theorem 7.13, f agrees with on the positive real numbers. With the

Identity Theorem then f agrees with on the whole domain G.

Exercise 4. Show that log (z) is dened for z in C (, 0] and that

log (z) = log z z

n=1

_

log

_

1 +

z

n

_

z

n

_

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let f be analytic on the right half plane Re z > 0 and satisfy: f (1) = 1, f (z + 1) = z f (z), and

lim

n

f (z+n)

n

z

f (n)

= 1 for all z. Show that f = .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Show that

(z) =

n=0

(1)

n

n!(z + n)

+

_

1

e

t

t

z1

dt

for z 0, 1, 2, . . . (not for Re z > 0 alone).

Solution. Write (z) = (z) + (z) where

(z) =

_

1

0

e

t

t

z1

dt

and

(z) =

_

1

e

t

t

z1

dt. (7.11)

We can write

(z) =

_

1

0

e

t

t

z1

dt =

_

1

0

n=0

(t)

n

n!

t

z1

dt =

n=0

(1)

n

n!

_

1

0

t

n

t

z1

dt

=

n=0

(1)

n

n!

_

t

n+z

n + z

_

1

0

=

n=0

(1)

n

n!(z + n)

113

Thus,

(z) =

n=0

(1)

n

n!(z + n)

+

_

1

e

t

t

z1

dt (7.12)

Claim 1: (z) given by (7.12) is the analytic continuation of (7.11), that is (z) given by (7.12) is dened

for all z C 0, 1, 2, . . ..

Proof of Claim 1: We know from the book that (z) is analytic for Re (z) > 0.

Claim 2: (z) is analytic for Re (z) 0. Thus (z) is analytic on C.

Proof of Claim 2: Assume Re (z) 0. Then

t

z1

= t

Re(z)1

t[1,),Re(z)0

t

1

.

But since e

1

2

t

t

Re (z)1

0 as t , there exists a constant C > 0 such that t

Re(z)1

Ce

1

2

when t 1.

Hence, we have

e

t

t

z1

e

t

t

z1

= e

t

t

Re(z)1

e

t

Ce

1

2

t

= Ce

1

2

t

and therefore Ce

1

2

t

is integrable on (1, ). By Fubinis Theorem for any G = z : Re(z) 0,

_

_

1

e

t

t

z1

dt dz =

_

1

_

e

t

t

z1

dz dt = 0

which implies

_

1

e

t

t

z1

dt H(G).

In summary,

(z) =

_

1

e

t

t

z1

dt H(C).

Thus, Claim 2 is proved.

It remains to show that

(z) =

n=0

(1)

n

n!(z + n)

is analytic on C 0, 1, 2, . . .. Note that (z) is uniformly and absolutely convergent as a series in any

closed domain which contains none of the points 0, 1, 2, . . . and thus provides the analytic continuation

of (z). Since

n=0

(1)

n

n!(z + n)

+

_

1

e

t

t

z1

dt

is analytic and we know (Theorem 7.15 p. 180)

(z) =

_

0

e

t

t

z1

dt

for Re(z) > 0, we get

(z) =

n=0

(1)

n

n!(z + n)

+

_

1

e

t

t

z1

dt

is the analytic continuation of (7.11) for z C 0, 1, 2, . . ..

114

Exercise 7. Show that

_

0

sin(t

2

) dt =

_

0

cos(t

2

) =

1

2

_

1

2

.

Solution. We have shown that

_

1

2

_

=

=

_

1

2

_

=

_

0

e

t

t

1

2

dt = 2a

_

0

e

a

2

t

2

dt

(because of Theorem 7.15 p. 180). The last step involves integrating a complex integral. Hence, we have

_

0

e

a

2

t

2

dt =

2a

. (7.13)

Let a =

1i

2

, then a

2

=

12i+i

2

2

= i and therefore

_

0

e

_

1i

2

_

2

t

2

dt =

_

0

e

(i)t

2

dt =

_

0

e

it

2

dt

=

_

0

cos(t

2

) + i sin(t

2

) dt =

_

0

cos(t

2

) dt + i

_

0

sin(t

2

) dt

=

(7.13)

2

1i

2

=

2

1 + i

(1 i)(1 + i)

=

1

2

_

1

2

(1 + i) =

1

2

_

1

2

+ i

1

2

_

1

2

.

Thus,

_

0

cos(t

2

) dt + i

_

0

sin(t

2

) dt =

1

2

_

1

2

+ i

1

2

_

1

2

which implies

_

0

cos(t

2

) dt =

1

2

_

1

2

and

_

0

sin(t

2

) =

1

2

_

1

2

.

Exercise 8. Let u > 0 and v > 0 and express (u)(v) as a double integral over the rst quadrant of the

plane. By changing to polar coordinates show that

(u)(v) = 2(u + v)

_

2

0

(cos )

2u1

(sin )

2v1

d.

The function

B(u, v) =

(u)(v)

(u + v)

is called the beta function. By changes of variables show that

B(u, v) =

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 t)

v1

dt =

_

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt

Can this be generalized to the case when u and v are complex numbers with positive real part?

115

Solution. Let u > 0 and v > 0, then by Theorem 7.15 p. 180 and three changes of variables (indicated by

CoV) we obtain

(u)(v) =

_

0

e

s

s

u1

ds

_

0

e

t

t

v1

dt

=

CoV:s=x

2

,t=y

2

2

_

0

e

x

2

x

2u2

x dx 2

_

0

e

y

2

y

2v2

y dy

= 4

_

0

_

0

e

x

2

y

2

x

2u1

y

2v1

dx dy

=

CoV:x=r cos(),y=r sin

4

_

/2

0

_

0

e

r

2

r

2u1

(cos )

2u1

r

2v1

(sin )

2v1

r dr d

= 4

_

/2

0

_

0

e

r

2

r

2u+2v1

(cos )

2u1

(sin )

2v1

r dr d

= 4

_

0

e

r

2

r

2u+2v1

dr

_

/2

0

(cos )

2u1

(sin )

2v1

d

=

CoV:t=r

2

4

1

2

_

0

e

t

t

u+v1

dt

_

/2

0

(cos )

2u1

(sin )

2v1

d

= 2(u + v)

_

/2

0

(cos )

2u1

(sin )

2v1

d.

This implies

B(u, v) =

(u)(v)

(u + v)

= 2

_

/2

0

(cos )

2u1

(sin )

2v1

d.

Next, we show

B(u, v) =

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 t)

v1

dt.

We have

B(u, v) =

(u)(v)

(u + v)

= 2

_

/2

0

(cos )

2u1

(sin )

2v1

d

=

CoV:t=cos

2

2

_

1

0

_

t

_

2u2

_

1 t

_

2v2

dt

=

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 t)

v1

dt.

Hence,

B(u, v) =

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 t)

v1

dt.

Finally, we show

B(u, v) =

_

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt.

116

We have

B(u, v) =

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 t)

v1

dt

=

CoV:s=

t

1t

_

0

_

s

1 + s

_

u1

_

1

s

1 + s

_

v1

(1 + s)

2

ds

=

_

0

s

u1

1

(1 + s)

u1

1

(1 + s)

v1

(1 + s)

2

ds

=

_

0

s

u1

1

(1 + s)

u+v2

(1 + s)

2

ds

=

_

0

s

u1

(1 + s)

u+v

ds.

Hence,

B(u, v) =

_

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt.

Yes, the beta function can be generalized to the case when u and v are complex numbers with positive real

part. We have seen that

B(u, v) =

_

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt = 2

_

/2

0

(cos )

2u1

(sin )

2v1

d

for u > 0 and v > 0. Thus it remains to show that

B(u, v) =

_

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt H(G G)

where G G C C with G = z : Re(z) > 0.

Let Re(u) > 0 and Re(v) > 0.

_

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt =

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt

.,,.

I

+

_

1

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt

.,,.

II

.

I) We have

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

uv

dt

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

uv

dt

_

1

0

t

Re(u)1

(1 + t)

Re(u)Re(v)

dt

_

1

0

t

Re(u)1

<

where the last step follows since Re(u) > 0 and the previous one since Re(u) > 0 and Re(v) > 0 and

t (0, 1). This implies t

u1

(1 + t)

uv

is integrable on (0, 1). By Fubinis Theorem for any G G

_

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt dz =

_

1

0

_

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dz dt = 0

117

which implies

_

1

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt H(G G).

II) We have

_

1

t

u1

(1 + t)

uv

dt lim

n

_

n

1

t

u1

(1 + t)

uv

dt

lim

n

_

n

1

t

u1

(1 + t)

uv

dt

= lim

n

_

n

1

t

Re(u)1

(1 + t)

Re(u)Re(v)

dt

= lim

n

_

n

1

t

Re(u)1

1

t

Re(u)+Re(v)

_

1

t

+ 1

_

Re(u)+Re(v)

dt

= lim

n

_

n

1

t

1Re(u)

1

_

1

t

+ 1

_

Re(u)+Re(v)

dt

lim

n

_

n

1

1

t

1+Re(v)

dt <

where the last step follows since Re(v) > 0 and the previous one since Re(u) + Re(v) > 0, t 1 and

therefore

1

(

1

t

+1)

Re(u)+Re(v)

1. This implies t

u1

(1 + t)

uv

is integrable on (1, ). By Fubinis Theorem for

any G G

_

_

1

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt dz =

_

1

_

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dz dt = 0

which implies

_

1

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt H(G G).

In summary

_

0

t

u1

(1 + t)

u+v

dt H(G G).

Exercise 9. Let

n

be the volume of the ball of radius one in R

n

(n 1). Prove by induction and iterated

integrals that

n

= 2

n1

_

1

0

(1 t

2

)

(n1)/2

dt

Solution. Dene the n-dimensional ball with radius r by

B

n

(r) = x R

n

: x r

and dene the volume of B

n

(r) by V

n

(r). Clearly, V

1

(r) = 2r, V

2

(r) = r

2

, V

3

(r) =

4

3

r

3

and therefore

V

1

(1) = 2, V

2

(1) and V

3

=

4

3

.

Claim: For arbitrary n we have

V

n

(r) = r

n

V

n

(1)

118

which implies

V

n

(r) = r

n

V

n

(1) =

(def)

r

n

n

(7.14)

Assume the claim is true, then we write

B

n

(1) = x R

n

: x 1 = (x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n1

, t) R

n

: x

2

1

+ x

2

2

+ . . . + x

2

n1

+ t

2

1.

For a xed t [1, 1] we have the balls

B

n1

_

1 t

2

_

= (x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n1

) R

n1

: x

2

1

+ x

2

2

+ . . . + x

2

n1

1

and by (7.14) we obtain

V

n1

_

1 t

2

_

=

_

1 t

2

_

n1

V

n1

(1) =

_

1 t

2

_ n1

2

n1

.

Clearly, the ball B

n

(1) is the union of all disjoint balls B

n1

_

1 t

2

_

as t varies over [1, 1]. Hence

n

= V

n

(1) =

_

1

1

_

1 t

2

_ n1

2

n1

dt = 2

n1

_

1

0

_

1 t

2

_ n1

2

dt

which proves the formula above.

Finally, we prove the claim V

n

(r) = r

n

V

n

(1). We have by using a symmetry argument

V

n

(r) =

_

r

r

_

r

2

x

2

1

r

2

x

2

1

_

r

2

x

2

1

x

2

2

r

2

x

2

1

x

2

2

_

r

2

_

n1

i=1

x

2

i

r

2

_

n1

i=1

x

2

i

1 dx

n

dx

n1

dx

2

dx

1

= 2

n

_

r

0

_

r

2

x

2

1

0

_

r

2

x

2

1

x

2

2

0

_

r

2

_

n1

i=1

x

2

i

0

1 dx

n

dx

n1

dx

2

dx

1

=

CoV:x

i

=ry

i

2

n

_

r

0

_

1y

2

1

0

_

1y

2

1

y

2

2

0

_

1

_

n1

i=1

y

2

i

0

1 r

n

.,,.

Jacobian

dy

n

dy

n1

dy

2

dy

1

= r

n

_

1

1

_

1y

2

1

1y

2

1

_

1y

2

1

y

2

2

1y

2

1

y

2

2

_

1

_

n1

i=1

y

2

i

1

_

n1

i=1

y

2

i

1 dy

n

dy

n1

dy

2

dy

1

= r

n

V

n

(1).

This implies V

n

(r) = r

n

V

n

(1). (Note that this is kind of obvious, since we scale the unit ball in R

n

by r in

each dimension to obtain the ball with radius r in R

n

). We could have proved the formula by mathematical

induction. Using spherical coordinates simplies the computation if preferred.

Exercise 10. Show that

n

=

n/2

(n/2)(n/2)

where

n

is dened in problem 9. Show that if n = 2k, k 1, then

n

=

k

/k!

Solution. Not available.

119

Exercise 11. The Gaussian psi function is dened by

(z) =

(z)

(z)

(a) Show that is meromorphic in C with simple poles at z = 0, 1, . . . and Res(; n) = 1 for n 0.

(b) Show that (1) = .

(c) Show that (z + 1) (z) =

1

z

.

(d) Show that (z) (1 z) = cot z.

(e) State and prove a characterization of analogous to the Bohr-Mollerup Theorem.

Solution. Not available.

7.8 The Riemann zeta function

Exercise 1. Let (z) = z(z l)

1

2

z

(z)(

1

2

z) and show that is an entire function which satises the

functional equation (z) = (1 z).

Solution. The function is analytic on C (2k : k N

0

1) as a product of analytic functions. The

factors z, z 1 and

1

2

z

are entire. The zeta-function has a simple pole at z = 1, hence lim

z1

(z 1)(z)

exists in C and the function is well-dened at z = 1.

The function

_

1

2

z

_

has simple poles at the non-positive even integers. For z = 0, lim

z0

z

_

1

2

z

_

C. For

negative even integers z = 2k, k N the poles of Gamma coincide with the simple zeros of the zeta-

function, hence lim

z2k

(z)

_

1

2

z

_

exists in C also. Therefore the function is analytic at each point.

The functional equation of is related to the functional equation of (8.3, p. 192), evaluated at 1 z, i.e.

(1 z) = 2(2)

z

(z)(z) sin

_

1

2

(1 z)

_

. (7.15)

Furthermore the proof uses variants of problems 1, 2 of the homework set 5, in particular

_

1

2

z

2

_

_

1

2

+

z

2

_

= csc

_

1

2

(1 z)

_

(7.16)

(z) = 2

z1

_

z

2

_

_

1

2

+

z

2

_

. (7.17)

120

Then the following chain of equalities holds.

(1 z) = (1 z)(z)

1

2

+

z

2

(1 z)

_

1

2

z

2

_

(7.15)

= z(z 1)

1

2

+

z

2

_

1

2

z

2

_

2

1z

z

(z)(z) sin

_

1

2

(1 z)

_

= (z)

1

2

2

1z

(z)

_

1

2

z

2

_

_

z

2

_ sin

_

1

2

(1 z)

_

(7.16)

= (z)

1

2

2

1z

(z)

_

z

2

_

csc

_

1

2

(1 z)

_

_

1

2

+

z

2

_ sin

_

1

2

(1 z)

_

= (z)

1

2

2

1z

(z)

_

z

2

_

_

1

2

+

z

2

_

(7.17)

= (z)

1

2

2

1z

1

_

1

2

+

z

2

_

2

z1

1

2

_

1

2

+

z

2

_

= (z).

Exercise 2. Use Theorem 8.17 to prove that

_

p

1

n

= . Notice that this implies that there are an innite

number of primes.

Solution. Eulers Theorem asserts that for real values x > 1, (x) =

n=1

_

1

1p

x

n

_

, where p

n

are the prime

numbers. The left hand side is unbounded as x 1 and so is the right hand side.

Now the argument goes as follows. Seeking contradiction suppose that

_

n=1

1

p

n

is nite. All summands

are positive, therefore the sum converges absolutely. By Proposition 5.4, p.165, also

_

n=1

log

_

1

1

p

n

_

converges absolutely. But this implies that

n=1

log

_

1

1

p

n

_

= log

_

n=1

_

1

1 p

n

_

= log (1) <

which gives the desired contradiction because the log((z)) has a simple pole at z = 1.

Exercise 3. Prove that

2

(z) =

_

n=1

d(n)

n

z

for Re z > 1, where d(n) is the number of divisors of n.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Prove that (z)(z 1) =

_

n=1

(n)

n

z

, for Re z > 1, where (n) is the sum of the divisors of n.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Prove that

(z1)

(z)

=

_

n=1

(n)

n

z

for Re z > 1, where (n) is the number of integers less than n and

which are relatively prime to n.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Prove that

1

(z)

=

_

n=1

(n)

n

z

for Re z > 1, where (n) is dened as follows. Let n = p

k

1

1

p

k

2

2

p

k

m

m

be the factorization of n into a product of primes p

1

, . . . , p

m

and suppose that these primes are distinct. Let

(1) = 1; if k

1

= . . . = k

m

= 1 then let (n) = (1)

m

; otherwise let (n) = 0.

Solution. Not available.

121

Exercise 7. Prove that

(z)

(z)

=

_

n=1

(n)

n

z

for Re z > 1, where (n) = log p if n = p

m

for some prime p and

m 1; and (n) = 0 otherwise.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. (a) Let (z) =

zz

0

(z z

0

)(z) is always an integer for

Re z

0

1. Characterize the point z

0

(in its relation to ) in terms of the sign of this integer.

(b) Show that for > 0

Re (1 + + it) =

n=1

(n)n

1(1+)

cos(t log n)

where (n) is dened in Exercise 7.

(c) Show that for all > 0,

3Re (1 + ) + 4Re (1 + + it) + Re (1 + + 2it) 0.

(d) Show that (z) 0 if Re z = 1 (or 0).

Solution. Not available.

122

Chapter 8

Runges Theorem

8.1 Runges Theorem

Exercise 1. Prove Corollary 1.14 if it is only assumed that E

G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let G be the open unit disk B(0; 1) and let K = z :

1

4

z

3

4

. Show that there is a function

f analytic on some open subset G

1

containing K which cannot be approximated on K by functions in H(G).

Remarks. The next two problems are concerned with the following question. Given a compact set K

contained in an open set G

1

G, can functions in H(G

1

) be approximated on K by functions in H(G)?

Exercise 2 says that for an arbitrary choice of K, G, and G

1

this is not true. Exercise 4 below gives criteria

for a xed K and G such that this can be done for any G

1

. Exercise 3 is a lemma which is useful in proving

Exercise 4.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let K be a compact subset of the open set G and suppose that any bounded component D of

G K has D

K contains a component of C

G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let K be a compact subset of the open set G; then the following are equivalent:

(a) If f is analytic in a neighborhood of K and > 0 then there is a g in H(G) with f (z) g(z) < for all

z in K;

(b) If D is a bounded component of G K then D

G ;

(c) If z is any point in G K then there is a function f in H(G) with

f (z) > sup f (w) : w in K.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Can you interpret part (c) of Exercise 4 in terms of

K?

Solution. Not available.

123

Exercise 6. Let K be a compact subset of the region G and dene

K

G

= z G : f (z) j f j

K

for all f in

H(G).

(a) Show that if C

G is connected then

K

G

=

K.

(b) Show that d(K, C G) = d(

K

G

, C G).

(c) Show that

K

G

the convex hull of K the intersection of all convex subsets of C which contain K.

(d) If

K

G

G

1

G and G

1

is open then for every g in H(G

1

) and > 0 there is a function f in H(G) such

that f (z) g(z) < for all z in

K

G

. (Hint: see Exercise 4.)

(e)

K

G

= the union of K and all bounded components of G K whose closure does not intersect G.

Solution. Not available.

8.2 Simple connectedness

Exercise 1. The set G = re

it

: < t < 0 and 1 + e

t

< r < 1 + 2e

t

is called a cornucopia. Show that G

is simply connected. Let K = G

; is int

K connected?

Solution. he result follows once it is established that every closed piecewise smooth curve in G is 0-

homotopic. This requires the following subclaim: let z G then the argument of z is uniquely dened.

Suppose otherwise then there are real r

1

, r

2

, t

1

, t

2

such that z = r

1

e

it

1

= r

2

e

it

2

. Suppose WLOG that t

1

< t

2

<

0 then there is a positive integer k such that t

1

= 2k = t

2

and therefore r

2

> 1+e

t

2

= 1+e

t

1

e

k

> 1+2e

t

1

> r

1

contradicting the fact that z = r

1

= r

2

.

Dene

R : (, 0) G; R(t) = 1 +

3

2

e

t

.

Let : [0, 1] G be an arbitrary closed piecewise smooth curve in G with radius function (s) and

argument function (s) such that

(s) = (s)e

i(s)

,

and dene

: [0, 1] [0, 1] G,

(s, 0) = (s),

(s, 1) = R((s)),

(0, u) = (1, u) u [0, 1].

Also dene a function

: [0, 1] [0, 1] G,

(s, 0) = R((s)),

(s, 1) = R

_

_

1

2

__

,

(0, u) = (1, u) u [0, 1].

The function satises Denition IV 6.1 (p.88), the curve is homotopic to the point R

_

_

1

2

__

and by

Denition IV 6.14 (p.93) the set G is simply connected.

Exercise 2. If K is polynomially convex, showthat the components of the interior of K are simply connected.

Solution. Not available.

124

8.3 Mittag-Leers Theorem

Exercise 1. Let G be a region and let a

n

and b

m

be two sequences of distinct points in G without limit

points in G such that an a

n

b

m

for all n, m. Let S

n

(z) be a singular part at a

n

and let p

m

be a positive

integer. Show that there is a meromorphic function f on G whose only poles and zeros are a

n

and b

m

n

is S

n

(z), and z = b

m

is a zero of multiplicity p

m

.

Solution. Let G be a region and let b

m

be a sequence of distinct points in G with no limit point in G;

and let p

m

be a sequence of integers. By Theorem 5.15 p.170 there is an analytic function g dened on G

whose only zeros are at the points b

m

; furthermore, b

m

is a zero of g of multiplicity p

m

.

Since g H(g) and a

n

G, g has a Taylor series in a neighborhood B(a

n

; R

n

) of each a

n

, that is

g

n

(z) =

k=0

k

(z a

n

)

k

B(a

n

; R

n

)

where

k

=

1

k!

g

(k)

(a

n

). Goal: Try to use this series to create a singular part r

n

(z) at a

n

such that r

n

(z)g

n

(z) =

s

n

(z) or

r

n

(z)

k=0

k

(z a

n

)

k

=

m

n

j=1

A

jn

(z a

n

)

j

m

n

j=1

A

jn

(z a

n

)

j

=

k=0

k

r

n

(z)(z a

n

)

k

.

Claim:

r

n

(z) =

m

n

j=1

B

jk

(z a

n

)

jk

(8.1)

works.

Proof of the claim:

k=0

k

r

n

(z)(z a

n

)

k

=

k=0

k

m

n

j=1

B

jk

(z a

n

)

jk

(z a

n

)

k

=

k=0

k

m

n

j=1

B

jk

(z a

n

)

j

=

m

n

j=1

(z a

n

)

j

k=0

k

B

jk

=

m

n

j=1

A

jn

(z a

n

)

j

where the last step follows by choosing

k=0

k

B

jk

= A

jn

.

Since G is a region, G is open. Let a

n

be a sequence of distinct points without a limit point in G and such

that a

n

b

m

for all n, m. Let r

n

(z) be the sequence of rational functions given by

r

n

(z) =

m

n

j=1

B

jk

(z a

n

)

j+k

(see (8.1)). By Mittag-Leers Theorem, there is a meromorphic function h on G whose poles are exactly

the points a

n

and such that the singular part of h at a

n

is r

n

(z).

Set f = g h. Then by construction f is the meromorphic function on G whose only poles and zeros are a

n

and b

m

respectively, the singular part at z = a

n

is S

n

(z), and z = b

m

is a zero of multiplicity p

m

. (Note that

the zeros do not cancel the poles since by assumption a

n

b

m

n, m).

125

Exercise 2. Let a

n

be a sequence of points in the plane such that a

n

, and let b

n

be an arbitrary

sequence of complex numbers.

(a) Show that if integers k

n

can be chosen such that

k=n

_

r

a

n

_

k

n

b

n

a

n

(3.4)

converges absolutely for all r > 0 then

k=n

_

r

a

n

_

k

n

b

n

z a

n

(3.5)

converges in M(C) to a function f with poles at each point z = a

n

.

(b) Show that if limsup b

n

< then (3.4) converges absolutely if k

n

= n for all n.

(c) Show that if there is an integer k such that the series

n=1

b

n

a

k+1

n

(3.6)

converges absolutely, then (3.4) converges absolutely if k

n

= k for all n.

(d) Suppose there is an r > 0 such that a

n

a

m

r for all n m. Show that

_

a

n

3

< . In particular,

if the sequence b

n

is bounded then the series (3.6) with k = 2 converges absolutely. (This is somewhat

involved and the reader may prefer to prove part (f) directly since this is the only application.)

(e) Show that if the series (3.5) converges in M(C) to a meromorphic function f then

f (z) =

n=1

_

_

b

n

z a

n

+

b

n

a

n

_

_

1 +

_

z

a

n

_

+ . . . +

_

z

a

n

_

k

n

1

_

_

_

_

(f) Let and

show that the series

(z) =

1

z

+

_

1

z w

+

1

w

+

z

w

2

_

,

where the sum is over all w = 2n+2n

meromorphic function with simple poles at the points 2n+2n

zeta function.

(g) Let /(z) =

/(z) =

1

z

2

+

_

1

(z w)

2

1

w

2

_

where the sum is over the same w as in part (f). Also show that

/(z) = /(z + 2n + 2n

)

for all integers n and n

.

Solution. Not available.

126

Exercise 3. This exercise shows how to deduce Weierstrasss Theorem for the plane (Theorem VII. 5.12)

from Mittag-Leers Theorem.

(a) Deduce from Exercises 2(a) and 2(b) that for any sequence a

n

in C with lima

n

= and a

n

0 there

is a sequence of integers k

n

such that

h(z) =

n=1

_

_

1

z a

n

+

1

a

n

+

1

a

n

_

z

a

n

_

+ . . . +

1

a

n

_

z

a

n

_

k

n

1

_

_

is a meromorphic function on C with simple poles at a

1

, a

2

, . . .. The remainder of the proof consists of

showing that there is a function f such that h = f

(b) Let z be an arbitrary but xed point in C a

1

, a

2

, . . .. Show that if

1

and

2

are any rectiable curves

in C a

1

, a

2

, . . . from 0 to z and h is the function obtained in part (a), then there is an integer m such that

_

1

h

_

2

h = 2im.

(c) Again let h be the meromorphic function from part (a). Prove that for z a

1

, a

2

, . . . and any rectiable

curve in C a

1

, a

2

, . . .,

f (z) = exp

__

h

_

denes an analytic function on C a

1

, a

2

, . . . with f

the curve and the resulting function f is analytic.

(d) Suppose that z a

1

, a

2

, . . .; show that z is a removable singularity of the function f dened in part

(c). Furthermore, show that f (z) = 0 and that the multiplicity of this zero equals the number of times that z

appears in the sequence a

1

, a

2

, . . ..

(e) Show that

f (z) =

_

n=1

_

1

z

a

n

_

exp

_

_

z

a

n

+

1

2

_

z

a

n

_

2

+ . . . +

1

2

_

z

a

n

_

k

n

_

_

(3.7)

Remark. We could have skipped parts (b), (c), and (d) and gone directly from (a) to (e). However this

would have meant that we must show that (3.7) converges in H(C) and it could hardly be classied as a new

proof. The steps outlined in parts (a) through (d) give a proof of Weierstrasss Theorem without introducing

innite products.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. This exercise assumes a knowledge of the terminology and results of Exercise VII. 5.11.

(a) Dene two functions f and g in H(G) to be relatively prime (in symbols, ( f , g) = 1) if the only common

divisors of f and g are non-vanishing functions in H(G). Show that ( f , g) = 1 i ( f ) (g) = .

(b) If ( f , g) = 1, show that there are functions f

1

, g

1

in H(G) such that f f

1

+gg

1

= 1 (Hint: Show that there

is a meromorphic function on G such that f

1

= g H(G) and g(1 f f

1

).)

(c) Let f

1

, . . . , f

n

H(G) and g = g.c.d f

1

, . . . , f

n

. Show that there are functions

1

, . . . ,

n

in H(G) such

that g =

1

f

1

+ . . . +

n

f

n

. (Hint: Use (b) and induction.)

(d) If _

_

_ = S : S is an ideal of H(G) and S _. Prove that _ is the smallest ideal in H(G) that contains S

and _ =

1

f

1

+ . . . +

n

f

n

:

k

H(G), f

k

S for 1 k n. _ is called the ideal generated by S and

is denoted by _ = (S). If S is nite then (S) is called a nitely generated ideal. If S = f for a single

function f then ( f ) is called a principal ideal.

(e) Show that every nitely generated ideal in H(G) is a principal ideal.

127

(f) An ideal _ is called a xed ideal if (_) ; otherwise it is called a free ideal. Prove that if _ = (S)

then (_) = (S) and that a proper principal ideal is xed.

(g) Let f

n

(z) = sin(2

n

z) for all n 0 and let _ = ( f

1

, f

2

, . . .). Show that _ is a xed ideal in H(C) which

is not a principal ideal.

(h) Let _ be a xed ideal and prove that there is an f in H(G) with ( f ) = (_) and _ ( f ). Also show

that _ = ( f ) if _ is nitely generated.

(i) Let Abe a maximal ideal that is xed. Show that there is a point a in G such that A= ((z a)).

(j) Let a

n

be a sequence of distinct points in G with no limit point in G. Let _ = f H(G) : f (a

n

) = 0

for all but a nite number of the a

n

. Show that _ is a proper free ideal in H(G).

(k) If _ is a free ideal show that for any nite subset S of _, (S) . Use this to show that _ can

contain no polynomials.

l) Let _ be a proper free ideal; then _ is a maximal ideal i whenever g H(G) and (g) ( f ) for

all f in _ then g _.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let G be a region and let a

n

be a sequence of distinct points in G with no limit point in G.

For each integer n 1 choose integers k

n

0 and constants A

(k)

n

, 0 k k

n

. Show that there is an analytic

function f on G such that f

(k)

(a

n

) = k!A

(k)

n

. (Hint: Let g be an analytic function on G with a zero at a

n

of

multiplicity k

n

+ 1. Let h be a meromorphic function on G with poles at each an of order k

n

+ 1 and with

singular part S

n

(z). Choose the S

n

so that f = gh has the desired property.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Find a meromorphic function with poles of order 2 at 1,

2,

each pole is 0 and lim(z

n)

2

f (z) = 1 for all n.

Solution. We claim that the function

f (z) =

k=1

3

nz

2

2z

3

n

3/2

(z

n)

2

has the desired properties. f has poles of order 2 at z =

for every z C that is not one of the poles. Moreover f converges in M(C). To see this let r > 0 and choose

N N so large that

n > 2r for all n N. Then for z r and n N

nz

2

2z

3

n

3/2

(z

n)

2

r

2

(3

n +

n)

n

3/2

(

n r)

2

16r

2

n

2

=: M

n

.

This is the majorant independent of z for the Weierstrass Criterion.

Next x m N and consider the limit in equation lim

z

n

(z

n)

2

f (z) = 1,

lim

z

m

(z

m)

2

f (z) = lim

z

m

(z

m)

2

n=1

3

nz

2

2z

3

n

3/2

(z

n)

2

= lim

z

m

m1

n=1

(z

m)(3

nz

2

2z

3

)

n

3/2

(z

n)

2

+

3m

3/2

2m

3/2

m

3/2

+ lim

z

m+1

(z

n)(3

nz

2

2z

3

)

n

3/2

(z

n)

2

= 0 + 1 + 0 = 1.

128

Lastly we have to check that the residuals are 0 at the poles. By Proposition V 2.4, p.113, for a function

g(z) := (z

m)

2

f (z), it has to be veried that g

(z)

z=

m

= 0.

First nd the derivative of f as

f

(z) =

n=1

6

nz

2

6nz 2z

3

n

3/2

(z

m)

3

then compute the residuum at z =

m

Res( f ,

m) = g

(z)

z=

m

= 2(z

m) f (z) + (z

m)

2

f

(z)

z=

m

=

_

n=1

2(z

m)(3

nz

2

2z

3

)

n

3/2

(z

n)

2

+

n=1

(z

m)

2

(6

nz

2

6nz 2z

3

)

n

3/2

(z

m)

3

_

_

z=

m

=

_

n=1

_

2(z

_

(n))(3

nz

2

2z

3

) + (z

m)(6

nz

2

) 6nz 2z

3

)

_

m

n

3/2

(z

n)

3

_

z=

m

If n m and z =

m)

2

cancels directly and we are

left with

12

m 2z

3

6mz

n

3/2

(z

m)

z=m

=

6z(z

m)

n

3/2

z=m

= 0.

The residuum vanishes for all

m, m N and therefore the function considered in this exercise has all the

required properties.

129

Chapter 9

Analytic Continuation and Riemann

Surfaces

9.1 Schwarz Reection Principle

Exercise 1. Let be a simple closed rectiable curve with the property that there is a point a such that for

all z on the line segment [a, z] intersects only at z; i.e. [a, z] = z. Dene a point w to be inside

if [a, w] = and let G be the collection of all points that are inside .

(a) Show that G is a region and G

= G .

(b) Let f : G

_

f = 0.

(c) Show that n(; z) = 1 if z is inside and n(; z) = 0 if z G

.

Remarks. It is not necessary to assume that has such a point a as above; each part of this exercise remains

true if is only assumed to be a simple closed rectiable curve. Of course, we must dene what is meant

by the inside of . This is dicult to obtain. The fact that a simple closed curve divides the plane into two

pieces (an inside and an outside) is the content of the Jordan Curve Theorem. This is a very deep result of

topology.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let G be a region in the plane that does not contain zero and let G

such that there is a point w in G where z and w are symmetric with respect to the circle = 1. (See III.

3.17.)

(a) Show that G

= z : (1/ z) G.

(b) If f : G C is analytic, dene f

: G

C by f

is analytic.

(c) Suppose that G = G

and f is an analytic function dened on G such that f (z) is real for z in G with

z = 1. Show that f = f

.

(d) Formulate and prove a version of the Schwarz Reection Principle where the circle = 1 replaces R.

Do the same thing for an arbitrary circle.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let G, G

+

, G

, G

0

be as in the statement of the Schwarz Reection Principle and let f :

G

+

G

0

C

+

. Also suppose that for x in G

0

f (x) R. Show that there is a meromorphic function g : G C

+

G

0

. Is

it possible to allow f to assume the value on G

0

?

130

Solution. Not available.

9.2 Analytic Continuation Along a Path

Exercise 1. The collection D

0

, D

1

, . . . , D

n

of open disks is called a chain of disks if D

j1

D

j

for

1 j n. If ( f

j

, D

j

) : 0 j n is a collection of function elements such that D

0

, D

1

, . . . , D

n

is a chain

of disks and f

j1

(z) = f

j

(z) for z in D

j1

D

j

, 1 j n; then ( f

j

, D

j

) : 0 j n is called an analytic

continuation along a chain of disks. We say that ( f

n

, D

n

) is obtained by an analytic continuation of ( f

0

, D

0

)

along a chain of disks.

(a) Let ( f

j

, D

j

) : 0 j n be an analytic continuation along a chain of disks and let a and b be the centers

of the disks D

0

and D

n

respectively. Show that there is a path from a to b and an analytic continuation

(g

t

, B

t

) along such that

_

n

j=0

D

j

, [ f

0

]

a

= [g

0

]

a

and [ f

n

]

b

= [g

1

]

b

.

(b) Conversely, let ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 be an analytic continuation along a path : [0, 1] C and let

a = (0), b = (1). Show that there is an analytic continuation along a chain of disks (g

j

, B

j

) : 0 j n

such that

_

n

j=0

B

j

, [ f

0

]

a

= [g

0

]

a

and [ f

1

]

b

= [g

n

]

b

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let D

0

= B(1; 1) and let f

0

be the restriction of the principal branch of

z to D

0

. Let (t) =

exp(2it) and (t) = exp(4it) for 0 t 1.

(a) Find an analytic continuation ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 of ( f

0

, D

0

) along and show that [ f

1

]

1

= [f

0

]

1

.

(b) Find an analytic continuation (g

t

, B

t

) : 0 t 1 of ( f

0

, D

0

) along and show that [g

1

]

1

= [g

0

]

1

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let f be an entire function, D

0

= B(0; 1), and let be a path from 0 to b. Show that if

( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 is a continuation of ( f , D

0

) along then f

1

(z) = f (z) for all z in D

1

(This exercise is

rather easy; it is actually an exercise in the use of the terminology.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let : [0, 1] C be a path and let ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 be an analytic continuation along .

Show that ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 is also a continuation along .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Suppose : [0, 1] C is a closed path with (0) = (1) = a and let ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 be

an analytic continuation along such that [ f

1

]

a

= [ f

0

]

a

and f

0

0. What can be said about ( f

0

, D

0

)?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let D

0

= B(1; 1) and let f

0

be the restriction to D

0

of the principal branch of the logarithm.

For an integer n let (t) = exp(2int), 0 t 1. Find a continuation ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 along of

( f

0

, D

0

) and show that [ f

1

]

1

= [ f

0

+ 2in].

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Let : [0, 1] C be a path and let ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 be an analytic continuation along .

Suppose G is a region such that f

t

(D

t

) G for all t, and suppose there is an analytic function h : G C

such that h( f

0

(z)) = z for all z in D

0

. Show that h( f

t

(z)) = z for all z in D

t

and for all t. Hint: Show that

T = t : h( f

t

(z)) = z for all z in D

t

is both open and closed in [0, 1].

131

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Let : [0, 1] C be a path with (0) = 1 and (t) 0 for any t. Suppose that ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0

t 1 is an analytic continuation of f

0

(z) = log z. Show that each f

t

is a branch of the logarithm.

Solution. Not available.

9.3 Monodromy Theorem

Exercise 1. Prove that the set T dened in the proof of Lemma 3.2 is closed.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let ( f , D) be a function element and let a D. If : [0, 1] C is a path with (0) = a and

(1) = b and ( f

t

, D

t

) : 0 t 1 is an analytic continuation of ( f , D) along , let R(t) be the radius of

convergence of the power series expansion of f

t

at z = (t).

(a) Show that R(t) is independent of the choice of continuation. That is, if a second continuation (g

t

, B

t

)

along is given with [g

0

]

a

= [ f ]

a

and r(t) is the radius of convergence of the power series expansion of g

t

about z = (t) then r(t) = R(t) for all t.

(b) Suppose that D = B(1; 1), f is the restriction of the principal branch of the logarithm to D, and

(t) = 1 + at for 0 t 1 and a > 0. Find R(t).

(c) Let ( f , D) be as in part (b), let 0 < a < 1 and let (t) = (1 at) exp(2it) for 0 t 1. Find R(t).

(d) For each of the functions R(t) obtained in parts (b) and (c), nd minR(t) : 0 t 1 as a function of a

and examine the behavior of this function as a or a 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let : [0, 1] [0, 1] C be a continuous function such that (0, u) = a, (1, u) = b for

all u. Let

u

(t) = (t, u) and suppose that ( f

t,u

, D

t,u

) : 0 t 1 is an analytic continuation along

u

such that [ f

0,u

]

a

= [ f

0,v

]

a

for all u and v in [0, 1]. Let R(t, u) be the radius of convergence of the power

series expansion of f

t,u

about z = (t, u). Show that either R(t, u) or R : [0, 1] [0, 1] (0, ) is a

continuous function.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Use Exercise 3 to give a second proof of the Monodromy Theorem.

Solution. Not available.

9.4 Topological Spaces and Neighborhood Systems

Exercise 1. Prove the propositions which were stated in this section without proof.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let (X, 7) and (, S) be topological spaces and let Y X. Show that if f : X is a

continuous function then the restriction of f to Y is a continuous function of (Y, 7

Y

) into (, S).

Solution. Not available.

132

Exercise 3. Let X and be sets and let A

x

: x X and A

7 and S be the induced topologies on X and respectively.

(a) Show that a function f : X is continuous i when x X and = f (x), for each in A

there is

a U in A

x

such that f (U) .

(b) Let X = = C and let A

z

= A

z

= B(z; ) : > 0 for each z in C. Interpret part (a) of this exercise

for this particular situation.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Adopt the notation of Exercise 3. Show that a function f : X is open i for each x in X

and U in A

x

there is a set in A

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Adopt the notation of Exercise 3. Let Y X and dene 1

Y

= Y U : U A

Y

for each y in

Y. Show that 1

Y

: y Y is a neighborhood system for Y and the topology it induces on Y is 7

Y

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Adopt the notation of Exercise 3. For each point (x, ) in X let

1

(x,)

= U : U A

x

, A

(x,)

: (x, ) X is a neighborhood system on Xand let / be the induced topology

on X .

(b) If U 7 and S, call the set U an open rectangle. Prove that a set is in / i it is the union of

open rectangles.

(c) Dene p

1

: X X and p

2

: X X by p

1

(x, ) = x and p

2

(x, ) = . Show that

p

1

and p

2

are open continuous maps. Furthermore if (Z, F) is a topological space show that a function

f : (Z, F) (X , /) is continuous i p

1

f : Z X and p

2

f : Z are continuous.

Solution. Not available.

9.5 The Sheaf of Germs of Analytic Functions on an Open Set

Exercise 1. Dene F : S(C) C by F(z, [ f ]

z

) = f (z) and show that F is continuous.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let / be the complete analytic function obtained from the principal branch of the logarithm

and let G = C 0. If D is an open subset of G and f : D C is a branch of the logarithm show that

[ f ]

a

/ for all a in D. Conversely, if ( f , D) is a function element such that [ f ]

a

/ for some a in D, show

that f : D C is a branch of the logarithm. (Hint: Use Exercise 2.8.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let G = C 0, let / be the complete analytic function obtained from the principal branch

of the logarithm, and let (F, ) be the Riemann surface of / (so that G is the base of F). Show that F is

homeomorphic to the graph = (z, e

z

) : z G considered as a subset of C C. (Use the map h : F

dened by h(z, [ f ]

z

) = ( f (z), z) and use Exercise 2.) State and prove an analogous result for branches of

z

1/n

.

133

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Consider the sheaf S(C), let B = z : z 1 < 1, let l be the principal branch of the logarithm

dened on B, and let l

1

(z) = l(z) + 2i for all z in B. (a) Let D = z : z < 1 and show that (

1

2

, [l] 1

2

) and

(

1

2

, [l

1

] 1

2

) belong to the same component of

1

(D). (b) Find two disjoint open subsets of S(C) each of which

contains one of the points (

1

2

, [l] 1

2

) and (

1

2

, [l

1

] 1

2

).

Solution. Not available.

9.6 Analytic Manifolds

Exercise 1. Show that an analytic manifold is locally compact. That is, prove that if a X and U is an

open neighborhood of a then there is an open neighborhood V of a such that V

U and V

is compact.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Which of the following are analytic manifolds? What is its analytic structure if it is a manifold?

(a) A cone in R

3

. (b) (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

: x

2

1

+ x

2

2

+ x

2

3

= 1 or x

2

1

+ x

2

2

> 1 and x

3

= 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. The following is a generalization of Proposition 6.3(b). Let (X, ) be an analytic manifold, let

be a topological space, and suppose there is a continuous function h of X onto that is locally one-one

(that is, if x X there is an open set U such that x U and h is one-one on U). If (U, ) and h is

one-one on U let = h(U) and let : C be dened by () = (h/U)

1

(). Let be the collection

of all such pairs (, ). Prove that (, ) is an analytic manifold and h is an analytic function from X to .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let T = z : z = 1 z : z = 1; then T is a torus. (This torus is homeomorphic to the

usual hollow doughnut in R

3

.) If and

) 0 then and

, considered as elements of the vector space C over R, are linearly independent. So each z in C can be

uniquely represented as z = t+t

; t, t

in R. Dene h : C T by h(t+t

) = (e

2it

, e

2it

). Show that h

induces an analytic structure on T. (Use Exercise 3.) (b) If ,

and ,

such that Im (/

) 0 and Im (/

) 0, dene (s+s

) = (e

2is

, e

2is

) and (t+t

) = (e

2it

, e

2it

).

Let G = t + t

< 1 and = s + s

and are one-one on G and respectively. (Both G and are the interiors of parallelograms.) If

and

are the analytic structures induced on T by and respectively, and if the identity map of (T,

) into

(T,

1

is analytic. (To say that

the identity map of (T,

) into (T,

and

Let = 1,

and

are equivalent analytic structures if and only if = i. (Hint: Use the Cauchy-Riemann equations.) (d)

Can you generalize part (c)? Conjecture a generalization?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. (a) Let f be a meromorphic function dened on C and suppose f has two independent periods

and

, and Im (/

) 0. Using

the notation of Exercise 4(a) show that there is an analytic function F : T C

an example of a meromorphic function with two independent periods see Exercise VIII. 4.2(g).)

(b) Prove that there is no non-constant entire function with two independent periods.

134

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Show that an analytic surface is arcwise connected.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Suppose that f : C

is an analytic function.

(a) Show that either f or f

1

() is a nite set.

(b) If f , let a

1

, . . . , a

n

be the points in C where f takes on the value . Show that there are polynomials

p

0

, p

1

, . . . , p

n

such that

f (z) = p

0

(z) +

n

k=1

p

k

_

1

z a

k

_

for z in C.

(c) If f is one-one, show that either f (z) = az + b (some a, b in C) or f (z) =

a

zc

+ b (some a, b, c in C).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. Furnish the details of the discussion of the surface for

z at the end of this section.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 9. Let G =

_

z :

2

< Re z <

2

_

and dene f : G C by f (z) = sin z. Give a discussion for f

similar to the discussion of

z at the end of this section.

Solution. Not available.

9.7 Covering spaces

Exercise 1. Suppose that (X, ) is a covering space of and (, ) is a covering space of Y; prove that

(X, ) is also a covering space of Y.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let (X, ) and (Y, ) be covering spaces of and respectively. Dene : XY

by ( )(x, y) = ((x), (y)) and show that (X Y, ) is a covering space of .

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let (, ) be an analytic manifold and let (X, ) be a covering space of . Show that there is

an analytic structure on X such that is an analytic function from (X, ) to (, ).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let (X, ) be a covering space of and let . Show that each component of

1

()

consists of a single point and

1

()) has no limit points in X.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let be a pathwise connected space and let (X, ) be a covering space of . If

1

and

2

are

points in , show that

1

(

1

) and

1

(

2

) have the same cardinality. (Hint: Let be a path in from

1

to

2

; if x

1

1

(

1

) and is the lifting of with initial point x

1

= (0), let f (x

1

) = (1). Show that f is a

one-one map of

1

(

1

) onto

1

(

2

).)

135

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. In this exercise all spaces are regions in the plane.

(a) Let (G, f ) be a covering of and suppose that f is analytic; show that if is simply connected then

f is one-one. (Hint: If f (z

1

) = f (z

2

) let be a path in G from z

1

to z

2

and consider a certain analytic

continuation along f ; apply the Monodromy Theorem.)

(b) Suppose that (G

1

, f

1

) and (G

2

, f

2

) are coverings of the region such that both f

1

and f

2

are analytic.

Show that if G

1

is simply connected then there is an analytic function f : G

1

G

2

such that (G

1

, f ) is a

covering of G

2

and f

1

= f

2

f . That is the diagram is commutative.

(c) Let (G

1

, f

1

), (G

2

, f

2

) and be as in part (b) and, in addition, assume that both G

1

and G

2

are simply

connected. Show that there is a one-one analytic function mapping G

1

onto G

2

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Let G and be regions in the plane and suppose that f : G is an analytic function

such that (G, f ) is a covering space of . Show that for every region

1

contained in which is simply

connected there is an analytic function g :

1

G such that f (g

1

()) = for all in

1

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 8. What is a simply connected covering space of the gure eight?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 9. Give two nonhomeomorphic covering spaces of the gure eight that are not simply connected.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 10. Prove that the closed curve in Exercise IV.6.8 is not homotopic to zero in the doubly punctured

plane.

Solution. Not available.

136

Chapter 10

Harmonic Functions

10.1 Basic properties of harmonic functions

Exercise 1. Show that if u is harmonic then so are u

x

=

u

x

and u

y

=

u

y

.

Solution. Let u be harmonic, that is

u

xx

+ u

yy

= 0. (10.1)

Since u : G R is harmonic, u is innitely times dierentiable by Proposition 1.3 p. 252. Thus, the third

partial derivatives of u exist and are continuous (therefore u

xyy

= u

yyx

and u

yxx

= u

xxy

). Now, we show that

u

x

is harmonic, that is

(u

x

)

xx

+ (u

x

)

yy

= 0.

(u

x

)

xx

+ (u

x

)

yy

= u

xxx

+ u

xyy

= u

xxx

+ u

yyx

= (u

xx

+ u

yy

)

x

=

(10.1)

0

x

= 0.

Thus, u

x

is harmonic. Finally, we show that u

y

is harmonic, that is

(u

y

)

xx

+ (u

y

)

yy

= 0.

(u

y

)

xx

+ (u

y

)

yy

= u

yxx

+ u

yyy

= u

xxy

+ u

yyy

= (u

xx

+ u

yy

)

y

=

(10.1)

0

y

= 0.

Thus, u

y

is harmonic.

Exercise 2. If u is harmonic, show that f = u

x

iu

y

is analytic.

Solution. Since, u is harmonic, we have

u

xx

+ u

yy

= 0. (10.2)

In addition, u is innitely times dierentiable by Proposition 1.3 p. 252. Thus, all the partials are continuous

(therefore u

xy

= u

yx

).

To show: f = u

x

iu

y

is analytic which is equivalent to showing

a) Re( f ) = u

x

and Im( f ) = u

y

are harmonic and

b) u

x

and u

y

have to satisfy the Cauchy Riemann equations (by Theorem III 2.29).

137

a) By the previous exercise, we have seen that u

x

and u

y

are harmonic. Therefore, u

y

is harmonic, too.

Thus, part a) is proved.

b) We have to show that the Cauchy-Riemann equations are satised, that is

(u

x

)

x

= (u

y

)

y

and (u

x

)

y

= (u

y

)

x

.

The rst is true by (10.2) since

(u

x

)

x

= (u

y

)

y

u

xx

+ u

yy

= 0.

The second is true since u

xy

= u

yx

. Therefore

(u

x

)

y

= (u

y

)

x

u

xy

= u

yx

u

xy

= u

yx

.

In summary, f = u

x

iu

y

is analytic provided u is harmonic.

Exercise 3. Let p(x, y) =

_

n

k,l=0

a

kl

x

k

y

l

for all x, y in R.

Show that p is harmonic i:

(a) k(k 1)a

k,l2

+ l(l 1)a

k2,l

= 0 for 2 k, l n;

(b) a

n1,l

= a

n,l

= 0 for 2 l n;

(c) a

k,n1

= a

k,n

= 0 for 2 k n.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Prove that a harmonic function is an open map. (Hint: Use the fact that the connected subsets

of R are intervals.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. If f is analytic on G and f (z) 0 for any z show that u = log f is harmonic on G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let u be harmonic in G and suppose

B(a; R) G. Show that

u(a) =

1

R

2

B(a;R)

u(x, y) dx dy.

Solution. Let D be a disk such that

B(a; R) D G. There exist an f H(D) such that Re( f ) = u on D.

From Cauchys Integral Formula, we have

f (a) =

1

2i

_

f (w)

w a

dw =

1

2

_

2

0

f (a + re

i

) d

where (t) = a + re

it

, 0 t 2. So

f (a) =

1

2

_

2

0

f (a + re

i

) d.

Multiply by r, we get

f (a)r =

1

2

_

2

0

f (a + re

i

)r d

138

and then integrate with respect to r yields

_

R

0

f (a)r dr =

_

R

0

1

2

_

2

0

f (a + re

i

)r d dr

f (a)

r

2

2

=

1

2

_

R

0

_

2

0

f (a + re

i

)r d dr

f (a) =

1

R

2

_

2

0

_

R

0

f (a + re

i

)r dr d

f (a) =

1

R

2

B(a;R)

f (x, y) dx dy.

where the last step follows by changing from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates. Now

u(a) = Re( f (a)) =

1

R

2

B(a;R)

Re( f (x, y)) dx dy =

1

R

2

B(a;R)

u(x, y) dx dy.

Thus

u(a) =

1

R

2

B(a;R)

u(x, y) dx dy.

Exercise 7. For z < 1 let

u(z) = Im

_

_

_

1 + z

1 z

_

2

_

_

.

Show that u is harmonic and lim

r1

u(re

i

) = 0 for all . Does this violate Theorem 1.7? Why?

Solution. Let D = z C : z < 1. Let f (z) =

_

1+z

1z

_

2

. Clearly, f H(D) since z = 1 is not in D. By

Theorem III 2.29 we obtain that v = Re( f ) and u = Im( f ) are harmonic. Therefore

u(z) = Im

_

_

_

1 + z

1 z

_

2

_

_

is harmonic. Next, we will show

lim

r1

u(re

i

) = 0

139

for all . We have

u(re

i

) = Im

_

_

_

1 + re

i

1 re

i

_

2

_

_

= Im

_

_

_

1 + re

i

1 re

i

_

2

_

1 re

i

1 re

i

_

2

_

_

= Im

_

_

_

(1 + re

i

)(1 re

i

)

(1 re

i

)(1 re

i

)

_

2

_

_

= Im

_

(1 + re

i

re

i

r

2

)

2

(1 re

i

re

i

+ r

2

)

2

_

= Im

_

(1 + 2ri sin r

2

)

2

(1 2r cos + r

2

)

2

_

= Im

_

((1 r

2

) + 2ri sin )

2

(1 2r cos + r

2

)

2

_

= Im

_

(1 r

2

)

2

+ 4ri sin (1 r

2

) 4r

2

sin

2

(1 2r cos + r

2

)

2

_

=

4r(1 r

2

) sin

(1 2r cos + r

2

)

2

.

Note that the denominator is zero i r = 1 and = 2k, k Z z = 1.

If we assume, that r = 1 and 2k, k Z, then

lim

r1

u(re

i

) = u(e

i

) =

4 1 (1 1

2

) sin

(1 2 1 cos + 1

2

)

2

=

0

2

2

(1 cos )

2

= 0.

If = 2k, k Z, then

lim

r1

u(re

2k

) = lim

r1

4r(1 r

2

) sin(2k)

(1 2r cos(2k) + r

2

)

2

= lim

r1

0

(1 r)

4

= 0.

Thus,

lim

r1

u(re

i

) = 0.

This does not violate Theorem 1.7. The reason is the following: If we pick u = u and v = 0, then the

condition

limsup

za

u(z) 0

does not hold a D.

Claim: limsup

z1

u(z) > 0.

Proof of the claim:

u(z) = u(x, y) = Im

_

_

_

1 + x + iy

1 x iy

_

2

_

_

=

4y(1 x

2

y

2

)

(1 2x + x

2

+ y

2

)

2

.

If we x x = 1, then

u(1, y) =

4y(y

2

)

y

4

=

4y

3

y

4

=

4

y

y 0.

But

4

y

as y 0

.

140

Exercise 8. Let u : G R be a function with continuous second partial derivatives and dene U(r, ) =

u(r cos , r sin ).

(a) Show that

r

2

_

2

u

x

2

+

2

u

y

2

_

= r

2

2

U

r

2

+ r

U

r

+

2

U

2

= r

r

_

r

U

r

_

+

2

U

2

.

So if 0 G then u is harmonic i

r

r

_

r

U

r

_

+

2

U

2

= 0.

(b) Let u have the property that it depends only on z and not arg z. That is, u(z) = (z). Show that u is

harmonic i u(z) = a log z + b for some constants a and b.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 9. Let u : G R be harmonic and let A = z G : u

x

(z) = u

y

(z) = 0; that is, A is the set of zeros

of the gradient of u. Can A have a limit point in G?

Solution. Let u be harmonic and not constant. By Exercise 1 p. 255, we know that u

x

and u

y

are harmonic.

By exercise 2 p. 255, we know that f = u

x

iu

y

is analytic. Dene B = z G : f (z) = 0 = z G :

u

x

(z) iu

y

(z) = 0. Clearly

A = z G : u

x

(z) = u

y

(z) = 0 = B

since u

x

(z) iu

y

(z) = 0 i u

x

(z) = u

y

(z) = 0 (u

x

(z) and u

y

(z) are real). Since f is analytic, the zeros are

isolated and therefore B cannot have a limit point in G (Corollary 3.10 p. 79). This implies that A cannot

have a limit point in G.

If u is constant, then A = B = G and thus A can have a limit point in G. (In this case f 0 and by Theorem

3.7 p. 78 A has a limit point in G).

Exercise 10. State and prove a Schwarz Reection Principle for harmonic functions.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 11. Deduce the Maximum Principle for analytic functions from Theorem 1.6.

Solution. Not available.

10.2 Harmonic functions on a disk

Exercise 1. Let D = z : z < 1 and suppose that f : D

and Im f are harmonic. Show that

f (re

i

) =

1

2

_

f (e

it

)P

r

( t) dt

for all re

i

in D. Using Denition 2.1 show that f is analytic on D i

_

f (e

it

)e

int

dt = 0

for all n 1.

141

Solution. Let D = z : z < 1 and suppose f = u + iv : D C is a continuous function such that u and v

are harmonic. Clearly u and v are continuous functions mapping D to R. By Corollary 2.9 we have

u(re

i

) =

1

2

_

P

r

( t)u(e

it

) dt for 0 r < 1 and all (10.3)

and

v(re

i

) =

1

2

_

P

r

( t)v(e

it

) dt for 0 r < 1 and all . (10.4)

Hence,

f (re

i

) = u(re

i

) + iv(re

i

) =

(10.3),(10.4)

1

2

_

P

r

( t)u(e

it

) dt + i

1

2

_

P

r

( t)v(e

it

) dt

=

1

2

_

P

r

( t)

_

u(e

it

) + iv(r

i

)

_

dt =

1

2

_

P

r

( t) f (e

it

) dt

for 0 r < 1 and all . Thus, we have proved

f (re

i

) =

1

2

_

f (e

it

)P

r

( t) dt

for all re

i

in D.

Next, we will prove

f is analytic

_

f (e

i

)e

int

dt = 0

for all n 1. : Let f be analytic on D and assume n 1 (n integer). Dene g(z) = f (z)z

n1

. Clearly g is

analytic on D. Let = re

it

, t , 0 < r < 1, then by Cauchys Theorem

_

g(z) dz = 0

f (z)z

n1

dz = 0

f (re

it

)ire

it

e

it(n1)

r

n1

dt = 0

i

_

f (re

it

)e

int

r

n

dt = 0

f (re

it

)e

int

r

n

dt = 0

which implies

lim

r1

f (re

it

)e

int

r

n

dt = 0

by Ex 3a p. 262

_

f (e

it

)e

int

dt = 0 n 1.

142

: Assume

_

f (re

it

)e

int

r

n

dt = 0 for all n 1. We have for all z D

f (z) = f (re

i

) =

Part 1

1

2

_

f (e

it

)P

r

( t) dt

=

1

2

_

f (e

it

)

n=

r

n

e

in(t)

dt

=

1

2

n=

r

n

e

in

_

f (e

it

)e

int

dt

=

1

2

1

n=

r

n

e

in

_

f (e

it

)e

int

dt

.,,.

=0 by assumption

+

1

2

n=0

r

n

e

in

_

f (e

it

)e

int

dt

=

1

2

n=0

z

n

_

f (e

it

)e

int

dt.

Now, for any closed rectiable curve in D we get

_

f (z) dz =

_

1

2

n=0

z

n

_

f (e

it

)e

int

dt dz =

1

2

n=0

_

z

n

dz

.,,.

=0

_

f (e

it

)e

int

dt

since z

n

is analytic for n 0.

Thus f is analytic on D.

Exercise 2. In the statement of Theorem2.4 suppose that f is piecewise continuous on D. Is the conclusion

of the theorem still valid? If not, what parts of the conclusion remain true?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let D = z : z < 1, T = D = z : z = 1

(a) Show that if g : D

r

: T C is dened by g

r

(z) = g(rz) then

g

r

(z) g(z) uniformly for z in T as r 1

.

(b) If f : T C is a continuous function dene

f : D

C by

f (z) = f (z) for z in T and

f (re

i

) =

1

2

_

f (e

it

)P

r

( t) dt

(So Re

f and Im

f are harmonic in D). Dene

f

r

: T C by

f

r

(z) =

f (rz). Show that for each r < 1 there

is a sequence p

n

, (z, z) of polynomials in z and z such that p

n

(z, z)

f

r

(z) uniformly for z in T. (Hint: Use

Denition 2.1.)

(c) Weierstrass approximation theorem for T. If f : T C is a continuous function then there is a

sequence p

n

(z, z) of polynomials in z and z such that p

n

(z, z) f (z) uniformly for z in T.

(d) Suppose g : [0, 1] C is a continuous function such that g(0) = g(1). Use part (c) to show that there is

a sequence p

n

of polynomials such that p

n

(t) g(t) uniformly for t in [0, 1].

(e) Weierstrass approximation theorem for [0,1]. If g : [0, 1] C is a continuous function then there is a

sequence p

n

of polynomials such that p

n

(t) g(t) uniformly for t in [0, 1]. (Hint: Apply part (d) to the

function g(t) + (1 t)g(1) + tg(0).)

(f) Show that if the function g in part (e) is real valued then the polynomials can be chosen with real

coecients.

143

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Let G be a simply connected region and let be its closure in C

G = G. Suppose

there is a homeomorphism of onto D

(a) Show that (G) = D and (

G) = D.

(b) Show that if f :

that u(z) = f (z) for z in

G and u is harmonic in G.

(c) Suppose that the function f in part (b) is not assumed to be continuous at . Show that there is a

continuous function u : G

R such that u(z) = f (z) for z in G and u is harmonic in G (see Exercise 2).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let G be an open set, a G, and G

0

= G a. Suppose that u is a harmonic function on G

0

such that lim

za

u(z) exists and is equal to A. Show that if U : G R is dened by U(z) = u(z) for z a

and U(a) = A then U is harmonic on G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Let f : z : Re z = 0 R be a bounded continuous function and dene u : z : Re z > 0 R

by

u(x + iy) =

1

x f (it)

x

2

+ (y t)

2

dt.

Show that u is a bounded harmonic function on the right half plane such that for c in R, f (ic) = lim

zic

u(z).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 7. Let D = z : z < l and suppose f : D R is continuous except for a jump discontinuity at

z = 1. Dene u : D

R by (2.5). Show that u is harmonic. Let v be a harmonic conjugate of u. What can

you say about the behavior of v(r) as r 1

i

) as r 1

and 0?

Solution. Not available.

10.3 Subharmonic and superharmonic functions

Exercise 1. Which of the following functions are subharmonic? superharmonic? harmonic? neither

subharmonic nor superharmonic? (a) (x, y) = x

2

+ y

2

; (b) (x, y) = x

2

y

2

; (c) (x, y) = x

2

+ y; (d)

(x, y) = x

2

y; (e) (x, y) = x + y

2

; (f) (x, y) = x y

2

.

Solution. Note that

_

sin d = 0,

_

cos d = 0,

_

sin

2

d = and

_

cos

2

d = . For all

a = (, ) C and any r > 0 we have

a)

(a + re

i

) = ( + r cos , + r sin ) = ( + r cos )

2

+ ( + r sin )

2

=

2

+ 2r cos + r

2

cos

2

+

2

+ 2r sin + r

2

sin

2

=

2

+

2

+ 2r cos + 2r sin + r

2

.

Thus

1

2

_

(a + re

i

) d =

2

+

2

+

r

cos d

.,,.

=0

+

r

sin d

.,,.

=0

+r

2

=

2

+

2

+ r

2

2

+

2

= (a).

144

Hence, Subhar(G).

b)

(a + re

i

) = ( + r cos , + r sin ) = ( + r cos )

2

( + r sin )

2

=

2

+ 2r cos + r

2

cos

2

2

2r sin r

2

sin

2

.

Thus

1

2

_

(a + re

i

) d =

2

2

+

r

cos d

.,,.

=0

+

r

2

2

_

cos

2

d

.,,.

=

sin d

.,,.

=0

r

2

2

_

sin

2

d

.,,.

=

=

2

2

+

r

2

2

r

2

2

=

2

2

= (a).

Hence, Har(G), therefore also Subhar(G) and Superhar(G).

c)

(a + re

i

) = ( + r cos , + r sin ) = ( + r cos )

2

+ ( + r sin )

=

2

+ 2r cos + r

2

cos

2

+ + r sin .

Thus

1

2

_

(a + re

i

) d =

2

+ +

r

cos d

.,,.

=0

+

r

2

2

_

cos

2

d

.,,.

=

+

r

2

_

sin d

.,,.

=0

=

2

+ +

r

2

2

2

+ = (a).

Hence, Subhar(G).

d)

(a + re

i

) = ( + r cos , + r sin ) = ( + r cos )

2

( + r sin )

=

2

+ 2r cos + r

2

cos

2

r sin .

Thus

1

2

_

(a + re

i

) d =

2

+

r

cos d

.,,.

=0

+

r

2

2

_

cos

2

d

.,,.

=

r

2

_

sin d

.,,.

=0

=

2

+

r

2

2

2

= (a).

Hence, Subhar(G).

e)

(a + re

i

) = ( + r cos , + r sin ) = ( + r cos ) + ( + r sin )

2

= + r cos +

2

+ 2r sin + r

2

sin

2

.

145

Thus

1

2

_

(a + re

i

) d = +

2

+

r

2

_

cos d

.,,.

=0

+

r

sin d

.,,.

=0

+

r

2

2

_

sin

2

d

.,,.

=

= +

2

+

r

2

2

+

2

= (a).

Hence, Subhar(G).

f)

(a + re

i

) = ( + r cos , + r sin ) = ( + r cos ) ( + r sin )

2

= + r cos

2

2r sin r

2

sin

2

.

Thus

1

2

_

(a + re

i

) d =

2

+

r

2

_

cos d

.,,.

=0

sin d

.,,.

=0

r

2

2

_

sin

2

d

.,,.

=

=

2

r

2

2

2

= (a).

Hence, Superhar(G).

Exercise 2. Let Subhar(G) and Superhar(G) denote, respectively, the sets of subharmonic and superhar-

monic functions on G.

(a) Show that Subhar(G) and Superhar(G) are closed subsets of C(G; R).

(b) Does a version of Harnacks Theorem hold for subharmonic and superharmonic functions?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. (This exercise is dicult.) If G is a region and if f :

u

f

be the Perron Function associated with f . This denes a map T : (

G; R) Har(G) by T( f ) = u

f

.

Prove:

(a) T is linear (i.e., T(a

1

f

1

+ a

2

f

2

) = a

1

T( f

1

) + a

2

T( f

2

)).

(b) T is positive (i.e., if f (a) 0 for all a in

(c) T is continuous. Moreover, if f

n

is a sequence in C(

G; R) such that f

n

f uniformly then T( f

n

)

T( f ) uniformly on G.

(d) If the Dirichlet Problem can be solved for G then T is one-one. Is the converse true?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. In the hypothesis of Theorem 3.11, suppose only that f is a bounded function on

G; prove

that the conclusion remains valid. (This is useful if G is an unbounded region and g is a bounded continuous

function on G. If we dene f :

of Theorem 3.11 remains valid. Of course there is no reason to expect that the harmonic function will have

predictable behavior near we could have assigned any value to f (). However, the behavior near

points of G can be studied with hope of success.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Show that the requirement that G

1

is bounded in Corollary 3.5 is necessary.

146

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. If f : G is analytic and : R is subharmonic, show that f is subharmonic if f

is one-one. What happens if f

Solution. Clearly f is continuous, since f : G is analytic and is continuous, since : R is

subharmonic. Dene u = f , then u : G R is continuous. If we can show that for every bounded

region G

1

such that

G

1

G and for every continuous function u

1

:

G

1

R that is harmonic in G

1

and

satises u(z) u

1

(z) for z in G

1

, we have

u(z) u

1

for z in G

1

, then u is subharmonic (by Corollary 3.5 p. 265).

Hence, let G

1

be a bounded region G

1

such that

G

1

G and let u

1

:

G

1

R that is harmonic in G

1

and

satises u(z) u

1

(z) for z on G

1

. We have to show u(z) u

1

(z) z G

1

.

Since f is one-one, we know that f

1

exists and is analytic. So dene

1

= u

1

f

1

:

R

with f

1

:

1

G

1

. Clearly

1

is harmonic (harmonic composite analytic is harmonic). Since : R

is subharmonic, we can use Theorem 3.4 to obtain: For every region

1

contained in and every harmonic

function on

1

, satises the MaximumPrinciple on

1

. In fact

1

satises the MaximumPrinciple

on

1

. By assumption we have

u(z) u

1

(z) z G

1

which is the same as

u(z) = ( f (z)) u

1

(z) =

1

( f (z)) z G

1

since f maps G

1

onto

1

, and thus G

1

onto

1

(we choose this by assumption). Thus,

( f (z))

1

( f (z)) 0 z G

1

.

Since

1

satises the Maximum Principle on

1

, this implies

( f (z))

1

( f (z)) 0 z G

1

,

that is

u(z) u

1

(z) 0 z G

1

and we are done. Therefore, u = f is subharmonic on G.

If f

(z) 0 for all z in G, then the previous result holds locally for some neighborhood in G. ( f is lo-

cally one-one and onto and f

1

is analytic and hence u = f is locally subharmonic). Here is the claim:

Let f : G C be analytic, let z

0

A, and let f

(z

0

) 0. Then there is a neighborhood U of z

0

and a

neighborhood V of w

0

= f (z

0

) such that f : U V is one-one and onto and f

1

: V U is analytic.

Proof of the claim: f (z) w

0

has a simple zero at z

0

since f

(z

0

) 0. We can use Theorem 7.4 p. 98 to

nd > 0 and > 0 such that each w with w w

0

< has exactly one pre-image z with z z

0

< . Let

V = w w w

0

< and let U be the inverse image of V under the map f restricted to z z z

0

< .

By Theorem 7.4 p. 98, f maps U one-one onto V. Since f is continuous, U is a neighborhood of z

0

. By the

Open Mapping Theorem (Theorem 7.5 p. 99), f = ( f

1

)

1

is an open map, so f

1

is continuous from V to

U. To nally show that it is analytic, we can use Proposition 3.7 p. 125. We have

f

1

(w) =

1

2i

_

zz

0

=

z f

(w)

f (z) w

dz.

Note, if we assume that is twice dierentiable, then the result holds globally.

147

10.4 The Dirichlet Problem

Exercise 1. Let G = B(0; 1) and nd a barrier for G at each point of the boundary.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Let G = C (, 0] and construct a barrier for each point of

G.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Let G be a region and a a point in

lim

za

u(z) = 0 and liminf

zw

u(z) > 0 for all w in

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. This exercise asks for an easier proof of a special case of Theorem 4.9. Let G be a bounded

region and let a G such that there is a point b with [a, b] G

(Hint: Consider the transformation (z a)(z b)

1

.)

Solution. Not available.

10.5 Greens Function

Exercise 1. (a) Let G be a simply connected region, let a G, and let f : G D = z : z < 1 be a

one-one analytic function such that f (G) = D and f (a) = 0. Show that the Greens Function on G with

singularity at a is g

a

(z) = log f (z).

(b) Find the Greens Functions for each of the following regions: (i) G = C(, 0]; (ii) G = z : Re z > 0;

(iii) G = z : 0 < Im z < 2.

Solution. Solution to part a):

Let G be simply connected, let a G, and let f : G D = z : z < 1 be a one-one analytic function such

that f (G) = D and f (a) = 0.

To show: g

a

(z) = log f (z) is a Greens Function on G with singularity at a. Clearly, g

a

(z) has a singu-

larity if f (z) = 0. This happens if f (z) = 0. By assumption f (z) = 0 i z = a. (Note that there is no other

point z G such that f (z) = 0 since f is assumed to be one-one). This implies g

a

(z) has a singularity at a.

It remains to verify a), b) and c) of Denition 5.1.

a) g

a

is harmonic in G a. This follows directly by Exercise 5 p. 255 in G a.

b) G(z) = g

a

(z)+log za is harmonic in a disk about a. Let the disk be B(a; r). Clearly g

a

(z) = log f (z) is

harmonic on B(a; r)a. By Exercise 5 p. 255, we can argue again that log za is harmonic on B(a; r)a

(choose f (z) = z a and f (z) = 0 i z = a). Hence G(z) = g

a

(z) + log z a = log f (z) + log z a is

harmonic on B(a; r) a as a sum of two harmonic functions. But

G(z) = log f (z) + log z a = log

_

f (z)

z a

_

= log

_

z a

f (z)

z a

_

= log

f (z)

where f (z) = (z a)

f (z) by assumption and

f (z) is analytic on G with no zero. So G(z) has a removable

singularity at a and therefore G(z) is harmonic on B(a; r).

c) lim

zw

g

a

(z) = 0 for each w in

G. We have f (z) = 1 z

G by assumption ( f (

G) = D). Hence

lim

zw

g

a

(z) = lim

wa

log f (w) = log 1 = 0

148

for each a in

G. This implies g

a

(z) = log f (z) is a Greens Function on G with singularity at a.

Solution to part b) ii):

Clearly, G is a simply connected region (not the whole plane). If we can nd a map, say h : G D, then

the Greens Function, say g

a

, is given by

g

a

(z) = log h(z)

by Part 1 a). Note that h has to satisfy the following assumptions to use Part 1 a):

a) h : G D one-one and analytic

b) h(a) = 0

c) h(G) = D.

The existence and uniqueness of this function h with the assumptions a), b) and c) is guaranteed by the

Riemann Mapping Theorem p. 160 Theorem 4.2. It remains to nd h:

Claim: h : G D given by

h(z) = f (g(z))

where

g(z) =

z 1

z + 1

and f (z) =

z g(a)

1 g(a)z

works. Thus, the Greens Function for the region G = z : Re(z) > 0 is given by g

a

(z) = log h(z) where

h(z) is given by the Claim.

Proof of the Claim:

We will invoke the Orientation Principle (p. 53) to nd g : G D where g is one-one and analytic. Then

g(z) =

z 1

z + 1

(see p. 53 in the book for the derivation).

From p. 162 we have seen that the Mbius Transformation (which is one-one and analytic)

f (z) =

z g(a)

1 g(a)z

maps D onto D such that f (g(a)) = 0. Hence h(z) = f (g(z)) maps G onto D. In addition h is one-one,

analytic and h(a) = 0 and therefore satises a), b) and c).

Exercise 2. Let g

a

be the Greens Function on a region G with singularity at z = a. Prove that if is a

positive superharmonic function on G a with liminf

za

[(z) + log z a] > , then g

a

(z) (z) for

z a.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. This exercise gives a proof of the Riemann Mapping Theorem where it is assumed that if G is

a simply connected region, G C, then: (i) C

harmonic conjugate, (iii) if a G then a branch of log(z a) can be dened.

(a) Let G be a bounded simply connected region and let a G; prove that there is a Greens Function g

a

on

G with singularity at a. Let u(z) = g

a

(z) + log z a and let v be the harmonic conjugate of u. If = u + iv

let f (z) = e

i

(z a)e

(z)

for a real number . (So f is analytic in G.) Prove that f (z) = exp(g

a

(z))

and that lim

zw

f (z) = 1 for each w in G (Compare this with Exercise 1). Prove that for 0 < r < 1,

C

r

= z : f (z) = r consists of a nite number of simple closed curves in G (see Exercise VI.1.3). Let G

r

be a component of z : f (z) < r and apply Rouches Theorem to get that f (z) = 0 and f (z) w

0

= 0,

149

w

0

< r, have the same number of solutions in G

r

. Prove that f is one-one on G

r

. From here conclude that

f (G) = D = z : z < 1 and f

(b) Let G be a simply connected region with G C, but assume that G is unbounded and 0,

G. Let l

be a branch of log z on G, a G, and = l(a). Show that l is one-one on G and l(z) + 2i for any z in

G. Prove that (z) = [l(z) 2i]

1

is a conformal map of G onto a bounded simply connected region in

the plane. (Show that l omits all values in a neighborhood of + 2i.)

(c) Combine parts (a) and (b) to prove the Riemann Mapping Theorem.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. (a) Let G be a region such that G = is a simple continuously dierentiable closed curve. If

f : G R is continuous and g(z, a) = g

a

(z) is the Greens Function on G with singularity at a, show that

h(a) =

_

f (z)

g

n

(z, a) ds (5.5)

is a formula for the solution of the Dirichlet Problem with boundary values f ; where

g

n

is the derivative of

g in the direction of the outward normal to and ds indicates that the integral is with respect to arc length.

(Note: these concepts are not discussed in this book but the formula is suciently interesting so as to merit

presentation.) (Hint: Apply Greens formula

[uv vu] dx dy =

_

_

u

v

n

v

u

n

_

ds

with = G z : z a , < d(a, ), u = h, v = g

a

(z) = g(z, a).)

(b) Show that if G = z : z < 1 then (5.5) reduces to equation (2.5).

Solution. Not available.

150

Chapter 11

Entire Functions

11.1 Jensens Formula

Exercise 1. In the hypothesis of Jensens Formula, do not suppose that f (0) 0. Show that if f has a zero

at z = 0 of multiplicity m then

log

f

(m)

(0)

m!

+ mlog r =

n

k=1

log

_

r

a

k

_

+

1

2

_

2

0

log f (re

i

) d.

Solution. We have

r(za

k

)

r

2

a

k

z

maps B(0; r) onto itself and takes the boundary to the boundary. Let

F(z) = f (z)

r

m

z

m

n

_

k=1

r

2

a

k

z

r(z a

k

)

.

Then F H(G) and F has no zeros in B(0; r) and F(z) = f (z) if z = r. Thus, by a known result, we have

log F(0) =

1

2

_

2

0

log F(re

i

) d =

1

2

_

2

0

log f (re

i

) d.

Also

g(z)

f (z)

z

m

=

_

i=0

f

(i)

(0)z

i

i!

z

m

=

_

i=m

f

(i)

(0)z

i

i!

z

m

=

i=m

f

(i)

(0)z

im

i!

=

f

(m)

(0)

m!

z

0

+

f

(m+1)

(0)

(m + 1)!

z

1

+ . . .

( f has a zero at z = 0 of multiplicity m) which implies g(0) =

f

(m)

(0)

m!

. Thus,

F(0) = g(0)r

m

n

_

k=1

_

r

a

k

_

.

151

Therefore

F(0) = g(0)r

m

n

_

k=1

r

a

k

implies

log F(0) = log g(0) + mlog r +

n

k=1

log

r

a

k

= log

f

(m)

(0)

m!

+ mlog r +

n

k=1

log

r

a

k

.

Hence,

log F(0) = log

f

(m)

(0)

m!

+ mlog r +

n

k=1

log

r

a

k

=

1

2

_

2

0

log f (re

i

) d

which is equivalent to

log

f

(m)

(0)

m!

+ mlog r =

n

k=1

log

r

a

k

+

1

2

_

2

0

log f (re

i

) d

which proves the assertion.

Exercise 2. Let f be an entire function, M(r) = sup f (re

i

) : 0 2, n(r) = the number of zeros of f

in B(0; r) counted according to multiplicity. Suppose that f (0) = 1 and show that n(r) log 2 log M(2r).

Solution. Since f is an entire function, it is analytic on

B(0; 2r). Suppose a

1

, . . . , a

n

are the zeros of f in

B(0; r) repeated according to multiplicity and b

1

, . . . , b

m

are the zeros of f in B(0; 2r) B(0; r). That is,

a

1

, . . . , a

n

, b

1

, . . . , b

m

are the zeros of f in B(0; 2r) repeated according to multiplicity. Since f (0) = 1 0,

we have by Jensens formula

0 = log 1 = log f (0) =

n

k=1

log

_

2r

a

k

k=1

log

_

2r

b

k

_

+

1

2

_

2

0

log f (2re

i

) d

which implies

n

k=1

log

_

2r

a

k

_

=

m

k=1

log

_

2r

b

k

_

.,,.

0 since r b

k

< 2r

+

1

2

_

2

0

log f (2re

i

) d

1

2

_

2

0

log f (2re

i

) d

Def of M(r)

1

2

log M(2r)

_

2

0

d = log M(2r).

Hence,

n

k=1

log

_

2r

a

k

_

log M(2r).

But

n

k=1

log

_

2r

a

k

_

=

n(r)

k=1

log

_

2r

a

k

_

= log

n(r)

_

k=1

_

2r

a

k

_

= log

_

_

2

n

n(r)

_

k=1

r

a

k

_

= log

_

2

n(r)

_

+ log

n(r)

_

k=1

2r

a

k

n(r) log(2)

152

since 0 < a

k

< r implies

r

a

k

n(r)

k=1

r

a

k

n(r) log(2) log M(2r)

which proves the assertion.

Exercise 3. In Jensens Formula do not suppose that f is analytic in a region containing

B(0; r) but only

that f is meromorphic with no pole at z = 0. Evaluate

1

2

_

2

0

log f (re

i

) d.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. (a) Using the notation of Exercise 2, prove that

_

r

0

n(t)

t

dt =

n

k=1

log

_

r

a

k

_

where a

1

, . . . , a

n

are the zeros of f in B(0; r).

(b) Let f be meromorphic without a pole at z = 0 and let n(r) be the number of zeros of f in B(0; r) minus

the number of poles (each counted according to multiplicity). Evaluate

_

r

0

n(t)

t

dt.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 5. Let D = B(0; 1) and suppose that f : D C is an analytic function which is bounded.

(a) If a

n

are the non-zero zeros of f in D counted according to multiplicity, prove that

_

(1 a

n

) < .

(Hint: Use Proposition VII. 5.4).

(b) If f has a zero at z = 0 of multiplicity m 0, prove that f (z) = z

m

B(z) exp(g(z)) where B is a Blaschke

Product (Exercise VII. 5.4) and g is an analytic function on D with Re g(z) log M (M = sup f (z) :

z < 1).

Solution. Not available.

11.2 The genus and order of an entire function

Exercise 1. Let f (z) =

_

c

n

z

n

be an entire function of nite genus ; prove that

lim

n

c

n

(n!)

1/(+1)

= 0.

(Hint: Use Cauchys Estimate.)

Solution. Dene M(r) = max f (re

i

) : 0 2 = max

z=r

f (z). For suciently large r = z, we have

M(r) < e

r

+1

(11.1)

by Theorem 2.6 p. 283. By Cauchys estimate p. 73, we have

c

n

M(r)

r

n

153

where c

n

=

f

(n)

(0)

n!

. Hence,

c

n

M(r)

r

n

<

(11.1)

e

r

+1

. (11.2)

Dene, r = n

1

+1

, where is a positive constant, and choose > e for convenience. Then (11.2) can be

written in the form

c

n

<

e

n

+1

(n

n

)

1

+1

n

(n

n

)

1

+1

c

n

<

e

n

+1

n

=

_

_

e

+1

_

n

.

Now, if we choose such that

+1

= 1, the last inequality becomes

(n

n

)

1

+1

c

n

<

_

e

_

n

<

for any > 0, provided n is taken large enough, n > N say. Since n! < n

n

, for n 2, we have

(n!)

1

+1

c

n

<

for n > N or

lim

n

c

n

(n!)

1/(+1)

= 0.

Exercise 2. Let f

1

and f

2

be entire functions of nite orders

1

and

2

respectively. Show that f = f

1

+ f

2

has nite order and max(

1

,

2

). Show that = max(

1

,

2

) if

1

2

and give an example which

shows that < max(

1

,

2

) with f 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Suppose f is an entire function and A, B, a are positive constants such that there is a r

0

with

f (z) exp(Az

a

+ B) for z > r

0

. Show that f is of nite order a.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 4. Prove that if f is an entire function of order then f

Solution. Let f be an entire function of order , then f has power series

f (z) =

n=0

c

n

z

n

.

By Exercise 5 e) p. 286 we have

= liminf

n

log c

n

n log n

=

1

.

Dierentiating f yields

f

(z) =

n=1

nc

n

z

n1

=

n=0

(n + 1)c

n+1

.,,.

d

n

z

n

.

154

Now, let

be the order of f

, then

1

= liminf

n

log d

n

n log n

= liminf

n

log (n + 1)c

n+1

n log n

= liminf

n

log(n + 1) log c

n+1

n log n

= liminf

n

_

log(n + 1)

n log n

log c

n+1

n log n

(n + 1) log(n + 1)

(n + 1) log(n + 1)

_

= liminf

n

_

_

log(n + 1)

n log n

.,,.

0

+

log c

n+1

(n + 1) log(n + 1)

.,,.

n + 1

n

.,,.

1

log(n + 1)

log(n)

.,,.

1

_

_

=

1

.

Hence,

= and therefore f

Exercise 5. Let f (z) =

_

c

n

z

n

be an entire function and dene the number by

= liminf

n

log c

n

n log n

(a) Show that if f has nite order then > 0. (Hint: If the order of f is and > show that c

n

r

n

exp(r

(b) Suppose that 0 < < and show that for any > 0, < , there is an integer p such that c

n

1/n

<

n

()

for n > p. Conclude that for z = r > 1 there is a constant A such that

f (z) < Ar

p

+

n=1

_

r

n

_

n

(c) Let p be as in part (b) and let N be the largest integer (2r)

1/()

. Take r suciently large so that

N > p and show that

n=N+1

_

r

n

_

n

< 1 and

N

n=p+1

_

r

n

_

n

< Bexp

_

(2r)

1/()

_

where B is a constant which does not depend on r.

(d) Use parts (b) and (c) to show that if 0 < < then f has nite order and

1

.

(e) Prove that f is of nite order i > 0, and if f has order then =

1

.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 6. Find the order of each of the following functions: (a) sin z; (b) cos z; (c) cosh

z; (d)

_

n=1

n

an

z

n

where a > 0. (Hint: For part (d) use Exercise 5.)

Solution. c) The order is =

1

2

. Note that sinh

2

z = cosh

2

z 1 and that cos x is bounded for real values x,

so

cos z

2

= cos

2

x + sinh

2

y cosh

2

y cosh

2

z.

155

Thus

cos z cosh z =

1

2

(e

z

+ e

z

)

1

2

e

z

e

z

,

and therefore

cos

z exp(z

1/2

).

This implies that the order

1

2

. Next we want to show that =

1

2

. Seeking contradiction assume that

there is > 0 and r > 0 such that

cos

z exp(z

1

2

) (11.3)

for all z > r.

Let z = n

2

for an n N with n > max

r, 4, 2

1/(2)

then in particular (i) z > r, (ii) ln 2 + n >

n

2

, and

(iii)

1

2

>

1

n

2

and

f (z) = cos

z =

1

2

e

n

+ e

n

>

1

2

e

n

= e

log 2+n

>

(ii)

e

n

2

>

(iii)

exp(n

2

n) = exp(n

2(

1

2

)

) = exp(z

1

2

).

This shows that no > 0 can be found that satises equation (11.3). This implies =

1

2

.

Exercise 7. Let f

1

and f

2

be entire functions of nite order

1

,

2

; show that f = f

1

f

2

has nite order

max(

1

,

2

).

Solution. Dene M(r) = max

z=r

f (z), M

1

(r) = max

z=r

f

1

(z) and M

2

(r) = max

z=r

f

2

(z). Since f

1

and

f

2

are entire functions of nite order

1

and

2

, respectively, we have for > 0,

M

1

(r) < e

r

1

+/2

(11.4)

and

M

2

(r) < e

r

2

+/2

(11.5)

for suciently large r = z by Proposition 2.14. Hence

M(r) = max

z=r

f (z) = max

z=r

f

1

(z) f

2

(z)

max

z=r

f

1

(z) max

z=r

f

2

(z)

= M

1

(r)M

2

(r) <

by (11.4),(11.5)

e

r

1

+/2

e

r

2

+/2

= e

r

1

+/2

+r

2

+/2

max(

1

,

2

)

e

2r

+/2

< e

r

+

provided r is suciently large. Hence, the order of f (z) = f

1

(z) f

2

(z) has nite order max(

1

,

2

).

Exercise 8. Let a

n

be a sequence of non-zero complex numbers. Let = infa :

_

a

n

a

< ; the

number called the exponent of convergence of a

n

.

(a) If f is an entire function of rank p then the exponent of convergence of the non-zero zeros of f satises:

p p + 1.

(b) If

n

then for every > 0,

_

a

n

(+)

< and

_

a

n

()

= .

(c) Let f be an entire function of order and let a

1

, a

2

, . . . be the non-zero zeros of f counted according

to multiplicity. If is the exponent of convergence of a

n

prove that . (Hint: See the proof of (3.5) in

the next section.)

156

(d) Let P(z) =

n=1

E

p

(z/a

n

) be a canonical product of rank p, and let be the exponent of convergence of

a

n

. Prove that the order of P is . (Hint: If is the order of P, ; assume that a

l

a

2

. . . and x

z, z > 1. Choose N such that a

n

2z if n N and a

n

> 2z if n N + 1. Treating the cases < p + 1

and = p + 1 separately, use (2.7) to show that for some > 0

n=N+1

log

E

p

_

z

a

n

_

< Az

+

.

Prove that for z

1

2

, log E

p

(z) < Bz

p

where B is a constant independent of z. Use this to prove that

N

n=1

log

E

p

_

z

a

n

_

< Cz

+

for some constant C independent of z.)

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 9. Find the order of the following entire functions:

(a)

f (z) =

_

n=1

(1 a

n

z), 0 < a < 1

b)

f (z) =

_

n=1

_

1

z

n!

_

c)

f (z) = [(z)]

1

.

Solution. b) Considering g(z) :=

m=1

_

1

z

n!

_

one notes that g(z) is already in form of the canonical

product with the entire function in the exponent being constantly zero and p = 0. Hence also the genus

= 0. The simple zeros of g(z) are at z = n! and from Exercise 8a) it follows that 1. In fact we will

show that = 0. It suces to show that the exponent of convergence = 0 and to employ Exercise 8d).

Let m N, let n > 4m then

n! n (n 1) 2

.,,.

n

(n 2) 3

.,,.

n

. . . (n (2k 1)) 2m

.,,.

n

.

Each product of consecutive numbers is of the form (n (k 1))k, for 1 k 2m. By choice of n,

k

n

1

2

and n k + 1 > 2m which justies the individual estimates by n. In total this yields n! > n

2m

for n large, or

equivalently

n=4m

(n!)

1

m

n=4m

n

2

and the sumon the left converges for every positive integer m. We conclude that = infm : the left sum converges =

0. By Part d) of Exercise 8 we conclude that the order of g(z) is zero.

157

11.3 Hadamard Factorization Theorem

Exercise 1. Let f be analytic in a region G and suppose that f is not identically zero. Let G

0

= G z :

f (z) = 0 and dene h : G

0

R by h(z) = log f (z). Show that

h

x

i

h

y

=

f

f

on G

0

.

Solution. Let f be analytic in a region G and suppose that f is not identically zero. Let G

0

= G z :

f (z) = 0, then h : G

0

R given by h(z) = log f (z) is well dened as well as

f

f

is well dened on G

0

.

Let f = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) = u + iv. Since f is analytic, the Cauchy-Riemann (C-R) equations u

x

= v

y

and

u

y

= v

x

are satised. We have by p. 41 Equation 2.22 and 2.23

f

= u

x

+ iv

x

and f

= iu

y

+ v

y

and thus

2f

= u

x

+ iv

x

iu

y

+ v

y

implies

f

=

1

2

_

u

x

+ iv

x

iu

y

+ v

y

_

=

(C-R)

1

2

_

u

x

iu

y

iu

y

+ u

x

_

=

1

2

_

2u

x

2iu

y

_

= u

x

iu

y

.

Therefore,

f

f

=

u

x

iu

y

u + iv

. (11.6)

Next, we calculate

h

x

= h

x

and

h

y

= h

y

where h(z) = log f (z) =

1

2

log(u

2

+ v

2

). Using the chain rule, we

get

h

x

= h

u

u

x

+ h

v

v

x

=

u

u

2

+ v

2

u

x

+

v

u

2

+ v

2

v

x

and

h

y

= h

u

u

y

+ h

v

v

y

=

u

u

2

+ v

2

u

y

+

v

u

2

+ v

2

v

y

and hence

h

x

i

h

y

= h

x

ih

y

=

u

u

2

+ v

2

u

x

+

v

u

2

+ v

2

v

x

i

u

u

2

+ v

2

u

y

i

v

u

2

+ v

2

v

y

=

u

u

2

+ v

2

(u

x

iu

y

) +

v

u

2

+ v

2

(v

x

iv

y

)

=

(C-R)

u

u

2

+ v

2

(u

x

iu

y

) +

v

u

2

+ v

2

(u

y

iu

x

)

=

u

u

2

+ v

2

(u

x

iu

y

)

iv

u

2

+ v

2

(u

x

iu

y

)

=

u iv

u

2

+ v

2

(u

x

iu

y

)

=

u iv

(u iv)(u + iv)

(u

x

iu

y

)

=

u

x

iu

y

u + iv

.

158

Compare this with (11.6) and we obtain the assertion

h

x

i

h

y

=

f

f

.

Exercise 2. Refer to Exercise 2.7 and show that if

1

2

then = max(

1

;

2

).

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. (a) Let f and g be entire functions of nite order and suppose that f (a

n

) = g(a

n

) for a

sequence a

n

such that

_

a

n

(+1)

= . Show that f = g.

(b) Use Exercise 2.8 to show that if f , g and a

n

are as in part (a) with

_

a

n

(+)

= for some > 0

then f = g.

(c) Find all entire functions f of nite order such that f (log n) = n.

(d) Give an example of an entire function with zeros log 2, log 3, . . . and no other zeros.

Solution. a) Since f and g are entire functions of nite order , also F = f g is an entire function of nite

order (see Exercise 2 p. 286). Suppose that f (a

n

) = g(a

n

) for a sequence a

n

such that

_

a

n

(+1)

= .

Assume F 0 ( f g), we will derive a contradiction. Since F 0, the sequence a

n

are the zeros of F,

because

F(a

n

) = f (a

n

) g(a

n

) = 0

since f (a

n

) = g(a

n

) by assumption. By Hadamards Factorization Theorem (p. 289), F has nite genus

since F H(C) with nite order . Since by denition = max(p, q) where p is the rank of F, we

certainly have

p .

By the denition of the rank (p. 281 Denition 2.1), we have

n=1

a

n

(p+1)

< ,

where a

n

s are the zeros of F. Therefore by the comparison test, we also have

n=1

a

n

(+1)

n=1

a

n

(p+1)

<

so

_

n=1

a

n

(+1)

< contradicting the assumption

_

n=1

a

n

(+1)

= . Hence F 0, and therefore we

obtain f = g.

b) Since f and g are entire functions of nite order , we also have F = f g is an entire function of nite

order (see Exercise 2 p. 286). Suppose that f (a

n

) = g(a

n

) for a sequence a

n

such that

_

a

n

(+)

= .

Assume F 0 ( f g), we will derive a contradiction. Since F 0, the sequence a

n

are the zeros of F,

because

F(a

n

) = f (a

n

) g(a

n

) = 0

since f (a

n

) = g(a

n

) by assumption. Let be the exponent of convergence of a

n

, then

by Exercise 8 c) p. 286-287. Hence, according to Exercise 8 b) p. 286-287, we have

n=1

a

n

(+)

< .

159

Therefore by the comparison test, we also have

n=1

a

n

(+)

n=1

a

n

(+)

< .

Hence

_

n=1

a

n

(+)

< contradicting the fact

_

n=1

a

n

(+)

= . Thus, F 0 and therefore we get the

assertion f = g.

160

Chapter 12

The Range of an Analytic Function

12.1 Blochs Theorem

Exercise 1. Examine the proof of Blochs Theorem to prove that L 1/24.

Solution. Mimic the proof of Blocks Theorem up to the application of Schwarzs Lemma, i.e. set K(r) =

max f

0

= supr : h(r) = 1. Choose a with a = r

0

, f

(a) = K(r

0

) =

1

1r

0

.

Also choose

0

=

1

2

(1 r

0

) and infer that for all z B(a, )

f

(z)

1

0

, and f

(z) f

(a) <

3z a

2

2

0

.

For z B(0,

0

) dene g(z) = f (z + a) f (a). By convexity of B(a,

0

) the line segment = [a, a + z] is

completely contained in B(a,

0

). It follows that

g(z) =

_

f

(w) dw

1

0

z 1 =: M.

The function g is not necessarily injective on B(0,

0

) but the problem only asks for an estimate on the

Landau constant for which injectivity is not required. In this setting Lemma 1.2 gives

g(B(0,

0

)) B

_

0,

2

g

(0)

2

6M

_

= B

_

0,

1

4 6

_

= B

_

0,

1

24

_

.

This statement rewritten for f yields

f (B(a,

0

)) B

_

f (a),

1

24

_

.

Exercise 2. Suppose that in the statement of Blochs Theorem it is only assumed that f is analytic on D.

What conclusion can be drawn? (Hint: Consider the functions f

s

(z) = s

1

f (sz), 0 < s < 1.) Do the same

for Proposition 1.10.

Solution. Not available.

161

12.2 The Little Picard Theorem

Exercise 1. Show that if f is a meromorphic function on C such that C

then f is a constant. (Hint: What if f (C)?)

Solution. First consider an entire function f that misses three points in C

are two distinct numbers a, b C that are not in the image of f . By Little Picards Theorem the function f

must be a constant.

Next consider a meromorphic function on C that is not entire. Hence f (C) and by assumption there

are distinct a, b, c C f (C). Dene a function

g(z) :=

1

f (z) a

, z C

then g is entire because f (z) a 0 for all z C and

1

ba

,

1

ca

C g(C). Again using Little Picards

Theorem conclude that g is a constant function. It cannot be the zero-function, because f was assumed

to be meromorphic, hence f (z) for at least some z C. Thus g is a nonzero constant function and

f (z) = g(z)

1

+ a is also a constant function and the result is established.

Exercise 2. For each integer n 1 determine all meromorphic functions f and g on C with a pole at

such that f

n

+ g

n

= 1.

Solution. Not available.

12.3 Schottkys Theorem

No exercises are assigned in this section.

12.4 The Great Picard Theorem

Exercise 1. Let f be analytic in G = B(0; R) 0 and discuss all possible values of the integral

1

2i

_

(z)

f (z) a

dz

where is the circle z = r < R and a is any complex number. If it is assumed that this integral takes on

certain values for certain numbers a, does this imply anything about the nature of the singularity at z = 0?

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 2. Show that if f is a one-one entire function then f (z) = az +b for some constants a and b, a 0.

Solution. Not available.

Exercise 3. Prove that the closure of the set / in Theorem 4.1 equals / together with the constant functions

, 0, and 1.

Solution. Not available.

162

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