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# Design Of Counter Fort Retaining Wall Reference: Example 18.4, R.C.C. Design Vol. - I, B.C.

Punamia 1 Design Constants Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level = Saturated weight of Earth (sat ) = Unit Weight of water (w) Angle of repose () SBC of Soil (qo) Co-eff of friction () Unit Weight of Concrete (fck) fy Cover Foundation Depth Width of counterfort cbc st Neuteral axis constant (k) Lever arm constant (j) Moment of resistance constant Coefficient of earth pressure, Ka 2 Dimension of Various Parts Height of wall above base (H) = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

11.5 18 10 30 125 0.5 25 415 40 1 0.5 8.5 230 0.289 0.904 1.109 0.333

= = The ratio of length of slabe (DE) to base width b is given by eq. = = Adopting The width of base is given by Eq. b b Normal practice is to provide b between 0.7 to 0.8 H Taking maximum value of H b Width of toe slab Provide toe slab Taking the uniform thickness of stem = = = = = = = = = = =

11.5 12.5 1 1 0.75 0.40 0.95 H 0.95 5.97 0.7 8.75 xb 3.50 3.50 0.6

Hence width of heel slab Let thickness of base slab Clear spacing of counter fort

= = = =

## Providing spacing of counterfort 3 Stability of Wall Let w1 w2 w3

= = =

Weight of rectangular portion of stem Weight of base slab Weight of soil on heel slab. Detail x x x

w1 w2 w3

1 1 1

Total resisting moment Earth pressure (p) Moment F.O.S. against overturning F.O.S. against sliding

= = = = = = = =

7724 (Ka x ' x H)+(w x H) 158.33 p*H2/6 4123.26 1.87 Sw/p 4.20

Pressure Distribution Net Moment (SM) = Distance x of the point of application of resultant, from toe is x = = e = = b/6 = Pressure p1 at toe = = =

3601 SM/Sw 2.71 b/2 - x 1.67 1.46 Hence un safe as e > b/6 SW b 1329.79 8.75 325.69 Hence un safe as p1 > 125 SW

Pressure p2 at heel

Pressure p2 at heel

## b 1329.79 8.75 -21.74 Hence un safe as p2 < 0

The Pressure intencity p1 under E, p1 The Pressure intencity p2 under B, p2 = = 325.69 162.90 = = 325.69 186.72

4 Design of Heel Slab Clear spacing b/w counterforts = 3.00 The pressure distribution on the heel slab is shown in fig 2. Consider a strip 1 meter wide. Upward pressure intensity (near outer edge, C) Down ward load due to weight of Earth. Down ward weight of slab per unit area Hence net pressure intensities will be P M1 Effective depth required (d) Providing overall depth (D) Effective depth (d) Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Ast M=A st st j d Provide Ast1 Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided Shear force (V) 100Ast/bd c Refernce: Pg. 84, Table 23, IS 456 : 2000 = = = = = = = = = = = -21.74 210.6 15 203.86 2 Pl /12 152.90 BM Rxb 371.39 500 460 800

= = = = = = = = =

## 1598.94 1598.94 20 196 150 PL/2 305.79 0.35 0.26

= = = = = = =

Hence depth required from shear point of veiw (d) Providing overall depth (D) Hence effective depth (d) Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Ast M=A st st j d Provide Ast1 Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided Distribution Steel Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided Let us check this reinforcement for development length at point of contraflexure which is situated at distance of 0.211 x L. In this case, the slab is continuous, but we will assume the same position of contraflexure. Hence point of contraflexure is at Shear force at this point is given

V/(d x b) 0.66 Hence shear reinforcement is required as v V/(c x b) 1176.12 1200 1160 1920

= = = = = = = = =

## 634.06 1920 20 163 150 1920 20 163 150

= 0.633 = P(L/2 - x) = 176.75 = 176746.62 Assuming that all the bars will avilable at point of contraflexure, Ast st j d M = = 462979286.1 Lo = 12 or d, whichever is more = 1160 Ld = 45 = 900 M/V + Lo = 3779.45 Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld Cotinue these bars by a distance Lo = d = 1160 At the point of curtailment, length of each bar available = 1793 Hence safe These bars will be provide at the top face of heel slab. Maximum passive B.M. = PL2/16 3/4 x M1 =

Area of bottom steel (Ast2) Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Provide Ast2 Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided

= = = = = = =

## 3/4 x Ast1 1440 1920 1920 20 163 150

Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur, Ast st j d M = = 462979286.1 Lo = 12 or d, whichever is more = 1160 Ld = 45 = 900 M/V + Lo = 3779.45 Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld Cotinue these bars by a distance Lo = d = 1160 i.e. upto distance = -527 At this point half bars can be discontinued. Since this distance is quite small, it is better to continue these bar 5 Design of Toe Slab Providing counterfort over toe slab upto ground level. Assuming total depth of toe slab Total weight of toe slab Net upward intensity at D Net upward intensity at E Cosidering strip of unit width at D. Max. negative B.M. (M1) Effective depth required (d) Providing overall depth (D) Effective depth (d) Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Ast M=A st st j d

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

500 12.5 325.69-12.5 313.19 186.72-12.5 174.22 wL2/12 234.8925 BM Rxb 460.33 500 460 800

2456.46

Provide Ast1 Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided Shear force (V) 100Ast/bd c Refernce: Pg. 84, Table 23, IS 456 : 2000 v

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

2456.46 20 127 100 PL/2 469.79 0.53 0.32 V/(d x b) 1.02 Hence shear reinforcement is required as v V/(c x b) 1468.08 1500 1460 2400

Hence depth required from shear point of veiw (d) Providing overall depth (D) Hence effective depth (d) Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Ast M=A st st j d Provide Ast1 Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided Distribution Steel Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided

= = = = = = = = =

## 773.95 2400 20 130 100 2400 20 130 100

Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur. Point of contraflexure is at = 0.633 Shear force at this point is given = P(L/2 - x) = 271.54 = 271535.73 Ast st j d M = = 728394135.5 Lo = 12 or d, whichever is more = 1460 Ld = 45 = 900 M/V + Lo = 4142.50 Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld Cotinue these bars by a distance Lo = d = 1460

At the point of curtailment, length of each bar available These bars will be provide at the top face of toe slab. Maximum passive B.M. Area of bottom steel (Ast2) Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Provide Ast2 Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided

2093 Hence safe PL /16 3/4 x M1 3/4 x Ast1 1800.00 2400 2400 20 130 100
2

= = = = = = = = =

Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur, Ast st j d M = = 728394135.5 Lo = 12 or d, whichever is more = 1460 Ld = 45 = 900 M/V + Lo = 4142.50 Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld Cotinue these bars by a distance Lo = d = 1460 i.e. upto distance = -827 6 Design of Stem The stem acts as a continuous slab. Considred 1 m strip at B . The intencity of earth pressure is given by (ph) = = Hence revised H1 Negative B.M. in slab, (M1) Effective depth required (d) Providing overall depth (D) Effective depth (d) Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Ast M=A st st j d = = = = = = = =

KaH1 67.80 11.30 phL2/12 50.85 BM Rxb 214.18 600 560 960

436.82

Provide Ast1 Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided Distribution Steel Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated Spacing of bar provided Shear force (V) 100Ast/bd c Refernce: Pg. 84, Table 23, IS 456 : 2000 v

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

960.00 16 209 200 960 16 209 200 PL/2 101.70 0.17 0.20 V/(d x b)

## 0.18 Hence no shear reinforcement is required as

Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur. Point of contraflexure is at = 0.633 Shear force at this point is given (V) = V(L/2 - x) = 88.17 = 88173.90 Ast st j d M = = 111753620.8 Lo = 12 or d, whichever is more = 560 Ld = 45 = 720 M/V + Lo = 1827.42 Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld Cotinue these bars by a distance Lo = d = 560 At the point of curtailment, length of each bar available = 1193 Hence safe These bars are to be provided at the inner face of the stem. Maximum passive B.M. = PL2/16 3/4 x M1 = Area of steel (Ast2) Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Provide Ast2 Dia of bar Spacing of bar calculated = = = = = = 3/4 x Ast1 720.00 960 960 16 209

## Spacing of bar provided

200

Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur, Ast st j d M = = 111753620.8 Lo = 12 or d, whichever is more = 560 Ld = 45 = 720 M/V + Lo = 1827.42 Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld 7 Design of Main Counterfort Let us assuming thickness of counterforts is Spacing of counterforts At any section at depth h below the top A, the earth pressure acting on each counter forts will be Similarly, net down ward pressure on heel at C is Similarly, net down ward pressure on heel at B is Hence reaction transferrred to each counterfort will be, At C At B Pressure intencity at h Shear force at F (Q) B.M.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

500 350 Ka x sat x h x L 21 (11.3 x 18) + (1200/1000) x 25 - -21.74 255.14 (11.3 x 18) + (1200/1000) x 25 - 162.9 70.5 255.14 x (350/100) 892.99 70.5 x (350/100) 246.75 11.5 241.5 0.5 x 241.5 x 11.5 1388.63 h/3 x 1388.625 5323.06 5323062500 BM Rxb 3099.03 3150 3110 4.65/11.3 0.411504425 22.37 0.3805 0.9248 AF1 x sin

Effective depth required (d) Providing total depth (D) Effective depth (d) Angle of the face AC is given by, tan tan Sin Cos F1G1

= 4.38 = 4376.26 FG = 4977.00 Asssuming that the steel reinforcement is provided in two layers and providing a nominal cover of 40 mm and Effective depth (d) = 4977 - (40 + 20 + 10) = 4907.00 Area of steel at supports, at bottom (Ast ) = 5218.47 M=Ast st j d Using dia. of bar = 20 A = 314.16 No. of bars = 17 Provide the bars in two layers. Effective shear force = Q-(M/d')tan d' = d/cos = 5306.23 Effective shear force = 975815.19 v = V/(d x b) 100Ast/bd c = = = 0.37 0.20

0.21 Hence shear reinforcement is required as v However, the vertical and horizontal ties provided in counterforts will bear the excess shear stress. The height h where half of the reinforcement can curtailed (H) = h

= 3.54 To locate the position of point of curtailmenton AC, drawing Hl parallel to FG. Thus half bars can be curtailed at l. However these = 240 should be extent by a distance 12 The location of H corresponding to I1 can be locate by drawing line I1H1 parallel FG It should be noted that I1G should not less than 45 Design of Horizontal Ties At any depth h below the top, force causing sepration Ast required Using 2 legged ties of dia. A Spacing required Spacing provided Design of Vertical Ties The downward force at C = = = = = = = = = Ka x sat x h x L 207 Force/Stress 900 10 2/4 x D2 157.08 174.53 150 = 900

(892.99 x 3)/(350/100)

The downward force at B Ast required at C Using 2 legged ties of dia. A Spacing required Spacing provided Ast required at B Using 2 legged ties of dia. A Spacing required Spacing provided 8 Design of Front Counterfort The upward pressure intensity varies from Downward weight of toe slab Net weight at D Net weight at E The center to center spacing of counterforts Hence upward force transmitted to counterforts at D Upward force transmitted to counterforts at E Total upward force Force will be acting at x B.M. Effective depth required (d) Providing total depth (D) Effective depth (d) Thus height of counterfort above ground level i.e. upto point F3. Area of steel at supports, at bottom (Ast ) M=Ast st j d

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

765.42 (246.75 x 3)/(350/100) 211.5 Force/Stress 3327.91 20 2/4 x D2 628.32 188.80 150 Force/Stress 919.57 10 2/4 x D2 157.08 170.82 150

325.69 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

## kN/m at D to 37.5 288.19

149.22 3.5 288.19 x 3.5 1008.67 149.22 x 3.5 522.27 1/2 x (1008.665 + 522.27) x 3.5 2679.14 ((522.27 + 2 x 1008.665)/(1008.665 + 522.27 1.94 2679.14 x 1.94 5197.53 BM Rxb 3062.27 4000 3960 3000

6313.93

Minimum steel required 0.2% of b D further 20% [IS :3370,7.1] Provide Ast1 Dia of bar A No. of bars Effective shear force (V) tan Effective shear force (V) v 100Ast/bd c Using 2 legged ties of dia. A Vc Vs Spacing required (sv) Spacing required (sv) Provide 2 x

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 10

6400 6400.00 32 804.25 8 Q-(M/d)tan 1.14 1179130.88 V/(d x b) 0.60 0.11 0.19 Hence shear reinforcement is required as v 10 2/4 x D2 157.08 c x b x d 376200 V - Vc 802930.88 (st x A x d)/Vs 178.18 150 mm holding bar at top

9 Fixing Effect in Stem, Toe and Heel At the junction of stem, toe and heel slab fixing moment are induced, which are at right angles to their normal In stem @0.3% of cross section, to be provided at (i) inner face, in vertical direction,for a length 58 Ast = (0.3/100) x 1000 x 600 Dia. of bar A Spacing required Spacing provided Length of embedment in slab above heel slab (ii) In toe slab @0.15% to be provided at the lowar face Ast Dia. of bar = = = = = = = 1800 16 201.06 (201.06 x 1000)/1800 111.70 100 928

= = =

## (0.15/100) x 1000 x 1500 2250 20

A Spacing required Spacing provided Length of embedment in slab above heel slab (iii) In heel slab @ 0.15% to be provided in upper face Ast Dia. of bar A Spacing required Spacing provided Length of embedment in slab above heel slab

= = = = =

## 314.16 (314.16 x 1000)/2250 139.63 100 1160

= = = = = = = =

(0.15/100) x 1000 x 1200 1800 16 201.06 (201.06 x 1000)/1800 111.70 100 928

+ m -

x x 12.50

## Ka (1-) x (1+3) ( 1 0.40 )x( 0.333 1

m m m

m m H sat m m

1/4

Weight of rectangular portion of stem Weight of base slab Weight of soil on heel slab. Detail 0.60 0.80 4.65 x x x 11.70 8.75 11.70 x x x 25 25 18 Sw kNm (Ka x ' x H)+(w x H) kN kNm > > = = = = force(kN) 175.5 175 979.29 1329.79 lever arm 3.8 4.38 6.43 Total MR

1.5 1.5

## Safe against overturning Safe against sliding

kNm

Hence un safe as e > b/6 1+ x kN/m2 Hence un safe as p1 > 125 16e 6e b 1+ 6x 8.75 1.67

## 1x kN/m Hence un safe as p2 < 0

2

b 1+ 6x 8.75 1.67

kN/m2 kN/m2

325.69

8.75

-21.74

3.50

325.69

8.75

-21.74

4.10

2

kN/m2 kNm

## mm mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2 mm mm mm

kN N/mm2

664.761 0.66 Hence shear reinforcement is required as v > c mm mm mm mm2 mm2 mm2 mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
2

mm kN N

## Nmm 12 or d, whichever is more mm

mm mm Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld mm beyond the point of contraflexure. After that, curtail half bars, and continue the remaining half throughout the leng mm

## n at point of contraflexur, Nmm 12 or d, whichever is more mm

mm mm Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld mm from the point of contraflexure. mm from the centre of support. is quite small, it is better to continue these bars upto center of counterfors.

2

kN/m2 kN/m2

kNm

mm mm mm mm2 mm2

mm2 mm mm mm

kN N/mm2

## Hence shear reinforcement is required as v > c mm mm mm mm

2

mm

mm2 mm mm mm mm2 mm mm mm

## n at point of contraflexur. mm kN N Nmm 12 or d, whichever is more mm mm

Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld mm beyond the point of contraflexure. After that, curtail half bars, and continue the remaining half throughout the leng

mm

## mm2 mm2 mm2 mm mm mm

n at point of contraflexur, Nmm 12 or d, whichever is more mm mm mm Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld mm from the point of contraflexure. mm from the centre of support.

kN/m2 m kNm

mm mm mm mm2 mm2

mm2 mm mm mm mm2 mm mm mm

kN N/mm2

## n at point of contraflexur. mm kN N Nmm 12 or d, whichever is more mm mm

Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld mm beyond the point of contraflexure. After that, curtail half bars, and continue the remaining half throughout the leng mm

mm2 mm
2

mm2 mm mm

mm

## n at point of contraflexur, Nmm 12 or d, whichever is more mm mm mm Hence safe as M/V+Lo > Ld

mm cm c/c

h kN/m (11.3 x 18) + (1200/1000) x 25 - -21.74 kN/m2 (11.3 x 18) + (1200/1000) x 25 - 162.9 2 kN/m 255.14 x (350/100) kN/m 70.5 x (350/100) kN/m m kN/m 0.5 x 241.5 x 11.5 kN kNm Nmm

mm mm mm

Degrees

m mm mm s and providing a nominal cover of 40 mm and 20 mm dia bar. 4977 - (40 + 20 + 10) mm mm
2

mm mm2 bars

mm N N/mm2

N/mm2 Hence shear reinforcement is required as v > c rts will bear the excess shear stress. m m below A, i.e. at point H. mm beyond I, i.e. extented upto I1 line I1H1 parallel FG mm

kN/m mm2 mm mm mm mm
2

(892.99 x 3)/(350/100)

## kN/m (246.75 x 3)/(350/100) kN/m mm2 mm mm2 mm mm mm2 mm mm mm mm

2

186.72 kN/m at E. kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 m kN/m kN/m kN/m kN/m 1/2 x (1008.665 + 522.27) x 3.5 kN ((522.27 + 2 x 1008.665)/(1008.665 + 522.27)) x (3.5/3) m from E kNm kNm

mm mm mm
2

mm

mm2 mm mm
2

mm2 bars

N N/mm2 N/mm
2

Hence shear reinforcement is required as v > c mm mm2 N N (st x A x d)/Vs mm c/c mm holding bar at top

duced, which are at right angles to their normal direction of bending. These moment are not determine , but normal reinforcement given bel

I1 H1 H I

## 11.5 F3 F 3.50 D E 3.00 1.00 F1 B 4.65

G G1

F2 C

8.75

FIGURE 1
Moment about toe (KN-m) 666.90 765.63 325.69 kN/m2 6291.94 7724

FIGURE 2

0.928

## 20 mm 100 mm c/c 1.16

20 mm 100 mm c/c

12.50

12.50

1.50

-21.74 kN/m2

M-15 0.15

M-20

M-25

M-30

M-35

M-40

0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50

0.18 0.22 0.29 0.34 0.37 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.44

0.18 0.22 0.30 0.35 0.39 0.42 0.45 0.47 0.49 0.51 0.51

0.19 0.23 0.31 0.36 0.40 0.44 0.46 0.49 0.51 0.53 0.55

0.20 0.23 0.31 0.37 0.41 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.53 0.55 0.57

0.20 0.23 0.31 0.37 0.42 0.45 0.49 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.58

0.20 0.23 0.32 0.38 0.42 0.46 0.49 0.52 0.55 0.57 0.60

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