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College of Engineering Civil Engineering Department

LABORATORY MANUAL Subject: CE 47 Hydraulics Experiment #: 7 Experiment Title: Determination of Discharge by Use of Pitot Tube Objectives: To determine the discharge of a channel by use of the pitot tube. Apparatus: Flume, Pitot Tube, Scale Ruler Theory: Since determining velocity at a number of points in a cross section permits evaluating the discharge, velocity measurement is an important phase of measuring flow. Velocity can be found by measuring the time an identifiable particle takes to move a known distance. This is done whenever it is convenient or necessary. This technique has been developed to study flow would be greatly disturbed and perhaps disappear if an instrument were introduced to measure the velocity. A transparent viewing region must be made available, and by means of a strong light and a powerful microscope the very minute impurities in the fluid can be photographed with a high speed motion camera. From such motion pictures the velocity of the particles, and therefore the velocity of the fluid in a small region, can be determined. Normally, however, the device used does not measure velocity directly, but yields a measurable quantity that can be related to velocity. The Pitot tube operates on such a principle and is one of the most accurate methods of measuring velocity. A glass tube or hypodermic needle with a right angled bend is used to measure the velocity in an open channel. The tube opening is directed upstream so that the fluid flow into the opening until the pressure builds up in the tube sufficiently to withstand the impact of velocity it. Directly in front of the opening the fluid is at rest. The streamline through point 1 leads to the point 2, called the stagnation point, where the fluid is at rest, and there divides and passes around the tube. The pressure at point 2 is known from the liquid column within the tube. Bernoullis equation, applied between points 1 and 2, produces

since both points are at the same elevation. As V = (2gh)1/2

, the equation reduces to

Procedure: 1. Measure the width of the channel 2. Open the main gate valve.

Drafted by: SJ, 02/23/13

College of Engineering Civil Engineering Department

3. Start gathering data when the flow becomes uniform. 4. Measure the depth of flowing water. 5. Lower down the pitot tube. Allow the piezometer level to stabilize. Measure the vertical distance from the water surface to the piezometric level. 6. Repeat procedure 5 for different sections in the channel. Observations: Width of channel: Depth of water: Trial # __________________ __________________ Vertical dist. From water surface to piezometric level (m) Velocity (m/sec) Actual Discharge (Q) % Discrepancy

Average Velocity: __________________ Discharge of channel: __________________ % Discrepancy: __________________

Drafted by: SJ, 02/23/13