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1

An Act Revising the Penal Code and Other


Penal Laws
(Act No. 3815 as Amended)

PRELIMINARY TITLE
DATE OF EFFECTIVENESS AND APPLICATION
OF THE PROVISIONS OF THIS CODE
Article 1. Time when Act takes effect. This Code shall
take effect on the First day of January, nineteen hundred
and thirty-two.
Article 2. Application of its provisions. Except as
provided in the treaties and laws of preferential application,
the provisions of this Code shall be enforced not only within
the Philippine Archipelago, including its atmosphere, its
interior waters and maritime zone but also outside of its
jurisdiction, against those who:
1.
Should commit an offense while on a Philippine
ship or airship;
2.
Should forge or counterfeit any coin or currency
note of the Philippine Islands of obligations and securities
issued by the Government of the Philippine Islands;
3.
Should be liable for acts connected with the introduction into these islands of the obligations and securities
mentioned in the preceding number;
4.
While being public ofcers or employees, should
commit an offense in the exercise of their functions; or
5.
Should commit any of the crimes against national
security and the law of nations, dened in Title One of Book
Two of this Code.
1

FUNDAMENTALS OF CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW

Criminal Law, Dened


Criminal law is that branch of municipal law which denes
crimes, treats of their nature and provides for their punishment. (12
CYC. 129)
What is a Crime?
A crime is the commission or omission by a person having
capacity, of any act, which is either prohibited or compelled by
law and the commission or omission of which is punishable by a
proceeding brought in the name of the government whose law has
been violated. (Whartons Criminal Law, 1957, vol. 1, p. 11)
Constitutional Limitations on Power of Congress to Enact Penal
Laws
Limitations on the power of Congress to enact penal laws
are found in Article III of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. These
limitations include:
1.

The law must observe both substantive and procedural


due process. (Art. III, Section 1)

2.

The law must be general in application. (Art. III, Section


1)

3.

The law should not impose cruel and unusual punishment


or excessive nes. (Art. III, Section 19)

4.

The law should not operate as a bill of attainder or as an


ex post facto law. (Art. III, Section 22)

Bill of Attainder
A Bill of Attainder is a legislative act which inicts penalty
without judicial trial.
Ex Post Facto Law
An ex post facto law is one which: (1) makes criminal an act
done before the passage of the law and which was innocent when
done, and punishes such an act; (2) aggravates a crime, or makes it
greater than it was when committed; (3) changes the punishment
and inicts a greater punishment than the law annexed to the

APPLICATION OF ITS PROVISIONS

crime when committed; (4) alters the legal rules of evidence, and
authorizes conviction upon less or different testimony than the law
required at the time of the commission of the offense; (5) assuming
to regulate civil rights, and remedies only, in effect imposes penalty
or deprivation of a right for something which when done was lawful;
and (6) deprives a person accused of a crime of some lawful protection
to which he has become entitled such as the protection of a former
conviction or acquittal, or a proclamation of amnesty.
The test whether a penal law runs afoul of the ex post facto
clause of the Constitution is: Does the law sought to be applied
retroactively take from an accused any right that was regarded at
the time of the adoption of the constitution as vital for the protection
of life and liberty and which he enjoyed at the time of the commission
of the offense charged against him?
The crucial words in the test are vital for the protection of life
and liberty. We nd, however, the test inapplicable to the penal
clause of Republic Act No. 7653. Penal laws and laws which, while
not penal in nature, nonetheless have provisions dening offenses
and prescribing penalties for their violation operate prospectively.
Penal laws cannot be given retroactive effect, except when they are
favorable to the accused. Nowhere in Republic Act No. 7653, and
in particular Section 36, is there any indication that the increased
penalties provided therein were intended to operate retroactively.
There is, therefore, no ex post facto law in this case. (Roberto S.
Benedicto and Hector T. Rivera, Petitioners, vs. The Court Of Appeals,
et. al, G.R. No. 125359, September 4, 2001)
Felony, Offense and Infraction of an Ordinance, Distinguished
If the crime is punished by the Revised Penal Code, it is called
a felony; if by a special law, it is called an offense; and if by an
ordinance, it is called an infraction of an ordinance.
Theories in Criminal Law
The theories or the schools of thought in Criminal Law are as
follows:
1.

Classical or Juristic Theory where the basis of criminal


liability is human free will. The purpose of the penalty
is retribution in view of the voluntariness of the act or

PREFACE TO THE TENTH EDITION


(2008 Edition)
There have been numerous changes in our penal laws requiring
the revision of this book. The Supreme Court in a multitude of
decisions has set distinctions in the application of the countrys penal
laws. The latest statutes such as Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile
Justice and Welfare Act of 2006) and Republic Act No. 9372 (Human
Security Act of 2007), as well as landmark decisions including People
vs. Genosa (G.R. No. 139581, January 15, 2004) and Valenzuela
vs. People (G.R. No. 160188, June 17, 2007) were discussed in this
edition. We have likewise incorporated at the end of each Chapter/
Title the relevant bar examination questions, in the hope that it will
assist the bar examinees in their review of Criminal Law.
We express our gratitude to the Supreme Court for awarding
the CENTENARY BOOK AWARD to the FUNDAMENTALS OF
CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW authored by the late DEAN ANTONIO
L. GREGORIO.
We dedicate this humble work to the memory of our father,
DEAN ANTONIO L. GREGORIO, whose name is the best legacy
for his family and to our late mother, CLEO ZAPATA GREGORIO,
who has remained our inspiration and pillar of strength, despite her
demise.

CARINA MA. GREGORIO

iii

PREFACE TO THE NINTH EDITION


(1997 Edition)
Since the last edition of this book, new and novel doctrines in
the field of criminal law have been established by our Supreme Court
and new laws have been enacted by the Congress of the Philippines.
In view of the clamor of the students and practitioners of law,
his family updated the Fundamentals authored by the late Dean
ANTONIO L. GREGORIO. All important decisions of the Supreme
Court and the Court of Appeals, recent penal statutes as well as
codal provisions have been collated and included in this edition. It
is hoped that, as in the past, it will be of help to the law students,
bar reviewees and even to the members of the bench and bar for
whatever it may be worth.
Acknowledgment is made to those who have been of help in the
preparation of this book, particularly to the staff of Rex Book Store.
We dedicate this humble work to the memory of our father,
DEAN ANTONIO L. GREGORIO whose name has remained the
best legacy for his family, and to our loving mother, CLEO ZAPATA
GREGORIO who is our inspiration, our beacon light and above all,
our pillar of strength.

CARINA MA. GREGORIO


April 22, 1997

iv

PREFACE TO THE EIGHTH EDITION


(1988 Edition)
This edition has been updated by recent Supreme Court
Decisions in Criminal Law and penal legislative enactment.
The decisions have been evaluated and collated so as to follow
established jurisprudence. Again, the assistance of the former
students of the author, namely: WALTER F. REYNOSO, Customs
Examiner, Manila International Container Port (MICP), Department
of Finance; and Manila Assistant City Probation Officer ZENAIDA
H. BRIOSO, former Technical Assistant in the Office of the Assistant
Administrator, PA, Department of Justice and part-time Professor,
Social Science and Education Departments, Philippine Normal
College, Manila, is acknowledged for proofreading the manuscript
and checking the citations. The Bar questions in Criminal Law are
also included. It is earnestly hoped that humble work will also prove
to be useful to law students, bar reviewees and also to the bench and
bar.

THE AUTHOR
Manila, Philippines
January 11, 1988

PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH EDITION


(1985 Edition)
This edition includes a supplement of recent Supreme Court
decisions and of penal statutes, which are pertinent presidential
decrees and batas enacted by the Batasang Pambansa. Such
updates the citations without affecting the context of the format.
The author does hope this edition will also be of help to law students,
bar reviewees and even to the members of the bench and bar.
Acknowledgment is extended to Walter F. Reynoso and Zenaida
Hermo Brioso, his former students at the UST Faculty of Civil
Law (1976) and SSC School of Law (1984), respectively, and both
Assistant City Probation Officers of Manila, for proofreading the
manuscript and checking the citations, and to his former secretary,
Ms. Patrocinio P. Conato, for her assistance, in many ways.

ANTONIO L. GREGORIO

Manila, October 28, 1985

vi

PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION


(1983 Edition)
The author could not resist the request of his former students
and friends to come out with the latest edition of this humble work.
So, recent Supreme Court decisions and legislative enactments have
been collated and incorporated. 1981 and 1982 Bar examination
questions in Criminal Law are included. Again, the end in view
is primarily for those preparing for the bar examination not to
encounter difficulties, due to time constraint, in assimilating the
fundamentals of criminal law.
Deep appreciation is extended to Miss Patrocinio P. Conato,
the personal secretary of the author, for the help in the revision of
this project and of course, to the staff of REX PRINTING CO., INC., who
made this edition possible.

DEAN ANTONIO L. GREGORIO

Manila, February 14, 1983

vii

PREFACE TO THE 1981 EDITION


Since the last edition of this humble work, new and novel
doctrines in the field of criminal law have been established by our
Supreme Court. Because of the clamor of his students that this
Fundamentals be updated, the author perforce has to muster time
and effort to make a more practical and simplier approach in the
treatment of the subject. It is hoped that, as in the past, it will be of
help to the law students, bar reviewees and even to the members of
the bench and bar for whatever it may be worth.
Again, appreciation is extended to Miss Patrocinio P. Conato
for typing the manuscript and to the staff of Rex Book Store for their
unsolicited cooperation and encouragement.

THE AUTHOR

May 15, 1981

viii

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION


The author has been encouraged by his former students, most
of whom are now members of the bar, to revise the last edition of
his humble work, for the benefit of the current crop of law reviewees
and law students. It is indeed gratifying to know that it has been
immensely helpful to many, including those who are in the practice
of law. All the important decisions of the Supreme Court and of the
Court of Appeals, as well as recent penal statutes and presidential
decrees have been collated and included in this edition. The aim of
the author is to present the basic fundamentals of criminal law in a
simple manner for easy reading and understanding.
Acknowledgment is made to those who have been of help in
the preparation of this book, particularly to the daughter of the
author, Miss Carina Gregorio, who supervised the proofreading;
Miss Patrocinio Conato who typed the manuscript; Atty.Lily Gruba,
former student of the author in the Ateneo College of Law, who
helped in checking the citations, and to the staff of REX BOOK STORE,
for their infinite patience and cooperation.

THE AUTHOR

Manila, May 30, 1978

ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS
BOOK ONE

Page
Preface ......................................................................................

iii

PRELIMINARY TITLE DATE OF EFFECTIVENESS


AND APPLICATION OF THE PROVISIONS
OF THIS CODE ...............................................................
Article 1.
Article 2.

Time when Act takes effect .......................


Application of its provisions ......................
Review Questions.......................................

1
1
8

TITLE ONE. FELONIES AND CIRCUMSTANCES


WHICH AFFECT CRIMINAL LIABILITY....................

Chapter One. Felonies ....................................................

Article 3.
Article 4.
Article 5.

Article 6.
Article 7.
Article 8.
Article 9.
Article 10.

Definition and elements ............................


Criminal liability .......................................
Duty of the court in connection with
acts which should be repressed but which
are not covered by the law, and in cases
of excessive penalties .................................
Consummated, frustrated, and attempted
felonies........................................................
When light felonies are punishable ..........
Conspiracy and proposal to commit
felony ..........................................................
Grave felonies, less grave felonies and
light felonies ...............................................
Offenses not subject to the provisions of the
Revised Penal Code....................................
Review Questions.......................................
x

9
16

23
26
36
37
43
44
45

Chapter Two. Justifying circumstances and


circumstances which exempt from criminal
liability ...........................................................................
Article 11.
Article 12.

Justifying circumstances ...........................


Circumstances which exempt from
criminal liability ........................................
R.A. No. 9344 Juvenile Justice and
Welfare Act of 2006....................................
Review Questions.......................................

Chapter Three. Circumstances which mitigate


criminal liability ........................................................
Article 13.

47
47
72
73
89
91

Mitigating circumstances ..........................


Review Questions.......................................

91
130

Chapter Four Circumstances which aggravate


criminal liability ..........................................................

132

Article 14.

Aggravating circumstances .......................


Review Questions.......................................

132
201

Chapter Five. Alternative circumstances ..................

203

Article 15.

Their concept ..............................................


Review Question ........................................

203
209

TITLE TWO. PERSONS CRIMINALLY LIABLE


FOR FELONIES .............................................................

210

Article 16.
Article 17.
Article 18.
Article 19.
Article 20.

Who are criminally liable ..........................


Principals ...................................................
Accomplices ................................................
Accessories .................................................
Accessories who are exempt from
criminal liability ........................................
Review Questions.......................................

210
212
219
224

TITLE THREE. PENALTIES .............................................

231

Chapter One. Penalties in general...............................

231

Article 21.
Article 22.
Article 23.
Article 24.

Penalties that may be imposed .................


Retroactive effect of penal laws ................
Effect of pardon by the offended party .....
Measures of prevention or safety which
are not considered penalties......................
xi

229
230

233
234
236
237

Chapter Two. Classification of penalties ...................

239

Article 25.

Penalties which may be imposed ..............

239

Article 26.

Fine When afflictive, correctional,


or light penalty...........................................

243

Chapter Three. Duration and effect of penalties .....

245

Section One. Duration of penalties .....................

245

Article 27.
Article 28.
Article 29.

245
247

Reclusion perpetua, etc. .............................


Computation of penalties ..........................
Period of preventive imprisonment
deducted from term of imprisonment .......

247

Section Two. Effect of penalties according to


their respective nature ......................................

250

Article 30.
Article 31.
Article 32.

Article 33.

Article 34.
Article 35.
Article 36.
Article 37.
Article 38.
Article 39.

Effects of the penalties of perpetual


or temporary absolute disqualification .....
Effects of the penalties of perpetual
or temporary special disqualification .......
Effects of perpetual or temporary
special disqualification for the exercise
of the right of suffrage ...............................
Effects of the penalties of suspension
from any public office, profession or
calling, or the right of suffrage..................
Civil interdiction ........................................
Effects of bond to keep the peace ..............
Pardon, its effects ......................................
Costs What are included .......................
Pecuniary liabilities Order
of payment ..................................................
Subsidiary penalty .....................................

Section Three. Penalties in which other


accessory penalties are inherent ....................
Article 40.
Article 41.
Article 42.
Article 43.

Death Its accessory penalties ...............


Reclusion perpetua and reclusion
temporal Their accessory penalties ......
Prision mayor Its accessory penalties ..
Prision correccional Its accessory
penalties .....................................................
xii

250
251

252

252
253
253
255
256
257
258

262
262
262
262
262

Article 44.
Article 45.

Arresto Its accessory penalties .............


262
Confiscation and forfeiture of the proceeds or
instruments of the crime ...........................
263

Chapter Four. Application of penalties ......................

265

Section One. Rules for the application


of penalties to the persons criminally liable
and for the graduation of the same ................

265

Article 46.
Article 47.

Article 48.
Article 49.

Article 50.
Article 51.
Article 52.
Article 53.

Article 54.
Article 55.
Article 56.
Article 57.
Article 58.
Article 59.

Penalty to be imposed upon principals


in general....................................................
In what cases the death penalty shall
not be imposed; Automatic review of
death penalty cases....................................
R.A. No. 9346 An Act Prohibiting
the Imposition of Death Penalty in the
Philippines .................................................
Penalty for complex crimes........................
Penalty to be imposed upon the principals
when the crime committed is different
from that intended .....................................
Penalty to be imposed upon principals
of a frustrated crime ..................................
Penalty to be imposed upon principals
of attempted crime .....................................
Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices
in a consummated crime............................
Penalty to be imposed upon accessories
to the commission of a consummated
felony ..........................................................
Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices
in a frustrated crime ..................................
Penalty to be imposed upon accessories
of a frustrated crime ..................................
Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices
in an attempted crime ...............................
Penalty to be imposed upon accessories
of an attempted crime................................
Additional penalty to be imposed upon
certain accessories .....................................
Penalty to be imposed in case of failure
to commit the crime because the means

xiii

265

266

267
269

284
286
286
286

287
287
287
287
288
288

Article 60.
Article 61.

employed or the aims sought are


impossible ...................................................
Exception to the rules established
in Articles 50 to 57 .....................................
Rules for graduating penalties..................

289
289
291

Section Two. Rules for the application of penalties


with regard to the mitigating and aggravating
circumstances and habitual delinquency .....
296
Article 62.

Article 63.
Article 64.
Article 65.
Article 66.
Article 67.

Article 68.
Article 69.
Article 70.
Article 71.
Article 72.

Effects of the attendance of mitigating


or aggravating circumstances and of
habitual delinquency .................................
Rules for the application of indivisible
penalties .....................................................
Rules for the application of penalties
which contain three periods ......................
Rules in cases in which the penalty is
not composed of three periods ...................
Imposition of fines......................................
Penalty to be imposed when not all the
requisites of exemption of the fourth
circumstance of Article 12 are present .....
Penalty to be imposed upon a minor
under eighteen years of age ......................
Penalty to be imposed when the crime
committed is not wholly excusable ...........
Successive service of sentences .................
Graduated scales........................................
Preference in payment of the civil
liabilities.....................................................

Section Three. Provision common to the


last two preceding sections ..............................
Article 73.
Article 74.
Article 75.
Article 76.

Presumptions in regard to the imposition


of accessory penalties ................................
Penalty higher than reclusion perpetua ...
in certain cases...........................................
Increasing or reducing the penalty
of fine by one or more degrees ...................
Legal period of duration of divisible
penalties .....................................................
xiv

296
305
307
309
311

311
312
313
314
318
319

320

320
320
321
321

Article 77.

When the penalty is a complex one


composed of three distinct penalties .........
Act No. 4103 Indeterminate
Sentence Law .............................................

322
323

Chapter Five. Execution and service of penalties ...

333

Section One. General provisions .........................

333

Article 78.
Article 79.
Article 80.

When and how a penalty is to be


executed ......................................................
Suspension of the execution and service
of the penalties in case of insanity............
Suspension of sentence of minor
delinquents .................................................
P.D. 603 Child and Youth Welfare
Code (Repealed by R.A. No. 9344) ...........

333
334
334
334

Section Two. Execution of principal penalties


Article 81.
Article 82.
Article 83.
Article 84.
Article 85.
Article 86.
Article 87.
Article 88.

When and how the death penalty is to


be executed .................................................
Notification and execution of the sentence
and assistance to the culprit .....................
Suspension of the execution of the
death sentence ...........................................
Place of execution and persons who
may witness the same ...............................
Provisions relative to the corpse of the
person executed and its burial ..................
Reclusion perpetua, reclusion temporal,
prision mayor, prision correccional
and arresto mayor ......................................
Destierro .....................................................
Arresto menor .............................................
Review Questions.......................................

342
343
344
345
345
345
345
346
347

TITLE FOUR. EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL


LIABILITY.......................................................................

349

Chapter One. Total extinction of criminal


liability ...........................................................................

349

Article 89.

How criminal liability is totally


extinguished ...............................................
xv

349

Article 90.
Article 91.

Article 92.
Article 93.

Prescription of crimes ................................


Computation of prescription of offenses ...
Act No. 3326, as amended An Act
to Establish ... Periods of Prescription for
Violations Penalized by Special Acts
And Municipal Ordinances and to Provide
When Prescription Shall Begin to Run.....
When and how penalties prescribe ...........
Computation of the prescription
of penalties .................................................

Chapter Two. Partial extinction of criminal


liability ...........................................................................
Article 94.
Article 95.

353
354

358
361
362
363

Partial extinction of criminal liability ......


Obligation incurred by person granted
conditional pardon .....................................
Effect of commutation of sentence ............
Allowance for good conduct .......................
Special time allowance for loyalty ............
Who grants time allowances .....................
P.D. No. 968, as amended
Probation Law ............................................
Review Questions.......................................

363

TITLE FIVE. CIVIL LIABILITY ........................................

380

Chapter One. Persons civilly liable for felonies ...........

380

Article 96.
Article 97.
Article 98.
Article 99.

Article 100. Civil liability of a person guilty


of felony ......................................................
Article 101. Rules regarding civil liability in
certain cases ...............................................
Article 102. Subsidiary civil liability of innkeepers,
tavern-keepers and proprietors of
establishments ...........................................
Article 103. Subsidiary civil liability of other
persons........................................................

363
364
365
366
366
366
379

380
389
391
392

Chapter Two. What civil liability includes ................

396

Article 104. What is included in civil liability ..............


Article 105. Restitution How made ..........................
Article 106. Reparation How made ..........................

396
398
398

xvi

Article 107. Indemnification What is included ........


Article 108. Obligation to make restoration,
reparation for damages, or indemnification
for consequential damages and action
to demand the same Upon whom it
devolves ......................................................
Article 109. Share of each person civilly liable.............
Article 110. Several and subsidiary liability of
principals, accomplices, and accessories
of a felony Preference in payment ........
Article 111. Obligation to make restitution in
certain cases ...............................................

400

401
402

402
403

Chapter Three. Extinction and survival


of civil liability .............................................................

404

Article 112. Extinction of civil liability .........................


Article 113. Obligation to satisfy civil liability.............
Review Questions.......................................

404
404
407

BOOK TWO
CRIMES AND PENALTIES
TITLE ONE. CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL
SECURITY AND THE LAW OF NATIONS ..................

408

Chapter One. Crimes against national security .......

408

Section One. Treason and espionage..................

408

Article 114. Treason .......................................................


Article 115. Conspiracy and proposal to commit
treason ........................................................
Article 116. Misprision of treason .................................
Article 117. Espionage ...................................................

408
417
418
419

Section Two. Provoking war and disloyalty


in case of war .......................................................

420

Article 118. Inciting to war or giving


motives for reprisals ..................................
Article 119. Violation of neutrality ...............................
Article 120. Correspondence with hostile country .......
Article 121. Flight to enemys country ..........................

420
421
421
423

xvii

Section Three. Piracy and mutiny on the high


seas or in Philippine waters .............................
Article 122. Piracy in general and mutiny on the high
seas or in Philippine waters ......................
Article 123. Qualified piracy..........................................
P.D. No. 532 Piracy in Philippine
Waters ........................................................
R.A. No. 6235 - Aircraft Piracy
or Hijacking ................................................
Review Questions.......................................

423

423
427
427
428
429

TITLE TWO. CRIMES AGAINST THE FUNDAMENTAL


LAWS OF THE STATE...................................................

431

Chapter One. Arbitrary detention or expulsion,


violation of dwelling, prohibition, interruption,
and dissolution of peaceful meetings and crimes
against religious worship ..........................................

431

Section One. Arbitrary detention and


expulsion ...............................................................

431

Article 124. Arbitrary detention ....................................


Article 125. Delay in the delivery of detained
persons to the proper judicial
authorities ..................................................
Article 126. Delaying release.........................................
Article 127. Expulsion....................................................

431

Section Two. Violation of Domicile.....................

440

Article 128. Violation of domicile ..................................


Article 129. Search warrants maliciously obtained
and abuse in the service of those legally
obtained ......................................................
Article 130. Searching domicile without witnesses ......
....................................................................
Section Three. Prohibition, interruption,
and dissolution of peaceful meetings .............

440

445

Article 131. Prohibition, interruption and dissolution


of peaceful meetings ..................................

445

xviii

434
438
439

441
444

Section Four. Crimes against religious


worship ..................................................................

448

Article 132. Interruption of religious worship ..............


Article 133. Offending the religious feelings ................
Review Questions.......................................

448
448
451

TITLE THREE. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER ....

452

Chapter One. Rebellion, Sedition and Disloyalty ....

453

Article 134. Rebellion or insurrection ...........................


Article 134-A. Coup detatHow committed .................
Article 135. Penalty for rebellion, insurrection
or coup detat ..............................................
Article 136. Conspiracy and proposal to commit
coup detat, rebellion or insurrection ........
Article 137. Disloyalty of public officers or
employees ...................................................
Article 138. Inciting to rebellion or insurrection ..........
Article 139. Sedition How committed .......................
Article 140. Penalty for sedition....................................
Article 141. Conspiracy to commit sedition ..................
Article 142. Inciting to sedition .....................................

453
457
458
461
463
463
464
466
467
467

Chapter Two. Crimes against popular


representation ..............................................................

469

Section One. Crimes against legislative


bodies and similar bodies..................................

469

Article 143. Acts tending to prevent the meeting


of the Assembly and similar bodies ..........
Article 144. Disturbance of proceedings .......................

469
469

Section Two. Violation of parliamentary


immunity ...............................................................

470

Article 145. Violation of parliamentary immunity.......

470

Chapter Three. Illegal assemblies and


associations ...................................................................

472

Article 146. Illegal assemblies.......................................


Article 147. Illegal associations.....................................

472
473

xix

Chapter Four. Assault upon, and resistance and


disobedience to persons in authority and
their agents ...................................................................

475

Article 148. Direct assaults ...........................................


Article 149. Indirect assaults ........................................
Article 150. Disobedience to summons issued by the
National Assembly, its committees or
subcommittees, by the Constitutional
Commission, its committees,
subcommittees or divisions .......................
Article 151. Resistance and disobedience to a person
in authority or the agents of such
persons........................................................
Article 152. Persons in authority and agents of
persons in authority Who shall be
deemed as such ..........................................

482

Chapter Five. Public disorders ....................................

488

Article 153. Tumults and other disturbances of public


orders Tumultuous disturbances or
interruption liable to cause disturbance ..
Article 154. Unlawful use of means of publication
and unlawful utterances............................
Article 155. Alarms and scandals..................................
Article 156. Delivering prisoners from jail ...................

475
481

483

486

488
490
491
492

Chapter Six. Evasion of service of sentence..............

494

Article 157. Evasion of service of sentence ...................


Article 158. Evasion of service of sentence on the
occasion of disorders, conflagrations,
earthquakes, or other calamities ..............
Article 159. Other cases of evasion of service
of sentence ..................................................

494

496
497

Chapter Seven. Commission of another crime


during service of penalty imposed for another
previous offense ...........................................................

501

Article 160. Commission of another crime during


service of penalty imposed for another
previous offense .........................................
Review Questions.......................................

501
503

xx

TITLE FOUR. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST

505

Chapter One. Forgeries ..................................................

507

Section One. Forging the seal of the


Government of the Philippine Island, the
signature or stamp of the Chief Executive ...

507

Article 161. Counterfeiting the great seal of the


Government of the Philippine Island,
forging the signature or stamp of the
Chief Executive ..........................................
Article 162. Using forged signature or counterfeit
seal or stamp ..............................................
Section Two. Counterfeiting coins ......................
Article 163. Making and importing and uttering
false coins ...................................................
BSP Circular No. 61, Series of 1995
Consolidated Rules and Regulations
on Currency Notes and Coins....................
Article 164. Mutilation of coins Importation
and utterance of mutilated coins ..............
Article 165. Selling of false or mutilated coin,
without connivance ....................................
Section Three. Forging treasury or bank notes,
obligations and securities, importing and
uttering false or forged notes, obligations
and securities .......................................................
Article 166. Forging treasury or bank notes, or other
documents payable to bearer; importing,
and uttering such false or forged notes
and documents ...........................................
Article 167. Counterfeiting, importing and uttering
instruments not payable to bearer............
Article 168. Illegal possession and use of false treasury
or bank notes and other instruments
of credit .......................................................
Article 169. How forgery is committed .........................

xxi

507
507
508
508

510
512
513

514

514
516

518
520

Section Four. Falsification of legislative, public,


commercial and private documents, and
wireless, telegraph, and telephone
messages ................................................................
Article 170. Falsification of legislative documents.......
Article 171. Falsification by public officer, employee,
or notary or ecclesiastical minister ...........
Article 172. Falsification by private individual and
use of falsified documents..........................
Article 173. Falsification of wireless, cable, telegraph
and telephone messages, and use of said
falsified messages ......................................

521
521
525
535

542

Section Five. Falsification of medical certificates,


certificates of merit or service and the like ..
543
Article 174. False medical certificates, false
certificates of merit or service, etc. ...........
Article 175. Using false certificates ..............................

543
544

Section Six. Manufacturing, importing and


possession of instruments or implements
intended for the commission of
falsification ...........................................................

544

Article 176. Manufacturing and possession of instrument


or implements for falsification ..................
544
Chapter Two. Other Falsities........................................

546

Section One. Usurpation of authority, rank,


title and improper use of names, uniforms
and insignia ..........................................................

546

Article 177. Usurpation of authority or official


functions .....................................................
Article 178. Using fictitious name and concealing
true name ...................................................
C.A. No. 142 Anti-Alias Law ................
Article 179. Illegal use of uniforms or insignia ............

547
549
550

Section Two. False testimony ...............................

551

Article 180. False testimony against a defendant ........

551

xxii

546

Article 181. False testimony favorable to the


defendant....................................................
Article 182. False testimony in civil cases ....................
Article 183. False testimony in other cases and perjury
in solemn affirmation ................................
Article 184. Offering false testimony in evidence ........

552
553
553
556

Chapter Three. Frauds ...................................................

558

Section One. Machinations, monopolies and


combinations ........................................................

558

Article 185. Machinations in public auctions ...............


Article 186. Monopolies and combinations in
restraint of trade........................................
Section Two. Frauds in commerce and
industry .................................................................
Article 187. Importation and disposition of falsely
marked articles or merchandise made
of gold, silver or other precious
metals or their alloys .................................
Article 188. Substituting and altering trademarks,
tradenames, or service marks ...................
Article 189. Unfair competition, fraudulent registration
of tradename, trademark, or service mark,
fraudulent designation of origin, and
false description .........................................
Review Questions.......................................
TITLE FIVE. CRIMES RELATIVE TO OPIUM AND
OTHER PROHIBITED DRUGS .....................................
Articles 190-194. (Repealed and modified by
Republic Act No. 9165) ..............................
R.A. No. 9165 An Act Instituting the
Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act o
f 2002, Repealing Republic Act No. 6425,
Otherwise Known as the Dangerous Drugs
Act of 1972, As Amended, Providing Funds
Therefor, and for Other Purposes. ............
Review Questions.......................................

xxiii

558
558

560

560
561

562
564

567

567

567
626

TITLE SIX. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC MORALS.............

628

Chapter One. Gambling and betting ...........................

628

Article 195. What acts are punishable in gambling .....


Article 196. Importation, sale, and possession
of lottery tickets or advertisements ..........
Article 197. Betting in sports contests ..........................
P.D. No. 483 ...............................................
Article 198. Illegal betting on horse races ....................
R.A. No. 954, as amended by R.A.
No. 3063......................................................
Article 199. Illegal cockfighting.....................................
P.D. No. 449 Cockfighting Law of 1974,
as amended by P.D. No. 1309,
March 6, 1978.............................................
P.D. No. 1602 Prescribing Stiffer
Penalties on Illegal Gambling ...................
LOI No. 816 To Exclude Certain
Prohibited Games Under Presidential
Decree No. 1602 .........................................
Chapter Two. Offenses against decency and
good customs.................................................................

628
631
632
632
634
635
635

636
640

642

645

Article 200. Grave scandal.............................................


Article 201. Immoral doctrines, obscene publications
and exhibitions, and indecent shows ........
P.D. No. 960 ...............................................
P.D. No. 969 ...............................................
Article 202. Vagrants and prostitutes Penalty ........
Review Questions.......................................

645
646
646
650
657

TITLE SEVEN. CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC


OFFICERS .......................................................................

658

Chapter One. Preliminary provisions.........................

658

Article 203. Who are public officers ..............................

658

Chapter Two. Malfeasance and Misfeasance


in Office ..........................................................................

660

Section One. Dereliction of duty .........................

660

Article 204. Knowingly rendering unjust judgment ....

660

xxiv

645

Article 205. Judgment rendered through negligence ...


Article 206. Unjust interlocutory order ........................
Article 207. Malicious delay in the administration
of justice .....................................................
Article 208. Prosecution of offenses; negligence
and tolerance ..............................................
Article 209. Betrayal of trust by an attorney or
solicitor Revelation of secrets ...............

661
661

Section Two. Bribery ..............................................

665

Article 210. Direct bribery .............................................


Article 211. Indirect bribery ..........................................
Article 211-A. Qualified Bribery .....................................
Article 212. Corruption of public officials .....................
P. D. No. 749 ..............................................
R.A. No. 3019 Anti-Graft
Practices Act...............................................
Memorandum Circular No. 11,
Series of 1995 .............................................
R.A. No. 7080 An Act Defining and
Penalizing the Crime of Plunder...............

665
669
670
670
671

687

Chapter Three. Frauds and illegal exactions


and transactions ..........................................................

692

Article 213. Frauds against the public treasury


and similar offenses ...................................
Article 214. Other frauds ...............................................
Article 215. Prohibited transactions .............................
Article 216. Possession of prohibited interest
by a public officer .......................................
Chapter Four. Malversation of public funds
or property ....................................................................
Article 217. Malversation of public funds or property
Presumption of malversation ...............
Article 218. Failure of accountable officer to render
accounts ......................................................
Article 219. Failure of a responsible public officer to
render accounts before leaving the
country........................................................
Article 220. Illegal use of public funds or property ......
xxv

662
663
664

673
678

692
694
694
695

698

698
705

707
707

Article 221. Failure to make delivery of public funds


or property..................................................
Article 222. Officers included in the preceding
provisions ...................................................

708
709

Chapter Five. Infidelity of public officers ..................

711

Section One. Infidelity in the custody


of prisoners ...........................................................

711

Article 223. Conniving with or consenting to evasion..


Article 224. Evasion through negligence ......................
Article 225. Escape of prisoner under the custody
of a person not a public officer ..................

711
712
713

Section Two. Infidelity in the custody


of documents ........................................................

714

Article 226. Removal, concealment or destruction


of documents ..............................................
Article 227. Officer breaking seal ..................................
Article 228. Opening of closed documents ....................

714
716
716

Section Three. Revelation of secrets ..................

717

Article 229. Revelation of secrets by an officer .............


Article 230. Public officer revealing secrets of private
individual ...................................................

717

Chapter Six. Other offenses or irregularities


by public officers ..........................................................

718

719

Section One. Disobedience, refusal of assistance,


and maltreatment of prisoners ........................
719
Article 231. Open disobedience .....................................
Article 232. Disobedience to order of superior officer,
when said order was suspended by
inferior officer .............................................
Article 233. Refusal of assistance..................................
Article 234. Refusal to discharge elective office ...........
Article 235. Maltreatment of prisoners ........................

xxvi

719

719
720
721
721

Section Two. Anticipation, prolongation


and abandonment of duties and powers
of public office ......................................................
Article 236. Anticipation of duties of a public office .....
Article 237. Prolonging performance of duties
and powers .................................................
Article 238. Abandonment of office or position .............
Section Three. Usurpation of powers
and unlawful appointments..............................
Article 239.
Article 240.
Article 241.
Article 242.
Article 243.

723
723
723
724

725

Usurpation of legislative powers...............


Usurpation of executive functions ............
Usurpation of judicial functions................
Disobeying request for disqualification ....
Orders or requests by executive officers
to any judicial authority ............................
Article 244. Unlawful appointments .............................

725
725
725
726

Section Four. Abuses against chastity ...............

727

Article 245. Abuses against chastity Penalties........


Review Questions.......................................

727
728

TITLE EIGHT. CRIMES AGAINST PERSONS................

730

Chapter One. Destruction of life ..................................

731

Section One. Parricide, murder, homicide .......

731

Article 246. Parricide .....................................................


Article 247. Death or physical injuries inflicted
under exceptional circumstances ..............
Article 248. Murder ........................................................
Article 249. Homicide.....................................................
Article 250. Penalty for frustrated parricide, murder
or homicide .................................................
Article 251. Death caused in a tumultuous affray .......
Article 252. Physical injuries in a tumultuous affray ..
Article 253. Giving assistance to suicide ......................
Article 254. Discharge of firearms.................................

731

xxvii

726
727

733
738
741
742
743
744
745
746

Section Two. Infanticide and abortion ..............

747

Article 255.
Article 256.
Article 257.
Article 258.

747
748
749

Infanticide ..................................................
Intentional abortion...................................
Unintentional abortion ..............................
Abortion practiced by the woman
herself or by her parents ...........................
Article 259. Abortion practiced by a physician or
midwife and dispensing of abortives.........

750

Section Three. Duel ................................................

751

Article 260. Responsibility of participants in a duel ....


Article 261. Challenging to a duel.................................

751
752

Chapter Two. Physical injuries ....................................

753

Article 262. Mutilation...................................................


Article 263. Serious physical injuries ...........................
Article 264. Administering injurious substances
or beverages ...............................................
Article 265. Less serious physical injuries ...................
Article 266. Slight physical injuries and
maltreatment .............................................

753
753

749

757
757
759

Chapter Three. Rape .......................................................

760

Article 266-A. Rape, when and how committed .............


Review Questions.......................................

760
789

TITLE NINE. CRIMES AGAINST PERSONAL LIBERTY


AND SECURITY .............................................................

792

Chapter One. Crimes against liberty ..........................

793

Section One. Illegal detention ..............................

793

Article 267. Kidnapping and serious illegal


detention.....................................................
Article 268. Slight illegal detention ..............................
Article 269. Unlawful arrest..........................................

793
797
798

Section Two. Kidnapping of minors ...................

799

Article 270. Kidnapping and failure to return


a minor .......................................................

799

xxviii

Article 271. Inducing a minor to abandon his home ....

799

Section Three. Slavery and servitude ................

801

Article 272. Slavery........................................................


Article 273. Exploitation of child labor .........................
Article 274. Services rendered under compulsion
in payment of debts ...................................

801
801

Chapter Two. Crimes against security ......................

803

Section One. Abandonment of helpless persons


and exploitation of minors................................

802

803

Article 275. Abandonment of persons in danger


and abandonment of ones own victim ......
Article 276. Abandoning a minor ..................................
Article 277. Abandonment of minor by person
entrusted with his custody; indifference
of parents....................................................
Article 278. Exploitation of minors ...............................
Article 279. Additional penalties for other offenses .....

805
806
807

Section Two. Trespass to dwelling ......................

808

Article 280. Qualified trespass to dwelling ...................


Article 281. Other forms of trespass .............................

808
812

Section Three. Threats and coercions................

812

Article 282.
Article 283.
Article 284.
Article 285.
Article 286.
Article 287.
Article 288.
Article 289.

812
815
816
816
817
821
823

Grave threats .............................................


Light threats ..............................................
Bond for good behavior ..............................
Other light threats.....................................
Grave coercions ..........................................
Light coercions ...........................................
Other similar coercions .............................
Formation, maintenance, and prohibition
of combination of capital or labor through
violence or threats .....................................

803
804

823

Chapter Three. Discovery and revelation


of secrets ........................................................................

825

Article 290. Discovering secrets through seizure


of correspondence .......................................

825

xxix

Article 291. Revealing secrets with abuse of office ......


Article 292. Revelation of industrial secrets ................
Review Questions.......................................

827
827
828

TITLE TEN. CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY .................

830

Chapter One. Robbery in general ................................

831

Article 293. Who are guilty of robbery ..........................

831

Section One. Robbery with violence against


or intimidation of persons ................................

835

Article 294. Robbery with violence against or


intimidation of persons Penalties.........
Article 295. Robbery with physical injuries, committed
in an uninhabited place and by a band
or with the use of firearm on a street, road,
or alley ........................................................
Article 296. Definition of a band and penalty incurred
by the members thereof .............................
Article 297. Attempted and frustrated robbery
committed under certain circumstances ..
Article 298. Execution of deeds by means of violence
or intimidation ...........................................
Section Two. Robbery by the use of force
upon things ...........................................................
Article 299. Robbery in an inhabited house or public
building or edifice devoted to religious
worship .......................................................
Article 300. Robbery in an uninhabited place and
by a band ....................................................
Article 301. What is an inhabited house, public
building or building dedicated to religious
worship and their dependencies ...............
Article 302. Robbery in an uninhabited place or in
a private building.......................................
Article 303. Robbery of cereals, fruits, or firewood
in an uninhabited place or private
building.......................................................
Article 304. Possession of picklocks or similar tools ....

xxx

835

850
851
853
854

854

854
859

859
861

863
864

Article 305. False keys ...................................................


R.A. No. 6539, as amended An Act
Preventing and Penalizing Carnapping ...
P.D. No. 532 Anti-Piracy and AntiHighway Robbery Law of 1974 .................
P.D. No. 533 Cattle Rustling Law ........

864
865
872
874

Chapter Two. Brigandage ..............................................

877

Article 306. Who are brigands Penalty ....................


Article 307. Aiding and abetting a band of brigands ...

877
879

Chapter Three. Theft ......................................................

881

Article 308. Who are liable for theft..............................


R.A. No. 7832 Anti-Electricity
Pilferage Act of 1994 ..................................
P.D. No. 704 Illegal Fishing Law .........
Article 309. Penalties for the crime of theft .................
Article 310. Qualified theft ............................................
P.D. No. 705 Revised Forestry Code ....
Article 311. Theft of property of the National Library
and National Museum ...............................
P.D. No 1612 Anti-fencing
Law of 1979 ................................................

881
889
904
909
911
915
919
920

Chapter Four. Usurpation .............................................

923

Article 312. Occupation of real property or


usurpation of real rights in property ........
E.O. No. 129 Anti-Squatting Law ........
Article 313. Altering boundaries or landmarks ............

923
925
928

Chapter Five. Culpable insolvency .............................

929

Article 314. Fraudulent insolvency ...............................

929

Chapter Six. Swindling and other deceits .................

931

Article 315. Swindling (estafa) ......................................


B.P. No. 22 Bouncing Checks Law .......
P.D. No. 818 Increasing Penalties
for Estafa ....................................................

931
964

xxxi

971

P. D. No. 1689 Increasing Penalties


for Certain Forms of Estafa ......................
Article 316. Other forms of swindling ...........................
Article 317. Swindling a minor......................................
Article 318. Other deceits ..............................................

974
975
980
980

Chapter Seven. Chattel Mortgage................................

982

Article 319. Removal, sale or pledge of mortgaged


property ......................................................

982

Chapter Eight. Arson and other crimes involving


destruction ....................................................................

985

Article 320. Destructive arson .......................................


Article 321. Other forms of arson ..................................
Article 322. Cases of arson not included in the
preceding articles .......................................
Article 323. Arson of property of small value ...............
Article 324. Crimes involving destruction ....................
Article 325. Burning ones own property as a means
to commit arson..........................................
Article 326. Setting fire to property exclusively
owned by the offender ................................
Article 326-A. In cases where death resulted as a
consequence of arson .................................
Article 326-B. Prima facie evidence of arson .................
P.D. No. 1613 Amending Law
on Arson .....................................................
Chapter Nine. Malicious mischief................................
Article 327.
Article 328.
Article 329.
Article 330.

Who are liable for malicious mischief .......


Special cases of malicious mischief ...........
Other mischiefs ..........................................
Damage and obstruction to means
of communication .......................................
Article 331. Destroying or damaging statues,
public monuments or paintings ................

985
989
996
996
997
998
999
999
1000
1001
1004
1004
1005
1006
1007
1007

Chapter Ten. Exemption from criminal liability


in crimes against property ........................................

1008

Article 332. Persons exempt from criminal liability ....


Review Questions.......................................

1008
1009

xxxii
TITLE ELEVEN. CRIMES AGAINST
CHASTITY ...........

1011

Chapter One. Adultery and concubinage....................

1011

Article 333. Who are guilty of adultery.........................


Article 334. Concubinage ...............................................

1011
1017

Chapter Two. Rape and acts of lasciviousness .........

1020

Article 335. When and how rape is committed (Rape


has been classified under Crimes
against Persons by R.A. No. 8353,
otherwise known as Anti-Rape
Law of 1997) .............................................
Article 336. Acts of lasciviousness ................................

1020
1020

Chapter Three. Seduction, corruption of minors,


and white slave trade..................................................

1023

Article 337. Qualified seduction ....................................


Article 338. Simple seduction ........................................
Article 339. Acts of lasciviousness with the consent
of the offended party ..................................
Article 340. Corruption of minors .................................
Article 341. White slave trade .......................................

1027
1028
1029

Chapter Four. Abduction ................................................

1031

Article 342. Forcible abduction .....................................


Article 343. Consented abduction .................................

1031
1034

Chapter Five. Provisions relative to the preceding


chapters of Title Eleven .............................................

1037

Article 344. Prosecution of the crimes of adultery,


concubinage, seduction, abduction, rape
and acts of lasciviousness ..........................
Article 345. Civil liability of persons guilty of crimes
against chastity..........................................
Article 346. Liability of ascendants, guardians,
teachers, or other persons entrusted
with the custody of the offended party .....
Review Questions.......................................

xxxiii

1023
1025

1037
1046

1048
1049

TITLE TWELVE. CRIMES AGAINST THE CIVIL


STATUS OF PERSONS ..................................................

1051

Chapter One. Simulation of births and usurpation


of civil status .................................................................

1051

Article 347. Simulation of births, substitution of one


child for another and concealment or
abandonment of a legitimate child ...........
Article 348. Usurpation of civil status ..........................

1051
1053

Chapter Two. Illegal Marriages....................................

1054

Article 349. Bigamy........................................................


Article 350. Marriages contracted against provisions
of laws .........................................................
Article 351. Premature marriages ................................
Article 352. Performance of illegal marriage
ceremony ....................................................
Review Questions.......................................

1054
1057
1058
1059
1060

TITLE THIRTEEN. CRIMES AGAINST HONOR............

1062

Chapter One. Libel ..........................................................

1062

Section One. Definition, forms, and


punishment of this crime ..................................

1062

Article 353. Definition of libel .......................................


Article 354. Requirement for publicity .........................
Article 355. Libel by means of writing or similar
means .........................................................
Article 356. Threatening to publish and offer to
prevent such publication for a
compensation .............................................
Article 357. Prohibited publication of acts referred
to in the course of official proceedings ......
Article 358. Slander .......................................................
Article 359. Slander by deed..........................................

1079
1080
1082

Section Two. General Provisions ........................

1085

Article 360. Persons liable for libel or slander .............


Article 361. Proof of truth ..............................................

1085
1089

xxxiv

1062
1071
1078

1079

Article 362. Libelous remarks........................................

1090

Chapter Two. Incriminatory machinations ..............

1091

Article 363. Incriminating innocent persons ................


Article 364. Intriguing against honor............................
Review Questions.......................................

1091
1092
1093

TITLE FOURTEEN. QUASI-OFFENSES .........................

1094

Sole Chapter. Criminal Negligence.....................

1094

Article 365. Imprudence and negligence.......................


Review Questions.......................................

1097
1108

TITLE FIFTEEN. FINAL PROVISIONS ..........................

1110

Article 366. Application of laws enacted prior


to this Code ................................................
Article 367. Repealing clause ........................................
Other Penal Acts Repealed .......................

1110
1110
1111

xxxv