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INFINITE SOFTCOMM SOLUTIONS

701,UDYOG VIHAR, PHASE -V GURGAON, INDIA TEL NO. 0124- 4005655, 4362150-52 FAX NO. 0124-4362151

How Did We Reach This Point?

Telegraphy

Telephony

Radio Milestones

The SYMPHONY!
CHAOS

Time Division

Frequency Division!

Shalom Guten Tag Buenos Dias

Bonjour

Hello

GSM Vs. CDMA

Frequency Reuse- GSM

f7

7 cell re-use pattern

f6
f1 f5 f3

f2
f6 f1 f5 f4

f7 f2

f4

f3

FREQUENCY REUSE IN CDMA


f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1

f1
f1 f1

f1

f1

GSM Vs CDMA
FREQUENCY REUSE IN CDMA & TDMA
F5 F6 F1 F7 F2 F4 F1 F1

F1 F1

F3

F1 F1

F1

TYPICAL TDMA SYSTEM EACH CELL USES DIFFERENT FREQUENCY THE PATTERN IS REPEATED FOR THE NEXT SET OF CELL SITES

TYPICAL CDMA SYSTEM EACH CELL USES SAME FREQUENCY

CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA)

CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access

CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology Spreads the information contained in a particular signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal. Goal of spread spectrum Interference mitigation Spread spectrum helps mitigate the harmful effects of interference Deliberate - Military Jammer (Use first by DOD) Inadvertent - Co-channel users

Shanon Hartley Theorem


To consider the technology used in CDMA, consider the Shannon-Hartley theorem, which is given as follows: C = W log2 (1 + S/N) Where, C = capacity W = Bandwidth S/N = Signal to Noise Ratio According to the theorem, an increase in the bandwidth causes a decrease in the signal to noise ratio, thus requiring a trade-off between the two parameters. However, CDMA operates by maximizing the bandwidth, which brings about a corresponding reduction in the SNR This reduction is countered by the utilization of an efficient error correction code, which ensures optimum performance even in low SNR conditions. Spread Spectrum Principles Shannons work relates capacity to both bandwidth and signal to noise ratio. It allows some simple conclusions to be drawn. In a bandwidth limited system the only way to increase capacity (or data rate) is to do one or both of the following: Increase the Signal Power Decrease the Noise Power

Forward & Reverse Links

824 MHz

849 MH z

869 MHz

894 MHz

Reverse link
Uplink

Forward link
Downlink

Physical Channel

The 3 dB bandwidth of a channel is the frequency range where the signal at the edges is 3 dB lower than the peak value at the center frequency, fc

CDMA Technology Benefits

Capacity increase Improved call quality Simplified system planning use of the same frequency in every sector of every cell Enhanced privacy Improved coverage characteristics possibility of fewer cell sites better performance in fading/interference prone environment Increased talk time for portables Bandwidth on demand

Capacity in CDMA
Capacity of the system depends on interference (Total power received in the Receiving Antenna) in the system Power Control Techniques are employed to reduce the total interference in the system. By controlling power, the capacity can be dynamically adjusted (Capacity in CDMA systems is soft)

CDMA is altering the face of Telecomm


Dramatically improving the telephone traffic (Erlang) capacity Dramatically improving the voice quality and eliminating the audible effects of Multipath fading Reducing the incidence of dropped calls due to handoff failures Providing reliable transport mechanism for data communications, such as facsimile and internet traffic Reducing the number of sites needed to support any given amount of traffic Simplifying site selection Reducing deployment and operating costs because fewer cell sites are needed Reducing average transmitted power Reducing interference to other electronic devices Reducing potential health risks

CDMA: Using A New Dimension

All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Frequency and time are not used as discriminators CDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users. CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users

Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd --but with a uniquely recoverable code

TYPES of CDMA Technology


Frequency-Hopping Each users narrowband signal hops among discrete frequencies, and the receiver follows in sequence Spectrum (FHSS) CDMA is NOT currently used in wireless systems, although used by the military

Direct Sequence Narrowband input from a user is coded (spread) by a user-unique broadband code, then transmitted. Broadband signal is received; receiver knows, applies users code, recovers users data

DSSS Spreading: Time-Domain View


At Originating Site: Input A: Users Data @ 19,200bps Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.2288 Mcps Output: Spread Signal Spectrum At Receiver Site: Input A: Received spread spectrum signal Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.2288 Mcps Output: Users Data @19,200bps just as originally sent

Spreading from a Frequency-Domain View

CDMA uses larger bandwidth but uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity

Spreading: What we do, we can undo


Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence, transmits spread data stream. Receiver intercepts the stream, uses same spreading sequence to extract original data.

Shipping and Receiving via CDMA


Whether in shipping and receiving, or in CDMA, packaging is extremely important! Cargo is placed inside nested containers for protection and to allow addressing The shipper packs in a certain order, and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order CDMA containers are spreading codes

CDMAs Nested Spreading Sequences


CDMA combines three different spreading sequences to create unique, robust channels. The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link.

DSSS Spreading/ Despreading


C1*C1 = 1, C2*C2 = 1. Cn*Cn = 1 BUT C1*C2 = 0C1*Cn = 0
U1C1 ( 10011000000) C1 ( 100110.10110010)

=
U1 = 0110010101001000 C1 ( 100110.10110010) U1 = 0110010101001000

=
U1C1 ( 1001100000) U2C2*C1 = 0, U2*C2*C2 = U2 U2C2 U3C3 U4C4 UnCn U3C3*C1 = 0, U3C3*C3 = U3 U4C4*C1 = 0, U4C4*C4 = U4 UnCn*C1 = 0, UnCn*Cn = Un

End to end overview

Types of Code

Forward & Reverse Link

The Three CDMA Spreading Techniques

Orthogonal Sequences
Definition:
Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequences are orthogonal if the process of XORing them results in an equal number of 1s and 0s. Example: 0000 (XOR) 0101 -----0101

0 0
- Repeat: right & below - Invert: diagonally

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0

0 1

Walsh Codes

64 Magic Sequences, each 64 chips long Each Walsh Code is precisely Orthogonal with respect to all other Walsh Codes its simple to generate the codes, or theyre small enough to use from ROM

Short code

Usage of code

Need for Synchronisation

Functions of the CDMA Forward Channels

WALSH CODE
contd.
WALSH CODES ARE USED TO SEPARATE INDIVIDUAL USERS WHILE THEY SIMULTANEOUSLY OCCUPY THE SAME RF BANDWIDTH THE SEQUENCE ARE ORTHOGONAL TO EACH OTHER AND ARE GENERATED USING THE HADAMARD MATRIX WALSH-0 IS NOT USED TO TRANSMIT ANY BASEBAND DATA

PN CODE
PN SEQUENCES

USED TO SPREAD THE BANDWIDTH OF THE MODULATED SIGNAL TO LARGER TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTHS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DIFFERENT USER SIGNALS MULTIPLICATION BY A SHORT PN SEQUENCE IS DONE TO PROVIDE ANOTHER LAYER OF ISOLATION ON THE FORWARD LINK WE CAN HAVE A MAXIMUM OF 512 DIFFERENT PN SEQUENCES EACH WITH A SEPARATION OF 64 CHIPS FROM EACH OTHER

Security

CHANNELS

CDMA IS-2000 HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE

FORWARD CHANNELS PILOT CHANNEL (1) SYNC CHANNEL (32) FORWARD TRAFFIC PAGING CHANNELS ( 1-7)

REVERSE CHANNELS REVERSE TRAFFIC CHANNELS ACCESS CHANNELS

Summary
Forward
Short PN Different offset- Each Sector 64 Channel

Reverse
Zero offsetUsed by MS 64 Ary modulation

Walsh code Long code

Use to Identify TCH scramble TCH for each MS

Information about the long code is broadcast to the mobile station by the Sync Channel (or Control Channel) to help the mobile lock onto the base station, and helps provide separation from other base stations. One of the codes used in conjunction with the Walsh Code is the PN (pseudo-random noise) short code. The PN short code on the forward link is used to provide the base station with a unique identification that the mobile station uses to identify the serving base station. The user signal (or control channel) is multiplied by the Walsh code. The Walsh code provides each user or channel with a unique identifier and, in DS spreading, may spread the frame across the bandwidth.

Main process: y(t) = b(t) c(t) Scrambling: If b(t) and c(t) have the same rate then y(t) has the same rate, and the spectrum of the signal is unchanged b(t) is said to be encrypted or scrambled Spreading: If c(t) has a higher rate than b(t), y(t) has the faster rate and its correspondingly wider spectrum .In addition to being scrambled, b(t) is said to have had its spectrum spread CDMA codes are used to perform scrambling and spreading.

Rayleigh Fading In addition to delay spread, the same multipath environment causes severe local variations in signal strength as these multipath signals are added constructively and destructively at the receiving antenna. This type of variation is called Rayleigh fading This can cause large blocks of information to be lost.If the set of reflected signals have one dominant component, such as a line-of-sight signal, the fading is more appropriately modeled using the Rician model. Note that if the mobile speed is zero, there is no fading, except if signals are reflected frommoving objects. For slow fading, CDMA uses power control to adjust the transmitted power in order to overcome the fades. Power control is too slow for the fast Rayleigh fading; instead, FEC encoding and bit interleaving are used.

Channel Contd.

Forward channel

PILOT CHANNEL
PILOT SIGNALS ARE TRANSMITTED BY EACH CELL SITE TO ASSIST MOBILE RADIO IN ACQUIRING AND TRACKING THE CELL SITE DOWNLINK SIGNAL PILOT CHANNEL IS ASSIGNED CODE CHANNEL NUMBER ZERO THE SIGNAL STRENGTH = Ec/Io Ec/Io IS THE ENERGY PER CHIP PER INTERFERENCE DENSITY MEASURED ON THE PILOT CHANNEL Ec/Io EFFECTIVELY DETERMINES THE FORWARD COVERAGE AREA OF A CELL OR A SECTOR

SYNC CHANNEL
SYNC CHANNEL IS GIVEN THE CODE CHANNEL NUMBER 32; FIXED DATA RATE 1200 KBPS
ALLOWS RECIEVER TO OBTAIN FRAME SYNCHRONIZATION ON SIGNAL MESSAGES SENT ON SYNCH CHANNEL ARE SYSTEM TIME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM

FORWARD TRAFFIC CHANNELS


PAGING CHANNELS ARE GIVEN THE CODE CHANNEL NUMBER 1 THRU 7 FORWARD TRAFFIC CHANNELS GROUPED INTO RATE SET 1( 9.6, 4.8, 2.4 or 1.2 KBPS) AND RATE SET 2 (14.4, 7.2, 3.6 or 1.8 KBPS) RATE SET 1 IS REQUIRED FOR IS-95 WHEREAS RATE SET 2 IS OPTIONAL SPEECH IS ENCODED WITH VARIABLE RATE VOCODER TO GENERATE FORWARD TRAFFIC CHANNEL DATA DEPENDING ON VOICE ACTIVITY

Reverse Channel

REVERSE TRAFFIC CHANNELS


IDENTIFIED BY LONG USER CODE OFFSET
DATA TRANSMITTED ON REVERSE CHANNEL IS CONVOLUTIONALLY ENCODED, BLOCK INTERLEAVED, MODULATED BY MEANS OF 64-ary ORTHOGONAL MODULATION, AND DIRECT SEQUENCE SPREAD PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION DATA RATE IS 9.6, 4.8, 2.4 OR 1.2 KBPS

ACCESS CHANNELS
ENABLES THE MOBILE TO COMMUNICATE NONTRAFFIC INFORMATION DATA RATE IS FIXED AT 4.8 KBPS IDENTIFIED BY A DISTINCT ACCESS CHANNEL LONG-CODE SEQUENCE OFFSET A PAGING CHANNEL NUMBER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ACCESS CHANNEL

Forward Link

Putting it All Together: CDMA Channels

How a BTS Builds the Forward Code Channels

Code Channels in the Reverse Direction

Functions of the CDMA Reverse Channels

Variable rate vocoder

Variable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexing


Vocoders compress speech, reduce bit rate, greatly increasing capacity CDMA uses a superior Variable Rate Vocoder full rate during speech low rates in speech pauses increased capacity more natural sound Voice, signaling, and user secondary data may be mixed in CDMA frames.

Messages in CDMA

In CDMA, most call processing events are driven by messages Some CDMA channels exist for the sole purpose of carrying messages; they never carry users voice traffic Sync Channel (a forward channel) Paging Channel (a forward channel) Access Channel (a reverse channel)

Some CDMA channels exist just to carry user traffic Forward Traffic Channel Reverse Traffic Channel On these channels, most of the time is filled with traffic and messages are sent only when there is something to do

Rake Receiver

Whats In a Handset? How does it work?

The Rake Receiver


Handset uses combined outputs of the three traffic correlates (rake fingers). Each finger can independently recover a particular PN offset and Walsh code. Fingers can be targeted on delayed Multipath Reflections, or on different BTSs. Searcher continuously checks pilots.

The Pilot Searching Process

Handoff Signaling

Power Control Is Required ?

Near-far Problem Path Loss

Fading Performance Objectives

Power Control in CDMA

Open Loop power control


Purely mobile unit function Done during initial stage when mobile is turned on

Closed Loop power control


Involves both base station and mobile unit

Forward Power Control


The BTS continually reduces the strength of each users forward base band chip stream When a particular handset sees errors on the forward link, it requests more energy The complainers chip stream gets a quick boost; afterward ,continues to diminish

Reverse Power Control


Reverse Open Loop: Handset adjusts power up or down based on received BTS signal (AGC). Reverse Closed Loop: Is handset too strong? BTS tells up or down 1 dB 800 times/second. Reverse Outer Loop: BSC has FER trouble hearing handset? BSC adjusts BTS set point.

Types of Handoff

SOFT HANOFF 1. Soft handoff - 2 BTS are involved 2. Soft Soft - 3 BTS are involved 3. Softer - Two Sector of same BTS HARD HANDOFF - Between different frequency.

Hard & Soft handover

CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics


CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset Handset continuously checks available pilots Handset tells system pilots it currently sees System assigns sectors (up to 6 max.), tells handset Handset assigns its fingers accordingly

The Complete Rules of Soft Handoff


The Handset considers pilots in set ACTIVE SET: Pilots of sectors in use CANDIDATE SET: Pilots mobile requested, but not yet set up NEIGHBOUR SET: Pilots told to mobile by system, as nearby sectors to check REMAINING SET: Any pilots used by system but not already in the other sets Handset sends Pilot Strength Measurement Message to the system whenever: It notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining set exceeds T_ADD An active set pilot drops below T_DROP for T_TDROP time A candidate pilot exceeds an active by T_COMP

Softer Handoff

Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wants If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset, this is called Softer Handoff Handset cant tell the difference, but softer handoff occurs in BTS in a single channel element Handset can even use combination soft-softer handoff on multiple BTS & sectors

Soft H/O ADV. & DIS. ADV.

Reverse link

Forward link

Processing Gain

Spreading gain or processing gain is achieved when noise components, or noise-like components, remain spread when the original signal (user 1 in the figure) is despread. The original signal appears to have gained energy relative the noise. It can also be seen as if the noise has been suppressed. By filtering out most of the wideband noise energy the original signal can be extracted, provided sufficient bit energy over noise ratio, Eb/NT. It can be seen that the signal to noise ratio after despreading will favor user 1 by a factor of G = BW/bw (or Fc/Fb or Tb/Tc). G is then called spreading gain or processing gain. Processing gain can also be seen as the number of chips per bit.

Processing Gain

Processing Gain

Energy per Bit

Eb/NT is traffic channel bit energy over noise. Ec/I0 is pilot channel chip (bit) energy over interference.

Capacity Enhancement

Capacity Factor

Idle Mode Handoff


An idle mobile always demodulates the best available signal In idle mode, it isnt possible to do soft handoff and listen to multiple sectors or base stations at the same time -- the paging channel information stream is different on each sector, not synchronous -- just like ABC, NBC, CBS, and CNN TV news programs arent in word-sync for simultaneous viewing Since a mobile cant combine signals, the mobile must switch quickly, always enjoying the best available signal The mobiles pilot searcher is constantly checking neighbor pilots If the searcher notices a better signal, the mobile continues on the current paging channel until the end of the current superframe, then instantly switches to the paging channel of the new signal The system doesnt know the mobile did this! (Does NBCs Tom Brokaw know you just switched your TV to CNN?) On the new paging channel, if the mobile learns that registration is required, it re-registers on the new sector

Signal processing

Speech encoding. This step is only used if speech information is transmitted. Data transmission omits this step. Quality indicator Forward Error Correction (FEC) encoding Interleaving Scrambling Spreading Digital modulation RF modulation Amplification of RF signal.

Speech encoding
In order to transmit speech over a digital system, it must be digitized and encoded using a vocoder. Normal speech is received as an analog signal. The analog signal is converted into a digital signal using a process called Nyquist sampling, in which the analog input is typically sampled 8,000 times per second. The product of Nyquist sampling is a digital waveform called PCM (pulse code modulation).The PCM output is transferred to a vocoder (voice coder), which compresses the digitized voice signal into either Rate Set 1 (RS1) with an output of 8 kbps, or Rate Set 2 (RS2) with an output of 13 kbps, depending on the type of vocoder. In CDMA, variable rate vocoders are used.
Variable Rate Vocoder The variable rate vocoder employs a codec (coder/decoder) that compresses digitized speech from the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and produces an output that complies with the data rate to be transmitted. During these lulls in the conversation, the vocoder can reduce its bandwidth requirements, before the FEC encoder, from full rate (9600 bps for EVRC) to 1/2 rate, 1/4 rate, or 1/8 rate (1200 bps for EVRC). Since the transmitter only transmits the lowest bit rate required, the required transmit power is minimized, and the channel interference is reduced.

Frame Information bits are grouped into frames. A frame is the basic timing interval in the system. The length of a frame depends on what channel on which it is transmitted (e.g., Sync Channel, Traffic Channel), what type of information transmitted in the frame (e.g., overhead messages, traffic information), and what air-interface standard is used
Error Measurements
There are a number of error measurements available in CDMA transmission: Bit Error Rate (BER), Frame Error Rate (FER), and Packet Error Rate (PER).

The frame quality indicator is a Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC).

End of presentation