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# I.

1.
I.1.1.
, ,
. . .
. 1. 1. y = y(x), y C 2 [a, b],
y 00 + a1 (x)y 0 + a2 (x)y = f (x),
y = y(x) =?,
1 y 0 (a) + 2 y(a) + 3 y 0 (b) + 4 y(b) = 0,
1 y 0 (a) + 2 y(a) + 3 y 0 (b) + 4 y(b) = 0,

(1)
(2)
(3)

1,2,3,4 , 1,2,3,4 ,
12 + 22 + 32 + 42 6= 0,

12 + 22 + 32 + 42 6= 0,

## (1). (2) (3) ().

1 y 0 (a) + 2 y(a) = 0,
3 y 0 (b) + 4 y(b) = 0,

12 + 22 6= 0,
12 + 22 6= 0.

(4)
(5)

.
(2) (5) , ,
.
1

1. 1. y(x)
,
.
,
00
x [0, 1]
y + y = f (x),
y(0) = 3,
0
y (1) = 5

z(x) = y(x) 5x 3

00
z + z = f1 (x) f (x) 5x 3,
z(0) = 0,
0
z (1) = 0,
,
.
I.1.2.
(4) (5),
y 0 (a) sin + y(a) cos = 0,

## y 0 (b) sin + y(b) cos = 0.

. 1. 2. ()
[a, b]
h i
0
a [y] y (a) sin + y(a) cos ,
0,
(6)
2
h i
0
b [y] y (b) sin + y(b) cos ,
0,
.
(7)
2
. .

. .
. 1. 3.
1) a [y] = y(a), b [y] = y(b)
I- ( );
-2-

## 2) a [y] = y 0 (a), b [y] = y 0 (b)

II- ( );
3) a [y] = y 0 (a) hy(a), b [y] = y 0 (b) + Hy(b) h, H > 0
III- .
I- ( ) II-
( ) III- .
1. 1. I-, II- III-

I- ( ):
00
x [a, b]
y + a( x)y 0 + a2 (x)y = f (x),
y(a) = 0,

y(b) = 0
II- ( ):
00
x [a, b]
y + a( x)y 0 + a2 (x)y = f (x),
0
y (a) = 0,
0
y (b) = 0
III- :
00
y + a( x)y 0 + a2 (x)y = f (x),
y 0 (a) hy(a) = 0,
h > 0,
0
y (b) + Hy(b) = 0,
H > 0.

x [a, b]

, [a, b]
, , I- III- . ,
9
.
I.1.3.
,
( , ),
.
-3-

. 1. 4. 2-
L[y] y 00 (x) q(x)y(x).

(8)

q(x) L[y].
: q(x) R.
. 1. 5. (.. ) y(x)
00
x [a, b]
y (x) q(x)y(x) = y(x),
[y] = 0,
(9)
a
b [y] = 0
.
y(x)
(9),
(9).
1. 2. q(x)
. , , y(x)
(, ,
).

.
u(x) v(x), ,
u + iv,

L[u + iv] = (u + iv)
.
1. 3. y(x) 0
( ) , = 0
.
, : , .
-4-

1. 2. -
I- :
 00
y (x) + y(x) = 0,
x [0, l],
(10)
y(0) = y(l) = 0.
y 00 (x) + y(x) = 0
y(x) = c1 sin( x) + c2 cos( x)
= 2 > 0;
y(x) = c1 e x + c2 e x
= 2 < 0;
y(x) = c1 x + c2
= 0;

= 2 > 0 y(0) = 0, c2 = 0,
y(x) = c1 sin( x). y(l) = 0 , l = n,
:
2 n2
n = 2 ,
l

n N.

:
 nx 
yn (x) = sin
,
n N.
l
= 2 < 0 y(0) = 0, c2 = c1 ,
y(x) = 2c1 sh x. y(l) = 0 , c1 = 0, .. .
= 0 y(0) = 0, c2 = 0,
y(x) = c1 x. y(l) = 0 , c1 = 0, ..
, .
,
2 n2
n = 2 ,
l

yn (x) = sin

(10).
-5-

 nx 
l

nN

(11)

1. 3. -
II- :
 00
y (x) + y(x) = 0,
(12)
y 0 (0) = y 0 (l) = 0.
y 00 (x) + y(x) = 0
y(x) = c1 sin( x) + c2 cos( x)
= 2 > 0;
y(x) = c1 e x + c2 e x
= 2 < 0;
y(x) = c1 x + c2
= 0;

= 2 > 0 y 0 (0) = 0, c1 = 0,
y(x) = c2 cos( x) y 0 (x) = c2 sin( x).
y 0 (l) = 0 , l = n,
:
 n 2
,
n N.
n =
l
:
 nx 
yn (x) = cos
,
n N.
l
= 2 < 0 y 0 (0) = 0, c1 = c2 ,
y(x) = 2c1 ch x y 0 (x) = 2c1 sh( x). y 0 (l) = 0 , c1 = 0, ..
.
= 0 y 0 (0) = 0, c1 = 0,
y(x) = c2 . y 0 (l) = 0 ,
(12) , : 0 = 0.
y0 (x) 1l .
,
 n 2
 nx 
0 = 0, y0 (x) 1; n =
, yn (x) = cos
, nN
l
l
(12).
-6-

(13)

1. 4. -
III- II- :


y 00 (x) + y(x) = 0,
y 0 (0) hy(0) = y 0 (l) = 0,

h > 0.

(14)

y 00 (x) + y(x) = 0
y(x) = c1 sin( x) + c2 cos( x)
= 2 > 0;
y(x) = c1 e x + c2 e x
= 2 < 0;
y(x) = c1 x + c2
= 0;

= 2 > 0
y 0 (x) = c1 cos( x) c2 sin( x)
y 0 (0) + hy(0) = 0 ,
c2
c1 h c2 = 0 = h .
c1
, y 0 (l) = 0 ,

c1 cos( l) c2 sin( l) = 0

c2
= ctg( l).
c1

, , :

= h ctg( l),
-7-

c1 = hc2 .

(15)

= h ctg( l),
,
n > 0,
n N. , .
,
, ,
.

. 1. 1. (15)
h = l = 1.

,
:
n = 2n > 0

= h ctg( l),

n N.

:
yn (x) = h sin (n x) + cos (n x) ,

n N.

= 2 < 0 .
= 0 y 0 (0) hy(0) = 0,
c1 hc2 = 0, y(x) = c2 (hx + 1),
y(l) = 0 c2 (hl + 1) = 0. c2 = c1 = 0 ( hl > 0 ),
, = 0 .
, (14):

n = 2n > 0 = h ctg( l),
(16)
yn (x) = h sin (n x) + cos (n x) , n N.
-8-

2.
I.2.1.
.
. 1. 6. , (x1 , x2 ) V , (x1 , x2 ) (
), ,
1) x V

## (x, x) > 0, (x, x) = 0 x = 0;

2) x1 , x2 V

(x1 , x2 ) = (x2 , x1 );

3) x1 , x2 , x3 V
4) x1 , x2 V,

## (x1 + x2 , x3 ) = (x1 , x3 ) + (x2 , x3 );

R (x1 , x2 ) = (x1 , x2 ).

. 1. 7. x V , (x1 , x2 ), ,
kxk :
p
kxk = (x, x).
1. 1.
Zb
(f, g) =

f (x) g(x) dx

(17)

C[a, b].
. 1. 6 .

I.2.2.

L[y] y 00 (x) q(x)y(x).
. 1. 8.

n
o



2
D(L) = y = y(x) y C a, b , a [y] = 0, b [y] = 0 ,
-9-

(8)

(18)

.
L[y], D(L),
L[y].
1. 2. f (x), g(x) f, g D(L).



W f, g (a) = f (a)g 0 (a) f 0 (a)g(a) = 0,


W f, g (b) = f (b)g 0 (b) f 0 (b)g(b) = 0,

(19)

f (x) g(x)


W f, g (x) = 0
0

f
(x)
g
(x)


f, g .
. . :
1) a [y] = y(a) = 0. f (a) = g(a) = 0, :
f 0 (a) g(a) f (a) g 0 (a) = 0.
|{z}
|{z}
=0

=0

## 2) a [y] = y 0 (a) = 0. f 0 (a) = g 0 (a) = 0,

:
f 0 (a) g(a) f (a) g 0 (a) = 0.
| {z }
| {z }
=0

=0

## 3) a [y] = y 0 (a) hy(a) = 0. f 0 (a) = hf (a), g 0 (a) = hg(a),

:
f 0 (a) g(a) f (a) g 0 (a) = hf (a)g(a) hf (a)g(a) = 0.
| {z }
| {z }
=hf (a)

=hg(a)

(19) .
1. 3. L[y] , .. f (x), g(x)
f, g D(L)


L[f ], g = f, L[g] .
(20)
-10-

.
Zb

L[f ], g


L[f ], g :


f 00 (x) q(x)f (x) g(x) dx =

Zb

Zb

00

f (x) g(x) dx

=
a

i
q(x)f (x) g(x) dx = =


 b
0
0
= f gfg +
a}
{z
|
=0, (19)

Zb

f (x) g 00 (x) dx

Zb


q(x) f (x)g(x) dx f, L[g] .

I.2.3.
.
, 2
.
1. 1.
00
x [a, b]
y (x) q(x)y(x) = y(x),
a [y] = 0,
(9)

b [y] = 0
.
. = +i, , R, , ,
L[y]. y(x) = u(x) + iv(x) 6 0 .




L u + iv = + i u + iv ,
 

L u = u v,
(21)
 

L v = u + v.




Lu, v = u v, v = u, v v, v
k 



u, Lv = u, u + v = u, u + u, v ,
-11-


2 
2

u + v = 0, , = 0,
{z
}
|
6=0

= R.

I.2.4.
1. 2. (x) (x)
,
.
(x) [0, l].
.
1. 2 , f (x), g(x) D(L),

.. 0, l ,




W f, g (0) = 0,
W f, g (l) = 0,

f (x) g(x)


W f ; g (x) = 0
0

f
(x)
g
(x)


f (x), g(x) .
, (x) (x)

(0) (0)


= 0.
W ; (0) = 0
(0) 0 (0)
n- , , 
, [0, l] ,
(x) (x)
.
1. 4. ,
1.
-12-

I.2.5.
1. 3. , .
.
y(x) = u(x) + iv(x)
, .
L[y] = y

(u + iv) 00 q(x)(u + iv) = (u + iv).
R 1. 1, q(x) R 1. 4,

. ,
u 00 q(x)u = u,

v 00 q(x)v = v.

, u(x) v(x)
,
.
1. 2 , u(x) v(x) , ..
cR:
u(x) = cv(x),
v(x) = cu(x),

y(x) = (c + i)v(x),

y(x) = (1 + ic)v(x).

, ,
.
1. 5. .
I.2.6.
1. 4 ( ). f (x) f D(L)
(.. ).

b
f 0 f a 6 0.
(22)
-13-

.
f 0 (a)f (a) > 0,

f 0 (b)f (b) 6 0

(23)

. :
1) a [y] = y(a) = 0. f (a) = 0,
:
f 0 (a) f (a) = 0.
|{z}
=0

## 2) a [y] = y 0 (a) = 0. f 0 (a) = 0, :

f 0 (a) f (a) = 0.
| {z }
=0

## 3) a [y] = y 0 (a) hy(a) = 0. f 0 (a) = hf (a),

:
f 0 (a) f (a) = hf 2 (a) > 0.
| {z }
=hf (a)

(23) .
1. 6. (23) .
f (x) , , ,
,
, , .
1. 4. q(x) > m.

00
x [a, b]
y (x) q(x)y(x) = y(x),
a [y] = 0,
(9)

b [y] = 0

> m.
-14-

(24)

.
y(x): Ly = y. :
Zb
(L[y], y) =

y 00 y dx +

Zb

b Z b

2
qy 2 dx = y 0 y +
y 0 dx+
|{z}
a

Zb
+
a

>0

Zb

(q(x) m) y (x) dx +
| {z }

b

my (x)dx > y y + mkyk2 . (25)
0

>0

{z

=mkyk2

}


b 
(22) y y a (25) . :
b
0
(L[y], y) > y y + mkyk2 > mkyk2 .
0

C ,
(L[y], y) = (y, y) = (y, y) kyk2 ,

=

(L[y], y)
> m.
kyk2

I.2.7.
1. 5. , , k :
lim k = +.

(26)

I.2.8.
1. 6. (x) (x)
,
1 6= 2 , :


L[](x) = 1 (x),
L[](x) = 2 (x),
0 [] = l [] = 0,
0 [] = l [] = 0,
-15-

(x)
(17):

(x)

Zl

(, ) =

(x) (x) dx = 0.

(27)

.
,

, .
1 6= 2 .
1 (, ) = (L[], ) = (L[], ) =
h
i
= L =
= (, L[]) = (, L[]) = 2 (, ) .



1 2 , = 0,
| {z }


, = 0.

6=0

1. 7. 1. 5 ,
().
( -I.3), ( ) ,
( )
. ,
,
.
I.2.9.


1. 7 (. . ). f (x) C 2 0, l
:
0 [f ] = 0,
l [f ] = 0.


k (x) k=1
:

L[k ](x) = k k (x),
0 [k ] = l [k ] = 0.
-16-

f (x) ():
f (x) =

fk k (x),

k=1

fk =

(f, k )
,
kk k2

(28)

[0, l] .
1. 8.
. , (- )
.
1. 9. , , .


, k (x) k=1 , (28) (. I.3).
1. 5.
 00
y (x) = y(x),
y 0 (0) = y 0 (l) = 0.
, 1. 3 (. 6),
:
 2
k
kx
0 = 0, 0 (x) 1; k =
, k (x) = cos
k N.
(13)
l
l
(28) ?
%

k0 k2 =

Zl

12 dx = l,

}| {
Zl
Z l 1 + cos 2kx
kx
l = l,
kk k2 = cos2
dx =
l
2
2

f (x):

a0 X
kx
f (x) =
+
ak cos
,
2
l
k=1

-17-

ak =

2
l

Zl
f (x) cos

kx
dx,
l

f (x) .

 00
y (x) = y(x),
y(0) = y(l) = 0,
f (x) :

X
kx
bk sin
f (x) =
,
l
k=1

2
bk =
l

Zl
f (x) sin

kx
dx.
l

1. 10. 1. 5, (28)
, , ,

.
1. 11. , , f (x)
, . ,
, (28) ,
f (x).


, f (x) C 2 0, l , f (x) L2 (0, l),
f (x) , , ..
,
l

Z

f 2 (x) dx < +.

0

1. 12. 1
,

0
x [a, b]
k(x)y 0 (x) q(x)y(x) = y(x),
[y] = 0,
a
b [y] = 0,
-18-

## k(x) q(x) [a, b], k(x) > k0 > 0.

3.
I.3.1.
. 1. 9. .
, H ,
1) H 1. 6;
p
2) H (x, y) = kx yk (x y, x y), ..
1 H
H;
3) H , .. n N n
. 1. 10. H
.
, H ,

k k=1 H ,
x H ( )
( ):
x=

xk k ,

xk R.

k=1

.
1

xk

k=1

H ,

>0 N N:

n > N, p N

-19-

xn+p xn < .

1. 6. ,

, l2 a = ak k=1 ,

X
a2k ,
k=1

(a, b) =

ak b k .

k=1


1
ak bk 6 a2k + b2k ,
2
(ak + bk )2 > 0.
:


1 = 1, 0, 0, . . .
2 = 0, 1, 0, . . .
3 = 0, 0, 1, . . .
...
1. 7.
L2 f (x) = lim fk (x), m
k

[a, b]:


fk C m a, b
()
b

Z

2
2
kf k f (x) dx < +,

(29)

Zb
(f, g) =

f (x)g(x) dx.
a

,


(, fk C a, b , ,
-20-

f = lim fk
k



a, b . , ,

(29)
, .
,

1
2 + 1  2

x+1/k
e x1/k
,
|x| < k1 ; ,
fk (x) =
0,
|x| > k1
,
gk =

fk (x)
,
kfk k

Z+
g(x) dx = 1,

, ()

+,
x = 0;
,
(x) =
0,
|x| > 0
,
Z+
(x) dx = 1.

, (0) = + . , ,
, ?
,
, , (.. (29)) , 1 ,
.. (29). (,
, ,
. . L2 ,
.)
1

, , , L2 (l, l).

L1 , ..

Rb

f (x) dx < +.
a

-21-

,







C a, b C m a, b C a, b L2 a, b .

(30)







C a, b , C m a, b , C a, b :
(29).

I.3.2.
H .

. 1. 11. k k=1 H ,
f H , ..
k R,

n

X

k k 0
n .
(31)
f

k=1

. 1. 12.
f H


k k=1
f

c k k ,

ck =

k=1

(f, )
.
kk k2

(32)

ck (32).
(,


H k k=1 .)
1. 8 (
).


H ,
k k=1
H. f H (32)
ck .

k k=1 n N

n
n

X
X

ck k 6 f
k k .
(33)
f

k=1

k=1

-22-

.

n

P

k k :

k=1
2

!
n
n
n

X
X
X

k k =
k k , f
k k = f
f

k=1
k=1
k=1
!
!
n
n
n
X
X
X
k k =
k k +
k k ,
= (f, f ) 2 f,
2

= kf k 2

n
X

k=1
n
X

k (f, k ) +
| {z }
2 k=1
k=1
=ck k

k=1

k=1

2
k2 k

= kf k

= kf k 2
n
X

n
X

n
2
2 X
k2 k =
k ck k +

k=1

k=1

2
c2k k

n
X

2 2
ck k k .

k=1

k=1

,

2
n
n
n

X
X
2 X
2 2

2
2

k k = kf k
ck k +
ck k k .
f

k=1

k=1

(34)

k=1


k k=1
n
2 2
P
, :
ck k k .
k=1

k = ck
k = 1, n.

n

P

,
f

k k
k=1
k f .
1. 13. 
,

k k=1 , f , ,



1 , . . . , n f .
,
 k k=1 H ( ).
-23-

I.3.3.

1. 9. H , k k=1
1 () H. f H
(32) ck .

P

c2k , :
k=1

c2k 6 kf k2 .

(35)

k=1

.

(34) k = ck k = 1 :
2

n
n

X
X

2
c2k ,
ck k = kf k
f

k=1

k=1

2
n

P

,
f

k k ,

k=1

n
X

c2k 6 kf k2 .

k=1

n , n, ,

P
c2k , n ,
k=1

c2k 6 kf k2 .

k=1

I.3.4.

 1. 10. H ,
k k=1 () H.
f H (32) ck .
1



k k=1 ,

1) , .. n, k N, n 6= k
k , n = 0;

2) , .. k N k = 1.

-24-

c2k = kf k2 .

(36)

k=1

. 

k k=1 H, 1. 11
k R,

n

X

n .
(31)
k k 0
f

k=1

C , ,

n
n

X
X

k k .
ck k 6 f
f

(33)

k=1

k=1

,

n

X

ck k 0
f

n .

k=1

(34) k = ck :

2
n
n

X
X

2
ck k = kf k
c2k
f

k=1

(34)

k=1

,
2

kf k

n
X

c2k 0

k=1

,
n
X

c2k kf k2

n .

k=1

c2k , -

k=1

c2k = kf k2 .

k=1

-25-

1. 14. :
,
1) H ;

2) k k=1 .


H k k=1 ,
.

-26-

[1] . ., . // ., - , 1984.
[2] . ., . . // .,
, 2004.
[3] . ., . . // ., , 1986.
[4] . ., . // ., - ,
1958.
[5] . ., . . // .,
, 2006.
[6] . .
// ., ,
1981.
[7] . ., . . // ., , 1965.
[8] . . // .,
, 1969.
[9] . . // ., , 1974 (1983).
[10] . : 3- .//
.,, 2002.
[11] . . // ., , 1969.
27

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