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RF Planning & Optimisation

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RF Design Requirements

The RF design inputs can be divided into


Capacity requirements: Erlang per subscriber during the busy hourQuality of service for the air interface, in terms GoS Network capacity Coverage requirements: Target coverage areas. These should be marked geographicallyCoverage area probabilityPenetration Loss of buildings and in-cars

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Propagation Models

The prediction of propagation loss in a mobile radio environment is very difficult given multiple factors, such as:

Irregular configuration of the terrain Various shapes of architectural structures Weather changes.

An easy analytic solution to the problem does not exist. Combining both statistics and electromagnetic theory helps to predict the propagation loss.

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Models

There are few theoretical models and many empirical models to predict the propagation path loss. The Okumura-Hata model The Walfisch-Ikegami model.

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Okumura-Hata model

The Okumura-Hata radio wave propagation prediction is based upon empirical information obtained from measurements in Japan(Okumura, 1965). The Hata formula is a mathematical fit for the Okumura graphical measurement data.

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Okumura-Hata model

The Okumura-Hata model predicts the path loss L between the transmitter and receiver, taking into consideration the frequency, the height of antennas, the propagation distance, and the terrain type. The model predictions correlate reasonably well with measurements, especially in urban and suburban areas. This is not the case in rural areas with irregular terrain. Correction factors are used for irregular terrain types such as: rolling hills, isolated mountains, general slopes (up or down), and mixed land-water paths.
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General formula

L = a0 + a4logf - a2loghb - ahm + [a1 a3loghb]logd - Lc,

where a0, a1, a2, a3, and a4 are adjustable parameters.

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Comparison of two models

The Walfisch-Ikegami is preferably used for microcells because it takes into account the effects of diffraction and scattering The Okumura-Hata model is based on quasi-smooth terrain with no obstacles and therefore it is best applicable for macrocells.

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LINK BUDGET

Link Budget Elements of a GSM Network BTS Antenna Gain Max. Path Loss Fade Margin Feeder Loss Diversity Gain BTS Receiver Sensitivity
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LINK BUDGET

BTS Transmit Power Penetration Loss MS Antenna Gain, Body and Cable Loss Mobile Transmit Power Mobile Receiver Sensitivity

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Typical Link Budget

TRANSMITTING END TRANSMITTING END TRANSMITTER POWER OUTPUT TRANSMITTER POWER OUTPUT BODY LOSS BODY LOSS COMBINAR LOSS COMBINAR LOSS FEEDER LOSS (@2dB/100M) FEEDER LOSS (@2dB/100M) CONNECTOR LOSSES CONNECTOR LOSSES TRANSMITTER ANTENNA GAIN TRANSMITTER ANTENNA GAIN EFFECTIVE ISOTROPIC RADIATED POWER EFFECTIVE ISOTROPIC RADIATED POWER

MS (UL) MS (UL) 33 dBm 33 dBm -2 dB -2 dB 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31dBm 31dBm

BTS (DL) BTS (DL) 43dBm 43dBm 0 0 0 0 -1.5dB 1.5dB -2dB 2dB 17.5dB 17.5dB 57dBm 57dBm

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Typical Link Budget

RECEIVING END RECEIVER SENSITIVITY RECEIVE ANTENNA GAIN ANTENNA DIVERSITY GAIN CONNECTOR LOSS INTERFERENCE DEGRADATION MARGIN BODY LOSS DUPLEXERLOSS FADE MARGIN REQUIRED ISOTROPIC RECEIVE POWER

BTS (UL) -115 dBm 17.5 dB 3 dB -2 dB -3 dB 0 0 -4 dB -126 dBm

MS (DL) -112 dBm 0 0 0 -3 dB -3 dB 0 dB -4 dB -102 dBm

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Antenna Selection

Gain of antenna Height of antenna Beamwidths in horizontal and vertical radiated planes VSWR; Nominal impedance Frequency range Radiated pattern (beamshape) in horizontal and vertical planes; Polarisation Downtilt
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RF Planning Tool

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Map with Clutters and Heights

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Map with Vectors

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Site Properties

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Transmitter Properties

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TRXs Properties

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Neighbours List

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Different Levels of Signal Coverage


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Optimization ?

What is Optimization ?

Activity of achieving and maintaining the required quality as designed

Why Optimization ?

Deviations between plan and reality

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What is Optimization

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Why Optimization ?

Inaccuracy of radio planning


Statistical variations in the path loss characteristics

Implementation
Antenna radiation pattern and effective radiated power

Environment
Seasonal environmental changes, e.g trees, leaves and other environmental changes such as new highways, new buildings
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Performance Determinants

Coverage
Interference Handover Behaviour Traffic Distribution

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Performance Determinants

Coverage - Good signal level across the whole cell,


coverage holes within a cells service area must be minimized.

Interference - A reasonable level of interference


must be contained at cells service area in order to provide a quality air-interface.

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Performance Determinants

Handover Behavior - The quality of the airinterface in a cell with respect to handover behavior is good, no unnecessary handovers, Rxquality at acceptable level, BTS & MS use minimum transmit power.

Traffic Distribution - The quality of the air-interface


in a cell with respect to traffic distribution is good, maximum amount of traffic can be handed.

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Drive Tests for Optimization

Initial network coverage verification and benchmarking Verification before and after changes Locating and measuring interference Locating areas where traffic problems exist Locate coverage holes Preventive maintenance

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Drive Test Data Collection

CELL ID including BSIC, LAC, and time slot RXLEVEL for the serving and the neighbour cells RXQUALITY for the serving cell BCCH, BSIC for the serving and the neighbour cells TRANSMIT POWER GPS POSITION DATA

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Drive Test Route Planning

Primary route (street level) includes all major roads, highways and wide thoroughfares Secondary route (street level) includes all streets, subdivisions and compounds when accessable Miscellaneous routes (in-building and special locations) includes golf courses, beach resorts, shopping mails, department stores, convention centers, hotels and resorts

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Drive Testing and Analysis

Performance Problems that often encountered: Cell Dragging Dropped Calls Ping-Ponging System Busy Handover boundary

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Drive Testing and Analysis

Cell Dragging - Calls may drag a cell beyond the desired handover boundary. This might result dropped calls or bad Rxquality. Suggestions: Create an appropriate neighbour cell list Check serving cells cell identifier in the neighbour cells neighbour list Check neighbour cells BCCH, BSIC, LAC, Cell ID, etc

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Drive Testing and Analysis

Dropped Calls - Caused by either RF environments or incorrect system parameters Suggestions: Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Check HO parameters Existing or new coverage holes Abnormalities such as call setup failure

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Drive Testing and Analysis

Ping Ponging - Serving keep changing and as a result of bad audio quality Suggestions: Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Check HO parameters Poor coverage No optimal antenna configuration

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Drive Testing and Analysis

System Busy - System busy on several call attempts and site appears consistently on the traffic report Suggestions: Short Term : Reduce the traffic on the congested cell/site. re-design the antenna configuration, Change BTS configuration Long Term: Build a new cell site to off-load traffic
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Drive Testing and Analysis

Handover Boundary - Handovers do not occur at the desired HO boundary, the result is an imbalance in traffic distribution across the system Suggestions: Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined/Check HO parameters Inappropriate antenna configurations of the serving and neighbour cells No TCH available (neighbour cells congestion)
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Drive Testing and Analysis

Typical example of drive test equipment components: Test Mobile phone Scanning receiver Transceiver system Antennas GPS Visual display unit Laptop computer
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Drive Test Equipment

AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES(HP) Test 4 networks simultaneously


Fast scanning receiver, UL & DL Frequency Hopping Table Spectrum Analysis Channel Power Interference Measurement GSM Broadcast Channel Analysis

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Any Questions?

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Thank You!
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