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# PAPR Reduction in OFDM

## using Low Complexity PTS

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PAPR (Peak to average power ratio) in OFDM
An OFDM signal consists of a number of independently
modulated sub carriers, which can give a large peak-to-
average power (PAP) ratio when added up coherently.
When N signals are added with the same phase, they
produce a peak power that is N times the average
power.
} ) ( {
} ) ( { max
} ), ( {
2
2
0
t x E
t x
t x PAPR
T t s s
= t
Peak value of the signal Power
2
)] ( max[ t x t e t
for
Average signal power
} )] ( {[
2
t x E
(1)
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Problem due to High PAPR
When high PAPR OFDM signal pass through a
nonlinear device such high power amplifiers (HPA),
it causes the out-of-band radiation that affects
signals in adjacent bands, and in-band distortions
that result in rotation, attenuation, and offset on the
So a large back-off in input OFDM power is
required to force the operation in linear region of
HPA. Such HPA with large dynamic range are quite
expensive and increase overall cost of the system.
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Fig. 1: I/O Characteristics of HPA
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PTS (Partial Transmit Sequence)
Input data block of N symbols into V disjoint subblocks
T V
X X X X ] .......... .......... , [
1 1 0
=
Where are the subblocks that are consecutively located and also are
of equal size.
i
X
Then each partitioned subblock is multiplied by a corresponding
complex phase factor by , Where v = 1, 2.. V,
subsequently taking its IFFT to yield
v j v
e b
|
=
{ }

= = =
= =
)
`

=
V
v
v v v
V
v
v
V
v
v v
x b X T IFF b X b IFFT x
1 1 1
.
(2)
(3)
Where is referred to as a Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS).
v
x
6

The phase vector is chosen so that the PAPR can be minimized
| |
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
=
V
v
v v
N n
V
b b
V
n x b b b
1
1 . . . . 1 , 0
] . . . . . .
1
[
1
] [ max min arg
~
. ,.........
~
(4)
Then, the corresponding time-domain signal with the lowest
PAPR vector can be expressed as

=
=
V
v
v v
x b x
1
~
~
(5)
If the number of allowed phase vector = W.
Total number of possible set of phase factor= W
V-1
.
E.g if W={1,-1} then b
v
=1 or -1

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PTS (Partial Transmit Sequence)
Fig 2. Block diagram of PTS technique
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Computational complexity
Weighting factor for the first block b
1
=1

To optimize rest of V-1 sub-blocks for each input
sequence, overall W
V-1
combinations are to be analyzed to
select candidate with minimum PAPR.

Each candidate requires (V-1) complex addition and
multiplication

So total number of complex multiplication and additions
are each.
) 1 (
1

V W
V
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For V=4 and weight W=2 i.e {1,-1}. The possible candidates will be.
4 3 2 1 1
Y X X X X + + + =
4 3 2 1 2
Y X X X X + + =
4 3 2 1 3
Y X X X X + + =
4 3 2 1 4
Y X X X X + =
4 3 2 1 5
Y X X X X + + =
4 3 2 1 6
Y X X X X + =
4 3 2 1 7
Y X X X X + =
4 3 2 1 8
Y X X X X =

) 1 ( *
) 1 (

V W
V
Total complex Multiplication in conventional PTS =
= 24
Similarly Total complex Addition in conventional PTS = 24
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Proposed Scheme
We try to exploit correlation between the candidate so that they
can be generated from one another.

For V=4 and weight W=2

Define generators and

With Additions/Multiplications 2/2 and 2/4 respectively

(

+
=
2 1
2 1 1
X X
X X
G
(

+
=
4 3
4 3 2
X X
X X
G
j
i
G
is the i
th
element of j
th
generator
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CCRR for addition for V=5 (CCRR
+
) = 43.75
CCRR for Multiplication for V=5 (CCRR

) = 90.625
Similarly for V=6, 7, 8 the computation can be done.
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Conclusion
Reduction of computational complexity in
PTS is suggested without decreasing the
number of candidate signals.
In the result section it is shown that the
computational complexity is reduced
significantly .
At the same time PAPR reduction is same as
convention PTS technique in terms of CCDF.
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References:
1. L.Yang, R.S. Chen, Y.M. Siu, K.K. Soo, PAPR reduction of an OFDM signal
by use of PTS with low computational complexity. IEEE Transactions on
Broadcasting. Vol.52, no.1, 2006, pp. 83- 86.
2. R.J.Baxley, G.T. Zhou, "Comparing Selected Mapping and Partial Transmit
Sequence for PAR Reduction," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, , Vol.53,
Issue 4, 2007,pp.797-803.
3. S.J.Ku, C.L Wang, C.H.Chen, A reduced-complexity PTS based PAPR
reduction scheme for OFDM systems, IEEE Transaction on Wireless
Communication. Vol. 9, Issue. 8, 2010,pp. 24552460.
4. B.M.Lee, J.P.Rui, K. Youngok, A computationally efficient tree-PTS
technique for PAPR reduction of OFDM signal. Wireless Personal
Communication, 2010, doi:10.1007/s11277-010-0062-0.
5. Jun Hou, Jianhua Ge, Jing Li, Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction of
OFDM Signals Using PTS Scheme With Low Computational Complexity,
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, , Vol.57, Issue1, 2011,pp.143-158.
6. Lingyin Wang, Ju Liu, PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals by PTS With
Grouping and Recursive Phase Weighting Methods, IEEE Transactions on
Broadcasting, , Vol.57, Issue 2, 2011,pp.299-306.