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3.5.
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[5]: Ilkaev R.I., Seleznev V.E., Aleshin V.V., Klishin G.S. Numerical
simulation of gas pipeline networks: theory, computational implementation, and industrial
applications / Ed. by V.E. Seleznev. 2005.
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z
p
+ g 1 w w R;
x 4
x

( p f w)

w2
w2

f +
+ f w +
=
2
2
x
t

z
f

T
f w g 1 p + Q f + k f ( T , T ) ;
x
t
x
x

(3.4)

(3.4)

1
, ,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

52

_____________________________________________________________________________
p = p (,T );

= ( p, T ) ,

(3.4)

f = f ( x, t ) ; w
; z1 ,
(
); g ; R = f
;
[92]; x ;
. (3.4)
. ( T , Toc )
,
. ( )
f
( ( T , Toc ) > 0 ; T
-
).
,
, (3.4),

(. (1.40) 1
[1]):
( f )
+ ( w f ) = 0;
t
x

(3.5)

( Ym f ) + ( Ym w f ) f Dm m = 0, m = 1, N S 1 ; YN S = 1
t
x
x
x
( w f )
+
t

( w2 f )
x

Y
m =1

(3.5)
z
p
= f + g 1 w w R;

x 4
x

z1

w2
w2

f +
+ w f +
= ( p w f ) w f g
2 x
2
t
x
x

NS
Ym
f

T

p + +Q f + k f
;
( T , Toc ) + f m Dm
t
x
x
x
x
m =1

m = m ({S }) ,

N S 1

m = 1, N S ;

T1 = T2 = = TN S ;

(3.5)

(3.5)

(3.5)

p = p ({S }) ;

(3.5)

= ({S }) ;

(3.5)

k = k ({S }) ;

(3.5)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

53

_____________________________________________________________________________
Dm = Dm ({S }) , m = 1, N S ,

(3.5)

{S } , ,
( ,
()).
(3.5), ,

. ,
( -
)

:
w ( x, t0 ) = w0 ( x ) ; T ( x, t0 ) = T0 ( x ) ; p ( x, t0 ) = p0 ( x ) .
( x, t0 ) ( x, t0 )
(3.5) (3.5) .


:
T ( xB , t ) = TB (t );

w( xB , t ) = wB (t );

p( xB , t ) = pB (t );

( w f ) B = qB ( t ) ,

T ( xB , t )
= jB ( t ) ;
x

xB ; jB ( t ) qB ( t )
.
(3.5)
,
[93], ( ).
,
/ ( ).
(3.5) ( T , Toc ) ,

. -
( T , Toc )



.
,
. .3.11

.

( T , Toc )
. ( T , Toc )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

54

_____________________________________________________________________________
.

.

, ,
.

.3.11.
(D1 ; D2
; H1 , ; 2
)


, ,
Alfargus.
, Alfargus, .3.12.

.3.12. []

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

55

_____________________________________________________________________________
,

.
()

,
. , ,
,

(., , [85, 87, 90,
9497]).

.
, ..
..


N
[1, 23, 28].
,
, [23].


N
( )

( .. ).
[1].
c
. -
n ,
, : ( n ) .
( n )Ox , .
( ) .
(.3.13): ( n ) f L 1,
(
,
(n)

(n)

f L

xL )

(n)

fM

X (

xM ). , , ,

, ..

(n)

(n)

(n)

fL =

(n)

fM ,

n = 1, N .

() , .

, X xM xL ,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

56

_____________________________________________________________________________

(N )

( 0)

(1)

V
L

(n) !
i

(o) !
n

L
C

( 2)

,
(M)
(L)
.
.3.13. N

,
M ,

(n)

(n)

xM
(n)

xL L .

V,

n = 1, N , (. .3.13),
n M L , . (0)V
, ( n )V .
n

V = ( )V . ,
n

(n)

V ,

n =0

(n)

S.

(n)

!
i

(n)

Ox ,

(0)

!
n

(n)

fL ,

(0)

V . ,
,
(n)
X = X 0 (. (3.8), (3.13), (3.26) [1]):
N ( n )
+
t n =1

(n)

( Ym ) N
+
t
n =1

(n)

YN = 1

(n)

N S 1

m =1

( w)

= 0;
x

( Ym w ) ( n )

(3.6)
N

n =1

(n)

Ym ( n )

x Dm x = 0, m = 1, N S 1;

(n)

Ym ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.6)

57

_____________________________________________________________________________
( w)

+
t

(n)

(n)

(n)

( w2 )

p
g
x

( ) N
+
t
n =1

(n)

(3.6)

1
z1
(n)

( n ) ( w w ), n = 1, N ;
x 4 R

N
( w) (n)
(n)

= p

x
n =1

N
1
1
(n)
3
+ ( n ) ( n ) ( n ) w ( n ) + Q
4 n =1
R

(n)

(n)

(n)

N (n)
(T , Toc ) ( n )
T ( n )
+
(n)
x k x
f

n =1

n =1
N

w ( n )

+
x

(n)

NS

+
n =1 m =1

(3.6)

Ym ( n )

x m Dm x ;

( m ) = ( m ) , = ( n ) = ( ) , ( n ) p = ( ) p, ( n ) k = ( ) k ,
(n)
( )
(n)
( )
( Dm ) = ( Dm ) , Ym = (Ym ) = (Ym ) , ( n )Q = ( )Q , ( n ) ( z1 ) = ( ) ( z1 )
( )

T=

(n)

T,

(n)

( )

( )

(n)

n, 1, N m 1, N S ;
N

(3.6)

(n)

w ( n ) f ( n ) s = 0;

(3.6)

(n)

(3.6)

n =1

n =1
N

n =1

(n)

(n)

Ym ( n ) ( n )

f s = 0;
x

s=

(n)

(n) (n)
f s = 0;

(0)

(n)

(3.6)

(
(

! 1,
!
n (n) i =
1,

V
=
V

(n)
N

k =1

fL

(k )

fL

0<

(n)

!
!
n ( n ) i < 0;
!
(0) ! ( n )
n i > 0;

(0)

< 1,

)
)

(n)

= 1.

(3.6)

(3.6)

n=1

.
(3.6) (3.6)
, (3.6)
.
,
.
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

58

_____________________________________________________________________________
V , n = 1, N

(n)

(n)

X 0 (3.2)

(3.6). (3.2) (0)V .


, (0)V
.
(0)
V ,
.
,
. , - (0)V ,
(3.2) :
!#
# !
# !
(3.7)
n dS = p ndS = pdV .
(0) S

(0) S

(0)V

(., , [90])
. ,
(3.7) (0)V .
(3.7). , -

!#
# !
(3.8)
p ndS = pdV = 0.
(0) S

(0)V

# !

(0) S

n dS =

n =1

=
n =1

# !

n df

( n ) f L
!
#
x ( n ) i x

( n ) f L

(n)

N (n)
! (0) !
!
i n df ==
L s f L wL2 i .

n =1

(3.9)

[1]:
N

n =1

(n)

L ( n ) wL ( n ) f L ( n ) s = 0.

(3.10)

(3.10)
!
( n ) w ( n ) i , , .
# !
, (3.9),
n dS . ,

(0) S
(3.7) (0)V
.
,
(0)V , .
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

59

_____________________________________________________________________________
(.3.14).
0

P
P1

P2
x1

x2

.3.14.

(0)V ,
.

. ,
, .
(0)V ,
. ( w2 )
x x (. .3.14). ,
p ( x ) (. , .3.14).
,
p( x ) .

. ,
.
p ( x ) 0 (. ,
.3.14 ). .3.14,
(0)V
[ x1 , x ] x , x2 ,
. , , ,
.
,
(0)V , ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

60

_____________________________________________________________________________

( ) . [90],
, .. 2 ,
,
,
:
(k )

pL =

(n)

pL n, k 1, N .

(3.11)

, , ,
3,5 7,8 ,
20 / ,
50 / 3 .

102 . , (
)
.
, (3.11)
,

.
, (3.5) (3.6),



:
,

( f )
+ ( w f ) = 0;
t
x

(3.12)

( Ym f ) + ( Ym w f ) f Dm m = 0 , m = 1, N S 1 ; YN S = 1
t
x
x
x

N S 1

Y
m =1

(3.12)
2
( w f ) ( w f )
+
=f
t
x

z
p
+ g 1 w w R;
x 4
x

w2
w2

f +
+ w f +
=
2 x
2
t

f
= ( p w f ) w f g 1 p + Q f +
x
x
t
NS
Y

T

m Dm m ;
,
T
T
f
+ k f

(
)

oc

x
x
x
x
m =1

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.12)

(3.12)

61

_____________________________________________________________________________

N ( n )
+
t n =1

(n)

( Ym ) N
+
t
n =1

(n)

N S 1

YN = 1

(n)

( w)

= 0;
x

(3.12)

N
( Ym w ) ( n )


x
n =1

(n)

Ym ( n )

x Dm x = 0, m = 1, N S 1;

(n)

m =1

Ym ;

(3.12)
( w)
+
t

(n)

( ) N
+
t
n =1

(n)

(n)

( w2 )
x

(n)

p
g
x

(n)

(n)
1
z1

( n ) ( w w ) , n = 1, N ;
x 4 R
(3.12)

N
( w) (n)
(n)

= p
x
n =1

1 N 1
(n)
3
+ ( n ) ( n ) ( n ) w ( n ) + Q
4 n =1 R
N

(n)

n =1
N

(n)

T
k
x x

NS ( n )

N
(n)

n =1

(n)

w ( n )

+
x
+

(3.12)

( T , Toc ) ( n ) +
(n)

Ym ( n )

m Dm
;
x
x

n =1 m =1

( m ) = ( m ) , = ( n ) = ( ) , ( n ) p = ( ) p, ( n ) k = ( ) k ,
(n)
( )
(n)
( )
(n)
( )
( Dm ) = ( Dm ) , Ym = (Ym ) = (Ym ) , ( n )Q = ( )Q, ( z1 ) = ( z1 ) ,
T=

(n)

( )

T, =

(n)

( )

( )

(n)

n, 1, N m 1, N S ;

(3.12)
(n)

T ( n ) ( n )

f s = 0;
x
n =1
n =1
!
1, (0) n! ( n ) i < 0,
!
!

(n)
s = (0) n ( n ) i =
!
(0) ! ( n )
n i > 0,
1,
N

(n)

w ( n ) f ( n ) s = 0;

(
(

)
)

(n)

n =1

(n)

Ym ( n ) ( n )

f s = 0;
x
(n)
N

k =1

(n)

fL

(k )

0<

(n)

(3.12)

< 1,

fL

= 1;

(3.12)

n =1

p = p ({S }) ; = ({S }) ;
m = 1, N S ;

k = k ({S }) ; m = m ({S }) ,

T1 = T2 = = TN S .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

Dm = Dm ({S }) ,
(3.12)

62

_____________________________________________________________________________


.
(3.12).

,
,
[8, 29].
, , [98]
,
(3.12) ,
.

( ).
3.6.2.

(3.4), (3.5), (3.6) (3.12)


. ,
, [98, 99]. .
-,
[100, 101].
.
-, , ,
, -
.
[93]
,
, .
-,
- .. ,
[98].
-, , ,
, ..
,
[98].
.
.
- {xi , t j } (.3.15), xi

t j i j , i, j Z , Z
.

(. .3.15), {xi , t j } (

) x = xia , x = xib , t = t aj t = t bj ( xi 1 xia xi ,


xi xib xi +1 , t j 1 t aj t j , t j t bj t j +1 , xia xib , t aj t bj ).

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

63

_____________________________________________________________________________
[2]:
t
t j +1

t bj
tj

t aj

t j 1
xi 1

xi

xia

xi + 1

xib

.3.15. - ()

ri a =

xia xi 1 xia xi 1
=
,
xi xi 1
hi

s aj =

t aj t j 1
t j t j 1

t aj t j 1

rib =
s bj =

xib xi
x b xi
= i
,
xi +1 xi
hi +1
t bj t j
t j +1 t j

t bj t j

j +1

hi = xi xi 1 hi +1 = xi +1 xi
i- ; j = t j t j 1 j +1 = t j +1 t j
j - .
:
i = hi +1 hi j = j +1 j ,
- .
y = y ( x, t ) :
yij = y ( xi , t j ) ,

y j = y j ( x ) = y ( x, t j ) .

(3.13)

y ( x, t ) = aiy ( t ) x 2 + biy ( t ) x + ciy ( t ) ,

x [ xi 1 , xi ] ;

(3.13)

y ( x, t ) = aiy + ( t ) x 2 + biy + ( t ) x + ciy + ( t ) ,

x [ xi , xi +1 ]

(3.13)

yi = yi ( t ) = y ( xi , t ) ,

y ( x, t ) =

y
= 2 aiy (t ) x + biy (t ),
x

x [ xi 1 , xi ] ;

(3.13)

y ( x, t ) =

y
= 2 aiy + (t ) x + biy + (t ),
x

x [ xi , xi +1 ] ;

(3.13)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

64

_____________________________________________________________________________

( y )
a

= 2 aiy ( t j ) x a + biy ( t j ) ,

j
i

( y )
b

j
i

= 2 aiy + ( t j ) x b + biy + ( t j ) .

(3.13)

:
y = yi j ,

h = hi ,

y ( +1) = yij+1 ,

= i ,

= j ,

y ( 1) = yij1 ,

= j,

r a = ri a ,

&
a
y ( ) = a y + (1 a ) y ,

#
&
x = xi , t = t j , y = yij +1 , y = yij 1 ,

r b = rib , s a = s aj , s b = s bj , i, j Z ,

y( b ) = b y + (1 b) y ( 1) ,

#
&
y ( a ,b ) = a y + (1 a b) y + b y ,
&
#
y ( S ) = s a y + (1 s a ) y , y ( + S ) = s b y + (1 s b ) y ,

y( R ) = r a y + (1 r a ) y ( 1) ,

y( + R ) = r b y ( +1) + (1 r b ) y ,

# S
& +S
+S
S
y( R ) ( +1) = y( + R ) , y( + R ) ( 1) = y( R ) , y ( ) = y ( ) , y ( ) = y ( ) ,
#
t = t t a = (1 s a ) , t + = t b t = s b = s b ,

x = x x a = (1 r a ) h , x + = x b x = r b h( +1) = r b h ,
#
t = t b t a = t + + t = (1 s a ) + s b = (1 s a ) + s b ,
x = x b x a = x + + x = (1 r a ) h + r b h( +1) = (1 r a ) h + r b h,

x
(1 r a ) h
1 ra
,
=
=
a
b
x (1 r ) h + r h( +1) (1 r a ) + r b

+ =

x +
r b h( +1)
rb
,
=
=
a
b
x (1 r ) h + r h( +1) (1 r a ) + r b

y a ( +1) = y b ,
yx =

y b ( 1) = y a ,

y y ( 1)
,
h
#
y y
,
yt =
+
t

y x ( +1) = y x ,
yx =
+

yx =

y ( +1) y
,
h( +1)

y x ( 1) = y x ,

y ( +1) y
.
x

(3.14)

(3.12) ..
..
(., , [1,2]).
,
(. .3.15)
(3.5),

. (3.14).
- ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

65

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
,
[102,103].
,
(3.5) [23].
:
1
( w f )
1
( w2 f )
dtdx +
dtdx =


x t x t
t
x t x t
x
=

1
1
p
z

fdtdx

g 1 fdtdx
x t x t x
x t x t
x

(3.15)

w w Rdtdx.
4 x t x t

(3.15).
:

1
1
( w f )
dtdx =

w fdx dt =

x t x t
t
x t t t x

=
=

1
1

(t ) w(t ) fdx dt = (t ) w(t ) Fi (t ) dt =

t
t
x t t t

x
t

i ( t bj ) wi ( t bj ) Fi ( t bj ) i ( t aj ) wi ( t aj ) Fi ( t aj )
1

[ i wi Fi (t )] dt =

t t t
t

(3.16)

( F )( S ) w( S ) t ,
+

(t ) w(t ) x (
i - );
Fi =

1
fdx
x x

(3.17)

(
x ).
:
( w2 f )
1
1
( w2 f )
dtdx =
dx dt =

x t x t
x
x t t x
x

1
=
t t
=

( w

( w

f)

x = xib

( w2 f )

x
2

f)

xib

( w2 f )
x

xia

x = xia

dt =

(( w f )

w( R ) ) x ( ( w f )( R ) w( R ) ) x

( , )

(R)

(3.18)
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

66

_____________________________________________________________________________
(3.18) t .
.
:
p

1
1
p
fdtdx =

fdx dt.
x t x t x
x t t x x

(3.19)

- p( x, t ) x
:
x

xi
xb
xb
pi +1 pi
p
p
1
1 i p
1 pi pi 1

fdx =

fdx +
fdx =

a fdx + hi +1 fdx .
x x x
x a x
x
x hi

x
x
x
xi
i

(3.20)

:
1
Bi =
x

xi

f ( x, t )dx ,

a
i

1
Bi+ = +
x

xib

f ( x, t )dx .

(3.21)

xi

(3.21) (3.14) (3.20) :


p pi 1 pi +1 pi + +
p
1

fdx = i
i Bi +
i Bi B p x + + B + p x . (3.22)
x x x
hi
hi +1

(3.22) (3.19), :
1
p
fdtdx =
x t x t x
1 pi pi 1 pi +1 pi + +
=
i Bi +
i Bi

t t
hi
hi +1

( , )

+
+
.
dt ( B p x + B px )

(3.23)

( ):

1
1
z
z
g 1 fdtdx =
g 1 fdx dt
x t x t
x
x t t
x
x

( , )

1
z
.

g i 1 fdx dt g ( B ( z1 ) x + B + + ( z1 ) x )
x t t
x
x

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.24)

67

_____________________________________________________________________________

1
w w Rdtdx =

w w Rdx dt
4 x t x t
4 x t t x

1
i i wi wi
4 t t

Rdx dt =

x x

(3.25)

( , )
1

( i i wi wi ri ) dt ( w r )
w ( , ) ,
4 t t
4

ri =

1
Rdx .
x x

(3.26)

(3.15) ,
:

( F )( S ) w( S ) t + ( w f ) w( R )
( R)

= ( B p x + B + + px ) ( , )

( , )
x

(3.27)

g ( B ( z1 ) x + B + + ( z1 ) x ) ( , )

( w r ) ( , ) w( , ) .


, .. (.
.3.15),

(3.5), (. (3.5) [1]):

( F )( S ) t + ( w f )
( R)

( , )
x

= 0;

(3.28)

( F )( S ) (Ym )( S ) t + ( w f ) (Ym )
(R)
(R)

( , )
x

a
( f Dm )( R ) (Ym ) (x , ) = 0, m = 1, N S 1, YN = 1
S

( F )( S ) w( S ) t + ( w f ) w( R )
( R)

( , )
x
+

N S 1

Y
m =1

(3.28)
;

= ( B p x + B + + p x ) ( , )

g ( B ( z1 ) x + B + + ( z1 ) x ) ( , )

( w r ) ( , ) w( , ) ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.28)

68

_____________________________________________________________________________

F )( S ) ( S ) t + ( w f ) ( R )
(R)
(
+

w
+ K x w f ( , ) =
2

( , )
x
+

(( p w f ) )
( R)

w2
+ Kt F +
2

( , )
x

g ( B ( z1 ) x + B + + ( z1 ) x ) ( , ) w( , )
p ( , ) F ( S ) t + ( Q F )
+

( , )

( , )

+ ( k f )( R ) T a

(3.28)
( , ) +

NS

a
+ ( Dm f )( R ) ( m )( R ) (Ym ) (x , ) ;

+
m =1

m = m ({S }) ,

m = 1, N S ;

T1 = T2 = = TN S ;

(3.28)

p = p ({S }) ;

(3.28)

= ({S }) ;

(3.28)

k = k ({S }) ;

(3.28)

Dm = Dm ({S }) ,

m = 1, N S ,

(3.28)

F , B + , B r , f R (
); K t

w2
w2
K x F w f
2
2

(
); ( , ) ,
( T , Toc ) .
(3.28)
.
[1, 2, 23], (3.28)
: ; ;
, ;
.

, , ,
.. [23, 100, 103].
[102, 104],
.
(3.28) [1]:
ri a = rib1 , s aj = s bj 1 .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.29)

69

_____________________________________________________________________________

, .

, .
.. -
. (3.28) (3.29)
.
(3.28)
(3.29) (
,
) [100,103,105].
2 [1] ,
(3.28) (3.5)
-
[1,2].
- ,
(3.28) .
, ,
(3.5)
O ( h 2 , ) [2].
(3.6)
- [93, 102, 104].
(. (3.27) [1]):
-
N
Lj +1 Lj 1
V 0,5 ( n ) Mj +1 ( n ) wMj +1 ( n ) f Mj +1 ( n ) s = 0 ;
(1 + j ) j
n =1

(3.30)

j +1
L

+ Lj ) ( (Ym ) Lj +1 + (Ym ) Lj ) ( Lj + Lj 1 ) ( (Ym ) Lj + (Ym ) Lj 1 )


2 (1 + j ) j

(n)

n =1

0, 25

f Lj +1 ( ( n ) Mj +1 ( n ) wMj +1 + ( n ) Lj +1 ( n ) wLj +1 ) ( ( n ) (Ym ) Mj +1 + ( n ) (Ym ) Lj +1 ) ( n ) s +

+ 0,5 ( n ) f Lj +1 ( ( n ) Mj +1 ( n ) ( Dm ) Mj +1 + ( n ) Lj +1 ( n ) ( Dm ) Lj +1 )
n =1

(n)

(3.30)

(Ym ) Lj +1 ( n ) (Ym ) Mj +1
= 0;
2 ( n ) X

-
N

(n)

n =1

(n)

L ( n ) wL ( n ) f L ( n ) s = 0 ;

(3.30)

L :
N

n =1

(n)

wL ( n ) f L ( n ) s = 0 ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.30)

70

_____________________________________________________________________________
-
V

(n)

(n)

Lj +1 + ( n ) Lj ) ( ( n ) wLj +1 + ( n ) wLj ) ( ( n ) Lj + ( n ) Lj 1 ) ( ( n ) wLj + ( n ) wLj 1 )


2 (1 + j ) j

+ ( n ) s ( n ) f Lj +1

(n)

(n)

Lj +1 ( n ) ( wLj +1 ) 2 0, 25 ( n ) Lj +1 ( n ) wLj +1 + ( n ) Mj +1 ( n ) wMj +1 ( n ) wLj +1 + ( n ) wMj +1 =


j +1
L

f
2

( ( n ) pLj +1 ( n ) pMj +1 ) ( n ) s

( n ) f Lj +1
4

(3.30)

( n )Lj +1 ( n ) Lj +1 ( n ) wLj +1

0,5 ( ( n ) ( z1 ) Lj +1

(n)

(n)

wLj +1 ( n ) X

( z1 ) Mj +1 ) g ( n ) Lj +1 ( n ) f Lj +1 ( n ) s.

-
V

( Lj +1 + Lj ) ( Lj +1 + Lj ) ( Lj + Lj 1 ) ( Lj + Lj 1 )

2 (1 + j ) j
N

0, 25 ( n ) f Lj +1 ( ( n ) Mj +1 ( n ) wMj +1 +

(n)

n =1

Lj +1 ( n ) wLj +1 ) ( ( n ) Mj +1 +

(n)

Lj +1 ) ( n ) s =

= 0,5 ( n ) pMj +1 ( n ) f Lj +1 ( ( n ) wMj +1 ( n ) wLj +1 ) ( n ) s +


n =1

( n ) f Lj +1
4

n =1

( n )Lj +1 ( n ) Lj +1

(n)

wLj +1 ( n ) X + QLj +1 V

( n ) j +1
N

TL ( n )TMj +1 ( n ) j +1
0,5 ( ( n )k Mj +1 + ( n )k Lj +1 )
fL +
2 ( n ) X
n =1
NS

(3.30)

Lj +1 ( n ) X 0, 25

(n)

( n ) f Lj +1 ( ( n ) Mj +1 ( n ) ( Dm ) Mj +1 + ( n ) Lj +1 ( n ) ( Dm ) Lj +1 ) ( ( n ) ( m ) Mj +1 + ( n ) ( m ) Lj +1 )
m =1 n =1

(n)

(Ym ) Lj +1 ( n ) (Ym ) Mj +1
.
2 ( n ) X

(3.6, , )
. ,
n
n
(3.30) ( ) X ( ) f L
f M (. .3.13), ( )V = ( ) f L ( ) X .
(3.30) (3.6)
, (3.30) (3.6)
-
[1, 23].
, ,
.
, .
3 [1] ,

(n)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

71

_____________________________________________________________________________
(3.30) , ..
. (3.30)
, (3.28)
ri a = 0,5 , (3.30)
. (3.30),
V ,
[1]:

( Lj +1 + Lj ) ( Lj +1 + Lj ) ( Lj + Lj 1 ) ( Lj + Lj 1 )

2 (1 + j ) j
N

0, 25 ( n ) f Lj +1 ( ( n ) Mj +1 ( n ) wMj +1 +
n =1

(n)

Lj +1 ( n ) wLj +1 ) ( ( n ) Mj +1 +

(n)

Lj +1 ) ( n ) s =

= 0,5 ( n ) pMj +1 ( n ) f Lj +1 ( ( n ) wMj +1 ( n ) wLj +1 ) ( n ) s +


n =1

( n ) f Lj +1

n =1

( n )Lj +1 ( n ) Lj +1

(n)

wLj +1 ( n ) X + QLj +1 V

( n ) j +1

TL ( n )TMj +1 ( n ) j +1
fL +
0,5 ( ( n ) k Mj +1 + ( n )k Lj +1 )
2 ( n ) X
n =1
N

NS

( n ) f Lj +1 ( ( n ) Mj +1 ( n ) ( Dm ) Mj +1 +
m =1 n =1

(n)

+
n =1

(n)

Lj +1 ( n ) X 0, 25

(n)

(3.30)

Lj +1 ( n ) ( Dm ) Lj +1 ) ( ( n ) ( m ) Mj +1 + ( n ) ( m ) Lj +1 )

(Ym ) Lj +1 ( n ) (Ym ) Mj +1
+
2 ( n ) X
(n)

j +1

wLj +1 wLj 1
j
j
j 1
f L X .
( wL wL ) ( L + L )
2 (1 + j ) j

, (3.28) (3.30)


(. (3.12)).
[93], ,
.
( ) [93].
,
[105].
, ..
[105]. [1, 3] ,
(3.30) .
(3.28) [2]
(. (2.3) [2]):
( F )( S ) t + ( ( R ) w(0.5) f (0.5) ) (x , ) = 0;

+
+

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.31)

72

_____________________________________________________________________________

( F )( S ) (Ym )( S ) t + ( R ) w(0.5) f (0.5) (Ym )


(R)

( , )
x

a
( f Dm )( R ) (Ym ) (x , ) = 0, m = 1, N S 1, YN = 1
S

N S 1

Ym ;

(3.31)

m =1

( F )( S ) w( S ) t + ( ( R ) w(0.5) f (0.5) w( R ) ) (x , ) =

+
+
= ( B p x + B + + p x ) ( , )

(3.31)

g ( B ( z1 ) x + B + + ( z1 ) x ) ( , )

( w r ) ( , ) w ( , ) ;

2
( F )( S ) ( S ) t + ( ( R ) w(0.5) f (0.5) ( R ) ) (x , ) + K t F w +

+
+
2

w2
+ K x w f ( , ) = ( p( R ) w(0.5) f (0.5) ) (x , )
+
2

g ( B ( z1 ) x + B + + ( z1 ) x ) ( , ) w( , )

p ( , ) F ( S ) t + ( Q F )
+

( , )

(3.31)

+ ( k f )( R ) T a (x , ) ( , ) +

NS

a
+ ( Dm f )( R ) ( m )( R ) (Ym ) (x , ) ;

+
m =1

m = m ({S }) ,

m = 1, N S ;

T1 = T2 = = TN S ;

(3.31)

p = p ({S }) ;

(3.31)

= ({S }) ;

(3.31)

k = k ({S }) ;

(3.31)

Dm = Dm ({S }) ,

m = 1, N S .

(3.31)

(3.28) (3.31)
,
(3.31).
,
( s a = s b = r a = r b = 0,5 , = 1 ,
= 0 ), .
,
.3.16.
.3.16 .
. 02, 46, 9

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

73

_____________________________________________________________________________
1, 22 , 0,0125 .
3, 7, 8, 10 1, 42 , 0,0195 .

.3.17.

43369

2,5 105 .

20310

48350

.3.16.

.3.17.


,
, 6,613 ,
306,5 K 1752,45 / .

, (. ).
273,15 K . ,
2 .

, .3.18.

, .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

74

_____________________________________________________________________________
- 870
0, 4 c .
120,18 c .3.19.

.3.18.





.
, ,
[92].

.3.19.

3.6.3.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

75

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
.
( , )

(3.4).
:
( f ) ( w f )
+
= 0;
t
x

(3.32)

p
z
w
w
+ w f
= f
+ g 1 w w R;
t
x
x 4
x

(3.32)

( w f )

f
3
+ w f
= p
p + Q f + w R +
4
t
x
x
t
( k f ) T
2T
+

+ k f 2 ( Toc , T ) ;
x
x
x

(3.32)

p = p (,T );

(3.32)

= ( p, T ) ;

(3.32)

k = k ( p, T ) .

(3.32)


y ( x )

. i .
y
y ( x )
x i
j i .
, ( i ):
yi 1 = yi

y
2 y h2 3 y h3
hi + 2 i 3 i + O ( h 4 ) ,
x
x 2! x 3!

y
2 y ( h + h ) 3 y ( h + h )
( hi + hi 1 ) + 2 i i 1 3 i i 1 + O ( h 4 ) ,
2!
3!
x
x
x
2

yi 2 = yi

y
2 y (h + h + h )
( hi + hi 1 + hi 2 ) + 2 i i 1 i 2
x
x
2!
2

yi 3 = y i

3 y ( h + h + h )
3 i i 1 i 2 + O ( h 4 ) .
x
3!
3

(3.33)

O ( h 4 ) , (3.33)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

76

_____________________________________________________________________________

2 y
< ... > .
x 2

y
.
x

(3.33),
(3.33)

y
,
x

2 y

x 2

..
. DER
(derivation). ,
x , Kx .
Kx1 Kx 2 . :
Kx = Kx1 + Kx 2 + 1.

(3.34)

APPR (approximation).
:
APPR = Kx DER.
(3.35)
, ,
,
{i Kx1, i + Kx 2} .
{UPSTREAM , Kx} .

yi(1)
0,5 =

xi

DER

yi yi 1
:
hi
{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}

( DER =<...> )

( yi )

(3.36)

( yi ) ,

(3.36)

, :
{UPSTREAM , Kx}

( DER =<...> )

< ... > .


(3.36)
:
{ Kx1,

Kx 2}

( DER =<...> )

( y)

(3.37)

, :
{UPSTREAM , Kx}

( DER =<...> )

( y ).

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.37)

x x
i

77

_____________________________________________________________________________
xi 1 , xi xi +1 , :

{1,1}

( DER =1)

( ) .

{i 1, i +1}

( DER =1)

( i )

Kx = 3 . (3.35),

APPR = Kx DER = 3 1 = 2 .


, (3.33), .
,
.
,
[102].

hi2

( hi + hi 1 )

y

x
, 6 (
).
1,52 .

.
. :

yi(1)
0,5 =

yi yi 1
,
hi

yi(1)
1,5 =

yi 1 yi 2
,
hi 1

(3.38)

, .
(3.33) ( -
xi ):
h 2 y
y
i 2 + O ( h2 ) ,
x
2 x

(3.39)

y 2 hi + hi 1 2 y

2 + O ( h2 ) .
x
2
x

(3.39)

yi(1)
0,5 =

yi(1)
1,5 =

(3.39) ,

2 y
, :
x 2

hi 1
(1)
yi(1)
yi 1,5
0,5 2 +
h
y
i

=
+ O ( h2 )
x
hi 1
1 +

hi

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.40)

78

_____________________________________________________________________________

y
=
x

hi
yi(1)
0,5
2 hi + hi 1
+ O ( h2 ) .

hi
1

2 hi + hi 1

yi(1)
1,5

(3.40)


:
y
=
x

hi + 2
(1)
yi(1)
yi +1,5
+ 0,5 2 +
h
i +1

+ O ( h2 )
hi + 2
1 +

hi +1

(3.41)

y
=
x

hi +1
yi(1)
+ 0,5
2 hi +1 + hi + 2
+ O ( h2 ) .

hi +1
1

2 hi +1 + hi + 2

yi(1)
+1,5

(3.41)

, xi 1 , xi xi +1 ,
(3.40) (3.41) :
y
=
x

(1)
yi(1)
+ 0,5 + yi 0,5

hi +1
hi

+ O (h2 )

(3.42)

hi
+ yi(1)
0,5
hi +1
+ O ( h2 ).
hi

+ 1

h
i +1

(3.42)

hi +1
1 +

hi

y
=
x

( 2 hi )

yi(1)
+ 0,5

2 hi = hi + hi ,

hi +1
h
hi
, i = 1, N ( i ,
..)
hi
hi +1 2 hi + hi 1
,
. ,
.
4.
yi(1)
,
+ 0,5 , i = 1, N

. i =

y
(3.40), (3.41) (3.42) 3 .
x
, , 1,52 .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

79

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
. (3.33)
2 y 3 y
,
yi . ,

x 2 x 3
yi .
(3.32)

- :
{ j +1 Kt1,

j +1}

( DER =1)

( DER =1)

(w ) +
j +1

( DER =1)

{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}

(p ) f
j +1

( DER =1)

j +1
i

j +1
i

f i j +1 wij +1 ) = 0;

f i j +1 wij +1

j +1
i

g i j +1

{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}

( DER =1)

(w ) =
j +1

( DER =1)

{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}

(3.43)

(( z ) )
j +1
1 i

(3.43)

i j +1 i j +1 wij +1 wij +1 Ri j +1 ;

i j +1 f i j +1

{ j +1 Kt1,

= pij +1
pij +1
+

j +1}

= f i j +1

{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}

f i j +1 ) +

{ j +1 Kt1,

i j +1 f i j +1

j +1
i

( ) +

{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}

j +1}

( DER =1)

{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}
( DER =1)

(k

j +1
i

(w

j +1

( DER =1)

j +1

( DER =1)

{ j +1 Kt 1,

j +1}

j +1
i

f i j +1 wij +1

( DER =1)

( ) =
j +1

f i j +1 )

( fi j +1 ) + Qi j +1 fi j +1 +
f i j +1 )

{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}

{ i Kx1, i + Kx 2}

( DER =1)

(T ) + k
j +1

(3.43)

i j +1 i j +1 wij +1 Ri j +1 +
j +1
i

f i j +1

{i Kx1, i + Kx 2}
x
Ti j +1 i j +1 ;
( DER = 2 )

pij +1 = p ( i j +1 , Ti j +1 ) ;

(3.43)

i j +1 = ( pij +1 , Ti j +1 ) ;

(3.43)

ki j +1 = k ( pij +1 , Ti j +1 ) ,

(3.43)

Kt1 ,
t .
(3.43)
, (3.43), Kx1
Kx 2 , :
Kx1 + Kx 2 Kx1 + Kx 2 + 1.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.44)

80

_____________________________________________________________________________
(3.43),

{UPSTREA , Kx} .
(3.43)
.
,
, .. ,

,
.
(3.43) .. .
:

;

;
.

. [93,102].
,

.

-
. ,

- . ,
, ,
.
3.6.2 3.6.3
,
.

.

3.6.4. -


(., ,
[106]).
xL x xR
dy
= p ( x, y ( x ) ) ,
dx

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.45)

81

_____________________________________________________________________________
p ( x, y ( x ) ) .
(3.45) ,
. , , ,
, ( xL ) :
y ( xL ) = YL ,

(3.46)

YL .
- h = {xi } , xi
i - , i = 0, N 1 ;

- ;

hi = xi xi 1 i , i = 1, N 1 (.3.20).

.3.20. -

(3.45)
(3.45) - :
dy
= p ( xi , y ( xi ) ) .
dx i

(3.47)

dy dx
:
{Spline , <...>}

( DER =<...> )

( y),

(3.48)

{Spline, < ... >} ,


< ... > .
( DER =< ... > ) , (3.36), (
1). (3.48) (3.47) :
{Spline , <...>}

( DER =1)

( yi ) = p ( xi , y ( xi ) )

(3.49)

( y ) = p ( x, y ( x ) ) .

(3.49)

, :
{Spline , <...>}

( DER =1)


xi 0,5 = [ xi 1 , xi ] ,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

82

_____________________________________________________________________________
K 2 .
y ( x ) . xi 0,5 ,
i = 1, N 1
K

yi 0,5 ( x ) = ak ,( i 0,5) x k ,

(3.50)

k =0

ak ,( i 0,5) , k = 0, K , i = 1, N 1 .
(3.45)
:
(1)
yi(1)
0,5 ( xi 1 ) = p ( xi 1 , yi 0,5 ( xi 1 ) ) , yi 0,5 ( xi ) = p ( xi , yi 0,5 ( xi ) ) , i = 1, N 1;
)
yi(m0,5
( xi ) = yi(+m0,5) ( xi ) ,

m = 0, 2,3, ..., K 1,

i = 1, N 2,

(3.51)
(3.52)

)
yi(m0,5
( x ) m - yi 0,5 ( x ) .

(3.51,3.52)

[( N 1) ( K + 1)]

( ( N 1)

; ( K + 1) )
2 ( N 1) + ( K 1) ( N 2 ) .
( K 1) . ..
(3.51,3.52) ( K 1) - .
(3.44):
y0,5 ( x0 ) = YL .

( K 2)

(3.53)

:
, , K' = ( int( K / 2) 1) ( int(...)
) ( K K' 1) :
y N( m)1,5 ( xN 1 ) = 0, m = ( K K' + 1) , K ;

(3.54)

(m)
y0,5
( x0 ) = 0, m = K' + 2, K .

(3.55)

-.
[105, 107],
, .
, ( (3.45))
.
, ,
( y ( x ) ),

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

83

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
, ,

( y ).
() ,
(. [105,107]). , ,
( y )

( p ) , .
- (3.49)
(3.45) -. ,
.
-
.
. ,

{x

i + 0,5

( y )}

( xi + 0,5 hi )
- y ( x ) :

{ y } , ,
i + 0,5

yi + 0,5 yi 0,5
xi + 0,5 xi 0,5

dy {Spline , <...>}
= = x ( yi ) .
( DER =1)
dx i

(3.56)

,
{xi + 0,5 ( y )} (.3.21).
(3.54) , .. y
. (3.49)
(3.56), :
yi + 0,5 yi 0,5
xi + 0,5 xi 0,5

= pi .

(3.57)

(3.57)
xi 0,5 , xi + 0,5 (3.49),
, -
.

:

( , ,
, N + 1
..), ,
,

, .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

84

_____________________________________________________________________________

.3.21. {xi + 0,5 ( y )} y ( x )


- . -
,
(3.45) xi 0,5 ( y ), xi + 0,5 ( y ) .
,

-
.
:
dy d
+ g ( y ) = p ( x, y ( x ) ) .
(3.58)
dx dx
- (3.58)

, ..
( dy dx dg dx )
. ,
( xi 0,5 ( y ), xi + 0,5 ( y )
xi 0,5 ( g ), xi + 0,5 ( g ) ) . ( )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

85

_____________________________________________________________________________
, ,
(3.58),
(, , - ).
- (3.32).
Kt , : Kx .
- (3.32) :
{Spline , Kt}

i j +1 t

( f )+ f
)
j +1

( DER =1

(w ) =
j +1

(w )
)
j +1

{Spline , Kx}

(p )
)
j +1

( DER =1

( )
j +1

j +1

( DER =1)

( DER =1

( DER =1)
i

( DER =1

{Spline , Kt}

= f i j +1

{Spline , Kt}

( ) +
)

{Spline , Kx}

i j +1 f i j +1 t

{Spline , Kx}

+ f i j +1 wij +1
+ i j +1 f i j +1

j +1
i

j +1
i

wij +1

{Spline , Kx}

( f )+
j +1

(3.59)

( DER =1)

0;

+ i j +1 f i j +1 wij +1
f i j +1 g i j +1

{Spline , Kx}

( DER =1)

{Spline , Kx}

( DER =1)

(w )
j +1

(( z ) )
j +1
1 i

i j +1 i j +1 wij +1 wij +1 Ri j +1 ;

(3.59)
{Spline , Kt}

( )
)

i j +1 f i j +1 t

j +1

( DER =1

= pij +1

pij +1
+

{Spline , Kx}

{Spline , Kt}
( DER =1

(k
)

( DER =1

j +1

(f )
)

{Spline , Kx}

(w

( DER =1)

j +1
i

j +1

f i j +1 )

+ i j +1 f i j +1 wij +1

{Spline , Kx}

( DER =1)

( )
j +1

f i j +1 )

+ Qi j +1 f i j +1 +
{Spline, Kx}
x Ti j +1

(
)

( DER =1

i j +1 i j +1 wij +1 Ri j +1 +

+ ki j +1 f i j +1

{Spline , Kx}
x Ti j +1
( DER = 2 )

i j +1 ;

(3.59)

pij +1 = p ( i j +1 , Ti j +1 ) ;

(3.59)

i j +1 = ( pij +1 , Ti j +1 ) ;

(3.59)

ki j +1 = k ( pij +1 , Ti j +1 ) .

(3.59)

(.
3.6.3) (3.59)
, (3.59),
Kx Kx ,
:
Kx > Kx.
(3.60)
- (3.59)
, (3.32).
,
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

86

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
, (3.32)
( Kt 2 , Kx 2 , Kx 3 ),

. , -
.


(, ,
, ..).

, [93, 102, 104] -.

.
, , - .
-
.
- ,
[93, 102, 104].

- , .
-
.

3.6.5.

(3.12)
. [108, 109],
:
p V
B C
= 1 + + 2 + ,
R0 T
V V

(3.61)

3
V
; R0 ; B

3
6
, C 2 , , .. ,

.
(V ) (3.61) . ,

, .. (3.61)
, , ..
.
(3.61)
, . , ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

87

_____________________________________________________________________________
[108, 110, 111]:

a*
p+
( b* ) = R T ,
*
T ( + b )

(3.62)

2,5
a * = 0, 4278 R 2 T
p ; b* = 0, 0867 R T p ; T p
. , = 1 .
[111,
112]:
p
( p, T ) = h ( p, T ) ;
(3.63)

dh = c p dT +

h
dp,
p

(3.64)

h ; c p .
( h p )T (., ,
[111]):
h

+.
= T
T p
p T

(3.65)


= ( p, T ) .
(3.64) .
, (3.12),
,
()
. .
.
,
. , ,
(,
) .
,

.
,
h = c p T (3.64).

,
1000. d = 1 , = 0,013 ,
= 7,5 105 .
8,0795 290 , 6,0795 .
(3.28)
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

88

_____________________________________________________________________________
: s a = s b = = = 0 , r a = r b = 0,5 .
.3.22 3.23.
,
.
. ,
10 / , 10%.
, ,
.
,
.
, , (3.62) (3.63).

3.6.6.

[23].
,
.

. , ,
.

.3.22. ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

89

_____________________________________________________________________________

.3.23. ,


.
(.,
, [92]) , .
, ,

(,
(. )).

[23]. (3.28),
(3.30) (3.31). / /
,
.
, ,
, / .
, ,
( , ,
), ,
(3.28), (3.30) (3.31),
(, ).
..
[23]. ,
, .3.24.
, iL iR
( iR = iL + 1) . iL 1 , iL , iR , iR + 1

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

90

_____________________________________________________________________________
:
L = X iR + 2 X iL 2 ,

Z = ( z1 )iR + 2 ( z1 )iL 2 ,

X iR = X iR +1 = X iR + 2

L
,
3

X iL 1 = X iL = X iL 2 +

( z1 )iL1 = ( z1 )iL = ( z1 )iL2 +

( z1 )iR = ( z1 )iR +1 = ( z1 )iR + 2

Z
,
3

L
,
3

Z
,
3

(3.66)

X i i ,

( z1 )i

i . iL iR ( ),
iL 1 iR + 1 , (
).

iL-2

iL-1, iL

iR, iR+ 1

iR +2

.3.24.

( ),
(3.30), ( iL 1 , iL ) ( iR ,
iR + 1 ).
.
, , / ,
.
,
.
.
, , . iR
. :
Q = iR wiR f iR .

(3.67)

iL 1 , iL iR + 1
Q .
iL 1 iL 2 , iL 1
iL 1 , ( ) (
) iL 1 .
iR + 1 ,
iR + 1 . :

iL = iL 1 ,

iR = iR +1.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.68)

91

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
.

(. (3.5)). ,
, /
, , ,
(3.5).
:

w2
( p f w) .
f w +
=
x
2
x

(3.69)

(3.69) [ X iL 1 , X iR +1 ] :

w2
w2
+ p
f w +
+ p
= 0.
f w +
2
2

X
X

iR +1
iL 1

(3.70)

iR +1 =

w2

w2
1

f w +
+ p

+ p
.
2
f
w
2

iR +1
(
)
X

X iR +1

iR +1

iL 1
1

(3.71)


.
iL 1
iL 2 , iL 1 iL 1 .
( )
iL 1 . iR + 1 (3.71).
:

iL = iL 1 ,

iR = iR +1.

(3.72)

:
T = T ( , p ) .
.
(3.30)
.

( iL 1 , iL ) ( iR , iR + 1 ). ,
( )
.
( ),
. [ iL 1 , iR + 1 ]
,
.
, ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

92

_____________________________________________________________________________
/ .
[1,2].
, ( 1 2),

,
,
.. [35].

SPP () [2].
.
(, ..)

, (. .3.16 3.17).
.
0 2 .
120 c , : .
: 1 c
. - 870
( ) 0, 4 c ( ).
: s a = s b = r a = r b = 0,5 , = 1 , = 0 .
102,81 c .3.25.

.3.25.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

93

_____________________________________________________________________________
3.6.7.

..
..
[2,23]. , L
(.3.26). M L .

[113]: , (. ) .
[113, 114], , ,
,
, ,
.
[115].
[75,116].
,
.
, [116].
.
L [113, 117]:
wLj +1 = sign cLj +1 ,

(3.73)

c ; sign = 1 .

, .

.3.26.


p ( ) Toc (
).
Toc ,
(, ,
).

[113]:

2 1
> pM
,
+ 1

. [113]

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.74)

94

_____________________________________________________________________________
wL > cL .

(3.74)

(3.74)
( ).
,

. .
,
.
.

(, ..)

, (. .3.163.18).
.
0
x = 30000 1 .
: 10 c .
- 170 0,08 c .
(3.31): s a = s b = r a = r b = 0,5 ,
= 1, = 0 .

120,97 c .3.27.

.3.27.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

95

_____________________________________________________________________________
3.6
CorNet AMADEUS [1,2].

1.
..
(. 3.6.6)
, (.
).
..


pL < p ,

(3.74)

(3.74).
.

c=

( p )S

= R T ,

(3.75)

p ; ; S ; ; R
; T .

, .
,
( p ) S .
, :
dp =

p
p
d +
dT ,

(3.76)

p p p T

=
+
.
S T T S

(3.76)

, ,

TdS = d + pdV = dh Vdp = 0,
(3.77)

h
p
(3.78)

= V
,
S
S
; h ; V = 1 .

h h p
T
(3.79)

=
+ cp
,

S T
S
S

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

96

_____________________________________________________________________________
h
c p =
. (3.78) (3.79),
T p
:

p h
T
(3.80)

V + cp
= 0.
S p T
S

(3.76) (3.80)
p
T
p


.
, :

S
S
S
p
cp

p
T
.
=

S
p h
cp +
V
T p T

(3.81)

(3.65), :
p
p
cp
cp

T
T
,
=

=
T p
S c T p V
+

p
p
2 T T p
T T p
p
cP

T
c=
.
T p

cP + 2
T T p

(3.82)

(3.83)

(3.83) (3.75),

p = R T , cV = c p R , = c p cV ,
cV .

(3.75) (3.83).
.3.28 .
c = c ( p, T ) , :
c =

creal cideal
100% ,
creal

(3.84)

cideal , (3.75); creal


, (3.83).

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

97

_____________________________________________________________________________

.3.28.

.3.28, (
)
p [ 0,1 10 ] , T [ 50C (223 K ) 50C (323 K ) ]
4%.
p [1 10 ] ,
T [ 27C (240 K ) 0C (273 K )] .

1%. ,
,
, , .
,
(
,
0,3 ), (3.75)
.

(, ),

(3.83).
3.6.8.


- ..
.. [1].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

98

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
.

(. (3.4)).
[2]:
1) ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) ,
.

-
[2]:
f1 ( w1 f1 )
+
= 0;
t
x
( 2 f2 )
t

( 2 w2 f 2 )
x

(3.85)
= 0;

2
2 Tp f
( w1 f1 ) ( w1 f1 )
f p 2 Tp1,
z
+
= 1 +
f2 +
g 1 f1 ;
1 x
1
1
t
x
x
2
( 2 w2 f 2 ) ( 2 w2 f 2 )
p
z
+
= f 2 + 2 Tp2, f 2 2 g 1 f 2 ;
t
x
x
x

w12
w12
1

f1 1 +
+ w1 f1 1 +
= ( p w1 f1 ) +
2 x
2

1 x
2 ( R ) p wx x + wr 2 ( R ) Tp1, wx
+

2
1
1
1 + ( x )
w1 f1 g

(3.85)

(3.85)

(3.85)

(3.85)

Q f
z1 1
T
+ k1 f1 1 1, oc + 1 1 ;
1
1
x 1 x
x 1

w22
w22

2 f2 2 +
+ 2 w2 f 2 2 +
= ( p w2 f 2 )
2
2
x
x
t

w x + wr
2 ( R ) p x
+ 2 ( R ) Tp2, wx
2

1 + ( x )
2 w2 f 2 g

(3.85)

z1
T
+ k2 f 2 2 2, + Q2 f 2 ;
x x
x

Tp1, = Tp2, ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.85)

99

_____________________________________________________________________________
1, = 2, ;

(3.85)

R =

(3.85)

x =

f2 ;
1

2 f2

f 2
;
x

wx = 1,1 w1 ;

wr =

1
2 f2

(3.85)
(3.85)

f 2
;
t

(3.85)

p = p2 ( 2 , T2 ) ;

(3.85)

m = m ( p, Tm ) , m = 1, 2,

(3.85)

1 2 ,
(); t ( ); x
; f () , ; f m
() f , m- ,
; m f m m- ; wm
f m m- ; p
f ; Tp
; Tpm , , m- ,
; g ; z1
,
(
); m f m m-
; R ;
, ;
; wx
; x

= ( x ) ; wr
; km
f m m- ; Tm
f m m- ; oc
( oc > 0 ); m ,
m- ( m , > 0 ); Qm
f m ,
m- .
(3.85) (

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

100

_____________________________________________________________________________
, )
.
[119, 120] (. [121, 122]).
(3.85) 3.6.2.
.
( ,
) , .
10000,
.3.29.
1,42, 0,0187, 8 104 .

. 3.29.


. ,
7,09,
6,08 , 1%.
293,15K.

.
293,15K.

(.3.30).
.
453,68
.3.31.

. 3.30.
()

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

101

_____________________________________________________________________________

. 3.31. -

3.6.9.


,
,
.
2,5.
,
.
. , ,
, :
, ,
.

.

.
: ,
.
,
.
, .
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

102

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
- (. 4),
. PipEst [1,35]

, ,
- ,
.
,
2.04.08-87.

,
. ,
,

.

, ,

.
(3.13.3)
, .

, ,
, . , [123]

.

,
.
.
.
( )
(3.13.3).
.3.32
.

:
1.
.
2. :

p , p
< p ;

, p ) =
p ( p
,
p

(3.86)

p
; p

, p .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

103

_____________________________________________________________________________
3. .
4. -
, .

.3.32.

(3.13.3) .
(3.86) (3.2).
:
,
.
.

, , .

. ,

.
, (3.13.3)
:
#

n dS = 0;

n Ym dS = 0,

(3.87)

N S 1
#
#
m = 1, N S 1 ; YN = 1 Ym ;
S

(3.87)

m =1

p , p < p ,

, p ) =
p ( p
p , ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.87)

104

_____________________________________________________________________________
! !
# # 2
#
n dS = p n dS + n dS ;
2
S
S

m = m ({S }) ,

m = 1, N S ;

(3.87)

T1 = T2 = = TN S ;

(3.87)

p = p ({S }) ;

(3.87)

= ({S }) ;

(3.87)

k = k ({S }) ;

(3.87)

Dm = Dm ({S }) ,

m = 1, N S ,

(3.87)

,
, .
(3.87) (3.87)
(. .3.32), (, )
.
, (3.87) (3.87) :
#

n df

n Ym df

n df = 0,

(3.88)
#

n Ym df = 0, m = 1, N S 1 , YN = 1
S

N S 1

Y
m =1

(3.88)

w f w f = 0,

(3.89)

w f (Ym ) w f (Ym ) = 0, m = 1, N S 1 ; YN = 1
S

N S 1

Y
m =1

(3.89)

f f
#
; , w , Ym , x
#
Ym . (3.89), (3.89) :

(Ym ) (Ym ) = 0,

m = 1, N S 1 , YN = 1
S

N S 1

Y
m =1

(3.89)

, (3.87) :
2

w
w2
'
+
+ p ('xx ) w f + = +
+ p ('xx ) w f ,
2
2

(3.90)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

105

_____________________________________________________________________________
#
#
, p p ; 'xx
'
xx ;
. [1] ,
'xx .
'

. ,

:

w f w f = 0;

(Ym ) (Ym ) = 0,

(3.91)

m = 1, N S 1 ; YN = 1

N S 1

Y
m =1

(3.91)

p , p < p ;

, p ) =
p ( p
p , ;

(3.91)

2
w
p
w2
+ = + + ;
2
2

m = m ({S }) ,

(3.91)

m = 1, N S ;

T1 = T2 = = TN S ;

(3.91)

p = p ({S }) ;

(3.91)

= ({S }) ;

(3.91)

k = k ({S }) ;

(3.91)

Dm = Dm ({S }) ,

m = 1, N S ,

T

'
= ( w f ) .

(3.91)

#
T;


, (3.91)


, .

. , ,
(. 3.6.5).
,
(. (3.633.64)):

( p, T ) = h ( p, T )

dh = cP dT +

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

h
dp,
p

106

_____________________________________________________________________________
(1 )
h
1
+ .
= T
p T
T p

(3.92)


() :

= cV T

h = cP T ,

(3.93)

cV .
(, , )
( h p )T
(. 3.6.5).


. , [123]
, ,
(3.92). ,
,
:
dT =

1 h
dp = dp,
cP p T

(3.94)

[112].
[112].
( (3.94))
[112], ..
p p p << 1.

(3.95)

, .
,

, , (.,
, (3.91) ). ,
,
, (3.94)
.

.. .. .. .
- CorNet [48].
.

.3.33 3.34.
,
,
3.6, ,
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

107

_____________________________________________________________________________
. 2

.

.3.33. (
)

.3.34. (
)

3.7.

3.7.1.

, , (. 3.2).

, , [1,85,110].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

108

_____________________________________________________________________________
.

,

. ,
40/,
10,
4,0 7,8.

( 0, 25 1000 )
( ).
( 10000 ) ,
. ,
(., , [85]).
,
.
, ,
[1]:
J = J1 = J 2 =

D2
4

1 v1 =

D2
4

P12 P22

1 + ,
P1 l
D

(3.96)

1 2
; D = const ; P ; l
; ; v
!
w (
1 !
), v = wdF ( F
F F
OX
, []OX

); ;
= const .


,
, [92].

.


(3.12)
( (3.4)).


.
,
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

109

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
[132] ,
.
.. [132]:
k D l
TK = T + ( TH T ) exp
,
J c p

(3.97)

TH , TK
; T ; k ,

;
c p ;
D, l ; J
.
[133], :
1
,
(3.98)
k=
1 1
+
+
+

1 ,
,
, ,
, 2
.
,
.
,
[134]:
m

D = 2

f
i =1

(3.99)

f i i- ; m .

..
[135].
,
.
,
.
[135,136],
P1 P2
. , , :

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

110

_____________________________________________________________________________

= P2 / P1 1,1 1,7 [137].



.
[135, 138141]: ,
, ,
.
.
,
.


.
[135141].
.. [135].
:
1)

( 1 , 1 ) ,

;
2) ( : n , N (
) (. [137]), n
; N ,
);
3) : P1 , 1 , Z , R ( ( ,
, [110],
) - (., ,
[137]));
4) (,
[137]).
, Z
( Z1 ) ( Z 2 ) , .. Z1 / Z 2 1 .
,
, [1].

: 1 , P1 ;
; n ,
:
Q1 ( )
;
Q (

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

111

_____________________________________________________________________________
);
P2 .
: 2 , P2
.

( )


1. R [1,110].
2. Z1
[1,110].
3. n 0
[135]:
n0 =

n
A,
n

Z R
Z1 R T1

(3.100)

4. Q ,

= P2 / P1 ,
[135] (, [137]).
5. P2 ( ) :
P2 = P1 .
6.
Z1
1 , 2 [135]:
Z2
2 = 1

( 1) / ( p )

(3.101)

Q 1 (., , [137]).
M ,
:
3

n
P1
M
= i
+ M ' ,
Z1 1 R n

M
; i

,

M '

(3.102)

Q [137]:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

112

_____________________________________________________________________________
Q1
> CQ ,
Q1min

(3.103)

Q 1min , [136], ( [137] CQ = 1,1 ).



. , ,
, .

. , [136,142,143].
,
, ,
( ).
,
, ,
, .
,
, (.3.35).

1
2
3
4
5

.3.35.

, ,
,
.
.
, ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

113

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
,
.
,
[142,143].
,
,
[1]. ,
.
.

.
, ,
.
.
.
.
(


(. .3.35)
.
.

.. .. .. ..
199597 .

, [142,143].
,
.
(3.12)
.

,
,
.
( ),
.

,
(.
). ,
. ,
[136].

.

. (
)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

114

_____________________________________________________________________________
( ) .
,

.

.

, .3.36.

P
Q

K1
QK1

PK 1

(Q1 ) =

P1
Q1

P2
P1

P2
Q2

PK 2

PK

QK2

QK

.3.36.

,
, :

( Q1 ) = P2 P1 ( , = n, P1 , T1 , Z1 , Q1 , n
);
,
L1 , S1 , L2 , S2 ( ), ;
,
PK 1 PK 2 ;
( )
S , S K ( K P1 K P 2
).
,

:

(.. , PK 1 = P1 , PK 2 = P2 );
,
,
.
,
(3.12)
[1]:
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

115

_____________________________________________________________________________
dQ1 PK 1
P
=
(Q1 ) K 2 ,
dt
La
La

(3.104)

dPK 1
1
=
QK 1 ( PK 1 ) Q1 ,
dt
Ca 1

(3.104)

dPK 2
1
=
dt
Ca 2

Q1 [ ( Q1 ) ] n QK 2 ( PK 2 ) ,

(3.104)

n ; Q ; t ;
La =

P1
R Z1 T1

K L1

L1
K + ( Q1 ) ,
S1

a 1 =

C1 L1 S1
K L S
, Ca 2 = C 2 2 2 ,
PK 1
PK 2
G

P
2
QK 1 = S H K 1
R Z H TH 1 K 1 ,
G
PH
Q 2

P
2
= SK K 2
R Z K 2 T 2 K 2
G
PK

G 1

P
K PK 1 + PK 2
,
1 K , P1 =
P
K + ( Q1 )
2

1 K PK 1 + PK 2
K L 2 L2 S1
1 = 1

, K = K L S ,

P
K
Q
+
(
)
1
L1
1
2
K1

P
K1 = K1 ,
P

K 2 = 1 (Q1 )

n 1
n

PK 2

.
(Q1 ) P1

: PH
PK ; TH ; K 1 , K 2
; n ; Li Si
; R ;

.
K L KC ,
[142], 0,5.

( (Q1 ) ) .. .
(.
.3.36) .
(3.104)
, .
[5].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

116

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
, (3.104)

[1]. [144].

.3.37 3.38.

(
) [1,5].

3.7.2.


()
,
(), ()
( ()
) [2,34].

.3.37.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

117

_____________________________________________________________________________

.3.38.


,
.
(,
)
,
( ). ,
.
, ,
, .
() .

()
(.3.39) [2].
, .
,
, .
.

(. .3.39) [2]:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

118

_____________________________________________________________________________

n1
P11

J 11

P12

J 12

12

11

n2
J
P

P21

J 21

P22

21

J 22

22

n3
J 31

P31

P32

31

J 32

32

.3.39.

i1 = i1 + ( )i1
Di1

i 2 = i 2 + ( )i 2 , i = 1, N ;
Di 2

i1
,
i- (. (3.96));

Di1 , i- ;

( )i1 ,
i- ;

i 2 ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

119

_____________________________________________________________________________
i- () (. (3.96));

Di 2 , i- ();

( )i 2 ,
i- ();

li1 , i- ;

li 2 , i- ;

,
( , .. ,

);
J ();
T P ().

() [1]:
,
;
;
( nmin n nmax ) ;
;
,
;
,
;
,
;
, ;
..

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

120

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
(. 6)
( ), [1]. ,
.
.

, () , ()
[2]. ,
, ,
[1].
.

( )
(. [1]): Pi1 J i1
.
, J i1
(. (3.96)):
J i1 ( Pi1 ) = Sri1

Srij =

Dij2
4 lij ij

j = 1, 2 ;

P2 Pi12
,
P

(3.105)

; i ,
i .
, Pi1
(. (3.105)):
Pi1 ( J i1 ) = P2

1 J i21 P
.

Sri12

(3.106)

,
, [1].
.
( ) ,
, . ,
( ,
) [1].
(
P ).
,
T .
N
( ) (

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

121

_____________________________________________________________________________
) [1] :
N

J J i1 = 0;

(3.107)

i =1

P > Pi1 i = 1, N

J i1 > 0 i = 1, N .

(3.107) . ,
.
,
.
.
,
,
, , . , ,
,
..
[1]:

J i1
Pi 2 = Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,
, i = 1, N ;
i1 ( Pi1 )

(3.108)

J i1
Ti 2 = Ti 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,
, i = 1, N ;
i1 ( Pi1 )

(3.108)

J i1
M i = M i ni , T , Pi1 ,
,
i1 ( Pi1 )

(3.108)

i 2 = i 2 ( Pi 2 ) = i 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i = 1, N ;

J i1

, i = 1, N ,

i1 ( Pi1 )

(3.108)

Pi 2 i- ; ni i-
; i1 i- (
); Ti 2 i- ; M i ,
i- ; i 2
i- (
.. ).
, ,
,
.

[1] (.
.3.40).
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

122

_____________________________________________________________________________

.3.40.

( ).
,
[1]:

J i1
2
Pi 22 ni , T , Pi1 ,
P
i1 ( Pi1 )

J i1

J i1 Sri 2
i 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,
= 0,

J i1
i1 ( Pi1 )

Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i1 ( Pi1 )

J i1
Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,
P ,
i1 ( Pi1 )

i = 1, N .

(3.109)

[1]:
N

J i1
T Sri 2 Ti 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i1 ( Pi1 ) i

i =1

Sri 2 i = 0,
i =1

(3.110)

i =

J i1
2
Pi 22 ni , T , Pi1 ,
P
P

(
)
J i1
i1
i1

i 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,
.
i1 ( Pi1 )

J i1

Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i1 ( Pi1 )

, i i-
( )
, .. [135]:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

123

_____________________________________________________________________________
i =

P P
.
0,5 g ( + )

,
( ) (. .3.39).
,
( )
(),
. ()
(3.107), ,
,
, ,

, .
(),
. [1]. ,

i (. (3.105), (3.106)
(3.109)):

J i1
2
Pi 22 ni , T , Pi1 ,
P
P

J i1
i1 ( i 1 )

J i1 Sri 2
i 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,
+

J i1
i1 ( Pi1 )

Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i1 ( Pi1 )

+ G ( Pi1 , P ) = 0,

(3.111)

i = 1, N 1,

2
P

J N1
J N2 1 PN 2 nN , T , PN 1 ,

N 1 ( PN 1 )

J N1
1

2
= PN 2 nN , T , PN 1 ,

N 1 ( PN 1 ) SrN2 2

J N1

N 2 nN , T , PN 1 ,

N 1 ( PN 1 )

P Pi 2 ( Pi1 ),
0,

G ( Pi1 , P ) =
1
, P > Pi 2 ( Pi1 ),
( P Pi 2 ( Pi1 ) )

(3.111*)

(3.111)

0 < < 101 ; N 1


N ; N 2 N .
(3.111) (3.111)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

124

_____________________________________________________________________________
( ).
(3.111),
,
(
).
, (3.111)

. (. (3.107)):
N 1

J N 1 = J J i1.

(3.112)

i =1

, , J N 1 , (3.106) PN 1 :
PN 1 = P2

1 J N2 1 P

.
SrN21

(3.113)

(3.112) (3.113) (3.111*), :


2

2
P

N 1

J
J i1 PN 2

1
i =1

,
= PN22 2
N 1
SrN 2

J
J

i1
i =1

N 2 nN , T , PN 1 ,

N 1 PN 1 ( Pi1 )

(3.111)

N 1

J
J i1 P

1
i =1

PN 1 = P2 2
,
SrN 1

PN 2

N 1

J J i1
i =1
.
= PN 2 nN , T , PN 1 ,

N 1 PN 1 ( Pi1 )

, (3.111),

( N 1)


Pi1 , i = 1, N 1 , J i1
, i = 1, N 1 .
- (3.107),
, (3.111)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

125

_____________________________________________________________________________
:
Pi ,min < Pi1 < Pi ,max ,

i = 1, N 1,

(3.111)

J i ,min < J i1 < J i ,max ,

i = 1, N 1,

(3.111)

(3.111) (3.111)
(3.105) (3.106).
, ,
.

( ),
.
,
J i ,min J i ,max ,

,

( ):
N 1

N 1

i =1

i =1

J N ,min + J i ,max < J < J N ,max + J i ,min

N 1

J N ,min ( , , ) < J N ,min < J J i ,max , J i ,max < J i ,max ( , , ) , i = 1, N 1;


i =1

N 1

J J i ,min < J N ,max < J N ,max ( , , ) , J i ,min ( , , ) < J i ,min , i = 1, N 1,

(3.111)

i =1

J i ,min ( , , )

J i ,max ( , , ) , i = 1, N ,

, , ,
, ..
(3.112)
.
(3.113) (3.111), , .
(3.111) (3.111)
N , Pi ,min Pi ,max (
J i ,min J i ,max )
N .
(3.111) :
N 1

J N ,min < J J i ,max ,

(3.114)

i =1

N 1

J N ,max > J J i ,min .


i =1

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(3.115)

126

_____________________________________________________________________________
(3.115) -1 (3.114), :
N 1

J
i =1

N 1

i ,max

J N ,max < J i ,min J N ,min


i =1

(3.116)

N 1

J
i =1

N 1

i ,max

J i,min < J N,max J N ,min .


i =1

,
J . ( N 1) :
J i ,max = (1 + x ) J ,
J i,min = (1 x ) J ,

x > 0 , J .
:
J i,max J i,min = 2 x J ,
N 1

J
i =1

i,max

= ( N 1) (1 + x ) J ,

i,min

= ( N 1) (1 x ) J .

N 1

J
i =1

(3.117)

(3.116) (3.117) :
2 ( N 1) J x < J N ,max J N,min .

(3.118)

(3.117) (3.118), ,
N
( N 1) .
( N 1) ( N 1) .
J i,min J i,max
.
1. ,
, J i ,min( , , ) J i ,max( , , ) , i = 1, N .
2.

J i ,min( , , ) ; J i ,max( , , ) . ,
N .

3. N J N ,min > J N ,min( , , )


J N ,max < J N ,max( , , ) . J N ,max( , , ) J > J J N ,min( , , ) ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

127

_____________________________________________________________________________
:
J N,min = J N ,min( , , ) 1,01,
J N,max = 2 J J N,min ,

J N ,max = J N ,max( , , ) 0,99,


J N,min = 2 J J N ,max .


J
.
()

, J

=
: J

J
. J i,min J i,max
N

:
J i,max <

J N ,max J N ,min
2 ( N 1)

+ J

, J i,min > J

J N ,max J N ,min
2 ( N 1)

4.
(3.106).
, (3.111) .
, (3.111)

:

J i1
2
Pi 22 ni , T , Pi1 ,
P
P

(
)
J i1
1
1
i
i

J i21 Sri 22
i 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,
= 0,
i1 ( Pi1 )
(3.119)

J i1

Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

P
i1 ( i1 )

i = 1, N 1,
Pi ,min < Pi1 < Pi ,max ,

i = 1, N 1,

(3.119)

J i ,min < J i1 < J i ,max ,

i = 1, N 1,

(3.119)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

128

_____________________________________________________________________________
N 1

J N ,min ( , , ) < J N ,min < J J i ,max ,


i =1

J i ,max < J i ,max ( , , ) , i = 1, N 1;

(3.119)
N 1

J J i ,min < J N ,max < J N ,max ( , , ) ,


i =1

J i ,min ( , , ) < J i ,min , i = 1, N 1,

2
P

N 1

J J i1 PN 2

1
i =1

,
= PN22 2
N 1
SrN 2

J J i1
i =1

N 2 nN , T , PN 1 ,

N 1 ( PN 1 )

(3.119)

N 1
N 1

J
J
P
J
J i1

i1

1
i =1
i =1

.
PN 1 = P2 2
, PN 2 = PN 2 nN , T , PN 1 ,

SrN 1

N 1 ( PN 1 )


,
, . ,
.
(3.119) :


;
( ).
,

J i1
2
Pi 22 ni , T , Pi1 ,
< P
P
i 1 ( i1 )

J i1
2
Pi 22 ni , T , Pi1 ,
P
P

(
)
J i1
1
1
i
i

Sri 22
i 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,
>0.
i1 ( Pi1 )

J i1

Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i1 ( Pi1 )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

129

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
. ,
(3.119) ,
, (3.119) .
(3.119) (3.119)
,
,
. , (3.119) ,
.
(,
) (3.119) .
(), ..
[2].
()
(.3.41).

n1
J1

P11

P12

J1

P22

J2

11

P13

12

n2
J

J2

T
P

21

P21

P23

22
n3

J3

P31

31

P32

J3

32

.3.41.
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

P33

130

_____________________________________________________________________________
P ..
Pi1 .

. Pi 2 ,
, ,
.
, .
Pi 3 , .. .
, P
Pi 3 , ,
i- . .., Pi 3
i- ( ) (. (3.106) (3.109)).
,
Pi 3 , .. [2]

J (i +1)1

J i1
= 0, i = 1, N 1,
Pi 3 ni , T , Pi1 ,
P(i +1)3 ni +1 , T , P(i +1)1 ,

i1 ( Pi )
(i +1)1 ( Pi +1 )

(3.120)

J i1
J i21 Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i1 ( Pi1 )

J i1 1
2

Pi 3 = Pi 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i1 ( Pi1 ) Sri 22

J i1

i 2 ni , T , Pi1 ,

i1 ( Pi1 )

(3.120)

(3.120) ,
( ),
.
, (3.120), ( N 1) N
.
(3.120)
(3.109).
N
J ( ),

( N 1) .

N :
N 1

J N = J J i1.

(3.120)

i =1

, (3.120)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

131

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
(3.120)
(3.119). (3.120)

( ) [2].
(3.111)

( ), ,
.

( ).
(3.119) (3.120)
[1,2].
(3.119) (3.110).
, ,
,
[1,2].



[2].

.. .

.

.
(
)
.
( ) ,
. , i -
, (3.108).
, , ,
:
p

J i1
S = M i ni ( J i1 ) , Ti1 , Pi1 ( J i1 ) ,
,

i1 ( Pi1 ( J i1 ) )
i =1

(3.121)

p , Ti1
( Ti1 = T ).
,
[1,2,5].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

132

_____________________________________________________________________________

3.7.3.


- CorNet AMADEUS

[2]:
.
3.7.3.1.



[132].

( ) [1].

. ,
(3.119) (3.120)
.
. J ,
T P ()
.
[1,2].
3.7.3.2.

..
.. [2,23].
(3.105)
(3.106), -
(3.12).
,
(. .3.39).

-
[1].
() : (.3.42).
: J 2
, PA TA ,
. : , ,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

133

_____________________________________________________________________________

.3.42.


(. .3.42) [2]:
1. J 2 , TA PA
-

.
P21 T21 .
2. J 2 ,
P21 T21 ..
P22 T22 .
3. J 2 P22 T22
-

.

(. .3.42)
, [2].

()
. (
)
.
(), ,
.
,
.

()
(
) [2,23].
, . ,
, ..

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

134

_____________________________________________________________________________
N (. 3.6.1).

. (3.12) (
) (3.12)
(
, , ,
) .
, 1.

(3.12),
( ()
, ( )).

, .

.

( k T x w ),
.
( w >> k T x ),
: T x = 0 .

()
() (. .3.42): A B. ,
, .
, : PA TA PB
( , , ).
J 2 = J 2 (t )
(
.3.39 .3.42):

2 ( J ) = 0,

(3.122)

2 ( J ) = P22 ( J ) P22 ( J ) ,

(3.122)

P22 ( J ) ,


J ; P21 ( J ) T21 ( J )
,

J ; P22 ( J ) = 2 ( P21T ( J ) , T21 ( J ) , J ) P21T ( J ) ,
1

, ,
. ,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

135

_____________________________________________________________________________
.. ; 2 ( P21T ( J ) , T21 ( J ) , J ) ,
. , , .
,
(3.122)
, .
().
(. .3.39) ,
.
.
.


[2].
,
, .
J i = J i ( t ) ( i = 1, N , N )
(
.3.39):

i ( J i ) = 0, i = 1, N ,

(3.123)

i ( J i ) = Pi
2 ( J i ) Pi 2 ( J i ) .

(3.123)

, (3.123), ,
(3.122). ,

(3.123). (3.122)
(3.123) ,
Techno&Optim [1].

.
3.7.4.


,
3.7.13.7.3, [2].

.

.
.. [30].
,
,
(.3.43) [145].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

136

_____________________________________________________________________________

J , P ,T

J2

J1 ( X1 )

J11( X 2 )

J13

J12 ( X 3 )

J 21

1
13
(X8 )

1
J 13
1
J11

B/

1
11
(X6 )

1
J12

1
12
(X4 )

P111

2
J13

P121

A/B/C

2
13
(X7 )

P131

J 121

2
J 21

2
21
(X5 )

3
J 21

121( X 9 )

1
P21

.3.43.

.3.43
, ,
( ).

,
,
,

.

( (. 3.7.13.7.3))
(
).

( ,
).

,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

137

_____________________________________________________________________________
, , ,

.


, ().
,
,
, ,
. ..

[145].
(
) [30].
.3.43
( X
). .3.43
:
P111 ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 11 ( X 2 ) , 111 ( X 6 ) ) P121 ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 12 ( X 3 ) , 121 ( X 4 ) ) = 0;

P121 ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 12 ( X 3 ) , 121 ( X 4 ) ) P131 ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 13 , 131 ( X 8 ) , 132 ( X 7 ) ) = 0;

1
P131 ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 13 , 131 ( X 8 ) , 132 ( X 7 ) ) P211 ( J , P , T , J 2 , J 21 , 21
( X 9 ) , 212 ( X 5 ) ) = 0;

J 11 ( X 2 ) J 111 ( 111 ( X 6 ) ) = 0;

J 12 ( X 3 ) J 121 (121 ( X 4 ) ) = 0;

J 13 J 131 ( 131 ( X 8 ) ) = 0;

J 131 (131 ( X 8 ) ) J 132 (131 ( X 8 ) , 132 ( X 7 ) ) = 0;

1
1
J 21 J 21
212 ( X 5 ) ) J 212 ( 21
( X 9 ) ) = 0;
(

2
1
3
1
J 21 ( 21 ( X 9 ) ) J 21 ( 21 ( X 9 ) , 212 ( X 5 ) ) = 0;

0 < X i < 1, i = 1, 3;
1

max < X j < max , j = 4, 7;


1
1
min < X k < max , k = 8,9,
(3.124)

P111 , P121 , P131 , P211 , J , P , T ,


, J 1 , J 2
I, J 11 , J 12 , J 13 , J 21
1

II, 111 , 121 , 132 , 212 , 131 , 21
1

, max

1
, max

, max

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

138

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
,

.

.

3.7


.
[1,2].
3.8.

3.4,



(. .3.1).
,
(. 3.6).
..
3.8.1.



[2].

.
.
, - CorNet AMADEUS
[2].

SPP.
(
)
,
(., , [93, 146]).
.

( ) .


.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

139

_____________________________________________________________________________
. .. .. [2].
:
J , P T ,
.
.


:
1. 1,
1.
2. J , T P
-

.
P12
T12 .
3. J ,
P12 T12

(. 3.7) P22 T22
.
4. .
( T = T22 , P = P22 ) .
,
5. 2.
5. J , T P
-

. P12
T12
.
6.
. .
3.8.2.


..
..

[2].
, ,
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

140

_____________________________________________________________________________

(. 3.7.3.2)
. (3.122) (3.123)
.
,

,
(3.122) (3.123).
,
Techno&Optim [2].
3.8.3. ,

:

;
,
.
, ,
, .

, , ,
, .
2030 .

[86,87].
.
1860 100.
( 12 ,
). , 1400
1200,
.

, 100150.
,

,
.

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(. 3.6.1).

.3.44. .3.45.



. ,
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

141

_____________________________________________________________________________
35 110 ,
( ),

. ,

450

3040% (.. 1 3540).
Pentium 4 (1.6 , 512 ).

. 3.44.

. 3.45.


. , D , 1, 3 2, 4
, , .3.45,
.
,
.
.

.
(.3.46).
,
2050, 0,020,10.
10000 . ,
,
, .
,

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

142

_____________________________________________________________________________
-
CorNet,
,
[1,2].

. 3.46.
,
,

.
.. .. [35]. ..
.
.
. ,
, .3.47.

03 04.
12\2-1, 12 ( .3.47 ).

. 3.47. ( )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

143

_____________________________________________________________________________
2 (
) 10 .
70 .
10, 11, 13
04. 1 (
12\2-1)
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0 120,
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SCADA-.

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.3.49. 2
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

144

_____________________________________________________________________________
,

( 2025) 34 .
,
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400 ).
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(): .
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(
);

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).

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, .3.44.
,
.
,
.3.45.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

145

_____________________________________________________________________________

(.3.50).

. 3.50.


, . ,
. ,
(. .3.44).
:
= + ,
(3.125)
+ .
:
L = + D 3;
(3.126)

M = C + B 2;

(3.127)

N = B + D 4.

(3.128)

(3.1253.128), ,
.
, , , (.
.3.50), .
( .3.44).
, (
). ,
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.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

146

_____________________________________________________________________________

1.
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[35]:
1)

1;

2)

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1;

3)

1 K A C (3.125);

4)

A L 3 (3.126),
3 1;

5)

L 3 D (3.126);

6)

D N 4 (3.128),
4 1;

7)

N 4 B (3.128);

8)

B M 2 (3.127),
2 1;

9)

M 2 C (3.127);

10)

C K 1 (3.125),
1 1, M
, ;
;

11)

N , ;
;

12)

L , ;
;

13)

K , ;
1 ;

14)

.
, 1, 2, 3 4 (. .3.45).

2.
C D ( 3.51).

[35]:
1)

1;

2)

, 1, ,
1;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

147

_____________________________________________________________________________
3)

1 K A C (3.125);

4)

A L 3 (3.126), 3
1;

5)

L 3 D (3.126);

6)

D , L ,
;
;

.3.51. D
7)

, K ,
, 1 ;

8)

2;

9)

, 1,
, 2, ,
2;

10) 2 M B C (3.127);
11) B N 4 (3.128), 4
2;
12) N 3 D (3.126);
13) D , N ,
;
;
14)

, M ,
, 2 ;

15)
.
.
:
1, 1 3;
2, 2 4;
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

148

_____________________________________________________________________________

.3.52. D
3.
C B (.3.53).
1, 3 4,
, 1. 2 ,
C B ( M , . (3.127)). 2
.
.3.54.

. 3.53. B

. 3.54.

[35]:
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.

,
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3.8.4.


, ()

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

149

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,
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

150

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.
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!
X R n n-
R n (
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); s
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,
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. (3.129),
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

151

_____________________________________________________________________________
:
l =1.

f i : R n R, i = 1, m ,

. ,
f i : R n R, i = 1, m , .


,
. ,

[69,70]:
!
!
max f i X min, X R n .
(3.130)
i =1, m

( )


(. ). (3.130)
:
!
max f i X < C ,
(3.131)
i =1, m

( )

C > 0 ,
( :
).
(3.130) .
(3.130)
,
[147].
(3.130)
xn +1 :
xn +1 min

!
!
n +1
f i X xn +1 0, i = 1, m; X R .

( )

(3.132)

(3.132) ,
Techno&Optim [1].

-
CorNet [2].
[2].
AMADEUS
SPP [2].
2002 .
SPP
.

AMADEUS

(, , )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

152

_____________________________________________________________________________
SPP () (., , [1,2]). 35
( 2002
2004 , 24 )
,
.
.

2,8% ( 0,19 ). 93%
1,7% (0,12).

, ,
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0,05.

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90% 0,7% (1,9).

, ,
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(),
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

153

_____________________________________________________________________________

4


4.1.
, ,

.
,
, 1960 1980 .
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2030 . 1997 [83]

30% 33 , 20%
.

. 810
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

154

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, ,
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19922002.
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155

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,
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.

[158160].
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

156

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ANSI/ASME B31G [166]:
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

157

_____________________________________________________________________________
5) ()
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;
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[183].
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90- .. [1, 35, 11, 13, 1521, 60, 184187].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

158

_____________________________________________________________________________

.. , ..
.. [1, 35, 17, 43, 4955, 148, 183, 188, 189].
4.2.

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
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, ,
, , , ,
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,
, ,

.
[190], ,
,
() ,
( ), (
, ,
-), (
), .

. ,
, .
[190]:

ij , j + Fi = 0 ;

(4.1)

ij =

1
( ui , j + u j ,i ) ;
2

(4.2)

ki , jl + lj ,ik li , jk kj ,il = 0 ,

(4.3)

ij ; ij ; ui
; Fi ; , j

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

159

_____________________________________________________________________________

; i, j, k , l = 1, 2, 3 . (4.1)
x j

.
(4.14.3) ,
,
-
.
,
- .
, ( )
[190]:

ij = Eijkl kl ,
Eijkl

(4.4)

. 81

[75].
, ,
, . ,
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,
-
,
.
( E )
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.
,
,
(4.4) -,
[190]:

ij = Eijkl ( kl kl T ) ,

(4.4)

T
kl ;
.
,
, kl 0 , k = l , kk = , ( k = 1, 2, 3) .

150C ,

, T
.
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,
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

160

_____________________________________________________________________________
-
(. 4.5.6).
, ,
.
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() .
,
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,
,
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,

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.
,
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-
[75]:
f ( ij , ijp , T , i ) = 0 ,
(4.4)
ijp ; T ; i
, . , ,
.


. , (4.2),
,
,
[190]:
1
(4.5)
ij = ( ui , j + u j ,i + uk ,i uk , j ) .
2
, , (4.3).
(4.14.4) ,
. ,
:
ui = ui* , x S1 ;
(4.6)

ij n j = Ti , x S2 ,

(4.7)

Ti ; ni
; S = S1 + S2 ; x
.
(4.14.4) , ,
, .
[190].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

161

_____________________________________________________________________________

. ,
(4.2) (4.4),
(4.1).

[131]. , -
,
[190]:

( + ) ,i + ui + Fi = 0,

i = 1, 2, 3,

(4.8)

2 G

, =
, = G ; = uk ,k ;
1

. , (4.8)
(4.6), (4.7) -
.

4.3.

,
,
, , ..,
( , , ..).

, (4.8),
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(4.14.4).

[76, 77, 191].
, , ,
.


[77]
,
. , ,

, , [76].

(, )
. ,
,
, ,
,
.
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

162

_____________________________________________________________________________

(ANSYS [79], LS-DYNA [241], MSC/NASTRAN,
ABAQUS [192], MARC, ALGOR, COSMOS/M .)
.

( , ).
- () :
( ), ()
,
[77, 191].
.
-
. ,
,
,
.
(,
) [190] (4.14.7),

:

ij , j

+ Fi ) ui dv ( ij n j Ti ) ui ds = 0 ,

(4.9)

S2

ui
V , (4.6). ,
(4.9) :

u
ij

i, j

dv Fi ui dv Ti ui ds = 0 .
V

(4.10)

S2

(4.10)
.
(4.10)
:
k

ui ( x ) = N j ( , , ) uij ,

(4.11)

j =1

Nj

, ,

( , , ) ; k , ; uij
j- i- .
(4.11) (4.10), ,
- ,
:

( [ K ] {u } {F } {F } {F } {F } )
n

m =1

th
e

pr

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

nd
e

b
e

=0,

(4.12)

163

_____________________________________________________________________________
n , ; [ K e ] =

[ B ] [ D ] [ B ] dv
T

Vm

{F } = [ B ] [ D ] { }dv
th
e

th

Vm

{F } = [ N ] {P}ds
pr

( ) ; {Fend }

Sp

() ; {Feb } =

[ N ] {F }dv
T

Vm

{ um }

; [ D ] ; [ B ]

, ;
[ N ] ; [ N n ]
S p .
, ,
(4.12).

. ,
:

{u} = [ N ] {um } ;

{ } = [ B ] {um } ;

(4.13)

{ } = [ D ] { el } ,

{ } = { } { }
el

th

{ }
th

(4.13) .
,
,
.

[76, 191], , ,
,
.
[1].
4.4. -

-
.
( )
[190],

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

164

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
[190].

, ,
.
,
.
,
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.

,
,
.
, , , ,
, ,

,
.

4.4.1. -


. ,
,
[193]. ,
, , ,
.
,
,
.

[194].

:

1
2

( 1 2 )

+ ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 ) ,
2

(4.14)

1 , 2 , 3 .
, -
( = )
,
( = ) . (4.4)
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

165

_____________________________________________________________________________
2
.
3

( ,
) ,
[195].
,

.

4.4.2.


, , .
[163, 164], 90%
.



. ,

(
)
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.
,
,
.

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[1, 3]. ()

[162164, 196198]. ,
, - .

.
4.4.2.1.

[162164, 200, 201], [196198],


, ,

.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

166

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
[162],


- (,
)
.
, ,
[1, 162164, 200, 201].

[1,3].
, ,
.
,
,
(ASCE)
[196], [192, 198]. ,
, ,
( )
,
. -
, , [162]:
( cx 0 , c y 0 ),


( , )
; t
, , q ,
,
( )
. [196,197] :
, -
xu , yu , zu (

);
tu , pu , qu (
t , q ).
:

t = tu , q
= pu , q
= qu ,

cx 0 =

tu
pu
qu
, c y
=
, c
=
,
0
y0
D yu
D zu
D xu

D .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(4.15)

167

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
.

.
- [162,163]
:
t = q tg + 2 h D2 tg + 0,6 D ,

(4.16)

q ; ;
; h ,
( )
h / D ; c .
(4.16) , ,
, [1].
, , (4.16)
,
, .
(, [1,3,5])

[199,201] . ,
, , (4.16).

cx 0 ) [162]

- ,
, , [162,163]
.
ASCE [196]
(
,
,
):

tu =

D ! H (1 + k0 ) tg k ;

tu = D Su ,

(4.16)

(4.16)

! ; H
( ); k0 ,
0,35
0,47; k ,

( )
0,5 0,7; Su ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

168

_____________________________________________________________________________
, Su ,
[196].
xu [192,196,198]
: 2,54 5,08 ; 5,08 10,16
.
,
, ASCE [196]
1984 , ,
. , , . . [198]
k0 = 1,0 ,
,
.
[192], Su
c ,
c = Su , [196].
, , k , ,

, tg k (4.16)

, [163].
, ,
.

[162]:
cy0 =

2H

D
1
e

l0 D

0,12 E

(1 )
2

q = D ( H 0,39 D ) + H 2 tg 0,7 +

(4.17)

0,7c H
cos 0,7

(4.18)

E , / ;

; ; l0
( l0 = 100 ) ; D , H , (4.15), (4.16), .
, (4.17)
, ,

c y 0 . ,
(4.17), (4.18)
. ,
, .. .. [201]
( = 0 )
:
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

169

_____________________________________________________________________________
1,7 H
H H2
q = D2 + 2 tg + 5e D
D D


.
8

(4.19)

ASCE [196] :

qu = ! H N qv D ,

(4.18)

zu = ( 0, 01 0,015) H ;

(4.17)

qu = Su N cv D ,

(4.18)

zu = ( 0,1 0, 2 ) H ,

(4.17)

N qv , N cv

, ,

,
, [196].

H / D

, , .

(
D ) , [162]


:
q = c y 0 D u y , u y R / c y 0 ;
q = R D ,

u y > R / c y 0 ,

(4.20)

q ; u y ;
R .

:
0,12 E
.
(4.21)
cy0 =
(1 2 ) l0 D
(4.21) , (4.17).
ASCE [196] :

1
qu = ! H N q D + D2 N y ,
2

(4.20)

zu = ( 0,10 0,15) H ;

(4.21)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

170

_____________________________________________________________________________

qu = Su N c D ,

(4.20)

zu = ( 0,10 0,15) H ,

(4.21)

N q , N c , ,
,
, [196].
.
[162] :
cy0 =

2H

0,12 E
D
1
e

1
l
D

( ) 0

(4.22)

, a / H , a
.
(4.22) , (4.17).

, :
q. = H D k p ,

(4.23)

k p = tg 2 45" + +
tg 45" +
2 H
2

. R

,
. q . < R / D , ,
R / D .

,
. , [201],
,
(4.23):
q . =

( H + D )
2

tg 2 45" + + 2 D tg 45" + .
2
2

(4.24)

ASCE [196] :

yu = Ch ( H + D / 2 ) ,

(4.22)

pu = ! H N qh D ;

(4.23)

yu = ( 0,03 0,05) ( H + D / 2 ) ,

(4.22)

pu = Su N ch D ,

(4.23)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

171

_____________________________________________________________________________
N qh , N ch , ,
, H / D ,
[196]; Ch
: 0,07 0,10 ; 0,03 0,05
; 0,02 0,03 .

, [198]
,
ASCE [196]
[197].

, xu , tu (. ).
( 150 610 ).
[198] ,
[196] [197] ,
( 2% D = 150 13% D = 610 ).
, , ,
[197],
[196].
,
.
, -,
. , , ,
(4.16)
, (4.16).
( 1 )
. ,

.
-,
,
. , [162,163]
, x 0 ,
, ( ). ASCE [196],
, , , ,
,
.
[196,197] , , ,
.
. , , ,
,
[162],
.
, [162] ,
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

172

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
.

,
(
, - ,
[162] );

, . ,
[162], , -
. ,
,
[162] .
,
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)

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,
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, , ,



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.



[1, 3, 4, 5, 16, 21], .
[1],
,
,
, .
,


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,

.

(,
.) -
. ,

.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

173

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
.
.. [1,3,4,5,16,21,202].
,
, .
4.4.2.2. -

,
, ,


. :
(
)
.
[1], ,
,

, ,

- .
,
,
[203, 204]:

n = c + tg n ,

(4.25)

n n ()
$
n ; c ;
.
, ,
(. (4.25)).

(4.25) ,
[1]:

1 2 = ( 2c ctg 1 2 ) sin ;
2 3 = ( 2c ctg 2 3 ) sin ;

(4.26)

3 1 = ( 2c ctg 3 1 ) sin .
(4.26)
( ),
,
{c ctg ; c ctg ; c ctg } [1].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

174

_____________________________________________________________________________
(4.26)
[1]. ,
,
( [1]), (4.26)
,
.
,
- .
,
,

[1]. -,
(4.26). -,
-
, [190,205]
[191, 206, 207] .

-
[191, 206, 207]. ,

-
[190, 191, 207]:
f ( I1 , J 2 , J 3 ) = 0 ,

I1 = 1 + 2 + 3 ; J 2 =

(4.27)
1
sij sij
2

1
; J 3 = sij s jk ski
3
I1
; sij = ij ij
.
3

. . [204]:

I1 + J 2 = k ,

(4.28)

k .
(4.28)
, ,
, ,
k k k
; ; , tg = 6 [1].
3 3 3
,
,
.
,
- , c
( , .
(4.26)), , k .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

175

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
, :
1) ;
2) .
, (4.28)
(4.26). , [204]
, k , c
[1]. , [204]
. - , ,
, - ,
-,
-
, , . , ,
- , ,
-
[79,192] ,
.
- , [1]
, .. ,
,
:

sin
3 3 + sin
2

k=

3 c cos
3 + sin 2

(4.29)

2 sin
;
3 ( 3 sin )

k=

6 c cos
.
3 ( 3 sin )

(4.30)

,
(4.30).
,
, [1], ,
,
(4.29), (4.30),
,
. ,



[1], .

() .


.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

176

_____________________________________________________________________________
-
[1].
[1,21] ..
:
,
,
.

[1,21] , ,
,
, ,
( 1 + 2 + 3 = 0 )
.
.4.2 .
, ,
.

, ,
, .

.4.2.


.
[1,21]:

2 2
sin

, 0 < 27, 65;

3 + 3 3 + sin 2
=
sin
27, 65;
3 ,

(4.31)

6 2
c cos

, 0 < 27,65;

= 3 + 3 3 + sin 2

27, 65.
c cos ,

(4.32)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

177

_____________________________________________________________________________
(4.31) (4.32)
,

, = arcsin 2 3 3 [1]. ,

,

(4.31) (4.32) = arcsin 2 3 3 27,65 .


[1, 35, 16, 21] ,
,
(4.31), (4.32),
,
,

.
, . .
1952 ( ,
[204])


. ,
. , .
[191],
, ,
.

,
,
- .
, ,

,
- .
, ,
(4.28), . (4.28)
[207]

2sin
,
3 ( 3 + sin )

k=

6 c cos
3 ( 3 + sin )

(4.33)

,
,
( (4.30),
(.
.4.2)). (4.28) .. [208]
(4.26) ,

.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

178

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
[1,208].
(4.26),
, , .
, ,

(4.27) ( f ( I1 , J 2 ) = 0 ).
,
[209]:
p=

1 + 2 + 3
3

3
q=
sij sij ;
2

9
3
r = sij s jk ski ,
2

(4.34)

(4.27):
I
p= 1 ;
3

q = 3J 2 ;

J 3
r = 3 3 .
2

(4.35)

(4.34), p ; q
. r .
[191,192,207,209,210] ( )
(
),
.
(4.34) :
t p tg ' d = 0 ,

t =

3
1 1
1 r
q 1 + 1 ; ' , d
2 K K q

(4.36)


- ); K
.
(4.36)
- , ,
' ( )
(4.36)
, p t ;
d ( )
t . ,
[1]
, :
tg ' =

6sin
;
3 sin

d=

6c cos
.
3 sin

(4.37)


(4.36) K . (4.37) (4.36)
(4.30), (4.35) , K = 1 (4.36)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

179

_____________________________________________________________________________
(4.28) , (4.30),

, . K < 1 ,
[1],

[203].
, , (4.36)
(4.26).


' , d (4.36).
,
.
(4.36)
-
(4.37). K

, (4.26) [1]:
K=

3 sin
.
3 + sin

(4.38)

.4.3
. (4.36) ,
(4.37), (4.38)
- (4.26). .4.4
(4.36) ,
- = 20, c = 15 .

.4.3. :
1 (4.26); 2 (4.28), (4.30);
3 (4.364.38).

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

180

_____________________________________________________________________________

.
.4.4.
(4.36)
, (4.36),
,

. ,

(. .4.3), [190192, 206, 207, 209212]
-: ,
, , .. ,
, , (
).
[192,209]
.4.3
(
) .

[210,212]:
3

r
cos 3 = ,
q

(4.39)

cos 3 =

3 3J 3
.
2 J 23/ 2

(4.40)


:
3 3J 3
.
(4.41)
sin 3 ' =
2 J 23/ 2
arccos x =

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

+ arcsin ( x ) ,

181

_____________________________________________________________________________
, = ' +

, '
6

.

(4.39),(4.40), .
,
(4.36)
p* :
R ( ) =

2 2 ( p*tg '+ d )
1
1

3 1 + 1 cos 3
K K

(4.42)

R ( ) ,
, .4.3. , R ( )
0 2 .
(4.26)
:
Rmc ( ) q ptg c = 0 ,
(4.26*)
1
1

sin + + cos + tg ,
3 3
3
3 cos

.
, (4.36) .
, (4.36),
K 0,778 [192]. (4.38) ,
-
22 .
22 [162,163].
(4.36),
, ,
, .
(4.36) ,

[191,192].
(4.26),
(4.27), .
,

, [191,192]:

Rmc ( ) =

l 2 + q 2 ptg ' d = 0 ,

(4.43)

l = d pt tg ; pt
.
.4.5
'

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

182

_____________________________________________________________________________
p q ,
(4.43). ,
, (4.43), . ,
pt ,
,
.4.5
. pt = d / tg ' (4.43)
(4.28).

.4.5.
(4.43)
pq

.4.6 (4.43)
, = 20, c = 15 pt = 30 .

(4.28), -
. , ,
(4.43),
(. .4.6).

.4.6. (4.43)
(4.28)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

183

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
. .
. [213] ,
.
,
, c .
(4.34) (4.39) ,
:

( c tg )

Rmw ( ) =

+ ( Rmw ( ) q ) p tg c = 0 ,
2

4 (1 e 2 ) cos 2 + ( 2e 1)

2 (1 e ) cos + ( 2e 1)
2

(4.44)


Rmc ;
3
4 (1 e ) cos + 5e 4e
2

,

; e ,
; Rmc ( )
3 sin
.
, (4.26*), Rmc =
3 6cos
(4.44)
, ,
(. (4.42)), Rmw ( )

0; 3 . , (4.44)
.
, ,
,
.
(4.44)
( ) (4.26), (4.26*)
e (. (4.38)):
e=

3 sin
.
3 + sin

(4.45)

e 0,5 e 1 , ,
(. (4.45)),
0 90 ,
[162, 163].
(4.44)
, .4.5. (4.44) ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

184

_____________________________________________________________________________
2
; ..
3 3
. = 0
(4.44) ,

.
.4.7
, -
= 40, c = 45 = 0,3 , e (4.45).



(4.36) (4.44) .4.8. , ,
-
. .4.8,
. ,
,
-
,
.

(. .4.3) = 0;

.4.7.

.4.8. :
1 (4.44), (4.45); 2
(4.364.38); 3 (4.26)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

185

_____________________________________________________________________________
4.5.

1997 2003
PipEst,

,
[1]. PipEst
,
(
, ),
. PipEst,
, -
[1, 35, 10, 11, 1315, 1720, 22, 41, 43, 44, 5058,
6063, 183189].
PipEst ..

,
, [1, 35].

Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis Alfargus (.
1.2).

. ..
.. .. .
,

- ,

.

.
, ,
PipEst Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis
.
4.5.1.

,
. ,

, (
4.3).

PipEst Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis ANSYS
LS-DYNA [79, 241]. ,
, ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

186

_____________________________________________________________________________
.., ANSYS
ISO9001, LSDYNA
. , ,
,
, , ANSYS LS-DYNA.
PipEst
ANSYS (.4.9) [3,50,52].

.4.9. PipEst
ANSYS

,

-,
,
. , 4.3

(. 4).
.. .. .
4.5.2.

PipEst
[1,
3]

Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis,
,
,
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

187

_____________________________________________________________________________
. ,
.

.
, ,
[3]:
,
;
,
,
.
,
, [3]:
;

;
, ;
;
,
.

( ,
, ..) ,
, . ,

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.
,
(
) .

(.
3), ,

.
, ,
, , ,
( )
,
.
, ,

,
( )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

188

_____________________________________________________________________________
. ,
[1, 3].

, ,
, ,
. [3].

.

.
1.)
.

2.) ( ).
3.) , -
.
4.) .

.
.
4.5.2.1.


.
() (
)
, [1, 3].

,
, ,
, ,
, , -
, ,
(, ,
, ..).

(
) ( ,
) -.

(.
4.4.2.1). [1, 3].

, .
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

189

_____________________________________________________________________________
( ),
..
,
(, ),

, ,

. ,
,
, -
[1]. -

( ),
-
. ,
[1, 3].
,

. , ,
,
-,
..
.4.10 -
.
, ,
,
( )
( ) ,
.

.4.10. -

, , -
.
, ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

190

_____________________________________________________________________________
.

, , , ,
( )
. .4.11
.


-.
, .

.

.

.4.11. [],
()

[1] , (. 4.3)
-
()
,
,
, . ,
( ),
,
- .

-,
, [1,3].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

191

_____________________________________________________________________________

.. ..

ANSYS.

.
ANSYS.
:
( , ANSYS
); , ;
;
.
.
:
, ,
. ,

. ,
.
[3].
, .
, , ,
(
).
,

,
- .
.

. xOy
, , ,
: Ox
, Oy .

.
Oy
.

.

, , ,
(.4.12).

, ,
[49].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

192

_____________________________________________________________________________

.4.12.


.

. ,
.
.
,
,
.
, ,
.

.
. ,
, ,
[3].
, -
. .4.13.

.4.13. []
( -)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

193

_____________________________________________________________________________

,
, ,
,
.
4.5.2.2.


- . ,
,
[1, 3].

-
. -
, 4.4.2.2.

[1, 3]
, ,
.

,
.
,
( )
20 30 . , ,
, , 40 60 .
,
.
,
- , ,
,
.
. ,
.
-
, .
,
, ,
.


. .4.14.
-
.
.
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

194

_____________________________________________________________________________
.

.4.14.
(
- )

,
[1, 3].

(
,
) .
.4.15.

.4.15. []
( )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

195

_____________________________________________________________________________
- . ,
-
[190] ,
, ,
4.4.2.2, , [204],
.
. , [191,
207, 208] ,
. ,

.

. ,
(4.28),
.
,


. [191]
, ,

.

. [191]

, .

.
.4.16
( = 30 )
. .4.16
.

.4.16.
) ; )

.4.17
( )
. , .4.17 ,

1,4 . ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

196

_____________________________________________________________________________
.

.4.17.
4.5.2.3.


,

. ,
, -
(,
),
(,
), ,
.
, ,

,
.
,

.
, PipEst Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis,
,
-.

.
,
(.4.18).

, ,
[1,3,4,5] ,
. , ,

.
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

197

_____________________________________________________________________________
, (
[3] ).

.

.4.18.


( ),
( )
(, ).
, ,

:
( )
, .
,
.

(
, )
.

.

,
: , ;
, ;
.

( ) :
.
:
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,
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. , -

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

198

_____________________________________________________________________________

. ,
,
.

, .

,
.

, .

, z
. -
.
. -.
(Submodeling ANSYS).
-

,
.
,
. , ,
,
.
,

. .4.19.

.

[3].

.4.19. []

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

199

_____________________________________________________________________________
4.5.3.


, PipEst
Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis,
( )
, .
, , ,

, ,
, .

.
,
.

. ,




.
, /

.
.


,
,
, , , ,
.
,
Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis ,

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.
,

, .
, ,

, .
[1].

Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis PipEst,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

200

_____________________________________________________________________________
4.5.4.


. ,
, ,
[161,163] (.4.20).

,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
, ,

.
XXI .. ..
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[4].

.4.20.


,
- [1, 3]. ,

.

.
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

201

_____________________________________________________________________________
( -)
, (
-) (
) .

, ,
[4].
,
:
1) - - ,
;
2) -,
, .

D =1220, =13,6,
-70 ( : =488,
=604), .4.21 .4.22.
.4.22,
,
328.

.4.21. []
-

, ,
,
,
.

( , ,
.)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

202

_____________________________________________________________________________

.4.22. []

-
[4]. .4.23
.

.4.23. []

.4.23 ,

(461), ,
,
(488).
, ( )

.
(. .4.23),

.

-.
,
[4].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

203

_____________________________________________________________________________
.

,
.
.4.25, 4.27

,
(.4.24, 4.26),
.

.4.24.

,

(.4.25) 1,3 , (.4.27). ,

.

.4.25. []

.4.26.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

204

_____________________________________________________________________________

.4.27. []

,

. ,
, ,
,
.
Alfargus
,
ANSYS.
4.5.5. ,

PipEst
Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis


, .. [4, 19]
.. .
,
(. 4.1),
, ..,
.
,

. ( )
,
.
, -
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

205

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
, .

.4.28.



(
),
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,
,
.
.
,
. -
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() ,

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PipEst Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis.

.
.4.29.

.4.29. ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

206

_____________________________________________________________________________

-
, ,
(
10) (.4.30), , ,
.

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,
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.
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[200,203,219]. ,
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

207

_____________________________________________________________________________
( )
( ,
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. .).
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0 45 .
b
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b = 1, a = 0, 7 .
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[162, 163]
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[219] ,
.

.4.31.


.
.. [203]
50- XX .
, , ,
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

208

_____________________________________________________________________________
(., , [203, 219]) ,
.. .
,
,
, [200]. [200],
:
x

z ( x ) = m 1,57 e m + x tg ,

m =

(4.46)

2c (1 + sin )
; x ,
(1 sin )

; z ( x ) , ; c
; .
(4.46), z (0) 0 . ,
,
.
,
[203]:
2c cos
q0 =
.
(4.47)
1 sin
, ,
:
q
(4.48)
h0 = 0 .

.
, ,
, ,
.

,
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.
,
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, , M ,
( A) (. .4.32).
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h0 ,
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

209

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
.

.4.32.

,
(
A)
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:
1) , ;
2) , (
MN, . .4.32) ;
3) , ( M
).
, ,
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[1,3]. ,
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,
)
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, .


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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

210

_____________________________________________________________________________
, [162,163], ),
(
), (
(4.46)), M.
M ( .4.32 )
:
xM = R 2 y M2 ,

yM =

y A R 2 x A2 R 2 ( x A2 R 2 + y A2 )
x A2 + y A2

x A = R + b + ( a + 2 R + h ) tg , y A = R + h A;

(4.49)
R

; h .


. ,
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(
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

211

_____________________________________________________________________________
.
,
,
.
,
(
M) ,
( A).
.4.33.

.4.33.

,
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R 0 + R1 + R 2 W = 0 ,
(4.50)
W = V ; V ; R0, R1, R 2
oy ,
.
(4.50)
,
, ( oz ,
.4.33) :
R0 =

xB

xM

q ( x ) dx , R1 =

yA

yB

p1 ( y )

cos
dy , R 2 =
cos

R p ( ) cos ( ) d ,
2

(4.51)

q ( x ) , p1 ( y ) , p2 ( )
;
oy ; ,
oy .
q ( x ) , p1 ( y ) , p2 ( ) .
( )
,
.
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

212

_____________________________________________________________________________
,
R 0, R1, R 2 .
R 0 . .4.34
(
)
MB (.4.33).
, MB
, (
MD, .4.33), . ,
, (
) ,
q DB q0 ,
(4.47).

.4.34. []

,
R0 = q S DB ,

(4.52)

S DB DB.
oy
R1 . , ,
AB (.4.33). ,
[200,203,219].
,
(
) ( )
.
. ,
.4.35.

AOB. (
) ,
AB, .

AOB
$
$
: W , Ea
(
$
) R g .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

213

_____________________________________________________________________________
$
W ,
$
Ea , .

.4.35.
,
, dEa / d = 0 ,
:
h2
ch
k cos
(4.53)
Ea =
k
1
,

2
tg cos ( )
k =

cos2 ( )

(1 + z )

cos2 cos ( + )

z=

sin ( + ) sin ( )
.
cos ( + ) cos ( )

$
(4.53) E
0 < .
, = .
-
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( > ) ( > 65 ) . = 0 45 .

, (4.53) ,
, .
, (4.53) ,
. , ,
. , h (.4.33),
h = 1 , ,
(, )
(4.53) .
. , ,
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.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

214

_____________________________________________________________________________
, .
(, , ..),
,
.
, , (4.53)
,
, .
. :
Ea =

z =

h2

2 1+ z

cos 2 ( )
,
cos2 cos ( + )

(4.54)

sin 2 sin
. Ea ,
cos ( + ) cos ( )

, oy
(. .4.33):
R1 = Ea sin ( + ) .

(4.55)


R 2 (.4.33). [200,203,219] ,


.
, .
, , .
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,
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. ,
.
,

[200],
.

, ,
:
p = hc .
(4.56)
(.4.32) hc = h + R . oy
, ,
.4.33, ( M ,
),
:
R2 = R ( R + h ) .

(4.57)

, . ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

215

_____________________________________________________________________________
(4.57)
.

(4.57). , h = 1 (
)
( ) 9,5%,
() 4,7%. ,
(4.57).
, (4.50),
V S DB .
(.4.32, 4.33)
. , ,
( , MD
, .4.33) . ,
:
h0 = h + R y M ; H = a + 2 R + h ; d = ( H h0 ) tg ;

V = R (R + h)

R2
4

+ h0

S DB = b + d ;

H tg + 2b + R + d
,
2

(4.58)

y M (4.49).
, (4.52) q q0
(4.47), (4.50) ,
. :
R 0 + R1 + R 2 W 0 ,
(4.50*)
(.4.32)

. , (4.50*) , MN
,
.
, .
,

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,
.
.



.

- ( .4.37), ANSYS.

, ,
,
, [162].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

216

_____________________________________________________________________________

.4.36.
()
(
) .

. ,
(
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.4.37.

, .


( .4.38)
. ,

,
ANSYS.
(
)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

217

_____________________________________________________________________________
, . ,
, ,
.
160000

[H]

140000
120000
100000
80000

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.

60000
40000
20000
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20

40

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80

100

120

140

160

[]

.4.38. ()

4.5.6.



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() .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

218

_____________________________________________________________________________

.. .. [4].

(
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.


-
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4.5.6.1.


,
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,
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[212, 214218 .].
[190, 212, 214, 215],
,
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,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

219

_____________________________________________________________________________
.


[212,215].
, t .
.4.39. 0
- , .
(. .4.39).
( t < t1 ) .
,
.

.4.39.

( t1 < t < t2 )

, ,
( )
( ).
, . ,
,
, ( ),
- ,
. , , ,
[212, 216]. ,

[215].


[212, 214]:

= e + p +c ,

(4.59)

e + p = 0 (. .4.39).
[1,3].
c . (4.59)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

220

_____________________________________________________________________________
, :
d c
=c ,
dt

(4.60)

c ,
. c ( T , , , t , q1...qn )
, , ,
. (. 4.39) c .
[212,214218],
, c

. ,
,
( )
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.
[215],
,
.
:
1) ( );
2) ( ,
, );
3) ( 2030 ,
).

,
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[214216].


[212, 214, 215]:
1) ,
(.4.39)
.
2)
.
( 2%) ,
,
.
3) .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

221

_____________________________________________________________________________
, .
4) ,
, .. .
,
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12%.

c (T , ) ,
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,
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[217]. ,
,
[215], .
,
[212, 214] ,
[190].
[190, 212],
, .. g ( ij )
, [190]:

ijc =

g
.
ij

(4.61)

(4.61)

ic =

2 c c
ij ij ,
3

(4.62)

3
2

ic
g g

ij ij

(4.63)

g = 0
, ,
, .
(
) iic = 0 , , , iic = 0 .
g

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

222

_____________________________________________________________________________
sij [190]. , ,
,
[190], g ,
, .
g
g
=
= 3sij ,
ij sij

(4.64)

1 ic
,
2 i

(4.65)

3
sij sij .
2
(4.64), (4.65) (4.61),
:

i =

ijc =

3 ic
( ij ij 0 ) .
2 i

(4.66)



[190,214] ,
, .
,
. [190,
214], g
, .
(. ) :
g=

2
3
sij sij (ic ) = 0 ,
2

(4.67)

i = (ic ) ,

(4.68)

,
. , , (4.14)
(4.62)
, :
= ( c ) ,
(4.69)
, (4.69) c

c = F ( ) .

(4.70)

(4.70)
. ,
, [215, 216],

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

223

_____________________________________________________________________________

:

c (T , ) = G (T ) F ( ) .

(4.71)

[190, 214218]
, F ( )
.

[216]:
F ( ) = B n ,

(4.72)

B , n .
G (T ) , [214,
216, 217], . ,

.
H ,
. p dH ,
H
H + dH . :
p=

1
H
exp
RT
RT

(4.73)

R .
(4.73) :

p dH = 1 .
0

H 0 ,
, ,
. , ,
:

H0

p dH = exp RT .

H0

,
, G (T ) :
H
G (T ) = A exp 0 ,
RT

(4.74)

A .
(4.72) (4.74),
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

224

_____________________________________________________________________________

c (T , ) = C n exp 0 .
RT

(4.75)

- H 0 ,
(4.75) k = H 0 / R , ,
,
:
k

c = C n exp .
T

(4.76)


(4.76) C , n k ,
,
.
4.5.6.2.




.
[4]. ,



[4,16,49],
.


D = 1020 = 20 .
.

.4.40 ( ).
7 , 12 .
27 .

.4.40.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

225

_____________________________________________________________________________

, 5.
0 1000 c .
609C ,
.
,
450C , -
500C .

,
. .4.41

.

.4.41. [C ]
594 c

,
,
(4.76). .

, ,
- ,

(, ..), , ,
, . ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, ,
[218]. (
)
,
,
. [218]

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

226

_____________________________________________________________________________


c = 5 105 c 1 , .4.42.
, .4.42,
(4.76):
C = 5, 292 1016 ; n = 2, 65 ; k = 1, 934 104 .
,
450C (. . 4.43).

. 4.42. [218]

. 4.43.
, .4.42,
T = 450C ( )
. , ,
4.5.6.1
. , ,
(4.76)
450C . , ,
[214218], .
:
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

227

_____________________________________________________________________________

c = B (T ) n .

(4.77)

B (T ) (4.77)
(. . 4.42).
,

350C .
-.
.
:
, ;
; ;
.
,
.

. .4.44,
4.45
744
,
510C ( ).
.

.

,
( . )
744 ,
510.
462 (.4.44)

.

,
.

.4.44. [] 744

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

228

_____________________________________________________________________________

. 4.45.
744
,
(2%)
(.4.45). , ,


2%.
,

:
1)
-
;
2)
(
480 510).
3)
- .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

229
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

5

,

5.1.
,
,
, .
, ,
, , (
) [1, 4, 220232]. ,
, ,

, . , ,
, 09 2003
, .
[225].
[224], 1992 2001
545 ,
5060 .
2003 2004 , ,
18 , 15
[225232].
,
( )
. , ,
, 11 2003 ,
,
[225].
,

,
, .
, , ,
,
, , ,
-
(Star-CD [233], CFX [234] .).
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

230
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
, ,
[1].
,
1.

.
:


(
);


;

/ ;

/ .
[1, 4]:

;

.
,
(, )

[235,236], .

, .
( )
,
, 3.

, 4.

(. 2).

:
-
,
(, ( )
);
- ,
,
, ,
;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

231
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
-
,
;
,
, ;
-
..
5.2.

[1]: (
) ( ),
( )
( ).
/ , ,
(
).
.

, .
,
.
/

. (
[1, 4,
237, 238].)


,
[1,4].
.

[239, 240].
[1].
, ..

.
,

.


( )
.. [1, 6].
..

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

232
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
.. .

.

,
.
,

.

.

:
!
!
!
""
u + F = 0,
(5.1)
!
!
; ; u ; F
;
. (5.1)
.
:

! !
n = T* ( t ) ;

(5.2)

! !
u = u* ( t ) ;

(5.2)


!
( + ) n = 0,
(5.2)
!
!
n ; T* ( t )
!
; u* ( t )

; + - (5.2)
.
:
! !
! !
u" = u" 0 ,
u = u0 ,
t = 0,
(5.3)

.
, (5.15.3)
.
.
,

-

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

233
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
. , ,

. ,
,

.

,
,
,
[1, 4].
-.
( -)
.
( )
. - ,
.
- ,
,

.

.

- LS-DYNA ()
[241], . .5.1

.
,
,
(. ),
, ( ),
, [1].

.5.1.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

234
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
.5.2
( ) (. .5.1)
(.5.3),
SPP
(), 2001 .

.5.2. , ,
( SPP)

.5.3. , ,
( SPP)
,
, .

[238].
,
, , U 50
S M , .. U 50 S M . ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

235
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
U 50 , 50%
.
[238] ,
0,015 . ,
,
.
.
[238], S M 0,09 2
M 0,015 :

U 50 = 1247,10

S
+ 22,03,
M

(5.4)

S 2 , M [ ] U 50 [ ] .
[238] , ,
, 10/,
. ,

,
/ .
,
.
:
(, , , );
;
.
,

[1].

Alfargus/DebrisHazard
Alfargus.
5.3.

5.3.1.
( )
, ,

. ,
,
.
[242],

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

236
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
, ,
,
, . , ,
, , .. ,
[243].
(
)
( )
.


,
(. [244]).
,

,
() .

, ..
.
.
,


(. [1, 4]):
-


,

.
: ;
/ ;
; ;
(,
);
..

-

. ,

(,
) [245].

.


.
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

237
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

,
.
, , ( K ) -
. ,
(,
). ( K ) -


.
.


,
, [1, 4].
.
,
() [246, 247].

[100]:
! !
D
+ V = 0;
Dt
!
!
! !
DV

= g p + ;
Dt

(5.5)
(5.5)

!
!
!
!
Et !
! ! !
Q !
+ Et V =
+ T + g V p V V ;
t
t

(5.5)

p = R T ,

(5.5)

! !
! !

VV
VV
; Et = e +
= h +
p
2
2

; e = Cv T ; Cv
; p ;

i j (.. , ,
[100],
u u j 2
u
i
+
ij k ,
x
xk
j xi 3

ij =

i, j, k = 1, 2, 3;

(5.5)

; ij ( ij = 1 , i = j ,
!

ij = 0 , i j )); T ; V u1 , u2 , u3 ; g

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

238
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
D () () ! !

+ V () ;
Dt
t

; h = C p T

, C p ;
Q

t
, (
); R ; x1 , x2 , x3 - ( x3
, ).
, (5.5,)
, :

! !
!
De
Q !
+ p V =
+ T + ;
Dt
t

(5.6)

!
Dh Dp Q !
=
+
+ T + ;
Dt Dt t

(5.6)

!
!
!
( H ) !
! ! !
p Q !
(5.6)
+ H V =
+
+ T + g V + V ,
t
t t
! !
VV
H = h +
; (
2
,
):

1 u u 2 2 u 2
!
!
!
!
ui
= V V = ij
= i + j k .
x j
2 x j xi 3 xk

) (

(5.6)

:
u
u
, , : ij i = ij i .
x j
x j
i
j
, ..

.

.
[248]:
3

T 2 273,15 + CS
0 ,
T +C
273,15
S

(5.7)

CS ; 0
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

239
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
[247]:

=
, ..

Cp
Pr

Cp
Pr

(5.8)

[100].

.
:
!
d V
Re =
,
(5.9)

d
. , Re
.

.
.

t +t
1 0
: f f dt [249].
t t0
,

.
,
.
[249].
(5.5)
( ),
, . (5.5)
.

[250].
[100]:
u j = u$ j + u " j , u$ j =

uj
,

T = T$ + T ",

T
,
T$ =

H = H$ + H ",

H
;
H$ =

p = p + p ';

j = 1, 2, 3;

h
;
h = h$ + h ", h$ =

(5.10)

= + ',

( )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

240
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
; ( )
;
; .
, , ,
, [100,249].
(5.5)
(5.10)
. ,
f = f + f , y = y + y , q = q$ + q
b = b$ + b [100]:
y 0,

y = y,

f y = 0, q$ y = q$ y ,

f y = f y,

f + y = f + y,

(5.10)
f f
f f
,
, q 0, f y 0, q b 0.
=
=
t
t
xi xi
,
, .
[101, 251].
(5.5)
( ( u$i + ui) )
+
= 0,
t
xi

( u$i )
+
= 0.
t
xi

(5.11)

(5.5). :
( ui ) ( ui u j )
p ij
.
+
= gi
+
t
x j
xi x j

( u$i ) ( ui) ( u$i + ui) ( u$ j + u j )


+
+
t
t
xj

= gi

p ij
.
+
xi x j

(5.12)

,
:

( u$i + ui) ( u$ j + uj )
xj
=

( u$i u$ j )
xj

ui u j
xj

( u$i u$ j )
xj

u$i uj
xj

) + ( u u$ ) + ( u u ) =
i

xj

xj

) . = ( u$ u$ ) + ( u u) . = ( u$ u$ ) + ( u u ) .
i

xj

xj

xj

xj

(5.12)
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

241
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

Du$i
p i j ui u j
.
= gi
+

xi x j
xj
Dt

(5.13)

(5.6):
( H ) ( uj H )
+
=
t
x j
=

p Q

+
+
t t x j

T

xj

+ g j u j +
( ij ui ) .
x j

,
:
( uj H )
x j

xj

( u$ j + uj ) ( H$ + H )
xj

( T$ + T )

xj
xj

( u$ j H$ )
xj

u j H
xj

),

T$
T
+

,
x j
xj

( H$ ) ( u$ j H$ ) u j H
( H ) ( u j H )
+
=
+
+
=
t
x j
t
xj
xj
=

D H$ u j H
,
+
Dt
xj

( ij ui ) = x ( ij u$i ) + x ij ui ,
x j
j
j

D H$ p Q
=
+
+ g j u$ j +
t t
xj
Dt

T$

T
+
u j H +

xj
xj

ij u$i + ij ui .
+
x j

(5.14*)

(. (5.5)) :
p = R T$ .

(5.15)

,
(. (5.5; 5.7; 5.8)) [100]:
u$ u$ j 2
u i u j
u$
i
+
ij k +
+

xk
xi
x j xi 3
x j

ij =

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

2
uk
;
ij
xk
3

(5.16*)

242
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
3

T$ 2 273,15 + CS
=
0 ,
$
T + CS
273,15

Cp
Pr

(5.16)

[100] , (5.16*),
,
u "i u " j . , ,
,
, ,
[100]. :
u$i u$ j 2
u$
+
ij k .
x
xk
j xi 3

ij

(5.16)

T "
, u " j H " .
x j

(5.14*) :

DH$ p Q
=
+
+ g j u$ j +
t t
xj
Dt

T$

uj H + i j u$i .

xj

(5.14)

u "i u " j
, u " j H "
[249].
(5.11,5.135.16) , .
,
.
.
(
( K ) - [249])

. ( K ) -

[101].
[100] (. (5.16))
u$ u$ j
u "i u " j = T i +
x
j xi


u$
2
ij T k + K = T ij ij K ; (5.17)
xk
3

T K =

u "i u "i

2

.

,
.
, (.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

243
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
(5.8)) [100]:
u " j H " = T

T$ C p T T$
=

,
xj
xj
PrT

(5.17)

T ; Pr ;
T . ij ui
() :

ij ui =

! 2
!
T
V K V.


[100]:

T = vT lT ,

(5.18)

vT lT .
. [252] .. [100] , (5.18)
.
[100]:
1
C K2
T = C ' ( K ) 2 l =
,
(5.19)

; l
, C ', C .

( K ) -

,
[101,253]:
! !
DK ! + T !
T
=
K + G
g ,
Dt
PrT
PrK

(5.20)

2
2

u$k
1 u$i u$ j 2 u$k 2
G = T
+

.

xk
2 x j xi 3 xk 3

(5.20)

(5.20) : K
, K ,
K , K ,
.
,
[101]:

! !
D ! + T !
T
=
+ C2 G C3 C1
g .
Dt
PrT

Pr
K

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(5.21)

244
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
(5.21) ,
, , .
(5.17; 5.195.21)

. 5.1 ,
.

5.1

C1 , C2

C3

PrT

PrK

Pr

0,09

1,44

1,92

0,90

1,00

1,30

[101]

0,09

1,45

0,18

1,00

1,00

1,00

[254]

0,09

1,44

1,92

0,70

1,00

1,30

[255]

0,08

1,43;
1,40

1,92;
1,90

1,00;
0,7

1,30;
1,00

[256]

0,09

1,44

1,92

0,5;
0,75;
0,85

1,00

1,30

[257] : C = 0,09 ;
C1 = 1, 44 ; C2 = 1, 44 ; C3 = 1,92 ; PrK = 1,0 ; PrT = 1,0 ; Pr = 1, 219 .
, , ,
.
, (5.11,5.13,5.145.17,5.195.21)

. ,
, .
,
, (5.11,5.13,5.145.17,5.195.21)
:
! !
D
+ V = 0;
Dt
!
! + T 2 !
! !
DV
= ( ) g P +
( K );

Dt

3

(5.22)

(5.22)

!
! 2
!
! ! !
DH P Q
+ T
=
+
+ g V + ( + T ) T +
V K V ;
Dt

t t
3

(5.22)

! !
DK ! + T !
T
=
K + G
g ;
Dt
PrT
PrK

(5.22)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

245
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
! !
D ! + T !

=
+ C2 G C3 C1 T g ;
Dt
PrT

Pr
K
! !
VV
P = R T + g ( x3 x3,0 ) ;
H = Cp T +
;
2

T 2 273,15 + CS
=
0 ;
T +C
273,15
S

T =

C K 2

T =

C p T
PrT

(5.22)

(5.22)

(5.22)

u u j 2
u
i
+
ij k ;

xk
x j xi 3

ij =

(5.22)

2
2

uk
1 ui u j 2 uk 2
+
G = T
,

K

xi 3 xk 3
x k
2 x
j

(5.22)

P (

); x3 , (.
(5.5)); x3,0 ,
; .
,

(5.22), ,

.

.
,
[119]:
!
!
!
Wm = Vm V,

m Wm = 0, = m , V = m Vm ,
m =1

m =1

(5.23)

m =1

!
!
Vm m- ; V ;
; m m-
( m- ); N .

!
Wm .
, [119].

[119],
. , ,
!
Wm ,
.

[100,119]:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

246
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
!
!
m Wm = Dm Ym ,
(5.24)
1 N
Dm (
N m =1

Dm ; D =

), Ym =

m-

.
(5.22) (5.22),
, .
( (5.24)):
N !
!
!
A xi , , V, P, T , , , T , T = em Dm Ym ,

(5.25)

m =1

!
A xi , , V, P, T , , , T , T = 0

(. (5.22)); em ( ) m - .

, (5.24), [119]:
( Ym )
t

!
!
!
!
+ Ym V Dm Ym = 0, m = 1, N 1.

(5.26)

(5.26)
( N 1) .
N
:

N 1

YN = 1 Ym .

(5.27)

m =1


Ym , (5.10),
:

Ym
Y$m =
.

Ym = Y$m + Ym;

(5.28)

(5.28) (5.10) u j (5.26).


,
:
( Y$m )

+
Y$m u$i ) +
Ym ui
(
t
xi
xi

xi

Y$
Dm m
xi xi

xi

Ym
Dm

xi

Y$
Dm m

xi

xi

Ym
Dm

xi

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

= 0, m = 1, N 1.

(5.29)

247
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
(5.29), (5.14),


Ym u i .
xi

,
.
,
:

Ym
Y$
Y$
= ( Dm )T m = T m ,
xi
x j Scm x j

Ym ui + Dm

(5.30)

Scm = ( Dm ) [133,258] ( ,
(5.30) ;

). (5.30) (5.29) ,
:
( Ym )
t

( Ym ui )
xi

+ T Ym

, m = 1, N 1 .
xi Scm
xi

(5.31)

(5.25).
,
:
!
!
em Dm Ym

(Ym + Ym) =
e$m + ( em ) Dm
xi
xi

Y$m
Ym

=
e$m Dm
+
e$m Dm
+
xi
xi xi
xi
Y$m
Ym

+
( em ) Dm
+
( em ) Dm
.
xi
xi xi
xi

(5.32)

(5.32),

(5.14),
u"j H " :
xi

xi

Ym
Y$

e$m ( Dm )T m .
( em ) Dm
=

xi xi
xi

(5.33)

(5.33) (5.32) :
!
!
em Dm Ym

Y$m

e$m Dm + ( Dm )T
.
xi
xi

(5.34)

, (5.34) (5.25), (5.22) (5.31),


, :

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

248
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
! !
D
+ V = 0;
Dt

(5.35)

N 1
DYm ! + T !
YN = 1 Ym ;
=
Ym , m = 1, N 1;
Dt
m =1
Scm

!
! + T 2 !
! !
DV

= ( ) g P +
( K );
Dt

3

(5.35)

(5.35)

!
! 2
!
! ! !
+ T
DH P Q
=
+
+ g V + ( + T ) T +
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t t
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3

!
+ T !
+ em
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m =1

! !
DK ! + T !
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=
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g ;
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PrK

(5.35)

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=
+ C2 G C3 C1 T g ;
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Dt

Pr
K
! !
N
Y
VV
P = R0 T m + g ( x3 x3,0 ) ; H = C p T +
;
2
m =1 M m

(5.35)

(5.35)

(5.35)

= = f (Ym , m ), , , C p , Cv ;
m =1
3

C
C K

T 2 273,15 + CS
; T = p T ; Scm =
=
;

0 ; T =

PrT
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T + CS
273,15
2

u u j 2
u
i
+
ij k ;

xk
x j xi 3

(5.35)

ij =

(5.35)

1 u u 2 2 u 2 2
u

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xi 3 xk 3
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j

(5.35)

R0 ; f ()
(., , [110, 111]).
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.
, , ,
,
. , ,
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,
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

249
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
[259].

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( K ) -

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[262].
,
. [263]
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= 0,5 . q 0
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[259].
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. [1]
(5.35) FLOTRAN
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()
. ..
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1,22,
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.
( )
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= 1,81 105 /( ) ;

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: = 16, 043 / ;

= 0,6569 / 3 ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

= 1,119 105 /( ) ;

250
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
= 2240, 07 /( ) ;

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251
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_____________________________________________________________________________
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h = C p T , C p .
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= ( T x ) ( C p T ) . . ,
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= 0,02637 ( ) , C p = 1006 ( ) , = 1205 3 .
, ~2 10-8 c .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

252
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
1)
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253
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

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6/

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

254
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

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4,5 10/

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

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[150, 264]
.

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

256
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
,
(. 5.3.1).

[243].
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C = f ( C ) [243]:
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(5.37)

[% .] ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

257
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, [ % .] .

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

258
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
,
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259
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

260
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

10/ .
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=
=

M 4 Y. 4
CH 4 Y. 4 + N 2 YN.2 + O2 YO2.

16 0, 053
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

261
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
=

16 0,15
0, 09.
16 0,15 + 0,85 ( 28,15 0,789 + 32 0, 211)


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CH 4
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=
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,
,

.
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, 1040,
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

262
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

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, []

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

263
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

264
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

265
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

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Plavecky Peter ..
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

266
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
5.3.3.

5.3.3.1.

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[243].

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.
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267
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
, .

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268
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

269
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

.5.33. 1,7
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

270
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

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0,11 , []

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

271
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
293.
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272
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_____________________________________________________________________________

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5
_____________________________________________________________________________

.

Plavecky Peter, .

, ,
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[243,270].
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(): M = 28, 013 / ;
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_____________________________________________________________________________

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

275
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_____________________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________________

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

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278
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_____________________________________________________________________________
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

280
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

.5.63.

( )



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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

281
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
, (5.38)

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284
5
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

287
5
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288
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

289
5
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5.3

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SCADA
4,829884 4,9472
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

290
5
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5.2);
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5.3.1);
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292
5
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293
5
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5
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.

[133, 294, 295].

(. (5.5)):
C p (T )

T
1
T
= (T ) x n
t x n x
x

+ F (T , Y ) ,

(5.40)

C p ( T ) ;
; ( ) ;
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() ; n , ( n = 0
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; t .
F ( T , Y )
F ( T , Y )
F ( t ) , , ,
..

. , ,

[151]:
CH 4 + 2,0O 2 + 2,0 3, 762N 2 CO 2 + 2,0H 2O + 2,0 3,762N 2 .

(5.41)

(5.41)
.
.

, [151,280,296].
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Y (1 +
) Y_ ,

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

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296
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
( , [297]);


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E
R T

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M = 16 ; Z = Z$ T [266] (
(5.42) Z$ = 9,66 1013 K c [266,299], = 1
[266,299]); E (

E
= 14,8 /

=1

[266,299]);

M = 28, 96

= 9,524 (. (5.41)). (5.40)

:
F ( T , Y ) = Q (T , Y ) ,

(5.40)

Q ( Q = 52,8 /
[267]).
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Y
Y
1

= n D ( T ) x n ( T , Y ) ;
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x x
x

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

297
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

298
5
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= A

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B Y _
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1 +
K

(5.43)

A, B

[254];

Y _ = 1 Y Y . [254]

(5.43): A = 4, 0 B = 0,5 . ,
,
(5.43) , [254].
(5.43), [244],
:

= A min Y ,

= 0, .

, Y ;

(5.44)

5.4.3.

NOx
196 (196+196)
, 32 [302].
CH4 , : O2, N2;
H2O, CO2, CO, H2; ,
H, O, OH, HO2, H2O2, CH3, CHO, CH2O, CH5O;
, ,
N, NOx, HN, HNO, HCN .. [303305]; ,
, CH, CH2, C2H, C2H2, C2H3, C2H4, C2H5,
C2H6. , [306]
, 217
35 , [151] 288 34
.



.
,
[151]. ,
,
[307].

(5.41)
, [4]:
CH 4 + 1,5O 2 CO + 2,0H 2 O;

CO + 0,5O 2 CO 2 .

[151].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(5.45)

299
5
_____________________________________________________________________________


[151].

. , , .
,
, .

.
, , , .
,

.
( )
(5.41).
[151, 307]
(5.41) (. (5.40)).

(., (5.35)). ,

:
! !
D
+ V = 0;
Dt

(5.46)

DY ! + T !
=
Y ;
Dt
Sc

DY
Dt

(5.46)

! + T !

=
Y
;
Sc

(5.46)

Y _ = 1 Y Y ;

(5.46)

E Y
= Z exp

R T

!
! + T 2 !
! !
DV

= ( ) g P +
( K );
Dt

3

! !
DH P
Q
=
+ Q S +
+ g V +
Dt
t
t

!
!
! 2
! N* !
+ T
+ T !
+ ( + T ) T +
V K V + em
Ym ;
Scm

m =1

! !
DK ! + T !
T
=
K + G
g ;
Dt
PrT
PrK

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(5.46)

(5.46)

(5.46)

(5.46)

300
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

! !
D ! + T !

=
+ C2 G C3 C1 T g ;
Dt
PrT

Pr
K

S = j (Y j )
j =1

1
c

=0

!
I , j s, , t

! !r

,j

(5.46)

! !
!

d , qr , j = , j 4 I b (T ) I , j s, , t d ; (5.46)
4

) + ! ! I

,j

( s, , t ) + (

,j

!
+ , j ) I , j s, , t =

(5.46)

! !
!

= , j I b (T ) + , j , j ( , ' ) I , j ( s, ', t ) d ',


4 4
: C

j = 1, L ;

!
T !
= T ;
t

(5.46)

N*

Ym
;
m =1 M m

P = R T + g ( x3 x3,0 ) ; R = R0

(5.46)

! !
N*
VV
; = = f (Ym , m ), , , C p , Cv ;
H = Cp T +
2
m =1
3

T 2 273,15 + CS
0 ;
T +C
273,15
S

ui u j
+

x j xi

ij =

T =

2
u
i j k ;
xk
3

C K 2

Scm =

T =

C p T

PrT

(5.46)

;
Dm

(5.46)

1 u u 2 2 u 2 2
u

G = T i + j k K k ,

2 x
xi 3 xk 3
xk
j

(5.46)

m = 1 , m = 2 , m = 3 ; N *
, N * = 3 ; S
!
; c ;
; s (),
!
; L
(, ); I , j

j - s

( j = 1, L ) ;

, j

j - ; , j
j - ; I vb (T )
T ;
!
! !
; , j , ' ; '

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

301
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
d ' ; j (Y j ) ; ,
, ;
. (5.55.8), (5.175.30), (5.35), (5.40) (5.42).
, (5.46)
,
(. 5.3.1).
[151].
(5.46) ,
(

). ,
(5.46).

, , Star-CD [233] CFX [234].
(5.46)
:
- , , ,
,
;
- , ,
, ,

, ;
- , , ,

;
- , ,
,
;
- , ,


;
;
- ,

, ;
- (.
(5.46));
- .

,
.
(,
), ,
.
,
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

302
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

[16].
.

(. 3).

[16].
(5.46), , - ..
[102, 104] ( [98, 99]), :
-

,
.. .. , [76]
;
- -
, . . .
[5],

-
(5.46).
[308312].
(5.46)
[313].

, ( )
[308].

. ,
,
, , ,
[310, 314].
(
)
(-), .. [308, 311, 315]. (5.46) . ,
,
,
.
,

!
T X .

( )


,
[315].
- (5.46)
[315]:

I ( , )
1
+ I ( , ) = (1 ) n2 B ( T ) + ( , ' ) I ( , ' ) d ',

2 1
(5.47)

0 < < 0, ,

1 1,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

303
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
1

I+ ( 0, ) = 1, n2 B ( T1 ) + 2 r1, I ( 0, ' ) ' d ', > 0,

(5.48)

I ( 0, , ) = 2, n2 B (T2 ) + 2 r2, I+ ( 0, , ' ) ' d ', < 0,

(5.49)

I ; I+ I
;
1

I ( , ' ) d ' = I ( , ' ) d ' + I ( , ' ) d ' ;

(5.50)

x ;
B (T ) =

2 h 3
2
c
exp ( h k T 1)

(5.51)

,
[316]; h ; = k x 0, = k
; (
); k = + [316];
;
; = k (
) [316]; n ; ,1( 2 ) r ,1( 2 )

, ,1( 2 ) = 1 r ,1( 2 ) [308].
( , ' ) [316]:
L

( , ' ) = al Pl ( ) Pl ( ' ) ,
l =0

a0 = 1,

(5.52)

Pl l ; al
. ,
, ,
(.. ,
) [233,234].
(5.47)
(5.48) (5.49) 1 ,

[308,315]:
d
( + ) + (1 ) ( m+ + m ) = (1 ) n2 0, ;
d

(5.53)

d
( m+ + + m ) + (1 ) ( + ) = 0
d

(5.54)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

304
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

= 0 :

+ = 0, 25 1, n2 0,1, + 1, ,

(5.55)

= 0, : = 0, 25 2, n2 0,2, + 2, + ,

(5.56)

1( 0 )

0( 1)

( ) =

I ( , ' ) ' d '

(5.57)

2 Tr4

;
;
1( 0 )

m ( ) =

0( 1)
1( 0 )

0( 1)

1( 0 )

I ( , ' ) d '
;

I ( , ' ) ' d '

( ) =

I ( , ' ) ( ' ) d '


2

0( 1)

1( 0 )

0( 1)

(5.58)
I ( , ' ) d '

,
; 0, = B ( 4 Tr4 )
; Tr

(T

= T (0)) ; =

. +
[308,316]:

1
( , ') ' d '
2

= +

(5.59)


* = m+ + m .

(5.60)

L = 2 (5.52), (5.47
5.49) [308]:
m ( ) =

S0 ( )
S1 ( )

( ) =

S2 ( )
S0 ( )

(5.61)

(
) [316]:

Sn+ ( ) = c1 En + 2 ( ) + 1 ( ' ) En +1 ( ' ) 2 ( ' ) En + 2 ( ' ) + 3 ( ' ) En + 3 ( ' ) d ',


0

(5.62)
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

305
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
Sn ( ) = ( 1) {c2 En + 2 ( ) +
n

+ 1 ( ' ) En +1 ( ' ) 2 ( ' ) En + 2 ( ' ) + 3 ( ' ) En + 3 ( ' ) d '},

(5.63)

n = 0, 1, 2.

c1 =

1 0 ( 0 )
2

+ 2 r1 ( 0 ) = m + ( 0 ) + ( 0 ) ;

(5.64)

2 0 ( 0 )

+ 2 r2 + ( 0 ) = m ( 0 ) ( 0 ) ;
2
1

1
1 ( ) =
0 ( ) + m + ( ) + ( ) m ( ) ( ) 3 ( ) ;
2
2
3
1
2 ( ) = a1 + ( ) ( ) ;
2
c2 =

3
3 ( ) = a2 3 m + ( ) + ( ) + ( ) m ( ) ( ) ( )
8
m + ( ) + ( ) m ( ) ( ) ,

(5.65)
(5.66)
(5.67)

(5.68)


En ( ) = exp n 2 d

0
1

(5.69)

- .
(5.535.56) - [308].
[308].
m = 2 , = 1 3 ,
(5.58) .
- (5.61
5.63), (5.535.56).
. (5.53
5.56) [308].


[316]. [316].
, ()
-
.
-
[308,315]. (5.535.56)
j = 1, , J j .
[308]:
0, j =

T4
b ( j ) ,
Tr4

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(5.70)

306
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

b ( j ) =

15

h j k T

x3
exp x 1 dx,
h j 1 k T

b ( j ) . [308]:

( j ) =

1(0)

I ( , ) d d

0( 1)

4 Tr4

(5.71)


(. (5.59))
J

= ( +j j ).

(5.72)

j =1

.

, . . [317].
, [317],
(5.46) :
L

S = k j ( a j Eb E j ) ,

(5.73)

j =1

k j

j - ( );

a j

( (5.73) j (Y j ) (.
(5.46))) [254,280]; Eb ; E j
j - .
k j : ,
. ,
.
,

( ) j (, , [316],
k j )
[293].
[318]

().
(5.73)
- ,

[316].
j - j

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

307
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
, .
j -
, (5.73)
[316]:
L

4
S = 4 j a j (T 4 T
),

(5.74)

j =1

. , ,
( j > )
.
,
!
1 !
, .. q rj =
E j [316]. (. (5.74))
3 j
L !
L !
!
1 !
S = q rj =
E j ,

j =1
j =1
3 j

(5.75)

E j
(. (5.46) (5.75)):
! 1 !

E j = j ( E j a j E b ) .
3

(5.76)

(5.76)
, . ,
,

[254]:

!
!r !
2 (q j , n) =
( a j Eb, E j , ) , n ;
2
.
( )
.
= 1 .
[254, 280],
[317]
(5.46)
- [319, 320].



,
.
[4].
(.5.74)
.5.75 (, , ). .5.75

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

308
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

, ( Y = 0,055
(. )).
, .

.5.74. ( - gazeta.ru)

)
.5.75.
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

309
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
.5.74 5.75
(
5).

, (5.46)
. ,


. ,
.
,
, ,
(.
(5.74)). :
.
, G
:
!
!
VDG VD
(5.77)
G ,
!
; VDG D ,
!
G , ; VD
G
D , G ,
; = const > 0
. , ,
(, ..),
.
() (5.46)
- .. ,
-
(5.46).
.
,
.
, ,

[151].
, (. (5.45)) (
),
, .

(5.46).
()
,

[244].

, .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

310
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

.

.. ..
[4,40].


.
N , [316]:
N

ij

j =1

Fij

N
1 j 1
4
Q j = ( ij Fij ) T j ,
j Aj
j =1

(5.78)

i, j , ; j
j - ; Fij (

Ai Aj [316]
Fij =

cos i cos j
1
dAi dAj ,

r2
Ai Ai Aj

r dAi
dAj ; i j


dAi dAj ); Q j ,
i j , .
(5.78)
:

[C] {Q} = [D] { T 4 }

{ T } = (T
4

4
1

1 j
cij = ij Fij

j
j

1

Aj

(5.79)

d ij = ( ij Fij ) ,

j = 1, N ,

, T24 , , TN4 ) . (5.79) {Q} , :


T

{Q} = [C] [ D] { T 4 } = K { T 4 },
1

(5.80)

K . (5.80)
( , )
(
K ).
(5.80)

[4]: , ;
(

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

311
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
); -,
,
; ; K (5.80);
(5.80); ;
.
..

.5.76 5.77.

[4].
,
. , ,
. 20%
,
.
,
[321].

,
[321].

-,

[321].
, ,
, /
(
).
, /
,

.

105

.5.76.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

312
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

, /

.5.77.

5.4.4.

,
( )
, ,
(, , ..).
(5.46)
[286]:
-


D
= ;
Dt

(5.81)


dm
= W ,
dt

(5.81)

; = W V
, - (

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

313
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
); ; W
; m ; V
, ( ) .
, (5.81) ,
[286].


. , ( )
.

, ,
.

(5.46, 5.81) .

. .. , .. .. .
.5.785.83.
,
[/], [/].

,
[322]. ,
(,
, , ,
) [281]. ,


[67].

( 1,7 [286]).

.
.5.78. [C] ,
1560

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

314
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

.5.79. [/]
, 1560

.5.80. [/] ,
3- 1,7 1440

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

315
5
_____________________________________________________________________________

.5.81.
1800

.5.82.
1800

.5.83.
1800
5.4.5.


, ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

316
5
_____________________________________________________________________________
. ,

, [323]:
dp
= P ( t )
dt

S ( t ) ( 1) U
V1

2 P

S f ( t , P )

V2

P ( t ) ,

[ ] ;

(5.82)

; S ( t )
, 2 ;
; U , [ ] ;
, ; P
, [ ] ; i : 1

2 , 3 ; S
2 ;
f ( t , P )

(, ); V1

, 3 ; V2 , 3 ; 1
; 2 .
(5.82)
[323].
(5.82)
.
(5.82) [106, 144].
dp
, ,
= 0 ,
dt
[323]:
Pmax

S
= 0,5 i U ( 1) max
S

2

, Smax = max S (t ).

(5.83)

5.4, ,

Alfargus/FireHazard
Alfargus.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

317

_______________________________________________________

6.1.


.
: T1 P1 ;
;
;
; P2 ,
Q1 ( ) ,
Qk ( ) .
:
1) (/)
,
( ) (
)
;
2) .

:

( / )

,
,
.
3,
.

:
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

318

_______________________________________________________
(. 3);
;
;
;
( ),
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;

,
;
, ;
,
(), ;
.. [88].
[1].
,
.. ( )

(.. ) [31].
:
1 ()
,
( )
;
2 ()
( )

;
3 ,
( )
.
..
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:
1)
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(
);
2)
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

319

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1 2, (..
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4) , 1, 2 3,

3 ;
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5).
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

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,
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.

( ) ,
( ).
, ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

321

_______________________________________________________
.

.
J , P ,T

J2

J1( X1)

J11( X 2 )

J13

J12( X3 )
1B
J12
(X4)

1C
J12

J21

1D 1D
J13
, n13 ( X8 )

1A
J11
A

1
12
( X6 )

P111

3D
J21

2
21
( X7 )

2D
J13

2D 2D
J21
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J121A( X5)

P121

P131

1
P21

P
.6.1.

, ,
,

.
.6.2 6.3.

:

( I);

( II);
( III).
,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

322

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) (- )

.6.2.

.6.3. ,

I ,
.

.
II ,
.
III ,
.
, ,
.6.1. : X i , i = 1,5
; X i , i = 6, 7
; X i , i = 8, 9
.
, .6.1,
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

323

_______________________________________________________
!

CS ( X ) = M 111 A ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 11 ( X 2 ) , P ) +
+ M 121B ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 11 ( X 2 ) , J 12 ( X 3 ) , J 121B ( X 4 ) , 121 ( X 6 ) ) +
+ M 121C ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 11 ( X 2 ) , J 12 ( X 3 ) , J 121B ( X 4 ) , 121 ( X 6 ) ) +
1D
+ M 131D ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 11 ( X 2 ) , J 12 ( X 3 ) , n13
( X 8 )) +
1D
+ M 122 D ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 11 ( X 2 ) , J 12 ( X 3 ) , n13
( X 8 ) , P ) +

(6.1)

1A
+ M 21
( J , P , T , J1 ( X 1 ) , J 211A ( X 5 ) , 212 ( X 7 ) ) +
1A
+ M 212 D ( J , P , T , J 1 ( X 1 ) , J 21
( X 5 ) , n212 D ( X 9 ) ) +

!
3D
+ M 21
( J , P , T , J1 ( X 1 ) , J 211A ( X 5 ) , n212 D ( X 9 ) , 212 ( X 7 ) ) + S X ,

( )

M (
( ),
; ;
,
; 121 ( X 6 ) 212 ( X 7 )
(

);
1D
2D
n13 ( X 8 ) n21 ( X 9 ) ,
( ,
!
); S X ,

( )

.
(6.1)

.


Techno&Optim [1].

10 ,
[26, 27].
6.2.



offline online.



.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

324

_______________________________________________________
.
,
.

(

), .

,
(.6.4).
Z

tN

t0
0

t0

N-1

t1

, t

t N 1

.6.4.

, ,

.
(
),
(. .6.4):
N 1

Z
i =0

t
j =0

i 1
i
!

!

,
X i t0 + t j + Zi +1 X i +1 t0 + tk ti X! min
i Gi , i =1, N
j =0
k =0

= 0 . ,

. ,
!
Z0 X 0 ( t0 ) . ,
,
:
N 1
!
!
.
Zi X i ( t0 + i t ) + 0,5 Z N X N ( tN ) X! i min
Gi , i =1, N
i =1

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

325

_______________________________________________________
,
, :
N

Z
i =1

!
X i ( t0 + i t ) ! min ,
X i Gi , i =1, N

( 6.2)

Zi i -
, (
) i -
Zi1 ( ( i 1) -
Zi ); t ; t0 ; N ,
!
; X i
( ) i -
.

:
!
!
X i Gi = X i R m : x j ( t0 + i t ) x j ( t0 + ( i 1) t ) ( n ) j , j = 1, m ,
(6.2)
i = 1, N ,

!
n R m
!
t ; X i = ( x1 , x2 , , x j , , xm ) T ; R m m-

; m .

.
(6.2) ,
Techno&Optim [1]. Zi

,
6.1. Zi
(6.2)
.

,
,
.

.
real time
(6.2).
:
!
Z X ( t0 ) min,
(6.3)
!
!
X G = X R m : x 0j ( t0 ) x j ( t0 ) ( n ) j , j = 1, m ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

326

_______________________________________________________
!
Z X ( t0 ) t0 ;
!
X 0 ( t0 ) = ( x10 , , xm0 ) T ,

.
(6.3)
Techno&Optim
.


,
.

(6.2)

, (6.2)
( )
(6.3)
. .
, , .. -



(6.3)
(6.2).

..
- CorNet [2, 59].
..
.. .
, ..

.
.
, ( )
!
t u ( t ) .
!
Z ( t , u ( t ) ) .
[0, T ]

Z ( t, u ( t ) ) dt
0

(. .6.4).
,
,

. , ,
. ,
!
!
G ( t , u ( t ) ) 0 ,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

327

_______________________________________________________
(. (6.2)):
T

!
!
J ( u ) = Z ( t , u ( t ) ) dt min ,

!
t [ 0, T ] , u ( t ) U ( t ) ,

(6.4)

!
!
G ( t , u ( t ) ) 0,

(6.4)

U ( t ) Rm , ,
; G : Rm R1 Rl
-.
-:
! !
!
.
.
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

349

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.., .., ..
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.). 2. .: - , 2004. .165176.

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367

________________________________________________________________________________________________

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-0.00875

-0.13%

4, KB11

6.7874

6.7879

6.8111

6.8111

6.8111

-0.0237

-0.35%

4, KB12

6.5620

6.5657

6.5972

6.5833

6.59025

-0.02825

-0.43%

4, KB13

6.3680

6.3689

6.4222

6.4222

6.4222

-0.0542

-0.84%

4, KC04

6.1750

6.1748

6.175

3, KC03

7.0361

7.0361

7.0361

3, KB10

6.8857

6.8857

6.8944

6.8944

6.8944

-0.0087

-0.13%

3, KB11

6.7874

6.7874

6.8028

6.8083

6.80555

-0.01815

-0.27%

3, KB12

6.5672

6.5670

6.5861

6.5861

6.5861

-0.0191

-0.29%

3, KB13

6.3771

6.3771

6.4278

6.4278

6.4278

-0.0507

-0.79%

3, KC04

6.1889

6.1889

6.1889

1, KC03

7.0361

7.0361

7.0361

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

374

________________________________________________________________________________________________
1, KB10

6.8857

6.8857

6.9056

6.9083

6.90695

-0.02125

-0.31%

1, KB11

6.7874

6.7874

6.8083

6.8028

6.80555

-0.01815

-0.27%

1, KB12

6.5610

6.5610

6.5833

6.5972

6.59025

-0.02925

-0.44%

1, KB13

6.3663

6.3662

6.4222

6.4222

6.4222

-0.056

-0.87%

1, KC04

6.1722

6.1722

6.1722

2, KC03

7.0250

7.0251

7.025

2, KB10

6.8801

6.8804

6.9

6.9083

6.90415

-0.02405

-0.35%

2, KB11

6.7874

6.7875

6.8028

6.8083

6.80555

-0.01815

-0.27%

2, KB12

6.5640

6.5641

6.5917

6.5861

6.5889

-0.0249

-0.38%

2, KB13

6.3717

6.3717

6.425

6.4167

6.42085

-0.04915

-0.77%

2, KC04

6.1806

6.1806

6.1806

4.

SPP
() [1].

01 02, 02 03, 03 04
.

,
,
01,
02, 03 02, 03 04.

.

01, 02 03,
SPP SCADA-
, .1.3.


01 02, 02 03, 03
04, ,
SCADA- .


SCADA-. ,
.


01 02, 02 03, 03 04
.1.4.

SCADA-
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

375

________________________________________________________________________________________________

SPP . ,
, ,

.

,
.


(, , )

01, 02, 03 04.

01
02
) 01 02 ( 1,5,8 1, 2,4,9
2, 0,3,10 3, 6,11 4, 7 5)

02
03
) 02 03 ( 1 0,4; 2
1,5; 3 2,9,6; 4 3,10,7; 5 8)

03
04
) 03 04 ( 1 0,1; 2
2,3; 3 4; 4 5,7; 5 6)
.1.3.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

376

________________________________________________________________________________________________

)
.1.4.
(): ) 01 02 ( ); )
02 03 ( ); ) 03 04 (
).

AMADEUS v3.0
24 . .. .. .
,
, SCADA SPP, .

. 2002
SPP [1]. .

24 1,6% (0,1
).
, ,
SCADA-, 0,05.
,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

377

________________________________________________________________________________________________

3 4 KB04.
0,7% (0,05).
,
SCADA-,
,
SCADA .

02 03.

.
0,5%.
[1],
0,5% (0,03)
1,7% 30/ .

.


.
SCADA-
01.
SCADA-

. ,
SCADA- .1.5.

.1.5. 01

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

378

________________________________________________________________________________________________

, ,
,
.

01 (. )

.
,
SCADA-.

5.

SPP () [2].
SPP


, 02 2003
.

.1.6.

1
2

49,91

26,76

1 4 ;
1, 2 , ;
1, 2 , .

.1.6. ,
( ()
() )

.1.6 .
1200.
. ,
. 1 2 ,
.
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

379

________________________________________________________________________________________________


1 2 (. .1.6) ,
- AMADEUS.
1 2 ~50.

2 3. ,

.
:
1) K1;
2) 9 K2.


.
,
.
,
SCADA ,
(2 3) .
-
AMADEUS ,
SCADA- 50 [2].
.1.6. .1.7, 1.8 1.9

: 1 2.


, (..
, ).
,
1 2, :
1.)
.
2.)
0 600 0,3% (0,019).
3.)
600 1400 0,4% (0,023).
4.)
600 1400:
0,022,
0,019;

104,28,
119,4.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

380

________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.30

6.25

AMADEUS
SCADA (1)

6.20

6.15

6.10

6.05

6.00

5.95
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

6.25

AMADEUS

6.20
6.15
6.10
6.05
6.00
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

6.25

900

1000 1100 1200

SCADA (1)

6.20
6.15
6.10
6.05
6.00
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000 1100 1200

.1.7. ,
1

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

381

________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.30

6.25

AMADEUS
SCADA (2)

6.20

6.15

6.10

6.05

6.00

5.95
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

6.30

AMADEUS

6.25
6.20
6.15
6.10
6.05
6.00
5.95
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

6.30

900

1000 1100 1200

SCADA (2)

6.25
6.20
6.15
6.10
6.05
6.00
5.95
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000 1100 1200

.1.8. ,
2

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

382

________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.05

AMADEUS ()
SCADA (1)

6.00

5.95

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

.1.9.
1

5.)
600 1400 , :
,
-
AMADEUS, ;
;
(
).

(. ),
2 3
.
6.

,
. .. .
, , 3.
. .
,
,
[116]. ,
,
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

383

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.

.
,
, , ..
.
.
.
, , . ,

.
, .
(. (3.13.3)).
, , ,
. , .. ,
, ,
D (t ) .
0 , ;
1 , . , 0,
, 1 [116].
[107,116] , ,
, , ,
(3.13.3), , :

1 (1 D ) = 0 ( 0 D ) ,

(1.8)

1 (1 D ) + p1 = 0 (0 D ) + p0 ,

(1.8)

2
2

p0 (0 D )
p1 (1 D )
1 (1 D ) 1 + +
+
.
= 0 (0 D ) 0 +

2
2
1
0

(1.8)

(1.8) ,

. , ,
, .
,
D .
:
u = D.
(1.9)
(1.8) [107,116]:

1 u1 = 0 u0 ,

(1.10)

1 u12 + p1 = 0 u02 + p0 ,

(1.10)

1 u1 1 +

p1

p0 u02
u12
+ .
= 0 u0 0 +
0 2
2

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(1.10)

384

________________________________________________________________________________________________

m = 0 u0 = 1 u1 .
m 0 .
, (1.10)
m = 0 u0 = 1 u1 V = 1 ( ):
V0 u0
= ,
V1 u1

(1.11)

u02 u12
= p1 p0 ,
V0 V1

(1.11)

1 0 =

u02 u12
+ p0 V0 p1 V1 .
2

(1.11)

(1.11) u1 (1.11).
u02 = V02 ( p1 p0 ) (V0 V1 ) .

(1.12)

:
u12 = V12 ( p1 p0 ) (V0 V1 ) .

(1.12)

( p1 p0 ) (V02 V12 ) 1
1
2
2
( u0 u1 ) =
= ( p1 p0 ) (V0 + V1 ) .
2
2 (V0 V1 )
2

(1.13)

(1.11) :
1
2

1 ( p1 ,V1 ) 0 ( p0 ,V0 ) = ( p1 + p0 ) (V0 V1 ) ,

(1.14)

[116].
( )
.
( p0 V0 ),
, , (1.14), p1
V1 .
.
= cV T = p V ( 1) (1.14),

p1 ( + 1) V0 ( 1) V1
=
,
p0 ( + 1) V1 ( 1) V0

(1.15)

V1 ( + 1) p0 + ( 1) p1
=
.
V0 ( + 1) p1 + ( 1) p0

(1.15)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

385

________________________________________________________________________________________________


. , ,
(
p = R T M , R = R0 M ; R0
; M ).
p0 , T0 0 = 0 .
pe > p0 ,

p ( + 1) p0 + ( 1) p1
Te = T0 e
.
(1.16)
p0 ( + 1) p1 + ( 1) p0

.
. ,
. p0 ,
: p1 = pe . (1.15), :
V1 = V0

( + 1) p0 + ( 1) p1
,
( + 1) p1 + ( 1) p0

(1.17)

V0 = R T0 p0 .
( 0 = 0 ), ,
(1.9) (1.12), D :
D = 0 u0 = V0

p1 p0
.
V0 V1

(1.18)

(1.9), (1.18) (1.12),


:

1 =

( p1 p0 ) (V0 V1 ) ,

(1.19)

:
T1 =

p1 V1
.
R

(1.20)


= const , = const , T = const , p = const
(. ).
(1.17) (1.20) ,
, T1 = Te .
.
:
pe , x t D ;
p( x, t ) =
p0 ;

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(1.21)

386

________________________________________________________________________________________________

, x t D ;
( x, t ) = 1

(1.21)

V1 , x t D ;
V ( x, t ) =
V0 ;

(1.21)

0 ;

T ( x, t ) =

p ( x, t ) V ( x, t )
,
R

(1.21)

V1 , D 1 (1.17), (1.18) (1.19) .



- CorNet

(3.13.3) , ,
, ,
, ,
, :
( )
+
= 0,
t
x

( ) (
+
t
x

(1.22)

) = p ,
x

( p )


2
2
.
+ + + =
t
x
2 x
2

(1.22)
(1.22)

[107], (
)

(
( ) [104]).
,
(1.22) (
[103]). ,
(1.22) ,
.
- CorNet [1,2]
(1.22).

. , ,
, (. 3),
(1.22).
, (. 3):
1) ((3.28) (3.31)) ( s a = s b = 1 ;
r a = r b = 0,5 ; = 1 , = 0 ),
;
2) (3.31) ( s a = s b = 1 , r a r b

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

387

________________________________________________________________________________________________

; = 1 , = 0 ),
.

. .
:

c
P = 2700
, R = 518,232
, cV = cP R = 2181,768
, = P = 1,237529 .
cV


: p0 = 7, 0 , T0 = 300 K , 0 = 0 .
: p ( x = 0, t ) = pe = 10 , t > 0 .
(1.16),
T ( x = 0, t ) = Te 321,5979 K .
:
40000, 1,4.
. -
, 10, , 0,002.
65,
.
. Pentium
4 (2.8 , 2 )

, 5 107 .
.1.10
1.15.
0,1. :

.1.10. 0,1

.1.11. 0,1

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

388

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.1.12. 0,1
0,4. :

.1.13. 0,4

.1.14. 0,4

.1.15. 0,4
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

389

________________________________________________________________________________________________

1,3
(. .1.20). ,
10.
, ,
.
..16
1.19.
29,42 .
:

.1.16. 29,42 ( 1)

, (
)
( 5 107 ).

.1.17. 29,42

.1.18. 29,42

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

390

________________________________________________________________________________________________



.
, ,
(.1.19). , , ,

.
, , .

. .

.1.19. 29,42 ( 2
1 (. .1.16))


.
(.1.20)
( 30 ).

. :
0,3K , 0,05 1,5/
(
1,3% ). ,
( ),
.
(. .1.20):

1 + D
2

(1.23)

,
.

xLF , xRF ,
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

391

________________________________________________________________________________________________

p pe (1 106 ) ;

6
p p0 (1 + 10 ) .

(1.24)

xLF xRF (1.24).

.1.20. 5,44

.1.21 (
(1.24)) .
,
1,3
.
:
t
Fu = ,
(1.25)
h
t , h .

.1.21.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

392

________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fu 0,10 /

(1.26)

Fu 0,13 / .

(1.26)

h 5000
(h

; ) , (1.26)
. (1.26)
-
h 5000 .
.1.21,
11 (110 ),
13 (130 ).
,
, .
11 13

.
, (1.24)
. , , [107]

.
, , .
.
( ) [107]
.
p = pe p = p0 ( pe = 10 , p0 = 7 )
.

, , 4,2 5,0
c
. ,
, k = 3 4
[107]. ,
, ,
( ), ..
(,
) .
.
. [75, 116, 117],
, ,
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

393

________________________________________________________________________________________________

!
!
+ ( ) = 0,
t
!
!
! ! !
1 !
+ = p + F.

(1.27)
(1.28)


(1.27), (1.28) [116]:

Ds
=0
Dt

(1.29)

s ! !
+ s = 0,
t

(1.29)

s ( ) . (1.27)
[116]:
( s)
t

!
!
+ ( s ) = 0.

(1.29)

(3.13.3)
.
(3.13.3) :
!
!
+ ( ) = 0,
t
!
!
!
!
( ) !
! !
+ ( ) = p + + F,
t

(1.30)
(1.30)


2 ! !
2
+ + + =
t
2
2

!
!
! !
! !
!
!
= ( p ) + ( ) + F + Q W,

; :
! !
a b = ai b j .

ij

(1.30)

(1.31)

(1.30) :
!
!
+ ( ) = 0,
t
!
!
! ! !
1 !
1 !
+ = p + + F,
t

(1.32)

(1.32)

! !
!
! !
! !
! ! !

+ = p + ( ) + Q W.
t

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(1.32)

394

________________________________________________________________________________________________

(1.32) (1.32)
(1.27), (1.28). (1.32) (1.29)
.
[112]:
ds =

1
1
d + pdV ,
T
T

(1.33)

T ; V = 1 . (1.33) (1.29)
T :
! !
! !

V
+ + p
+ V = 0.
t
t

(1.34)

, (1.34), (1.27):
1
1
dV = d = 2 d ;

! !
V
1
+ V = 2
t

(1.35)

! !
! !
1
1 ! !

+ = 2 = .

(1.36)

(1.36) (1.34):
! !

p ! !
+ = ,
t

(1.37)

.
1.
,
, - , .

, ,
.
,
.
.
, x
t x / t , .
, ,
x ,
. , ,
t ,
.
,
x , :
1

[116].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

395

________________________________________________________________________________________________

s
s
+ x = 0.
t
x

(1.38)

, = x t , ,

d
=
,
t
t d

1 d
=
,
x t d

(1.39)

( x ) s = 0 ( ).
s = 0 , .. s = const 1; ,
, . y - z -
y
t

+x

y
x

+ x z = 0.
t
x

= 0,

(1.40)

, y z . ,
.
, x - :

+
+
= 0,
t
x
x

(1.41)

1 p
+
=
t
x
x

(1.42)

( x
:

( ) + = 0,

( ) =
(
p = ( p ) S = c 2 .)

c2

).
(1.43)

(1.44)

, , = const , = const
.
( ) 2 = c 2 ,
= c . :
x
= + c
(1.45)
t
( ,
x , ). ,
1

x = 0 : (1.43)
x = const , .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

396

________________________________________________________________________________________________

= c (1.43), c = cd = d .
.
s ,
c( )
. c ,
:
cd
dp
=
=
.
(1.46)
c

= dpdV ,

(1.47)

.
(1.45), (1.46) .
c( ) , (1.46)
. (1.45)
x t , x t .
.
(1.45) x , :
t

d ( + c )

= 1.
x
d

(1.48)

( + c ) (1.46)
d ( + c ) c dc 1 d ( c )
= +
=
,
d
d
d

(1.49)

c =

p
1
=
.

V p

(1.50)

, :
d ( c)
d ( c ) 3 c 5 2V
= c2
=
2 .
d
dp
2
p s

(1.51)

d ( + c ) 2 c 5 2V
=
2 > 0.
d
2
p s

(1.52)

[116],

= c2
> 0 . ,
,
x
x
x
c
p

=
,
,
> 0 .
> 0 . ,
x x
x
x
, :

(1.48) , t > 0

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

397

________________________________________________________________________________________________

> 0,
x

p
> 0,
x

> 0.
x

(1.53)

,
x ( t ),
.
; , ,
:

D
=
+
= .
Dt
t
t
x

(1.54)

(1.53) ; ,
Dp
:
,
Dt
D
< 0,
Dt

Dp
< 0.
Dt

(1.55)

( (1.42)) ,
D Dt < 0 . , , ,
, .
(1.55) ,
. ,
.
1.
x .
, (1.45) x
.
(1.45) ,
. x t
.
x t (1.45)
. ,
.
, ,
, (
, , ,
).
(1.45) ,

x . (1.53) .
(1.55) x .
,
.
1


(, [116] t = 0 ).
,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

398

________________________________________________________________________________________________

( .1.22 I) .
II , III ,
;
( a
, b
).

.1.22.

, ( ).
1 1
T ( ) = const .
T , :
c

c0

2 ( 1)

= 0

(1.56)

(1.46),

dc =

( c c0 ) .

(1.57)

, c = c0 = 0 (
, ).
, ,
x , < 0 .

1
c = c0
,
(1.58)
2
. (1.56),
:

= 0 1

1
2

2 ( 1)

(1.59)

c0


1

p = p0 1
2 c0

( 1)

, (1.58) (1.45),

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(1.60)

399

________________________________________________________________________________________________

c ,
+ 1 0 t

(1.61)

x t .
c , , .
(1.58) ,

2 c0

(1.62)
.
1
( p c )
. ,
,
2 c0 ( 1) .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
1

. ( ( )
( p = R T )) ,
( x > 0 ) ( x = 0 ).
t = 0 , , pe
p0 .
.
. e , (1.60)

pe ; x = 0 , t > 0 = e . e < 2 c0 ( + 1) ,
, .1.23.
e = 2 c0 ( + 1) ( ,
, , = c
(1.58)) ,
.1.23. 2 c0 ( + 1)
.
2

2 1
pe < p0
,
+1

(1.63)

e , 2 c0 ( + 1) .
1

[116].

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

400

________________________________________________________________________________________________


(1.63), 2 c0 ( + 1) .
( pe ) .

)
)
.1.23.
. p0 , 0 , T0 0 = 0
, , .
pe < p0 .
1. (. (1.63))
2

2 1
pe > p0
,
+1

(1.64)

. :

x =0

2 c0 pe 2
,
=
1
( 1) p0

(1.65)

c 0 = R T0 .

(1.66)

+1

x = 0 , x t c0 2 x = 0 ;

2 x
x

+
1

c0 , c0
x = 0 , c0 ;
( x, t ) =
t
t

+
1
2

0, x > c0 t;
1 ( x, t )
p( x, t ) = p0 1 +

2
c0

(1.67)

( 1)

(1.67)

p( x, t )
;
p0

( x, t ) = 0

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(1.67)

401

________________________________________________________________________________________________

T ( x, t ) =

p ( x, t )
.
( x, t ) R

(1.67)

2.
2

2 1
pe = p0
.
+1

(1.68)

x =0 = c =

2 c0
,
( + 1)

(1.69)

c .
:
x
2 x

c , [0, c0 ] ;

( x, t ) = + 1 t 0
(1.70)
t
0, x > c t ,

0
(1.67), (1.67) (1.67).

- CorNet


, - CorNet [1,2].
(. 3):
1) (3.28) (3.31)) ( s a = s b = 1 ;
r a = r b = 0,5 ; = 1 , = 0 ),
;
2) (3.31) ( s a = s b = 1 , r a r b
[1]; = 1 , = 0 ),
.

.
:
P = 2700

R = 518,232

=
: p0 = 7 ,

, cV = cP R = 2181,768
,

cP
= 1,237529 .
cV

T0 = 300 K , 0 = 0 .

: p( x = 0, t ) = pe = 4 , t > 0 .
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

402

________________________________________________________________________________________________

40000, 1,4.
. -
, 10, , 0,002.
65,
.
. Pentium
4 (2.8 , 2 )

, 5 107 . 33-
.1.241.26.

.1.24. 33

.1.25. 33

.1.26. 33

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

403

________________________________________________________________________________________________


, , .

[116].
.
, ,
,
.
,
. ,

.

(. .1.26).

. .
. L
(
p = R T ).
p0 , T0 0 = 0 .
pe > p0 ,
:
p ( + 1) p0 + ( 1) p1
(1.71)
Te = T0 e
.
p0 ( + 1) p1 + ( 1) p0

.

. ,
, , ,
. , ,
.
,
.
.
(.
(1.21)). (., ,
[116]).

, . 0, 1, 2
,
( )
(. 1.27;
).
0 2 (
).

( 1). (1.19)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

404

________________________________________________________________________________________________

1 =

( p2 p1 ) (V1 V2 ) .

(1.72)

. 1.27.
(0) (1,2)
(1.19) (1.72), :

( p1 p0 ) (V0 V1 ) = ( p2 p1 ) (V1 V2 ) .

(1.73)

(1.15) :
V1 ( + 1) p0 + ( 1) p1
=
,
V0 ( + 1) p1 + ( 1) p0

(1.73)

V2 ( + 1) p1 + ( 1) p2
=
.
V1 ( + 1) p2 + ( 1) p1

(1.73)

,
:

( p2 p1 )

( + 1) p0 + ( 1) p1 =

= ( p1 p0 ) ( + 1) p2 + ( 1) p1 .
2

(1.74)

p2 , p2 = p0 ;

(1.74) ( p2 p0 ) 1:
p2 = p1

( 3 1) p1 ( 1) p0
,
( 1) p1 + ( + 1) p0

(1.75)

p2 p0 p1 . (1.73).
(1.21).

:
t () ; t
. :
1. 0 t < t .

[116]

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

405

________________________________________________________________________________________________

pe , x t D1 ( L x ) t D1 ;
p( x, t ) =
p0 ;

(1.76)

,
( x, t ) = 1

(1.76)

x t D1 ( L x ) t D1 ;

0 ;

V1 , x t D1 ( L x ) t D1 ;
V ( x, t ) =
V0 ;
T ( x, t ) =

p ( x , t ) V ( x, t )
,
R

(1.76)
(1.76)

; D1
() ;
t =
V1 = V0

0,5 L
;
D1

D1 = V0

pe p0
;
V0 V1

V0 =

R T0
;
p0

( + 1) p0 + ( 1) pe
; = ( p1 p0 ) (V0 V1 ) .
( + 1) pe + ( 1) p0 1

(1.77)

2. t t < t .
L

x ( t t ) D2 ;
p2 ,
p( x, t ) =
2
p ;
e

(1.78)

L
x ( t t ) D2 ;
0,
( x, t ) =
2
;
1

(1.78)

x ( t t ) D2 ;
V2 ,
V ( x, t ) =
2
V ,
1

(1.78)

p2 , V2 , V1 , 1 (1.75), (1.73), (1.73) (1.77); D2


;
D2 = V2

p2 pe
;
V1 V2

t = t +

0,5 L
;
D2

(1.79)

(1.76).

- CorNet

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

406

________________________________________________________________________________________________

:
1) ((3.28) (3.31)) ( s a = s b = 1 ;
r a = r b = 0,5 ; = 1 , = 0 ),
;
2) (3.31) ( s a = s b = 1 , r a r b
; = 1 , = 0 ),
.
:

P = 2700
,

R = 518,232

, cV = cP R = 2181,768
,

cP
= 1,237529 .
cV

: p0 = 7 , T0 = 300 K , 0 = 0 .
: p( x = 0, t ) = p( x = L, t ) = pe = 10 , t > 0 . (1.71),
T ( x = 0, t ) = T ( x = L, t ) = Te 321,5979 K .
:
10000, 1,4.
. -
, 5, 2.

.1.281.36.


(. ).

.
,
. ,

. , ,
, .

. ,
( )
- .
.
1 ,
, ,
,
.

. 1
(
).
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

407

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.1.28. (
9540)

.1.29. (
9540)

.1.30. (
9540)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

408

________________________________________________________________________________________________

. 1.31.
( 9734)

.1.32.
( 9734)

.1.33.
( 9734)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

409

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.1.34.
. . 2000.

.1.35.
. . 2000.

.1.36.
. . 2000.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

410

________________________________________________________________________________________________


.

. 45
( 34 ).

1.
, 3.6
,

[1, 2, 4, 68, 15, 23, 26, 36, 61]. ,
(3.12)

,
, .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

411

________________________________________________________________________________________________

2



.., ..

(
) ,

.
( ).



.

.
,
(
)
.
. ,
, .
,
[125128]. ,
(
-).
. , [125]

.
,
[126].
,
,
, 3.6.


.
, , , ,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

412

________________________________________________________________________________________________


[124,125,129], ..
( , ).

,

[125,128].

( )
. ,
. ,

, .. ,
[29,128].
,
(
) .

.
,

.
(.. ),
max min
<< 1,

..

[101].
, = ( ) [101].

. .
, (, const ).
- -
. ,
[130].
,

, .



,



(,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

413

________________________________________________________________________________________________

),
.


3.6.1.
! ! !
!
, , .
!
!
, .
, .
, ,
.2.1.

.2.1. ,
:

= B ( , ) ,

(2.1)

, ,
! ! !
, , .
:

= H" ( , , t ) ,

(2.2)

t .

(, ).
.

. ,
.
.
,
(
Y" ):
Y ( , , t ) =

Y" ( , , t ) d d ,
[
]

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(2.3)

414

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.
, ,
, .
:

= H ( , , t ) .

(2.4)


! !
!
!
!
!
x , y z . z ; x y
. ,
( ) (
), (.2.2). Ox
, O
xOz .
,
,
, .
,
,
.
(. )

(. .2.2).

.2.2.
(2.1) (2.4)
, ,
:
.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

415

________________________________________________________________________________________________

z = B ( x, y ) ,

(2.5)

z = H ( x , y , t ) = H ( x, t ) .

(2.6)

, B H
, .
V ,
S ,
[75]:
#

#
(2.7)
dV + n dS = 0;

t
V
S

# !
( )
t

!
# !
# !
# !
dV + n dS = p n dS + n dS + FdV ,
S

(2.8)

#
:

#
; p ; t (
! !
!
!
); ; n = n
!
!
!
n dS ; n = n ,
!
n (
!
); F . ,

.
(2.7,2.8)

.
V , f f ,
x ,
R 0 (.2.3). x
,
. f
, .
(2.7), V :

#
#
#
#

dV
+

d
+

d
+

df

df
n
t
n x x = 0, (2.9)

V
f
R

0
f
!
x Ox . [131],
(2.9), , :
#

df df
x

= x

( w f )c

#
,
x df = x

x
x
fc

(2.10)

#
w x , f c
xc , x .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

416

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.2.3.
( )
.
u0 n 0 . ..
0

x , 0 u0
. , (2.9) ,
, :
#

d + d = u d = u d u d =
n

u0 0 . (2.11)

0 . , .
(. .2.3) u0 0
, 0
u0 . .2.3 ,
t , AEFD . ,
AEFD ABCD . ,
u0 0 V t :
u0 0 =

f
V
= x c .
t
t

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(2.11)

417

________________________________________________________________________________________________

, :
#
#

dV
=

t df
t
x f ( x )
V


dx =
df

t f
x
( x)


dx =
f ( x ) dx =
f x. (2.12)

t
c
x

(2.10), (2.12) (2.11) (2.11) (2.9).


x ( x ),
:
( f ) ( w f )
+
= 0.
t
x

(2.13)

, ,
y , ,
:
#
( y f ) ( y w f )
y
#
t dV + y n dS = x t + x .
c
V
S

(2.14)

,
(2.13) :
f ( w f )
+
= 0.
t
x

(2.13)

(2.8) Ox .
.
(. (2.14)):
# !
( w f ) ( w2 f )

( )
# !
.
+
dV + n dS = x

t
t
x
S
V
x

(2.15)

.
#
h
( ). , 0
p ,
, :
#
#
#
p = p + g h .

(2.16)

, p
#
. h H ,
,
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

418

________________________________________________________________________________________________

#
h ( x , y , z , t ) = H ( x , t ) z.

(2.17)

(2.8). (2.16)
(2.17), g ,
(, H ( x, t )

f ( x, t ) )

:
#
!#
p#
# !
p

=
=
p
dS
pdV
dV
n



x df dx =
x
V
x f
S
x V
x

#
p
= x
df =
x
fc
(2.18)
#
#
#
p + g h
( g H )
H
= x
df = x
df = x g
df =
x
x
x
fc
fc
fc

H
= x g f c
.
x c

d .
ds = df + df + d +

f'

(2.19)

(2.19)
, [1]
.
.
x , ,
:

! !
(2.19)
n ds = n d = R = x,
S
x R
x
R nx .

( ) ,
( , ).
Ox (
(2.15), (2.18), (2.19)):
!
w
!
.
n ds = x g f 2
S r
S
x
(. (2.18)):

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

419

________________________________________________________________________________________________

x g f

H
+ x = 0,
x

(2.20)

g f H
.

(2.20)

[125, 128], H x
:
!
2
H x = 2 x,
S r

(2.21)

!
; S (
f

[125, 128]); r =

[ ] [125, 128]; (. .2.2).


,
!
cp
!
!
, x z ( .2.3 1).
, Ox ,
cos 1 .
(.
.2.3), :
!
w

(2.22)
w .
! = cos 1

, (2.21) :
H x =

w2
x.
S2 r

(2.23)

(2.23), , H x
:
w w
H H x
(2.24)
=
= 2 .
x
x
S r
(2.24) (2.20), ,
, ,
:
g f w w
(2.25)
2 .
=
S r

, , ,
(
), (2.25).

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

420

________________________________________________________________________________________________

, (2.25) (2.19), :
!
w w
n ds = g f 2 x.
S r c

S
x

(2.26)

,
.
!
!
F = g z.
(2.27)
:

# !
(2.28)
FdV = 0.
V
x

(2.8), x , x
( ), :
2
(w f ) (w f )
H w w
+
= g f
+ 2 .
t
x
x S r

(2.29)

,
.
:
f = f ( B, H ) .

(2.30)

, -
( ),

:
f ( w f )
+
= 0;
t
x

(2.31)

2
(w f ) (w f )
H w w
+
= g f
+ 2
t
x
x S r

(2.31)

f = f ( B, H ) ;

(2.31)

S = S ( r , n ) ,

(2.31)

n . ()

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

z = B ( x, y )

z = H ( x, t )

421

________________________________________________________________________________________________




, ,
(
(2.7,2.8)) ,
.
m- :
#
# #
Ym = m ,
(2.32)
#
#
( ) ; m m ( m- ).
,
, ..
.
.

[119],
!
!
Ym , Dm Ym . .

. 103 3 ,
1 . ,
!
102 . , Ym
10 ( 2 ) .

!
, Ym
10% ( (. )).
!
Ym 0,1 1 .
!
109 2 [108]. , Dm Ym

107 ( 2 ) .
, ,
, ,

.
,
, (., , [119]).

( N S 1)
:

# #
( Ym )

# #
dV + Ym n dS = 0,

m = 1, N S 1.

(2.33)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

422

________________________________________________________________________________________________

N S :
N S 1
#
#
YN = 1 Ym .
S

(2.34)

m =1

, (2.33, 2.34) :
#
N S 1
#
#
#
Ym
(2.35)
dV
+
Y

dS
=
m
=
N

Y
=

Ym .

0,
1,
1,
1

m
n
S
N

S
t
m =1
V
S
(2.7) (2.8) (2.35)

. (2.7) (2.8)
(.
(2.13) (2.29)), (2.35).
,
(2.13) (2.29), :
N S 1
#
#
#
#

Y
df
+
Y

df
=
0,
m
=
1,
N

1
,
Y
=
1

Ym .

S
N
m
m
x

S
t f
x f
m =1

(2.36)

( f Ym ) + ( w f Ym ) = 0, m = 1, N S 1 , YN S = 1
t
x

N S 1

Y
m =1

(2.37)

Ym m - .
, - (
),
()

,
, :
f ( w f )
+
= 0;
t
x

(2.38)

( f Ym ) + ( w f Ym ) = 0, m = 1, N S 1 , YN S = 1
t
x
2
(w f ) (w f )
H w w
+
= g f
+ 2
t
x
x S r

N S 1

Y
m =1

(2.38)

(2.38)

f = f ( B, H ) ;

(2.38)

S = S ( r , n ) ,

(2.38)

Ym m- ( N S

). f = f ( B, H )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

423

________________________________________________________________________________________________

() .





, .. (. 3.6.1).
.
3.6.1 - n
,
, : ( n ) w .
( n )Ox . (
) .
(. .3.13): ( n ) f L 1,
(

(n)

xL );

(n)

f M ,

f L X ( ( n ) xM ). ,
f = f ( x, t ) .
, t :
(n)

(n)

(n)

fL

(n)

n = 1, N .

fM ,

(2.39)

,
M ,

(n)

(n)

xM ,

xL L .

V , n = 1, N , ,
n M L ,
(. .3.13). (0)V (. .3.13) ,
( n )V , n = 1, N . ,
( n )V , ( n ) S .
!
!
( n ) i ( n )Ox , (0) n (0)V ,
( n ) f L . ,
, ,
, . ,
, ( n )Ox (. (3.6)):
(n)

(n)

s=

(0)

! 1,
!
n (n) i =
1,

(
(

!
!
n ( n ) i < 0,
!
(0) ! ( n )
n i > 0.

(0)

)
)

(2.40)

f , . , X

x M xL , .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

424

________________________________________________________________________________________________

(n)

X :
(n)

X =

(n)

xL ( n ) xM = ( ( n ) xL ( n ) xM ) ( n ) s.

(2.41)

X .
, ,

(n)

X , n = 1, N .

(n)

X
,
X

(n)

n = 1, N .

(n)

X :
(2.42)

3.6.1
, (0)V .
, (0)V , .2.4.
,

( ).
,
( ) ,
, ,
, ,
.

.2.4.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

425

________________________________________________________________________________________________

(0)

V Sbase

A (. .2.4). , ( n ) ,
(n)
f
.
: ( n ) =
A
: Sbase = base (1) 2 , base ,
. ,
:

(0)

(1) f base (1) f 2


V = A Sbase = A base
,
=
A
A

(0)

(2.43)

, :
lim (0)V = lim
A

base (1) f 2

= 0.

(2.43)

V , ( n )V , n = 0, N .
S , V . ..
,
:
V = ( n ) f c ( n ) X = ( n ) f c ( n ) X ,

n = 1, N ;

(2.44)

V ( n )V = ( n ) f c ( n ) X = ( n ) f c ( n ) X ,

(2.44)

(n)

n =1

n =1

n =1

f c xc , X .
(. (3.6)):
(n)

(n)

V
=
V

(n)
N

k =1

f c ( n )

(k )

0<

(n)

< 1,

fc
(k )

(n)

(n)

= 1,

(2.45)

n=1

f c ( n ) X = ( n ) V .

(2.45)

( n ) n V .
, , = const .
,
:
! !
= 0 ,
#
! # !
Ym +
(Ym ) = 0 ,
m = 1, N S 1 ,
t

N S 1
(2.46)
#
#
=

1
Y
Ym ,

NS
m =1
!
!
! ! !
1 !# 1 !
+ ( ) = p + + F ,
t

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

426

________________________________________________________________________________________________


! !
ab

ij

; :
= ai b j , i , j .

p , Ym
H
( ).
(0)V , Ym (0)V (0)V .
(0) ,
(. ).
.
:

dS = 0.

(2.47)


, :

n df

n =1 ( n )

f L
N

(0)

V .

+ n d = 0.
(0)
0

0 ( )

(0)

(2.47)

(0)

V .

(0)

(. .2.4) V
(0)
0 .
(2.47) .
(2.47):
!
(n)
(n)
(0) ! ( n )

df
=

i df = ( w f ) L ( n ) s,
n
x

(n) f
(n ) f
L
L

(2.47)

!
( n ) x Ox n - . (2.47) (2.47),
:
N

n =1

(n)

wL ( n ) f L ( n ) s = 0.

(2.48)

(2.48) , .
V :

n df + n d = 0,
n =1 ( n )

( n )

f M

(2.49)

( n ) (
) n - .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

427

________________________________________________________________________________________________

(2.49):
!
!
n df = ( n ) x n ( n ) i df =

(n) f
(n) f
M
M

!
!
(n)
(n)
=
x (0) n ( n ) i df = ( w f ) M ( n ) s,
(n) f
M

(2.50)

!
n
.
!
!
, , (0) n n
.
, , :

n d =

(n)

n d =

(n)

(n)

V
=
t

(n)
(n)

f c
.
t

(2.50)

(2.50), (2.49) :
N

(n)

n =1

f c

X t ( w f ) M s = 0.

(2.51)

(2.48):
N

(n)

n =1

f c

X t + ( ( w f ) L ( w f ) M ) s = 0.

(2.52)

, (2.41)
(2.42), :
(n)

(n)
(n)
s ( w f )L ( w f )M =

( n ) ( w f ) ( n ) ( w f ) ( n ) s ( n ) X ( n ) w f
(
) (n)
L
M

=
=
X .
(n)
(n)
(n)

x
x
s
( L

c
M )

(2.53)

(2.53) (2.52) X :
N

(n)

(n)

n =1

f ( w f )
+
= 0.
x c
t

(2.54)

L ( ,
.. X 0 ) c , :
N

n =1

(n)

(n)

f ( w f )
+
= 0.
x
t

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(2.55)

428

________________________________________________________________________________________________

(2.55)
N .
(. (2.8)):
!
!#
!
!

1
1
!
(2.56)
dV + n dS = pdV + n dS + FdV .

t
V
S
V
S
V
(2.56)
( n )V , ( n ) Seff , V :
!

!
!
!

1
1
!

dV + n dS + p ndS n dS FdV = 0. (2.56)

(n)S
(n)S
n = 0 ( n ) t
(n)S
( n )V
V

( n )V , n = 1, N .
(
(2.56) ):
(n )

( n ) X

( w f ) ( w2 f )
H w w

+
+ g f
+ 2
t
x
x S r

(n ) !
idx = 0.

(2.57)

(0)V . ,
.
( )
.
,
(0)V ,
(0)V :
N
!

dS
=

(0) S

n =1 ( n )
f L

N
!
n df =

n =1 ( n )
f L

! !

x i x ( i n ) df = 0.

(2.58)

,
(0) (0)V ,
(2.58) (
):
N (n) !
(2.59)
i wL2 f L s = 0.
n =1

,

(0)V . (2.48).
(2.48)
(n) !
i wL , .

, (2.59). , (2.59)
( (0)V ) .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

429

________________________________________________________________________________________________

, , ,
(0)V , .
()
. , ,
( w2 )
p , (0)V .

(0)V .
, , , ,
(
) . ,

.
(2.56) V ,
( ( n )V , n = 1, N ) (0)V . ,
:
(n )

( w f ) ( w2 f )
H w w ( n ) !

+
+ g f
+
idx +

t
x
x S 2 r
n =1 ( n ) X

!
!
!
1
!
+ dV + n dS + p n dS n dS FdV = 0,
(0)
(0) S
t
(0) S
(0) S
xOy
V

(0)V
N

(2.60)

[]xOy xOy .
(0)V
. ,
()
:
(n )

n =1 ( n ) X

( w f ) ( w2 f )
H w w

+
+ g f
+ 2
t
x
x S r

!
1
!
+ n dS + p n dS n dS = 0.

(0) S
(0) S
(0) S
xOy

(n) !
idx +

(2.61)


,
.
, .. (.,
, [92]). , ,
(2.61)
. ,
(0)V ,
.
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

430

________________________________________________________________________________________________


, .

( )
.

.
( n ) S Joint , n = 1, N .
Joint ,
, .
(2.61) :

dS + p ndS dS =
n

(0)

(0 )

(0)

n =1 ( n ) X

w w (n) !
g f 2
idx.
S Joint r

(n)

(2.62)


, ( n ) X , n = 1, N , ,
,
, . ,
( ),
.
(. 3.6.1)
( n ) Seff , (,
, , ..) :
(n)

1
=
Seff2

1
+
S2

(n)

(n)

1
.
2
S Joint

(2.63)

, (2.62) (2.61). ,
,
, :
N

n =1 ( n ) X

(n )

( w f ) ( w2 f )
H w w ( n ) !

idx = 0.
+
+ g f
+
x S 2 r
t
x
eff

(2.64)

( )
.

( ,
, , [92]).
,


.
[4] (., , 3.8.4).
,
(, ).
( n ) Seff , n = 1, N , (2.64)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

431

________________________________________________________________________________________________

,
,
:
(n)

(w f )
+
t

(n)

( w2 f )
x

= g

(n )

(n)
H
+
f
x

(n)

(n)

w
,
(n ) 2 (n )
Seff r

n = 1, N . (2.65)

,

(2.65) ( (2.29)).
, , ( n ) Seff ( n ) S .
, , ,
, :
(n)

(w f )
+
t

(n )

( w2 f )
x

= g

(n )

(n)
H
+
f
x

(n)

(n)

w
,
(n ) 2 (n )
S r

n = 1, N . (2.65)

m- :
#
N S 1
#
#
#
Ym
dV
+
Y

dS
=
m
=
N

Y
=

Ym . (2.66)

0
,
1,
1
,
1

m
n
S
NS

t
m =1
V
S
:

#
#
#
N

Ym
Ym
Ym
dV =
dV +
dV .
t
t
t
n =1 ( n )
(0)

V
V

(2.67)

(0)V (2.67) .
. (0)V
, :

lim

(0)

V 0

(0)

#
Ym

Ym
dV = 0.
dV = ( 0lim

)
V 0
t

t
(0)

(2.68)

(2.67) (2.68) (2.66)


, Ym :

#
#
#

Ym
dV + n Ym d + (Ym ) L n df n Ym df

t
n =1 ( n )
( n )
(n) f
(n) f
L
M

V
N

= 0. (2.69)

Ym
:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(0)

V,

432

________________________________________________________________________________________________

#
#
#
#

Ym
dV + n Ym d + n Ym df n Ym df

t
n =1 ( n )
( n )
(n) f
(n) f
L
M

V
N

=0

(2.69)

#
#

Ym
dV + n Ym dS = 0.

n =1 ( n )
( n )S

(2.69)

(2.14) , :
(n)

(n)

n =1

(Ym f )c (Ym w f )c
+

= 0.
t
x

(2.70)

(2.70) X X :
N

(n)

(n)

n =1

(Ym f ) (Ym w f )
+

= 0.
t
x

(2.71)

(2.71) (2.55), Ym ,
:
(n)
N
Y
Ym
(n)

+ f w m = 0.
(2.72)

f
t
x

n =1
(2.72)

(k )

k =1

f ( k ) ) (2.45):
(n)
(n)

n =1

Ym
+
t

(n)

Ym
w
=0
x

(n)

(n)

Ym
w
= 0.
x

n =1

(2.73)

Ym
+
t

n =1

(n)

(2.73)

(2.71), (2.73)
m- () N
.
,
,

() N
,
:
N

n =1

(n)

(n)

f ( w f )
+
= 0;
x
t

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(2.74)

433

________________________________________________________________________________________________
(n)

(n)

n =1

(n)

(Ym f ) (Ym w f )
+

= 0, m = 1, N S 1;
t
x

(w f )
+
t

(n)

(Ym ) =

(n)

H=

(n)

(n)

f =

( )

( )

(n )

( w2 f )
x

(n)
H
n
= g ( ) f
+
x

(Ym ) ,

(n )

YN = 1

(n)

N S 1

m =1

(n)

Ym ;

(n )

w
, n = 1, N ;
(n ) 2 (n)
S r

(2.74)

(2.74)

n, 1, N m 1, N S ;

(2.74)

H , n, 1, N ;

(2.74)

w ( n ) f ( n ) s = 0;

(2.74)

n =1

(n)

(n)

(n)

B,

(n)

(n)

H ),

(2.74)

s . (2.42) (2.40) ;

n ;

(n)

(n)

n ;

(n)

(Ym )

m-

n ( N S ); ( n ) H
n ; g
; ; ( n ) S n
( ,
( n ) n ()); ( n ) r n
(2.22); ( n ) B n ; N ,
. ()
( n ) B ( x, y ) ( n ) H ( x, t )
n . f = f ( B, H )
() .
(2.74)
, (2.74).
(2.38) (2.74)

. (2.38,2.74)
.
:
H ( x, t0 ) = H 0 ( x ) , w ( x, t0 ) = w0 ( x ) , Ym ( x, t0 ) = Ym ,0 ( x ) , m = 1, N S 1.

(2.75)



( xb ):
H ( xb , t ) = H b ( t ) ,

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

(2.76)

434

________________________________________________________________________________________________

w ( xb , t ) = wb ( t ) ,

(2.76)

Q ( xb , t ) = Qb ( t ) = w f ,

(2.76)

J ( xb , t ) = J b ( t ) = w f ,

(2.76)

f ( xb , t ) = f b ( t ) .

(2.76)


:
Ym ( xb , t ) = Ym b ( t ) , m = 1, N S 1.
(2.76)

. ,
(, )
: (2.76), (2.76), (2.76), (2.76),
(2.76).

(2.76) .

.

(. 3.6)
.

Alfargus/RiverFlow
Alfargus.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

435

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.., .., ..

I.

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[1, 2, 4],
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

436

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

437

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online.

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

438

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

439

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) (.3.1).
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.

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

440

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.3.1. ,

,

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(
), , :

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

441

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,
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).

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

442

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

443

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.3.4.

.3.5.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

444

________________________________________________________________________________________________

III.

.
3, ,
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. ,
.
( )
(.3.6).

.3.6. ,
,
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.
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

445

________________________________________________________________________________________________

;
;
;
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

446

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IV.

.


:

(.3.8);
;


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SCADA- (.3.9));
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(
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;
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

447

________________________________________________________________________________________________

;


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.

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SCADA-

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

448

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.3.10.

, ,

.



,
, ,
, (.3.11).

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

449

________________________________________________________________________________________________


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.3.12.

,
, .3.13.

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[2]:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

450

________________________________________________________________________________________________


;

.

.




,
.


.
16, 1 [1,2,4].


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.3.14.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

451

________________________________________________________________________________________________


, 3 6
.

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; ..
(. .3.16, 3.17 3.18).

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

452

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.3.15.

.3.16.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

453

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.3.17.
( )

.3.18.
( )

VI.

IV (. ),

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

454

________________________________________________________________________________________________

,
.
.

, ,
.
(.3.19):
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.

, ,
.
. , ,
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, ..
,
.


.
,
() (.3.20 3.21).

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

455

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.3.20. () (
)

KC 1

.
.

KC 2
KC 1

.3.21. ( )

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

456

________________________________________________________________________________________________

,
, ,
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

457

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

458

________________________________________________________________________________________________

,
, .

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. SCADA-,
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

459

________________________________________________________________________________________________

4

ANSYS ABAQUS

.., ..
4, 1997
PipEst ,

ANSYS [79]. ANSYS
APDL
(ANSYS Parametric Design Language),
. ,
ANSYS APDL
, ,

.
,
Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis


() APDL
ANSYS.

Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis

-
,
.
, (ABAQUS, LS-DYNA, MSC/NASTRAN, MARC, ALGOR,
COSMOS/M .)
. , ,
CAESAR II, TriFlex .., , ,
,
.
,

:

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

460

________________________________________________________________________________________________

;
; .
,

Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis,
,
-.

ABAQUS [192].
ABAQUS
Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis, ANSYS,
,
-. ABAQUS ( Hibbitt,
Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.) ( ANSYS MSC/NASTRAN)
-.
ANSYS
, , ,
MSC/NASTRAN, MSC, Inc.
MARC ABAQUS .
, ABAQUS
- ,
. , ,

ABAQUS.
, ,
ABAQUS ,
. ,
ABAQUS [192] (PSI24,
PSI26, PSI34, PSI36),
(pipesoil
interaction),
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.

ANSYS
APDL
ANSYS. ,
, APDL
.
, ,
ANSYS

,
ANSYS .
, Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis
- APDL

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

461

________________________________________________________________________________________________

-,
, .

(Submodeling) ( SHELL-
SOLID-), ( pipe- shell-)
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APDL:
;
ASCII; -;
;
; .
, ,
Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis ANSYS v.7.0 APDL
,
[52]. ,
, , ,
. ,
APDL,
21 CAD-FEM Users Meeting 2003 International
Congress on FEM Technology (. , ),
ANSYS, Inc [148].
, APDL,
ANSYS, Inc.
( 6.0) - UIDL (User Interface
Design Language),
ANSYS. UIDL
APDL-,
ANSYS.

, APDL.

ABAQUS
ANSYS ABAQUS

.
, 300,
, .4.1.
:
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27 , 18,5/3; 22;
6; 0,35); 1,22;
13,5; (
206; 0,3; 492;
607; 1,210-5 -1);
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

462

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.
( )
.

.4.1.
ANSYS
4
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. ,
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,
PSI ABAQUS ( 6.3 [192], 2003
) ,
, ,
Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis. ,
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).
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ABAQUS. ,
ABAQUS *.inp.
,
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Alfargus/StructuralAnalysis
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2 Pentium IV (2,4, 2),
ABAQUS 40 Pentium III (800, 500).
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ABAQUS/CAE.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

463

________________________________________________________________________________________________

ABAQUS/CAE MS Windows
- Exceed Exceed 3D (
Hummingbird Ltd., ). , ABAQUS/CAE MS Windows,
,
.
ANSYS ABAQUS
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..) (.4.2
4.5).
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ABAQUS, 4.1.
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.

, ,
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.
4.1

SHELL

SOLID

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ABAQUS

, %

UY 1,

-1,7458010-2

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0,527

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

464

________________________________________________________________________________________________

, ANSYS, ABAQUS,
. ANSYS
, ,
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APDL.
ABAQUS
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[] (SHELL-, ABAQUS)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

465

________________________________________________________________________________________________

. 4.4. []
(SOLID-, ANSYS)

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(SOLID-, ABAQUS)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

466

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5



.., ..

I.




,
[149].
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,
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,
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[68]:

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= 1, 45 1 + 8,3
x
u0 58 x

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( 4,3 H s )


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0

0,5

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1 ;

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1 +

u0

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r ( ) x

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

467

________________________________________________________________________________________________

; u0 ; u ;
D0 ; L ; R ;
T ; k
; f ; 0

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

468

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.5.1.
( (5.1))

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

469

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.5.3.

.5.4.

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

470

________________________________________________________________________________________________


(5.35) ,
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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

471

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.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

472

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)
.5.9.
( (5.35)) 5: )
)

)
)
.5.10.
( (5.35)) 10: )
)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

473

________________________________________________________________________________________________

)
)
.5.11.
( (5.35)) 20: )
)

5.1

5

, %

H,

260,0

28,5

812

L,

156,0

58,5

167

5.2

10

, %

H,

334,1

50,3

564

L,

264,0

66,3

298

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

474

________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.3

20

, %

H,

425,0

85,9

395

L,

424,0

95,8

342

5.4
3,0 1,2,

(5.1).
6,0/. ,
104%.
5.4

(
(5.1))

H,

108,4

53,1

104

L,

17,27

62,6

72,4

, %

5
,
. ,
(5.1),
. ,
,
,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

475

________________________________________________________________________________________________

II.

-

5 (.
.5.4 5.5)
: 5, 10 20.
(5.35)
, (. (5.5), (5.6), (5.245.27),
(5.35)):
! !
D
+ V = 0;
Dt

(5.2)

!
DYm !
= Dm Ym , m = 1, N 1;
Dt
!
!
! !
DV

= ( ) g P + ;
Dt

N 1

YN = 1 Ym ;

(5.2)

m =1

(5.2)

N !
!
!
!
! ! !
DH P Q
=
+
+ g V + T + V + em Dm Ym ;
t t
Dt
m =1
! !
N
Ym
VV
P = R0 T
+ g ( x3 x3,0 ) ; H = C p T +
;
2
m =1 M m

(5.2)

(5.2)

s = f (Ym , m ), = , , C p , Cv ;
m =1

ui u j 2
u
+
ij k .
x
xk
j xi 3

ij =

(5.2)

5.5.
,
, .5.12 5.15.
.5.12
5.15.
5.5


.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

, %

476

________________________________________________________________________________________________

H,

28,5

42,9

50,5

L,

58,5

95,7

63,6

10

H,

50,3

73,5

46,1

L,

66,3

136,9

106,5

20

H,

85,9

113,7

32,4

L,

95,8

206,5

115,6

)
)
. 5.12.
5: ) (5.35); )
(5.2)

)
)
. 5.13.
10: ) (5.35); )
(5.2)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

477

________________________________________________________________________________________________

)
.5.14.
20: ) (5.35); )
(5.2)

)
.5.15.
( 10 ) 19,6
: ) (5.35); ) (5.2)

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

478

________________________________________________________________________________________________

.
1.
(5.2)
,
(5.35). ,
, (,
, )
.
2.
, (5.2)
(. .5.15),
.
(..512
5.14).
, ,


,
. ,
,
(5.35).
, ,
, [151].
, -

, ,
,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

479

________________________________________________________________________________________________



, . : . : .
170 , ,
.


. :
. : . 120
, .


. : .
70 ,
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

480

________________________________________________________________________________________________


. :
.


:
, .


. : .


. : .

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

481

________________________________________________________________________________________________


: .


. :
, -
.

.. , .. , .. , 2005, 2006, 2007

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