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**MATHEMATICS USEFUL FOR UNDERSTANDING PLATO .
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THEON OF SMYRNA

Platonic Philosopher

T r a n s l a t e d fr o m th e 1 8 9 2 G r e e k / F r e n c h e d i t i o n o f J. D upuis by

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**ROBERT and DEBORAH LAWLOR
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edited and annotated by C hristos Toulis and others.

w ith an a p p e n d i x o f n o te s by Dupuis, a c o p i o u s glo s sa ry , in d e x o f w o rk s etc.

SECRET DOCTRINE REFERENCE SERIES

**WIZARDS BOOKSHELF SAN DIEGO 1979
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6 . according to the Pythagorean doctrine. 530d. for the concentration and deploym ent o f ‘troops” . But the clever arithm etician seeks in reflection for what numbers correspond to the consonances and form harmony. 529a. 5 3 Id.1 Some say that they hear a certain particular sound 4 between two sounds and that the interval is the sm allest that can be detected.. 531c.” 1 In 2 the same writing he speaks of music because for the contem plation of all that exists. 4 15 Republic V II. if it is general and extends to all the common properties of things through drawing tighter the bonds of their m utual affinities.. see fu rth er on.. for it is in reasoning according to them that we arrive at the contem plation of things. It is indeed impossible that the dialecticians who are so clever. " Republic V II 526d. but “ that astronom y has as its object the m ovem ent of the solid. “Those who know how to calculate apply themselves successfully to all the sciences and even those who have a slower mind become more intelligent through this. Preferring the authority of the ear to that of the spirit. they seek the truth in the plucking of the strings and the turning of the keys of their instru ments. section II.1 This study 5 leads to the investigation of the good and beautiful. 1 Further on. praising 1 the same science he says that geometry pertains to surfaces. do not know how to account for the reason of things to themselves nor to others.” 1 Those therefore. Republic V II. 3 1 Republic V II. are two sister sciences. for taking possession of areas. the art of calculation is very useful.. will bear fruit according to the ardour and zeal with which one applies one’s self to it. as if wishing to overhear secretly the conversation of their neighbor. Any method.4 THEON’S same book. 531a.11 No one will ar 1 rive at this if he does not take these sciences for guide. all else is use less. and what ones are those which correspond to dissonances. which consequently obliges the soul to look upward and to bypass the things of the earth for the contem plation of those of the sky. 1 Republic V II. 526b. “Astronom y and H ar mony which. 10 Cf. “ for encampments. strive in vain who seek to know 3 diatonic nuances and to com pare sounds by being satisfied by at tentively straining their ear and drawing as near as possible to the instrument. Others doubt the existence of this sound. 2 1 Republic V II. two things are necessary. 1 Republic V II.” 1 In the same book he 0 again assures us that even in war.

nothing which would not perish were the science of number withdrawn. 977d. could not be the cause of any “evil” . “ If one were to remove numbers from humanity. then he says that it is necessary to begin with astronom y. On the contrary. P lato comes again to A rithm etic which he calls a “ gift of G od” 1 and he says that no one would know how to 7 become virtuous w ithout it. this would already be much to concede. 976 e. “ I may say th at t’is not so m uch o ur luck as a god w ho preserves us by his gift o f it. But he who will consider that there is som ething divine in the origin and the m ortality of man. it is w ithout order. who knows nothing of number. who knows neither the even nor the odd. he says. one would be reasonably able to believe that this science is only necessary to the human species for objects of little im portance. he says. he continues thus: “No one will ever pursuade us that there could be a virtue for the human species greater or more noble than piety” 1 because it is through piety that he who has taken care to in 9 struct him self acquires the other virtues. C ertainly the anim al. who knows how to distinguish neither two nor three. p. one is even more asham ed to do so in the eyes of the gods. To consider only the arts.INTRODUCTION 5 In th e Epinomis. w ithout beauty. and unless he be a prophet. 989b. without grace and ultim ately deprived of all perfections. and we will see that there is nothing which would sub sist. 18 Epinomis.” 1 Let us pass in review everything which is related to the 8 other arts. as the source of all that is good. He next shows how one inspires piety towards the gods. that music can only result from movements and sounds m easured by numbers. sees w hat need he has of piety towards the gods. p. and that person will recognize num ber in man. Now he is a mendacious person who develops a false opinion of the gods and expresses it w ithout even having l7I believe” . knowing only through the senses and the memory. . for example. that which is devoid of num ber lacks any sort of reason.” Epinomis. 19 Epinomis. all discretion would be made impossible: the soul of the anim al deprived of reason would be incapable of any virtue. will never be able to give reason to anything. It is evident. because if one is ashamed to com m it false hood in the eyes of men. m oreover it would no longer have its essence. Deprived of true reason he will never become wise. Then passing to the description of the contrary. he will never know nor com prehend for how many of our faculties and forces num ber is the source. and it is not less evi dent that number. F urther on.

as for the one who abandons it. “ the greatest and beautiful political harmony is wisdom. he says: “ By the im m ortal gods. we will never be musicians. “ that the person who is truly an astronom er is necessarily very wise. 1 22 Plato is undoubtedly alluding to this problem: “construct a rectangular parallelopiped sim ilar to a given rectangular parallelopiped which is to this solid in a given relationship”. wishing to prove that the philosopher alone is a musician. p. One possesses it only to the extent that one lives according to right reason.2 There is an aspect 1 of this science which has been given the com pletely ridiculous name of geometry. of courage.■ — W gM . also that of genera tion and the properties of the odd and even. “ Do you not know” . he will create a solid body Erqaei Iloiet ILwfjtaTa which is truly a divine and marvelous w ork.”20 Now he who proposes to prepare the minds of men for these studies. as long as we do not know all the forms of tem perance. not an astronom er in the m an ner of Hesiod who busies him self with observing the rising and set ting of the stars. but of those who scrutinize the revolutions of the seven planets. he is the corruptor of his own house. neither we nor the guardians whom we must educate. Following this he m entions another experience and art which he calls stereometry: if someone. 23 Laws. making the product sim ilar (to another num ber) and dissim ilar to w hat it was. of generosity and of high mindedness and everything in the world w hich conform s to or is contrary to these virtues. which suppose so much prelim inary knowledge. he says that. that is.”23 A nd in the third book of the Republic. 689d. he says. he says. III. the principal one is the science of abstract numbers. And among these sciences. 2 Epinomis. as far as they con tribute to making known the nature of things. the knowledge of which all the genius of man finds it difficult to achieve. He is a citizen useless to the safety and prosperity of the State. must have himself been given fam iliarity with the m athem atical sciences since childhood and all during his youth. 6 THEON’S studied the nature of the perceptible gods. separate from all m atter. p. the best. speaking of musical harmony. a com bination which makes evident the condition of surfaces. p.22 In the Laws. and how to recognize them or to recog20 Epinomis. since he lives in extrem e ignorance. will m ultiply three numbers whose planes are as I already discussed. a problem o f which that o f the duplication o f the cube is but a particular case. 990c. 990a. . because it contains a com bination of numbers which are not sim ilar to one another by nature. astronomy.

INTRODUCTION nize th e ir images in those who possess them. For. Because it belongs to the philosopher to know ideas. The Pythagoreans. honesty. and God also is the ar ranger of discordant things. . and as can be seen by the preceding. confusion and discord in all that one does by oneself or by im itation. cadence in rhythm. p. for som eone to become a perfect musician who has not acquired all the habitudes of a good education. that is to say that these perceptible things are the characteristics and the expression of intelligible things. usage conforms to reason. F or music does not only coordinate rhythm and m odulation.402b. so that only he who has good m orals is a musician. decency in song. or ideas. harmony. It is also through music th at the harmony of things and the governm ent of the universe is m aintained. while he who is vicious and mean is a stranger to the Muses. and his greatest work is to reconcile with one another things which were enemies. he says. by means of the laws of music and medicine. it puts order into the whole system. accord in harmony. But the things which com prise the em bellishm ent of human life. and shows that only the philosopher is truly a musician. III. that beautiful eternal order which has a true existence. the true and sincere integrity of morals. when he was taught music. its end is to unite and to coordinate. says Plato. all these are the images of that beauty. this virtue which con sists in the good and honest ruling of our life. he is also the true philosopher. tem perance and decency if he him self is immodest and intem perant. even accord within discord. im propriety or m oral corruption is essentially linked to a perver sion of reason. th at accord. w ithout neglecting any of them . he took on habits of decency and order. for music joins innocent pleasure to utility. whose feelings Plato often adopted. He adds that the com pan ions of right reason are decency. beauty. also define music as the perfect union of contrary things. unity within m ultiplicity. who does not have ideas of de cency. On the other hand. of nobility of the soul and of temperance.” 24 7 By these words and by the preceeding he proves the usefulness of music. if. It is impossible. that is to say. or to the corrupted use of reason. large or sm all. for that 24 Republic. and its com pan ions are indecency. cadence and accord. follows right reason. regarding them as being part of the same art and the same study. no person will know modesty. always since the first years of his adolescence. He must realize that these ideas are found everywhere and are not to be taken lightly either in large things or in the small.

8 THEON’S which harmony is in the world. It has indeed the power to bring order and union into the m ultitude. is seen in four of the elements belonging to humanity: mind. and no little care is necessary so that the wool takes the color in the best way. says Plato. that w hich is white. w hich com es off and disappears. and their brilliancy cannot be rem oved. Phardo. because participation in the mysteries must not be indiscrim inately given to all those who desire it. w ithout ever rejecting them. good legislation is in the State.69d. their character will have been formed by education. It is necessary to proceed in the same way with our faculties. p. Indeed. W hen our dyers w ant to dye wool purple. after having pre viously adm inistered to them detergents and other preparations. and tem perance is in the family.429d. p. more corrosive than any lye. one knows w hatthappens and how the wools re tain little of their color. on the contrary. but there are some aspirants whom the harbinger of the path separates out. they begin by choosing from am ong the wools of various colors. W e can again com pare philosophy to the initiation into things truly holy. their feelings will remain indelible. and to the revelation of the authentic mysteries. more dangerous than any perversity and any habitude. and thanks to this m ethod. letters. always preserves. IV . like a dye. consisting in these sciences which are as so much astringent medicine. This color and this dye that we will have given them will not be rem ovable by any lye— by this I mean sensual pleasure. Now the efficacy and use of this science. Here again is what P lato says of m athem atics in the books of the Republic: “ The good man is he who. the reasons for all the virtues we teach them. tried by pain or pleasure. I am going to tell you of som ething w hich appears to me to be sim ilar. “ Cf. and State. 28 There are five parts in initation: the first is the prelim inary purification. Then they make their preparation. the dyer does not take these precautions. neglecting nothing in order that they receive.” 25 W e teach children music. the colors are incorporated into the w ool. body. agitated by desire or by fear. . This is how they proceed. gymnastics. family. neither with the aid o f lye nor otherwise. these four things have need of being well ordered and constituted. the right ideas which have been given to him in his education.— nor by pain nor by fear and greed. geometry and arithm etic. such as those of impure “ Republic. But if.

Indeed one begins from childhood with a certain consistent purification in the study of appropriate m athem atical theories. Finally. . A fter this purification comes the tradition of sacred things (which is initiation proper). stereometry. political and natural principles corresponds to initiation. he says that the binding and the crowning of the head must be understood as the faculty which is given to the adept by those who have taught him.INTRODUCTION 9 hands. 28 Cf. According to Em pedocles. The fourth stage. logical. to lead others to the same con tem plation. Finally the fifth stage. all of which would be necessary for the readers in order to become perfect arithmeticians. The fifth stage is that consum m ate felicity which they begin to enjoy. music and astronomy. I am going to begin the explanation of the necessary theorems. in so far as that is possible. Phaedrus. p. or by some other priestly work. in order that he who has received the sacred things. which is the end and the goal of the full vision. and which. geometers. becomes capable in his turn of transm it ting the tradition to o th e rs.27 “ it is necessary that he who wishes to submerge him self in the pure wave of the five fountains begins by purifying him self of his defilements. and to enjoy the felicity which consists of living in a fam iliar commerce with him. or whose speech lacks prudence. or through hierophantism (interpretation of sacred things). which is the crowning of all that has preceeded it. geometry.” One who wishes to dem onstrate the usefulness and the necessity of the m athem atical sciences could speak of it at even greater length than this. which are arithm etic. “ identifies them with the Diety. The tradition of philosophical. according to Plato. 432. edition M ullach. is to be a friend of the Diety. is the binding of the head and the placem ent of the crowns. either through the dadouchos (the torch bearing ceremonies). It is in absolutely the same m anner that the tradition of Platonic reason follows. vs. with true existence and with ideas. In the third place comes the ceremony which is called the full vision (the highest degree of the initiation). 250c. but that is not 27 Empedocles. but even those who are not rejected must be subjected to certain purifications.” And Plato also said one must seek purification in the five m athem atical sciences. But from the fear that I might appear unable to stop presenting the reasons to praise these sciences. He calls full vision28 the occupation of the spirit with intelligible things. musicians or astronomers.

10 INTRODUCTION the goal sought by all those who wish to read the writings of Plato. things which are appropriate for children and which are destined to prepare and purify their minds in order to make them capable of understanding philosophy. here I will explain the theorems which are sufficient for understand ing the meaning of his writings. It is sufficient that those who wish to approach our writings or those of P lato might have gone through the first elem ents of geometry. Indeed Plato him self did not wish that we continue to extrem e old age to draw geom etric figures or to sing songs. so that they may readily un derstand our explanations. . However. what we say will be such that it can be understood even by those who are com pletely ignorant of mathematics.

when he says that it is not necess ary to agitate the strings of an instrum ent (with hand to ear) like curious folk trying to overhear something.ARITHMETIC 11 ARITHM ETIC O N THE ORDER IN W HICH MA THEM A TICS M U ST BE STUDIED II. W e are going to begin with the arithm etic theorem s which are very closely connected with the musical theorems which are transposed into numbers. 528e. as P lato him self explains. which is called arithm etic. But we must give m athem atics of music second place (that is to say. The third. The second is that whose ob ject is surfaces and is called geometry. Then so that the numerical principles of music can be connected to the theory of abstract numbers. called stereom e 29 P la to places music after astronom y — Republic V II. place it) after arithm etic. we will give them the second rung. since one can understand nothing of celestial music. 530d — after having assigned the fourth rung to astronom y — Republic V II. in order to facilitate our study. if one does not understand that which has its foundation in numbers and in reason. as P lato wished. he speaks of celestial music which results from the movement. . the order and the concert of the stars which travel in space. we can only examine this harmony after having studied the numerical laws of sounds. W hat we desire is to un derstand harmony and the celestial music. According to the natural order. W e have no need for a musical instru ment. the first science will be that of numbers. W hen P lato says that music occupies the fifth rung 29 (in the study of m athem atics).

1. the principle. it is not possible to understand it before having grasped what is based on numbers. is indivisible. the numerical laws of music will come immediately after arithmetic. the parts are greater than the unit. according to the doctrine of the Pythagoreans. 1. these parts are equal to the unit. we come again to one in such a way that that which is one. being divided. into parts equal (in sum) to the whole. whatever these relations be. if that which is one is divided it is diminished in bodily size and as a result of the partitioning it is divided into parts sm aller than itself. The fourth treats of solids in move ment and this is astronomy. is also divided. But it is called the 30 See note II after the translation. the source and the root of all things. Num ber is a collection of monads. is without parts and indivisible. the numbers are. or into 4 and 2. THE ONE AN D THE MONAD III. the m ultitude will arise out of it. For example. remains firm and fixed: it is impossi ble to push division any further. as a number. and in taking away each of these parts. But that which is one. it is the term inate quantity— the principle and element of numbers.12 ARITHMETIC try. Indeed nothing can be divided into parts larger than itself. this music which con sists in studying the harmony of the worlds will come in fifth place. And it follows that this one is indivisible. like six into 3 and 3. whose object is to con sider the m utual relations of the movements and intervals. in the m anner of numbers. or 5 and 1. 1.30 Every other number. what was one becomes several. As for music. indeed 4 and 2 as numbers surpass one. when disentangled from the m ultitude through subtraction and isolated from all number. a tangible unity. and if we again divide this one into several parts. The monad. is diminished and reduced into parts sm aller than itself. Thus in our plan. . so to say. and if each part is then subtracted. Among tangible things. as one. If we divide a tangible body in several parts. yet it grows larger as a num ber because in place of that which was one there are now several. if a body. 1. then. which. is the study of solid objects. but if it is divided into 4 and 2. but following the natural order. 1. As for the monad. it will term inate at one.1 . or a progression of the m ultitude beginning from and returning to the monad (through the successive addition or subtraction of one unit). is divided into six parts. divided into parts greater than its whole. Now.

For it is through this that it becomes the principle and the measure of things which are subordi nate to it. can be divided to infinity. The monad is then the principle of numbers. as if they had a m onad which was not first. 5 men. but is the one considered in itself.3 1 IV. that is to say. the principle of numbers consists in the series of successive terms through which the odd and even are conceived. As num ber differs from that which is numbered. while the numbers are incorporeal. in the same way the monad differs from that which is one. the num erable quantity is found among tangible things. not so far as it is num ber or the principle of number. and the one the principle of numbered things. the one concrete. that the principle of three among tangible things is the triad. Archytas and Philolaus use the words one and monad interchangebly. 31 Thus according to Theon. Numbered things again differ from numbers in that they are corporeal. and they say that the m onad is the one. indeed in multiplying the m onad by itself we will always have the monad. posterity considers the m onad and the dyad as principles of numbers. like the quantity 5 and the quantity 10 which are not com posed of tangible bodies. but of intelligible ones. but in so far as it is tangible. such as 5 horses. so that the monad which is intelligible does not adm it of division. and as if the one which they call first were the more universal. in the same way that each existing thing is called one. it is called one in itself. M ost add the epithet “first” to the name m onad. . and if we multiply even to infinity it will always remain the monad. and sim ilarly for all other numbers. one times one is always one. T hat which is one. the one which is found in numbers is not just any one. it is not a certain quantity and a diversity with regard to another one. and the principle of all that which is four. 5 oxen. whereas for the Pythagoreans. for example. is the tetrad. being tangible. among tangible things. They further claim that the m onad is the princi ple of all these numbers and that the one is free of all variety. But. one m an. The num ber indeed is an intelligible quan tity. but that which is one.ARITHMETIC 13 monad because it remains im m utable and does not go beyond the limits of its nature. the m onad is abstract. As for the one which is met among tangible things. Moreover. However.” They say. with a naive attitude. can most assuredly be divided to infinity. as being a participant in the first essence and idea of that which is one. as one horse. it is called the monad because it is separated and placed alone outside the m ultitude of other numbers. being tangible.

while the monads are indefinite and indeterminate. therefore again. is something com pletely immutable. And although Plato. are in no way different from one another. is odd. but after the m onad which is a participation in the one. However. Thus the monad and the one. but odd. 33A variation o f the word Mottos = unit or m onad here referred to as an adj. but is applied to all things. ’ vas = u n it (From E ■Epo<? = one) 34 O ne o f the lost works o f A ristotle. therefore unity. Initially the numbers are divided into two kinds: those which are called even and the others which are called odd. Others place another difference between the one and the monad: the one does not change according to the substance. It is one and not several. ODD AN D E V E N NUM BERS V. as are the monads to which can be added another monad. and the monad (unit) is necessarily either even or odd. If you add an even num ber to another even number. Some have said that the first of the odd numbers is the monad (unit) for even is the opposite of odd. and it is not the one which causes the monad or the odd numbers to change according to essence. Neither does it change according to quality. he did not call them so after one. unity is not even. . for it itself is monad. 15a. This is why the name itself. in the Philebus32 uses the expression “ the Units” 33. and unlike the monads which are several. The one then differs from the m onad in that it is defined and term inated.14 ARITHMETIC and were both the m onad and the one — for they also call it the one — and as if it were the first and intelligible essence which caused all the things that are one to be such. A ristotle says. This one which is distinguished from the monad of which it is the essence. being at the same time intelligible and tangible. in The Pythagorean34 that one participates 32 Philebus. p. now unity added to an even number gives an odd number. the odd numbers. but it does not even divide at all. It does not change according to quantity either. It is by virtue of a par ticipation in this essence that all things are called one. The even num bers are those which can be divided into two equal parts. does not specify what the object is nor of what species it partakes. the total will be even. such as two and four. one. on the contrary. are those which can only be divided into unequal parts. like five and seven. because it is not composite. Now it cannot be even since. not only does it not divide into two equal parts. it is for this reason that it is called the unique one.

As for the terms which follow in a continued series. But in the measure of the terms.Vn. 3. the first idea of the even is the indefinite dyad35. This is why the dyad is called indefinite. thus none of the numbers other than unity (m onad) can divide 3 in such a way that 3 could result from their m ultiplication. others are prim e in relation to each other but not absolute. they a l ways increase by an equal quantity. incomposite. They are also called the oddly-odd numbers. 13. A nd for this reason these numbers are called oddly35 Dyad = tw o /p a ir from G reek 8ua?. Likewise. the ratio of the number 2 to unity is double. 5. 4. one times 7 is 7. except the unit. Some among the numbers are called absolute prim e or in composite numbers. added to an odd num ber it gives an even number. Archytas also ap pears to have had this feeling. 6. others are absolutely com posite and still others are composite in relation to each other. which causes that which is indefinite. 5. and one times 11 is 11. They have thus been given five different names: prime. each surpassing the preceeding one by a unit.. This is why it is called odd-even. 1 + Yt is sm aller than 1 + %. The absolute prime numbers (incomposite) are those which no other number. Now the & relationship 1 + % is sm aller than 1 + Vi. These are 3. euthym etric and oddly-odd. 11.. as is the Unit (or monad). It can thus be seen that the successive num bers are alternately odd and even. And one would find that the ratio decreases in like m anner for the other numbers. and finally 1 + % is sm aller than 2. beginning with unity. The first idea of the odd is therefore the monad. 2. can measure. 1. Indeed one times 3 is 3.and other sim ilar num bers. that of 3 to 2 is sesquialter (1 + *4) finally that of 6 to 5 is sesquiquintan (1 + Y ). linear. as also in the world. one times 5 is 5. because the lengths and the lines are only considered as a single dimension. They are the only indivisible numbers. which it would not be able to do if it did not participate in both natures. unknown and disorderly to be attributed to the quality of even.ARITHMETIC 15 in both natures. On the other hand. in the world also. 1 + 1% is sm aller than 1 4. T riad = th re e /trin ity from G reek Tpias Cctyux rpto? = holy trinity) (Toulis) . Indeed. because it is not defined. These numbers are also called linear and euthymetric. the quality of odd is attributed to that which is defined and well ordered. 7. 17. PRIM E OR INCOMPOSITE NUM BERS VI.

that is to say. for 3 times 2 equals 6 and 3 times 3 equals 9.’ . Prim e num bers are included in this form ula by supposing that 2b + 1 = 1. Also. such as 8 and 6 which have 2 as their com m on denom inator. Indeed one times two is two. but the principle of number. like 6 which is measured by 2 and 3. Finally the numbers resulting from the m ultiplication of one type of numbers by the other are called peripheral numbers. such as 8 which is measured by 2 and 4. the dyad measures 4 because 2 times 2 makes 4. and one times 10 equals 10. The num ber 2 is the only one among the even numbers which is sim ilar to the odd numbers in having only unity for its measure. and. Those which are called prim e in relation to one another. are those which have unity for com m on measure. COMPOSITE NUM BERS VII. length and width. As for the unit. 9 which is m easured by 3. they are considered as having two dimensions. 2 and 3 measure 6 because 2 times 3 and 3 times 2 make 6. one times 9 equals 9. it is not a number.t it is the first num ber different from the unit. but not absolute. for 2 times 3 equals 6 and 2 times 4 equals 8. They indeed have unity for com m on measure either in relation to one another or in relation to their prime factors: one times 3 equals 3. but 1 + 1 = 2 is ‘not indefinite. only odd numbers can be prim e and incomposite. In deed the even numbers are not prim e or incomposite. it does not have a divisor greater than the unit. although other numbers measure them if they are considered separately. 36 E uclid calls num bers in the form (2a + 1) (2b + 1) oddly odd. A ll the other even num bers with the exception of 2 are likewise measured by numbers greater than the unit. and although even. Com posite numbers are those m easured by a num ber sm aller than themselves. 10. Elem ents V II. cf. Because of this it is said that the num ber two has the nature of the odd numbers because it has the same property as the odd. it is not only unity which measures them. def. it is not indefinite. as for the number 2. The composite numbers which are the product of two numbers are called planar. t Unity + u n ity = the indefinite dyad. one times 8 equals 8. b = 0. C om posite numbers in relation to one another are those which have a common denom inator.16 ARITHMETIC odd 36 for they are odd and unity which measures them is odd as well. but other numbers also. Such again are 6 and 9 which have 3 for their common denom inator. Those which are the product of three numbers are called solids since they possess the third dimension. and 10 which is measured by 2 and 5. For example.

it is a product o f two even numbers. Indeed half of 6 is 3. Cf. w ould then be num bers taking th e form (2a + 1) 4b. but 3 cannot be divided into equal parts. Indeed. These parts are homonymous to the even numbers. the num bers in the form 2(2a + 1). 32 is the product of the numbers 4 and 8 which are even. def. These numbers. and the same for the quarter and the eighth (which are considered as the numbers 4 and 8). . the evenly-even num ber is a pow er o f 2. for example. (2) that all the parts be even down to the final unit. its quarter.38 X. 8. and 5 times 4. which when m ultiplied. and others are oddly-even. they will not be divided equally any further. Such. This is the sam e definition as th at o f E uclid. and an odd num ber besides. 3. Likewise we have 2 0 = 2 x 1 0 = 4 x 5 = 5 x 4 . sometimes odd. and after this first division in equal parts. in dividing 12 successively by 2. A ccording to Euclid. 8. V II. for unity (which remains after the division by 2) is indivisi ble. 10 has the num ber 5. 4. according to T heon. and 4. which respec tively have the value 3 times 4. 16. the half is considered as the binary number. V II. They are called evenly-odd because they are measured by the dyad. is 2 times 7 or 14. the quotients are sometimes even. This ratio applies also for the other num bers. six has the num ber 3. 2 has the unit. one of which is odd and the other even.ARITHMETIC 17 VARIOUS K IN D S OF E V E N NUM BERS VIII. according to T heon. we have 1 2 = 2 x 6 = 3 x 4 = 4 x 3 . and which consequently have odd halves when divided in equal parts. some are evenly-even. and those which follow in proceeding by a double progression. 38 T he evenly-odd num bers are then. cf. def.39 37Thus. A ll its parts are even. Elements. are partitioned into two odd parts. 39 The oddly-even numbers. 14 has 7. 128. 9. when divided once by two. but if a larger divisor is used. Now. are divided by the number 2 into two even parts. Such are the numbers 12 and 20. which is even. It is to be observed th at a num ber is evenly-even when it combines these three conditions: (1) that it be created by two even numbers m ultiplied by each other.37 IX. 64. The evenly-odd numbers are those measured by the num ber 2 and by any odd number. and still others are evenly-odd. The oddly-even are those which result from the m ultiplication of any two numbers. Elements. (3) that none of its parts is homonymous to the odd num ber. Am ong the even numbers. w hich T heon distinguishes from the evenly-odd. its eighth. its half. Such are 32.

8. 2. Such is 6. 6 + 6 = 1 2 . 2 0 + 10 = 3 0 . 2. we have 2 + 4 = 6. Thus these are the successive even numbers.+ /xtjktjs) o th er length 41 T he sum o f the term s o f the progression form ed by the natural series of even num bers 2. unity. when they result from the m ultiplication of two equal numbers (the result is equally-equal. 6. being une quilateral and surpassing unity by one. UNEQUILA TERAL A N D 40 P A R A L L E LO G R A M A TIC NUM BERS XI. On the contrary. 16. Such are the numbers 4 and 9. 10. w hich m eans of different length (€r^x><.. 12. XII. the dyad. 10. Through addition. 3 times 4 = 12. by m ultiplication and by addi tion. 3. Now. Now numbers are created in two ways. some are equally-equal. so that the sums are the unequilateral numbers 6. 14. Indeed. the principle of all numbers. 4 . the first num ber being m ultiplied by the following. 8. 1 2 + 8 = 2 0 . 18. 4. 12. 8. 4. 5. renders the even numbers which surpass the odd numbers unequilateral by one unit. 20.2N is in effect n(n + 1). 1. therefore it is an u nequilateral num ber by definition.4 1 The same unequilateral numbers are also obtained by the m ultiplication of even and successive odd numbers. being odd and tending to the production of the others. and square). com posite numbers are unequally unequal when they result from the m ultiplication of two unequal numbers. which is unequilateral. for 2 times 2 is 4 and 3 times 3 is 9. that is square and planar. Among these numbers. makes. The even numbers which are added to the even numbers which precede them produce unequilateral numbers. 12. 2 times 3 = 6 . This is why the num ber 2. Among composite numbers. those which have one side (factor) longer than the opposite by one unit are called unequilateral. 9. he verifies them w ith several exam ples. 16. 6. 18.from G reek 'ETepofjuiiiar. We have 1 times 2 = 2.. 6. 14. 30 and so forth. 4 times 5 = 40 U nequilateral . T heon never gives th e dem onstration o f the arithm etic theorem s w hich he states. the num ber which surpasses the odd num ber by one unit is even.18 ARITHMETIC ON E Q U A LLY-E Q U A L. since 2 times 3 is 6. X III. . through doubling itself. thus unequilaterals are only comprised of even numbers. 7. 10.

1. none of the factors go beyond their own limits. which is square because 4 times 4 = 16. Let us actually take the suc cessive squares 1 and 4. 3 times 3 equals 9. such as 2 times 2 equals 4. The successive squares are thus 1. 25. XV. 8 times 10. 2 x 2 = 4 . 6 and 9 in a line. 3. their mean is the unequilateral 6. 9. 5 x 5 = 25. for it is equally equal. 4 times 6. . each of them m ultiplied by itself gives a square: 1 x 1 = 1 .. 4. the relationship of the mean 6 to the first extrem e is equal to the relationship of the second extrem e to 6 because the relationship of 6 to 4 is sesquialter (1 + %). The numbers created by the addition of the successive odd numbers are square.4 . 16. indeed. 4 times 4 equals 16.ARITHMETIC 19 20. 48. 24. 1 and 3 make 4 which is square.. Thus. 6 times 8. 7 . and 4 the double of 2. 5. taking the numbers 1. 9 . 2 times 2 make 4. 3 . the mean between them is the une quilateral num ber 2. I assert that they have the heteromecis for a mean. 2. if we take the series 1. 5 . 5. each odd num ber being successively added to the square obtained by the sum m ation of the preceeding odd numbers starting from unity 42 The creation also takes place through m ultiplication. 16 and 9 make 25. like 2 times 4. but the consecutive unequilateral numbers do not have squares for their proportional means. for the num ber 2 can only double itself. since 3 times 3 equals 9.. 4 x 4 = 16. Thus indeed in the series of odd numbers. Such is therefore the creation of the square numbers by addition. 9 and 7 make 16. and so forth. which is again a square num ber because it is equally equal. X VI.2 n . 4. the num ber 3 can only triple it self. 5 times 5 make 25. 9 . the double of 1.. which yield 8. Taking again the squares 4 and 9. 80 respec tively. 7. 1. 4 and 5 make 9. 2 is. One could continue this way to infinity. which is also square.. The parallelogram m atic numbers are those which have one side greater than the other side by 2 units or greater. 2. 3. that is to say the num bers whose one side is longer than the other by one unit.1 and the sum of the term s of the progression. like the 42 In fact the nth odd num ber starting from th e unit is 2n . 5 times 6 = 3 0 . The mean term s for the consecutive squares in geom etric proportion are the unequilateral numbers. XIV. If we put 4. by m ultiplying any num ber by itself.1 is n2. 3 x 3 = 9 . the mean 2 con tains the extrem e 1 as many times as it is contained in the other ex trem e 4. 1 1 . The unequilateral numbers are given this name because the addition of unity to one of the sides make the first diversity of the sides.

because the ratio of 4 to 2 is double whereas that of 6 to 4 is sesquialter (1 + %). they change in the m ultiplication. and sometimes longer by m ore than one unit. since the latter is defined as: a num ber of which one side is longer than the other by one unit. The num ber 2 is m ultiplied by 3. the created unequilateral numbers do not include the square numbers. and 4 x 5 = 2 4 . Furtherm ore. since 2 x 3 = 6 . Such is 12 which results from 3 x 4 43 See note III. and 6 in a line. but if all unequilateral numbers are by that fact oblong. Thus 2 x 3 = 6 . but 4 is not contained bet ween them according to a continuous geom etric progression in such a way that it would have the same ratio with the extremes. and other sim ilar numbers. products of factors which differ by one unit. it has one side sometimes longer by one unit. or by two units or by a larger number. is oblong. 4. It is the same situation with the following unequilaterals. for the num ber which has one side longer than the other by more than one unit. the opposite is not true.20 ARITHMETIC relationship of 9 to 6. for the ratio of 9 to 6 is sesquialter (1 + %). it would be necessary for the ratio of the first term to the mean to be equal to the ratio of the mean to the third term. but it does not have the same ratio with the extremes. . Such is 24 which has the value of 6 times 4. The unequilaterals on the contrary. 4 will have a different ratio with each of the extremes. is contained between the successive unequilaterals 6 and 12. 3 x 4 = 12. either by one unit.43 OBLONG NUM BERS X V II. The same is so with the following squares. Indeed all unequilateral numbers are at the same time oblong so far as they have one side larger than the other. the number 3 is m ultiplied by 4 and 4 by 5. Now in order for 4 to be a pro portional m ean. a square number. A num ber is also oblong when. There are three classes of oblong numbers. An oblong num ber is a num ber form ed by any unequal numbers of which one is greater than the other. while th at of 12 to 9 is sesquitertian (1 + %). but it is not une quilateral. If we arrange 2. Now none of the (first) factors stay within their own limits. according to various m ultiplica tions. do not remain in their own limits and do not in clude the squares. Thus 2 and 6 are the successive unequilaterals between which is found the square 4. such as 6. Sim ilarly 9.

since its length is 3 and its width 2. so that when the sides are 3 and 4 the num ber 12 is unequilateral and when the sides are 2 and 6 it is oblong. if. the first alteration being the addition of one unit given to one of the two sides. But in order to make clearer w hat we have just said. we will show it in the following way. 1 and 1. others which are quadrangular. Finally. added to each other. by placing them around them (at a right angle). T R IA N G U L A R NUMBERS. which is again une quilateral. 40 is of this sort being the product of 10 by 4. The figure which they form is unequilateral because it is 2 in length and 1 in width. If we add 6 units to the six first ones. for it has the value of 1 x 2. pentagonal and in general. by placing them around them (at a right angle). it has one side longer than the other by more than one unit. the sum will be 12 . resulting from any kind of m ultiplica tion. This is why the numbers resulting from this first alteration of the sides have been called. we will have the figure of the une quilateral num ber 6. A fter the num ber 4 comes the num ber 6. THE M ETHOD OF O BTAINING THEM A N D OTHER P O LYG O N A L N U M BERS I N G E N E R A L X IX . Thus the first even num ber 2 is at the same time unequilateral. Numbers of this kind can only be oblong. produce the unequilaterals.ARITHMETIC 21 and from 2 x 6. If now 4 is added to 2. The planar numbers are the numbers produced by the m ultiplication of the two numbers representing the length and the width. A fter the num ber 2 comes the even num ber 4. A nd first of all the successive even numbers. unequilateral. The triangular numbers are obtained in the m anner that we are going to indicate. with good reason. the sum will be 6. A m ong these numbers there are those which are triangular. X V III. Let us suppose that the first even num ber 2 be represented by two units. of 8 by 5 and of 20 by 2. a num ber is again oblong. The unequilateral num ber is the one that receives the first alteration after the num ber form ed by equal factors. but those which have a side greater than the others by a quantity larger than one unit have been called oblong numbers because of the greater difference of length between the sides. polygonal. if we add the four units to the first two. since it has the value of 2 x 3 and the same occurs with following numbers to infinity.

11. 10. 8. the result is the triangular num ber 3. If this gnomon is added to the square 4. If this gnom on44 is added to the unity. because if it is not so in act it is so in power. 4. 9. . See the general definition o f gnom on. we will obtain the triangular numbers. 1. which has 3 for both length and width. ad ded to the square 9 gives the square 16. in adding them together we form the triangular num bers. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Likewise. the square numbers are ob tained. If the num ber 2 is ad ded to it. And 36 augm ented by 9 becomes 45. since 1 x 1 = 1 .45 an equally equal square is obtained. A nd this continues to infinity. The series of the even and odd numbers is 1. by adding no longer just the evens alone or the odds alone. whose length and width are both 4 and so forth to infinity. 46 In this case the gnom ons are th e natural series of numbers. the result is 10. Next comes the odd number 7. 7. Now it is evident that these numbers are triangular according to the figure obtained by adding the successive gnomons46 to the first numbers. becomes 36. 3. X X III. being the principle of all numbers. 2. because it has 2 for both length and width. the odd numbers added together give the square num bers. Add 10 and you will have 55. 5. The odd num ber which comes next is 5. (Toulis) 45 T he gnomons are here the successive odd numbers. aug mented by 8. In adding them in a continuous manner. to which if you add 7 you will have 28 which. 9. 6. I l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 In turn. 3. If 3 is added to this triangular number. a new square 9 is obtained. and by adding 4 to this. which. 6 is obtained. Thus unity is the first square number. but the evens and the odds. 7. 44 It is very pro b ab le th at gnomon here has the m eaning o f constant as the succession o f odd numbers can be taken as a constant. 5. and this will continue to infinity through the addition of the even numbers. Now the successive odd numbers are 1. Next comes the odd num ber 3.22 ARITHMETIC and the figure will be unequilateral as its length is 4 and its width 3. The first is unity or monad. If 5 is added to this you will have 15. to this add 6 and you will have 21.

beginning with unity or the monad. It so happens that they are alternately odd and even. 36. indeed increase by 2. 21.ARITHMETIC 23 The triangular numbers obtained by addition will then be 3. will form the next square. 1 1 3 1 1 1 6 1 11 111 10 1 11 111 1111 15 1 11 111 1111 11111 36 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 111111 1111111 11111111 21 1 11 111 1111 11111 111111 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 111111 1111111 XX. 16. form the pentagons. 15. 25. their sides are of square numbers. Indeed. each of which is greater by 2 than the preceding. always beginning with the unit. 36. the following ones of 6 by 6 are both square and cubic. 100. Those which increase by 4 give the hexagons. Furtherm ore. beginning with the unit. Likewise. beginning with the unit. in such a way that the rate of the gnomons. just as the sim ple numbers are alternatively odd and even such as: 1. 10. as cubes. the term s are squares of two by two and cubics of three by three. the numbers which increase by the addition of 3. There is another order of polygonal numbers. it will be seen that. If now the even and odd numbers are arranged in order. the gnomons. As we have said. given by the multiple numbers starting from the unit. 6. when added to the square pre ceding it. 64. the square numbers are produced by the ad dition of successive odd numbers. The odd numbers. the triples and so forth. 49. 45. 9. 4. . and as squares. 28. 55 and so forth. among the m ultiple num bers starting from unity come the doubles. is always less by 2 units than the num ber of angles in the figure. as we have shown above. 81. which gives a polygon.

256. are squares in two by two and cubes in three by three. or will become so when dim inished by one unit. which is the case with 9 . is divisible by 4. the ones which are equally-equal are squares. 24. 2 " \ 2 " . it will be found that the remaining terms are both square and cubic. the others. which is the case with 4.24 ARITHMETIC their sides are cubic numbers.a re squares.. 2 l2. This is followed by 32. 48 Or.ta k e n tw o by tw o. since the exponent is a m ultiple of 3. the square which is neither divisible by 3 nor by 4. then 16 which is again square. In the triple progression a similar development of alternate squares is found. They are also exactly divisible by 4 or will become so after the subtraction of one unit. or solid numbers. like 36. 128. Finally. Next comes 4 which is square. 2. They are given the names planar numbers.tak en 6 by 6 are both squares and cubic. Likewise in the quintuple progression and in the other m ultiple progressions. but by com parison with the space which they seem to measure. such as the squares of 25 and 49.. If two terms are alternatively om itted. 2. after which comes 64 which is both square and cubic. the products of two factors are planes and those of three factors are solids.. Here is how we show that the m ulti ple numbers.. beginning with the unit. * .. G iven the progression 1. their roots 2 3 and 28. 32.. not in a proper sense. which becomes divisible by 4 after having been dim inished by one unit. and one could continue this way to infinity. are even. are squares. like 25..a re cubes and as cubes.th e term s 22.. and other sim ilar names. Thus 4 is called a square number 47 N o tatio n in exponents m akes these facts evident. it is the square dim inished by one unit w hich is also divisible by 3. th eir roots 22 and 24. then 8 which is cubic. The even square which becomes divisible by 3 after having been dim inished by one unit. is divisible by 3. 8. admits these two divisors after the subtraction of one unit. 2 2. 2s. Next we have 128. The square. and the term s 26.. 25. are unequilateral or oblong. triangular or square. 28.47 The squares have this property of being exactly divisible by 3. And in all cases. 4. followed by 256 which is square. 23.. 16. and both square and cubic in six by six. since the exponents . As squares. 26.. 2 '2. 4 See note IV.tak e n three by three are cubic. The first double is 2.48 A square can be divisible both by 3 and 4. which are unequally-unequal.49 XXI. 2U .... 64. 24. the term s 23. 2 \ 2H 2“. Let us arrange several numbers in double progression: 1. Among the numbers..

51 and the sides of any triangle always have as many units as are contained in the last gnomon added to it. the first is the triangular number. in such a way that there is the same relationship between the length of one and the length of the other. the length and width. All cubes are similar. In the preceding 50 we have discussed the creation of triangular numbers. all the successive numbers which serve to form the triangular. whose sides. Now. just as among planar rectilinear figures the first is the triangle. as we have already said. those are sim ilar whose sides. (T oulis) . XXII. but in power. 6 is called unequilateral. the width of one and the width of the other. and another planar num ber 24. Gnom on is a guide if we take it literally. whose sides. or the numbers which comprise them. are 6 and 4. have the same relationship to one another. Therefore the planar numbers 6 and 24 are similar. The same numbers representing lengths at one time can be taken as sides at another for the form ation of other numbers. when they are product of the m ultiplication of two numbers they are called planar and they are solid when they are the products of the m ultiplication of three numbers.ARITHMETIC 25 because it measures a square space. Among the planar numbers. and for a reason founded on a sim ilar analogy. and finally the height of one and the height of the other. X IX . the length and width. are called “gnomons'’. quadrangular or polygonal numbers. X X III. it gives birth to the triangle whose three sides contain as many units as has the added gnomon (constant) 2. for in being as the seed of all numbers. The length of one is to the length of the other as the width of one is to the width of the other. which is not a triangle in fact. as are the other solids (rectangular parallelopipeds) having proportional sides. First of all let us take unity. When it is added to the number 2. Let us take the unequilateral num ber 6. 51 N ote — See previous ex p lan atio n o f gnomon which in a ll probability is the word “ constant” here. and the entire triangle contains as is many units as contained in the gnomons added together. Because the sum of the so S e e l. Among the planar numbers which have unequal sides. and we have seen that it consists in adding to the num ber 1 the natural series of even and odd numbers. for we have 6 : 3 = 4 : 2. are 3 and 2. unity also possesses the faculty of engendering the triangle. the squares are all sim ilar to each other. O f all planar and polygonal numbers.

To the triangle 3 is then added the gnomon 3. that is 1 + 2 + 3 4. XXIV. that is to say. These numbers are 5 and 6.4. in starting from unity. gives the triangle 15. the numbers which through m ultiplication. and 36 x 6 = 2 1 6 . 1 + 3 = 4. They are those which when squarely or cubically m ultiplied. the gnom on which has just been added is 4 and the whole triangle is composed of units of 4 gnomons. 16 + 9 = 2 5 . spherical or recurrent. the sphere has the same property. and the triangle has the value of as many units as the added gnomons con tain. XXV . XIX. because it is described by the revolution of a circle around a diam eter. are called cir cular or spherical. come back to the num ber which had been their point of departure. those which. end with themselves. as many units as there are of gnomons added together. there are two units to each of its sides.26 ARITHMETIC gnomon 1 and the gnomon 2 is equal to 3. Some numbers are called circular. Among solids. Such also is the circle which comes back to the point at which it began. The number 6 augmented by the gnomon 4 gives the triangle of 10 units. Its sides each have as many units as there are added gnomons. because it consists of a single line and it begins and ends at the same point. which is greater than the num ber 2 by one unit. that is to say according to two or three dimensions. 6 x 6 = 36. for in adding 2 and 3 to unity we arrive at the number 6. 9 + 7 = 16. 5 x 5 = 25: 25 x 5 = 125. being composed of 5 gnomons. The num ber 10 being augmented by the gnomon 5. In fact. 4 + 5 = 9. Indeed. T hat is to say. . and it is in this m anner that the gnomons form the corresponding triangular num bers. As we have said52 the square numbers are created by the addition of odd numbers. each side of which has 5 units. that is. so that the triangle is composed of three units. increase by 2. the sides of which have 4 units each. the circle coming back to the position from which it departed. 4 1 1 11 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 1111 1111 1111 1111 25 11111 11111 11111 11111 11111 Sec I. and the whole triangle becomes 6. Likewise.

13. starting from unity. The heptagons are those which are form ed by the addition of num . 35.5. 7. 5. Here is the figure for the pentagonal numbers: 5 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 35 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 11111 11111 11111 11111 etc X X V II.25 from which result the hexagons 1.28. starting from unity. 16. Their gnomons are thus 1. 22.9. 13.91 Here are their figures: 15 6 45 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 etc The other polygonal numbers are composed in the same manner.45. 51. 12.17.66.6. The gnomons are 1. The pentagonal numbers are those which are formed by the addition of the numbers which increase by 3.21. 4.15. 10. 19 and the polygons themselves are 1. The hexagonal numbers are those which are formed by the addition of numbers which increase by 4.ARITHMETIC 27 X X V I. 70 and so forth.

Among the solid numbers. some have equal sides (as when three equal numbers are m ultiplied with each other). some have a larger third side. 53 See note V. 6. The triangular numbers which follow. likewise the union of two linear triangles gives the figure of a quadrangle. 36 and 45 make 81. 18. 54 A square num ber n2 can be broken down into two triangular num bers. 16. 10 and 15 make 25. 81 The octagons are sim ilarly composed of numbers which increase by 6 starting from unity. 21 and 28 make 49. (n -l)n _ n2 2 ~ Thus the square num ber 25 is broken down into two triangular num bers. 3 and 6 make 9. the decagons by numbers increasing by 8. Finally those which have two equal sides and the third larger than the two others. 15 and 21 make 36. Those which have equal sides (being equally equal equally). are called beams. Thus generally in all the polygons. which have all sides un equal. the 5 "equal to 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 and the 4 n equal to 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 and indicated by the figure: . The sum of two successive triangles gives a square. 34. 7. Among those which have two sides equal. the enneagons by numbers increasing by 7 starting from unity . being equally equal deficients. Those which have two sides equal and the third sm aller than the two others. some have all sides unequal while others have two sides equal and another unequal. others a sm aller third side. starting from unity. being equally equal exceedants. 6 and 10 make 16. 11. and which are unequally unequal unequally. are called altars. one will have the quantity by which the numbers serving to form the polygon must increase.28 ARITHMETIC bers increasing by 5. in removing two units from the num ber of angles. combined together also form squares. are called cubes. Those.53 X X V III. so that n(n+ 1) 2 . This 1 and 3 make 4.54 XXIX. 26 from which result the heptagons 1. on the other hand. The gnomons are: 1. 55. 21. the nn and the ( n 1)n. 28 and 36 make 64. others have unequal sides. Among the latter. have been called plinths or squares.

ARITHMETIC 29 P Y R A M ID A L NUM BERS X X X . T he pyram idal num bers are those w hich m easure pyramids and truncated pyramids. the diagonal can do once. according to the supreme generative ratio. Let us now add the diagonal to the side. and to the diagonal let us add two sides. 56 T h a t is to say th a t two tim es the square o f the side equals one tim es the square o f the diagonal. The square constructed on side 5 is 25. that is to say. the square constructed on side 2 is 4. be in power the side and the diagonal. it is thus that the relationship of the diagonal and the side is found within unity. for these are the numbers which harm onize figures. tetragons. the side will become 5. Just as the numbers have in power relationships with triangles. Some have given the name trapezoid (solid) to such a figure. that is to say one unit to unit. Now a truncated pyramid is (what remains of) a pyramid whose upper part has been taken away. Now. let us add the diagonal to the side. pentagons and other figures. so also we find that the relationships of lateral numbers and diagonal numbers are m anifested in numbers according to generative ratios. and 55 See note V I. In the same way let us add to side 2 the diagonal 3. the diagonal will have the value of 3 units. but if we add two sides to the diagonal. one of which is the diagonal and the other the side.55 THE L A T E R A L A N D D IA G O N A L NUM BERS XXX I. If to the diagonal 3 we add two sides. 2 units to unity. and the square of the diagonal is 9. for that which the side can do twice. because it is necessary that unity. . for the first side and the first diagonal. through analogy with the planar trapezoids. and the side will then have the value of 2 units. we will have 7 units. Therefore since unity is the principle of all figures.56 From this point on the diagonal becomes larger and the side sm aller. since this is what one calls (that which remains of) a triangle of which a straight line parallel to the base has separated off the upper p art. for the units are in equality. which is the principle of all. that is 2 times 2. which is greater by one unit than the double square of 2. the square of the diagonal unit will be less by one unit than the double square of the side unit. Let us suppose for exam ple two units. but one is less by one unit than the double of unity.

57 PERFECT NUMBERS. as aliquot parts. the product will be a per fect num ber. if we multiply this by the last num ber added. and others deficient. Again. are sometimes larger by one unit than the doubles and sometimes sm aller by one unit. which is 2. the sum. among numbers. Those are called perfect which are equal to (the sum of) their aliquot parts. sometimes larger by one unit than the double of the square constructed on the side. m ultiplied by the last num ber added. which is the second perfect num ber. whose square (289) is larger by one unit than the double (288) of the square of 12. Inversely. 2. in such a way that these diagonals and these sides will always be expressible. and its sixth. its third. XXX II. 7. 2. in such a way th at the double does not err by excess or by default. A B U N D A N T NUM BERS AN D D EFICIENT NUMBERS. 36. it has its half. and if we m ultiply this sum by the last term added. and we add them until we obtain a prime. This is how the perfect numbers are created: If we arrange the numbers in a progression by doubles. 1. 3. and 4. 1. The propor tion alternates: the square constructed on the diagonal will be sometimes sm aller. its 14th which is 2 and its 57 See note V II. alternately by excess and by lack. 8.58 Let us then arrange the numbers in a progression by doubles.30 ARITHMETIC that which is constructed on the diagonal 7 is 49. what is lacking in the preceding diagonal is found in excess in the diagonal which follows in power. Elements. Let us add 1 and 2. IX . 4. incom posite number. 1. which is 14. the sum is 3. we will have 6 which is the first perfect num ber (since 1 + 2 + 3 = 6). combined with each of them reestablishing equality. 2. 12 units are obtained. such as 6. gives 28. double. The parts of 6 are in fact its half. Euclid. If we now add the three successive doubles. if the diagonal 7 is added to the side 5. and if two times the side 5 are added to the diagonal 7. in deed. the same unit.In fact. . its seventh which is 4. Furtherm ore. and so forth in continuing the addition. 4. starting from unity. A ll the diagonals are then. others abundant. some are called perfect. its quarter which is 7. 58 Cf. which when added together make 6. which is less by one unit than the double (50) of the square 25. we will have 17. the diagonals com pared to the sides in power. with respect to the squares of the sides. 16.

the half of which is 4. Finally the num ber 3 is the first link and the power of the solid. The deficient number is the number whose aliquot parts added together give a sum less than the original number. which is greater than the original num ber 12. Such is 12. Such is 8.59 It is also said that the number 3 is perfect. and it is both a line and a surface.ARITHMETIC 31 28th which is 1 (and we have 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 2 8 ). the quarter 2. which we will speak of in its place. because the idea of the solid rests on three dimensions. a quarter 3. all of these parts added together give the sum of 16. and the eighth 1. 59 See note VIII. a third 4. The same is found with the num ber 10 which the Pythagoreans. nevertheless. each of the sides of which have the value of two units. because it is the first one which has a beginning. . a m iddle and an end. The abundant num ber is the num ber whose aliquot parts added together make a sum larger than the original number. call perfect for another reason. However. It is in fact an equilateral triangular number. half of which is 6. a sixth 2 and a twelfth 1.

the reason for this consonance cannot be found w ithout * arithm etic. felicity in life. a musical work played by a large sym phony orchestra. will not be found unless it is revealed first through numbers. W e will therefore consider these two harmonies. which is also intelligible. In those days symphony m eant only one thing — agreem ent. accordance. is more easily understood than perceptible har mony.32 MUSIC BOOK CONTAINING THE NUM ERICAL THEOREMS OF M USIC INTRODUCTION Since it is said that there are consonant numbers. learning about the one sensed through instruments. and the intelligible har mony which consists in numbers. This consonance1 has the greatest power. nor to make more widely known the Pythagorean traditions which we have inherited w ithout ourselves claiming to have discovered the least part of it. This harmony. which is a misuse. and this harmony. e. etc. o r literally symphony from the w ord 'Lviufxov'ia. and we will not hesitate to relate w hat our predecessors have discovered. we will add to it a dissertation on the harmony of the world. And after having finished our treatise on all mathem atics. I 1 The w ord sym phony should not be taken w ith its m odern m eaning o f the present. being truth in reason. L ater the word consonance had to be em ployed by E nglish/F rench peoples because they thought that the word symphony w ould be best suited to represent the idea o f a work of music. and harmony in nature. . which is diffused throughout the w orld. i. we have judged it necessary to compose this com pen dium. Desiring then to illustrate to those who wish to study P lato further w hat has been transm itted to us by our pre decessors.

These tw o sounds correspond to the tw o m i o f the sam e octave.2 WHA T IS IN TE R VAL A N D H A R M O N Y III. The anti phonic intervals or opposed sounds are consonant. the Dorian. but only an enharm onic sound. such as the fourth. As for the sounds. The dissonants. The high sounds are those which give the netes. it can become still lower so th at the same sound is found to be median as well. defined sound as a tension of the enharm onic sound. .MUSIC 33 WHA T IS SOUND AN D EN H ARM O N IC SOUND II. It is therefore neither every voice nor every tension of sound which would be called sound. the Phrygian. like that which comes from the mese. such are the Lydian. others low and others medium pitched. as enharm onic. it can have a still higher pitch. And a cer tain grouping. it will no longer be a sound because it will no longer be enharm onic. in discussing the perceptible harmony of instru ments. A nd the blow of the thunderbolt has m ade many a victim W ithout wounds that bleed. or paraphonic such as the fifth and the fourth. The interval is defined as the relationship of sounds among each other. Similarly. are intervals of sounds juxtaposed to each other such as the tone and the diesis (or half-tone). Among the intervals. the nete or the hypate. As Euripides the poet says. IV. it would not be called enharm onic. is called a system of intervals. the fifth and the octave. if it is high-pitched. on the contrary. because depth 2 In th e o ctaco rd o r eight-stringed lyre. the hypate the lowest. and if it is low pitched. Harm ony is the order of systems. one never regards the violent noise of the thunderbolt. and for that reason. others dissonant. V. Now sound is said to be enharm onic when. The consonant intervals are antiphonic. if the sound is so low pitched that there can be none lower. Thrasyllus. such as the tetracord. the pentacord and the octacord. the injuries from which are always fatal. some are consonant. some are high. If then we imagine a sound which is higher than all others. the mese corresponds to the la. the low sounds those which give the hypates and the medium sounds those which give the interm ediate strings. the nete gave the highest sound. such as the octave and the double octave.

which are composed of intervals which are themselves composed of sounds. says: Likewise. and letters are the prim ary signs of language. and would more rightly be called noise. since discourse is com posed of letters and. resolves into letters. one must regard as true sounds. and every voice being a noise and noise being a percussion of air which is broken by it. . The sounds are dissonant and not consonant whose interval is a tone or a diesis. The speeds without relationship result in sounds w ithout rela tionship and dissonance. some being higher. it is high if the m ove ment is rapid. the opinion attributed to the Pythagoreans. the essential parts of verbs and nouns are the syllables com posed of letters. strong if the m ovement is violent. These tensions are defined in different m anners.4 Let us examine. . weak if the m ovem ent is faint. and paraphonic inter vals are consonant because the sounds are neither in unison nor dis sonant. pentachords and oc tachords. do not deserve the name of sounds. low if the m ovement is slow. 4 The tension o f a sound is now called the height. Every m odulation and every sound being a voice. On the other hand. and into which it definitively resolves its e lf. others lower. and which. In the same way. The sounds differ from each other through tensions. or according to none. because the tone and the diesis are the principle of consonance but they are not consonance itself. indivisible and the shortest element. but there is a sim ilar. w hether written or spoken. perceptible interval. that which makes up the principle part of sound and of all melody are the systems called tetrachords. Adrastus. the student of A ristotle. belong3 See footnote 1. in his well known treatise On Harmony and Consonance. in this regard.34 MUSIC opposed to height produces a consonance. in the end. when the air is struck and put into movement.. On the contrary. these sounds being the prim ary and indivisi ble elements of which all melody is composed. . O N CONSONANCES3 VI. properly speaking. in discourse. verbs and nouns are the most im portant parts. being elem en tary. it is evident that in immobile air neither noise nor tone would exist. sound is produced. The speeds of these move ments occur according to certain relationships.

the fourth. larger or equal intervals. not ju st any letter com bined with any other letter produces a sylla ble or a word. a kind of sympathy. Of these sounds. and so forth. having been added to the ancient eight — the denom inations of the ancient consonances.MUSIC ( 35 ing to m odulation. is produced. This series of m odulations is not situated by chance. it is not the com bination of just 5 T he superpartial o r sesquipartial relatio n sh ip is th a t in which the antecedent is g reater than the consequent by one unit. on the eight-stringed lyre. instrum ents were given a greater num ber of strings. some are concordant only. a certain range that the sound can travel. for example. It is in accord by opposition with the last and highest which is that of the nete. likewise in melody. nor w ithout art and according to a single mode. several other consonances have been found: added to the consonance of the octave are sm aller. Next come the eighths which include these two consonances and which we call the diapason (octave). the fifth and the octave. However. the double octave an a the fourth. whether m ultiple or superpartial5 or simply of num ber to number. the first to form such a concor dance are the fourths that form a consonance with themselves. 4 to 3 and generally th a t of n 4. the octave and the fifth. with which it has the same consonance. were nevertheless retained. and according to superpartial ratios. and is called the hypate. more of them high than low.1 to n. like th a t o f 3 to 2. F o r in the same way that in discourse. and the sum of the two results in a new consonance. . when two sounds being produced at the same time result in a mixed sound which has a sweetness and a quite particular charm. as far as a sound perceptible to the ear can be pro duced. and the double octave. music having made progress. those which have a particular relationship to each other. Indeed. Among these concordant sounds. less in others. They form a consonance with each other when a sound which is produced by a string of an instrum ent. others are symphonic according to prim ary ratios and best known m ultiples. such as the oc tave and the fourth. and for this reason are called fourths. The fifths in turn give the fifth. and also. beginning with the lowest sound and going up to the highest and in versely. a range which is greater in some. but following certain deter mined modes which m ust be observed in different types of melody. w hether spoken or written. causes the other strings to resonate by means of a certain affinity. the first sound is found to be the lowest. rendering more m ultiple sounds — a large num ber of sounds. T here is. in fact. And if any of the preceding consonances is added again to the oc tave. A nd when.

but it is necessary that this com bination take place. VIII. which is composed of three intervals: half-tone. it then. not because half of a sound is indicated. This consonance. following the law of defined modes. and continuing to m odulate. A m odulation of this type is called the tetrachord system. can not a t tain any interval other than that of a to n e . W hen a voice which is m odulated within the limits of its range goes from a lower sound to a higher sound. but because it is a musical in terval less than the tone. produces the interval appropriate to m odulation. THE CH RO M ATIC A N D THE EN H ARM O N IC FORMS OF M E L O D Y IX. The interval of the tone is very easy to distinguish through the difference between the first and best known consonances: the fifth is greater than the fourth by one tone. in its turn. any more than can any other sesquipartial. as we have just said. together with the first. passes to another sound. or which. and another tone. cannot be divided into two equal parts. O N THE DIATONIC. the extremities. a tone. considered in the sesquioctave ratio (%). THE TONE A N D THE H A L F TONE VII. form a consonance. . is called tone. going through the interval of a tone.MUSIC any sounds that produces the well ordered sound. that is to say the lowest and the highest.t This produces another m elodic sound which is apt to m odulation. The easiest part to appreciate and the measure of w hat is called the range of sound and of any sound interval. producing the in terval of a half-tone. which we have t Theon is expounding the tetrachord theory o f A ristoxenus. since 9 is not divisible by 2. in the same m anner that we call certain letters demi-vowels. but because it does not com pletely compose the sound itself. in the same way that the principle measure of space which sur rounds all moving bodies is called the cubit. and these four sounds. the consonance of the fourth. The half-tone is not designated as such because it is the half of the tone in the way that the half-cubit is the half division of the cubit as m aintained by Aristoxenes. It can ac tually be dem onstrated that the tone. and this higher conso nant sound will give.

followed by a half-tone and a com plete trihem itone. in the ordinary sense. This m odulation is made then by a half-tone. again passing through a half-tone. also assigned the d iatonic type to the harm ony of the spheres:. This type of m odulation is called diatonic. or because of the vigour and firm character which it manifests. at the beginning o f the second century. 7 " Now. rises to a higher sound.. 7 P lato . W hen the voice produces a first sound. produces another after this. starting from the lowest note. II.MUSIC 37 said is called the fourth. There is a third type of m odulation which is called enhar monic. is then composed of two tones and a half tone. it requires much art and study and is only acquired through long practice.“diatonum (genus) mundanael musicae doctrina Platonis adscribitur. because it diverges from the first. noble and m ore natural. This is the type in which. the d iesis. as taken by Plato. either because. by progression through a diesis. and it can produce no other sound than that which limits this tetrachord in rising towards the higher sounds. then another diesis and a double tone.” M acrobius. The diatonic type. th a t is to say.. is simple. it goes up by two tones. This m odulation is very difficult. expressing sad affections and violent passions. and this caused him to give it the nam e which applies to everything w ell-ordained. X. The Pythagoreans call w hat is now called the half-tone. and then passes on to a third. and which. . on the other hand. and proceeding with m odula tion. CONCERNING THE DIESIS XII. according to M acrobius. it can observe no other interval than that of a com plete trihem itone. the voice m odulates the tetrachord. and consider it the sm allest ap preciable interval. gives the consonance of the fourth. The disciples of A ristoxenes call the quarter-tone or half of the half-tone the diesis minor. the com plem ent of the first tetrachord. and as he said himself. and this type of m odulation is called chrom atic. XI.6 Aristoxenes says that the enharm onic type is so-called because it is the best. In som nium Scipionis. and it changes color. 4. and passing through a half-tone. with the lowest.

but which then were called diesis. W ith the sound pro8 Cf. 191. If we divide a stretched string into four equal parts on the harm onic canon. and for wind instrum ents by the diam eter of the cavity.38 MUSIC TYPES Diatonic Chrom atic half-tone INTERVALS tone tone trihem itone ditone half-tone half-tone Enharm onic diesisdiesis THE D ISC O V E R Y OF THE N U M ERICAL LA WS OF CONSONANCES X lla.9 It is Pythagoras. all things otherwise being equal. Among the other concordant sounds. those which produce the octave and fourth are in the rela tionship of 8 to 3 which is polyepim er. 9 T he relationship o f 256 to 243 is also called leim m a and is the excess o f the fourth over the double tone. the consonance will follow the in dicated relationship. in what is called the harm onic canon. th at is 4 a : (Vs)'2 = 4 3 x ‘“/si = 256/ m3. through the length and thickness of strings as well as through the tension applied to them by the turning of a peg. since it is equal to 2 + %. who appears to have dis covered these relationships. C halcidius. those which give the tone are in sesquioctave (%) ratio. W hatever the m ethod chosen from among those we have just cited. and the relationship is sesquitertian. / / . It is Pythagoras who appears to have first found that the consonant sounds are in relationship to one another. Didot. Paris. are in the relationship of the num ber 256 to the num ber 243. or by the weight of disks or the level of the w ater in vases. F or the moment. with that produced by three parts of the string. let us content ourselves with the dem onstration which.8 The sounds which produce the fourth are in sesquitertian (%) relationship to each other. the sound produced by the whole string will form. p. The sounds which give the octave and fifth are in triple ratio. those which produce the fifth are in sesquialter (%) ratio. and those which give the half-tone. In Timaeum Platonis. or by the more fam iliar m ethod of suspending weights from them. the accord of the fourth. we say. X L IV . is obtained by stringlengths. by greater or less intensity of breath. and those which give the double octave are in quadruple ratio.

One does not use a single string in every case as in the harm onic canon. 1. with the sound produced by 8 parts of the string. since the relationship is quadruple. 3. The quaternary. 3 to 2 for the fifth. and the double octave. the consonance of the fifth. (Toulis. W ith the sound produced by a quarter of the string. It is said that Lasus of Herm ione and the disciples of Hippasus of M etapontus. and the relationship is double. %. includes all the consonances. which is helpful in the calculation of the consonances into numbers. H alf of one of these strings was plucked by pressing in the m iddle of it with a finger. with the sound produced by half of the string. Furtherm ore. observed the rapidity and slowness of the motions of li quids created in vessels. then they were both struck. for the relationship is 3. one was left empty and the other filled half way with a liquid. the accord of the double octave will be produced.MUSIC 39 duced by two parts or half of the string. 2. the octave and fifth. and 4 to 3 for the fourth. the sound produced by the whole string will give. since it contains those of the fourth.) . The same relationships as we have seen are obtained by the divi sion of strings. obtaining with half of one and the entire other ia This is the tetractys (in GreekTerpajcTv?) and it was the nam e Pythagoreans gave to the num ber 10 since it is the product o f l + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. 4. but two equally stretched strings in unison. %. the latter of the Pythagorean school. triple and quadruple ratios (that is to say. and 4 ). for the relationship is sesquialter and. the consonance of the fourth was ob tained. Again leaving one vessel empty and filling the other up to one quarter. the octave. others by lengths. the relationship of the empty spaces was 2 to 1 for the octave. with regard to the sound produced by a quarter of the string. the sound produced by three parts of the string will give.1 0 Some prefer to obtain these consonances by weights.3. If we divide the string into 9 equal parts. it will give the conso nance of the octave and a fifth. ses quialter. 2. then striking them. and others by numbered movements. For the accord of the fifth. double. thus obtaining the consonance of the octave. the interval of one tone. and yet others by the capacity of the vessels. it will form the accord of the octave. Taking several sim ilar vessels of the same capacity. which are the sesquitertian. a third of a vase was filled. for the relationship is sesquioctave. the fifth.

A sim ilar experim ent has been made on the flute and the same relationships were found. the two other thirds and the entire string gave the accord of the fifth. a rapid m otion corresponding to a high pitched sound. The schools of Eudoxus and A rchytas thought that the relation ship of consonances could be expressed by numbers. the octave. the high. pierced in the m anner of a flute. to obtain the consonance of the fourth. one will hear the accord of the fifth. they also recognized that these relationships express m otion. Tone is the resting of the sound on a single intonation. the low. due to the distance of the holes. a quarter of one of the two cords was plucked. and the other. XIII. for it is said that the sound should always be sim ilar to itself and not ad mit the least difference. If it is divided into four. In fact. in blowing into the whole flute and into the three quarters. because it is m ore retarded. one blows into the whole flute. of equal thickness and of equal diam eter. is rapid. . If then one blows into two pipes. this is why among tones.40 MUSIC string. In the same way. and a slow m otion corresponding to a low pitched sound. nor be composed of different tensions of lowness or highness. if with a flute divided into two equal parts. in determ ining the consonances of these cords. one will have the consonance of the fourth. the air which escapes from the tube which is two times less long has a double speed and results in the consonance of the octave. suspended the weights from two strings in the rela tionships which we have m entioned and that had been obtained by the length of the strings. leaving the other one whole. If the flute is divided into three. and this cause produces the same conso nances in a single flute. the lower tone coming from the longer pipe and the higher tone coming from the shorter pipe. W hen they were plucked in thirds only. But sounds are in part high pitched and in part low pitched. is slow. because it strikes and penetrates the air in a more continuous and quick manner. The cause of this must be attributed to the velocity and to the slowness of the m otion. and one takes three parts at the top and one at the bottom . Those who have measured consonances with weights. two thirds being taken from the tongue end and one third from the far end. then up to the hole which divides it into two parts one will hear the consonance of the octave. one. and one blows into the whole flute and into the two thirds. one of which is two times longer than the other.

that we judge the size of the intervals with our ear and that the ratios confirm the testimony of our senses. 8. such as 9 to 6. the ratio ‘2 ’ of 12 to 6 breaks down into two. since 4 is to 3 in the sesquitertian relation ship and the double of 4 is 8. He says. one subtracts the sesquitertian ratio of 8 to 6. 12. Thus 8 is % of 6 and 12 is % of 8. and the sesquialter relation ship (%) of 9 to 6. 1 2 As the consonance of the octave is in double ratio and the conso nance of the fourth is in sesquitertian ratio (%). It is evident that the com positions and the divisions of consonances have the same relationship and harmony to one another as the com positions and the divisions of the numbers which measure the consonances. Now the ratio of the octave is double. Likewise.MUSIC 41 This then is w hat was essential for us to relate concerning the dis covery (of the numerical laws) of consonances. = Vi. the tone being in the sesquioctave relationship (%). one finds that the sesquialter rela tionship (%) also surpasses the sesquitertian relationship (%) by the sesquioctave ratio (%). W e will explain presently how the sounds which have a half-tone interval between them. In fact. 12 T h at is % x » /. 1 Likewise if one adds to this the 1 sesquitertian ratio of 12 to 9. 1 3 " T h a t is % : % = %. the sesquialter ratio of 12 to 8 will be com pleted. THE R E LA TIONSHIP OF THE A D D ITIO N A N D SU BTRAC TIO N OF CONSONANCES X llla . and 12 is the double of 6: one has the numbers 6. As the fifth surpasses the consonance of the fourth by one tone. in fact. th at of the fourth is sesquitertian (%) and that of the fifth is sesquialter (%). as we have de scribed them. are in the relationship of 256 to 243. Thus the octave is composed of the fifth and the fourth and is divided into the fifth and the fourth. as we have already explained. if from a sesquialter ratio. 1 T h at is 2 x Vs = */s = 2 + Vs. the sum of the two give the ratio of 8 to 3. It is clear that the ratio 2 is composed of % and % and is resolved into the same numbers. = 'V . :1 . since it is composed of three tones and a half. Let us return now to what A drastus has said on the subject of these instrum ents which were prepared according to certain relationships for the purpose of discovering the consonances. the ses quitertian relationship (%) of 12 to 9. the rem ainder is the sesquioctave ratio of 9 to 8.

says Adrastus. I respond in answer to this that these latter. and that of the fourth is sesquitertian (%) and it is of both that the double octave is composed. the listeners would no longer be able to distinguish easily the sounds. the relationship of 8 to 6 is sesquitertian and the triple of 8 is 24. the ratio of the octave and the fifth is 3. considering the natural things and the soul. = '■/. that it is not necessary to push this calculation so far. since the triple of 6 is 18. which gives the triple ratio for the relationship of 18 to 6 . the triple ratio added to the sesquitertian ratio gives the quadruple ratio. = 3. since it is com posed of two double ratios: the double of 6 is 12 and the double of 12 is 24 which is the quadruple of 6. and the moderns have the pentedecacord (the 15 string lyre) whose most considerable extention contains only the double octave (with one additional tone). for the relationship of 9 to 6 is sesquialter and the relationship of 18 to 9 is double.1 4 8 octave = 2 V V 4_______ __ 3_ fourth = % / 18__________ 9 octave = 2 V my I 6 fifth = % * octave and fourth = 2 + % octave and fifth = 3 The double octave is sim ilarly in quadruple ratio. and th at besides. In the same way. It is therefore correct that the quadruple consonance is seen here. 1 5 P lato carried the diatonic type and the extension of this system up to the fourth octave with an additional fifth and one tone. or rather. which is the quadruple of 6. the sesquialter rela tionship added to two indeed gives this ratio. P lato. according to what we have said at the beginning. 1 See note IX. extends the " T h at is •/. considering only the practical point of view.42 MUSIC The octave plus a fifth being in triple ratio. x '• /. have determ ined things in this m anner because they were pursuaded that even those who com pete for the singing prize cannot raise their voices above these limits. % rds of which are 24 which is the quadruple of 6. the same relationships will always be found result ing in the com position of consonances. on the contrary. 1 “ See note X. . One can push these notions as far as one likes. since Aristoxenus lim ited the extension of the diagram which represents the different modes to the double octave and the fifth. which are necessarily com posed of harmony. 1 If it 6 is objected. However.

consequently gives a greater force to the higher sound by itself which has. is the fourth. It is evident. in order to be able to em brace com pletely every thing th at the solid body of the world is made up of. can go on to infinity. for the lengths and thicknesses of the strings. Because of this. slowing the movement. . and he ex tended harmony to this point. the fifth is only separated from the fourth by the interval of one tone. THE L E I M M A XIV . the largest num ber must be attributed to the greatest force.MUSIC 43 calculation up to the solid numbers (8 and 27) and joins the terms by two means. since it is through it th at the others are found. th at a lower sound possessing by itself a greater force than the suspended weight. of two strings equal in length and thickness and sim ilar in all other ways. for in these instrum ents the lowest sounds result from their length and the size of the holes which allow for the release of a greater quantity of air which is subse quently put into motion. is sufficient in itself to retain its own harmony and consonance. according to this. producing a very strong tension. as in the trum pet and in the organ of the voice in which the feeble and tem pered sounds have (also) a greater force of their own. the one which sustains the greater weight will produce the highest pitched sound because of the greater tension. says Plato. for exam ple to the tension which is made by the suspension of weights. result from the dim inution of the breath. since it is composed of these two consonances. Indeed. They also. he says that it is suitable to attribute the largest num bers to the lowest sounds. a force less than the suspended weight. on the contrary. The same thing is found with the wind instruments. The first of all the consonances. by the name of Zeus. since the greatest weight. which by nature. This is in agreem ent with the train of thought. One finds that the octave is the sum of the fourth and the fifth. In addition. The tone can be defined as the interval which separates the fifth from the fourth. It is then evident that the lowest sounds have their appropriate force according to the largest number. although this would not appear to be so for certain tensions. cause them to be weak and prevent them from vibrating easily and from rapidly striking the surrounding air.

1 7 This is the m ethod which was used to find this relationship. . now 8 m ultiplied by itself. On the Creation o f the Soul in theTim aeus 16. that is to say by a ses quioctave interval (%). 8 1 x 3 = 243. vessels. Macrobius . 17. 72. 9 m ultiplied by itself. but that it is in a num ber to number relationship. 81. since the fourth which is in sesquitertian relationship is greater than the double tone. it is known that the first term would not be 6 .44 MUSIC The ancients took the tone as the first interval of the voice. and it is necess ary to take % ths of % ths. As for the interval called the half-tone. 7 2 x 3 = 2 1 6 . so that we have ( 8 . 9) 64. They dem onstrated this with disks. Commentary on the dream o f Scipio. 1. 192. while Plato says that this in terval is two tones and a rem ainder (leimma). gives the ear a sensation of something fixed and well deter mined. and we will have the series of the following terms. the voice.7 2 . 216. or 256. 18 O ne m ultiplies by 3 in o rd er to be ab le to take 4 rds o f the first term to obtain the num ber A which corresponds to the consonance o f the fourth. The consonance of the fourth which is in sesquitertian ratio (%). 81. II. T im aeus 36B . in reaching this in terval. since 6 is not divisible by 8 and one must take % ths of it. 72. 9) 64. P lutarch. suspended weights and in several other ways. gives 81. gives 64 and 9 x 8 gives 72. 192. 243. Everyone agrees that the interval of the fourth is greater than two tones and less than three tones. A fter 243 let us take 192 x%. and others that it is a leimma (a remainder). 216. The first interval (con tained in the fourth) is thus the tone. pipes. They found that the tone is in sesquioctave ratio (%). with out taking into account the half-tone or the diesis. N either would it be 8 . for if % ths of 8 are 9. which is that of 256 to 243 and the difference in this ratio is the num ber 13. which comes after this.9 6 4 . is not then com pleted by a tone. W e have then ( 8 . Aristoxenus says that it is com posed of two and a half perfect tones. some say it is a perfect half-tone.. finally. it would not follow to then take % ths of 9. The ear can again grasp with precision the following inter val.8 1 . the bottom sesquioctaves the second sesquioctaves the third sesquioctaves 8. 243. 17 Cf. If now each of these numbers is m ultiplied 18 by 3 we have 64 x 3 = 192. strings. It was always the relationship of 8 to 9 which allowed the ear to discern the interval of a tone. W e take therefore the bottom sesquioctave 8 and 9. and he adds that this rem ainder (leimma) does not have a name.

1 % «3 is a relationship which is less than Vis. the half-tone will be half of 1 + %. and the related num bers in T ab le II on pg. See note XI. 243 leimma = 25% »3 256 leimma = 25% 43 . con sidering th at the excess of the fourth term over the third is not 13. 148. the consonance of the fourth (%) will be com pleted by two tones and the leimma of which we have spoken. or 256. although some believe it possible judging this question not 19 The h a lf o f the tone (1 + %) is not 1 + Ms but hence not a num ber in T heon’s sense. But nothing pre vents us from finding in other numbers the same relationship which exists between 256 and 243. they have the product 384. is less than the half-tone. in order to be able to take the series of %ths two times. which gives 48. gives the relationship of the leimma. that is to say 1+ .MUSIC 45 If %rds of 192. t They m ultiply the term 6 by 8 . Now. 192 ________ 216 tone = % ____ tone = % fourth = % There are some who chose the num ber 384 for the first term. however. strings 4 to 11. Now the relationship which exists between 256 and 243 is the same as that between 512 and 486. t In the com plete octave scale there are tw o consecutive tetrachords. 19 It is. %rds of which is equal to 512. for P lato did not take a determ ined num ber but only th at ratio of the number. for 384 x % = 432 and 432 x % = 486 which. Between these two terms are found two sesquioctaves. of which the difference is 13. the num ber th at P lato said must be the leimma. is added. with 512. since 512 is the double of 256 and 486 is the double of 243. It is manifest that this interval o f the numbers 256 and 243. 384 432 486 512 tone = % tone = % fourth = % Some say th at these numbers are not conveniently selected. 150 for the standard G reek octave. See Pg. a rela tionship which is itself less than Vie. because the tone being 1 + %. impossible to divide the ratio 1 + % into two equal parts. and in m ultiplying this num ber again by 8 .

this interval being expressed by whatever numbers. and we know that it can never be divided into two equal parts. XVI. for unity is not divisible. We have 6 .46 MUSIC by reasoning but by ear. nor in perceptible and visible intervals. as the product of the cut when one cuts something with a saw. to which consonance it belongs. 8 . even when our senses do not give us evidence of it. of which % rds equals 8 and % nds equals 9. Thus there will always be a certain part of the tone which will be absorbed. and sometimes. for it is the leimma which makes the fourth less than two and a half perfect tones. there are then three things: the two divisions and the part subtracted by the bridge. we perceive it by the ear in sounds. In partitioning. the difference between the terms cannot always be divided into two equal parts: thus the difference of 27 between the terms of the relationship of 216 to 243 is not susceptible to division into two equal parts. It is evident that the tone cannot be divided into two equal parts. and cannot be so thin that in partitioning the tone. pg. Sometimes we grasp the tone by the operation of the intelligence. a part of that which is divided is found to be destroyed. W hen a cut is made. and then. XV. as we have just shown. To begin with. the first num ber divisible by both 2 and 3 has been taken. 44) for T heon is m aking a fine distinction A ristoxenus considered irrelevant to the ear. the base of the sesquioctave interval being the relationship of 9 to 8 . As in certain tangible things some parti cles are lost. it would intercept absolutely nothing from the end of the first part and from the beginning of the second. since 9 is %ths of 8 . 53. See II X X IX . . This num ber is 6 . and 9 and the excess of the interval % over the interval % is %. 20 The difference of the terms which is the unit . The fourth being in the relationship of %. It is as in the harm onic canon: the bridge of a stringed instrum ent which is perceptible has. is assuredly not divisible. and the fifth in the relationship of %. Through the act of the division itself. the base sesquioctave % has the indivisi ble unit as the difference between its terms. t T he two and a h alf perfect tones o f T heon are not those of A ristoxenus (pg. it is the same in all other things. we would say that it is necessary to consider it as belong ing to the fourth. a certain width. finally. This tension was given the name of tone. some sm all part " T he base o f a relationship is this relationship reduced to its most sim ple expression. here is how the tone has been found.f However. but into two numbers which are 13 and 14. neither in numbers. regardless of its construction. concerning the leimma. and some times we look for it in numbers and intervals. If it is asked.

The word \ 0 y 0 9 is taken to have several meanings by the students of Aristotle. in adjoining them by the ends. for example. and it is in vain that we would wish to reproduce the same sound twice by splitting the sound. size. W ith regard to the ideal tone.MUSIC 47 is perm anently lost. for example. a part of the string being lost. W e would give some resonance. and if you wish to once more stretch all the parts. shows the property of w hat is spoken of. mass. but there will always be a difference. before dividing the shaft of a lance or a reed or any other long object. if you divide a string into several parts and you cut it. although im per ceptible to the ear. or into ink or honey or bitumen. you will not be able to prevent. while it seems to be above the second by only a half-tone. power. This is why the two half-tones will never be complete. you will find that after the cutting the developm ent will be less. in everything. It is as if one wished to make two punctures perfectly similar. I produce two half-tones instead of one single tone. one might conceive that it could be divided into two equal parts. The same thing will oc cur if one wishes to plunge his finger the same way twice into a li quid. If. the lowest cannot be simi lar to the highest. in trying to retain the same quantity. t The argum ent here depends on knowing that the first sem itone is 256 : 243 and the second is % H .« % 4 3 = « 8% 0 4 1 . the language which the moderns call oral. you will find the length of all the parts put together is less than the length of the object before division: Likewise. We should speak now of the harmony which is contained in numbers and to explain what the term is which. gravity. or to pluck a string twice in the exact manner. you measure and you next divide it into several parts. after having heard a tone followed by another tone. ON THE VARIOUS MEANINGS OF THE WORD \ 0 y 0 5 (logos) X V III. there will always be more or less a difference of force applied. number. And neither in sounds does one find the splitting of the tone into two equal parts:+ for if. but this half-tone is neither equal nor sim ilar to that which is found between the first sound and the second. going up two intervals. the third sound is higher than the second and it is one tone higher than the first. by three emissions of the sound. XVII.

X X. such as lengths with lengths. and it is in this sense that we say: taking account of something. to find a rela tionship between two things which are not of the same species: thus one cannot com pare the cubit (a measure of length) and the mine (a measure of weight). surfaces with surfaces. since it is to this that it applies. The ratio of proportion of two terms of the same species is a certain relationship that these terms have to each other. for discourse pro ceeding from the mind and expressed by the voice. such as the double. the chenice (a measure of volum e for dry things) and the cotyle (a measure of volum e for liquids). W e call ‘term s’ homogenous things or things of the same species. or the triple. The calculation of bankers is also called \ 0 y 0 5 . or not taking account of it (word of honor). . taken for the purpose of being com pared with each other. and fables.___________________________________ 48 MUSIC and m ental reasoning w ithout the emission of voice are both desig nated in this way. The ratio of form is also called this as well as the seminal ratio and many others. and the ratio of proportion. says Adrastus. for the explana tion of the elements of the universe. according to Plato. and sound with sound. solids with solids. W hen we examine what relationship exists between the talent and the mine. The name Xo-yo? is also given to the eulogy. and it is in this sense that it is said that there is a rela tionship of one thing to another thing. the definition of things which explains their essence (reason). as is the discourse of Demosthenes and Lysias in their w ritten works (speech). the tales of Lybius. The relationship of proportion or ratio is also called this. essence with essence. weights with weights. we are saying that they are terms of the same species. numbers with numbers. tim e with time. indeed all things of the same species. but one can com pare things of the same species with one another. the syllogism and induc tion. m otion with m otion. It is this ratio that we propose now to seek. THE RA TIO OF PROPOR TION XIX . to the tale and to the proverb. the white and the sweet or the hot. But. It is impossible. fluids with fluids. It also has the meaning of the explanation of the elements of the Universe: the recognition of things which honor and are honored. liquids with liquids. dry things with dry things. the word \ 0 7 0 5 is used with four different meanings: for m ental thought w ithout words. color with color.

or equal. since the tone and the leimma are the principles of consonance and have the vir tue of com pleting it w ithout. Such are the relationships which com pare the same quantity. The equal rela tionship is one and always the same. 100 to 100. and the relationship of 256 to 243 is a leimma. some represent consonances. and others are neutral. the sub-quadruple (*/<). however. V. It is the same with other homogenous things. the sub-sesqioctave (% ) and the relationship of 243 to 256. the ses quialter (1 + V 2) in the fifth. X XI. and it prevails over all others as being elementary. the sub-sesquiter tian (3A). and the others are foreign to it. II. The proportion is the relationship of ratios with each other as 2 is to 1 and 8 is to 4. is found in the conso nance of the octave 21. Am ong these ratios. some are m ultiples (that is to say integers). but also the epim er and the polyepim er and other ratios which we will clearly explain later on. Am ong the neutral ones. Among relationships that are less than unity . The m ultiple ratios which represent the consonances are the dou ble ratio. R elationships are greater. The double ratio. or 2 to 2. . the sub-triple (VO. not only m ultiples and superpartials. the sesquitertian (1 + VO in the fourth. 22 Cf. the triple ratio and the quadruple ratio: the sesquipartial ratios are the sesquialter ratio (V 2 = 1 + ‘A). As for the sesquioctave ratio (1 + Vs). others are subsesquipartial and others are neutral. Among the neutral ratios are the ses quioctave ratio (1 + Vs) and the ratio of 256 to 243 which are not consonances but are also not beyond consonance. 22 In arithm etic there are ratios of numbers. the triple ratio in the consonance of the oc tave plus the fifth. it is one tone. X II and X III. O p posite to these ratios are the sub-double ('A). such as 1 com pared to 1. Among the relationships that are larger than unity. 10 to 10. there is the sesquioc tave ratio (9/s = 1 + Vs) and the relationship of 256 to 243. and the sesquitertian ratio (Vs = 1 + Vs). others are sesquipartials. XXII. It remains the same for the inverse relationships. some are subm ultiple.MUSIC 49 because they are both weights. lesser. being consonances. The fourth is com 21 Cf. the quadruple ratio in the double octave. the subsesquialter (V 3). as we have seen above. II.

and among the relationships sm aller than unity. there are the sub-m ultiples. the relationship is double. others are neutral. for example. Each sesquipartial relationship is given. the relationship is triple. as Adrastus teaches. Reciprocally. because it surpasses it by one unit which is a third of 3. third. and others epimer. if it measures it four times the relationship is quadruple. plus unity which is half of 2. The relationship which is greater than unity by one third of the sm aller term. that is. The relationship is m ultiple when the larger term con tains the sm aller several times. the one . The larger term is given the name of the num ber of times the sm aller measures it: if. the third of the triple te r m . such as 3/z and %.. there are m ultiple relationships. 6 contains one times 4. and so forth. plus 2 which is half of 4. a particular denom ination. if it measures it three times. Thus the one which is greater than unity by half of the sm aller term. others polyepimer. has been called sesquialter since the larger quantity contains the whole of the sm aller plus a half of it. Likewise 6 surpasses 4 by 2 units which is half of 4. receives a denom ination corresponding to the m ultiple ratio: it is called the half of the double term. the octave of one fifth and one fourth. and the others are inverse relationships larger than unity. Thus the num ber 4 is ses quipartial in relationship to 3. and the ratio is called half. but the relation ships of proportion must precede them. it measures it two times. THE SU PERPARTIAL OR SESQ U IPARTIAL RELATIO N SH IP XXIV. the sm aller term as part of the larger. after the designation of the fraction. such as "A. is called sesquitertian. X X III. that is to say when the larger term is greater than the sm aller by a certain quantity which is a part of it. the fifth of three tones and a leimma. 3 indeed contains one times 2. while others are sub-sesquipartial. The relationship is called sesquipartial when the larger term contains the sm aller term plus a part of the sm aller term one time.50 MUSIC posed of two tones and a leimma. and so forth. while others are sesquipartial. Thus according to the principles of arithm etic. others m ultisuperpartial. when the sm aller term ex actly measures the larger without there remaining any part left over. .

its half and its third. the relation ship of 2 to 3 is called sub-sesquialter. other epim er relationships can be recognized which are greater than unity by two. sim ilar as two-thirds. the num ber 8 contains 5 and three-fifths of 5. then the ses quiquartan relationship (1 + 'A) and so forth indefinitely. the relation ships called sesquiquintan (1 + Vs). next comes the triple. A relationship is called epimer when the larger term con tains the sm aller one tim e plus several other parts of it. The parts are different when the largest term contains the sm allest and in addition. as in the relationship of 7 to 4. by analogy. the num ber 7 contains 5 plus two-fifths of 5. by Zeus 23. also in a previous page. and sesquiseptan (1 + *A) are found. In the same way again the relationship of 3 to 4 is called sub-sesquitertian. Thus the num ber 5 contains 3 plus two-thirds of 3. and so forth in creasing indefinitely. for in the same way that the relationship of 3 to 2 is called sesquialter. THE EPIM ER R E LA TIONSHIP XXV. Dupuis inferred and consequently censored it out of his transla tion. then the quadruple.2 = 1 + Via + Via = 1 + ‘A + ‘A . T he French tran slato r does not m ention it in French. the relationships of the sm aller terms to the larger terms are called sub-sesquipartial. always proceeding by diminishing. as in the relationship of 11 to 6. as in the relationship of 19 to 12 24. two-fifths. Similarly. or its half and its quarter. the third and the quarter. all of which are sesquipartials. the first and largest is the sesquialter relationship(l + X because the fraction V 2 is the first. three or a greater num ber of parts. Am ong the m ultiple relationships. Am ong the sesquipartial relationships. such as 5A or 10/s. and in continuing in the same manner. Inversely. 23 This exclam ation “ by Z eus” actually exists in the ancient G reek text as met. Perhaps he thought including ex clam ations w ould be beyond the scope o f his work. (Toulis) 44 In fact we have "A = 1 + 5 = 1 + 3 + V« = 1 + *A + 'A A A 7A = 1 + 3A = 1 + *A + 'A = 1 + V* + 'A ‘Via = 1 + 7 . either sim i lar parts or different parts. or again. and so on. It is not a colloquialism as I assume M r. A). som ething beyond any doubt. T he truth is th at a statem ent follow ed or preceeded by this exclam ation “ by Z eu s” was the ultim ate. the first and sm allest is the double. sesquisixtan (1 + Ve).MUSIC 51 which is greater than unity by a fourth. is called sesquiquartan. etc. the largest and the one which most closely approaches the whole. Then comes the sesquitertian relationship (1 + V 3 ) .

the ratio of the sm aller term to the larger. two-thirds of 3. and there is a rem ainder of 2 which is a quarter of 8. but when the larger gives a rem ainder which is at the same time a rem ainder of the smaller. They occur in every case where. of the two proposed num bers. and the relationship is called trisesquitertian. along with two or several parts of the latter. the relationship of 11 to 4 is double with three-quarters in excess 074 = 2 + 3A = 2 + V>+ 74). A ratio of num ber to num ber is w hat takes place when the larger has none of the relationships we have spoken of with the . Also it is said that the relation ship of 7 to 3 is bisesquitertian. but there is a rem ainder formed of several parts of the sm aller number. and this takes place each time that the sm aller num ber does not exactly measure the larger. the relationship of 9 to 4 is bisesquiquartan. Thus 8 con tains 2 times 3 and in excess. but comes to 24 rather than 26. X X V II. O ther m ultisuperpartial relationships are recognized in the same manner. since 3 does not exactly measure 14. in the preceding relationship. but 4 times 3 are 12. Likewise 9 contains 2 times 4 and the fourth of 4 in addition. as in the relationship of 14 to 3. the sm aller does not measure the larger exactly. Inversely the hypepim er rela tionship.52 MUSIC whether these parts be sim ilar or not. 10 contains 3 times 3 along with the third of 3. Thus the relationship 26 to 8 is m ultisuperpartial because 3 times 8 does not give 26 com pletely. likewise the rela tionship of 11 to 3 is triple with two-thirds in excess (3 + V 3 ) . 2 times 3 and in addition. is the one which is obtained by taking. To the polyepim er relationship is opposed the hypo-polyepim er relationship (the inverse relationship). THE M U LTISU PERP ARTIAL AN D POLYEPIM ER RELATIO N SH IPS XXV I. 7 contains in this way. whether they be sim ilar or different. X X V III. and the relationship is called double with two-thirds in excess (2 + V3). The relationship is called m ultisuperpartial or multisesquipartial when the larger term contains the sm aller two or more times plus a part of this sm aller term. a third of 3. It is easy to find many other polyepim er relationships. and of 14 there re mains 2 which is two parts of three and which is called two-thirds. A relationship is called polyepim er when the larger term contains the sm aller two times or more. Again likewise.

while the relationship simply links hom ogenious terms to one another. The interval and the relationship differ in that the interval is contained between hom ogenious and unequal terms. and the triple relationships expressed in larger and com posite numbers go on to infinity. O f all the relationships which we have discussed in detail. In the same way the first and the basic of the triple relationships is the relationship 3 to 1. but there are two different relationships. II. Thus the first and the basic of the dou ble relationships is the relationship of 2 to 1. since we have: 2“ A<a = 1 + “ /« » = 1 + ’/it* + V243 + */»«• = 1 + V 2 7 + V»i + '/mj. but there is a rela tionship between them which is that of equality. X X V .MUSIC 53 sm aller. . It borrows its name from the first relationships. This is why there is no interval between equal terms. A A There is an infinite num ber of equivalent relationships expressed in larger. com posite terms. THE DIFFERENCE B E T W E E N THE IN TE R VAL A N D THE R E LA TIONSHIP XXX . the rela tionship which is 256 to 243. those which are expressed in the sm allest numbers and prim ary to each other are called “firsts” or the basic of all the relationships of a sim ilar (or equal) species. the interval of one to the other is unique and identical. reduced to its sm allest terms. for after this the dou ble relationships are expressed in larger and com posite numbers. the first and the basic of the sesquialter relationships is %. the relationship of 2 to 1 25 T he relationship o f 256 to 243 is epim er. several different parts o f it. Cf. it is a relationship of num ber to number. THE FOUND A TION OF R E LA TIONSHIPS X X IX . so th a t the larger term contains the sm aller one tim e and in addi tion. The same observations can be made of other relationships. As will be shown. which measures the leimma. for the sesquiter tian relationship it is 4 . while the relationship is varied and inverse from one term to the other: thus 2 to 1 and 1 to 2 have only a single and indentical interval. like the relationships of 4 to 2. Between unequal terms. It is the same with other m ultiple relationships and superpartial relationships.25 It is evident that the ratio of the sm aller numbers to the larger numbers is in the inverse. and 6 to 3 and so forth indefinitely. as has been shown. for the sesquiquarten relationship it is 5 .

which takes place when the relationship of the first term to the second is equal to the relationship of the second to the third or to the rela tionship to two other terms.54 MUSIC being double. as when it is said that the perceptible is to the intelligible in the same relationship as opinion is to scientific knowledge. Every proportion is indeed composed of ratios and the principle of the ratio is equality. 3. 2 form a dis continuous proportion. in sesquialter relationship (1 + V2). The same would be found of proportions having other relationships. 6. and it exists between different and also not different things. while these things differ only by a single interval. The same thing is observed with other m ultiple relationships. A t least three terms are necessary for a continuous proportion. form a continous proportion. because the half and the double do not form the same relation ship while they do form the same interval. 4. and the numbers 6. and the terms 9. because 4 is to 2 as 2 is to 1. since 6 is to 3 as 4 is to 2. that is to say a sim ilarity of ratios in several terms. the three sm allest terms. This is evident: for each species there is a certain elem ent or principle which belongs to it. and the continuous proportion is in a certain way a four term proportion. Eratosthenes. because of the repetition of the mean term. 10. 15. because the relationship is a specific connection of two magnitudes to each other. The explanation is the same when the relationships are sesquipartial: thus the numbers are 9. of quality. XX X I The proportion is a sim ilarity or identity of several rela tionships. or that the intelligible differs from the known in the same relationship as the perceptible differs from opinion. into which all the others are resolved. 1 in double ratio form a continuous proportion. 4. form a discontinuous proportion. 2. The first proportion is called con tinuous and the second is called discontinuous. 4. whether of size. By this it is evident that the relationship is a different thing than the inter val. A fter the proportion formed of equal terms. while it itself does not resolve into any of the others. whereas the relationship of 1 to 2 is a half. 6. Eratosthenes says that the ratio is the principle which gives birth to the proportion and it is also the prim ary cause of the creation of all orderly things. in the Platonist also said that the interval and the relationship are not the same thing. of position or in any other way. and the discontinuous requires at least four terms. However this principle is necessarily .

and every astronom ical revolution manifest the uniqueness of proportion. Thus the point is not a part of the line. for anything that can be broken down and divided is called a bond and not an element. the line out of the point. that of m agnitude is the point. Thus the elem ent of quantity is the unit.MUSIC 55 unresolvable and indivisible. relationship and proportion out of equality. Plato seems to believe that the connecting elem ent of m athem at ics is unique and that it consists in proportion. while by addition it increases to infinity. that of relationship and of proportion is equality. every harmonic group.27 For if a num ber is a proportional mean between two others. He says. (Toulis) . those of quantity are so according to quantity. It can in fact happen that a num ber contained between two extremes might not be in proportion with them. for if one adds several equal relationships in order. it is a term contained between them. And each thing is indivisible and whole as it is an elem ent of a composed or mixed thing. but not all in the same manner. the ratio of the sum again gives an equality. because unity m ultiplied by itself does not create like the other numbers: one times one is one. X X X II. for it can increase only by the repetition of it self. The elements of substance are therefore indivisible according to substance. 991 E — 992A 2 The G reek word Metroryj? m eans ‘m edian’ (or m ediate in French) and here it can he 7 m anifested as a mean num ber. nor equality in m ulti ple relationships. to him who learns according to the true method. but by a continuous movement. in the same way th at the line forms a surface and the surface a solid. In every case unity makes up part of the number. Num ber is born out of the unit. indeed in the Epinomis™ that it is necessary that every figure. nor is equality a part of the relationship. like 2 which is conM Epinomis. And this uniqueness will be apparent to whomever com prehends correctly w hat we teach: he will understand that a single bond naturally unites all things. just as the point has no size. but if a term is contained between two others it is not necessarily a proportional mean between these num bers. it is neither by m ultiplication nor by addition that it forms the line. those of quality are so according to quality. every com bina tion of numbers. The cause of what we have just said is that equality has no in terval. For unity cannot be divided in quantity. nor the point in size. As for the point. A mean num ber differs from a mean proportion. Similarly the ratio of equality does not increase by addition.

56

MUSIC

tained between 1 and 3, and 2, 3, 4, which are contained between 1 and 10, because 10 cannot be reached w ithout passing through 2, 3, 4 and yet none of these numbers is in proportion with the extremes, since the relationship of 1 to 2 is not equal to that of 2 to 3, and likewise also the relationship of 1 to 2, 3 or 4 is not equal to that of 2, 3 or 4 to 10. The proportional means between two numbers are, on the contrary, contained between these numbers: thus in the pro portion 1, 2, 4, whose ratio is double, the proportional mean 2 is contained between 1 and 4. ON PROPORTIONS (B E T W E E N TH REE NUMBERS) X X X III. Thrasyllus takes three principle proportions between three numbers into account: the arithm etic proportion, the g eom etric p ro p o rtio n , and the h arm onic p ro p o rtio n . T he arithm etic proportion is that in which the mean term surpasses one extrem e term by the same am ount as it is surpassed by the other ex treme, such as the proportion 1, 2, 3; the geom etric proportion is that in which the mean term contains one extrem e, such as the pro portion 3, 6, 12. The harm onic proportion between three numbers is that in which the mean num ber surpasses one extrem e num ber and is surpassed by the other, by the same fraction of the extrem e numbers, like the third, and the fourth, such is the proportion of the numbers 6, 8, 12. Thus each of the relationships can be considered in this way. 12 is the double of 6, 18 is its triple, 24 its quadruple; 9 is % of it and 8 is Vs of it; 9 is % of 8; 12 is Vs of 9, and 3A of 8 (the double of 6); 18 is the double of 9 and 27 is the 3 of 18: 8/e gives the consonance of A the fourth, 9A the consonance of the fifth and 12A the consonance of the octave; 1 gives and octave and a fifth, for 12 being the double 8/e of 6 forms the consonance of the octave and 18 being 3A of 12 is the consonance of the fifth: we have the relative numbers 6, 12, 18.28 “ A gives the consonance of the double octave; 9A gives the tone and “ A the fourth; “ A gives the fifth and 18A the octave. The ratio 27A« gives the fifth. The octave “ /« is com posed of the fifth 9A and the fourth 12A , or again the fifth “ A and the fourth 8A . 29 The octave 18A is composed

» ■% =

'* x >«, = 3.

" ' * = %x'K = *Kx% = 2.

MUSIC

57

of the fifth 1 2 and the fourth 12A ;30 the ratio “ Aa for the octave is 8/i composed of the ratio 24As for the fourth and the ratio 18A2 for the fifth.3 Finally the ratio 9A which is a fifth is composed of a tone 9A 1 and a fourth 8A 32 and the ratio 12A is thus a fifth, composed of a fourth 12A and a tone 9A .33 X XX IV. The leimma is in the relationship of the number 256 to the num ber 243. This is how the relationship is found: we take the sesquioctave relationship two times (the two terms of the first are m ultiplied by 9, the two terms of the second by 8), and triple the result. Then we join the sesquitertian relationship to it. The ses quioctave relationship being that of 9 to 8, we form with these two numbers two other sesquioctave relationships in the following manner: 9 x 9 = 8 1 ; 9 x 8 = 72; and 8 x 8 = 64; 81 is 9A ths of 72 and 72 is 9A ths of 64. If we triple these numbers, we have 8 1 x 3 = 243; 72 x 3 = 216 and 64 x 3 = 192. 4 rds of 192 is 256. This A num ber com pared with 243 gives the relationship of the leimma which is less than 1 + V isth.3 4 256 leimma v 243 tone ■ fourth ^ > 216 tone J 192

THE D IV ISIO N OF THE CANON X XX V. The division of the canon is made according to the quaternary 35 of the decad which is composed of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and which embraces the sesquitertian, sesquialter, double, tri ple and quadruple ratios (that is 4 , 3 , 2, 3, and 4). A A This is how Thrasyllus divided this canon. Taking half of the string he obtains the mese consonance of the octave which is in

30 ■ »/ » = 31 « / „ 32 • / . = 33 1 2 /8 = = % > • / .. X “ /• M /„ X > •/„ X */.

H /9 X %

3< The leim m a is less than 1 + */n th. The fraction ‘V»3 is actually less than ‘/ u , therefore 1 + ls/ 2«3 o r “ V 243 is less th an 1 + ‘/is th. “ T he “ tetraktys” o f the Pythagoreans — T he num ber 10 o r its parts 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. (Toulis)

58

MUSIC

double ratio, the tension being double for the higher pitched sounds, in the inverse direction of the movement. The inversion is such that, when the total length of the string is dim inished by the canon, the pitch is proportionately raised, and that when the length is increased the pitch is proportionately lowered, because the halflength of the proslam banom enos, which is the mese with respect to the total string, has a double tension toward the higher pitches, and the total string which is double has a half-tension on the side of the low sounds. The division of the string into three gives the hypate of the meses and the nete of the disjuncts, the nete pf the disjuncts being a fifth of the mese since the divisions are in the relationship of 2 to 3, and it is to the hypate (of the meses) in the relationship of an octave, since the divisions are as 1 to 2. The nete of the disjuncts gives with the proslam banom enos the consonance of the octave and a fifth, because from the proslam banom enos to mese there is one octave and, the intervals being prolonged up to the nete of the disjuncts, there is a fifth from this to the mese. From the mese to the hypate (of the meses) there is a fourth, and from the mese to the proslam banom enos there is an octave, the hy pate of the meses giving the fifth through the relationship to the proslam banom enos. The same distance of an octave is obtained by adding hypate (of the meses) to the mese, which is a fourth, to the interval from mese to the nete of the disjuncts, which is a fifth. The numbers of movements (that is to say vibrations) varies in the in verse direction from the division of the lengths (that is in the in verse direction of the length of the vibrating part). By dividing the string in fourths, the diatone of the hypates, also called the hyperhypate, and the nete of the hyperboles are ob tained. The nete of the hyperbole is to the nete of the disjuncts in the relationship of the fourth, to the mese in the relationship of the octave, to the hypate (of the meses) in the relationship of the oc tave and a fourth, to the hyperhypate in the relationship of the oc tave and a fifth, and to the proslam banom enos in the relationship of the double octave, in going toward the low tones. The hyperhypate is to the proslam banom enos in the relationship of the fourth, going toward the low tones, and to the mese in the relationship of the fifth, going toward the high tones; it is one tone below the hypate (o f the m eses) and the in terv a l from hyperhypate to the last cord (the proslam banom enos) is equal to

. then. The ratio of the nete of the disjuncts to the nete of hyperboles is V s. and here again the num ber of movements (vibrations) is in the inverse direction to the size of the divisions. . . the conso 2/3 nance of the double octave. in such a way that there will be four parts bet. The relationship of the mese to the nete of the hyperbole is ® = 2 which is the consonance of the octave. the nete o f hyperboles mese will be given by each half of the total nete o f disjuncts string. of meses r ween them. hyperhypate js Spacecj by one division from the hypate 10 (of meses). three above the mese and three below it. From the mese to the nete of the disjuncts. the conso / nance of the octave and a fourth. Between the hyperhypate and the nete of the hyperboles. the con sonance of the fifth. two parts. three parts.. and this completes the partitioning. The interval of the hypate (of meses) to the nete 3 See note X II. and finally from the latter to the end of the canon. the disjunct (nete of the disjuncts). which is the sesquialter relationship. from there to the hyperbole one part. the consonance of the octave and a fifth. one part. The ratio of the mese to the nete of dis juncts equals 8/« = */*. The hyperhypate will be o given hypate jr jr by blocking off three parts at the beginning. from the beginning of the canon to the hyperhypate. . The ratio of the hyperhypate to the nete is 9 = 3. . there are two parts. it is spaced by one division from 12 proslambanomenos . and the /a relationship of the proslam banom enos to it is 1 = 4 . and from the latter to the mese. from there to the hypate of the meses.MUSIC 59 the interval of the fourth from the nete of the disjuncts to the nete of the hyperboles. In fact.36 All of this will be made evident through the numbers. because if one divides the length of the canon into twelve appropriate parts. The /s ratio of the hypate of the meses to the same nete 8 s . three parts of the canon can be counted. There is.1 .. The hypate of meses will be given by blocking off four parts at the beginning of the canon and the nete of disjuncts in taking mese four parts at the other end of the canon. there are 6 divisions. which is the sesquitertian relationship which gives the conso nance of the fourth. a total of 12 divisions. The hyperboles (nete of the hy perboles) is obtained by taking three parts of 11 the string.

the octave. since the tone. The 3A ratio of the fifth is greater than the ratio 4A by one tone which is equal to 9A : let us take for exam ple the num ber 6 which is divisible by 2 and by 3: 4A of 6 equal 8 and 3A of 6 equal 9. we will have the chrom atic of the hyperboles. which is the double fifth (fifth of the fifth). A F or the com plete proslam banom enos. found condensed in the canon. and nete of conjuncts. the consonance of the fourth. the consonance of the fourth the ratio of which is sesquitertian (4A) and the consonance of the fifth. the relationship is “ A = 3.* The rem ainder of the interval up to the nete of the dis juncts will be the leimma. and which is lower by one tone than the nete of disjuncts. the ratio of which is sesquioctave (9A). one tone lower. If we prolong the diatone an eighth part of its length. The hyperhypate is to the hypate of 2 meses as 9 is to 8. com plem ent of the consonance of the fourth through relationship to the nete of the hyperboles. indeed if we extend the latter an eighth part of its length. which is lower by one tone. 9 and the excess of the interval 3A over the interval 4A is 9A But the interval 4A of the fourth is composed of two times 9A and a leimma. X XX VI. . The same string is to the hyperhypate as 12 is to 9. this augm ented by one eighth will give the paranete of disjuncts. If on the contrary. Then if we prolong the nete of the conjuncts by one eighth of its length. T hat of the hyperhypate to the mese is 9A = 3A /« and gives the fifth. the octave. we diminish by a ninth the length of the nete of the dis juncts. T hat of the hyperhypate to A the same nete equals 9 . we will have the trite of the disjuncts. and 9 is 9A of 8. The relationship of the whole proslam banom enos to the hypate of the meses is 12A = S A (the fifth). W e then have 6. The numbers of vibrations are subject to inverse pro portion. T hat of the com plete proslam banom enos to the mese is 1 /« = 2. this relationship equals 4A .60 MUSIC of disjuncts equals 8 = 2. 8. This insertion begins at the nete of the hyper boles. we will have the diatone of the hyperboles. the ratio of which is sesquialter (S are A). we will have the trite of the hyperboles. which is lower by one tone than the diatone. the fourth. The relationship of the hypate of the meses to the mese is 8 = 4A . And the re• See the Perfect System on page 148. the ratio of the tone. and which is the same as the diatone of the conjuncts. which is a tone higher than the nete of the disjuncts. the intervals must then be filled by tones and leimmas. the consonance of the octave and a fifth. which is also called the diatone.

Let us now go on to the ex planation of the other means and the mean numbers since. lower by one tone. If one subtracts one ninth from the hypate of the meses. It is then in so far as the mean is a m ean num ber th at it 37 See note X III. which. lower by one tone than the mese. as we have said. and from there to the hypate of the meses there remains a leimma for the com plem ent of the consonance of the fourth with the mese. and one of these parts is taken away in the inverse of what we have done for the high tones. If we dim inish the mese in the same m anner (by retracting a ninth of its length) we will have the param ese or chrom atic of the conjuncts.37 It is unnecessary to develop this in detail because anyone who has un derstood the foregoing will find it easy to calculate. we will have the mese. lower by one tone. but every mean num ber is not a mean. and which com pletes the octave. will give the diatone of the meses. The proslam banom enos will have the value of 10368. The mese. Such is the division of the canon given by Thrasyllus. we will have the chrom atic of the disjuncts. the diatone of the meses. If we prolong the param ese by one eighth. R eciprocally. and in subtracting its ninth part from this. increased by one eighth gives the parhypate of the hypates. and if on the other hand. W hen we put forth the elements of astronom y we will show how all of this applies to the system of the worlds. qf which we take successively % ths and the other fractions we have indi cated. one increases it by one eighth. higher by one tone than the proslam banom enos and term inating the tetracord of the hypates by the relationship of the leimma which it has with the parhypate. higher by one tone than the mese. which is higher by one tone. we will have the hypate of the hypates. increased by an eighth.MUSIC 61 m ainder of the interval up to the param ese will be the leimma. gives the parhypate of the meses. every mean is a mean number. W e will find the numerical results by beginning with the nete of the hyperboles which we will suppose to be of 384 parts. The enharm onic system is derived from the diatonic system by removing the diatones that are heard two times in each octave and by dividing the half-tones in two. the hyperhypate is obtained. increased by an eighth. . one obtains the chrom atic of the meses. if the length of the proslam banom enos is divided into 9 parts. In this way the whole im m utable system of the diatonic type and the chrom atic type are completed.

62 MUSIC is necessary to understand the following. It is for this reason that the form ula of their oath was: “ I swear by the one who has bestowed the tetraktys to the coming generations. it is the principle of all the even numbers. para. I. G olden Verses o f Pythagoras. 38 The one who bestowed it was Pythagoras. III. 6: 8 Theologumena Arithm eticae IV . . Against the Christians (philosophy of the cynics). and its essence is simple. the odd numbers and of all the odd-even numbers. into our souls” . 4 is 10. all the relationships of the consonances are found in the quaternary of the decad. Since. The second is formed by m ultiplication. since the sum of the numbers 1. H O W M A N Y QUA TERN ARIES ( TETRA K TYS) A R E THERE? X X X V III. concerning means and mean numbers. constitutes the quaternary. + 2. Of these numbers. 3. Opinions o f the Philosophers. M acrobius. II. it is of these numbers that we have to speak. Iam blicus. as we have shown. THE Q U A T E R N A R Y (OR TETRA K TYS) AN D THE DEC AD XXX V II. starting from unity. + 4) is great in music because all the consonances are found in it. p. The decad in. XXV III and X X IX . 2. edited by Ast. etc. The Em poror Julien. For this reason. of even and odd num bers. in m ultiplication. 18. and in this way the im mutable diagram is completed. But these numbers contain the consonance of the fourth in the sesquitertian (“A) relationship. + 3. that of the fifth in sesquialter (Ya) relationship. I. L ife o f Pythagoras. The first quaternary is the one of which we’ve just spoken: it is formed by addition of the first four numbers. They allow for the unification of odd and even because numbers are not only odd or even. But it is not only for this reason that all Pythagoreans hold it in highest esteem: it is also because it seems to outline the entire nature of the universe. Next comes three numbers from the odd as well as the even series. that of the octave in the double ratio and that of the double octave in the quadruple ratio. 1 Cf. as we have said. Commentary on the Dream o f Scipio. and it has been said that the tetraktys appears indeed to have been discovered by him. 47-48. para. fact. unity is the first because. The im portance of the quaternary obtained by addi tion (that is to say 1. source of eternal nature. Plutarch.

The ratios of the most perfect consonances are found in these numbers. The third terms. the other odd. 9. 4 and 9. growth procedes from the limit and the point up to the solid. the first of the even numbers being 2 which comes from unity doubled. and these quaternaries en compass the musical. incomposite numbers. even the tone is included. 27. geom etric and arithm etic ratios of which the harmony of the universe is composed. and measured only by the unit. and in the odd series. so that unity is odd and even sim ultaneously and belongs to both. The second numbers. and among the odd numbers. for the place taken by unity. 8 and 27. 2 and 3 have the side ratio. then the surface and finally the solid.39 The last of these seven numbers is equal to the sum of all the pre ceding. have the power of the squared surface. The third of the order of even numbers is 4. In fact. the other by m ultiplication. one which is made by addition. constitutes the soul. th e Tim aeus. and that of the numbers 2 and 3. following the same propor tion. in the preceding quaternary. cubic numbers). the even in double ratio. the first of the odd num bers being the num ber 3 which arises from unity being tripled. of lim it and of point. However unity contains the principle of ratio. and are consequently linear numbers. It is with these numbers that Plato.MUSIC 63 two quaternaries are taken. in the Timaeus. In this way. have the power of the cubic solid. by virtue of the numbers from this tetraktys. embraces the nature of all magnitudes. being equally equal (that is to say square numbers). The fourth terms.9 = 2 7 . The fourth among the even numbers is 8. one even. The third quaternary is that which. as we have 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 8 -1 . The second num ber in the even and double (series) is 2 and in the odd and triple is 3. the odd in triple ratio. There are then two quaternaries of numbers. having lateral (or linear) :l!' P la to . being equally equal equally (that is to say. . after the limit and the point comes the side. 36 be. is that of the point in this one. being prime.

and which are its intellectual part. the seed being analogous to unity and to the point. the line. such is indeed the nature of the elements according to their fineness or density. unity. The other relationships are also equal (that is to say. the planar and the curved. earth to the num ber 4. the octahedron the figure of air. fire. air corresponds to the num ber 2. and finally a growth in thickness is analogous to the num ber 4 and to the solid. The sixth is that of the created things. the village to the num ber 3 and the city to the num ber 4. are so (surface) in this one: Finally. water and earth. in such a way that fire is to air as 1 is to 2. The eighth contains faculties by which we are able to form judg ment on the preceding. and a growth in width is analogous to the num ber 3 and to the surface. The seventh quaternary is that of societies. because it is composed of a single line without terminus. air. to w ater as 1 is to 3. for these are the elements which compose the nation. This is the third tetraktys then. in the preceding quaternary. The place occupied by unity in the quaternary of numbers is taken by fire in this one. And what. A growth in length is analogous to the num ber 2 and to the line. the two types of surface. M an is principle and is thus. having the power of the surface. The family corresponds to the number 2. . are the numbers 4 and 9. which have the power of the cube and of which one is even and the other odd. There are two kinds of solids. The fourth quaternary is that of the simple bodies. such as the cube and the pyramid. that air is to w ater as 2 is to 3. what. The fifth quaternary is that of the shapes of sim ple bodies. is here that of the line. and the circular to the odd. G ordon Plum m er. the one having the property of constituting any m ag nitude. A ll of these quaternaries are m aterial and perceptible. the straight line corresponding to the even num ber because it term inates at two points (the line and circle are given as examples here). and to earth as 1 is to 4. the surface and the solid. 40 A solid having 20 surfaces. in the preceding are the numbers 8 and 27. like the sphere or the cylinder. for the pyramid is the figure of fire.64 MUSIC power. through its double form. the other with a plane surface. through the point. water to the num ber 3.” by L. and so forth for the others). the icosahedron 40 the figure of water and the cube the figure of earth. and it offers the same proportion as the quaternary of numbers. straight or circular. is constituted by the solid in this one. 1972. See: “ M athem atics of the Cosm ic M ind. one with a curved surface.

the point is in the third. spring. the fifth is th at of simple bodies. the eighth is that of the faculties of judg ment. that is. The ninth is the rational. the tenth is that of the seasons. and so forth with the others following the same proportion. harm onically and arithm etically arranged. It is perfect because . The second is unity. because it is the science of all things. the solid. adolescence. the fourth part is the body in which the soul resides. man in the seventh. the ninth is that of the living thing. The third is the point. autum n and winter. the city. The eleventh is that of the ages: childhood. the fourth is that of magnitudes. winter. w hether simple or composite. the line. science. the soul having three parts. all the senses being m otivated through contact. the side. opinion is like the num ber 3. They are proportional to one another. the pyramid in the fifth.MUSIC 65 namely: thought. m aturity and old age. The ninth quaternary is that which composes the living things. the second is that of the num bers formed by m ultiplication. The seventh is man. the family. containing in power the entire nature of number. sum mer. the em o tional and the willful. Thus the first quaternary is 1. The eleventh is childhood. and the body. through the succession of which all things take birth. water. the cube. the octahedron. the seed in the sixth. the height. body and soul. and finally feeling is like the num ber 4 because it is quadruple. m aturity and old age. adolescence. 3. fire in the fourth. the icosahedron. the rational. opinion and feeling. the cube. earth. the width. since what is unity in the first and the second quaternary. the seventh is th at of societies. sense. The tenth quaternary is that of the seasons of the year. And certainly thought. the sense of touch being common to all. The fourth is fire. the em otional and the willful parts of the soul.science is the num ber 2. The first is that of the num bers which are formed by addition. every m agnitude and every body. science. summer. A nd the perfect world which results from these quater naries is geom etrically. the sur face. in its essence. There are thus eleven quaternaries. 4. the square. because it is something between science and ignorance. the length. must be assim ilated to unity. autum n. The fifth is the pyramid. The sixth is the seed. the sixth is that of created things. The tenth is spring. thought in the eighth. and the eleventh is that of the ages. The eighth is thought. the village. air. opi nion. 2.

It is im m uta ble and never departs from its own nature through m ultiplication (1 x 1 = 1). equality itself. 3 and so on. m ultiplication and addition. the soul. III. The num ber 2 added to unity produces 3. Plutarch. God himself. in which are seen m atter and all that is perceptible. 2 . 4 is equal to 10. XLI. . On Isis and Osiris. justice itself. and through which all things are assim ilated to number. XLII. com position and the relationship of one thing to another. 41 Cf. This is why this num ber is the first to which the name multitude 4 applies. such as beauty itself. The decad is. Opinions o f the Philosophers.66 MUSIC everything is part of it. and thrice favored those who are at the limit of success. The Pythagoreans were no less wise in bringing all numbers back to the decad. I. We make three libations to show that we ask everything which is good. and every intelligible essence. We call thrice woeful those who are at the limit of misfortune. since we do not count any num ber beyond ten: in going beyond ten we go back to the numbers 1 . 2. 36.” See also. 23: "the num ber three expresses the m u ltitu d e. for all 1 the numbers less than this are not called m ultitude (or many) but one or one and other. for we conceive each of these things as being one and as existing in itself. Unity is the principle of all things and the most dom inant of all that is: all things em anate from it and it em anates from nothing. It is indivisible and it is everything in power. PROPERTIES OF THE NUM BERS CONTAINED IN THE DECAD (T E T R A K TY S) XL. while three is called m ultitude. the generation of motion. 3. and it is itself a part of nothing else. THE DECAD X X X I X . which is the first num ber having a beginning. the first change from unity is made by the doubling of unity which becomes 2. Everything that is intelligible and not yet created exists in it: the nature of ideas. This is why the Pythagoreans used the oath whose form ula we have re ported. from which it follows that the strongest numbers can be considered as having their ratio in the quaternary. The first increase.however. the beautiful and the good.found in the quaternary. since the sum of the four numbers 1. a m iddle and an end.

as has been shown. This perfect number.MUSIC 67 The ternary num ber also represents the first nature of the plane because it is in a sense its image. that is. the equilateral. 7 and 3. which is greater than one of the ex tremes and less than the other.42 XLIV. and it is the first square num ber among the even numbers. and indetermined. well defined and composed of the equal and the sim ilar. the propor tional arithm etic mean being 5. and which causes all right angles to be equal to one another. 4. above. gives the decad. if you add 9 and 1. 8 and 2. The num ber six is a perfect num ber because it is equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. As for all the other angles. Thus. being in the m iddle between the acute and the obtuse angles. for unity is not a number. by the addition of any two numbers. A nd it com pletes the consonances which are 4 3A. the fifth o f the octave and the double A. This is shown in the diagram in which any addition of two opposite numbers gives 10. II. it com pletes all the con sonances. the fourth. the means of these numbers will be 5 according to arithm etic proportion. 6 and 4. . because if. th at is. the odd and the even. octave. Cf. and 4. the fifth. they are infinite in number. This is why it is 42 T he num ber four is the image o f the solid because the most elem entary of the solids is the trian g u lar pyram id which has 4 faces and 4 apexes. XLIII. 1 4 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 This num ber is also the first which embraces the two types of numbers. The num ber 3 added to unity and to 2 gives 6 which is the first perfect number. larger than one and sm aller than the other. The num ber 5 is the mean term of (two numbers whose sum is) the decad. that is to say equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. added to the first square number. 3. by the same difference. the isosceles and the scalene. as we have shown. It is for this reason that there are three types of triangles. the right angle. and also that there are three types of angles. the first form of the plane being the triangle. 2. XLV. whose property it is to be unique. for example. VI. 2 and 3. The num ber 4 is the image of the solid. one obtains ten. the sum will always be 10 and the mean term in arithm etic proportion will be 5. the octave. since they are either greater or smaller.

because the task of m arriage produces children sim ilar to their parents. and 12 which is its double. such as 3 and 5 which are not created by any com bination of numbers. A nother num ber of the decad. 8. and its double. one arrives at the harm onic proportion of the numbers 6. Finally.e. is placed on the other. is en dowed with a rem arkable property: it is the only one which does not give birth to any num ber contained in the decad and which is not born out of any of them. in the second it becomes full. in the third it is again divided. and its double. 3. Am ong the numbers con tained in the decad. . Seven is the only num ber which. have the nature of the even and the odd. Others are created but do not create.44 following nature. P lato in the Timaeus. it returns to meet the sun in order to begin a new m onth and to in crease during the following week. Six also gives the arithm etic mean by taking 9. Day and night. being placed in the middle. like 6 which is the product of 2 by 3. . 3. 12. 12. is placed on one side. . which fact moved the Pythagoreans to give it the name A thena. which is 3A rds of it. and less than the other extreme. since 9 is greater than one of the extremes and less than the other by the same quantity. and 5 m ultiplied by 2 produces 10. 12. creates none of the numbers in the decad. since 6 then contains one of the extremes. . . This num ber did not arise from any union. i. some create and some are created. and which is not pro duced by the m ultiplication of any number. and is contained by the other in the same relationship. because this goddess was not born out of a m other and gave birth to none. 43 See note X IV . and does not unite with anything. m ultiplied by another number. 12. The m onth is composed of four weeks (four times seven days).68 MUSIC called that of marriage. half of it.43 The harm onic mean is com posed according to this primary number. 6. which is one-third of the extremes. Eight is greater than one of the extremes. 2. but which create: 3 produces 9.. said Posidonius. by the same fraction of the ex tremes. . but which does not create any of the numbers in the decad. since in taking its fourthirds. and m ultiplied by 2 produces 6. and in the fourth. 44 Timeaus 35 b. Others create but are not created. in the first week the m oon appears divided in two. 12. endows the soul with 7 n u m b ers. giving the geom etric proportion of the numbers 3. the num ber seven. and is created by 2. XLVI. for exam ple 4 m ultiplied by 2 creates 8. six produces the geom etric proportion when. 8. 6.

the sun reaches the o th er tropic o r equinox in the seventh month. the liver. It is then also that a man acquires his full height. is found an in scription dedicated to King Saturn and Queen Rhea: “To the most ancient of all. the seventh day is always the most serious. at twenty eight. H . that is to say. m onum ent to his magnificence and tribute of his life”. and in all periodic fevers. four times seven cubits. From one solstice of the sun to the other there are seven months. that he acquires his stout ness. on a colum n. and the two kidneys. the spleen. and this is also found in the oaths of Orpheus: By the creators of things forever immortal: fire and water. the ebb-tide reverses direction seven times per day. one of the im m ortal gods. and the planets are seven in number.” because the spheres of the world which turn 45 From one solstice o f the sun to the other and from one equinox to the other there are only six m onths. It is necessary then to understand T h e o n ’s thought as follows: starting from one tropic o r from one equinox. There are seven viscera. Some people say that there are eight prin ciple gods in the universe. the tongue.MUSIC 69 It is in seven weeks that the foetus appears to arrive at its perfec tion. even in three and four-day fevers. the great torch and the black night. but it is only in the fourth period. i. Seven days are needed to diagnose illness. that the beard begins to grow. the night and the day. the spirit. in most straits.46 XLVII. e. Sim ilarly seven months are counted from one equinox to the o th e r. earth and heaven. Tim otheus also relates the proverb “ eight is all. The number eight which is the first cube is composed of unity and the septenary. i. the father of all that is and all that will be. the sky and the earth. 4 See note X V. the king Osiris. the moon and the sun.45 The head has seven orifices. Herophilus says that the intestine of man is 28 cubits long. It is also in the seventh month that the foetus can be born living. Finally. and to Love. as Empedocles insinuates in his Expiations. the heart. C hildren develop teeth starting from the seventh month afterb irth .e. the semen and puberty make their appearance at the age of fourteen. Some think that the male foetus requires five weeks for its perfection. A nd Evander relates that in Egypt. the lungs. and fully produce their teeth in seven years. at the age of twenty-one. and often it is in the third period.

the arithm etic. or any other numerical proportion: others have inexpressible and ir rational terms (size. such as the proportion 12. one even. the fifth and the sixth. in his treatise On Nature. and b-c = me. In the geom etric mean . whose terms are in double ratio. which give the two first squares of 4 and 9. as Eratosthenes also says: “These eight spheres also harmonise together while making their revolutions around the earth.47 LI. some have rational terms and relationships. as we have said. 3. triple. the subcontrary. and in general m ultiple or sesquipartial ratio. Adrastus shows that the ratio of equality is the first in order and that it is an elem ent of all the ratios of which we have pre47 If a . Adrastus says that the geometric is the only one which is a true proportion. then. time or other). The numerical mean contains and is contained by the same number of extremes. that is to say the geom etric proportions. and Philolaus. a . the mean term is less than one extrem e and greater than the other by the same part of the extrem es. And. THE M ED IANS (TH E M EAN ) L. and so it is the first. the other odd. write at length on this subject.” XLVIII. of that which is in motion and that which is still. the mean term. Finally. as he then demonstrates. to which six others must be ad ded which are subcontrary to them. XLIX The decad completes the series of numbers. Archytas. The number nine is the first square among the odd num bers: the two first numbers are 2 and 3. However. weight. in his book On the Decade. whereas it has no need of the others.b = ma.c = a : c . of good and of evil. Among the primary proportions themselves. containing in itself the nature of both even and odd. in double. is contained in one extrem e and contains the other in the same relationship (a : b = b : c). of all of these me dians. for all the others have need of it. in the harm onic m e a n . There are several means : the geometric. the harmonic.70 MUSIC around the earth are eight in number. Let us return now to proportions and to the means. 6. He says that some give the other means the more general name of proportion.b : b .

in quintuple ratio. 3. and that equality is the principle and the element of proportion. and it is evident that it can only grow through the terms. Eratosthenes says that he will om it the dem onstrations but Adrastus shows that “ any three terms being given in continuous proportion. But b2 = ac by hypothesis. first an equal one. are the three terms given in continuous p roportion. then another composed of the first and the second. the proportion of equality (1. 48 If a. the second will be com posed of the first and the second. 5. in the sm allest possible three equal terms. which are in quadruple ratio. The first will be equal to the first. the other composed of the first and the second. and so on to infinity. W ith these numbers. 1. following the order of the multiples. of two times the second and of the third. and a + 2 b + c. 4. 2. 1). the terms 1. 25. b. By the same method. W e have. the third will be composed of the first. 4. the terms 1. c. these new terms will again be in continuous propor tion. let us form the next one by the same method. and in it that they are all resolved. that is to say. which are in double ratio. 16 will be formed. for example. one formed from the first alone. if we take three other terms in the m anner which has been indicated. a + b. T he square of the mean term is a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 and the product o f the extrem es is a'2 + 2 ab + ac. for it is from it that all others take birth. in triple ratio. with these numbers. and with these. Erathosthenes also says that every ratio increases either by an in terval or by terms: but equality has the property of not being susceptible to any interval. Taking. then. and the terms will be 1. in three units. and finally another composed of the first. of twice the second and the third. three magnitudes with the propor tion found between them. and from the proportion in double ratio is born the proportion in triple ratio. therefore the square o f the m ean term is equal to the product o f the extrem es and the three new term s are in continuous proportion. we will combine the terms and show that all m athem atics consists in the proportion of certain quantities. . and the last composed of the first.” 48 Thus from the proportion whose terms are equal is born a pro portion in double ratio. which produces the proportion in quadruple ratio and so forth from the other multiples. The three terms obtained follow ing A drastus’s rule are a. if one takes three others formed from these. we have b2 = ac. we will have the terms 1. of two times the second and of the third.MUSIC 71 viously spoken and of all the proportions they give. 9.

the triples will give the epitrite or sesquitertian relationship (1 + V3 ). n. 3. 9 from them which is a continuous proportion whose relationship is sesquialter. 2.49 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 6 12 20 30 42 56 72 90 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 *a Being in general the continuous p roportion n 2. n2 + n. and the quadruples the sesquiquarten relationship (1 + V 4 ) . 6. the ratio is 1 + 1 / n . 9. . we obtain the terms in sesquiquarten ratio 16. 1. and so forth. 9.72 MUSIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 If now the m ultiple proportions are arranged inversely. and if the largest term is placed first. If we have the same three terms in triple proportion. with these terms we form the next (pro portion) according to the method indicated. If. 25 and so forth. n2 + 2n + 1. 20. We will deduce 4. W ith the quadruples. 4. 12. 16. The doubles will give in fact the hemiole or sesquialter relationship (1 + V2). and the terms are added in the same manner. We will always have the sesquipartial relationship (1 + Vn) corres ponding to the m ultiple (n). The new continuous p ro p ortion obtained by A drastus’s rule w ill be form ed from the term s n2. 1 w hose ratio is n. for example. the proportions in sesquipartial ratio will be obtained. the double ratio proportion in three terms is given. we will deduce from them in the same m anner the three proportional terms in the sesquitertian ratio. 1.

give us other epim er polyepim er relationships. by beginning with the largest term. The proportion 25.MUSIC 73 In the same way. 25. so also are they definitively resolved in it. and again the epim er relationships. 4.4 9 . LII. 25. 9. thus the proportion 9. by beginning with the sm allest term one obtains the proportion whose m ultisuperpartial ratio is 2 + V*: one takes 4. In the same way that all these proportions and all their ratios are composed of the first ratio of equality. the proportion in m ultisuperpartial ratio (2 + V«) will be deduced from it. which gives 16. 81. 15. 2 8 . and. 36. W e do not need to develop this subject further. 16. by A Adrastus’s method.Va). we deduce 16. we will have the proportion in m ultisuperpartial ratio 2 + Vs. 9. the sesquipartial relationships (1 + Vn) give us the epim er relationships (1 + — £ — ■ ) v m+ n ' and the m ultisuperpartial relationships (a + Vn). 12. gives 9. W ith the proportion in sesquiquartan ratio (1 + V 4 ) . and ohe can continue in this way to infinity. 49. by beginning with the largest term. In fact. at 4. 25. 20. 21. one will derive the proportion in epim er ratio (1 + 3A). by beginning with the largest term. and by beginning with the sm allest term. so that from the mean of these proportions one can form others by the same method. W e have. in the terms 9. the pro portion 16. 81. in fact. but we should however consider some of them. 10. 20. 45. < + a st f )' : W e can om it most of these relationships as being not very necess ary. the pro portion in epim er ratio 1 + 4A will be found. gives indeed 25. W ith the pro portion of the sesquialter ratio (1 + V*). and one arrives by the same method. if any proportion of three une . and beginning with the sm allest term. one obtains by the m ethod indicated a proportion whose epim er ratio is 1 + 2 . 6. And from the proportion in which the relationship is sesquiter tian (1 -I. 6. Thus from the terms 16.

. one will arrive at the proportion of equality which is the first origin of all proportions and which cannot itself be resolved into any other. the sm allest and twice the m iddle term diminished by the smallest. Among lines. Eratosthenes dem onstrates that all figures result from some pro portion. It is not necessary for us to go further on this subject. the straight line is that which is direct and as though stretched. The proportion which will result from this breakdown will itself be the same that give birth to the new proportion. i SHAPES LI1I. next. which is a length without width. width and height. we subtract the sm allest term from the middle term. without dimension. In fact. prolonged to infinity on the same plane. which has length. hav ing length and breadth. We will find the same results in the shapes. and from the largest. that which remains from the largest. they do not meet and always m aintain the same distance between them. The m agnitude extended in two directions is a surface. Now the plane is in a straight surface such that if a straight line touches it at two points. between two given points.74 MUSIC qual terms is given. which is a spot w ithout extension. then for the second. we put the terms thus obtained in order. The curved line is that which does not have this property. the surface is defined by lines and the line is defined by points. The magnitude having three dimensions is the solid. being the limit of a line and holding the same place as unity does in numbers. following two dimensions. and which is ex tended equally between all its points. surface is the apparent limit of all solid bodies. Straight lines are parallel when. the first of which is the point. The same difference is found between the plane and the curved surface. W hen this break down is repeated. and that they resolve themselves in equality. but only into the ratio of equality. is the shortest of all lines having the same extremities. it coincides with it throughout its whole length. The m agnitude which has only one dimension and is divisible in only one m anner is the line. we will have the same sm aller term for the first term. it is that which. the excess of the mean term over the sm allest term and finally for the third term. length and breadth. If. Now the solid is con tained and defined by surfaces. and that in order to construct them it is necessary to start from equality.

and the parallelogram s which have right angles are called rectangles. are called beams. which is at the same time the larger.MUSIC 75 Plane shapes are those in which all the lines are in the same plane. but whose height is larger. Those of four sides are called quad rilateral. Others are included under rectangles and are called rectangular parallelopipeds. There is a mean when. Among the solids. Those which have length and width equal. the theory of which is indispensible for understanding the writings of Plato. the width and the height are equal and these are included under the equal squares and are called cubes. some are equilateral in all directions. some to the num ber of six. as the first term is to itself or to one of the two others.'’0 LIV. X V II. O f those. forms two adja cent equal angles with it. Those which are not in this category are called heteromecic (unequilateral). and are called parallelopipeds. R ectilinear shapes are those which surround straight lines. PROPERTIES OF THE M EANS We now have to speak in more detail of the means. but whose height is less. 5"S ee the definition o f H eterom ecic (unequilateral) numbers. Finally those which have three unequal dimensions are called scalene parallelopipeds. comprised between sides which form right angles. and among these rectangles those which have four equal sides are properly called squares. that is to say that the length. Each rectangular parallelogram is. between two homogeneous unequal terms. and non-rectilinear shapes do not have this property. I. those which have opposite sides parallel are called parallelogram s. are called plinths. or as the sm allest is to one of the other two. Those whose length is equal to the width. and those which are contained by a greater num ber of straight lines are called polygons. Angles are right angles when a straight line. over this mean term. that is to say square bases. . those which are contained between three sides are called trilateral. pro perly speaking. are included under planar parallelogram s. Among the plane and rectilinear shapes. meeting another straight line. is to the excess of the mean term over the smaller. one takes another homogenious term such that the excess of the first. Among the quadrilaterals.

by hypothesis then. as in the proportion 3. being given three terms. from which it follows th at ac . If we have a. the product of the extremes is 4.be = b 2 . Thus. and likewise. now 6 x 2 = 12 whose double is 24.be. which is the double of the mean term 2. so that 3 + 1 = 4 . as in the propor tion 1. and the square of 2 is also 4. 3. 4.b : b .c = b : c. which dem onstrates the stated p ro position. com pared with one another. Thus 6 + 2 = 8 . In particular.c = a : c . Such are the numbers 6. Four is indeed the double of 2. An harmonic proportion occurs when. 2.76 MUSIC LV. In fact. and consequently ac = b2. 1.5 1 LVII. and 8 m ultiplied by the mean term 3 gives 24. 2. This proportion possesses the pro perty that the mean term is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by the same part of the extremes. 3. the extreme 6 is greater than 3 by half of 6. and 2 is the double of the unit. and the difference 4 . The mean called “subcontrary to the harm onic” (mean) is the one in which the third term is to the first as the excess of 5 T heon habitually verifies the stated proposition in a sim ple m anner. . is the one in which the mean term is greater than one extrem e and is less than the other by a m ultiple or superpartial ratio (of the first term to the second or of the second to the third). which is the excess of 3 over 2. Furtherm ore. and 6. also called the proportion proper. In the product o f the extrem es being equal to the product o f the means. the 1 three num bers w hich give the geom etric m edian. if the extreme terms are added and the sum is m ultiplied by the mean term.52 LVIII. the arithm etic mean is the one in which the mean term is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by the same number. LVI. The geom etric mean. since 1 x 4 = 4 . 52 T he harm onic m edian is in general a . c. are thus in double ratio. a number is found which is double the product of the extremes. a . which is the triple of the unit. the num ber 2 is greater than 1 by one unit and is less than 3 by one unit. we have (a + c) b = 2 ac.1 is 1. the first is to the third in the same relationship that the ex cess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). and the excess of 6 over 3 is 3. for 2 x 2 = 4. 2: the extrem e 6 is the triple of 2. and the other extreme 2 is less than 3 by half of 2. in the pro portion formed of the numbers 2. This mean term has the property of being the half-sum of the extremes. the difference 2 .b : b .2 is 2. b. These numbers. Therefore the product of the extremes is equal to the square of the mean term . This mean possesses the property that the product of the extremes is equal to the square of the mean term: thus in the preceding proportion.

W e have the sixth mean when. in order to sum m arize the exposition of mathematics. Likewise if we add the extremes 12 and 6. 3. the sum is 18. For us. being given three terms. by 3. a condensed outline of these principles. which is the excess of 6 over 4. the excess of the first num ber (over the second) is half of 2. Now 2. is to 3. This is how one finds the mean terms. half of the excess of the larger over the sm aller. W e have the fifth mean when. in the same relationship as 1 to 1 + ‘A . we take the excess of the larger 12. be tween the numbers 12 and 6. and 4 is to 6 as 1 is to 1 + *A. Such is the proportion formed of the numbers 5. In the arithm etic pro portion. since it is greater than one and less than the other by 3 units. in arithm etic proportion. The extrem e 6 is indeed greater than 4 by 2. and in which. . If we propose to find the mean term. H O W THE M E A N TERM S OF THE M EAN S A R E FOUND LXI. or finally one takes half of the sum of the two given terms. LIX. being given three terms. or one adds the halves of each of the two numbers given. Now the extrem e 2 is half of 4. and 4 is greater than the other extreme 1. and 5 is greater than 3 by 2 units. LX. the excess of the first term (over the second). and obtain 9. the excess of 4 over 1. the excess of the second num ber over the third. 5. as the unit. which is the arithm etic mean between the numbers 12 and 6. it is sufficient to have. in which 6 is greater than 5 by one unit. 1. The Pythagoreans have been much concerned with these six means and their subcontraries. over the sm aller 6. 9. the third is to the second as the excess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). 2. 3 is half of 6. ac cording to the m ethod of Pythagoras. which is added to the sm aller term 6. the second is to the first as the excess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). Such is the mean formed by the numbers 6. is half of 2. finally. The extreme 5 is greater than 4 by one unit. 4. and 4 is greater than the other extreme 2 by 2 units. 4. and the unit. is the mean between the given numbers. Such is the proportion formed of the numbers 6. one adds to the sm all term.MUSIC 77 the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). the half of which is 3. whose half. the excess of the second (over the third).

This is what it was necessary to demonstrate. each mean term found is rational and its length is com m ensurable with the ex tremes. In fact. and we have A B : B D = B D : BC. we have a right angle at D. for exam ple. therefore BD is the proportional mean bet ween AB and BC. We multiply the excess of the larger over the smaller. Thus the sides which contain the equal angles are proportional. and composed of whole units. Fig 1 Most often it is determined geom etrically whether it can be ex pressed in rational number or whether the ratio and the lengths are incommensurable. If.78 MUSIC Here is how the mean term of a geom etric proportion is found: we take the square root of the product of the extremes. and consequently similar to each other. If the num ber contained in the extremes is squared. of which the square root. It remains now to show how the mean term in harmonic propor tion is obtained. between which we are to find the mean term in geometric proportion. 12. is the mean term. But if the num ber contained in the extremes is not a perfect square. until it meets the semi-circle. We place them in a straight line and on the sum AC describe a semi-circle. It is done in the following way. we multiply the given numbers by each other. such as 12 and 6. the height is DB and the triangles which are part of it are sim ilar to the total triangle. The product is 144. We are given two extremes in double ratio. if we join AD and DC. the mean term will only be commensurable with the extremes in power. then from point B we lead the per pendicular BD to AC. . In the triangle ADC. since it is inscribed in a semi-circle. taking AB and BC for the two terms. because 24 : 12 = 12 : 6. the two numbers 24 and 6 are given. I assert that BD will be the proportional geometric mean between the straight lines AB and BC. in double ratio.

6. by the sum of the extremes. such as 18 and 6. that is to say 18. it remains for us to mention the elements of astronom y. If we have. If the given extremes are in triple ratio. 6.The transcriber o f another ms. since it is greater than one extreme and less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. added to the sm aller term 4. then divide the product. gives 9 for the sought-for mean term. half of which equals 72. for the convenience of the readers of Plato. 6. by the sm aller term 4. obtaining 8 which will be the sought-for mean. we obtain a quotient of 2. In order to find the harmonic mean between any two given une qual terms. for example. which is a third. W e divide this result by the sum of the extremes. This quotient 2. 4 . the two terms 12 and 4. of w hat is most necessary and useful in the portions of the m athem atical sciences of which we have spoken. gives 6 for the harm onic mean between 12 and 4.53 After this summary exposition. We therefore have the harm onic proportion of the numbers 12. we m ultiply the excess of the larger over the sm aller by itself: 1 2 x 1 2 is 144. then add the quotient to the sm aller term. By this method it is necessary to m ultiply the excess by the sm aller term and to divide the product by the sum of the ex tremes. has added the words “ G lory to G od” . The quotient of the division. by the smaller. one can also use the more general m ethod that we first dem onstrated. added to the sm aller term. by multiplying the excess of 12 over 4. In fact 6 is greater than one extrem e and is less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. (Toulis) . or 24. we have 32 as a pro duct. that is to say 8.■ MUSIC 79 that is to say 6. for it is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by half of the extremes. 3 54A fter the w ord ‘astronom y’ the transcriber o f the V enice ms. and add the quotient 2 to the sm aller term 6. which is the half. W e have the harm onic proportion of the numbers 18. 9.5 4 5See note X V I. 36. adds the words ‘end o f the present book by the help of G od’. If now we divide 32 by the sum of the extremes which is 16. 6. The harmonic pro portion is then formed of the numbers 12. 8.

.

and always accom plish the same revolutions. Further- I 'I t can be speculated th at the concept o f Earth as center of the universe is retained by the Pythagoreans for its philosophical and spiritual verity. for inhabitants of the same place. and is in a certain sense verified by the theory o f relativity as applied to the m ovem ent o f celestial bodies. is placed in the middle.PART THREE ASTRONOMY ON THE SPH ERICAL FORM OF THE E A R T H The entire world is a sphere and the earth. We would say therefore that the w orld and the earth are spherical and the earth is the center of the world. which is itself a spheroid. and that it is only a point in it. The sphericity of the world is again dem onstrated by reason of the fact that. while we assume the other half to be hidden by the earth and not able to be perceived. 1 T hat the earth is the • center of the universe and that it is but a point in relation ship to the size of the universe: this is what must be established before anything else. A precise exposition of this doctrine would require such lengthy consideration of so many writings that it would instead be sufficient to summarize here what we have to say. . as far as our senses can tell. But certainly from a spiritual point o f view a geocentric universe is a com plem entary concept. all the celestial bodies rise and set and rise again at the same points. by recalling the summary notions transm itted to us by Adrastus. from each part of the earth. not a contradiction to the heliocentric view. This results from the fact that. half of the sky is seen above us.

it would not produce this effect on earth: one of its parts would appear larger. If we concede that certain parts of the earth are further 2from the constellation o f Argo.) (Toulis) . II. the ris ing and setting of the same stars certainly prove this. the sun does not illum inate the whole sur face of the earth at the same time. the earth is spherical from east to west. Thus the star called Canopus 2 is invisible in lands further north than Cnide 3. and the sooner one will have seen a greater part. The further east ward one is. and which used to have a rising and a setting. one o f the most b rillian t stars in the southern hem isphere. and if diam etrically opposed stars describe a great circle. always invisible for us in their movem ent around the pole which is hidden for us. while others. Furtherm ore. and later for those of the western regions. or a pyramid or any other solid. 3C ity o f C arie (Asia M inor. the more advanced the hour will be that one sees it. when one goes from south towards the north. another sm aller. one is setting while the other is rising. and the shadow that the earth projects moves according to a fixed order. but for all those seeing it. all the visual rays appear equal to us. it appears at different hours of the day. They take place early for the inhabitants of eastern regions. but it is visible in more southerly lands. many stars. Because of the curved form of the earth. and the distances from earth to heaven would appear unequal. other stars. A c cording to ancient lore. many of the stars which are seen rising and setting in the south dis appear. And first of all. which are always visible for us in their movement around the pole. for the measure that they advance. On the contrary. and as many more of these are seen as one advances north wards. the phenomenon taking place at night. have a rising and a setting. situated in the region of the Bears.82 ASTRONOMY more. have for them a rising and a setting. were a cone or a cylinder. Canopus was the captain of M enelaus’ boat (brother of A gam em non and husband o f H elen) when they sailed against Troy. instead of being spherical. if we look at the extreme points of the sky. entirely. become always visi ble. it must be spheri cal. It is again evident that the earth is convex from north to south: in fact for those going southward. and always rises higher and higher to the measure that one is further from the north. In the same way. A single lunar eclipse further shows this: it is produced in the same brief period of time. every weighted body is carried naturally toward the center. Since the earth appears convex from all parts. If the universe.

or one sees a sm aller part of the object. one observes an object from which one is separated by the sea. m utually held in a clasp. we draw the perpendicular to the base XB. III. it would be necessary that the sm all parts which encircle them be pressed. from the bridge of the ship neither earth nor any other vessel can be seen. and we draw the lines XA and XC to the extrem ities of this base. being higher and so overcom ing the convexity of the sea which was causing the obstacle. one no longer sees any thing. or the earth itself. everything being con stituted in equilibrium and repose like two wooden beams which m utually support each other or two athletes of the same force. and the lower parts are less so. This can be recognized in this manner: If. such as point X. situated on the shore. let us call ABC a straight line on this surface. therefore . a tree. But the higher parts are further away from the center of the earth. that is to say that angles which are always equal are made with the surface of the earth. W ater indeed tends to flow from higher towards lower levels. And often. If the different parts of the earth are equally far from the center. since the fall of heavy bodies is always and every where made towards the center. surrounded with new water would be as far from point X as A and B are. but a sailor climbs up high on a mast pole and can see them. the convexity of the surface of the sea masking the object. The surface of the w ater being presumed planar. higher than point B.ASTRONOMY 83 away from the center than others because of their size. to the point where equality of distance and pressure being obtained. W ater will flow therefore from points A and C towards the lower point B. it is necessary that its form be spheri cal. such as a hill. and consequently. then if one lowers one’s gaze towards the surface of the water. all points of the sur face of the w ater will be at the same distance from X. a ship. then it must be concluded that the surface of the earth is spherical. The surface of the sea and all tranquil waters are also spheri cal. repelled and removed from the center. all converge towards the same point and each falls vertically. a tower. It can be physically and m athem atically dem onstrated that the surface of every body of still w ater must be spherical in form. It is evident that the two lines XA and XC are both longer than XB. while sailing. and that the two points A and C are further from the center than point B. Similarly. From the center of the earth. In addition. until the latter point.

the diam eter of our sphere would equal 200 m illet-grain diam eters or a little less. It cannot be said that the height of m ountains or the depth of valleys would be contrary to this thesis and prove that the earth is not an exact sphere. The height of the largest m ountain would therefore be equal to an eight-thousandth part of the total diam eter of the earth. measured following the circum ference of a great circle. thus the relationship of a quarter o f the diam eter o f a grain of millet to this one-foot sphere is greater than the relationship of the height o f the highest m ountain to the diam eter o f the earth. has an approxim ate length of 252. and Archimedes tells us that a cir cumference of a circle.0196 o f a yard) Toulis.84 ASTRONOMY w ater presents the spherical form and the en tire mass of the earth’s w ater is spherical. Now. The spherical A kind o f graphom eter. developed as a straight line.018 of the m eter. But we have seen that the height of the largest m ountain is nearly an eight-thousandth part o f the diam eter of the earth. 252. If we were to make a sphere one foot in diam eter. according to Erathosthenes and Dicearchus. the finger has the value of 12 m illet-grain diameters. The sphere having a diam eter of a quarter of the diam eter of a grain of m illet is the 64. A 5F inger — the sm allest o f the ancient G reek measures of length equal to 0. Three times this number. the vertical height of the highest m ountains above the lowest plane is 10 stades. has the value of three times and nearly a seventh of the circle’s diameter. plus a seventh of this num ber gives.182 stades. Erathosthenes indeed shows us that the circle of the earth. One quarter of the diam eter of a grain of m illet is then larger than the eight-thousandth part of a foot.000th part of a whole grain. since 40 times 200 is 8. .000 stades. (or .000 stades. Since the foot has the value of 16 fingers 5. and 16 times 12 is 192. They have deduced this result from observations made with the dio p ter4 which allows the m easurem ent of heights according to cer tain intervals. in fact. the width of one finger being about equal to I 2 V2 diam eters of a grain of m illet. And the relationship of the sphere having a quarter of the thickness of a grain of millet to the sphere of a foot in diam eter is greater than the relationship o f the sphere of 10 stades in height to the height o f the terrestial sphere.000. The diam eter of the earth will then have the value of ap proxim ately 80.

000. 270 third myriads. 250 second myriads. and this quarter equals the area of the circle. The highest m ountains of 10 stades have the same relationship with the earth. in cubic stades. or w hether it be picked up and placed in a hollow. The square of the diam eter is to the area of the circle as 14 is to 11 7. seconds are 10. the circle having this diam eter will be 77. 4350 first myriads.297 an d “ />■ . when the cube of the diam eter of the circle equals 14.Vs. which is contained one and a h alf times in the cylinder. T h e above n u m b er is w ritten.508. the circle having this diam eter is 38 + 1 i . It is thus th at one finds volumes expressed in numbers of the ter restrial sphere and of the highest m ountain. it is dem onstrated that the rectangle formed by the diam eter of a sphere and the circumference of a great circle.000 units. But one such part of a grain of m illet. w hether it be superim posed on a sphere of one foot in diam eter.025. according to Archimedes. is that of 14 to 11. for the circum ference of the circle equals three times the diam eter plus a seventh part of this diam eter.000 or 10. the circum scribed cylinder will equal 11 and the sphere 7 -I. But m ountains are not spherical.000 tim es 100. they will not therefore prevent the whole of earth and sea from truly being a sphere.000 units. the circum ference is 22. However the relationship of these numbers. opened out as a straight line. T h e ra tio o f 14 : 11 for finding the area o f the circle is a ttributed to A rchim edes. they are much sm aller. as we see them.6 Furtherm ore. expressed in the sm allest prim e terms. but can be derived as well from the ap p ro x im ately 7 : 1 1 ratio o f the vertical half-section of the G izeh pyram id. with respect to the earth. is also equal to the relationship of 14 to 11. Both ratios give an ap p ro x im atio n o f the .000 tim es 10. the square of the diam eter being 49. and. has the value.000. and if we double this in order to make the V2 disappear. and the whole earth as a sphere. equals 4 times the surface of a quarter of the sphere.then. •First m yriads are 10. in o u r form o f enum eration: 270. A quarter of this circumference is 5 + V2. Therefore. will not produce any difference in form. If a m ountain 10 stades high were a sphere. it would be much sm aller. thirds are 10.043. Thus. 8296 and the fraction u /a i.ooo th of a grain of m illet in relation to a sphere of one foot in diam eter. than & ».000 units.ASTRONOMY 85 m ountain of 10 stades in diam eter has the value of nearly 524 cubic stades. If the diam eter is seven. since the largest com m on m easure of these numbers is 7. / the square of the diam eter being 98.

36... 80. Here is w hat he next says: ON THE C ELESTIAL CIRCLES V..6.788. They can in fact be taken for the center of the solar orbit.043..040 and 4A ths........ and of earth’s central position as well as its size... the square of the diameter..508. and drawn from the poles of the universe as centers. ..821...... the cube..429....... but the circles described by the other points are innum erable.. de scribe parallel circles. If it were removed from this position it would not have half the sky above it and half below. is shown by the points of the sundials in every inhabited place on earth... straight lines drawn from any point at the extrem ities of the celestial sphere would not be equal.. The product of this num ber by *Vs is equal to the volum e of the earth which therefore has the value in cubic stades of 270.86 ASTRONOMY The encircling of the earth therefore is valued.... It is for this reason that half of the world....297 and “ A t8 IV... or nearly so... that is to say circles everywhere equidistant... at the m iddle of which is fixed the earth.. and the unknown size of its relation to the universe.. It is then evident that the whole earth is only a point with respect to the entire sphere of the sun and even more so with respect to the sphere of the stars..... for in changing location.153. See note X V II. ...... 252.. the diam eter.... 515.... that it occupies but a point in this universe.. The earth is spherical and placed at the center of the world......124 square stades.842...025..... all the points on earth appear to be this center....596... one cannot observe any perceptible parallax.355.000 stades... The celestial sphere turning around its im mobile poles and the axis which joins them. is always apparent to our eyes... T hat the volum e of the earth has no perceptible relationship with the expanse of the universe. If therefore there is necessarily a center for the ensemble of all spheres.. what has been dem onstrated by Adrastus in the m anner shown above will be sufficient for the exposition of w hat follows. Furtherm ore.. Some of “F o r the rectification we have m ade o f the values of the different results. One can count the circles described by the stars.. A lthough we might say many other things about the form of the universe and of the earth.. and all the stars carried by this sphere and all the points of the sky......502.568 cubic stades.. perpendicular to the axis. .... a fourteenth of this c u b e ..182 stades....

“ the shiny one. for other places in which one sees the sun rise and set ac cording to the general m ovement of the universe. the planet of Mars or as others claim of Hercules. . one w ho brings light. The circle which is the boundary of our vision and divides the sky as a whole into two equal parts — the earth being the obsta cle from our viewpoint — is called the horizon. sometimes moves near to one and some times to the other.” 1 which is also called Hermes. in its revolution. Pyrois. (Toulis) l0l. (Mercury) VII. Phaethon. moon. the durations of the day and night are equal when the sun describes this circle.1 and close to these planets Stilbon. A nother. The one in the middle. because of the constellations of the Bears which it crosses. Phosphorus. Evening — Bringer o f evening. situated for us on this side of the equatorial circle. equal to the first. is itself always invisi ble to us. like the Sun. it also cuts the great circles such as the equator and the zodiac into two equal parts. As it is also a great circle of the sphere. It cuts the equatorial circle into two equal parts and is itself also divided by this circle at a point in Aries and at a point in Taurus. M orning — bringer o f dawn "2 . and other planets move: Phenon. when one "Literally m eaning th e light-bringer. around the always apparent and visible pole. the tropic of winter.9 which is also called Venus or also Lucifer1 and 0 Hesperus. on the opposite side. there is an equality between the days and nights. It is in this zone that the sun. and is called the antarctic circle. the tropic of summer. It touches each tropic at one point: the tropic of summer at a point in C ancer and the other tropic at a point in C apricorn. If two stars are diam etrically opposed. circles the pole which we never see.ASTRONOMY 87 these circles have been given particular names which it is useful to know in order to take into account what happens in the heavens. which is a large circle. VI. which the planet of Saturn is called by some. The sun. The zodiac is in fact obliquely extended between these two circles. It is called the arctic circle. and the other below is the invisible hemisphere. and on the other side. Between the equatorial circle and the two arctic circles there are the two tropics. because on these corresponding regions of the earth. the planet of Jupiter. There is one above us. The zodiac is also a great circle. O f these parts the one above the earth is the visible hemisphere. divides the whole sphere into two equal parts and is called the equator.

VIII. that is.88 ASTRONOMY rises. being at the highest point of its course above the horizon. The m eridian and the horizon are also given in size. lines and angles are given in size when equal sizes can be found. and the tropic of sum m er being equal to the tropic of winter and reciprocally. and which is conceived as perpendicular to the horizon. The equatorial (circle) and the two tropics situated on either side of it are circles which are given and fixed in size and position. It is sometimes called “ truncated” 12. which passes through the two poles of the world. it is said that surfaces. which to us shows it changing in place. are the equatorial circle and the cir cles situated on either side of it. The horizon divides the m eridian into two equal parts. for they are the great circles of the celestial sphere. This is why they are always given. because one of its parts. In fact we do not all have the same horizon nor the same zenith. and the an tarctic circle the p arallel lim it of the alw ays invisible stars. for us it is not fixed. but they change in position according to the earth zones and are different in different locations on the earth. The zodiac is a circle given in size and position with respect to the sky. they are always fixed. For there is another great circle. it is not given in position. As for the arctic and the an tarctic circles which are neighbors of the poles. Those which are naturally given. they are naturally so. and one could find equal circles: the zodiac. . It is said that points and lines are ‘given’ in position when they a l ways occupy the same place. we cannot determ ine them. they are given. but in relation to us. nor the same meridian.1 but according to the differences in m ore 3 northerly or southerly zones. is hidden from us. Now the equatorial circle and the two tropics placed on either side of it a l ways have the same position. But those which it is in our power to render as this or that are not naturally given. It is called m eridian because the sun cuts it at the m iddle of the day. Indeed. the other sets. called the m eridian. given in size and position. which are fixed and exist by themselves. IX. that which is on the side of the invisible pole. it is not in our power to render them as this or that. '“O ne w ould call the arctic circle in each location the p a ra lle l lim it o f the stars always visible in th a t place. they are seen to be larger or ‘*Colurc from K otoipo? truncated. the horizon and the m eridian being equal to the equatorial circle. they are not given in either size or position. because of its obliquity in the universe.

while accom plishing their course in the contrary direction to the m ovem ent of the universe. from north to south and reciprocally. X. nor of size or color. it is not the same: the two poles appear at the end of the horizon. But for the m iddle region of the earth. as if they were fixed to it and as if they were moved by it. they are sometimes seen further north from the m iddle circle. For. The circle in the m iddle of these signs is called the great circle which touches the two tropics at one point on each of them. they go toward the zodiac signs which follow them (in the diurnal movem ent) and not to the zodiac signs which precede them. through the obliquity of the zodiac. Each of the other circles is a true circle term inated by a single line. just like the fixed stars. and sometimes further south. through a m ovem ent of their own. m oon and other stars which are called errant are carried with the universe in the diurnal m ovem ent from east to west. they have a m ovem ent in latitude. In addition. THE PLAN ETS XII. that is for the zone which is found on the equatorial line where one cannot live because of the heat. and m aintain the same order between each other and do not experience any change of form or movement. THE STARS XI. But apart from this movement. like the cylinder of a drum. A tten tive observers see them moved from the tropic of summer to the tropic of w inter and reciprocally. The two circles which define the width of the zodiac on either side are sm aller circles. and cuts the equatorial circle into two equal parts. each day they appear to have several other com plicated motions. They always have the same relative position on the sphere. carried along in the contrary direction of the universe in a course which is called m ovem ent in longititude. The anim al figures are imagined on the inside of this cylinder. The sun. M ost of the stars are fixed. they are carried together by a uni que and sim ple circular movement. but the one called the zodiac shows a certain breadth. .ASTRONOMY 89 smaller. with the first sphere which is the largest. And within the breadth of the zodiac. and it is sometimes said that the sphere is right because in this region of the earth all the parallel circles are per pendicular to the horizon.

but with little difference in duration.90 ASTRONOMY some are lower down. The moon and the sun each appear to deviate equally in latitude from the circle of the m iddle of the zodiac. and Saturn nearly 3. Jupiter and Mars. Jupiter in about 12 years. and more southward in another. F or the moon. the moon. appears first and rises in the eve ning. The other planets do not deviate equally from it. sometimes following it. and sometimes being closer to the earth in the depths of space. having a more rapid m ovem ent than the sun towards the zodiacal signs which follow. Besides. are preceded and overtaken by it. the appearances and disap pearances which are called the risings and the settings. that these planets always set in the evening and rise in the morning (after the conjunction). which arrive less quickly than the sun at the following signs. and for Venus. Mars achieves its course in a little less than 2 years. it is larger. others less so. and it can be said that they have the same speed as the sun. they vary in size. that is to say. Saturn. It is for this reason that the speed of their movem ent through the zodiacal signs appears unequal. going towards the same zodiacal signs and not towards the preceding ones. sometimes these two stars follow it. Inversely. They do not cover the same distance in space in the same am ount of time. always appear near to it. but are more north ward in one sign. sometimes they appear . The distance covered on the zodiac is slight for the sun. since it is about 12 degrees. Hermes covers about 8. since it is just about one degree out of 360. Venus and Hermes. they go faster when they appear larger because of their lesser distance from earth. sometimes being further distant. from one fixed point to this same point. the sun in a year having the approxim ate value of 365‘A days. Mars and Jupiter about 5. sometimes preceding it. after its conjunction with the sun. The conjunctions with the sun. XIII. which have a movem ent equal to that of the sun. sometimes they appear in the evening and disappear also in the evening. and Saturn in a lit tle less than 30 years. while it disappears and sets in the morning. are not the same for all the planets. in fact. As for the length of the circle of the zodiac. The moon. Venus and Hermes travel in an unequal movement. and they go less fast when they appear sm aller because of their greater distance. sometimes they precede it. since they are always seen beside it. as the ancient astronom ers have said. travels it in 27Vsdays.

but at dawn. The rising belongs to the evening when the star begins to appear after the setting of the sun. when the sun rises. XIV. in the part of the sky diam etrically opposite. that is. i. There still remains the rising called rising at “ night-edge” u . being very close to a star in the west. The rising of the star belongs to the morning when the star preceeding the rays of the sun appears before it in the east. First. W hile the other planets are far from the sun. THE ORDER OF THE PLANETS A N D THE C ELESTIAL CONCERT XV. at every interval. at early dawn and early sunset. Among the risings and the settings depending on the sun and its rays. Hermes is about 20 degrees away from it. Next is the setting pro duced by the diffusion of the brilliance of the star by the luminous rays of the sun. Here are the opinions of certain Pythagoreans relative to the position and the order of the spheres or circles on which the planets are moving. properly and com monly.ASTRONOMY 91 at the earliest dawn and disappear with the day. which in the preceding days was rising before the sun. which is properly called a disappearance. at its beginning. as we have said of the new moon. that is to say among the phenom ena of appearance and disap pearance. i. that of l4“ N ight-edge” here applies to the early beginning and early end o f the night. for their shining to begin to distinguish itself from the rays of the sun. next. the setting belongs to the morning when the star. others in the evening. The circle of the moon is closest to the earth. either to the east or to the west. e. There still remains the setting called again night-edge. It is called “ night-edge” because it oc curs at the edge of the night. which is still properly a m anner of rising. causes that star to become invisible because of the radiance of its neighbor. these two stars are on the contrary always seen near the sun. some occur in the morning. as with the rising of Canis Major. by their elevation above the horizon. about two thirds of a zodiacal sign. Venus is about 50 degrees to the east or to the west. Similarly. up to the point where they are diam etrically opposite. a star disappears in the part of the horizon diam etrically opposite. e. (Toulis) . for the sun and the other stars. Rising means several things. the setting is of the evening when the sun. like the moon. which is produced in the east after the setting of the sun. Similarly the first setting is the descent below the horizon. ceases to appear at its approach.

represents a Siren to us. which contain six tones. an octave). the crystal sphere gives the fourth in relation to it.” According to the doctrine of Pythagoras. and that of Saturn is last and closest to that of the distant stars. then comes that of Venus. the divine moon is the nearest to the earth. the sun. the earth at the center gives the fifth with respect to the sun. next comes those of Mars and Jupiter. They determ ine. and Phenon.92 ASTRONOMY Hermes is second above. complete the octave. star of Saturn. occupying the fourth rung. then comes the moon which gives to nature such varying hue. The seven spheres give the seven sounds of the lyre and produce a harmony (that is to say. the celestial bodies which are distant from one another according to the proportions of consonant sounds. accomodating itself to the most intense heat. ‘the shining one’. Hermes. is one tone below. the sun placed in the middle of the errant stars gives the mese. above is the sun whose chariot is drawn by horses. Pyrois. the world being indeed harmoniously ordained. the starry sphere gives the conjunct nete. near the distant stars. create. star of Hermes. next comes Phosphorus. It is for this reason that A lexander thus expresses himself in the following verse: “The earth at the center gives the low sound of the hypate. Saturn is lowest by a half-tone. Phaeton. that of the sun is fourth. in fact. the corres ponding harmonic sounds. shining star of Jupiter is sixth. Venus differs from the dazzling sun by a trihemitone. that the orbit of the sun occupies the m iddle place between the planets as being the heart of the universe and most able to com mand. as to the most glacial cold. the inventor of the lyre. The heavens. and finally. is fifth. Hermes continues with a half-tone lower than Venus. Jupiter diverges as much from Saturn as from the terrible Mars. star of the deadly Mars of Thrace. joy of mortals. and this position has five regions. because of the in tervals which separate them from one another. from wintry to torrid. is seventh. by the m ovement and speed of their revolutions. brilliant star of the goddess of Cythera (Venus). Here is a declaration of A lexander of Aetolia: “ The spheres rise higher and higher. . the second is Stilbon. The son of Jupiter.

...... N either is it chrom atic....... it renders absolutely no sound......... still young... was constructed by Hermes...................... ....... and that it gives the consonances of the oc tave................................................... but he does not assign the same order to them. he was astonished that the har monies produced by the speeds of their revolutions was the same as l5This.. giving the n e te ................ in a sim ilar manner.. the image of the universe..... but with the nete of disjuncts................... Sphere of H erm es... but that of the fourth..... He attributes the sound o f the m ese to the sun.. include only six tones..... nor tw o half-tones one after the other..... the image of this divine w orld.. having invented the lyre. he says th at the seven-stringed lyre...................... H e says that in fact Mercury.... and it is not with the nete o f the conjuncts that it gives the consonance of the octave........ then............................ since the song of that gender allow sfo rn eith eraco m p letetrih em ito n e interval. afid pass ing near the stars called “ errant” .......... the m elody does not include the unbroken tone.......... It is true that he attributes the sound of the hypate.... as being lower than the others.. The hypate does not give the sound o f the fifth with the m ese.................. for in the chrom atic gender. according to A lexander.....^ h alf tone I fourth Sphere o f J u p i t e r ... If it be said that the system is form ed o f the tw o genders........... But all of this is unclear to those who are not initiated into music............... trihem itone \ Sphere of V e n u s................................ Eratosthenes.................. he gives the second place to the sun. A fter the moon which is above the earth.......... The system does not conform to the diatonic type................... tone / Sphere o f the sun giving the m ese.. then he established the harmony of the w orld with nine sounds which... to the earth..... is the o rd er o f the spheres and the intervals of the sounds made by these spheres: Sphere o f the stars................ half tone | Sphere o f M a rs ...... and places the seven sounds of the planets betw een the two..........” 1 5 In these verses A lexander has indicated the order for the spheres that he has determ ined.. however.................. Then he gives the sound of the con ju n ct nete to the sphere of the stars..\ Sphere o f S a tu rn .......... exposes the harmony pro duced by the revolution of the stars.......................... I would answ er that it is not m elodious to have more than tw o half-tones following one another........... -4 ^ half tone > fourth Sphere o f the m o o n ......<^ half tone f ......... It is evident that he arbitrarily imagined the intervals which separate them... tone 1 Sphere o f the E arth giving the h y p a te ..ASTRONOMY 93 having a seven-stringed lyre....... Indeed..... and nearly all the rest. first rose up to the sky........................ but being im m obile at the center.....

speaking of the arrangem ent of the celestial bodies. He shows the order of these spheres with respect to the distance of each of the stars. THE M Y T H OF P A M P H Y L IO N IN PLATO ’S REPUBLIC XVI. in the middle of this luminous band.. then Hermes. The shaft and the hook of this spindle were of diamond. and saw. this author appears to leave the earth immobile and determines that there are eight sounds produced by the starry sphere and by the seven spheres of the planets which he makes circle around the earth. Plato. They arrange the other planets in the order we have men tioned. Republic X 616b. he says that an axis traverses the celestial pole like a pillar. they place the sun.94 ASTRONOMY that of the lyre which he had constructed. and some put Hermes beyond it. This explanation fares bet ter than that of Alexander. The last sphere being that of the stars.. “This is how it was made: in its form it resembled the spindlewheels of our world. A t the extremities of this link was held the spindle of Necessity.In the epic verses. quite similar to a rainbow but brighter and more pure. This is what he says'6: “After each of these souls had passed seven days in the meadow. like the undergirders of triremes (in order to pre vent the structure from falling apart). it is this which gives the oscilla tion to all the revolutions of the spheres.. They made still another day’s journey to arrive there. to their color and to the speed of their movement in the op posite direction to that of the universe. envelopes all the others. These vertebra are none other than the spheres carrying the seven planets. then Venus. the ends of its fastenings attached to heaven. . wishing to exhort justice and virtue. they had to depart from it on the eighth and continue further through a four day journey to a place from which one could see a light extending over the whole surface of the sky and earth. It is for this reason that he made an eight-stringed lyre in cluding the consonances of the octave. and others put Venus. A fter the moon. the spindle was formed of the same substance and of other precious materials. at the end of the Republic. but according to the description given by IK Plato. straight like a pillar. recounts a fable in which. The m athem aticians establish neither this order nor a like order among the planets. This band is the link of heaven and embraces its whole circumference. He adds that there is another spine-like axis with hollow vertebra nested one next to the other.

“ The rim of the largest spindle (the sphere of the stars) was of different colors.” This is what Plato says. eight spindle-wheels in all. the poets often call all the 7 . a fourth and yet four more of them. then that of the sixth. the rim of the seventh (sphere of the sun) was of a very brilliant color. that of the eighth (sphere of the moon) bor rowed its color and its brilliancy from the seventh. always the same. the movements of the seventh. thus some designate the planets themselves by the word “ Siriazein. after Adrastus. we have constructed a sphere accord ing to his explanations. as it appeared to them. (Toulis) . On each of these circles a Siren was seated. There was thus a third. sixth and fifth were less of an equal speed. The spindle turned on the knees of Necessity. the eighth. The color of the circles of the seventh and the fifth (Saturn and Hermes) was nearly the same and they were more yellow than the others. the fourth which has a more rapid retrograde movement than the other spindles is third in speed. who turned with it and emitted one sound.1 O f the others. meaning burning. diminishing in width in that order. W e explain this passage in the Commen taries on the Republic. resulted a perfect harmony (that is to say a complete octave). like large vessels fitted one inside the other. There were. From all these sounds. The movement of the eighth was the most rapid. and they presented the continuous curved surface of a single spindle around the shaft passing through the center of the first. Plato says. the third (Jupiter) had a very white color. it m eans either the star Sirius o r the flam ing burning heat o f any star. appears to be derived from the w ord “ Sirius” . the third and of the second. The circular rim of this exterior spindle was the widest.” The complete exterior spindle made its revolution in the same direction as the universe. w hich is neither in the dictionaries nor in the Thesaurus o f H enri Estienne. placed one within the other. which itself received a third. the fifth. from Sirius: a star th a t burns hotly — a burning s tar — also applies to the burning sun when the tw o words are used in conjunction like “T he Sirionic Sun” — w hen the word is used alone. Also. Finally the sixth (Venus) occupied second place in brilliancy and whiteness. He says that Sirens are seated on the circles. and. in the interior. Their circular rims could be seen from above. it should be represented as containing in its hollow another smaller spindle-wheel. therefore.” to b u rn . in fact. the fourth. eight in number.7T he w ord “ Siriazein” . that it would be useless work to wish to expose these phenom ena w ithout the images which speak to the eyes.ASTRONOMY 95 Pamphylian. the third had only the fourth speed and the second had only the fifth. the seven concentric spindles moved slowly in the opposite direction. shining. that of the fourth (Mars) was slightly red. the seventh. to be heard.

Forward m ovement is the apparent m otion of a planet which seems to go towards the preceding zodiac signs to the West. and sometimes to move in retrograde motion. There are others which move towards the preceding zodiac signs and towards the following signs. it is in reality the true movement of a star which goes to the east in consecutive zodiac signs. the sounds and the accords are produced by their revolutions. XIX. As for the planets. The l8A ratus. The contrary movement is an appropriate motion. THE M O VEM EN TS OF THE PLANETS X VII. It is for this reason that they necessarily appear sometimes to stop. Thus one reads in Ibycus: “flam ing as the ‘Siriuses’ which shine in the long night. v 331. 9 v. But according to Plato. there are some which are always lagging behind. of a planet which seems always to go towards the signs which follow at the east. XX. these are all the other planets. Phenomena. for example. from which results a perfect harmony. for example. Aratus uses the ‘condition’ “ Sirius” to indicate that one star in the constellation of the Dog burns with a lively flame IK and a tragic poet said of a planet. from C ancer into Leo. . 6-7. R etrograde motion is the apparent return of a planet from its station in the opposite direction of its first movement. X V III. but that. It all ap pears to be produced in this way. from C ancer to Gemini. also these planets never have stations nor retrograde motion. ac cording to Adrastus. Iphigenia at Aulis. says Adrastus. this is not an appearance.96 ASTRONOMY stars burning “ Siriuses” stars. XXI. “W hat then is this shining ‘Sirionic’ star which passes above our heads”? Some authors pretend that the stars cannot be taken for the Sirens.” Others designate only particularly rem arkable and brilliant stars. The station is the apparent state of a planet which seems to stop and remain some time near one of the fixed stars. 1Euripedes. according to the Pythagorean doctrine. but which are always seen going towards those which follow. Such are the sun and moon which never go towards the zodiac signs which precede. but this is an appearance.

are the cause of all these phenomena. must lie the others. He says that the world. these are only the different hypotheses on the planets. the non-engendered and incorruptible. This being 2Cf. In order th at the m otion of the universe which results from an ac tive force and from a divine cause. because of the superposition. vs. A nd it is necessary that it be below. X X II. of the divine. It is indeed through these revolutions of the stars that come and go that all things in our world are also changed. moves in a circular m ovement proper to its spherical form. and that this m otion has been initiated by a first propulsion. water and air. most beautiful. The m o tion of the planets has been diversely arranged for the calculation of time and for their return to the perigee and to the apogee. and as the poet says: “ Here below one sees only wrath and killing and all the other evils. in proportion. relative to the zodiacal zone which is above. Em pedocles. follow that which is lesser. most blessed. 19 o r 21 0 . growth and decline. all is change and m o tion. be circular and always sim ilar to itself. hypotheses rendered probable through their accord with the phenomena. The planets.”'20 Indeed there is nothing but generation and decay. And as Adrastus explains. to be carried back. this is why the world has been arranged by the grace of a superior and benevolent cause.ASTRONOMY 97 cause is that each planet moves below the stars in a circle or in a sphere of its own. and seems to us. Between the two elements thus sepa rated. m ortal and perishable. around us and up to us. circular. in that it is composed of parts as numerous and as diverse as we have singled out. and that which is here only follows the motion of higher things incidentally. it is necessary that the earth occupy the center around which the m otion is produced. but these things are cer tainly thus because of that which is best. And in the sublunar world. alteration in every kind and changing of place. it is true. One would not say that that which is the most precious. The motion of the planets is. The cir cular m otion of the stars is sim ple and unique. and also that fire must occupy the opposite place from the etheric es sence which moves in a circle. says Adrastus. it is regular and uniform. in such a way that that which happens here below com pletely follows this motion. but ap pear to be neither simple and unique nor uniform and regular. the eternal.

we imagine that the planets move below the im mobile (by hypothesis) zodiac. are conveyed from setting to rising in unequal tim es. by a slow er m otion. it is still necessary that there be a change in all things here below. fixed to the cir cles themselves or the spheres themselves whose m otion they follow. bring forth the different seasons and produce all transform ations and all genera tions and all alterations in our world. perpendicular to the zodiac which diverges from the axis o f the stars by the value o f the side of the regular penFo r an explanation o f the spiral precession o f the equinoxes as shown in the zodiacs of the tem ple of D endera (now in the Louvre in Paris) see: Mythological Astronom y o f the Ancients D em on strated. Norwich. particularly the sun and the moon. comes from the fact that. but also of the other planets. and in the rapid m otion which is appropriate to it. Here is w hat Adrastus says of the position of the circles or spheres. but from which results. 1823 (W izards 1974) . In fact. the movements forward and the returns in height and in latitude. if. if the planets were conveyed following parallel circles by the same m o tion as the fixed stars. by Samson A rnold M ackey. The m otion takes place around another axis. A double m otion is the cause o f the apparent varied m ovem ent in both directions the starry sphere is conveyed from east to w est around the axis which passes through the poles. the arrangem ent of all the bodies being universally the same. there would be no change. On the other hand. supposing the world to be immobile. The variety presented by the revolutions of the planets. Their movem ent then will no longer appear varied and unequal. Pythagoras. under the zodiac oblique to the three parallel circles. It takes the planets along with it and describes the parallels that the stars follow. It is natural and necessary that. they are conveyed through the zodiac.98 ASTRONOMY so. X X III. like the fixed stars. by a simple motion which is appropriate to it. no vicissitudes here below. I say this will be evident. the equatorial circle and the tropic o f sum m er. the planets. the tropic o f w inter. however. was the first to understand that the planets move accord ing to a regulated revolution. an apparently varied and irregular motion. by chance. because the nature of things is profoundly changing and is subject to contrary forces. sim ple and equal. a position which saves the appearances. but will appear to be accom plished regularly as we have shown through the construction of P lato’s sphere. Change is made by the varied m otion of the planets. by thought. But the solstices and the equinoxes. each of the other celestial bodies be conveyed uniform ly and regularly.

which is at the same time the earth. then C is at the beginning of Libra and D is at the beginning of C apricorn. being on the spheres or the different circles by which they are carried. XXIV. By chance. T his angle is not constant. as has been said above. If point A is at the beginning of Aries. A rie5 C ancer B O C a p ric o rn D F ig 3 C L ib ra 2. w ithout ever increasing or dim inishing in speed. and O as the center of this circle and of the universe.T h e angle a t the cen ter o f the regular pentadecagon has a value o f a fifteenth of 360 o r 24. the seven planets. W hat then is the cause of such an apparent behavior? The chief cause is that. they appear to m ove on the zodiac as we have already said. and certain of them even have some thing unruly in their movement. but its variation is less th an a half-second p e r year.ASTRONOMY 99 tadecagon. which have nevertheless a sim ple movem ent of their own. B is at the beginning of Cancer. Let us take ABCD as the zodiac. but is carried along equally in always the same direction. Adrastus says that the m otion is uniform when the spaces travelled in equal times are equal. The motion is regular when the moving object has neither a station nor a retrograde movement. It is now 23° 27’. 2 Plato calls the axis of the planets the ‘shaft of the 1 spindle’ and also the ‘spindle’. describe several and varied circles. the sun. and AC and BD will be two perpendicular diam eters passing through this point. all the planets appear to us to have something irregular. THE M O V E M E N T OF THE SUN XXVI. However. . XXV. The angle o f the tw o axes is then 24° according to T heon. This will become clear for us if we con sider the most brilliant and largest of these planets.

100 ASTRONOMY The sun is found at A at the spring equinox. CD. W e will dem onstrate that the planets describe by chance these three kinds of circles. which is absurd. from the autum n equinox to the winter /z solstice in 88 Ve days. and its greatest is in Sagittarius. in unequal times. the appearances will be explained. so that it travels yearly the entire circle in approxim ately 365'A days. It is therefore evident that the cause of this appearance is a different m ovem ent which does not occur around the center O. If we suppose that point O is at the interior of the solar circle. It is natural and necessary as we have said. it would be divided in the same relationships by the diam eters AC and BD. It travels irregularly. It is then clear th at the sun. The point O will be interior to the circum fer ence. at C at the autum n equinox and at D at the winter solstice. If then this circle were to have the same center as that of the universe. we would still be em barrassed by this equality o f the angles at the center and by the sim ilitude o f the arcs. and from the winter solstice to the spring equinox in 90Vs days. or it will be on the circum ference itself. it is said that the circle is ec centric. It remains then to suppose the point O to be at the interior or at the exterior of the solar circle. T here would be neither rising nor setting. that is to say point O. having a regular and uniform course on its own circle. Its slowest speed is on entering Gemini. from the summer solstice to the autum n A equinox in 9 2 1 days. will appear to us. if point O is exterior there is an epicycle. or on epicycles or around the same center as the starry sphere. the four equal arcs AB. and one would not see the sun turn around the earth at all. who look at it from point O of our circle ABCD. at B at the sum m er solstice. a circle around the center of the universe. . for the sun would m eet the earth and then some of the ea rth ’s inhabitants would have only daytim e. or it will be ex terior. that all divine crea tions (the stars) have a uniform and regular motion. in Virgo and Pisces it has an average speed. BC. or an eccentric circle or an epicyclic circle. to move irregularly. and for this reason one can con sider as futile the discussions of m athem aticians who say that the planets are conveyed only on eccentric circles. but not at the center. DA. others only night time. N ow it is im possible that the solar circum ference passes through the point O. Indeed it moves from the spring equinox to the summer solstice in 9 4 1 days. W hichever hypothesis one chooses.

GH 88 Vs. in the space of 9474 days. Likewise when it travels the arc FG. Then. irregularly. as many days as there are divisions of the arc. it will be found at G and will still appear to us in C. and HE 9 0 7 s . in fewer days. to us that is who see it at a straight line from point O. equal to the preceding one. and that arc EF contains 9 4 7 a . it will appear to us at A. FG 9272. It will seem to us that it travelled the arc BC.ASTRONOMY 101 c THE EC C ENTRIC CIRCLE XX V I (1). in the space of 927a days which corresponds to the num ber of divisions in the arc. It is evident that when the sun is at E. regularly passing through the arc EF which is the largest of the four divisions of its own circle. it will a r rive at F. a quarter of the zodiac. Let us suppose first of all that the eccentric solar circle EFGH is situated in such a way as to have its center under the arc EF. for example. There it will appear to us at B and it will seem to have ir regularly travelled by a num ber of days different (from a quarter of 365 74 days) the arc AB which is a quarter of the zodiac. Let us again suppose that the circle is divided into 36574 equal parts. the second in size of its own circle. at point M. .

102 ASTRONOMY Similarly. respectively parallel to the lines AC and BD. when it travels the arc GH. it will seem to travel the zodiacal circle irregularly. because one of these points is at the greatest distance from the earth and the other at the smallest. in 88 Ve days. that the relationship of the line OM to MV is nearly that of 1 to 24. Arriving at W. But the center O of the universe is also given in relation to the two points V and W. It is for this reason that travelling its circle uniformly. that is to say from M t to Ot is given and the triangle MtO is given in form. the sun at V will be at its greatest distance from the earth. the num ber equal to the divisions of the arc. when it travels HE in 90 and Vs days. and extending this line to both sides. The line OM joins the centers of the universe and of the solar circle. and for us who are at point O. It will seem to us to have travelled the arc CD. furtherm ore. qr is repre sented by 91 divisions + + V ie2' . it will seem to us that in 90 and Vs days it tra velled the arc DA. The position and size of circle EFGH is given. a treatm ent which saves (explains) all the phenom ena. But if. the number of days equal to the number of divisons of the arc. as are the arcs qF and sH. and is equal to the angle OMt. And with reason it appears to have an average size and speed when it oc cupies the same degrees in Pisces and in Virgo. perpendicular to each other and joining FM and ME. equal to the preceding arc. Such is the treatm ent by the eccentric circle. This phenom enon appears to be produced at about 5V2 degrees of Gemini. the sm allest of the four divi sions of the circle. it < is evident that the arc EFG contains 187 parts and the arc G H E contains 178V» parts. but the arc Er and pG are equal. it will be at its sm allest distance from the earth and it will appear to have its maximum size and speed. The circle EFGH is being divided into 365 V parts. for the same reason. The angle rMV is therefore 2 given. it appears to have its minimum size and speed. joining the centers O and M by a straight line. The latter seems to occur at 572 degrees of Sagittarius. since M is the center of the circle EFGH. each of the arcs sp. It is in this way that all the appearances will be explained. in a fewer num ber of days. pq. It is found by the consideration of the dis tances and sizes. equal to the others and that it returned to A.Let us now extend through point M the straight lines rp and qs. Finally. Thus. The circle EFGH is therefore given in position and in size. “ Because 91 + + Vie is a q u arter o f 365 X • U . it will be at H and it will appear to be in D to us who ob serve it from point O. and returning to E. we will have MV = MW.

it will appear to de scribe the arc VAN towards the signs which precede. let us draw lines OFV and OHN tangent to the circle EFGH. its setting.ASTRONOMY 103 THE EPIC YC LE XX V I (2). it would appear to be at V and when at E it would appear to be at A. In fact. and when carried on to H it will appear to be at N. and in moving it is carried either in the same direction as the universe or in the opposite direction. Supposing that it moves with the same speed. Then. Again let us take the zodiac ABCD and the solar circle EFGH which is exterior to the center of the universe O. arriving at F. The sun will al ways appear to come and go within the arc VAN of the zodiac. The circle EFGH will be either immobile or it will itself move while the sun turns around it. W hen it travels through the arc FEH. The circle then moves. The starry sphere moves from rising B to meridian A. but would always produce day for those who are above the earth and always night for those who are below. then from point A to D. when it . In relationship to ourselves and in a single (diurnal) revolution of the universe. This is contrary to the facts. it is with an equal speed or a greater or lesser one. it would appear to travel through all the signs. H e re is now the ex p lan a tio n acco rd in g to the epicycle. If it turns in the same direction. If it were im mobile it is clear that the sun would appear neither to rise nor to set.

with a "Cf. because then it would appear to overtake the stars and travel through the zodiac in an inverse direction. and let us suppose that the circle E FG H is carried from east to w est at the sam e time as the universe. or that it m oves in an inverse direction to that of the universe. this is not what happens. transverses it in the space of one year. However. which is not the case.23 so that the center. How then does this save (explain) the phenom ena? Taking M as the center o f the solar circle. that is from Aries to Pisces and Aquarius. regularly carried on the circle M rVW . which appears to P lato as more probable. let us describe the circle M rVW from the center O with the radius OM . it will appear to move through the arc NAV towards the signs which follow. so that it ap pears to have a movement of its own contrary to that of the universe. A and that it is left behind because o f its slow er speed. everything being conveyed each day in the same direc tion. . It is thus that it appears to pass into the signs which follow. It is then evident that the circle EFGH moves in the same direc tion as the universe with a lesser speed. being in some way left behind. and the sun also achieves its revolution in the same am ount o f time. above. This is why it appears to be left behind and to pass into the signs which follow.104 ASTRONOMY travels the arc HGF. Furtherm ore it does not have a greater speed. from rising to setting. XVIII. The solar circle EFGH is not carried therefore in the same direc tion as the universe with the same speed.

that is to say. Now. the sun will move on the circle EFGH in the same direction as the universe and this would explain the phenomena. T hen. larger than a quarter of the circumference. The sun. the sun will be carried on the circle EFGH. It will therefore be at point p and appear to us as being at s. arriving at E . being carried on the circle MrVW in a m ovement contrary to that of the universe. and the sun itself having described a sim ilar arc X R will return to E and will appear to be at A. and to be hastening to arrive at A. therefore C / will be at 5Vi degrees of Sagittarius. regularly conveyed in the same direction.ASTRONOMY 105 regular movement. describing the arc W M . sometimes in the same direction as the universe and some times in the opposite direction.will re-establish the circle HR on EFGH. a quarter of the cir cumference. Then also it will seem to have described an arc KDA of zodiac. it will be furthest away from us. L et us first of all suppose that it be carried in a m ovem ent contrary to that of the universe. a q u arter of the circum ference o f the circle M rVW . (Fig. I assert that the circle EFGH. and seeming to have traversed the arc sC. will describe the arc EF of the circum ference o f the circle E F G H . and to be rapidly moving from point A. the cen ter of the solar circle. 6) and from F to G and from G to H. its circle will be carried to XR and the sun. less than a quarter of the zodiac. and the circles Np and yV will be formed and the sun will travel through the arc pt. a quarter of its own circle. It is clear that A will be at 5l i degrees o f Gem ini24. describes by a regular m ovem ent the arc M r. and to be slowly coming from point C. Finally the center W. and to be slowly ap proaching point C. in the same direction as its own circle. L et us suppose that point M. It is therefore evident that in its move24See III. and th at the whole of the circle E FG H is carried to N pt. X X V I. . arriving at V while appearing to us to be at C. In addition. The cen ter r will next describe the arc rV . but in the same direction as its own circle. while appearing to be at point K and seeming to have described the arc CK. a quarter of the circum ference. hav ing described a quarter of the circumference. less than a quarter of the circumference. a quarter of the circumference. that is to say from E to F . it will appear to have traversed the arc ABs which is greater than a quarter o f the zodiac. will be at point R. A fter point V has traversed the quarter VW of the circumference. from point H to point E and from point E to point F. and since it will have described the arc E F .

a quarter of the circumference of the concentric circle.106 ASTRONOMY ment it will appear to have a greater speed in Gemini and a slower speed in Sagittarius. having travelled through an arc equal to a quarter of its own circle. the arc VW being a quarter of the circumference. This is. (Fig. It remains to examine the case in which the epicycle has a move ment contrary to that of the universe. But on the zodiac it will seem to have travelled the sm aller arc As at a low speed starting from point A. and will therefore be at N and will appear to us to be at s. let us suppose that the center of the epicycle describes the arc Mr.(saved. the contrary of what is ob served. It will then be at i and appear to be at C. 7) Then the center r will describe a quarter of the circum ference rV and the sun will describe the sim ilar arc Np of the epicycle. the sun therefore cannot move on the epicyle in the same direction as this circle and in an inverse direction to the universe. The sun will have to de scribe the arc sim ilar to EH on the epicycle. however. and if the circle iy . greater than a quarter of the circumference. the arc of the zodiac sBC. and the sun moves on it in the same direction as the fixed stars. If V were transported to W. It would seem to have travelled at an increasing speed towards C.) A Indeed. and that it carries the epicycle with it to Np. In this way the phenom ena will be explained. W hile the solar circle is carried on the circumference of the concentric circle MRVW in an inverse direction to that of the universe.

the sun. the sun. all the phenom ena are explained. transported from V to y during the time that the epicycle passes from V to W. In this way. the smallest distance is OV and the difference between these two distances is equal to the diam eter of the epicycle. that o f the eccentric circles and that o f the epicycle. . which goes in the same direction as the epicycle. . and will appear to be at K. In this way A drastus shows that the phenom ena are explained by the tw o hypotheses. following this hypothesis.ASTRONOMY 107 were applied on the circle XR. (1). obtained by the consideration of the distances and sizes. larger than a quarter of the circumference. for the sun will appear to move more slowly and to be sm aller towards 5 V2 degrees of Gemini and to move more quickly and be larger towards the sam e degree of S agittarius. in describing the arc Vy sim ilar to the preceding one. This relationship is the inverse of the preceding25 since it is equal to the relationship of 24 to 1. H ipparchus m ade the rem ark that the reason why the 2 Cf. and to be slowly approaching A. ap pears to advance on the zodiac in a movement which is in some way coincident with its own. 5 . X X V I. This in conform ity w ith the phenom ena. If the center travels the remaining arc WM. In moving to p during the time that the epicycle passes from r to V. But on the other hand. it will appear to increase speed in the zodiac. describing the sim ilar remaining arc XR will be reestablished at E. will appear to accomplish its path on the zodiac slowly. in passing from X to R while the epicycle passes from W to M. It will appear to be at A and will seem to have travelled the arc KA sm aller than a quarter of the circum ference. as if overtaking its own circle. and to have passed rapidly from C to D. the circle EFG H of the planet moving on a concentric circle which is MrVW. Such is the explanation using the epicycle. the epicycle XR will return EFGH and the sun. transported in a contrary direction to that of the movement of its own circle. the sun. It would seem to have travelled the arc CDK of the zodiac. for if it passes from point E to point H while the center o f the circle itself passes from M to r having a m ovem ent contrary (to that of its own circle) . Similarly. The greatest distance from the sun to the earth is O E. will be at X. One can find the size of the epicycle and the relationship of the distance betw een the centers to the diam eter EG of the epicycle EFG H .

108 ASTRONOMY same phenom ena follow from such different hypotheses. with the radius OM the circle MrVW . and EFGH the epicycle of the sun with M as its center. and carrying with it the epicycle. that of eccentric circles and that of concentric circles and of epicycles. V. will also describe the eccentric circle equal to the concentric circle MrVW. draw the circles Npt. Let us de scribe from the center O. it will happen that the sun. the hypothesis of the epicycle is also a consequence of that o f the eccentric circle. Let us take the zodiac ABCD with O as the center of the universe. and from the centers r. in such a way that the point A is on the 5 V2 degree of Gemini and C is on the same degree of Sagittarius. perpendicular to each other. is w orthy o f the attention of the m athem atician. and W. Let us then draw the diameters of the zodiac AC and BD. iqy and X Rz perpendicu . travelling the epicycle EH G F at the same time in a uniform m ovement in the same direction as the universe. A drastus has shown that the hypothesis of the eccentric circle is a consequence of that of the epicycle. but I say further that. I assert that if the center M uniformly travels the circum ference of the hom ocentric circle MrVW in a movement contrary to that of the universe.

ASTRONOMY 109 lar to the diam eter BD. the center of the epicycle described the arc M r. In fact. X. therefore the four lines sE. and the point which is projected at A. Finally. at 5Vi degrees o f Saggitarius. the sun will travel the similar arc iy o f the epicycle. therefore it will be at i and consequently describe the sim ilar arc Ni of the eccentric circle. N . having consequently described the sim ilar arc iX of the eccentric circle. Similarly. but he does not d e m o n strate th a t the sun is on the eccentric circle at the interm ediary points. Thus in travelling the whole epicycle uniform ly while the epicycle is carried on the concentric circle. Thus the circle described from the center s with a radius equal to one of these lines will pass through points ENiX and be equal to the circle MrVW . will be the nearest. sX are equal and perpendicular to each other. this is w hat it was necessary to p ro v e. sN . and will then be at X. The lines NX and rW are equal and parallel to each other. while point W travels the arc WM. a qu arter of the circum ference. But it has been shown that each of the lines Ns and sX is equal to the radius o f the circle. Let us describe this circle and suppose that it be ENiX. and the sun at the same time will describe the sim ilar arc EH of the epicycle and will arrive at N and then from E to N . Both line Es and line si are there fore equal to the radius o f the arc VW. and the point which is projected at C. The center once more describes the quarter of the circum ference.26 26A ssum ing th at the sun uniform ly describ es the epicycle in the direction of the diurnal m ovem ent. during the time that point V describes arc VW. But Ov = OM . Therefore si = OV. I assert that the sun. . i. T h eo n d em o n strates th at the sun is found on the eccentric circle at points E . will naturally describe the eccentric circle ENiX. the sun having described the arc Xz will return to E. w hile the c e n te r o f the epicycle uniform ly describ es the concentric circle in the opposite d irectio n . at 5Vi degrees of Gemini. it will also be equal to both line iV and ME. having travelled through the quarter En of the eccentric circle. And finally let us draw the straight line NX. the sun describes an eccentric circle. It will be divided into four equal parts by the diam eters Ei and NX. on the epicycle E F G H . moving as has been supposed. will be the furthest point from earth . therefore it also equals sE and Os = iV and line Oi is com m on. And since line Os is equal to rN . It will therefore describe at the same time the remaining sim ilar arc XE of the eccentric circle. si. It will be eccentric. Lines Ns and sX are therefore respectively equal to the lines rO and OW which are the radii of the circle MrVW. rV and the sun travels the similar arc Nt of the epicycle.

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The same proposition is dem onstrated in this manner: we have the zodiac ABCD and the solar epicycle EFH having its center on the circumference of the circle MrVW which is concentric around the center O of the universe. We also have point E, the point furthest from the earth, at 5 Va degrees of Gemini. I propose that the epicycle HE, being carried on the circumference of the circle MrVW by a uniform movement which is opposite to that of the universe, and the sun, travelling the epicycle EFH at the same time in a uniform movement which is opposite to that of the epicycle and consequently in the same direction as the universe, will then describe an eccentric circle equal to the concentric circle MrVW. Let us now suppose that the center M has described any arc Mr, and that the epicycle has arrived at pqX. The sun, starting from point E, that is to say from point q, will have described at the same time arc qp, sim ilar to arc Mr. Let us take the line OG, equal to the radius M E and draw the lines G p and Oq. Since the arc qp is sim ilar to the arc rM, the angle y is equal to the angle t. 27 Thus line pr is parallel to OG, and is also equal to it; the line pG is then equal and parallel to line rO. Now line O r is equal to line GE. Thus line Gp is equal to line GE. Therefore the circle described from the center G with radius GE, will pass through p and will be equal to the circle MrVW. Let us describe the circle EpNiW (from the center G, with Gp = GE for radius); this circle will be eccentric. Since pG is parallel to

27T heon designates the angle q rp by y and the angle rOM by t.

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qO, angle y will be equal to angle t, that is to say to pGE, the arc Ep is therefore sim ilar to arc pq (of the epicycle pqX). The sun, start ing from point E, will consequently describe the sim ilar arc Ep of the eccentric circle. One could likewise dem onstrate that it is al ways thus, so that the sun, having travelled the entire epicycle, pro pelling itself on a concentric circle, describes also a whole ec centric circle. This is what had to be demonstrated. The converse proposition can also be dem onstrated. Let us again take the zodiac ABCD whose diam eter is AC and whose center is O, and again the eccentric circle of the sun ENiW, point E being furthest from the center of the earth, under 5 V2 degrees of Gemini, and its center G on the line AO. 2 Let us describe from the center B O, with the radius GE, the circle MrVW , and from the center M with the radius ME, the circle EFH. It is clear that this will be the same as the epicycle. I propose then that the sun uniformly de scribes the circumference ENiW of the eccentric circle, and will consequently also describe the epicycle EFH carried uniformly at the same time on the concentric circle MrVW. Let us indeed suppose that the sun has described any arc Ep of the eccentric circle. Let us draw line pG and its parallel Oq. W e take rq equal to OG and draw pr. Since the lines Gp and Or are equal and parallel, lines GO, and pr will also be equal and parallel. But we have OG = ME, therefore rq = rp, thus the circle described from the center r with radius rq will pass through point p and will be the same as the epicycle EFH. Let us describe this circle pqX. Because of the parallelism of the lines (rp and OG) the angles t and y are equal But in circles, sim ilar arcs correspond to equal angles, and in equal circles, equal arcs correspond to equal angles, whether these angles be at the center or the circumference. Therefore, the arcs qp, Ep and M r are equal. Therefore, in the same time as the sun travels the arc Ep of the ec centric circle, the center M of the epicycle, describing the arc Mr, will carry the epicycle EFH to pqx, and the sun having travelled the arc Ep of the eccentric circle starting from point E, that is to say from point q, will describe the sim ilar arc qp of the epicycle. It can be dem onstrated that it is thus for the whole movement. Therefore, in travelling the entire eccentric circle, the sun also describes the entire epicycle. This is what it was necessary to demonstrate. X X V II. The same dem onstrations can be applied to the other planets. The sun appears to make all these movements, in both hy28R efer again to Fig. 9.

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potheses, with regularity, for the times of its return to the same longitude, to the same latitude, and to the same distance which produces the irregularity called anom aly, are so little different from each other that most m athem aticians regard them as equal 365 l/i days. Thus, when one attentively considers the time of the return in longitude during which the sun travels the zodiac, going from one point back to the same point, from one solstice to the same solstice, or from one equinox to the same equinox, it is very close to the time noted above, so that at the end of four years, the return to a point at the same longitude occurs at the same hour. As for the time of the anom aly after which the sun, at the point furthest from the earth, appears smallest and slowest in its move ment towards the following zodiac signs, or after which, at the point closest to the earth, it appears to have the largest diam eter and the greatest speed, it is close to 365 V2 days, so that at the end of two years the sun appears to return to the same distance at the same hour. Finally, the time of its return in latitude, the time after which, starting from the extreme north or south point, it returns to the same point in such a way as to give the same shadow-lengths on the sundials, is 365 Vs days. Consequently, it might be said that at the end of eight years, it will return at the same hour to the same point of latitude. X X V III. R egarding each of the other planets, we have said that their various times vary greatly, some are longer, some are shorter. The durations of the returns appears so much the more variable and changing in one hypothesis as in the next, that it is not in the same lapse of time that each planet travels its epicycle and the epicycle its concentric circle (in the zodiac): the movements are more rapid for some and slower for others by reason of the ine quality of the circles, of the inequality of the distances from the center o f the universe and of the differences of obliquity with respect to the circle of the middle of the zodiac signs, that is to say, o f the differences o f inclination and o f position. XXIX. As a result, it happens that for all the planets, the stations and the returns, whether towards the preceding zodiac signs or the following zodiac signs, do not occur in a sim ilar manner. One ob serves the phenom enon for the five planets, but in a m anner which is not absolutely similar. For the sun and the moon, it does not oc cur at all; indeed these two never appear to advance, nor to remain stationary, nor to retrogress. As we have said, the sun appears to be

if the center H moves by itself. I understand that the con centric circles. we have the eccentric cir cle ENiW which has point H for its center. It is clear that it m atters little for interpreting the phenom ena. turns around the center M in the same direc tion as the universe. not in the opposite direction from the universe. In this way we can safely arrive at an explanation of these phenomena. moving uniformly in the space of one year around the center H. and that the epicycles carrying the planets also move around their own cen ters.ASTRONOMY 113 carried on its own circle in the same time as the epicycle on the concentric circle. move around their own centers in the direction contrary to the universe. if it is a question of the sun and the moon. this circle ENiW. whereas the epicycle of the moon is carried more rapidly on the concentric circle through the zodiac. and carrying the sun fixed at point E. I understand in addi tion that the concentric circle carries on its circumference the center M of the epicycle EFGH and that this epicycle which carries the planet to point E. that the planets move on circles or whether the circles which carry these stars move around their own centers. carrying the centers of the epicycles. or in the opposite direction if one considers the other planets. as it has been explained. m 4 h G \ O V F ig 10 According to the other interpretation. (fig. Thus I understand that the concentric circle MNVW moves around O. 10) which is its own center and that of the universe. Considered in relation to the sun. XXX. in the opposite direction from the universe. ex plains the phenomena. w hether one says. but carried in the same direc- . than it itself travels the epicycle.

As for the other planets. seen under Gemini. From the center O of the universe and from the radius OH. occurs at 5 V2 degrees of Gemini. it is at every place in the zodiac that they can be at the greatest. where the sun is placed. All of this carries us too far away under the pretext of reconciling the argum ents o f m athem aticians. Between these two extreme points it will be found at the middle of the distance in Virgo and Pisces. but the circle turns around the center H. indeed. If one takes the correct and particular times of each planet. and the m iddle at the same degree of Virgo and Pisces. in this position of the circle.114 ASTRONOMY tion. In fact. carrying the fixed star on its circumference at point E. carried to where point i is now. C onsidering only the . the sm allest and the mean distances from the earth. and the sm allest at the same degree of Sagittarius. and if each day it describes the circle Hqp equal to the circle in the other argument. is the farthest from the earth. the phenomena will be explained. In this way. the point E of the eccentric circle. the sm allest or the mean distance from the earth. maximum or mean speed. will appear to us in Sagittarius at the sm allest distance from the earth. then that the con centric circle equal to the epicycle of the hypothesis turns around the center O of the universe and that it carries with it the center H of the eccentric circle in a movement contrary to the universe and in a determ ined time. The largest. let us imagine that one describes the circle Hpq. and finally that the eccentric circle ENiW moves in a different time around its center H. as has been said. the point E. the sun will always present at the same respective places. and that they can have their minimum.

He again says in the X lth book33 that according to E udoxus and C allipus. 1 and Meteorology. as we shall see a little further on. giving his own words. A ristotle. . Chaldea and in Egypt. in his treatise On the H eavens*1 speaks a great deal of the stars in general and shows that they neither move across the tranquil ether nor with the ether in any independent or separate way. that the num erous fixed stars are carried on one and the same sphere. Through an effect which is the 2Cf. 199. Meteorology. some are larger. B iot. the Chaldeans with the aid of arithm etic methods. treatise On the H eavens II. and each planet is carried by several spheres. some are less high. V I. J o u rn a ld e s S a v a n ts. the planets are put in m otion with the aid o f certain spheres. som e moving in the opposite direction. the spheres of the fifth body 34 move in the depths of the sky. X I. nor do these circles rotate around their centers. W hat in fact concurs with natural science is that the stars are neither carried in the sam e m anner by certain circular or spiraling curves in a contrary m ovem ent to that of the universe.ASTRONOMY 115 phenom ena and the planetary movements produced according to the course of things. Aristotle. A ristotle. 34This fifth body is the ether. but rather. 3A risto tle. some are hollow. p. 9. these m athem aticians investigated with ardour the principles and the hypotheses which would explain the phenom ena. 987 a. 3 1073 b. Cf. 3. 32Treatise On the Heavens. some are higher. in carrying the various stars fixed to their circum ferences.3 1 XXX I. M e ta p h y sic s. II. the Egyptians by graphic methods. U 3 Cf. are carried by a sim ple m ovement but with unequal speeds depending on the location. 7. others sm aller. P lato says so in the Epinomis. and th at they neither turn nor revolve. X II.™ all by imperfect methods and w ithout a sufficient science of natural laws. for it is necessary also to discuss the facts from the physical point of view. 1850. Those who have studied astronom y with the Greeks have tried to do so by utilizing their principles and their observations. the exterior sphere. I. other full ones are inside them. and the planets which are fixed there in the m anner of the stars.I. after having observed them for a long time under favorable conditions in Babylonia. som e moving in the sam e direction as the universe.2S Thus they came to confirm the observed facts and to predict the coming phenomena. 0 3lEpinom is p. How could it indeed be that such bodies w ere attached to incorporeal circles? According to the phenom ena.

they appear to move variously and describe certain eccentric circles. other lesser spheres than one of the spheres that carries the rotating ones. one of which produces the m ovement of the planet in height. also. If one thought that it is natural that everything be carried in the same direction. one nevertheless saw the planets going in the opposite direction. each star appears to have its own movement in latitude. A ristotle says that those before him supposed them each to be carried by several spheres. sometimes lower.116 ASTRONOMY consequence of all these movements. in the same way that with mechanical gears. except to Saturn and Jupiter. sometimes more to the north. It is by this sphere that each planet appears to execute a m ovem ent in longitude towards the zodiac signs that follow. that is to say two to the sun and the moon. can. if one wants to account for the phenom ena. A ristotle says that C allippus added new spheres to the other planets. one supposed that in the intervals of the conferring spheres (that is to say those carrying the planets). by their own movement. He also thinks that. it follows that they appear more or less far from earth. Each of the other planets is carried by four spheres. they appear to describe spirals in consequence of which the m athematicians. sometimes higher. sometimes at a sm aller. The third rotates around the axis perpendicular to the circle. or else placed on other circles. Such is his opinion or that of the others (Eudoxus and Callippus). and only one to each of the others. are necessary for each of the planets. sometimes more to the north. there are some evidently solid spheres which. sometimes more to the south of the circle which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac. wheels rotating around their axes. misled by the retrograde movement. think that they were transformed. The second moves around the axis perpen dicular to the circle of the m iddle of the zodiac signs. by their . cause the conferring spheres they contact to turn in the opposite direction. sometimes at a greater distance. By the latter. As we see them carried each day by the motion of the universe from east to west and passing through the consecutive zodiac signs in their course along the obliquity of the zodiac. Eudoxus says that the sun and the moon are supported on three spheres: the first is that of the fixed stars which rotate around the poles of the universe and forcibly draws all the others with it from the rising to the setting. sometimes more to the south. oblique to that of the m iddle of the zodiac signs.

is its thickness. around their own axes oblique to that of the sphere of the stars. For the understanding of what we say. others less so and in the opposite direction. some are carried more quickly. that they appear to accom plish combined. Thus the stars that they carry are brought along by the simple and regular m ovement of the spheres and it is only through an effect. irregular and varied movements. AC and BD its two (perpendicular) diameters. others eccentric or epicycles. they describe several circles. cause a turning and rotating in the opposite direction of the bodies adjacent and in con tact. which is the consequence of the m ovement of the spheres. AE. XXX II. the hollow sphere Eqst. but by an appropri ate movement. carried along by the exterior sphere. some concentric. It is quite natural that all the spheres move in the same direction. their place and their size.ASTRONOMY 117 own m ovement and by the aid of geared teeth. Let us suppose that ABCD is a large cir cle and that it passes through the m iddle of the zodiac. W e have underneath the first. because of the level which they occupy. it is time for a short elaboration on the figure which appears to us to be necessary for the construction of the spheres. A Let us take ABCD as the hollow sphere of the stars around the center O of the universe. then pXiR of a planet .

and obli que to that which passes through the middle of the zodiac. turning regularly around its own axis. let us describe from the center O the circle MNVW having the radius OM. Further the sphere of the stars turns very rapidly. and from the center H. equal to the concentric circle. Let us divide the line Ei in two equal parts at point H. carrying the solid sphere. Let us first of all suppose that it returns in the same am ount of time. with the radius HE.118 ASTRONOMY having the same center and Ep for thickness. comes back to the same point. eccentric with regard to the universe. w ith in this thickness. It will consequently also describe the eccentric circle ENiW. carried in the same direction as the starry sphere. and ) that the hollow sphere of the planet turns around the axis perpen\ dicular to the circle producing the m ovement in latitude. The solid sphere. It is evident that in the time that the hollow sphere of the planet. Finally we have. it can be seen that the sphere of the stars turns around the axis perpendicular to the plane of the equatorial circle. for the two hypotheses account for the phenomena. the entire sphere of the stars. travelling in it in the direc tion contrary to that of the universe. or that it will have left it more or less behind. describe the circle ENVW. A ll are carried regularly in the same direction by the simple movements from east to west. in the same time that the hollow sphere of the planet will have tra velled. and that which produces the m ovement of the planet in latitude alone turns in the opposite direction or in the same direction provided that it remains behind due to its slowness. in such a way that in a determ ined time. moving in the opposite direction. appearing to be conveyed in the opposite direction and carrying along this solid sphere. . will have left the sphere of the stars behind. it has travelled the entire sphere of the stars in this opposite direction. the hollow sphere of the planet turns more slowly and in the opposite direction. Taking M for the center of the sphere. the solid sphere EFpG carrying an errant star a t tached at point E. the center M of the solid sphere will travel the con centric circle MNVW. It is also evident that the planet placed at point E on the solid sphere will describe (in the same am ount of time) the circle EGpF which becomes the epicycle of the concentric circle MNVW and turns in the same direction as the universe. And now. or it is left behind as others would have it — we have said elsewhere that this is the most likely opinion — and it carries the solid sphere supporting the errant star.

simple. are found to be equal to one another or nearly so — I speak of the duration of its returns to the same longitude. the center of the solid sphere being at point M of the line AO. as far as our senses can perceive them. It is always at the same place that it will be the furthest from earth and that it will appear to move the most slowly: this is at point A of the zodiac. or because of their lesser movement. and orderly. It will also ap pear to move in latitude and in proportion to the inclination of its plane on the circle which passes through the middle of the zodiac signs. All this is apparent for the sun. A t the opposite point it will always be least far from the earth and will appear to move most rapidly: this is at point C of the zodiac. A single sphere moves in the opposite direction. because of the changing of the spheres into the op posite direction. through sim ilar movements. and the planet itself being at the point E. the axes of these spheres being respectively perpendicular to these planes. because of its slowness the planet appears to be left behind by the sphere of the fixed stars. the planet appears sometimes further away and consequently . the m otion appears varied. com plex and unequal. It is produced towards the following zodiac signs. are the same as N and W which divide the eccentric circle ENiW and the con centric circle MNVW into two equal parts and appear in the zodiac between the points A and C at B and D. It appears oblique to the zodiac and because of the rotation of the solid sphere around its own axis. to the same latitude. since the times of its returns. at the same places and appear in the same zodiac signs. The hollow sphere turning in the opposite direction.ASTRONOMY It will therefore appear to observers at O to describe the zodiac ABCD. These points are F and G which. Such a m ovem ent of the planets and the spheres is naturally regu lar. and to the same d istance— the sim ilar points of the two spheres are always found. that is to say at y and K. that is to say. advancing towards the following zodiac signs in the op posite direction from the movement of the universe. either actually or by conse quence of a slower displacement. it will be at point i. but it is oblique to the zodiac and. It will have mean distances and mean movements at two places: when it is at the points which divide the epicycle EFpG and the concentric circle MNVW into two equal parts. it is this which bears the solid sphere called the epicyle. However. the center of the solid sphere will be at point V of the line OC and the planet it self will be seen at point C.

although they occur at the same points of the spheres. around which would be that of . which was the object of H ipparchus’s adm iration. but spirals. Venus and Hermes. In a word. as we have said. and likewise the variable speeds will be produced in all the signs of the zodiac. sometimes at one point. since the m otion of its spheres is accom plished in exactly equal times. the movement appears unequal. and that the solid sphere in turn carries the star on its surface. it is possible that each of these stars has two spheres of its own. and that of the eccentric circle: both accord by chance with w hat is in conform ity with the nature of things. In addition. and the times of the returns to the same longitude. It could also be possible that there be a single hollow sphere common to the three stars and that the three solid spheres in its thickness have one and the same center. it is made following the epicyle and then it appears to be made following the eccentric. so that their sim ilar movements. the sim ilar movements appear. th at of Herm es being larger. to change place. are not always made at the same places. travel in the same time. but ceaselessly changing place. the sphere of the sun being the sm allest. the planets in their movements by chance do not even ap pear to describe circles. It evidently conforms to reason that there be an accord between the two hypotheses of the m athem aticians on the motions of the stars. in the contrary direction.120 ASTRONOMY slower. anim ated at the same speed. and the largest. the sphere of the fixed stars and that of the solid spheres have their centers on the same straight line. sometimes at another. As for the Sun. particu larly for the sun. therefore. It is necessary. latitude and distance being unequal and variable. The hollow sphere remains behind that of the stars or goes in the opposite direction more or less rapidly. the sm allest and the mean distances. For the other planets there is not the same exactitude. X X X III. and that the hollow spheres of the three stars. although accom plished on sim ilar points of the spheres. to believe that each planet has its own hollow sphere which carries a solid sphere in its thickness. and sometimes nearer and consequently anim ated by a greater speed. that of the epicycle. the obliquity of the spheres not occurr ing at the same latitude. The sm allest w ould be the truly solid sphere of the sun. because the solid sphere of the planet does not return in the §ame time to the same position. and that of Venus being still larger.

and Venus of 50 degrees at most. as with an anim al. if we judge the largest. of our im agination and intelligence. fortuitous and m ortal. like the sm allest. its size and the common course of the surrounding stars. is different from the center of the body. for us who are. mutually passing each other and eclipsing each other. m ost universal and m ost consistent with the nature of things.ASTRONOMY 121 Hermes. essentially hot. as we have said. of the anim al. the life center. the center of life is in the always warm and always moving heart. w hereas the eccentric circle differs entirely from the circle which is in conform ity with nature and is rath er described by chance. The center of our body is different: it is situated towards the navel. as a living thing. judging it as world and as a living thing. is the w orld’s hearth. F or the epicycle is a large circle o f the solid sphere. the one which a planet describes in its m ovem ent on this sphere. the center of the body of the universal w orld will be the cold and im mobile earth. the source of our desires. It is clear then. or execute a motion in longitude in the opposite direction to the diurnal movement and at the same speed without having other sim ilar motion. persuaded that the phenom enon was produced in this way. but the cen ter o f the world. both humans and alive. most worthy and most divine things. the cause of life and of all m ovement from one place to another. will be in the sun which is in som e way the heart of the universe and in w hich it is said the soul o f the world took birth in order to p enetrate and extend itself to its furthest ends. because of its movement. F or exam ple. of the two hypotheses. X X X IV . Likewise. and because of this the source of all the faculties of the soul. They always appear neighboring. and for the world. This is why these three stars are left behind on the zodiac. Hermes has a distance from the sun of at most twenty degrees on one or the other side of it at the setting and rising. It will be understood that this position and this order are all the more true as the sun. it is so to say the heart of the universe. each of which is a consequence of the other. that of the epicycle appears m ost com m on. vaunts the hypothesis of the epicycle as his ow n and says that it is probable that all the celestial bodies are uniform ly placed with respect to the cen ter of . F or in anim ate beings. H ipparchus. that for the reasons explained. then that of Venus would come after encircling the other two and filling up the whole thickness of the common hollow sphere. that is to say.

Plato appears also to prefer the hypothesis o f the epicycle. or else. some are larger. and some times in retrograde movement. but of circles which carry the planets. But he himself. Some are high er. which are fixed to them in the m anner of the stars. did not understand which is the true m ovement of the stars in accord with the nature of things. It is necessary to show how it is that several planets ap pear sometimes to advance. deceived by the retrograde m ovement thought they were transform ed into. He thinks that it is not of spheres. not knowing sufficient natural science. they appear to describe the spirals follow ing which.122 ASTRONOMY the world and that they are similarly united. are carried in a simple movement. others sm aller. m athem aticians. as he indicates at the end o f the Republic in imagining spindle-wheels inside one another. the spheres of the fifth body (the ether) move in the depths of the sky. Through an effect which is the consequence of all these movements. some are hollow. for they appear to do all these things. says Aristotle. but of unequal speeds according to the location. sometimes to be stationary.] XXXV. placed on other circles. others less so. and which is the m ovem ent which is by chance and is but an appear ance. . they appear to move diversely and to describe certain eccentric circles. H e hypothesizes that the epicycle of each planet moves on the concentric circle and that the planet moves on the epicycle. He uses these term s in com mon: he often says circles instead of spheres. and around the poles instead o f around the axes. and the planets. [According to the appearances. with other full ones inside them.

If. a n d then . a n d E F G th e epicyc le o f a pla n et. r e tr o g r a d e m o v e m e n ts. such as O E. a n d the m o v e m e n ts f o rw a r d a n d b a c k w a r d o f ea ch p la n e t. it w ill ag a in a d v a n c e . the c e n te r o f the u nive rse . It is useful fo r o u r subject to k n o w w h a t the a v e r a g e d is ta n c e o f a p la n e t is. in a p p r o a c h in g p o in t V a n d in b e g in n in g to m o v e aw ay again. the line O M E A . in the epicycle hypoth esis. we ta k e the g r e a te st d ista n c e fro m the sta r to the e a rth . let us d r a w the ta n g e n ts O F H . o r w h e th e r the epicyc le is sim p ly left behind. Since we see in a str a ig h t line. are s o m e tim e s m a d e in o n e z o d ia c sign. it is c l e a r th a t th e s ta r F a p p e a r s to us to be at H. T h e stations. THE M E A N DISTANCES OF THE PLANETS X X X V I. D urin g the tim e it a p p r o a c h e s p o in t F.ASTRONOMY 123 W e h a v e the z o d ia c A B C D a r o u n d p o in t O. O V N to the e p icy c le a n d th r o u g h the c e n te r M o f the epicycle. it w ill a p p e a r to be s ta tio n a ry a n d finally to m a k e a r e tr o g r a d e m o tio n . it w ill a p p e a r to us to describe the a rc H A to w a r d s the p re c e d in g signs o f the zodiac. w h e th e r this m o v e m e n t be real. F ro m the p o in t w h ich w e o b se rv e . th e n w h e n it tra v e ls the a rc FE. N ext. a n d w h a t the d is p l a c e m e n t o f the epicyc le o r of the e c c e n tric circle is. b ec au se the e picyc le o f e a c h o f th e m is alw a y s m o v in g to w a r d s the f o llo w in g signs. so m e tim e s in a n o t h e r a n d in d iffe ren t p arts o f the z o d ia c signs.

The sun can be hidden by the moon. as well as the distance between the largest and the smallest. and we find the middle. It is evident that there is an agreement between the two hypotheses: the greatest. and at a mean distance at the two points F and G on the intersec tion of the concentric circle and the epicycle. If we describe. it is evident that the star carried on the epicycle will be furthest away from us at point E and least far at point V. the center of which is H and O is the center of the universe. and it cannot be hidden by any o f them . that is to say. EV. that the sphere of the stars is highest and that the planetary spheres are placed below in the order that we have indicated. For the hypothesis of the eccentric circles. it will be furthest away from us. it will be least far at point i. it remains to speak briefly of conjunctions and occultations. from the center O the circle MNrW equal to the eccentric circle. When the planet carried by the eccentric circle arrives at E. can pass in front o f all the planets and several stars and hides them from us. it is clear that the moon being the planet closest approaching the earth. To fulfil the requirem ent of our subject. OCCULTA TIONS AN D ECLIPSES XXX V II. CONJUNCTIONS. Hermes and Venus hide the stars which are beyond them when . let us take the ec centric circle ENrW. de scribed from the center M with the radius ME. from the center O and w ith the radius OM . Let us take the line of the centers OH and extend it on both sides. we describe the concentric circle M NrW . on the path of the epicycle. Since we naturally see in a straight line. the sm allest and the mean distances are the same. and the mean distances will be at the points of intersection N and W of the eccentric and concentric circles in whatever place these points fall through the displacement of the eccentric circle. disappearances and eclipses. M. and can itself hide all the stars except the m oon. and from the center M with the radius M E we draw the epicycle EFVG. If therefore. in whatever place this happens. w hen it is placed in a straight line betw een our view and these stars. it is clear that the mean distance will be OM. then by being placed directly betw een them and ourselves. it is clear that it is the concentric cir cle on which the epicycle of the other hypothesis is carried. first in approaching and drowning them in its light.124 ASTRONOMY such as OV.

X II. They are carried towards the following signs of the zodiac. their common intersection will be a straight line which touches the center of the two circles. Each planet eclipses in addition the stars underneath which it passes in its course. The fact is not easy to observe. But if the monthly conjunction does not occur near a node. The moon disappears when. and the sun not being hidden. the two stars appear close to one another and to our eyes the moon will hide the sun which will be more fully eclipsed the more the moon covers it. the solar and the lunar. to be extended.ASTRONOMY 125 they are similarly placed in a straight line betw een them and ourselves. in particular. the longitude counted on the zodiac being the same for the two stars. it enters into the shadow of the earth. They even appear to eclipse each o ther when one of the tw o planets is higher than the other or because of their sizes. or of twelve degrees as most m athem aticians think. This does not happen every month. “ See III. the other descending. so that it appears to be separated by five or six degrees to the north or to the south of the circle which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac signs. because their circles are perceptibly inclined to one another. The extrem e points where the circles appear to be cut are called the nodes. and Jupi ter can eclipse Saturn. in some way. This line. ECLIPSES OF THE SUN AN D MOON X X X V III. If we suppose the planes of the two circles. diam etrically opposite the sun. and the circle of the moon has an obli quity of ten degrees in latitude. in the same way that the moon is not eclipsed at all full m oons. and H erm es. the other further south. and the sun is not eclipsed at every junction of the moon or neomenia. Mars som etim es eclipses the two planets which are above it. as Hipparchus has found. one of the two stars will appear further north. . which is only a small star. is the sun’s neighbor and is drow ned out by it and is rarely apparent. because the two planets turn around the sun. will not seem to be eclipsed. If the conjunction of the sun and moon occurs near the nodes. one ascending. will be their common diameter. The circle of the sun appears conveyed as we have said 35 under that which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac signs on which it is a little inclined. or the obliquity or position of their circles. but the latitude being different. for it is separated from it by a half degree on each side.

will not m eet each other. when it enters into the shadow of the earth. The rays of light such as AC and BD extend in a straight line. extended indefinitely. the luminous rays XM and NV. the luminous body is sm aller. one luminous and the other lit by the first. It is eclipsed. the shadow pro duced is a cylinder that extends to infinity. the luminous body. Let us take. will move further and further apart from one another. for the diam eter XN being larger than the diam eter GO. Let us show how it happens that the eclipse does not take place each month. are equal. for exam ple.126 ASTRONOMY XXX IX. on the contrary. and suppose them to be equal and spherical. such as W r and the illum inated . Let us now see w hat evidently happens for the moon. and it will be thus in every case (total eclipse). if two spherical bodies. such as XN. As this occurs at all the points it is evident that the sphere CD will produce an indefinite cylindrical shadow. If the luminous body is larger. The luminous rays which extend in a straight line. extended indefinitely. and CD the illum inated body. the shadow XMNV will have the form of an indefinite truncated cone. it is clear that these rays will be parallel and that the lines C E and D F. AB. such as GO and the illum inated body is larger. envelop an obscure region. B D F Fig 15 If. as we have often said. therefore the diam eters AB and CD being equal and perpendicular to the tangents A C E and BDF.

and as it is sm aller and has no brilliancy by itself. will m eet at point s. But most often. the moon penetrating to the m iddle of the shadow. It is then evident that the shadow of the earth will have the form of a cone. extended in a straight line. is less than the width of the shadow projected by the earth. Dercyllides has not written on this . As it does not enter into the shadow cone it would be known that there could be no eclipse. T hat is what Adrastus says.ASTRONOMY 127 body sm aller. it is clear that the shadow of the body pq. the earth. at the time of the full moon. such as pq and both are spherical. the m oon necessarily enters into the shadow of the earth. and the moon will be further to the north or further to the south than the shadow of the earth. since the diam eter pq is smaller than the diam eter Wr. Fig 17 Through the consideration of the distances and of the diam eters of the sun and moon. that it will ex tend following a common diam eter of the sun and of the earth (that is to say following the line which joins their centers). the earth. and that the diam eter of the moon. W hen the centers of the sun. there is a total eclipse. will have the form of a cone and will be finite. and that the sun is much further away than the moon. there is not always a total eclipse. and it is said that it is eclipsed. even at its maximum. it becomes invisible. H ipparchus shows that the volum e of the sun contains that of the earth about 1880 times. for the rays Wp and rq. and the moon being in a straight line. W hen the three cen ters are not totally in a straight line. the sun. the sun and the moon do not pass through their nodes. and that the volum e of the earth contains that of the m oon more than 27 times. pqs. that is following the same straight line as we have described it. W hen the sun is at a node and the moon at another node. and the moon are exactly placed following a diam etrical line. This phenom enon will be produced from every point. that is to say.

and consequently by an angle o f 24 degrees. Here.128 ASTRONOMY subject in any convenient order. According to him. (Toulis) . a truth 36The obliquity o f the zodiac is attributed to Pythagoras but O enopides claim s it as his ow n dis covery. in his books On Astronomy. A naxim ander m aintains that the earth is suspended in space and m oves around the center o f the world. and that one must not say that the world is infinite or our vision becom es lost. that the planets move around the axis perpendicular to the zodiac. to deduce the consequences of the principles. he says. The second principle is that the risings and the settings of the divine bodies are not made because these bodies light up and ex tinguish themselves successively. A naxim enes has show n that the m oon receives its light from the sun and the m anner in which it is eclipsed. ASTRO N O M IC AL DISCO VERIES AN D THEIR AU TH O RS XL. is what he indi cates in the book in which he treats The Spindles with which the Re public o f Plato is Concerned. Eudemus. O thers have added new discoveries to these: that the stars m ove around the immobile axis which passes through their poles. but that it has its limits. it is necessary especially to consider principles which should serve in the study of mathematics. tells that O enopides36 found the first obliquity of the zodiac and recognized the existence of the great year. without making hypotheses. The first is that the com position of the world is or dered and governed by one sole principle and that reality is found at the bottom of things which exist or seem to exist. as everyone agrees. A S T R O N O M IC A L H Y P O T H E SE S XLI. Before all else. if their state were not eternal. however. He then says that. neither more nor less. also in astronomy it is convenient to establish hy potheses first in order to be able to speak of the movements of the planets. there would be no order preserved in the universe. The third princi ple is that there are seven planets. just as in geometry and in music it is im possible. Thales was able to see that the eclipses of the sun and the returns of this star to the solstices do not always occur after the sam e lapse of time. and that the axis of the stars and that o f the planets are separated from one another by the side of the pentadecagon.

one side concave at the interior. it is correct to believe. as contrary to the bases of m athematics. The spiral movement is in fact. Next. the spiral movement is a consequence. are in movement. For each sphere has a double surface. He does not think that it is necessary to take spirals or the sim ilar lines of a meandering horse-path as the first cause of these move ments. he does not believe that the eccentric circles are the cause of the m ovement in depth. 247 A. he says. as we have said above.. The fourth is the following: since it does not conform to reason that all things be in m ovem ent or th at they all be in repose. it is not first. Therefore. The first cause of the spiral movement is the movement which occurs following the oblique circle of the zodiac. im mobile by nature and by situation. hearth of the house of the gods. 7 . the opinion of those who believe that the bodies which appear to be in movement are at rest and that the bodies. This is why he believes that the different successive risings depend on a movement in longitude and he rejects the weak and facile reasons given by the seniors according to which the planets would be left behind. adventitious and posterior. For these things come about by chance. in the interval between which the stars move following the epicycles and 3Cf. that the planets de scribe the epicycles or the eccentric circles within the thickness of the concentric circles. although we can be deceived on this point. the movement following the oblique circle must be re garded as first. in distance and in latitude. but since som e are in m ovem ent and others immobile. He thinks that all that moves in the sky is carried around a unique center of movement and of the world. that the planets are car ried slowly by a m ovement contrary to that of the fixed stars. in longitude.. regular and uniform.ASTRONOMY 129 resulting from long observation. it results from the double movement of the planets. the other convex at the exterior. in such a way that it is not by a consequence and not by an antecedent movement. In addition. he energetically rejects. in such a way that the interior movem ent is produced by the exterior movement. P ut ting aside anything disorderly and contrary to reason in such a movement. He then says that the planets have a circular movement. He adds that one should believe that the earth. it is necessary to find out that which is necessarily at rest in the universe and that which is in movement.H ejudges it so. according to Plato 37 remains in repose and that the planets move with the whole celestial vault which envelops them. Phaedrus.

130 ASTRONOMY concentric circles. he thinks that the sky moves with all the stars around the im mobile earth. A fter having established all this. uniform. the move ments of the planets are irregular. have proposed different spheres and spirals. the zodiacal circle separates it into 180 degrees on each side. also divides the 180 degrees into two equal parts. according to Plato. following a very small num ber of circular. The axis of the zodiac itself being perpen dicular. The two axes are separated by the value of the side of the pentadecagon (and consequently by an angle of 24 degrees). He agrees to add the 30 degrees comprising from the arctic circle to the tropic of summer. that. add several other spheres to their spheres and their circles. thus A ristotle . The circumference of the universe being divided into 360 degrees. XLII. and the planets around the axis perpendicular to the zodiacal circle. if 24 degrees are subtracted from it. He reproaches those philosophers who. In order to com plete the 90 degrees which extend up to the pole of the sphere of the planets. There remain 12 degrees from the pole of the axis of the planets to the glacial arctic circle. He shows. concentric and independent movements. for the entire arc of the zone is 36 degrees. but 30 degrees are counted from the tropic of summer to the arctic circle. In summing them up. The stars move around the im mobile axis which passes through the poles. these hypotheses account for the appearances. the rem ainder is 12. according to our im pressions. 38 and among m athem ati cians Menaechmus and Callippus. 1073b. Now the zodiac extends obliquely from the parallel of w inter to the parallel of summer. p. He further says that. it is necessary to add 24 degrees to this sum. con sidering the stars as inanim ate. Indeed the zodiac being a great circle. divides the world into two equal parts. 6 6 degrees are then counted from the tropic of summer to the pole of the fixed stars. then the 24 degrees comprising from the tropic of sum mer to the equitorial circle. M eta p h ysics 8 . . and again the 24 degrees comprising from the equitorial circle to the tropic of w inter to which the 38Cf. then the axis of the planets is perpendicular to the zodiac. The m ovement is simple and natural for all: there is but a small num ber of displacem ents on the spheres ar ranged with order. in a movement which causes them to describe the eccentric circles as an apparent consequence. as Hipparchus teaches. but that in principle and in reality they are regular. and from the arctic cir cle to the pole of the sphere of the stars there are 36 degrees. harmonious.

Since from an infinite time they pass in a circle parallel to the other. if we suppose straight lines. in order to go from one point A to another point B on the zodiac. their mo tion does not only occur following a straight line of the zodiac. A fter the w riting was dry. but as could be drawn on a plane surface. XLIII. It so happens that the planets describe spirals. going slowly. that is to say in consequence of their two movements in opposite directions from one another. We then have reason to say that the two axes. the path-w ay travelled will be similar to that which 39T he overseers w ere a body o f five lords in ancient Sparta w ho had jurisdiction over even the king. in such a way that in passing from one parallel to another they describe spirals sim ilar to the tendrils of a vine. B ecause of the incessant and continuous m ovem ent around the sphere on the parallel circles. (Toulis) . it is as though one were to wind a strap around a cylinder from one end to the other. but it becomes at the same time circular around the sphere of the fixed stars. as they are carried by their own move ment from the tropic of summer to the tropic of winter and reciprocally. for 15 times 24 makes 360. any message so w ritten was m eaning less. and again to that o f the first.around w hich a leather strap or paper strip was w ound in the m ode o f a spiral. but this one is not as might be drawn on a cylinder from one end to the other. In fact. arranged in an infinite num ber. they do not pass in a straight line from one parallel to another. In other terms. They used a w ooden staff of exact dim ensions. Then they w rote across the length of the staff w hatever message they w anted d ispatched to th eir generals a t w ar in far away lands. but are pulled around the sphere o f the fixed stars. The planets describe still another spiral. they unw ound the strap and sent the w ritten message by special dispatchers to the general concerned who then read it after w inding it around his staff of exact dim ensions as the one at headquarters. as they are rapidly pulled along each day in the opposite direction under the sphere of the stars. that of the stars and that of the planets. It was a way o f coding and decoding m ilitary and other classified data because to som eone who was not in possession o f this w ooden staff. som etim es tow ards the tropic of w inter. But 24 degrees form a fifteenth of 360 degrees of the circumference of the universe. they will appear to us to describe a helix w ithout end. are separate from one another by the value of the side of the pentadecagon inscribed in (a great circle of) the sphere. and this w ithout interruption and w ithout end. such were the straps wound on the staffs of Sparta and on which the overseers39wrote their dispatches.ASTRONOMY 131 zodiac is tangent. som etim es tow ards the tropic o f sum m er. representing the parallel circles and that the planets move on these parallels in the same direction as the sphere to the fixed stars.

stereometry and astronom y 42 — we are going therefore to show summarily what Thrasyllus exposes on this sub ject at the same time as our own previous work. XLIV. for Plato assigns the fifth step in m athem atics to this music of the spheres. « Republic VII. ‘"These figures are missing from the m anuscript. then. m athem atical music and the harmony of the spheres 41 and that we would report all that necessarily exists of harmony in the world. and after which look at astronomy. 530 D. END OF T H E TRANSLATION OF TH E W ORKS OF THEON OF SMYRNA AS THEY H A V E COME DOWN TO US. However. . after arithm etic. as the figures show . p. we have said that we were going to con sider instrum ental music. the other as on a plane surface. All of this is very necessary and very useful for reading the works of Plato. that the planets describe two spirals.132 ASTRONOMY would be made following straight lines extended to infinity. I. 40 It so happens. 4'See I. 2 and II. one is around a cylinder.

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parallel to the other fixed one. We have.. and M H perpen dicularly attached to it. by definition: < x v a ^3 cixv 1 i ^ = y = 2a from which follows 2 i ^ = 2 and x" = 2a'! Plato first resolved the problem of the two proportional means.. H ippocrates of Chio found that if two continuous proportional means x and y are inserts between the side (a) of a cube and the double (2 a) of this side. In com bining proportions by means o f m u ltiplication. we draw two perpendicular lines AE and CD on which we take. . 5) The problem of the duplication of the altar. glided between the grooves of the two uprights FG. He em ployed an instrum ent formed of two rulers. furnished them w ith very sim ple and very ingenious procedures of c alcula tion. Taking (a) and (b) as the two lines between which the two propor tional means are to be inserted. KL and GH. and in sim plifying the relationships of the final p roportion. 1892) Note I. o f d iv is io n . but proportions. they arrived a t conserving only one unknown in Questions which called for several. w hich they m anaged w ith great facility. starting from their point of intersec'T h e ancient geom eters w ere not ab le to avail them selves o f the resources o f algebra which they did not know. of which one m oveable one. Mechanical solution o f Plato (Introduction p.Problem o f the duplication o f the cube.NOTES — (by J. goes back to the duplica tion of the cube of one edge. Dupuis. in fact. even though they had no p articular notation. . the first mean x is the side of the double cube. with the condition that the new altar be sim ilar to the first.

as one. is w ithout parts and indivisible. Continuing in this way. and we have: AB BD BD BE BE BC Thus BD and BE are two proportional means between AB and BC. and at the same time turn the instrum ent on the surface of the figure until the edges of the two rulers again pass through points A and C. Then we apply the instrum ent on the figure in such a way that the edge of one ruler passes through point A. and I divide it into several parts which I successively throw away one by one.. p. W e then separate the moving ruler more or less from the fixed one. “One. It has been transm itted to us by Eutocios of Ascalon.. until there remains no more than one object. III). 135 . between a and b. that is to say. There will come a m om ent in which there re mains only one tangible object. 2 Note II. he says. in-fol. — Problem o f Achilles and the Tortoise. I have a tangible object. The reasoning of Theon is a sophism. It is stated as follows: *Cf. One of the most celebrated sophisms is that of Z eno of Elea who lived in the Vth century before our era. Archim edis quae supersunt om nia cum Eutocii Ascalonitae commentariis ex recensione Josephi Torelli Veronensis. the height of each of them is the proportional mean between the segments of the hypotenuse. I again divide this one tangible ob ject into several parts which I throw away one by one. AB = a and BC = b. the extensions of the lines AB and BC pass at the same time through the apexes of the rectangle which forms the instrument. a geom eter of the V lth century. This solution of Plato is m echanical. and CDE being right triangles.136 NOTES tion. I always arrive at one.Oxonii M D C C X C II. and the edge of the other through point C. The two triangles ADE. It is called Achilles. as One. — On the sophism. is without parts and in divisible” (I. in a com m entary on book II of the treatise On the Sphere and the Cylinder by A rchim edes .. therefore one. since it requires the utiliza tion of an instrument other than the ruler and the compass.

who travels ten times slower. who goes ten times slower. plus the space which sep arated them. he said. in 8e- . Therefore an infinite num ber of moments will pass before he reaches it. Let us take |(n . br. but we bring to the a tten tio n o f the philosophic reader the interesting work recently published M . Paris. now the space travelled by Achilles is then equal to the space travelled in the same tim e by the tortoise. equal to 1 stade and V» th or *%ths of a stade. during the time he travels these *%ths of a stade.n and n 2 + n is n2. the infinite num ber of these suc cessive moments represents a finite time. 1891.l)n = n2 1and n(n 4. will never be reached by the faster considering that the pursuer must. (606' + ) 4 W e do not insist upon it. first pass by the point from which the one who flees his pursuit started. H achette. Will he catch up with it and at what distance?3 Z eno claim ed that Achilles would never reach the tortoise because. in the case of the uniform movement. F rontera. and that. and while Achilles travels this tenth. and so Achilles will never catch up with the tortoise.” Lesson in Physics.NOTES 137 Achilles travels ten times faster than a tortoise which is one stade ahead o f him. will advance by 0.n and n 2 + n.01 of a stade. therefore they meet each other. for Achilles reaches the tortoise at a distance from its point of departure. In fact. the tortoise. Therefore. The square contained between n 2 . The error of Z eno is evident. XVI). the latter advanced 0 . says Aristotle.G . “ that the slower while he is travelling. This comes back to the affirm ation. Z eno did not see that the sum of the spaces travelled during the infinite num ber of successive moments of the m ovement of Achilles and the tortoise represents a finite distance. and thus the slower will constantly preserve a certain advance. V I. under the title: Edude sur les argu m ents de Zenon d'Elee contre le mouvem ent. 0 0 1 and so forth. the tortoise will advance by 0 . do cto r o f sciences. the square contained 3 T he stadia has the value o f 185 metres. 4. as Theon verifies. 1 of a stade. two successive unequilaterals.1) = n 2 + n. of necessity. travels Vsth of a stade. IX. while Achilles was travelling the stade which sep arated him from the tortoise. and the arithm etic mean between two numbers is larger than their geom etric mean. Now n 2 is the arithm etic mean between n 2 . the tortoise. 4 Note III — On unequilateral numbers (I. and while Achilles travels this hundredth.

5 + lOd. 1 + 5d. if it is of the form 3 6 n ± 1 2 n + 1.On Polygonal Numbers (I. 2. 3. Note V.. 1 + 4d. 6 . 1 + 2d. an unequilateral number. Note IV.) W e shall sum m arize this theory of polygonal numbers and add some explanations. Thus any square is of the form 36n2 36n2 ± 1 2 n + 1 36n2 ± 2 4 n + 4 or 36n2 + 36n + 9. — On Square Numbers. we give to d the successive values 1. or 6 n ± 3 . since the two factors differ by one unit. If we take the successive sums of the terms.. 3 + 3d. but the subtraction of one unit gives the rem ainder 36n2 + 36n + 8 . W e have. 2 + d. 8 + 28d. plus 4 or plus 5 is of the form 6 n.. 1 + d. we will obtain the corresponding numbers 1. X IX . If it is of the form 36n2 + 36n + 9. and those of the first series are called gnomons. If. The term s of the second series are called polygonal numbers. 2. Taking d as the rate of a progressing by difference beginning with unity.. but the subtraction of one unit gives the rem ainder 36n2 ± 2 4 n + 3. (I. 1 + 6 d. 1. but the subtraction of one unit gives the re m ainder 36n2 ± 12n which is divisible by both 3 and 4. the first terms will be 1.1 is not so. 7 + 21d. 6 n ± 1.. it is divisible by 4 and not by 3 . the geom etric mean between two successive squares n 2 and (n + l ) 2. 4 + 6 d. 1 + 3d. in fact x. Every num ber being a m ultiple of 6 or a m ultiple of 6 plus 1. it is divisible by 3 and not by 4. 3. 1 + 7 d . plus 2.138 NOTES between two successive unequilaterals is not the geom etric mean between these two numbers. which is divisible by 3. 6 n ± 2. plus 3. 4. from which it follows that x = n (n + 1 ). it is divisible by both 3 and 4 and con sequently 36n2 . which is divisible by 4. 5. 6 + 15d. Finally. If it is of the form 36n. starting from unity. . If it is of the form 36n2 ± 24n + 4.we will obtain the following gnomons and polygonal numbers: . . thus x 2 = n 2 (n + l ) 2. in the two series. But the geometric mean between two successive squares is an unequilateral. 4. XX). it is divisible neither by 3 nor by 4.X X V II.

.. .. n.l)th triangular number. . gnom ons..l ) d and j = 1 + (1 + d) + (1 + 2d) + (1 + 3d) + ( + 4d) + (1 + 5d) . .l ) J fro m w h ic h it fo llo w s t h a t Now n (n .. ... n.. .l)th triangular number. . quadrangulars..1) first n u m b e rs s ta rtin g fro m unity... . n. gnom ons. n. d = 5 ... . . n.1) j = n + 2 2 ’ the sum o f th e (n .. triangulars.. g n o m o n s. d o d e c a g o n s... . . d = 10. . and o f which the rate is the (n .. gnom ons. n. The nth polygonal number equals n. h e p ta g o n s.... g n o m o n s. .. . .. d = 4 . . d = 2 .... is the (n ... e n n eag o n s. (d) being the rate o f the progression o f the gnomons..l)d] = n + d [ l + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 . d e c a g o n s. form a progression by difference.. h ex ag o n s. . d = 3 ... p e n ta g o n s. w e h a v e th e n these tw o th eorem s: 1.. ...l ) t h t r ia n g u la r n u m b e r.. g n o m o n s.. The polygonal numbers from the same row n.. d = 8 .. n. 2... w e have: k = 1 + (n ...... g n o m o n s. o c to g o n s ... d = 6 . . ...NOTES d = 1... o f which the first term is n. . ... d = 9 ... n. ( n ...... + [1 + ( n . d = 7 .. .. gnom ons.. g n o m o n s. en d ec ag o n s... n.. gnom ons.. plus d times the (n . 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 3 6 5 9 7 12 9 15 11 18 13 21 15 24 17 27 19 30 21 33 4 5 10 15 7 9 16 25 10 13 22 35 13 17 28 45 16 21 34 55 19 25 40 65 22 29 46 75 25 33 52 85 28 37 58 95 31 41 64 105 6 21 11 36 16 51 21 66 26 81 31 96 36 1 11 41 126 46 141 51 156 7 28 13 49 19 70 25 91 31 112 37 133 43 154 49 175 55 196 61 217 8 36 15 64 22 92 29 120 36 148 43 176 50 204 57 232 64 260 71 288 9 45 17 81 25 117 33 153 41 189 49 225 57 261 65 297 73 333 81 369 10 55 19 100 28 145 37 190 46 235 55 280 64 325 73 370 82 415 91 460 11 66 21 121 31 176 41 231 51 286 61 341 71 396 81 451 91 506 101 561 139 12 78 23 144 34 210 45 276 56 342 67 408 78 474 89 540 100 606 1 11 672 By d es ig n a tin g the n th g n o m o n as K a n d th e n th p o ly g o n a l nu m b e r by j.. n..

then place on either side of this line the unity-marks of which the triangular num ber (n . three times the (n . becomes W e shall write on a line the n units of the num ber n. (See I. if they are ar ranged one below the other with the addition of the gnomons decomposed into units. for d = 2 .140 NOTES The triangular numbers are so named because.l)st is composed. XIX). (See I.1 )st triangular number. they can therefore be figured in the following manner: . The figure of the square numbers can also be obtained by the for mula j = n + d n(n which. triangular figures result. The square numbers are so named because a square form can be given to the groups of unit-m arks of which these numbers are com posed. W e will obtain the following quadrangu lar figures (replacing the unity-marks with points): 4 9 16 25 36 The pentagonal numbers are given by the form ula j =n+ We will then obtain their representation by adding to n. XXV).

1). be dem onstrated that the nth hexagonal num ber is fequal to the ( 2 n . they can therefore be given in this form: It can be noted that the natural series of hexagonal numbers is equal to the series of triangular numbers of every other row. It can. each of them equals n (2n . W e will have j = 2 k (2k+ 1 .1 is first. A nother thing to be noted is that the perfect numbers. Thus .l)st triangular number. for according to the general for mula (A) given above.1).1). that is to say those equal to the sum of their aliquot parts. in fact. therefore the perfect numbers are hexagonal and consequently triangular. Let us suppose that n = 2k. This is the form ula which gives the perfect numbers when the factor 2 k + 1 .NOTES 141 12 22 35 W e will have hexagonal numbers by adding to n four times the (n . are all hexagonal and consequently triangular.l)st triangular number. Indeed the nth hexagonal num ber j = n (2n .

128 = 33. 64th hexag. and the 3rd triang.691.589.536 x 131. — On the Pyramidal numbers (I.3 Likewise. 4th hexag.142 NOTES 6 = 28 = 496 = 8. the truncated pyramidal num ber will have the value of n(n + l)(n + 2 ) .3 The truncated pyramidal num ber is obtained by evaluating the total pyramid and that which has been taken off and taking the difference between the two values. 2.07 1st triang.144 x 5 2 4 . 2.438. It can be shown to be equal to n(n + 1 ) (2 n + 1 ) 1 .144th hexag. It is dem onstrated to be equal to n(n + 1 1 ) (n + 2 ) .1 9 1 s t triang. The nth pyramidal number.096 hexag. and the 5 2 4 .336 = 8.191 65. XXX). 16th hexag.(p 1 . and the 1 3 1.328 = 262. 4.869. Note VI. 65.2 8 7 th triang. the nth pyramidal number. is the sum of the first n triangular numbers.536th hexag. and the 7th triang.056 = 2x3 4x7 16x31 64 x 127 4. 3 1 ) p(p + 1 ) .2 8 7 is the 262. having a triangular base.550. and the 31 s t triang. is the sum of the first n square numbers.071 is the is the is the is the is the is the 2nd hexag. If we have a triangular trun cated pyramid whose lower base side has the value of n and the up per base p. 2.096 x 8. and the 8 . having a square base. and the 1 2 7 t h triang. 137.

according to the rule given by Theon.2x ' 2 = 2b 2 . com pleted by the addition of the double square of the sides and the squares of the diagonal numbers: sides 1 2= 1 5 = 2 12=5 29 = 12 70 = 2 9 169 = 7 0 diagonal double sqr.a2. that is to say. It can indeed be deduced that these two last relations y ' 2 . — On Lateral and Diagonal Numbers. the resolution of the right isosceles triangle. with this condition.1 etc + 1 + 3 + 7 + 17 + 41 + 99 This rule of Theon gives.1 9801 = 9800 + 1 99 =41 + 29 x 2 9800 239 = 9 9 + 70 x 2 57122 57121 = 57122 . XXX I). By this rule. therefore y '2. and he determines the other diagonal numbers by adding twice the corresponding side to the preceding diagonal.2x 2 = ± 1.that we have a 2 . But y = x = 1 is a first solution to the equa tion y 2 . Theon explains it thus: he first takes the side 1 and the diagonal 1 . the following table is ob tained. The lateral and diagonal numbers are defined by their genera tion. square of the numbers of the sides diagonal numbers 1 2 -1 1 2 9 8+ 1 8 3= 1 + 1x2 49 50-1 7 = 3 + 2x2 50 1 7 = 7 + 5x2 288 289 = 288 + 1 41 = 17 + 1 2 x 2 1682 1681 = 1682 . an infinity of other solutions can be concluded. (I.NOTES 143 Note VII. in whole numbers. Let us suppose that y = a and x = b as a solution to the equation. Therefore. that it gives in whole numbers the solutions of the equation y2 . then he successively determines the other sides by adding the diagonal to the preceding side. that is to say. .1 say that x' = b + a and y' = a 4. Now a 2 -2b 2 = ± 1 by hypothesis. that the difference be tween the square of the hypotenuse and the double square of the side of the right angle is only one unit.2b 2 = ± 1 .2 x '2= ± 1.2x 2 = -1 .2b are also a solution of it.

C = 2A. and 4 represented the first solid (the tetrahedron defined by its four apexes). X X X X II). it is said to be the sum of these two intervals: thus the octave is said to be the sum of a fifth and a fourth. Although the interval of C to B is the quotient of the interval of A to C by the interval of B to A. Therefore. C. — On the Perfection o f the Number Ten (I. but the num ber which measures the tone is the quotient of the two numbers which measure the fifth and the fourth. Thus it is said that the tone is the excess of the fifth over the fourth. and C three sounds such that the interval from B to A is. a fourth. — On the Addition and Subtraction o f the Consonances (II. c as the numbers corresponding to these sounds and x as the interval between c and b. Let us again call A. X III. W e will call the numbers corresponding to these three sounds as A. b. three sounds such that the interval from A to B is. B and C. but the num ber which measures the oc tave is the product of the two numbers which measure the fourth and the fifth. and B is 3A nds of A. B. from which it follows that x = 3A : 4A = 7s = one tone.) Let us call A. W e shall take a.144 NOTES Note VIII. Now 1 was the principle of numbers. for example. the decad 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 symbolized all that exists. Note IX. (The tetractys) The num ber 10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 . for example. 2 represented the first line (the straight line which is defined by two of its points). it is said that it is the difference between these two intervals. therefore C is Vs rds of 3A nds of A. B. C is Vs rds of B. According to the preceding remark. a fifth and the interval from C to B a fourth. Even though the interval of C to A is the product of the two intervals which it includes. we have 3A = 4A x. 3 represented the first surface (the triangle defined by its three apexes). and the interval of C to A is a fifth. . in other words.

The two ex5 C f. XXX V) The musical scale of the ancient Greeks. The strings of the instrum ent and the sounds that they made bore the same name. the third. In order to add a tone to this fifth. (II. X III. 4.) These sm all systems were called tetracords because the sounds were given by the four-stringed lyre. The result is 27. — On the Perfect Musical System form ed o f Two Octaves.NOTES 145 Note X. described by Theon. 8 . 1. he m ultiplies 24 by Vs. 3. (II. the fourth and the fifth octaves are respectively represented by 2. the extremes of which gave the fourth.4 . en compassed an extension of the human voice.Timaeus. a fifth and a tone. It was formed of four sm all systems each composed of four sounds. the last term of P lato’s diagram. 9. 2 . The fifth of this fifth octave is expressed by 16 x 3A = 24.256 The leimma is less than a half-tone. because we have. which contains consequently four octaves plus a fifth and a tone. 256 ^ [9 \ 2 4 3 J 8 therefore 243 8 Note XII. XIV). — The musical diagram o f Plato contains fo u r octaves. 27 and stops at 27. as it is easy to verify: ( 2 56V>-9 . H alf of the tone 1 + Vs is not 1 + V is. for 7 in calculating the square one obtains which differs only by V256 from the tone 9/ _ 9 x 3 2 8 x 32 _ 288 . The first sound of the first octave being represented by 1 . — On the Value o f the Half-Tone (II. It was a descending series of two octaves. 16. 8 and 1. the governing consonance from which the others were derived (II. the first sounds of the second. X III. 34 d— 35 d . 1) P lato ’s musical diagram indeed contains the sounds correspond ing to the terms of the two progressions 1. 5 Note XI. This h alf x is given by the equation x 2 = 9/s from which it follows that x =V%~ But it must be noted that the value of 1 + Vie = 1 /ie is closely approxim ated.

the whole of four tetracords made only fourteen sounds. the strings were desig nated by names relating to their position in each tetracord. the lowest string of the tetrachord of the hyperboles was at the same time the highest string of the tetrachord of the disjuncts. “ it is an added sound”. The second was called the disjunct tetrachord or tetrachord of the disjuncts. the neighbor o f the nete. called the trite of the disjuncts which. or the neighbor of the mese.from m ost extreme. that is to say. or “ added string. The ninth was the lichanos of the mese 7 8N 17£77 fo r Nea^r). . or third. The third was called the trite of the hyperboles. a fifteenth sound was added below the lowest sound of the tetracord of the hypates. the two in term ediary ones were variable or mobile. according to whether the interval from the sound o f this string to the sound o f the preceding string had the value o f a tone. 'k iya v o s indicator. The first and the second tetracord having a common string.” In the same way that the tetracords were designed by names relat ing to their position in the musical scale. was the third string of the disjunct tetrachord. The highest was the nete of the hyperboles or the extreme. which is at the extremity. the chrom atic and the enharmonic. . 6 The second was the paranete. was separated from the first or highest o f the following tetrachord. or tetracord of the meses. which was lower by one tone and which was called the proslam banom enos.T he fourth was called the tetracord of the lows or the hypates. and The sixth. The third was the mean tetracord. The two first tetrachords had a com m on string. it differed from it by one tone. that is to say. The seventh and eighth were the paramese vapa/ueaxy. and the mese. In order to com plete the two octaves. which is implying an addition. or two tones. from index finger: the lichanos indicated the type which was diatonic.146 NOTES tremes of each tetracord were invariables or unmoving. because its last chord. The first tetracord was called the tetracord of the upper tones or hyperboles. that is to say. The fourth and the fifth were the nete and the paranete of the dis juncts. a tone and a half. they received different degrees of tension constituting three principal types of harmony: the diatonic. chromatic or enharmonic. as well as the third and the fourth. the low est. These two tetracords had a com m on string: the lowest string of the tetracord of the meses was at the same time the highest of the tetracord of the hypates.

or enharm onic. chrom atic. The thirteenth and the fourteenth were the parhypate of the hy pate and the hypate of the hypates. diatone. that is to say the paranete of the hyperboles.NOTES 147 The tenth and eleventh were the parhypate and the hypate of the meses H a p v T m r r ] and vttcctt). the paranete of the disjuncts. Xlxav0^ v v u t c o v . of the dis juncts. . with indications of the successive intervals in the three types. the lichanos of the meses and the hyperhypate. according to type. The tw elfth was the hyperhypate. The following is a table of this perfect system. were also called. viKpvnarj] or lichanos of the hypates. diatonic. the half-tone or leimma being equal to “ V ms. The second string of each tetrachord. of the meses or of the hypates. chrom atic and enharm onic. Finally the fifteenth was the proslam banom enos. of the hyperboles.

..148 NOTES The Perfect System... ............. J 1 Mese........... 1 Lichanos or d i a t o n e .. containing o f three types: diatonic. H y p a te .........................*% >4 5 2nd Tetrachord (disjuncts)6 ........................ 60-61 is bounded by strings 5 and 8.... % P aram e se........... l" '............ chromatic.............. 1 " P a r h y p a t e .......■ 1 Hyperhypate or diatone ...........) ..................... 1 P a r h y p a t e ...... Types i% 2 f ' ........................... H y p a te .................................. form ed o f two octaves................7 8 9 3rd Tetrachord (meses) • 10 J 1 12 4th Tetrachord (hypates) ■ 13 14 15 Nete of the disju n cts........... 1 Paranete or diatone...........L L L 1 1 (The conjunct tetrachord w hich Theon discusses on pp........ vSi f ? ”% "vf-' -y4 l‘ A 2 1/ 74 \% 2 'A 1 1 V i 1% 2 w ■* V P roslam b anom enos.. enharmonic.................... T r i t e ...... .......... Tetracord fl 2 1st Tetrachord (hyperboles) Strings or sounds N e t e ............................... 1 Paranete or d ia to n e............................

4. the first of which having the ratio of 2 and the other the ratio of 3. 2. and the other is such that it is greater than one extrem e and less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. in order to explain the form ation of the soul of the world. — The Musical Diagram o f Plato (II. By means of this double insertion. the relationship of the arithm etic mean to the harm onic mean equals ®/s: this is the value of the tone. 27. if x is the mean inserted be tween a and b. 8 and 1 . X X X V I) The Probably Intentional Error o f Timaeus o f Locris. He then says that God inserted two means between the successive terms of these two progressions. 3 . or the product of the two numbers by their half-sum. gives the results contained in the follow ing table: . that is to say.x = a : b. P lato next inserts between each term of the double progression and the harm onic mean which follows it. 9 . two terms such that the relationship of each of them to the preceding is also 9/s ths.NOTES 149 ' Note XIII. 8 and con tinued until arriving at the term 27. in the Timaeus. which we call the arithm etic mean. adm its that God first divided the essence into seven parts which were related to one another as the terms of the two progressions 1. equals their half-sum. of which one.a : b . 2. therefore 2ab _ ab a -I. then x . 4.b ) so that this mean between the two numbers is obtained by divid ing the double product of these two numbers by their sum. as well as between the arithm etic mean and the following term.b y2 (a-t. Plato. This is called the harmonic mean. This operation is m ade on the progression 1. the following numbers are ob tained (read horizontally): 1 2 4 % % % 3 6 2 4 8 In this progression.

thus ob taining the following table: TABLE II 384 432 486 512 576 648 729 768 4535 v 768 864 972 1024 1152 1296 1458 1536 8302 1536 1728 1944 *2048 2304 2592 2916 3072 16604 j 3072 3456 3888 *4096 4608 5184 5832 *6144 6144 6912 7776 *8192 9216 10368 Total 29441 If one likewise inserts a harm onic mean and an arithm etic mean between the successive terms of the triple progression. 128 x 3 = 384. and all m ultiplied by this denom inator. these num bers will be obtained (to be read horizontally): 1 3 9 % % 2% 2 6 18 3 9 27 .150 NOTES TABLE I (to be read vertically) 1 % H arm onicl means J A rithm etic _____ means 81/6 4 2 % 8/S2 1 % 3 2% 2 %4 “ 4 4 % % *1 % 6 2% 243/3 2 8 9 * 3% 12 27/2 16 18 81/4 ________________ y3 % 27/ie * 24 27 243/l2 8 2 8 * 16 In order to substitute whole numbers for these which are mostly fractions. they can be reduced to the sm allest common denom ina tor.

The operation thus effectuated gives the results which can be m ultiplied by 128 x 3 = 384. and the term s of the double progression (Tables I and II) which are not part of the progression of triples. 3 to 9 and of 9 to 27 being those of the oc tave and the fifth. . the sm allest common m ultiple of the denom inators. in order to have those of 3 to 9. Thus the two following tables are obtained: Table IV Table III (to be read vertically) 3 2% " % 4 9 8/. in order to substitute whole num ber proportions for them. Proclus 8 admits that Plato first filled the inter val of 1 to 3. we find the following: (end of C hapter I). In the treatise On the Soul o f the World and on Nature which bears the name Timaeus of Locris. p. like those of the double progression. 1534.rr< MHffi NOTES 151 The intervals of 1 to 3. and that he then tripled the terms obtained from 1 to 3. 193 and the follow ing from the edition de Bale. and tripled the terms of 3 to 9 in order to have those of 9 to 27. 1 * 72% 4 384 1152 3456 Harmonic" icl means J— * -D 2A 7 * 4 % *% > 6 2A 1 8 9 12 2% “V ie * 2187/ l 2 8 18 ey4 A rithm etic means * ™/a 24 27 1296 3888 432 1458 *4374 486 1536 4608 512 5184 1728 576 1944 5832 648 729 *2187 *6561 2304 6912 768 864 2592 7776 8748 972 2916 1024 3072 9216 1152 3456 10368 Sum 76923 W e’ve placed an asterisk beside the terms of the triple progres sion (Tables III and IV) which are not part of the progression of doubles. " Proclus in Timaeum.

3... which do not take part in the triple progression. 176 onw ards etc.. and the sum of these 35 term s is 108..... 335.. Paris 1839.... 1 term of the triple progression including........ See A bbe Roussier...29.... that is to say... t.. 9.-H ......... in 4C. T ranslation o f the Oeuvres de Platon. one does not go further in making the insertions than the cubes of 8 and 27 in the respective progressions 1...441 2... Notices et extraits des m anuscrits de la Bibliothkque Royale....... which i s .............695 in number. the musical diagram of P lato contains 35 terms. 2.... com prised of 1 x 384 to 8 x 384 that is to say...... V incent. which have the value of ...695 given by Timaeus of Locris...... 27.... from 384 to 3072 (Table II)... A ....... and the divisions of the soul are themselves 114.. 22 terms of the double progression........695........695..... 8 and 1........9 5 T he e rro r o f Tim aeus o f Locris is reproduced by all the com m entators... from 384 to 3072........ All these terms arranged according to the intervals of tones and half-tones.. 248 onw ards............... This first number found................... 108.. J.... 4.......... from 3456 to 10368 (Table IV) which have the value o f ... 1 M em oirsur la Musique des anciens.923 Sum.... t..144) of the two results is the term 16 x 384 of the progression of doubles (Table II). If it is counted it is necessary to count also the two terms 4096 and 8192 of the double progression.... a part equal to 384 units.... There is then an error in the treatise bearing the name of Timaeus of Locris........” Now the evident intention of P lato was to not go beyond 8 in the progression of doubles and 27 in the progression of triples.. following the intentions of Plato.......... V.... p... by taking in the mixture which he had formed....... in -8 ..... X V I..... 12 terms of the triple progression. 3.. The difference (6.. the diagram of Plato contains (22 + 1+12) or 35 different terms (and not 36). it is easy to calculate the terms of the double progression and of the triple progression. 551............ Sim on... Cousin..551 Thus..... 2.. Therefore his diagram contains: 1............. are 36 in number and give a total sum equal to 1 14.......-J.. Du commentaire du Timee de Platon par Proclus....... 163...187 and finally. X II.....76..... which is not part of the double progression (see Tables IV and II)......152 NOTES “ God made the soul first..... the sum of which is 108. .... Paris — 1770.......... since it is greater than 8 x 384 in the progression of doubles and does not take part in the triple progres sion........ p...... If......551 and not 114.... less by 6144 than the sum of 114.............. p. 1847. com prised of 9 x 384 to 27 x 384....... Paris 1839... 2e partie. p.. in 8e ... a term which he does not take into account............

p. like 6144.. 4.) W hile the Pythagorean philosophers wanted to find quaternaries everywhere. for 6 = 1 + 2 + 3. it was the product of the septenary num ber by the half-decad.This tetraktys. and furtherm ore its side 6 was a truly perfect number. The odd numbers were considered as m ale and the even numbers as female.3 + 5 4. XLV) It was also called m arriage because it is the product of the first even num ber 2 by the first odd num ber 3. do not con stitute part of the terms inserted in the progression of triples. in order to com plete the great quaternary 36. to the 35 terms of P lato’s musical diagram. “ the even will show an empty place at the middle. and for this reason. ” (1 4. CII. The num ber 36 had another virtue if we listen to Plutarch: “ . If the Pseudo-Tim aeus did not also add to P lato’s diagram the two term s 4096 and 8192. “ If each of them are divided into units. in the Tim aeus.” says Plutarch (translation of Am yot). 3. . it is because then the total num ber of terms would have been 38 instead of 36. being the product of the first even square by the first odd square. 2. . but the num ber 36 was still more perfect. it was itself a square. they (the Pythagoreans) have the opinion that the even has more resem blance to the fem ale and the odd to the m ale:” (Questions romaines. .. Note XIV. that is to say. The num ber 35 was certainly endowed with perfection. — Why the Number Six was called that o f Marriage (II.7 ) + (2 + 4 + 6 + 8 ) = 16 + 20 = 36 (from. that is 36. and consequently. celebrated by the Pythagoreans. which are respectively the highest fifth and the lowest fourth of 6144 and which. The Creation o f the Soul. the octave of the sound 8 which is the last term of the progres sion 1. in other words equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. there where the odd always has the m iddle filled with one of its parts. we firmly believe th at the error of the Pseudo-Tim aeus was not in tentional. Timaeus. a harmony. xxx. would have added the term 6144 corresponding to the sound 16.NOTES 153 Knowing in what veneration the Pythagoreans held the tetraktys. seems to have the adm irable quality that it is the sum of the first four even numbers and the first four odd num bers. 288) .

235-236) The superstitious idea attached to the num ber seven appears to explain T heon’s hypothesis. where a draw-bridge connects the island of Evea to the m ainland. . but all is in continual ebb and flow. and nothing remains for a mom ent in the same sta te . Plato says in the Phaedo.” says Pliny. and seven times per day in the Euripe near Evea. ” (Phaedo. (See Eclogae physicae.a A fact verified now as it happens this present day and anyone can observe. t. ed. so deadly to boat m en.1 2 10 T his island can be reached by c ar from A thens after a tw o-hour drive. “ N either in things nor in argum ent is there anything true and stable. The most famous was that of Chalcis. X X X IX . (Toulis) . and this inconsistency was very well known. “ thus the flux occurs several times in the strait of Messina. " It is indeed im possible to control a row -boat at the m om ent the ebb-tide changes direction w hile in th e straits o f Evea. p 447. XLVI). Heeren.” 1 1 — (La Pharsalia. whose direction changed seven times per day. . accord ing to most ancient authors: “There are particular tides in certain places. song V.” (Natural History II. The name euripes is given to the currents which are produced in channels or straits (narrows). that the euripes vary seven times per d ay. at Tauromenius. like the euripe. — On the Euripes (II. 90 c) Lucian also says in the Pharsalia: “ the inconstant tides of the euripe drag the vessels of Chalcis towards Aulis.) The variations of the flux of the euripes were very irregular. II. between the island of Evea and Boeotia. . vs. c) 1 0 The com m entator of Stobea rightly attributed the alternative movements of the euripe of Chalcis to the effort of the waves to surm ount the channel. article entitled: “On the Ebb-Tide of Evea” .154 NOTES Note XV. The effect of this phenom enon can be best observed from the w aterfront of the town of Chalkis.

a. (II. . — The determination o f the harmonic mean between two numbers. b. The second rule is translated by the form ula b = ^ ^ + c. LVII) that in the har monic proportion. and when a = 3c. LXI). a value equal to It is therefore general.b : b .NOTES 155 Note XVI. c. Theon actually gives the second rule for the numbers in triple relation ship. translated by the for mula b = + c. being the three numbers which give the harm onic propor tion a . we are surprised that he did not conclude from this equality the value of the harm onic mean. this value is equal to only when a = c. 18 and 6. a solution to be rejected. the product of the sum of the extrem e numbers by the harm onic mean is equal to the double product of the ex trem e numbers. w hatever be the relationship of a to c. the first rule of Theon. The author having made the remark (II.c = a : c.

350 myriads. of the hundreds of thousands. in trying to reconstitute it. gave H.153 .153.427. The diam eter d of the earth being equal to 80.842. according to the measure of the arc of meridian made by Erathosthenes.502.596.156 NOTES Note XVII. substituted for the correct figure 9. supposing that the relationship of the circumference to the diam eter is equal to “ A.788.317. It is the expression of this volume that we have restated.5 0 8 . III) The passage is altered and the manuscripts have a blank gap at the end.991. 4. on the two or three first numbers of the result. we have d 2 =6. for 1 u d3 and for “ A of 1 d3.297 monads and n A i.821 + % Thus the volum e of the earth.568 instead of 515. 2 9 7 4 ” Ai instead of 269. It is necessary that d 3 = 515.040 + 4A instead of 36.124 instead of 6. myriads.941.612 n A i d 3 = 2 7 0 .355. M artin inexact values for d3. Not only this frac tion is illusory. pp85 and 86 (of text). evaluated in cubic stades.568 V14 d 3 = 36. which expresses the volum e of / /u the sphere from the diam eter d. at the most.270. 0 4 3 .043.0 2 5 . — On the Measure o f the Earth’s Volume (III.341.821.429.124. has the value of 270 third. but one can count. H enri M artin.142. 8. .182 stades. made an error of calculation.788. 250 second myriads. T he in co rrect num ber 7.810.

the sixth circle is given as the most brilliant following the sun. the seventh the Sun. Finally. The slightly yellow shade of the second and fifth is also that of Saturn and Hermes. The whiteness of the third and the redness of the fourth perfectly characterize the aspects of Jupiter and of Mars. indeed pulls along M ercury and Venus. . since the stars have diverse nuances. The sphere of the fixed stars is indeed of varied color.NOTES 157 Note X V III. The seventh circle. It results from P lato’s tale that of the eight concentric globes. the third carries Jupiter. the sixth Venus. which is true of Venus. and the eighth the moon. An equal speed is attributed to Hermes. the second is that which bears Saturn. — On the Myth o f Pamphylian in Plato’s Republic. the fourth Mars. the fifth Hermes. is very brilliant. XVI). The colors and speeds of the spindle-wheels correspond to those of the stars which they carry. that of the moon borrows its light from it. (Ill. and the unequal widths of the colored edges correspond to the unequal separation of the planets in their course through the zodiac and sometimes beyond. the eighth. Venus and the Sun: the Sun. The earth is at the center of the system. 616 B — 617 B. that of the sun. in its apparent course around the earth. the first exterior one is that of the fixed stars.

X a UJ .

rp r W eiser. pvt printing. C lark. rpr W izards Bookshelf. The Tem ple in M an. 1973. 194? W ake. M inneapolis.D . (translation o f technical astronom ical w ork o f 499 A . 1979. the above but a sam ple. Pythagorean triangle. Schwaller de Lubicz. T he Pythagorean Plato. R. (1758-1835) T heoretic A rithm etic. o f Chicago P ress. 1975.32 1767) (K ircher w rote 23 incredible w orks . Oliver. K enneth Sylvan. a Specim en o f Theological A rithm etic. C. (in. Music. 1972. 1978. L 'A rch itectu re N aturelle. copy in H oughton L ibrary. 1977. a etate. C hicago. sive ars m agna consoni et dissoni. 1969. (50 copies in folio) T ran s lated from L atin m ss. 1876. M anuscript o f 21 pages. . C incinnati. 1978. N Y C. E. J . Physics o f M usical Sounds. Staniland. H eath. N Y C . _______ T h e M a th e m a tic a l P re a fa c e . M onas H ieroglyphica. John. C rane-R ussak C o. in. copy in Bibliotheque N ationale.) M cClain. rpr AM S P ress. G uthrie. A utum n P ress. L ondon. — L iber philologicus de sono artificioso sive m usica. 1919. rp r Phoenix P ress (M anly Hall) L os A ngeles. v. sa c r. propagatione. N ew H aven. A ntw erp. 1860. Taylor. K ircher. rpr W eiser. ______ The M yth o f Invariance. A. N orth Y onkers. vicissitudine. (m onthly periodical) C hicago. T r by R obert L aw lor from French. ______ L iber diacriticus m usurgia antiquo-m oderna in qua tam de varia utriusque m usicae ratione disputatur. N Y C . B runts. Music: Its S ecret Influence T hroughout the Ages. Philadelphia. K ey to the H ebrew E gyptian M ystery in the Source of M easures. George. extraordinary. L ondon. e tc. Ralston. tr by R obert L aw lor. 1875. A thanasius. 1934. N Y C . U . 1930. 1875. Tons.. w /su p p l. N Y C. H arvard U. ejusque prim a institutione. 1975.) Dee. (translators) Surya Siddhanta. Supplem ent. Paris. N . 415 pages. N Y C . antiq. 1564. Scott. 1932. B rook line. M usurgia universalis. 1978. B oulder. Published in quarterly periodical Shrine of Wisdom. S ecrets o f A ncient G eom etry. 1570. C. L ondon. Platonist P ress. C openhagen. A. . Brookline. Burgess. N Y C . 3 vols. 1933. Paris. T hes. 1816. Sham bhala. N Y C . Pythagoras Source B ook and L ibrary. (see also: N ational U nion Catalog.. International Science Pubs. N icholas H ays L td . rp r W atson N eal A c a d e m ic . Gulielm us Silvius. Autum n Press. 2 vols. 1975.160 S U P P L E M E N T A L REA D IN G (Anonymous). L ondon. T he A ryabhatiya o f A ryabhata. Taylor. & 1975. W eiser. 535 copies. G reek A stronom y. 1650. Skinner. E rnest G . Thom as. 1946. a T ext Book o f H indu A stronom y. W alter E. D. M usical Tone and Color. ______ M edicina M entis: O r. 500 copies. ______ The Tem ple O f M an. Thom as L. 1967. W. for o v e r 40 m ore such listings) . 1965. 1896. 1976.Y .. rpr W izards B ookshelf. & W hitney. Cyril. Rom e. 1937. 1894 (all d istroyed by fire).

O f all the sciences. 2-32. Archytas. 50. 16. II. Ill. 8. Aratus. Ill. 13. II. 23. II. Ill. 6. 4. 31. 24. 21. 5. 40. 51. 13. According to Archimedes. Intro. 14. A rithm etic. I. 16. a circumference of a cir cle. I. Ill. . A rithm etic is a gift of God. 5. 12. Aristotle. 22. the second in ordinary numerals indicates the section. Intro. indicates the book o f Theon. consonant intervals: the octave and the double octave.39. Ill. I. 31. special treatise. 17. Adrastus.Index Authors and principal m aterial cited in Theon The first number. A naxim ander says that the earth is suspended in space and moves around the center of the world. 40. 5. in Roman numerals. II. 13. Anaxim enes has shown that the moon receives its light from the sun and in what m anner it is eclipsed. has a value of 3 and nearly a seventh times this diameter. Ill. Archimedes. Aristoxenes. Ill. 41. 15. A lexander of A etolia. arithm etic is the most necessary. 34. 1. Ill. 3. 12. I. A ntiphon. 22. I. 34. 41. 19.4. Aristoxenians. opened out as a straight line. 18.

Astronom y and harmony. 12 I. . II. are sister sciences. I. the center is in the sun which is in some way the heart of the universe and the center of the volume is the cold and immobile earth. M easure of the circum ference according to Archimedes. Ill. 42. 7. IIepurxr). A ddition and Subtraction of consonances. The relationships which represent the con sonances are all found in the quaternary of the decad.41. III. the fifth. R atios of the consonances. 13 I. Usefulness of Astronom y. special treatise. Consonance. A stronom y is the science of the solid in movement. Why the chrom atic type is thus named. III. 10. the others are found through it. C olure or m eridian circle. III. 23. Ill. II. Axis. 29. III. per pendicular to the zodiac. as world and anim al. The m anner in which Astronom y has been treated by different peoples. that is to say of the anim al.i. Hypothesis of Astronom y. 8. 111. in the myth of the Pam phylian. 30. 41. makes an angle with the stellar zodiac equal to the angle to the center of the regular pentadecagon. says that there is another axis than that of the stars. I. Callippus. In tro. III. III. 6. the octave. where this star begins to be visible. Intro. II. id. Center. of a half-tone. Consonance of the fourth. They used arith m etic m ethods for expl ai ni ng astronom ic phenom ena. says Plato. Circuit. II. according to the Pythagorean doctrine. is different from the center of volume.162 INDEX Astronom y. O ther consonances. Canopus. B o m isq u e ( f r om “ Bw/u. 1-44. Astronom ical discoveries. 33. is the fourth. In anim ated bodies. by definition. C hrom atic type. C ircum ference. Ill. 16. Ill. 33.o -k o ? ” s ma l l a l t a r ) r e c t a n g u l a r parallelopiped having three unequal sides. II. Discovery of the numerical laws of con sonances. the center of the body. For man the center of the anim ated creature is the heart and the center of volume is in the umbilicus. id. II. as anim al. 37. Plato. The first of all the consonances. 13 I. and note IX. It is composed by going from low to high. 40. C h aldeans. II. followed by another half-tone and a com plete trihem itone. This other axis. III. 31. 40. Intro. F or the world. 30. id. 3. 2.

. Docide. . entrance of the house of the gods. The A ristoxenian definition. id. 39. 15. III.182 stades. III. and note VIII. 37. and note XVII. 32.INDEX 163 Cube. A ll the cubic numbers are similar. the sun being at one node. See Duplication of the Cube. The volum e of the earth is cubic stades. ( 8oxtssmall beam). Proofs of the sphericity of the earth. Ill. Eclipse. According to Eratosthenes. Ill. II. 39. and II. 3. 3. 3. It gives the fifth in relation to the sun. It con stitutes the quaternary. and Note I on P lato’s solution. I. III. Decad. 41. id. and the diam eter of the earth is 80. rectangular parallelopiped having two equal sides with the third larger. 38. id. III. Earth. referring to the spin dles of P lato’s Republic. Diopter. the moon is at the other node. 30. and the planets move with the whole celestial vault which envelops them. the earth gives the low note of the hypate in the celestial concert. Duplication of the Cube. The earth. III. 1 and 4. According to A lexander of A etolia. II. 2. Egyptians. the volum e of the earth contains that of the moon more than 27 times. The Pythagoreans brought back all the numbers to the decad. 54. III.000 stades. 39. There is an eclipse of the moon when. 12. They em ployed graphic methods in order to explain astronom ic phenom ena. I. 29. 37. Diesis. The problem of the duplication of the Cube. III. The Aristoxenians considered the diesis m inor or quarter-tone as the sm allest appreciable interval. Dercyllides. Pythagorean definition. III. A uthor of the book The Spindles. According to Hipparchus. Intro. The Earth is a spheroid placed at the center of the world. Eclipse of the other planets. X X X IX . III. is in repose. II. Total eclipse. 40— 49. Dicaerchus. 22. Properties of the numbers contained in the decad II. The decad is a perfect number. It is only a point in relation to the size of the Universe. III. id. the circle of the earth m easured as a great circle has the value of nearly 252. O f the sun and of the moon. I.

164

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Enharm onic type. In the enharm onic gender, the voice, starting from the lowest sound, progresses by a diesis (a quarter-tone), another diesis and a double tone, II, 11. Why the enharm onic gender is so named, II, 12. The enharm onic gender is very difficult and demands much art and study, id. Epicycle. The hypothesis of the circle of the epicycle, posed in order to explain the phenom ena, III, 26. This hypothesis is a consequence of that of the eccentric circle and reciprocally, id. Hipparchus boasts of the hypothesis of the epicycle as his own and poses in principle that the planet moves on the epicycle; III, 34. Plato also appears to prefer the hypothesis of the epicycle to th at of the eccentric, id. He thinks that it is not spheres but solid circles which carry the planets, id. Epinomis, dialogue of Plato. Intro. — II, 31— III. 30. Equality. Equality is the principle and elem ent of proportions, II, 51. Reciprocally, proportions are resolved in equality, II, 52. Equinoxial. Ill, 5. Eratosthenes. Intro. — II, 30, 3 1 , 4 7 , 51, 52, — III, 3, 15. Eudemus. W rote On Astronomy. III. 40. Eudoxus. II, 13 — III, 31. Euripes. The ebb and flow of the sea in straits. They are generally produced seven times per day, II, 46 and note XV. Evander, II, 47. Eccentric. The hypothesis of the eccentric circle posed in order to explain the appearances, III, 26 I. The hypothesis of the ec centric circle is a consequence of that of the epicycle and reciprocally, III, 26. According to Plato, hypothesis of the epicy cle is preferable to that of the eccentric, III, 34. Expiations, Treatise of Empedocles, II, 46. Figure. Definition of planar and rectilinear figures, II, 53. G nom on (arithm etic). The ratio of the gnomons, the sum of which gives a polygonal number, is always less by two units than the num ber of angles of the polygon, I, 20. G eneral definition of gnomons, X X III, 63. G nom on (astronomic). Astronom ic gnomons show that the earth is but a point in relation to the universe, III, 4. They also show the m ovem ent of the sun in latitude, III, 27. Gods. There are eight gods, masters of the Universe, II, 47.

INDEX

165

Gymnastic. Gymnastics should be taught to children. Intro. 21. Harm ony. Astronom y and harmony, according to Pythagorean doctrine, are sister sciences, Intro. — Defin. of harmony, II, 4. Lydian, Phrygian, Dorian harmony, id. C elestial harmony — according to the Pythagoreans, the stars by their movements produce sounds whose intervals are equal to those of an octave. Ill, 15. H erophilus. II, 46. Hipparchus, III, 16, 32, 34, 38, 39, 42. Hippasus of M etapontus II, 12 I. Horizon, definition, III, 7. Hypotheses. Hypotheses of astronom y, III, 41. Ibycus, III, 16. Initiation to the mysteries. Intro. Interval. Definition, II, 3. System of intervals, C onsonant and dis sonant intervals, II, 5. Difference between intervals and rela tionships II, 30. Jupiter, circles the zodiac in approxim ately 12 years, III, 12. It can eclipse Saturn, III, 37. Lasus of Herm ione. II, 12. Laws, dialogue of Plato. Intro. Laws, Num erical laws of sounds, determ ination of the laws with the harm onic canon; in striking two equal vases, one empty, the other successively filled with liquid to the half, to the third, and to the fourth; with flutes; with weights. I, 13. II, 12a. Leimma. According to Plato, the interval of the fourth contains two tones and a rem ainder (leim m a) which is in the ratio of 256 to 243; determ ination of this relationship, II, 14 and 34. The leimma is less than the half-tone, II, 14 and note XI. Ao-yos logos. How many meanings are given to this word, II, 17. According to P lato it is m ental thought, spoken discourse, the explanation of the elem ents of the universe and proportional reason. Line. Definition of the line, of the straight line, of the curved line, II, 53. Definition of straight parallel lines, id. Lucifer. Star of Venus, III, 6. Lybics. Lybic tales, II, 18.

166

INDEX

Lyre. On the eight-stringed lyre, the hypate, which is the lowest sound, and the nete, which is the highest sound, are accorded by opposition and give the same consonance, II, 6. Lysias. II, 18. Mars. C ircling the zodiac in a little less than two years, III, 12. It sometimes eclipses the two planets above it, III, 37. M athem atics, the utility of. Intro. The knowledge of mathem atics is not useless and w ithout fruit for the study of the other sciences, id. It is impossible to be perfectly happy without the study of mathematics, id. the order in which one should study mathem atics, I, 2. M ean. ixeaoTT]<;. The geom etric, the arithm etic and the harm onic m ean. II, 50. General definition of. II, 54. In the arithm etic m ean, the m ean term is equal to the half-sum o f the extrem es. II, 55. In the geom etric m ean the square o f the m ean term is equal to product o f the tw o extrem e term s. II, 56. In the harm onic m ean, the product of the m ean term by the sum o f the extrem es is equal to the double product of the extrem es. II, 57. The mean subcontrary to the harm onic. II, 58. Fifth mean. II, 59. Sixth m ean. II, 60. H ow to find the m ean term of a m eans w hen the o ther tw o term s are know n; determ ination o f the arithm etic m ean, the geom etric m ean and the harm onic m ean. II, 61. M enaechm us, III, 41. Hermes (Mercury) (god), lyre of Hermes, image of the harmony of the world, III, 15. Hermes (M ercury) (planet), rarely visible, III, 37. It is separated by about 20 degrees from the sun on both sides, that is to say about two-thirds of a sign, III, 13 and 33. The planets Hermes and Venus eclipse the stars which are directly above them; they can even eclipse one another, depending on w hether one of them is higher than the other, the two planets turn around the sun, III, 37. M eridian or colure, III, 8. Monad. Why it is so named, I, 3. It differs from that which is one, id. The monad is odd, I, 5. It is not a number, but the principle of numbers, I, 8. M oon. Its eclipses are not observed at the same hour at all places on earth, III, 2. It circles the zodiac in 27 l/s days, III, 12. The M oon, which is the planet closest to earth, eclipses the planets

But the m athem at ical principles of music are connected to the theory of abstract numbers and must come im mediately after arithm etic. Node. Eclipses of the moon. II. On evenly-even numbers. I. Musician. 25. Triangular numbers. 18. I. G eneration of unequilateral numbers by the sum m ation of the successive even numbers beginning with two. 24. the numbers are. euthym etric and oddly-even. 38. T hat of Aristoxenes contains only two octaves and a fifth. III. 12. that is to say. 19. ascendent. 10. Parallelogram m atic numbers. 17. 44. 6. On even and odd numbers. III. I. 44. M ovement. a fifth and a tone. id. Intro. id. III. I. II. geometry. Sim ilar planar numbers. id. 5. I. and 39.. there is an eclipse of the sun. II. Com posite numbers to each other. U nequilateral numbers. I. Prom ecic num bers.. the source and the reason of all things. descendent. 7. I. 19. Definition of regular movement. Intro. Prim e numbers to each other. I. 7. Special treatise. I.. According to the Pythagorean doctrine. Music. 38. as it were. 1 — 36. linear. I. towards the signs which follow them in their passage through the meridian. Ill. 1 and III. If the m onthly conjunction of the sun and the moon occurs near the nodes. 13 I and Note X.The successive relationships of a term to that which preceded it are in a diminishing sequence. that is to say. Direct and retrograde movement. Usefulness of music. 1. The philosopher alone can truly be a musician. solid numbers. 5. Number. Com posite numbers. 2. 2 — There are three parts in music. The nodes move towards the following sign of the zodiac. On the num ber nine. it comes after arithm etic. id. I. 2. Nine. III. P lanar numbers. M ovements of the nodes of its orbit. id. C elestial music. the principle. 38. In the natural series of num bers. Musical Diagram. and cannot be eclipsed by any of them.INDEX 167 and the stars under which it passes. The unequilateral numbers are necessarily even. Prime numbers are also called incomposite. 35. must occupy the fifth stage in the study of m athe matics. id. I. I. 13. Definition of uniform movement. On evenly-odd numbers. 3. III.. stereometry and astronomy. I. 4 . The musical diagram of Plato contains four oc taves. which results from the movement and concert of the stars. The sum of two successive . 8. 14. id. II. III. I.

III. 31. Star of Saturn. C onsonant paraphonic interval: the fifth and the fourth. III. II. Parallelogram ic figure. Paraphone. 14. Parallelopiped. 54. One. 6. I..168 INDEX triangular numbers is a square. their generation. Definition of the parallelopiped and of the rec tangular and cubic parallelopipeds. the terms are squared from two in two. 5. On the order in the universe and the disorder in the sublunar world. Square numbers. Phaeto. spherical or recurrent numbers. The Chaldeans. 38. lyre of 15 strings. 15. 40. 25. II. I. in the latter case. II. 30 and note VI. 47. 6. Found the first obliquity of the zodiac and believed in the existence of a great year. 28. 30. Students of A ristotle. 20. Observations. 13. II. Peripatetians. id. 15. II. III. II. 20. abundant and deficient num bers. 24. C ircular. II. In the progression of double and triple numbers beginning with unity. Oath of the Pythagoreans. their generation. Phenon. I. I. the Egyptians. Parallelogram ic number. id. Pentagonal numbers. I. their sides are of cubic numbers. I. One is the first of the odd numbers. Octave. Also given to the sun. to the god of light and some times to Love. and the following. 18. 22. II. 53. Phanes. It is the sum of a fourth and a fifth. I. 3. I. III. and as cubes their sides are of square num bers. Oenopides. . One as One is w ithout parts and indivisible. and note II. II. as squares. On One and the monad. 32. id. it includes two octaves. and note VII. 5. Parallelogram . and squared and cubic from six in six. 20. I. Pentadecacord. 14. cited in a sermon of Orpheus. Name given by the Pythagoreans to the Universe con sidered as an anim ated W hole. cubic from three in three. See note V. Perfect musical system formed of two octaves. I. III. I. Order. G eneration of perfect numbers. Lateral and diagonal numbers. Pyram idal numbers. Also see note XII. 25. Perfect. Heptagonal and octagonal numbers. star of Jupiter.

They are carried with the universe in its diurnal m ovement. 20. III. III. 29. Venus. id. Duration of their revolutions. ac cording to the Pythagoreans: M oon. There is an agreem ent between the two hypotheses. 28. 32. III. Station of the planets. id. and a latitudinal m ovem ent from the summer tropic to the w inter tropic and reciprocally. III. All events here below follow the m ovem ent of the planets and all things change in the same time as that movement. 41. 15. The apparent spiral m ovem ent of the planets. 21 and 35. and Saturn. neither more nor less. 31. Jupiter. 43. 16. 6. Mean distance of the planets in the hypothesis of the epicycle and in that of the eccentric cir cle. 22. I. M ovem ent of the planets in the opposite direction to the diurnal movement.INDEX 169 Philebus. Sim ilar planar numbers. 30. 34. id. the Sun. III. 36. 49. The order of the planets ac cording to Eratosthenes gives second place to the Sun. Hermes. The speed of their m ovem ent through the signs seems unequal. 4. Mars. in the opposite direction to the m ovement of the universe. 30. — II. or the circuits which carry them move them around their own centers. P lanar number. O rder according to certain m athem aticians. Planets. id. id. III. The planets move around a perpendicular axis of the zodiac. 22. Philolaus. The planets move themselves on their own circuits. Forward m ovem ent of the planets. III. III. 53. Plane. C o lo r of the planets. to the same distance. III. id. a truth which results from long observation. III. I. Each planet eclipses the stars beneath which it passes in its course. 43. 4 . 27 — 28. by an effect which is the consequence of other movements. that is to say. III. Definition. Tim e of the return of the planets to the same longitude. 22. that is to say. being further away or closer to the earth. to the same latitude. they also have a longitudinal m ovem ent. II. 40. III. 18. he believes th at there are eight sounds produced by the starry sphere and by the seven spheres of the planets which he says turn around the earth. III. III. id. III. They vary in apparent size. R etrogradation of the planets. 12. . 41. O rder of the distances of the planets. M ovem ent of the planets by chance. III. III. from East to West. dialogue of Plato. The spheres of the seven planets give the seven sounds of the lyre and produce a har mony. 37. an octave. 24. I. I. There are seven planets.

21. 16. Quaternary. II. the faculties of judgm ent (thought. height). 30. Q uadrilateral. II.170 INDEX Plato. 32. It is neither by m ultiplication nor by addition that the point forms a line. Definition. the line forms the surface and the surface forms the volum e. 18 . 9. 53. 2. 3. II. but every mean num ber is not a proportional mean. 12 I. IV. Lost work of Aristotle. 29 and II. 2. 3. — II. 5. air. II. 31. 51 and note. There are three classes of promecic numbers. III. the square and the cube. Pythagoras. 8 and 1. 22. earth). 32. the elements (fire. length. the figures of the elem ents (pyramid. 4. societies (M an. the 1. neighborhood. The. 34. the . 4. Intro. Definition. 1. line. II. 1. Pyrois. — III. the quaternary form ed of two progressions. II. Definition of the point. 12 I. 4. rectangular parallelopiped having two equal sides and the third side sm aller. that is to say. and 1. science. 54. 2. Polygonal number. Every proportional num ber is a mean number. 2. 4 quaternary. V. cube). 14.. but by continuous movement. 3 8 . II. 46. Arithm etic. Pythagorean. 38. 44. lost work of Eratosthenes. 60. 18. II. the magnitudes (point. 3 1 . A drastus’s rule for deducing any three term s in con tinuous proportion in as many continuous proportions as one wishes. 44. icosahedron. V III. 21. The. II. I. 46. solid). family. The 1. opinion. star of Mars. 2.33. the irascible. see triangular. Proportional Mean. Definition. I. 39. octahedron. VII. 23. 12. 42. See Pythagoreans. square. the side. Polygon. width.. 4. 53. 3. II. sense): IX. Promecic number. 31. 61. III. the parts of the anim al (the reasoning part of the soul. — II. Plinthe. I. surface. — I. 11. 27. 57. VI. 12. 15. pentagonal. city). II. 1. II. 6. — III — 16.. II. Intro. Point. Intro. 53. Platonist. Prom ecic figure. Pythagorean. unity. geom etric and harm onic propor tions. There are eleven quaternaries: I. 53. Definition. 59. hexagonal numbers. 30. water. 6. — III. In like manner. engendered things (seed.. Poseidonius. Proportion. quaternary includes all the consonances. (The Tetraktys). C ontinuous and discontinuous pro portions. II. id. 46.

the sound produced is low. 16 and 34. II. 53. II. Rising of the stars. It is called the num ber of marriage. XI. In the series of numbers 1.. Definition. 22 and 25. The . 35. W hat is the difference between the interval and the relationship. It is perfect. It happens in several ways. maturity. — III. II. the seasons. 53. III. III. adolescence. 45. and note XIV. 4. II. 39. X. 3. Right angle. Sirens. Base of a relationship. id. 26. Sound. id. 46. 38. 4.id. 28. II. II. 5. 4.. II. R etrograde m otion of the planets. and the body). Hypopolyepim er relationship. Definition given by Thrasyllus. II. id. High. Relationship. 22. P lato and other authors thus designated the planets. M ultiple relationship. The base of the sesquilateral relationships is 3A . id. id. II. On the num ber seven. id. 3. On the num ber six. for the sesquitertian or epitrites it is */a. The air being struck and put into move ment. Six. II. 16. 19. Ill. II. 16. if the m ovem ent is rapid the sound produced is high. Enharm onic sound. id. the relationship of two successive terms unceasingly decreases. It is impossible to find the relationship between two things which are not of the same species. id. Why the Pythagoreans called it M inerva (Athena). Intro. Definition of the square rectangle. II. The noise of thunder is not an enharm onic sound. The sounds belonging to . if it is slow. 2. 6. 12. of the quater nary (tetraktys) of Pythagoras. Circles the zodiac in a little less than thirty years. 29. 2. medium and low sounds. II. Dialogue of Plato. Sub-m ultiple and subsesquipartial relationships. 27. Seven days are necessary for the diag nosis of an illness. and 24. 14. Superpartial or sesquipartial relationship. Solid. 53. Seven. II. All the numbers can be con sidered as having their justification in the quaternary. II. I. Rectangle. II. Definition. 30. Saturn. The terms of these quaternaries correspond to the numbers 1. III. Epim er relationship. II. R elationship of num ber to num ber. of the promecic rec tangle. III. II. the ages (childhood. Republic. Sounds differ from one another through tensions. Com m on name given to any brilliant star (star or planet). 21.INDEX 171 lustful. old age).. II. M ulti-superpartial relation ship. 2. 22. id.

26. 19. 15. that is to say. A pparent m ovement of the planets in a spiral. at the same distance which pro duces the inequality called anom aly. 25. Starry sphere. 14 and 34. id. Ill. I. first by drowning them in its light. III. 25. The square which is neither divisible by three nor by four admits these two divisors after the subtraction of one unit. III. The geom etric mean between two suc cessive numbers is a heterom ecic number. I. A ll squares are sim ilar. According to A lexander of A etolia. 15. II. 20 and 35. they are also divisible by four. III. that two successive heterom ecics do not have one as the proportional mean. III. 15.. or become so after the subtraction of one unit. The sun has neither stationary nor retrograde movement. 11. III. III. III. of the earth. Star of Hermes. Sphere of Plato. the sun being as the heart of the universe. 14. id. Stars. and note IV. 20. Sphere. of the Oceans. Spiral. Station of the planets. or simply a relationship of num ber to number. the sun gives the mese. III. III. Sphericity of the Universe. 40. According to A lexander of A etolia in the celestial concert. Sun. 6. The sun can be eclipsed by the m oon and can itself hide the other stars. id. 1. 27. III. and second in coming directly bet . 23. 3. by an epicycle. 22. Measure of its volume. The reciprocal is not true. id. 3.172 INDEX m odulation have certain m ultiple or sesquipartial relationships to one another. Ill. or become so after the subtraction of one unit. 2. III. Ill. Stilbon. 2. M ovem ent of the sun explained by an eccentric circle III. It circles the zodiac in about 365 V» days. The squares are divisible by three. I. The visible stars are not the same in different countries. G eneration of square numbers by the addition of successive odd numbers beginning with unity. Tim e taken by the sun to return to the same latitude. id. 16. Square. The various modes of the appearance and disappearance of the stars. 12. 29. III. The sounds which give the sharp or half-tone are in the rela tionship of 256 to 213. I. And equally equal number. The Pythagoreans believe that its orbit is in the m iddle of those of the other planets. the starry sphere gives the nete of the conjuncts in the celestial concert. and gives the fourth in relation to the sun.

35. and 16. Term. 19. 38. According to Hipparchus. Surface. II. Triangle. I. The tone cannot be divided into two equal parts. the volum e of the sun would contain the earth about 1880 times. Deviates from the sun about 50 degrees to the east and to the west. I. Theon. reason for this perfec tion. Tropics of summer and winter. Thales. How this relationship was determ ined. II. 22. II. 39. 14. 40. I. See Ternary. 53. II. 5. The geom etric mean between two successive squares is an unequilateral number. The ternary is a perfect number. III. III. — III. starting with two.46. II. 37. Timaeus. Tone. I. III. 19 and 23. Venus. 16. The num ber three. XX. and the sun is further away from the earth than the moon. The unequilaterals are necessarily even. Triangular numbers. 42. Definition. Tetraktys. 8. III. 13. II.. II. Three. Two. 6. III. III. but the square contained between two successive unequilateral numbers is not their geom etric mean. II. See decad.INDEX 173 ween them and ourselves. Definition. 32. Timothy. H ad w ritten Commentaries on the Republic. 36. Ternary. Ill. 2. 13 and 33. U nequilateral number. id. II. The. II. 33. Ten. Definition of the surface. I. See monad. Unity. Thrasyllus. 121. Universe. 16. of the planar surface and the curved surface. G eneration of unequilaterals by the addition of successive even numbers. 15. 47. O rder in the universe and disorder in the sublunar world. The fifth surpasses the fourth by a tone. 44. See Hermes. The ancients found that the tone is in the ratio of 9 to 8. Dialogue of Plato. Two is the only even num ber which is prime. id. 53. Definition. see quaternary. 7 and 14. I. II. .

Obliquity of the zodiac. W orld. III. III. 38. The center of the world as world and as creature is the sun which is in some way the heart of the universe. like the lateral surface of a drum. Ill. . 10. The sun. Egyptian. III. Zodiac. M ovem ent has been given to it by a first motor. 23. G reat year. 60. III. moon and planets are carried in the zodiac. The zodiac has a certain breadth. 22.174 INDEX W riting. The world finite and ordered. 47. III. 42. 6. 1. III. V alue of the tropical year. 40. 12. 41. II. Year. III. III. The whole world is spherical.

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