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MATHEMATICS USEFUL FOR UNDERSTANDING PLATO .
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THEON OF SMYRNA
Platonic Philosopher

T r a n s l a t e d fr o m th e 1 8 9 2 G r e e k / F r e n c h e d i t i o n o f J. D upuis by

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ROBERT and DEBORAH LAWLOR
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edited and annotated by C hristos Toulis and others.

w ith an a p p e n d i x o f n o te s by Dupuis, a c o p i o u s glo s sa ry , in d e x o f w o rk s etc.

SECRET DOCTRINE REFERENCE SERIES

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they seek the truth in the plucking of the strings and the turning of the keys of their instru­ ments.1 This study 5 leads to the investigation of the good and beautiful.. 529a.” 1 In 2 the same writing he speaks of music because for the contem plation of all that exists. It is indeed impossible that the dialecticians who are so clever. will bear fruit according to the ardour and zeal with which one applies one’s self to it. which consequently obliges the soul to look upward and to bypass the things of the earth for the contem plation of those of the sky.” 1 Those therefore. Others doubt the existence of this sound. 1 Republic V II.. for it is in reasoning according to them that we arrive at the contem plation of things. Republic V II. praising 1 the same science he says that geometry pertains to surfaces. 1 Republic V II. 6 . 530d. “ for encampments.” 1 In the same book he 0 again assures us that even in war. strive in vain who seek to know 3 diatonic nuances and to com pare sounds by being satisfied by at­ tentively straining their ear and drawing as near as possible to the instrument. But the clever arithm etician seeks in reflection for what numbers correspond to the consonances and form harmony. 531a.. section II. Preferring the authority of the ear to that of the spirit. according to the Pythagorean doctrine. and what ones are those which correspond to dissonances.1 Some say that they hear a certain particular sound 4 between two sounds and that the interval is the sm allest that can be detected. two things are necessary. " Republic V II 526d. 1 Further on. but “ that astronom y has as its object the m ovem ent of the solid. as if wishing to overhear secretly the conversation of their neighbor. for the concentration and deploym ent o f ‘troops” . 3 1 Republic V II. all else is use­ less. 2 1 Republic V II. the art of calculation is very useful. if it is general and extends to all the common properties of things through drawing tighter the bonds of their m utual affinities. Any method.11 No one will ar­ 1 rive at this if he does not take these sciences for guide.. 531c. see fu rth er on.4 THEON’S same book. do not know how to account for the reason of things to themselves nor to others. 5 3 Id. “Those who know how to calculate apply themselves successfully to all the sciences and even those who have a slower mind become more intelligent through this. 10 Cf. 526b. for taking possession of areas. 4 15 Republic V II. “Astronom y and H ar­ mony which. are two sister sciences.

19 Epinomis. one would be reasonably able to believe that this science is only necessary to the human species for objects of little im portance.” 1 Let us pass in review everything which is related to the 8 other arts. and unless he be a prophet. F urther on. without grace and ultim ately deprived of all perfections. one is even more asham ed to do so in the eyes of the gods. that which is devoid of num ­ ber lacks any sort of reason. will never be able to give reason to anything. and it is not less evi­ dent that number. who knows nothing of number. “ I may say th at t’is not so m uch o ur luck as a god w ho preserves us by his gift o f it. for example. P lato comes again to A rithm etic which he calls a “ gift of G od” 1 and he says that no one would know how to 7 become virtuous w ithout it. that music can only result from movements and sounds m easured by numbers. nothing which would not perish were the science of number withdrawn.INTRODUCTION 5 In th e Epinomis. because if one is ashamed to com m it false­ hood in the eyes of men. p. C ertainly the anim al. Deprived of true reason he will never become wise.” Epinomis. . this would already be much to concede. and that person will recognize num ber in man. To consider only the arts. It is evident. m oreover it would no longer have its essence. p. 976 e. he will never know nor com ­ prehend for how many of our faculties and forces num ber is the source. sees w hat need he has of piety towards the gods. He next shows how one inspires piety towards the gods. On the contrary. knowing only through the senses and the memory. 977d. he says. 989b. Now he is a mendacious person who develops a false opinion of the gods and expresses it w ithout even having l7I believe” . then he says that it is necessary to begin with astronom y. But he who will consider that there is som ething divine in the origin and the m ortality of man. and we will see that there is nothing which would sub­ sist. he continues thus: “No one will ever pursuade us that there could be a virtue for the human species greater or more noble than piety” 1 because it is through piety that he who has taken care to in­ 9 struct him self acquires the other virtues. w ithout beauty. as the source of all that is good. Then passing to the description of the contrary. 18 Epinomis. he says. who knows how to distinguish neither two nor three. could not be the cause of any “evil” . who knows neither the even nor the odd. it is w ithout order. all discretion would be made impossible: the soul of the anim al deprived of reason would be incapable of any virtue. “ If one were to remove numbers from humanity.

the principal one is the science of abstract numbers. as long as we do not know all the forms of tem perance. that is. a com bination which makes evident the condition of surfaces. as for the one who abandons it. 990c. speaking of musical harmony. because it contains a com bination of numbers which are not sim ilar to one another by nature. and how to recognize them or to recog20 Epinomis. he says: “ By the im m ortal gods. 689d. p. which suppose so much prelim inary knowledge. 6 THEON’S studied the nature of the perceptible gods. wishing to prove that the philosopher alone is a musician. not an astronom er in the m an­ ner of Hesiod who busies him self with observing the rising and set­ ting of the stars. a problem o f which that o f the duplication o f the cube is but a particular case.”23 A nd in the third book of the Republic. “ Do you not know” . Following this he m entions another experience and art which he calls stereometry: if someone. as far as they con­ tribute to making known the nature of things. And among these sciences. of generosity and of high mindedness and everything in the world w hich conform s to or is contrary to these virtues. he says. making the product sim ilar (to another num­ ber) and dissim ilar to w hat it was.22 In the Laws.■ — W gM . but of those who scrutinize the revolutions of the seven planets. “ the greatest and beautiful political harmony is wisdom. “ that the person who is truly an astronom er is necessarily very wise. of courage. since he lives in extrem e ignorance. 2 Epinomis.”20 Now he who proposes to prepare the minds of men for these studies. neither we nor the guardians whom we must educate. must have himself been given fam iliarity with the m athem atical sciences since childhood and all during his youth. 23 Laws. 990a. . He is a citizen useless to the safety and prosperity of the State. we will never be musicians. astronomy. III. 1 22 Plato is undoubtedly alluding to this problem: “construct a rectangular parallelopiped sim ilar to a given rectangular parallelopiped which is to this solid in a given relationship”. the knowledge of which all the genius of man finds it difficult to achieve. he says. One possesses it only to the extent that one lives according to right reason. p. p. he says that. he is the corruptor of his own house. will m ultiply three numbers whose planes are as I already discussed. separate from all m atter. he will create a solid body Erqaei Iloiet ILwfjtaTa which is truly a divine and marvelous w ork. the best.2 There is an aspect 1 of this science which has been given the com pletely ridiculous name of geometry. also that of genera­ tion and the properties of the odd and even.

or to the corrupted use of reason. for music joins innocent pleasure to utility. and as can be seen by the preceding. for that 24 Republic. tem ­ perance and decency if he him self is immodest and intem perant.INTRODUCTION nize th e ir images in those who possess them. he says. harmony. its end is to unite and to coordinate.402b. It is impossible. cadence in rhythm. beauty. honesty. . regarding them as being part of the same art and the same study. p. for som eone to become a perfect musician who has not acquired all the habitudes of a good education. says Plato. cadence and accord. this virtue which con­ sists in the good and honest ruling of our life. On the other hand. and its com pan­ ions are indecency. usage conforms to reason. that is to say that these perceptible things are the characteristics and the expression of intelligible things. accord in harmony. if. whose feelings Plato often adopted. and God also is the ar­ ranger of discordant things. F or music does not only coordinate rhythm and m odulation. he took on habits of decency and order. But the things which com prise the em bellishm ent of human life. follows right reason. and shows that only the philosopher is truly a musician. all these are the images of that beauty. He adds that the com pan­ ions of right reason are decency. it puts order into the whole system. no person will know modesty. always since the first years of his adolescence. when he was taught music. w ithout neglecting any of them . For. the true and sincere integrity of morals. that beautiful eternal order which has a true existence. by means of the laws of music and medicine. he is also the true philosopher. It is also through music th at the harmony of things and the governm ent of the universe is m aintained. Because it belongs to the philosopher to know ideas. also define music as the perfect union of contrary things. of nobility of the soul and of temperance. or ideas.” 24 7 By these words and by the preceeding he proves the usefulness of music. He must realize that these ideas are found everywhere and are not to be taken lightly either in large things or in the small. who does not have ideas of de­ cency. even accord within discord. The Pythagoreans. confusion and discord in all that one does by oneself or by im itation. and his greatest work is to reconcile with one another things which were enemies. while he who is vicious and mean is a stranger to the Muses. decency in song. that is to say. so that only he who has good m orals is a musician. th at accord. large or sm all. unity within m ultiplicity. III. im propriety or m oral corruption is essentially linked to a perver­ sion of reason.

always preserves. their character will have been formed by education. body. Phardo. p. the reasons for all the virtues we teach them. but there are some aspirants whom the harbinger of the path separates out. they begin by choosing from am ong the wools of various colors. and no little care is necessary so that the wool takes the color in the best way. gymnastics. and thanks to this m ethod. 28 There are five parts in initation: the first is the prelim inary purification. like a dye. more corrosive than any lye. Then they make their preparation.429d. these four things have need of being well ordered and constituted. IV . consisting in these sciences which are as so much astringent medicine.69d. one knows w hatthappens and how the wools re­ tain little of their color. “ Cf. p. It has indeed the power to bring order and union into the m ultitude. says Plato. is seen in four of the elements belonging to humanity: mind. Indeed. letters.” 25 W e teach children music. This is how they proceed. that w hich is white. their feelings will remain indelible. family. W e can again com pare philosophy to the initiation into things truly holy. the dyer does not take these precautions. on the contrary. w ithout ever rejecting them. neglecting nothing in order that they receive. It is necessary to proceed in the same way with our faculties. neither with the aid o f lye nor otherwise. This color and this dye that we will have given them will not be rem ovable by any lye— by this I mean sensual pleasure. Here again is what P lato says of m athem atics in the books of the Republic: “ The good man is he who.8 THEON’S which harmony is in the world. because participation in the mysteries must not be indiscrim inately given to all those who desire it. more dangerous than any perversity and any habitude. after having pre­ viously adm inistered to them detergents and other preparations. Now the efficacy and use of this science. tried by pain or pleasure. w hich com es off and disappears. and their brilliancy cannot be rem oved. But if. such as those of impure “ Republic. W hen our dyers w ant to dye wool purple. the right ideas which have been given to him in his education. agitated by desire or by fear.— nor by pain nor by fear and greed. geometry and arithm etic. and to the revelation of the authentic mysteries. . and tem perance is in the family. I am going to tell you of som ething w hich appears to me to be sim ilar. good legislation is in the State. and State. the colors are incorporated into the w ool.

” One who wishes to dem onstrate the usefulness and the necessity of the m athem atical sciences could speak of it at even greater length than this. is to be a friend of the Diety. political and natural principles corresponds to initiation.” And Plato also said one must seek purification in the five m athem atical sciences. The tradition of philosophical. “ identifies them with the Diety. which is the end and the goal of the full vision. geometers. 28 Cf. 250c. with true existence and with ideas.27 “ it is necessary that he who wishes to submerge him self in the pure wave of the five fountains begins by purifying him self of his defilements. Finally. . edition M ullach. geometry. p. which are arithm etic. In the third place comes the ceremony which is called the full vision (the highest degree of the initiation). The fifth stage is that consum m ate felicity which they begin to enjoy. stereometry. According to Em pedocles. Finally the fifth stage. and to enjoy the felicity which consists of living in a fam iliar commerce with him. is the binding of the head and the placem ent of the crowns. music and astronomy. he says that the binding and the crowning of the head must be understood as the faculty which is given to the adept by those who have taught him. Phaedrus. or by some other priestly work.INTRODUCTION 9 hands. according to Plato. but even those who are not rejected must be subjected to certain purifications. all of which would be necessary for the readers in order to become perfect arithmeticians. musicians or astronomers. It is in absolutely the same m anner that the tradition of Platonic reason follows. Indeed one begins from childhood with a certain consistent purification in the study of appropriate m athem atical theories. in order that he who has received the sacred things. or whose speech lacks prudence. 432. becomes capable in his turn of transm it­ ting the tradition to o th e rs. or through hierophantism (interpretation of sacred things). He calls full vision28 the occupation of the spirit with intelligible things. but that is not 27 Empedocles. But from the fear that I might appear unable to stop presenting the reasons to praise these sciences. and which. The fourth stage. to lead others to the same con­ tem plation. I am going to begin the explanation of the necessary theorems. logical. A fter this purification comes the tradition of sacred things (which is initiation proper). vs. which is the crowning of all that has preceeded it. in so far as that is possible. either through the dadouchos (the torch bearing ceremonies).

what we say will be such that it can be understood even by those who are com pletely ignorant of mathematics. here I will explain the theorems which are sufficient for understand­ ing the meaning of his writings. so that they may readily un­ derstand our explanations.10 INTRODUCTION the goal sought by all those who wish to read the writings of Plato. . Indeed Plato him self did not wish that we continue to extrem e old age to draw geom etric figures or to sing songs. However. It is sufficient that those who wish to approach our writings or those of P lato might have gone through the first elem ents of geometry. things which are appropriate for children and which are destined to prepare and purify their minds in order to make them capable of understanding philosophy.

W hen P lato says that music occupies the fifth rung 29 (in the study of m athem atics). since one can understand nothing of celestial music. 528e.ARITHMETIC 11 ARITHM ETIC O N THE ORDER IN W HICH MA THEM A TICS M U ST BE STUDIED II. when he says that it is not necess­ ary to agitate the strings of an instrum ent (with hand to ear) like curious folk trying to overhear something. we can only examine this harmony after having studied the numerical laws of sounds. W hat we desire is to un­ derstand harmony and the celestial music. According to the natural order. Then so that the numerical principles of music can be connected to the theory of abstract numbers. as P lato him self explains. The second is that whose ob­ ject is surfaces and is called geometry. as P lato wished. the order and the concert of the stars which travel in space. W e have no need for a musical instru­ ment. . which is called arithm etic. place it) after arithm etic. we will give them the second rung. the first science will be that of numbers. if one does not understand that which has its foundation in numbers and in reason. The third. But we must give m athem atics of music second place (that is to say. he speaks of celestial music which results from the movement. 530d — after having assigned the fourth rung to astronom y — Republic V II. W e are going to begin with the arithm etic theorem s which are very closely connected with the musical theorems which are transposed into numbers. called stereom e­ 29 P la to places music after astronom y — Republic V II. in order to facilitate our study.

and if each part is then subtracted. or 5 and 1. is diminished and reduced into parts sm aller than itself. 1. But that which is one.1 . whose object is to con­ sider the m utual relations of the movements and intervals. The monad. according to the doctrine of the Pythagoreans. indeed 4 and 2 as numbers surpass one. is also divided. Indeed nothing can be divided into parts larger than itself. remains firm and fixed: it is impossi­ ble to push division any further. yet it grows larger as a num­ ber because in place of that which was one there are now several. but following the natural order. Among tangible things. But it is called the 30 See note II after the translation. being divided. 1. so to say. a tangible unity. but if it is divided into 4 and 2. 1. the principle. 1. it will term inate at one. the numerical laws of music will come immediately after arithmetic. is divided into six parts. we come again to one in such a way that that which is one. As for the monad. The fourth treats of solids in move­ ment and this is astronomy. 1. or a progression of the m ultitude beginning from and returning to the monad (through the successive addition or subtraction of one unit). as one. these parts are equal to the unit. As for music. Thus in our plan. in the m anner of numbers. what was one becomes several. For example. the numbers are. Now. if a body. divided into parts greater than its whole. like six into 3 and 3. which. the source and the root of all things. then. when disentangled from the m ultitude through subtraction and isolated from all number. the parts are greater than the unit. if that which is one is divided it is diminished in bodily size and as a result of the partitioning it is divided into parts sm aller than itself. it is not possible to understand it before having grasped what is based on numbers. or into 4 and 2. it is the term inate quantity— the principle and element of numbers. Num ber is a collection of monads.12 ARITHMETIC try.30 Every other number. THE ONE AN D THE MONAD III. . is the study of solid objects. is indivisible. as a number. whatever these relations be. this music which con­ sists in studying the harmony of the worlds will come in fifth place. and in taking away each of these parts. If we divide a tangible body in several parts. the m ultitude will arise out of it. is without parts and indivisible. and if we again divide this one into several parts. into parts equal (in sum) to the whole. And it follows that this one is indivisible.

but in so far as it is tangible. such as 5 horses. indeed in multiplying the m onad by itself we will always have the monad. that the principle of three among tangible things is the triad. like the quantity 5 and the quantity 10 which are not com ­ posed of tangible bodies. is the tetrad. not so far as it is num ber or the principle of number. However. and as if the one which they call first were the more universal. with a naive attitude. but that which is one. it is called the monad because it is separated and placed alone outside the m ultitude of other numbers. They further claim that the m onad is the princi­ ple of all these numbers and that the one is free of all variety. can most assuredly be divided to infinity. that is to say. and the principle of all that which is four. Archytas and Philolaus use the words one and monad interchangebly. can be divided to infinity. the m onad is abstract. . as if they had a m onad which was not first. for example. one times one is always one. and if we multiply even to infinity it will always remain the monad. Moreover.3 1 IV. The num ber indeed is an intelligible quan­ tity. 5 men. while the numbers are incorporeal. But. the one which is found in numbers is not just any one. As for the one which is met among tangible things. The monad is then the principle of numbers. being tangible. posterity considers the m onad and the dyad as principles of numbers. 5 oxen. Numbered things again differ from numbers in that they are corporeal. as being a participant in the first essence and idea of that which is one. being tangible. in the same way the monad differs from that which is one.” They say. and the one the principle of numbered things. T hat which is one. in the same way that each existing thing is called one. so that the monad which is intelligible does not adm it of division. among tangible things. the principle of numbers consists in the series of successive terms through which the odd and even are conceived. M ost add the epithet “first” to the name m onad. 31 Thus according to Theon. whereas for the Pythagoreans. it is not a certain quantity and a diversity with regard to another one. but is the one considered in itself. For it is through this that it becomes the principle and the measure of things which are subordi­ nate to it. the one concrete. but of intelligible ones. and they say that the m onad is the one. As num ber differs from that which is numbered. the num erable quantity is found among tangible things. and sim ilarly for all other numbers. it is called one in itself. as one horse.ARITHMETIC 13 monad because it remains im m utable and does not go beyond the limits of its nature. one m an.

Thus the monad and the one. The one then differs from the m onad in that it is defined and term inated. A ristotle says. 33A variation o f the word Mottos = unit or m onad here referred to as an adj. Neither does it change according to quality. not only does it not divide into two equal parts. It is by virtue of a par­ ticipation in this essence that all things are called one. 15a. However. It does not change according to quantity either. he did not call them so after one. This one which is distinguished from the monad of which it is the essence. unity is not even. in The Pythagorean34 that one participates 32 Philebus. If you add an even num ber to another even number. such as two and four. This is why the name itself. and the monad (unit) is necessarily either even or odd. p. It is one and not several. does not specify what the object is nor of what species it partakes. therefore again. Initially the numbers are divided into two kinds: those which are called even and the others which are called odd. but it does not even divide at all. and unlike the monads which are several. in the Philebus32 uses the expression “ the Units” 33. is odd. is something com pletely immutable. Some have said that the first of the odd numbers is the monad (unit) for even is the opposite of odd. are in no way different from one another. one. but is applied to all things. now unity added to an even number gives an odd number. while the monads are indefinite and indeterminate. ’ vas = u n it (From E ■Epo<? = one) 34 O ne o f the lost works o f A ristotle. ODD AN D E V E N NUM BERS V. as are the monads to which can be added another monad. but odd. but after the m onad which is a participation in the one. like five and seven. on the contrary. the total will be even. it is for this reason that it is called the unique one. because it is not composite. are those which can only be divided into unequal parts. Others place another difference between the one and the monad: the one does not change according to the substance. and it is not the one which causes the monad or the odd numbers to change according to essence. for it itself is monad. The even num­ bers are those which can be divided into two equal parts.14 ARITHMETIC and were both the m onad and the one — for they also call it the one — and as if it were the first and intelligible essence which caused all the things that are one to be such. And although Plato. the odd numbers. . Now it cannot be even since. therefore unity. being at the same time intelligible and tangible.

5. The first idea of the odd is therefore the monad. Indeed. Likewise. the ratio of the number 2 to unity is double.. that of 3 to 2 is sesquialter (1 + *4) finally that of 6 to 5 is sesquiquintan (1 + Y ). 1. They are also called the oddly-odd numbers. thus none of the numbers other than unity (m onad) can divide 3 in such a way that 3 could result from their m ultiplication. the quality of odd is attributed to that which is defined and well ordered. 4. because it is not defined. as is the Unit (or monad). incomposite. But in the measure of the terms. T riad = th re e /trin ity from G reek Tpias Cctyux rpto? = holy trinity) (Toulis) . unknown and disorderly to be attributed to the quality of even. the first idea of the even is the indefinite dyad35.Vn. they a l­ ways increase by an equal quantity. PRIM E OR INCOMPOSITE NUM BERS VI. each surpassing the preceeding one by a unit. which it would not be able to do if it did not participate in both natures. one times 7 is 7. Archytas also ap­ pears to have had this feeling. as also in the world. It can thus be seen that the successive num­ bers are alternately odd and even. These numbers are also called linear and euthymetric.and other sim ilar num­ bers. 1 + 1% is sm aller than 1 4. and one times 11 is 11. in the world also. 1 + Yt is sm aller than 1 + %. A nd for this reason these numbers are called oddly35 Dyad = tw o /p a ir from G reek 8ua?. euthym etric and oddly-odd. and finally 1 + % is sm aller than 2. can measure. These are 3. which causes that which is indefinite. They are the only indivisible numbers. This is why it is called odd-even. others are absolutely com posite and still others are composite in relation to each other. 13. 17. because the lengths and the lines are only considered as a single dimension.ARITHMETIC 15 in both natures. 7. Indeed one times 3 is 3. except the unit. This is why the dyad is called indefinite. Some among the numbers are called absolute prim e or in­ composite numbers. And one would find that the ratio decreases in like m anner for the other numbers. On the other hand. 3. Now the & relationship 1 + % is sm aller than 1 + Vi. linear.. others are prim e in relation to each other but not absolute. 6. added to an odd num ber it gives an even number. 5. beginning with unity. one times 5 is 5. The absolute prime numbers (incomposite) are those which no other number. As for the terms which follow in a continued series. They have thus been given five different names: prime. 11. 2.

16 ARITHMETIC odd 36 for they are odd and unity which measures them is odd as well.t it is the first num ber different from the unit. b = 0. Indeed one times two is two. although other numbers measure them if they are considered separately.’ . but other numbers also. they are considered as having two dimensions. length and width. 2 and 3 measure 6 because 2 times 3 and 3 times 2 make 6. The composite numbers which are the product of two numbers are called planar. only odd numbers can be prim e and incomposite. Prim e num bers are included in this form ula by supposing that 2b + 1 = 1. Finally the numbers resulting from the m ultiplication of one type of numbers by the other are called peripheral numbers. 9 which is m easured by 3. are those which have unity for com m on measure. like 6 which is measured by 2 and 3. 36 E uclid calls num bers in the form (2a + 1) (2b + 1) oddly odd. Because of this it is said that the num ber two has the nature of the odd numbers because it has the same property as the odd. as for the number 2. one times 8 equals 8. Also. COMPOSITE NUM BERS VII. def. Com posite numbers are those m easured by a num ber sm aller than themselves. The num ber 2 is the only one among the even numbers which is sim ilar to the odd numbers in having only unity for its measure. but 1 + 1 = 2 is ‘not indefinite. cf. As for the unit. it is not indefinite. In­ deed the even numbers are not prim e or incomposite. 10. Those which are the product of three numbers are called solids since they possess the third dimension. such as 8 which is measured by 2 and 4. They indeed have unity for com m on measure either in relation to one another or in relation to their prime factors: one times 3 equals 3. but the principle of number. C om posite numbers in relation to one another are those which have a common denom inator. and. it does not have a divisor greater than the unit. the dyad measures 4 because 2 times 2 makes 4. and 10 which is measured by 2 and 5. for 2 times 3 equals 6 and 2 times 4 equals 8. Those which are called prim e in relation to one another. but not absolute. For example. A ll the other even num ­ bers with the exception of 2 are likewise measured by numbers greater than the unit. it is not only unity which measures them. Elem ents V II. and one times 10 equals 10. and although even. for 3 times 2 equals 6 and 3 times 3 equals 9. one times 9 equals 9. that is to say. Such again are 6 and 9 which have 3 for their common denom inator. t Unity + u n ity = the indefinite dyad. it is not a number. such as 8 and 6 which have 2 as their com m on denom inator.

but if a larger divisor is used. 32 is the product of the numbers 4 and 8 which are even. and after this first division in equal parts. the evenly-even num ber is a pow er o f 2. and others are oddly-even. This ratio applies also for the other num bers. which respec­ tively have the value 3 times 4. six has the num ber 3. the half is considered as the binary number. 14 has 7. are partitioned into two odd parts. and 4. 2 has the unit. the quotients are sometimes even. in dividing 12 successively by 2. 3. A ll its parts are even. 38 T he evenly-odd num bers are then. but 3 cannot be divided into equal parts. Elements. cf. some are evenly-even. its half. V II. and 5 times 4. for example. Such. according to T heon. w hich T heon distinguishes from the evenly-odd. A ccording to Euclid. These numbers. 8. and the same for the quarter and the eighth (which are considered as the numbers 4 and 8). they will not be divided equally any further. Likewise we have 2 0 = 2 x 1 0 = 4 x 5 = 5 x 4 . and still others are evenly-odd. This is the sam e definition as th at o f E uclid. It is to be observed th at a num ber is evenly-even when it combines these three conditions: (1) that it be created by two even numbers m ultiplied by each other. are divided by the number 2 into two even parts. def. 10 has the num ber 5. Such are 32. 128. its quarter. it is a product o f two even numbers. according to T heon. Such are the numbers 12 and 20. The evenly-odd numbers are those measured by the num ber 2 and by any odd number. Cf. They are called evenly-odd because they are measured by the dyad. (3) that none of its parts is homonymous to the odd num­ ber. def. 4. V II. and which consequently have odd halves when divided in equal parts. Elements. we have 1 2 = 2 x 6 = 3 x 4 = 4 x 3 .37 IX.39 37Thus. w ould then be num bers taking th e form (2a + 1) 4b. 39 The oddly-even numbers. is 2 times 7 or 14. 16. (2) that all the parts be even down to the final unit. which is even. one of which is odd and the other even. which when m ultiplied. and those which follow in proceeding by a double progression. Now. sometimes odd. . and an odd num ber besides. Am ong the even numbers.ARITHMETIC 17 VARIOUS K IN D S OF E V E N NUM BERS VIII. for unity (which remains after the division by 2) is indivisi­ ble. its eighth. 9.38 X. 64. Indeed half of 6 is 3. the num bers in the form 2(2a + 1). These parts are homonymous to the even numbers. The oddly-even are those which result from the m ultiplication of any two numbers. 8. Indeed. when divided once by two.

T heon never gives th e dem onstration o f the arithm etic theorem s w hich he states. 14. Among composite numbers. UNEQUILA TERAL A N D 40 P A R A L L E LO G R A M A TIC NUM BERS XI.18 ARITHMETIC ON E Q U A LLY-E Q U A L. 10. 8.. so that the sums are the unequilateral numbers 6. for 2 times 2 is 4 and 3 times 3 is 9. 8. some are equally-equal. 3 times 4 = 12. 5. renders the even numbers which surpass the odd numbers unequilateral by one unit. 12. X III. On the contrary. and square). 20. the dyad. 6. com posite numbers are unequally unequal when they result from the m ultiplication of two unequal numbers. Now. 10.. those which have one side (factor) longer than the opposite by one unit are called unequilateral. 16. 6. 1 2 + 8 = 2 0 . We have 1 times 2 = 2. the num ber which surpasses the odd num ber by one unit is even. XII. 4 . 4. 10. 2 0 + 10 = 3 0 . This is why the num ber 2. he verifies them w ith several exam ples. since 2 times 3 is 6. 9. the first num­ ber being m ultiplied by the following. 30 and so forth. 2. Among these numbers. 1. Now numbers are created in two ways. Through addition. when they result from the m ultiplication of two equal numbers (the result is equally-equal. therefore it is an u nequilateral num ber by definition. being une­ quilateral and surpassing unity by one.from G reek 'ETepofjuiiiar. . 12. Such are the numbers 4 and 9.2N is in effect n(n + 1). 18. thus unequilaterals are only comprised of even numbers. makes. 16. the principle of all numbers. unity. 3. 14. 6. 4 times 5 = 40 U nequilateral . we have 2 + 4 = 6. that is square and planar. w hich m eans of different length (€r^x><. 18. being odd and tending to the production of the others. by m ultiplication and by addi­ tion. through doubling itself. 7. The even numbers which are added to the even numbers which precede them produce unequilateral numbers. 6 + 6 = 1 2 . 8. 2 times 3 = 6 . which is unequilateral. Such is 6. 12. Indeed. Thus these are the successive even numbers.+ /xtjktjs) o th er length 41 T he sum o f the term s o f the progression form ed by the natural series of even num bers 2. 2. 4.4 1 The same unequilateral numbers are also obtained by the m ultiplication of even and successive odd numbers.

and so forth. Such is therefore the creation of the square numbers by addition.. 1 1 . each of them m ultiplied by itself gives a square: 1 x 1 = 1 . 9 and 7 make 16. if we take the series 1. like 2 times 4. and 4 the double of 2. each odd num ber being successively added to the square obtained by the sum m ation of the preceeding odd numbers starting from unity 42 The creation also takes place through m ultiplication. 5. 5. Thus indeed in the series of odd numbers.. 2 x 2 = 4 . 4 x 4 = 16.2 n . 5 times 6 = 3 0 . 7 . by m ultiplying any num ber by itself. 1.. 4 times 6. Taking again the squares 4 and 9. 6 times 8.1 and the sum of the term s of the progression. The mean term s for the consecutive squares in geom etric proportion are the unequilateral numbers. 25. The numbers created by the addition of the successive odd numbers are square. 1. One could continue this way to infinity. If we put 4.4 . the mean 2 con­ tains the extrem e 1 as many times as it is contained in the other ex­ trem e 4. The unequilateral numbers are given this name because the addition of unity to one of the sides make the first diversity of the sides. XIV. since 3 times 3 equals 9. 9 . 4 and 5 make 9. 16. X VI. such as 2 times 2 equals 4. 48.1 is n2. 4. 1 and 3 make 4 which is square. 3. 2 times 2 make 4. which is square because 4 times 4 = 16. Thus. 9. 7. the relationship of the mean 6 to the first extrem e is equal to the relationship of the second extrem e to 6 because the relationship of 6 to 4 is sesquialter (1 + %). which is again a square num ber because it is equally equal. 2.ARITHMETIC 19 20. 5 x 5 = 25. XV. that is to say the num­ bers whose one side is longer than the other by one unit. indeed. but the consecutive unequilateral numbers do not have squares for their proportional means. I assert that they have the heteromecis for a mean. 3. 5 . 9 . like the 42 In fact the nth odd num ber starting from th e unit is 2n . 6 and 9 in a line. 2 is. for the num ber 2 can only double itself. 16 and 9 make 25.. Let us actually take the suc­ cessive squares 1 and 4. The successive squares are thus 1. the double of 1. 8 times 10. 80 respec­ tively. 24.. The parallelogram m atic numbers are those which have one side greater than the other side by 2 units or greater. which is also square. the mean between them is the une­ quilateral num ber 2. 3 . for it is equally equal. taking the numbers 1. 3 x 3 = 9 . which yield 8. 3 times 3 equals 9. . 2. their mean is the unequilateral 6. 4. 5 times 5 make 25. the num ber 3 can only triple it­ self. 4 times 4 equals 16. none of the factors go beyond their own limits.

because the ratio of 4 to 2 is double whereas that of 6 to 4 is sesquialter (1 + %). A num ber is also oblong when. The same is so with the following squares. the created unequilateral numbers do not include the square numbers. Now none of the (first) factors stay within their own limits. according to various m ultiplica­ tions. since the latter is defined as: a num ber of which one side is longer than the other by one unit. either by one unit. There are three classes of oblong numbers. and 6 in a line. is oblong. If we arrange 2. . Thus 2 and 6 are the successive unequilaterals between which is found the square 4. Such is 24 which has the value of 6 times 4. for the num ber which has one side longer than the other by more than one unit. 4. they change in the m ultiplication. such as 6. and sometimes longer by m ore than one unit. products of factors which differ by one unit. It is the same situation with the following unequilaterals. is contained between the successive unequilaterals 6 and 12. An oblong num ber is a num ber form ed by any unequal numbers of which one is greater than the other.20 ARITHMETIC relationship of 9 to 6. and 4 x 5 = 2 4 . it would be necessary for the ratio of the first term to the mean to be equal to the ratio of the mean to the third term. Indeed all unequilateral numbers are at the same time oblong so far as they have one side larger than the other. and other sim ilar numbers. but it is not une­ quilateral. The num ber 2 is m ultiplied by 3. the number 3 is m ultiplied by 4 and 4 by 5. Such is 12 which results from 3 x 4 43 See note III.43 OBLONG NUM BERS X V II. do not remain in their own limits and do not in­ clude the squares. but it does not have the same ratio with the extremes. while th at of 12 to 9 is sesquitertian (1 + %). but if all unequilateral numbers are by that fact oblong. Thus 2 x 3 = 6 . Now in order for 4 to be a pro­ portional m ean. Sim ilarly 9. it has one side sometimes longer by one unit. a square number. Furtherm ore. since 2 x 3 = 6 . or by two units or by a larger number. the opposite is not true. 3 x 4 = 12. for the ratio of 9 to 6 is sesquialter (1 + %). 4 will have a different ratio with each of the extremes. but 4 is not contained bet­ ween them according to a continuous geom etric progression in such a way that it would have the same ratio with the extremes. The unequilaterals on the contrary.

it has one side longer than the other by more than one unit. A fter the num ber 4 comes the num ber 6. If now 4 is added to 2. unequilateral. if we add the four units to the first two. A nd first of all the successive even numbers. THE M ETHOD OF O BTAINING THEM A N D OTHER P O LYG O N A L N U M BERS I N G E N E R A L X IX . The planar numbers are the numbers produced by the m ultiplication of the two numbers representing the length and the width. Thus the first even num ber 2 is at the same time unequilateral. the sum will be 12 . added to each other. This is why the numbers resulting from this first alteration of the sides have been called. 1 and 1. we will show it in the following way.ARITHMETIC 21 and from 2 x 6. But in order to make clearer w hat we have just said. If we add 6 units to the six first ones. 40 is of this sort being the product of 10 by 4. T R IA N G U L A R NUMBERS. resulting from any kind of m ultiplica­ tion. pentagonal and in general. Numbers of this kind can only be oblong. with good reason. a num ber is again oblong. the sum will be 6. by placing them around them (at a right angle). since its length is 3 and its width 2. others which are quadrangular. Finally. for it has the value of 1 x 2. by placing them around them (at a right angle). produce the unequilaterals. X V III. so that when the sides are 3 and 4 the num ber 12 is unequilateral and when the sides are 2 and 6 it is oblong. A fter the num ber 2 comes the even num ber 4. The unequilateral num­ ber is the one that receives the first alteration after the num ber form ed by equal factors. of 8 by 5 and of 20 by 2. The triangular numbers are obtained in the m anner that we are going to indicate. The figure which they form is unequilateral because it is 2 in length and 1 in width. which is again une­ quilateral. since it has the value of 2 x 3 and the same occurs with following numbers to infinity. A m ong these numbers there are those which are triangular. if. the first alteration being the addition of one unit given to one of the two sides. polygonal. but those which have a side greater than the others by a quantity larger than one unit have been called oblong numbers because of the greater difference of length between the sides. we will have the figure of the une­ quilateral num ber 6. Let us suppose that the first even num ber 2 be represented by two units.

Thus unity is the first square number. since 1 x 1 = 1 . aug­ mented by 8. If 5 is added to this you will have 15. becomes 36. 1. we will obtain the triangular numbers. by adding no longer just the evens alone or the odds alone. 3. 5. the result is 10. Now the successive odd numbers are 1. If 3 is added to this triangular number. Next comes the odd num ber 3. 9. 6. being the principle of all numbers. in adding them together we form the triangular num ­ bers. which has 3 for both length and width. to this add 6 and you will have 21. ad­ ded to the square 9 gives the square 16. (Toulis) 45 T he gnomons are here the successive odd numbers. a new square 9 is obtained. 7. 6 is obtained. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Likewise. which. Add 10 and you will have 55. The series of the even and odd numbers is 1. 10. 5.45 an equally equal square is obtained. the result is the triangular num ber 3. because if it is not so in act it is so in power. If the num ber 2 is ad ­ ded to it. X X III. 7. whose length and width are both 4 and so forth to infinity. 46 In this case the gnom ons are th e natural series of numbers. Now it is evident that these numbers are triangular according to the figure obtained by adding the successive gnomons46 to the first numbers. the square numbers are ob­ tained. The odd num ber which comes next is 5. In adding them in a continuous manner. because it has 2 for both length and width. Next comes the odd number 7. If this gnomon is added to the square 4. . 4. to which if you add 7 you will have 28 which. and by adding 4 to this. See the general definition o f gnom on.22 ARITHMETIC and the figure will be unequilateral as its length is 4 and its width 3. The first is unity or monad. but the evens and the odds. 8. and this will continue to infinity through the addition of the even numbers. 3. the odd numbers added together give the square num ­ bers. 44 It is very pro b ab le th at gnomon here has the m eaning o f constant as the succession o f odd numbers can be taken as a constant. And 36 augm ented by 9 becomes 45. I l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 In turn. 11. If this gnom on44 is added to the unity. A nd this continues to infinity. 9. 2.

beginning with the unit. 16. beginning with the unit. There is another order of polygonal numbers. beginning with unity or the monad. Those which increase by 4 give the hexagons. always beginning with the unit. the numbers which increase by the addition of 3. in such a way that the rate of the gnomons. 25. Furtherm ore. just as the sim ple numbers are alternatively odd and even such as: 1. 28. 10. 100. 4. The odd numbers. which gives a polygon. 21. 9. among the m ultiple num ­ bers starting from unity come the doubles. 15. as we have shown above. As we have said. 81. the gnomons. 1 1 3 1 1 1 6 1 11 111 10 1 11 111 1111 15 1 11 111 1111 11111 36 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 111111 1111111 11111111 21 1 11 111 1111 11111 111111 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 111111 1111111 XX. is always less by 2 units than the num ber of angles in the figure. the square numbers are produced by the ad ­ dition of successive odd numbers. the triples and so forth. 45. 55 and so forth. as cubes. and as squares. form the pentagons. the following ones of 6 by 6 are both square and cubic. If now the even and odd numbers are arranged in order. 49. the term s are squares of two by two and cubics of three by three. Likewise. 36. 64. . Indeed. when added to the square pre­ ceding it. indeed increase by 2. their sides are of square numbers.ARITHMETIC 23 The triangular numbers obtained by addition will then be 3. 36. 6. it will be seen that. given by the multiple numbers starting from the unit. It so happens that they are alternately odd and even. will form the next square. each of which is greater by 2 than the preceding.

beginning with the unit. but by com parison with the space which they seem to measure. 2 '2. admits these two divisors after the subtraction of one unit.a re cubes and as cubes. 2. 256. since the exponents . and other sim ilar names. which is the case with 4. are even. and both square and cubic in six by six.. 23. 26. 64. 2 l2..a re squares. 4 See note IV. and the term s 26. 24.47 The squares have this property of being exactly divisible by 3. 2. then 8 which is cubic. 8.... then 16 which is again square.. 2 " \ 2 " . are unequilateral or oblong. are squares. And in all cases. 2U . 28.th e term s 22. since the exponent is a m ultiple of 3. G iven the progression 1. the others.. 128. such as the squares of 25 and 49. it is the square dim inished by one unit w hich is also divisible by 3.24 ARITHMETIC their sides are cubic numbers. Let us arrange several numbers in double progression: 1.. 24. 48 Or. triangular or square. the ones which are equally-equal are squares. 2s. They are also exactly divisible by 4 or will become so after the subtraction of one unit.. Here is how we show that the m ulti­ ple numbers. after which comes 64 which is both square and cubic. The even square which becomes divisible by 3 after having been dim inished by one unit. it will be found that the remaining terms are both square and cubic. Finally. are squares in two by two and cubes in three by three. As squares. They are given the names planar numbers. the products of two factors are planes and those of three factors are solids. 32.ta k e n tw o by tw o. like 36. is divisible by 4. followed by 256 which is square. Likewise in the quintuple progression and in the other m ultiple progressions.. which becomes divisible by 4 after having been dim inished by one unit.tak e n three by three are cubic. Thus 4 is called a square number 47 N o tatio n in exponents m akes these facts evident.49 XXI. and one could continue this way to infinity.. or will become so when dim inished by one unit. Next comes 4 which is square.. 2 \ 2H 2“.. like 25. not in a proper sense. In the triple progression a similar development of alternate squares is found. * . Next we have 128. The square. the square which is neither divisible by 3 nor by 4.tak en 6 by 6 are both squares and cubic. 25. 16. If two terms are alternatively om itted. 2 2. is divisible by 3. 4.48 A square can be divisible both by 3 and 4. The first double is 2. Among the numbers. or solid numbers. th eir roots 22 and 24. the term s 23. which is the case with 9 .. their roots 2 3 and 28. which are unequally-unequal.. This is followed by 32.

51 and the sides of any triangle always have as many units as are contained in the last gnomon added to it. Now. Let us take the unequilateral num ber 6. 51 N ote — See previous ex p lan atio n o f gnomon which in a ll probability is the word “ constant” here. all the successive numbers which serve to form the triangular. In the preceding 50 we have discussed the creation of triangular numbers. whose sides. are 6 and 4. XXII. Gnom on is a guide if we take it literally. and another planar num ber 24. are called “gnomons'’. X IX . when they are product of the m ultiplication of two numbers they are called planar and they are solid when they are the products of the m ultiplication of three numbers. Among the planar numbers which have unequal sides. The length of one is to the length of the other as the width of one is to the width of the other. 6 is called unequilateral. as are the other solids (rectangular parallelopipeds) having proportional sides. All cubes are similar. the first is the triangular number. the width of one and the width of the other. (T oulis) . Because the sum of the so S e e l. for in being as the seed of all numbers. O f all planar and polygonal numbers. in such a way that there is the same relationship between the length of one and the length of the other. the squares are all sim ilar to each other. it gives birth to the triangle whose three sides contain as many units as has the added gnomon (constant) 2. as we have already said. unity also possesses the faculty of engendering the triangle.ARITHMETIC 25 because it measures a square space. or the numbers which comprise them. and finally the height of one and the height of the other. the length and width. Therefore the planar numbers 6 and 24 are similar. and for a reason founded on a sim ilar analogy. and we have seen that it consists in adding to the num ber 1 the natural series of even and odd numbers. The same numbers representing lengths at one time can be taken as sides at another for the form ation of other numbers. Among the planar numbers. have the same relationship to one another. which is not a triangle in fact. just as among planar rectilinear figures the first is the triangle. whose sides. When it is added to the number 2. and the entire triangle contains as is many units as contained in the gnomons added together. quadrangular or polygonal numbers. the length and width. for we have 6 : 3 = 4 : 2. First of all let us take unity. but in power. those are sim ilar whose sides. X X III. are 3 and 2.

as many units as there are of gnomons added together. the sphere has the same property. there are two units to each of its sides. that is to say according to two or three dimensions. are called cir­ cular or spherical. the circle coming back to the position from which it departed. being composed of 5 gnomons. To the triangle 3 is then added the gnomon 3. Such also is the circle which comes back to the point at which it began. 4 1 1 11 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 1111 1111 1111 1111 25 11111 11111 11111 11111 11111 Sec I. Its sides each have as many units as there are added gnomons. because it is described by the revolution of a circle around a diam eter. the numbers which through m ultiplication. 6 x 6 = 36. 9 + 7 = 16. for in adding 2 and 3 to unity we arrive at the number 6. These numbers are 5 and 6. They are those which when squarely or cubically m ultiplied. each side of which has 5 units. and it is in this m anner that the gnomons form the corresponding triangular num ­ bers. 16 + 9 = 2 5 . XXIV. T hat is to say. in starting from unity. end with themselves. increase by 2. and the triangle has the value of as many units as the added gnomons con­ tain. . and the whole triangle becomes 6. Among solids. the sides of which have 4 units each. XXV . the gnom on which has just been added is 4 and the whole triangle is composed of units of 4 gnomons. As we have said52 the square numbers are created by the addition of odd numbers. 5 x 5 = 25: 25 x 5 = 125. The num ber 10 being augmented by the gnomon 5. so that the triangle is composed of three units. Indeed. that is to say. those which. that is. and 36 x 6 = 2 1 6 . which is greater than the num ber 2 by one unit. because it consists of a single line and it begins and ends at the same point. In fact. Likewise. that is 1 + 2 + 3 4. Some numbers are called circular. The number 6 augmented by the gnomon 4 gives the triangle of 10 units. come back to the num ­ ber which had been their point of departure.26 ARITHMETIC gnomon 1 and the gnomon 2 is equal to 3. gives the triangle 15. XIX. 4 + 5 = 9. 1 + 3 = 4.4. spherical or recurrent.

12. Here is the figure for the pentagonal numbers: 5 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 35 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 11111 11111 11111 11111 etc X X V II. starting from unity. starting from unity.13. The heptagons are those which are form ed by the addition of num­ .17. The gnomons are 1.21.66. 19 and the polygons themselves are 1.25 from which result the hexagons 1. 4.6.5.15. 16. Their gnomons are thus 1. The hexagonal numbers are those which are formed by the addition of numbers which increase by 4.91 Here are their figures: 15 6 45 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 etc The other polygonal numbers are composed in the same manner. 22. 7.9. 13. 35. 70 and so forth. 10.45. 51. 5. The pentagonal numbers are those which are formed by the addition of the numbers which increase by 3.ARITHMETIC 27 X X V I.28.

some have all sides unequal while others have two sides equal and another unequal. likewise the union of two linear triangles gives the figure of a quadrangle. 26 from which result the heptagons 1. 55. on the other hand. have been called plinths or squares. Among the latter. The triangular numbers which follow.53 X X V III. Those which have two sides equal and the third sm aller than the two others. 21. in removing two units from the num­ ber of angles. 7. 15 and 21 make 36. 28 and 36 make 64. 10 and 15 make 25. which have all sides un­ equal. 21 and 28 make 49. the enneagons by numbers increasing by 7 starting from unity . Those. Finally those which have two equal sides and the third larger than the two others. are called beams. 3 and 6 make 9. one will have the quantity by which the numbers serving to form the polygon must increase. so that n(n+ 1) 2 . are called cubes. 18.28 ARITHMETIC bers increasing by 5. 81 The octagons are sim ilarly composed of numbers which increase by 6 starting from unity. others a sm aller third side. the 5 "equal to 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 and the 4 n equal to 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 and indicated by the figure: . being equally equal deficients. are called altars. Among those which have two sides equal. Among the solid numbers.54 XXIX. the decagons by numbers increasing by 8. 53 See note V. the nn and the ( n 1)n. combined together also form squares. 11. starting from unity. (n -l)n _ n2 2 ~ Thus the square num ber 25 is broken down into two triangular num bers. 54 A square num ber n2 can be broken down into two triangular num bers. and which are unequally unequal unequally. This 1 and 3 make 4. others have unequal sides. some have a larger third side. 6. 36 and 45 make 81. 16. Thus generally in all the polygons. 6 and 10 make 16. Those which have equal sides (being equally equal equally). The gnomons are: 1. The sum of two successive triangles gives a square. some have equal sides (as when three equal numbers are m ultiplied with each other). being equally equal exceedants. 34.

Now a truncated pyramid is (what remains of) a pyramid whose upper part has been taken away. the side will become 5. be in power the side and the diagonal. which is the principle of all. The square constructed on side 5 is 25. Some have given the name trapezoid (solid) to such a figure. In the same way let us add to side 2 the diagonal 3. If to the diagonal 3 we add two sides. . but one is less by one unit than the double of unity. 2 units to unity. Let us now add the diagonal to the side.56 From this point on the diagonal becomes larger and the side sm aller. Now. and the square of the diagonal is 9. tetragons. so also we find that the relationships of lateral numbers and diagonal numbers are m anifested in numbers according to generative ratios. for the units are in equality. 56 T h a t is to say th a t two tim es the square o f the side equals one tim es the square o f the diagonal. and to the diagonal let us add two sides.ARITHMETIC 29 P Y R A M ID A L NUM BERS X X X .55 THE L A T E R A L A N D D IA G O N A L NUM BERS XXX I. for the first side and the first diagonal. one of which is the diagonal and the other the side. the square of the diagonal unit will be less by one unit than the double square of the side unit. the diagonal can do once. that is to say one unit to unit. it is thus that the relationship of the diagonal and the side is found within unity. that is to say. Just as the numbers have in power relationships with triangles. according to the supreme generative ratio. through analogy with the planar trapezoids. we will have 7 units. which is greater by one unit than the double square of 2. but if we add two sides to the diagonal. for these are the numbers which harm onize figures. T he pyram idal num bers are those w hich m easure pyramids and truncated pyramids. for that which the side can do twice. and the side will then have the value of 2 units. that is 2 times 2. the square constructed on side 2 is 4. since this is what one calls (that which remains of) a triangle of which a straight line parallel to the base has separated off the upper p art. Let us suppose for exam ple two units. let us add the diagonal to the side. pentagons and other figures. Therefore since unity is the principle of all figures. because it is necessary that unity. and 55 See note V I. the diagonal will have the value of 3 units.

This is how the perfect numbers are created: If we arrange the numbers in a progression by doubles. gives 28. in­ deed. its seventh which is 4. 2. 1. which when added together make 6. starting from unity. 36. the sum. as aliquot parts. Let us add 1 and 2. 2. The parts of 6 are in fact its half. . combined with each of them reestablishing equality. Elements. are sometimes larger by one unit than the doubles and sometimes sm aller by one unit. some are called perfect. in such a way that these diagonals and these sides will always be expressible. 7. the same unit. which is less by one unit than the double (50) of the square 25. Euclid. and 4. m ultiplied by the last num ber added. sometimes larger by one unit than the double of the square constructed on the side. and others deficient. incom posite number. 1. Again.57 PERFECT NUMBERS. XXX II. if the diagonal 7 is added to the side 5. among numbers. A ll the diagonals are then. 2. 12 units are obtained. if we multiply this by the last num ber added. Inversely. the diagonals com pared to the sides in power. 3. If we now add the three successive doubles. which is 2. its 14th which is 2 and its 57 See note V II.58 Let us then arrange the numbers in a progression by doubles. Furtherm ore. A B U N D A N T NUM BERS AN D D EFICIENT NUMBERS. and if we m ultiply this sum by the last term added. and so forth in continuing the addition. it has its half. 1. its third.In fact. whose square (289) is larger by one unit than the double (288) of the square of 12. and its sixth. Those are called perfect which are equal to (the sum of) their aliquot parts. others abundant. and if two times the side 5 are added to the diagonal 7. and we add them until we obtain a prime. in such a way th at the double does not err by excess or by default. the product will be a per­ fect num ber. the sum is 3. which is the second perfect num ber. IX . 8. double. 16. The propor­ tion alternates: the square constructed on the diagonal will be sometimes sm aller. with respect to the squares of the sides. 4.30 ARITHMETIC that which is constructed on the diagonal 7 is 49. such as 6. 58 Cf. what is lacking in the preceding diagonal is found in excess in the diagonal which follows in power. its quarter which is 7. which is 14. we will have 17. alternately by excess and by lack. we will have 6 which is the first perfect num ber (since 1 + 2 + 3 = 6). 4.

59 It is also said that the number 3 is perfect. because it is the first one which has a beginning. It is in fact an equilateral triangular number. Such is 12. The deficient number is the number whose aliquot parts added together give a sum less than the original number. a m iddle and an end. nevertheless. which is greater than the original num ber 12. . the half of which is 4. half of which is 6. because the idea of the solid rests on three dimensions.ARITHMETIC 31 28th which is 1 (and we have 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 2 8 ). The same is found with the num ber 10 which the Pythagoreans. and it is both a line and a surface. a sixth 2 and a twelfth 1. a quarter 3. and the eighth 1. Finally the num ber 3 is the first link and the power of the solid. However. call perfect for another reason. 59 See note VIII. all of these parts added together give the sum of 16. which we will speak of in its place. Such is 8. the quarter 2. a third 4. each of the sides of which have the value of two units. The abundant num ber is the num ber whose aliquot parts added together make a sum larger than the original number.

and this harmony. This consonance1 has the greatest power. which is also intelligible. o r literally symphony from the w ord 'Lviufxov'ia. a musical work played by a large sym phony orchestra. we will add to it a dissertation on the harmony of the world. being truth in reason. and the intelligible har­ mony which consists in numbers. And after having finished our treatise on all mathem atics. is more easily understood than perceptible har­ mony. L ater the word consonance had to be em ployed by E nglish/F rench peoples because they thought that the word symphony w ould be best suited to represent the idea o f a work of music. e. i. This harmony. which is diffused throughout the w orld. and we will not hesitate to relate w hat our predecessors have discovered. In those days symphony m eant only one thing — agreem ent. and harmony in nature. which is a misuse. W e will therefore consider these two harmonies. accordance. nor to make more widely known the Pythagorean traditions which we have inherited w ithout ourselves claiming to have discovered the least part of it. felicity in life. Desiring then to illustrate to those who wish to study P lato further w hat has been transm itted to us by our pre­ decessors. I 1 The w ord sym phony should not be taken w ith its m odern m eaning o f the present. will not be found unless it is revealed first through numbers. we have judged it necessary to compose this com pen­ dium. etc. learning about the one sensed through instruments. the reason for this consonance cannot be found w ithout * arithm etic.32 MUSIC BOOK CONTAINING THE NUM ERICAL THEOREMS OF M USIC INTRODUCTION Since it is said that there are consonant numbers. .

such as the octave and the double octave. the fifth and the octave. defined sound as a tension of the enharm onic sound. on the contrary. the pentacord and the octacord. the low sounds those which give the hypates and the medium sounds those which give the interm ediate strings. A nd the blow of the thunderbolt has m ade many a victim W ithout wounds that bleed. If then we imagine a sound which is higher than all others. the mese corresponds to the la. IV.2 WHA T IS IN TE R VAL A N D H A R M O N Y III. the Phrygian. if the sound is so low pitched that there can be none lower. because depth 2 In th e o ctaco rd o r eight-stringed lyre. is called a system of intervals. . The interval is defined as the relationship of sounds among each other. The anti­ phonic intervals or opposed sounds are consonant. As for the sounds. It is therefore neither every voice nor every tension of sound which would be called sound. The high sounds are those which give the netes. like that which comes from the mese. it can become still lower so th at the same sound is found to be median as well. and for that reason. it will no longer be a sound because it will no longer be enharm onic. Harm ony is the order of systems. others low and others medium pitched. Thrasyllus.MUSIC 33 WHA T IS SOUND AN D EN H ARM O N IC SOUND II. the nete gave the highest sound. such as the fourth. as enharm onic. As Euripides the poet says. the nete or the hypate. some are high. or paraphonic such as the fifth and the fourth. Now sound is said to be enharm onic when. These tw o sounds correspond to the tw o m i o f the sam e octave. and if it is low pitched. others dissonant. are intervals of sounds juxtaposed to each other such as the tone and the diesis (or half-tone). but only an enharm onic sound. The consonant intervals are antiphonic. Similarly. V. in discussing the perceptible harmony of instru­ ments. The dissonants. if it is high-pitched. the injuries from which are always fatal. one never regards the violent noise of the thunderbolt. some are consonant. it can have a still higher pitch. the Dorian. Among the intervals. And a cer­ tain grouping. the hypate the lowest. such as the tetracord. it would not be called enharm onic. such are the Lydian.

others lower. it is high if the m ove­ ment is rapid. indivisible and the shortest element. On the contrary. sound is produced. resolves into letters. . that which makes up the principle part of sound and of all melody are the systems called tetrachords. the essential parts of verbs and nouns are the syllables com posed of letters. verbs and nouns are the most im portant parts. low if the m ovement is slow. . some being higher. the opinion attributed to the Pythagoreans. it is evident that in immobile air neither noise nor tone would exist. and every voice being a noise and noise being a percussion of air which is broken by it. in discourse. since discourse is com ­ posed of letters and. pentachords and oc­ tachords. when the air is struck and put into movement. The sounds differ from each other through tensions. Every m odulation and every sound being a voice. The speeds without relationship result in sounds w ithout rela­ tionship and dissonance. w hether written or spoken. 4 The tension o f a sound is now called the height. one must regard as true sounds.. says: Likewise. in this regard. On the other hand. O N CONSONANCES3 VI. which are composed of intervals which are themselves composed of sounds. being elem en­ tary. and would more rightly be called noise. belong3 See footnote 1. do not deserve the name of sounds. strong if the m ovement is violent. but there is a sim ilar. perceptible interval. and which. these sounds being the prim ary and indivisi­ ble elements of which all melody is composed. properly speaking. and paraphonic inter­ vals are consonant because the sounds are neither in unison nor dis­ sonant. The speeds of these move­ ments occur according to certain relationships. in the end. In the same way. or according to none.4 Let us examine. and letters are the prim ary signs of language. Adrastus. weak if the m ovem ent is faint. and into which it definitively resolves its e lf. . The sounds are dissonant and not consonant whose interval is a tone or a diesis.34 MUSIC opposed to height produces a consonance. the student of A ristotle. in his well known treatise On Harmony and Consonance. These tensions are defined in different m anners. because the tone and the diesis are the principle of consonance but they are not consonance itself.

w hether spoken or written. nor w ithout art and according to a single mode. in fact. Next come the eighths which include these two consonances and which we call the diapason (octave). for example. is produced. it is not the com bination of just 5 T he superpartial o r sesquipartial relatio n sh ip is th a t in which the antecedent is g reater than the consequent by one unit. a certain range that the sound can travel. the octave and the fifth. were nevertheless retained.MUSIC ( 35 ing to m odulation. A nd when. whether m ultiple or superpartial5 or simply of num ber to number. likewise in melody. like th a t o f 3 to 2. However. and according to superpartial ratios. Indeed. but following certain deter­ mined modes which m ust be observed in different types of melody. The fifths in turn give the fifth. a range which is greater in some. those which have a particular relationship to each other. Of these sounds. having been added to the ancient eight — the denom inations of the ancient consonances. on the eight-stringed lyre. and is called the hypate. 4 to 3 and generally th a t of n 4. the fourth. several other consonances have been found: added to the consonance of the octave are sm aller. with which it has the same consonance. the first sound is found to be the lowest. music having made progress. as far as a sound perceptible to the ear can be pro­ duced. less in others. and so forth. the fifth and the octave. when two sounds being produced at the same time result in a mixed sound which has a sweetness and a quite particular charm. and the double octave. others are symphonic according to prim ary ratios and best known m ultiples. such as the oc­ tave and the fourth. instrum ents were given a greater num ber of strings. the first to form such a concor­ dance are the fourths that form a consonance with themselves. a kind of sympathy. F o r in the same way that in discourse. the double octave an a the fourth. rendering more m ultiple sounds — a large num ­ ber of sounds. more of them high than low. T here is. . Among these concordant sounds. This series of m odulations is not situated by chance.1 to n. It is in accord by opposition with the last and highest which is that of the nete. And if any of the preceding consonances is added again to the oc­ tave. some are concordant only. causes the other strings to resonate by means of a certain affinity. and for this reason are called fourths. not ju st any letter com bined with any other letter produces a sylla­ ble or a word. They form a consonance with each other when a sound which is produced by a string of an instrum ent. larger or equal intervals. and the sum of the two results in a new consonance. and also. beginning with the lowest sound and going up to the highest and in­ versely.

following the law of defined modes. The half-tone is not designated as such because it is the half of the tone in the way that the half-cubit is the half division of the cubit as m aintained by Aristoxenes. that is to say the lowest and the highest. but it is necessary that this com bination take place. W hen a voice which is m odulated within the limits of its range goes from a lower sound to a higher sound.MUSIC any sounds that produces the well ordered sound. since 9 is not divisible by 2. A m odulation of this type is called the tetrachord system. produces the interval appropriate to m odulation. together with the first. not because half of a sound is indicated. and this higher conso­ nant sound will give. O N THE DIATONIC. VIII. It can ac­ tually be dem onstrated that the tone. going through the interval of a tone. as we have just said. considered in the sesquioctave ratio (%). passes to another sound. This consonance. is called tone. which is composed of three intervals: half-tone. The interval of the tone is very easy to distinguish through the difference between the first and best known consonances: the fifth is greater than the fourth by one tone. a tone. THE CH RO M ATIC A N D THE EN H ARM O N IC FORMS OF M E L O D Y IX. and another tone. but because it is a musical in­ terval less than the tone. the consonance of the fourth. in the same way that the principle measure of space which sur­ rounds all moving bodies is called the cubit. can not a t­ tain any interval other than that of a to n e . but because it does not com pletely compose the sound itself. The easiest part to appreciate and the measure of w hat is called the range of sound and of any sound interval. . the extremities. cannot be divided into two equal parts. THE TONE A N D THE H A L F TONE VII. in the same m anner that we call certain letters demi-vowels. any more than can any other sesquipartial. and these four sounds. producing the in­ terval of a half-tone. it then. and continuing to m odulate. form a consonance.t This produces another m elodic sound which is apt to m odulation. or which. which we have t Theon is expounding the tetrachord theory o f A ristoxenus. in its turn.

rises to a higher sound. noble and m ore natural. as taken by Plato. and this caused him to give it the nam e which applies to everything w ell-ordained. and it can produce no other sound than that which limits this tetrachord in rising towards the higher sounds. the com plem ent of the first tetrachord. and then passes on to a third. W hen the voice produces a first sound. at the beginning o f the second century. either because.. There is a third type of m odulation which is called enhar­ monic. by progression through a diesis. The Pythagoreans call w hat is now called the half-tone. with the lowest. This type of m odulation is called diatonic. 4. in the ordinary sense. expressing sad affections and violent passions. This m odulation is very difficult. and which. it can observe no other interval than that of a com plete trihem itone. gives the consonance of the fourth.MUSIC 37 said is called the fourth. starting from the lowest note. th a t is to say. it goes up by two tones. again passing through a half-tone. is simple. 7 " Now. . the d iesis. II. produces another after this. is then composed of two tones and a half­ tone. XI. according to M acrobius. and consider it the sm allest ap­ preciable interval.” M acrobius. In som nium Scipionis. and as he said himself. also assigned the d iatonic type to the harm ony of the spheres:.“diatonum (genus) mundanael musicae doctrina Platonis adscribitur. then another diesis and a double tone. This m odulation is made then by a half-tone. the voice m odulates the tetrachord. and passing through a half-tone. followed by a half-tone and a com plete trihem itone. on the other hand. because it diverges from the first. it requires much art and study and is only acquired through long practice. CONCERNING THE DIESIS XII. and this type of m odulation is called chrom atic. This is the type in which. or because of the vigour and firm character which it manifests. and it changes color. and proceeding with m odula­ tion. The disciples of A ristoxenes call the quarter-tone or half of the half-tone the diesis minor. The diatonic type.6 Aristoxenes says that the enharm onic type is so-called because it is the best. 7 P lato .. X.

and those which give the half-tone. in what is called the harm onic canon. It is Pythagoras who appears to have first found that the consonant sounds are in relationship to one another. let us content ourselves with the dem onstration which. and the relationship is sesquitertian. those which produce the fifth are in sesquialter (%) ratio. who appears to have dis­ covered these relationships. is obtained by stringlengths. If we divide a stretched string into four equal parts on the harm onic canon. The sounds which give the octave and fifth are in triple ratio. W ith the sound pro8 Cf. Didot. C halcidius. or by the weight of disks or the level of the w ater in vases. we say.9 It is Pythagoras. by greater or less intensity of breath. the accord of the fourth. X L IV . all things otherwise being equal. with that produced by three parts of the string. and those which give the double octave are in quadruple ratio. but which then were called diesis. In Timaeum Platonis. are in the relationship of the num ber 256 to the num ber 243. F or the moment. those which give the tone are in sesquioctave (%) ratio. th at is 4 a : (Vs)'2 = 4 3 x ‘“/si = 256/ m3. through the length and thickness of strings as well as through the tension applied to them by the turning of a peg. and for wind instrum ents by the diam eter of the cavity. p. W hatever the m ethod chosen from among those we have just cited. 9 T he relationship o f 256 to 243 is also called leim m a and is the excess o f the fourth over the double tone. those which produce the octave and fourth are in the rela­ tionship of 8 to 3 which is polyepim er. the sound produced by the whole string will form. Paris. Among the other concordant sounds. since it is equal to 2 + %. or by the more fam iliar m ethod of suspending weights from them. / / . 191.8 The sounds which produce the fourth are in sesquitertian (%) relationship to each other.38 MUSIC TYPES Diatonic Chrom atic half-tone INTERVALS tone tone trihem itone ditone half-tone half-tone Enharm onic diesisdiesis THE D ISC O V E R Y OF THE N U M ERICAL LA WS OF CONSONANCES X lla. the consonance will follow the in­ dicated relationship.

For the accord of the fifth. the octave and fifth. Furtherm ore. double. for the relationship is 3. with the sound produced by half of the string. which are the sesquitertian. with the sound produced by 8 parts of the string. Again leaving one vessel empty and filling the other up to one quarter. the consonance of the fifth. (Toulis. it will give the conso­ nance of the octave and a fifth. Taking several sim ilar vessels of the same capacity. obtaining with half of one and the entire other ia This is the tetractys (in GreekTerpajcTv?) and it was the nam e Pythagoreans gave to the num ­ ber 10 since it is the product o f l + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. the relationship of the empty spaces was 2 to 1 for the octave. the fifth. 2. One does not use a single string in every case as in the harm onic canon. which is helpful in the calculation of the consonances into numbers. since it contains those of the fourth. the accord of the double octave will be produced. then they were both struck.3. The same relationships as we have seen are obtained by the divi­ sion of strings. thus obtaining the consonance of the octave.1 0 Some prefer to obtain these consonances by weights. 1. 4. W ith the sound produced by a quarter of the string. triple and quadruple ratios (that is to say. a third of a vase was filled. and 4 to 3 for the fourth. the consonance of the fourth was ob­ tained. the latter of the Pythagorean school. it will form the accord of the octave. the octave. 2. then striking them. and the double octave. and the relationship is double. the interval of one tone. and 4 ). with regard to the sound produced by a quarter of the string. includes all the consonances. others by lengths. If we divide the string into 9 equal parts. for the relationship is sesquioctave.MUSIC 39 duced by two parts or half of the string. H alf of one of these strings was plucked by pressing in the m iddle of it with a finger. The quaternary. but two equally stretched strings in unison. for the relationship is sesquialter and. the sound produced by three parts of the string will give. and others by numbered movements. since the relationship is quadruple. It is said that Lasus of Herm ione and the disciples of Hippasus of M etapontus.) . ses­ quialter. %. the sound produced by the whole string will give. %. and yet others by the capacity of the vessels. 3 to 2 for the fifth. 3. one was left empty and the other filled half way with a liquid. observed the rapidity and slowness of the motions of li­ quids created in vessels.

and the other. they also recognized that these relationships express m otion. Those who have measured consonances with weights. A sim ilar experim ent has been made on the flute and the same relationships were found. The schools of Eudoxus and A rchytas thought that the relation­ ship of consonances could be expressed by numbers. in blowing into the whole flute and into the three quarters. If the flute is divided into three. one. XIII. But sounds are in part high pitched and in part low pitched. and one blows into the whole flute and into the two thirds. if with a flute divided into two equal parts. the low. of equal thickness and of equal diam eter. and a slow m otion corresponding to a low pitched sound. suspended the weights from two strings in the rela­ tionships which we have m entioned and that had been obtained by the length of the strings. If it is divided into four. one will hear the accord of the fifth. two thirds being taken from the tongue end and one third from the far end. the high. one will have the consonance of the fourth. in determ ining the consonances of these cords. due to the distance of the holes. the two other thirds and the entire string gave the accord of the fifth. then up to the hole which divides it into two parts one will hear the consonance of the octave. to obtain the consonance of the fourth. a quarter of one of the two cords was plucked. is slow. and this cause produces the same conso­ nances in a single flute. because it strikes and penetrates the air in a more continuous and quick manner. If then one blows into two pipes.40 MUSIC string. the lower tone coming from the longer pipe and the higher tone coming from the shorter pipe. the octave. In the same way. nor be composed of different tensions of lowness or highness. . one blows into the whole flute. for it is said that the sound should always be sim ilar to itself and not ad­ mit the least difference. because it is m ore retarded. Tone is the resting of the sound on a single intonation. W hen they were plucked in thirds only. pierced in the m anner of a flute. In fact. is rapid. The cause of this must be attributed to the velocity and to the slowness of the m otion. one of which is two times longer than the other. the air which escapes from the tube which is two times less long has a double speed and results in the consonance of the octave. a rapid m otion corresponding to a high pitched sound. and one takes three parts at the top and one at the bottom . this is why among tones. leaving the other one whole.

Let us return now to what A drastus has said on the subject of these instrum ents which were prepared according to certain relationships for the purpose of discovering the consonances. It is clear that the ratio 2 is composed of % and % and is resolved into the same numbers. such as 9 to 6. that we judge the size of the intervals with our ear and that the ratios confirm the testimony of our senses. since it is composed of three tones and a half. since 4 is to 3 in the sesquitertian relation­ ship and the double of 4 is 8. :1 . Now the ratio of the octave is double. 12.MUSIC 41 This then is w hat was essential for us to relate concerning the dis­ covery (of the numerical laws) of consonances. one finds that the sesquialter rela­ tionship (%) also surpasses the sesquitertian relationship (%) by the sesquioctave ratio (%). the sesquialter ratio of 12 to 8 will be com pleted. 1 Likewise if one adds to this the 1 sesquitertian ratio of 12 to 9. He says. 1 T h at is 2 x Vs = */s = 2 + Vs. th at of the fourth is sesquitertian (%) and that of the fifth is sesquialter (%). It is evident that the com positions and the divisions of consonances have the same relationship and harmony to one another as the com positions and the divisions of the numbers which measure the consonances. are in the relationship of 256 to 243. 1 2 As the consonance of the octave is in double ratio and the conso­ nance of the fourth is in sesquitertian ratio (%). Likewise. In fact. 1 3 " T h a t is % : % = %. Thus the octave is composed of the fifth and the fourth and is divided into the fifth and the fourth. the ses­ quitertian relationship (%) of 12 to 9. one subtracts the sesquitertian ratio of 8 to 6. and the sesquialter relation­ ship (%) of 9 to 6. 8. the ratio ‘2 ’ of 12 to 6 breaks down into two. THE R E LA TIONSHIP OF THE A D D ITIO N A N D SU BTRAC TIO N OF CONSONANCES X llla . = Vi. the rem ainder is the sesquioctave ratio of 9 to 8. 12 T h at is % x » /. the sum of the two give the ratio of 8 to 3. Thus 8 is % of 6 and 12 is % of 8. the tone being in the sesquioctave relationship (%). As the fifth surpasses the consonance of the fourth by one tone. = 'V . and 12 is the double of 6: one has the numbers 6. in fact. W e will explain presently how the sounds which have a half-tone interval between them. as we have already explained. if from a sesquialter ratio. as we have de­ scribed them.

One can push these notions as far as one likes. which gives the triple ratio for the relationship of 18 to 6 . have determ ined things in this m anner because they were pursuaded that even those who com pete for the singing prize cannot raise their voices above these limits. 1 “ See note X. and that of the fourth is sesquitertian (%) and it is of both that the double octave is composed. or rather. the same relationships will always be found result­ ing in the com position of consonances. for the relationship of 9 to 6 is sesquialter and the relationship of 18 to 9 is double. However. the ratio of the octave and the fifth is 3. on the contrary. 1 5 P lato carried the diatonic type and the extension of this system up to the fourth octave with an additional fifth and one tone. = 3. % rds of which are 24 which is the quadruple of 6. considering only the practical point of view. . 1 If it 6 is objected. It is therefore correct that the quadruple consonance is seen here. and the moderns have the pentedecacord (the 15 string lyre) whose most considerable extention contains only the double octave (with one additional tone). which are necessarily com posed of harmony. 1 See note IX. according to what we have said at the beginning. since it is com ­ posed of two double ratios: the double of 6 is 12 and the double of 12 is 24 which is the quadruple of 6. x '• /. the triple ratio added to the sesquitertian ratio gives the quadruple ratio. the relationship of 8 to 6 is sesquitertian and the triple of 8 is 24.42 MUSIC The octave plus a fifth being in triple ratio. considering the natural things and the soul. that it is not necessary to push this calculation so far. In the same way. = '■/.1 4 8 octave = 2 V V 4_______ __ 3_ fourth = % / 18__________ 9 octave = 2 V my I 6 fifth = % * octave and fourth = 2 + % octave and fifth = 3 The double octave is sim ilarly in quadruple ratio. the listeners would no longer be able to distinguish easily the sounds. the sesquialter rela­ tionship added to two indeed gives this ratio. since the triple of 6 is 18. and th at besides. extends the " T h at is •/. says Adrastus. I respond in answer to this that these latter. since Aristoxenus lim ited the extension of the diagram which represents the different modes to the double octave and the fifth. P lato. which is the quadruple of 6.

The first of all the consonances. says Plato. the fifth is only separated from the fourth by the interval of one tone. result from the dim inution of the breath. the largest num ber must be attributed to the greatest force. The same thing is found with the wind instruments. according to this. THE L E I M M A XIV . It is evident. is sufficient in itself to retain its own harmony and consonance. Because of this. One finds that the octave is the sum of the fourth and the fifth. In addition. can go on to infinity. since the greatest weight. which by nature. It is then evident that the lowest sounds have their appropriate force according to the largest number. of two strings equal in length and thickness and sim ilar in all other ways. Indeed. cause them to be weak and prevent them from vibrating easily and from rapidly striking the surrounding air. since it is through it th at the others are found. for the lengths and thicknesses of the strings. a force less than the suspended weight. since it is composed of these two consonances. for exam ple to the tension which is made by the suspension of weights. although this would not appear to be so for certain tensions. the one which sustains the greater weight will produce the highest pitched sound because of the greater tension. and he ex­ tended harmony to this point. They also. consequently gives a greater force to the higher sound by itself which has. This is in agreem ent with the train of thought. on the contrary. as in the trum pet and in the organ of the voice in which the feeble and tem pered sounds have (also) a greater force of their own. producing a very strong tension. in order to be able to em brace com pletely every­ thing th at the solid body of the world is made up of. is the fourth. th at a lower sound possessing by itself a greater force than the suspended weight. for in these instrum ents the lowest sounds result from their length and the size of the holes which allow for the release of a greater quantity of air which is subse­ quently put into motion. . he says that it is suitable to attribute the largest num­ bers to the lowest sounds.MUSIC 43 calculation up to the solid numbers (8 and 27) and joins the terms by two means. by the name of Zeus. slowing the movement. The tone can be defined as the interval which separates the fifth from the fourth.

7 2 . 7 2 x 3 = 2 1 6 . . gives 64 and 9 x 8 gives 72. Commentary on the dream o f Scipio. 72. 216. On the Creation o f the Soul in theTim aeus 16. since the fourth which is in sesquitertian relationship is greater than the double tone. that is to say by a ses­ quioctave interval (%). They dem onstrated this with disks.1 7 This is the m ethod which was used to find this relationship. Aristoxenus says that it is com ­ posed of two and a half perfect tones. and he adds that this rem ainder (leimma) does not have a name. and it is necess­ ary to take % ths of % ths. so that we have ( 8 . 17. As for the interval called the half-tone. strings. gives the ear a sensation of something fixed and well deter­ mined. 243. N either would it be 8 . vessels. 9) 64. it is known that the first term would not be 6 . 9) 64. and others that it is a leimma (a remainder). They found that the tone is in sesquioctave ratio (%). 17 Cf. The ear can again grasp with precision the following inter­ val. If now each of these numbers is m ultiplied 18 by 3 we have 64 x 3 = 192. Macrobius . 81. 8 1 x 3 = 243. Everyone agrees that the interval of the fourth is greater than two tones and less than three tones. but that it is in a num­ ber to number relationship.8 1 . 216. 9 m ultiplied by itself. finally. The first interval (con­ tained in the fourth) is thus the tone. P lutarch. 18 O ne m ultiplies by 3 in o rd er to be ab le to take 4 rds o f the first term to obtain the num ber A which corresponds to the consonance o f the fourth. 192. It was always the relationship of 8 to 9 which allowed the ear to discern the interval of a tone. which is that of 256 to 243 and the difference in this ratio is the num ber 13. 1. the voice. now 8 m ultiplied by itself. The consonance of the fourth which is in sesquitertian ratio (%). and we will have the series of the following terms. suspended weights and in several other ways. for if % ths of 8 are 9. 72. is not then com pleted by a tone. it would not follow to then take % ths of 9. W e have then ( 8 . pipes.44 MUSIC The ancients took the tone as the first interval of the voice. W e take therefore the bottom sesquioctave 8 and 9. while Plato says that this in­ terval is two tones and a rem ainder (leimma).. 81. with­ out taking into account the half-tone or the diesis. since 6 is not divisible by 8 and one must take % ths of it.9 6 4 . A fter 243 let us take 192 x%. gives 81. which comes after this. or 256. 243. 192. some say it is a perfect half-tone. II. T im aeus 36B . in reaching this in­ terval. the bottom sesquioctaves the second sesquioctaves the third sesquioctaves 8.

strings 4 to 11. 1 % «3 is a relationship which is less than Vis. with 512. although some believe it possible judging this question not 19 The h a lf o f the tone (1 + %) is not 1 + Ms but hence not a num ber in T heon’s sense. 150 for the standard G reek octave. for P lato did not take a determ ined num ber but only th at ratio of the number. the num ber th at P lato said must be the leimma. of which the difference is 13. since 512 is the double of 256 and 486 is the double of 243. which gives 48. 243 leimma = 25% »3 256 leimma = 25% 43 . t In the com plete octave scale there are tw o consecutive tetrachords. however. con­ sidering th at the excess of the fourth term over the third is not 13. 192 ________ 216 tone = % ____ tone = % fourth = % There are some who chose the num ber 384 for the first term.MUSIC 45 If %rds of 192. Now. 384 432 486 512 tone = % tone = % fourth = % Some say th at these numbers are not conveniently selected. 148. and the related num bers in T ab le II on pg. is less than the half-tone. for 384 x % = 432 and 432 x % = 486 which. Between these two terms are found two sesquioctaves. they have the product 384. See note XI. the consonance of the fourth (%) will be com pleted by two tones and the leimma of which we have spoken. But nothing pre­ vents us from finding in other numbers the same relationship which exists between 256 and 243. is added. See Pg. and in m ultiplying this num ber again by 8 . gives the relationship of the leimma. t They m ultiply the term 6 by 8 . impossible to divide the ratio 1 + % into two equal parts. It is manifest that this interval o f the numbers 256 and 243. in order to be able to take the series of %ths two times. 19 It is. the half-tone will be half of 1 + %. Now the relationship which exists between 256 and 243 is the same as that between 512 and 486. that is to say 1+ . or 256. %rds of which is equal to 512. a rela­ tionship which is itself less than Vie. because the tone being 1 + %.

and 9 and the excess of the interval % over the interval % is %. the base sesquioctave % has the indivisi­ ble unit as the difference between its terms. See II X X IX . pg. 20 The difference of the terms which is the unit . a part of that which is divided is found to be destroyed. 8 . and then. Thus there will always be a certain part of the tone which will be absorbed. regardless of its construction. The fourth being in the relationship of %. We have 6 . W hen a cut is made. neither in numbers. some sm all part " T he base o f a relationship is this relationship reduced to its most sim ple expression. we perceive it by the ear in sounds. for it is the leimma which makes the fourth less than two and a half perfect tones. This num ber is 6 . It is as in the harm onic canon: the bridge of a stringed instrum ent which is perceptible has. there are then three things: the two divisions and the part subtracted by the bridge. it would intercept absolutely nothing from the end of the first part and from the beginning of the second. as the product of the cut when one cuts something with a saw. finally. In partitioning. It is evident that the tone cannot be divided into two equal parts. here is how the tone has been found. since 9 is %ths of 8 . even when our senses do not give us evidence of it. and some­ times we look for it in numbers and intervals. for unity is not divisible. we would say that it is necessary to consider it as belong­ ing to the fourth. of which % rds equals 8 and % nds equals 9. as we have just shown. a certain width. the difference between the terms cannot always be divided into two equal parts: thus the difference of 27 between the terms of the relationship of 216 to 243 is not susceptible to division into two equal parts. but into two numbers which are 13 and 14. to which consonance it belongs. As in certain tangible things some parti­ cles are lost. If it is asked. and sometimes. concerning the leimma. XVI. This tension was given the name of tone.46 MUSIC by reasoning but by ear. and the fifth in the relationship of %. this interval being expressed by whatever numbers. and we know that it can never be divided into two equal parts. XV. Sometimes we grasp the tone by the operation of the intelligence. and cannot be so thin that in partitioning the tone. it is the same in all other things. t T he two and a h alf perfect tones o f T heon are not those of A ristoxenus (pg. .f However. Through the act of the division itself. the first num ber divisible by both 2 and 3 has been taken. 44) for T heon is m aking a fine distinction A ristoxenus considered irrelevant to the ear. 53. To begin with. the base of the sesquioctave interval being the relationship of 9 to 8 . is assuredly not divisible. nor in perceptible and visible intervals.

The same thing will oc­ cur if one wishes to plunge his finger the same way twice into a li­ quid. t The argum ent here depends on knowing that the first sem itone is 256 : 243 and the second is % H . and if you wish to once more stretch all the parts. and it is in vain that we would wish to reproduce the same sound twice by splitting the sound. although im per­ ceptible to the ear. in adjoining them by the ends. going up two intervals.« % 4 3 = « 8% 0 4 1 . after having heard a tone followed by another tone. if you divide a string into several parts and you cut it. there will always be more or less a difference of force applied. the third sound is higher than the second and it is one tone higher than the first. size. but there will always be a difference. W e would give some resonance. shows the property of w hat is spoken of. you measure and you next divide it into several parts. It is as if one wished to make two punctures perfectly similar. but this half-tone is neither equal nor sim ilar to that which is found between the first sound and the second. for example. by three emissions of the sound. for example. before dividing the shaft of a lance or a reed or any other long object. in everything. mass. ON THE VARIOUS MEANINGS OF THE WORD \ 0 y 0 5 (logos) X V III. the lowest cannot be simi­ lar to the highest. or to pluck a string twice in the exact manner. XVII. the language which the moderns call oral. I produce two half-tones instead of one single tone. you will find the length of all the parts put together is less than the length of the object before division: Likewise. If. This is why the two half-tones will never be complete. a part of the string being lost. W ith regard to the ideal tone. while it seems to be above the second by only a half-tone.MUSIC 47 is perm anently lost. gravity. you will not be able to prevent. you will find that after the cutting the developm ent will be less. And neither in sounds does one find the splitting of the tone into two equal parts:+ for if. We should speak now of the harmony which is contained in numbers and to explain what the term is which. The word \ 0 y 0 9 is taken to have several meanings by the students of Aristotle. or into ink or honey or bitumen. in trying to retain the same quantity. one might conceive that it could be divided into two equal parts. number. power.

such as lengths with lengths. taken for the purpose of being com pared with each other. for the explana­ tion of the elements of the universe. It is this ratio that we propose now to seek. weights with weights.___________________________________ 48 MUSIC and m ental reasoning w ithout the emission of voice are both desig­ nated in this way. we are saying that they are terms of the same species. The name Xo-yo? is also given to the eulogy. THE RA TIO OF PROPOR TION XIX . essence with essence. numbers with numbers. as is the discourse of Demosthenes and Lysias in their w ritten works (speech). such as the double. The ratio of form is also called this as well as the seminal ratio and many others. It is impossible. and it is in this sense that it is said that there is a rela­ tionship of one thing to another thing. since it is to this that it applies. or not taking account of it (word of honor). indeed all things of the same species. or the triple. But. solids with solids. to find a rela­ tionship between two things which are not of the same species: thus one cannot com pare the cubit (a measure of length) and the mine (a measure of weight). The ratio of proportion of two terms of the same species is a certain relationship that these terms have to each other. W hen we examine what relationship exists between the talent and the mine. the white and the sweet or the hot. but one can com pare things of the same species with one another. The relationship of proportion or ratio is also called this. according to Plato. color with color. m otion with m otion. and sound with sound. the word \ 0 7 0 5 is used with four different meanings: for m ental thought w ithout words. fluids with fluids. the chenice (a measure of volum e for dry things) and the cotyle (a measure of volum e for liquids). to the tale and to the proverb. surfaces with surfaces. for discourse pro­ ceeding from the mind and expressed by the voice. and fables. and the ratio of proportion. . dry things with dry things. W e call ‘term s’ homogenous things or things of the same species. X X. liquids with liquids. tim e with time. says Adrastus. the syllogism and induc­ tion. the tales of Lybius. and it is in this sense that we say: taking account of something. It also has the meaning of the explanation of the elements of the Universe: the recognition of things which honor and are honored. the definition of things which explains their essence (reason). The calculation of bankers is also called \ 0 y 0 5 .

some are m ultiples (that is to say integers). and the relationship of 256 to 243 is a leimma. such as 1 com pared to 1. X XI. . Among relationships that are less than unity . or 2 to 2. R elationships are greater. the sesquitertian (1 + VO in the fourth. the sub-triple (VO. being consonances. some are subm ultiple. Among the neutral ratios are the ses­ quioctave ratio (1 + Vs) and the ratio of 256 to 243 which are not consonances but are also not beyond consonance. O p­ posite to these ratios are the sub-double ('A). 10 to 10. and others are neutral. the ses­ quialter (1 + V 2) in the fifth. The fourth is com ­ 21 Cf. since the tone and the leimma are the principles of consonance and have the vir­ tue of com pleting it w ithout. is found in the conso­ nance of the octave 21.MUSIC 49 because they are both weights. it is one tone. some represent consonances. 22 Cf. the sub-quadruple (*/<). It is the same with other homogenous things. 100 to 100. XXII. but also the epim er and the polyepim er and other ratios which we will clearly explain later on. II. V. others are sesquipartials. X II and X III. or equal. and the others are foreign to it. The proportion is the relationship of ratios with each other as 2 is to 1 and 8 is to 4. The equal rela­ tionship is one and always the same. as we have seen above. lesser. and the sesquitertian ratio (Vs = 1 + Vs). Am ong these ratios. the triple ratio in the consonance of the oc­ tave plus the fifth. the triple ratio and the quadruple ratio: the sesquipartial ratios are the sesquialter ratio (V 2 = 1 + ‘A). Am ong the neutral ones. The double ratio. however. Such are the relationships which com pare the same quantity. It remains the same for the inverse relationships. As for the sesquioctave ratio (1 + Vs). 22 In arithm etic there are ratios of numbers. and it prevails over all others as being elementary. The m ultiple ratios which represent the consonances are the dou­ ble ratio. there is the sesquioc­ tave ratio (9/s = 1 + Vs) and the relationship of 256 to 243. the sub-sesqioctave (% ) and the relationship of 243 to 256. Among the relationships that are larger than unity. others are subsesquipartial and others are neutral. the subsesquialter (V 3). the quadruple ratio in the double octave. the sub-sesquiter­ tian (3A). II. not only m ultiples and superpartials.

The relationship which is greater than unity by one third of the sm aller term. that is to say when the larger term is greater than the sm aller by a certain quantity which is a part of it. the third of the triple te r m . if it measures it four times the relationship is quadruple. after the designation of the fraction. has been called sesquialter since the larger quantity contains the whole of the sm aller plus a half of it. Reciprocally. X X III. 3 indeed contains one times 2.. if it measures it three times. is called sesquitertian. Thus according to the principles of arithm etic. there are m ultiple relationships. others are neutral. while others are sesquipartial. the relationship is double. and so forth. while others are sub-sesquipartial. when the sm aller term ex­ actly measures the larger without there remaining any part left over. that is. such as "A. receives a denom ination corresponding to the m ultiple ratio: it is called the half of the double term. the sm aller term as part of the larger. 6 contains one times 4.50 MUSIC posed of two tones and a leimma. the octave of one fifth and one fourth. . the relationship is triple. The relationship is m ultiple when the larger term con­ tains the sm aller several times. third. such as 3/z and %. Thus the num ber 4 is ses­ quipartial in relationship to 3. for example. plus unity which is half of 2. and among the relationships sm aller than unity. as Adrastus teaches. and others epimer. and the others are inverse relationships larger than unity. plus 2 which is half of 4. the fifth of three tones and a leimma. but the relation­ ships of proportion must precede them. and so forth. others m ultisuperpartial. the one . there are the sub-m ultiples. because it surpasses it by one unit which is a third of 3. and the ratio is called half. THE SU PERPARTIAL OR SESQ U IPARTIAL RELATIO N SH IP XXIV. Thus the one which is greater than unity by half of the sm aller term. it measures it two times. others polyepimer. The larger term is given the name of the num ber of times the sm aller measures it: if. The relationship is called sesquipartial when the larger term contains the sm aller term plus a part of the sm aller term one time. Likewise 6 surpasses 4 by 2 units which is half of 4. Each sesquipartial relationship is given. a particular denom ination.

MUSIC 51 which is greater than unity by a fourth. three or a greater num ber of parts. then the quadruple. THE EPIM ER R E LA TIONSHIP XXV. Am ong the sesquipartial relationships. by analogy. The parts are different when the largest term contains the sm allest and in addition. or its half and its quarter. by Zeus 23. (Toulis) 44 In fact we have "A = 1 + 5 = 1 + 3 + V« = 1 + *A + 'A A A 7A = 1 + 3A = 1 + *A + 'A = 1 + V* + 'A ‘Via = 1 + 7 . and so on. A). the third and the quarter. for in the same way that the relationship of 3 to 2 is called sesquialter. as in the relationship of 11 to 6. the first and largest is the sesquialter relationship(l + X because the fraction V 2 is the first. or again. Perhaps he thought including ex ­ clam ations w ould be beyond the scope o f his work. the num ber 8 contains 5 and three-fifths of 5. som ething beyond any doubt. either sim i­ lar parts or different parts. sim ilar as two-thirds. its half and its third. the relation­ ships called sesquiquintan (1 + Vs). Dupuis inferred and consequently censored it out of his transla­ tion. two-fifths. T he truth is th at a statem ent follow ed or preceeded by this exclam ation “ by Z eu s” was the ultim ate. Thus the num ber 5 contains 3 plus two-thirds of 3. then the ses­ quiquartan relationship (1 + 'A) and so forth indefinitely. the first and sm allest is the double. 23 This exclam ation “ by Z eus” actually exists in the ancient G reek text as met.2 = 1 + Via + Via = 1 + ‘A + ‘A . other epim er relationships can be recognized which are greater than unity by two. It is not a colloquialism as I assume M r. Similarly. is called sesquiquartan. the relation­ ship of 2 to 3 is called sub-sesquialter. always proceeding by diminishing. and so forth in­ creasing indefinitely. Am ong the m ultiple relationships. the largest and the one which most closely approaches the whole. Then comes the sesquitertian relationship (1 + V 3 ) . and in continuing in the same manner. In the same way again the relationship of 3 to 4 is called sub-sesquitertian. A relationship is called epimer when the larger term con­ tains the sm aller one tim e plus several other parts of it. such as 5A or 10/s. and sesquiseptan (1 + *A) are found. as in the relationship of 19 to 12 24. also in a previous page. all of which are sesquipartials. next comes the triple. T he French tran slato r does not m ention it in French. etc. sesquisixtan (1 + Ve). Inversely. as in the relationship of 7 to 4. the num ber 7 contains 5 plus two-fifths of 5. the relationships of the sm aller terms to the larger terms are called sub-sesquipartial.

A ratio of num ber to num ber is w hat takes place when the larger has none of the relationships we have spoken of with the . the ratio of the sm aller term to the larger. X X V III. Thus the relationship 26 to 8 is m ultisuperpartial because 3 times 8 does not give 26 com pletely. and the relationship is called trisesquitertian. two-thirds of 3. Also it is said that the relation­ ship of 7 to 3 is bisesquitertian. and of 14 there re­ mains 2 which is two parts of three and which is called two-thirds. the sm aller does not measure the larger exactly. the relationship of 9 to 4 is bisesquiquartan. is the one which is obtained by taking. and this takes place each time that the sm aller num ber does not exactly measure the larger. 2 times 3 and in addition.52 MUSIC whether these parts be sim ilar or not. Again likewise. whether they be sim ilar or different. of the two proposed num­ bers. and there is a rem ainder of 2 which is a quarter of 8. but 4 times 3 are 12. in the preceding relationship. To the polyepim er relationship is opposed the hypo-polyepim er relationship (the inverse relationship). Thus 8 con­ tains 2 times 3 and in excess. X X V II. as in the relationship of 14 to 3. and the relationship is called double with two-thirds in excess (2 + V3). A relationship is called polyepim er when the larger term contains the sm aller two times or more. since 3 does not exactly measure 14. likewise the rela­ tionship of 11 to 3 is triple with two-thirds in excess (3 + V 3 ) . 7 contains in this way. O ther m ultisuperpartial relationships are recognized in the same manner. Likewise 9 contains 2 times 4 and the fourth of 4 in addition. It is easy to find many other polyepim er relationships. along with two or several parts of the latter. Inversely the hypepim er rela­ tionship. They occur in every case where. but there is a rem ainder formed of several parts of the sm aller number. The relationship is called m ultisuperpartial or multisesquipartial when the larger term contains the sm aller two or more times plus a part of this sm aller term. 10 contains 3 times 3 along with the third of 3. but comes to 24 rather than 26. THE M U LTISU PERP ARTIAL AN D POLYEPIM ER RELATIO N SH IPS XXV I. but when the larger gives a rem ainder which is at the same time a rem ainder of the smaller. a third of 3. the relationship of 11 to 4 is double with three-quarters in excess 074 = 2 + 3A = 2 + V>+ 74).

the first and the basic of the sesquialter relationships is %. . it is a relationship of num ber to number. while the relationship simply links hom ogenious terms to one another. for after this the dou­ ble relationships are expressed in larger and com posite numbers. Thus the first and the basic of the dou­ ble relationships is the relationship of 2 to 1.MUSIC 53 sm aller. which measures the leimma. The interval and the relationship differ in that the interval is contained between hom ogenious and unequal terms. This is why there is no interval between equal terms.25 It is evident that the ratio of the sm aller numbers to the larger numbers is in the inverse. The same observations can be made of other relationships. like the relationships of 4 to 2. A A There is an infinite num ber of equivalent relationships expressed in larger. II. as has been shown. the relationship of 2 to 1 25 T he relationship o f 256 to 243 is epim er. for the sesquiquarten relationship it is 5 . several different parts o f it. It borrows its name from the first relationships. so th a t the larger term contains the sm aller one tim e and in addi­ tion. but there are two different relationships. the rela­ tionship which is 256 to 243. since we have: 2“ A<a = 1 + “ /« » = 1 + ’/it* + V243 + */»«• = 1 + V 2 7 + V»i + '/mj. while the relationship is varied and inverse from one term to the other: thus 2 to 1 and 1 to 2 have only a single and indentical interval. and the triple relationships expressed in larger and com posite numbers go on to infinity. the interval of one to the other is unique and identical. and 6 to 3 and so forth indefinitely. As will be shown. reduced to its sm allest terms. It is the same with other m ultiple relationships and superpartial relationships. those which are expressed in the sm allest numbers and prim ary to each other are called “firsts” or the basic of all the relationships of a sim ilar (or equal) species. THE DIFFERENCE B E T W E E N THE IN TE R VAL A N D THE R E LA TIONSHIP XXX . Between unequal terms. X X V . for the sesquiter­ tian relationship it is 4 . com posite terms. THE FOUND A TION OF R E LA TIONSHIPS X X IX . but there is a rela­ tionship between them which is that of equality. Cf. In the same way the first and the basic of the triple relationships is the relationship 3 to 1. O f all the relationships which we have discussed in detail.

of quality. and the terms 9. of position or in any other way. 4. into which all the others are resolved. which takes place when the relationship of the first term to the second is equal to the relationship of the second to the third or to the rela­ tionship to two other terms.54 MUSIC being double. 10. The same thing is observed with other m ultiple relationships. 6. as when it is said that the perceptible is to the intelligible in the same relationship as opinion is to scientific knowledge. whether of size. XX X I The proportion is a sim ilarity or identity of several rela­ tionships. in sesquialter relationship (1 + V2). Eratosthenes. and the discontinuous requires at least four terms. whereas the relationship of 1 to 2 is a half. A t least three terms are necessary for a continuous proportion. 3. while these things differ only by a single interval. The explanation is the same when the relationships are sesquipartial: thus the numbers are 9. This is evident: for each species there is a certain elem ent or principle which belongs to it. and the continuous proportion is in a certain way a four term proportion. 1 in double ratio form a continuous proportion. because the relationship is a specific connection of two magnitudes to each other. Every proportion is indeed composed of ratios and the principle of the ratio is equality. The first proportion is called con­ tinuous and the second is called discontinuous. 2 form a dis­ continuous proportion. 2. in the Platonist also said that the interval and the relationship are not the same thing. while it itself does not resolve into any of the others. form a continous proportion. and it exists between different and also not different things. The same would be found of proportions having other relationships. 4. because of the repetition of the mean term. or that the intelligible differs from the known in the same relationship as the perceptible differs from opinion. A fter the proportion formed of equal terms. 6. because the half and the double do not form the same relation­ ship while they do form the same interval. Eratosthenes says that the ratio is the principle which gives birth to the proportion and it is also the prim ary cause of the creation of all orderly things. 15. that is to say a sim ilarity of ratios in several terms. the three sm allest terms. since 6 is to 3 as 4 is to 2. By this it is evident that the relationship is a different thing than the inter­ val. However this principle is necessarily . and the numbers 6. form a discontinuous proportion. because 4 is to 2 as 2 is to 1. 4.

The elements of substance are therefore indivisible according to substance. and every astronom ical revolution manifest the uniqueness of proportion. Thus the elem ent of quantity is the unit. like 2 which is conM Epinomis. for if one adds several equal relationships in order. the line out of the point. As for the point. The cause of what we have just said is that equality has no in­ terval. nor the point in size. And each thing is indivisible and whole as it is an elem ent of a composed or mixed thing.27 For if a num ber is a proportional mean between two others. every com bina­ tion of numbers. but by a continuous movement. Num ber is born out of the unit. Plato seems to believe that the connecting elem ent of m athem at­ ics is unique and that it consists in proportion. while by addition it increases to infinity. for anything that can be broken down and divided is called a bond and not an element. that of relationship and of proportion is equality. Similarly the ratio of equality does not increase by addition. indeed in the Epinomis™ that it is necessary that every figure. And this uniqueness will be apparent to whomever com prehends correctly w hat we teach: he will understand that a single bond naturally unites all things. relationship and proportion out of equality. every harmonic group. for it can increase only by the repetition of it­ self. that of m agnitude is the point. A mean num ber differs from a mean proportion. those of quality are so according to quality. in the same way th at the line forms a surface and the surface a solid. X X X II. For unity cannot be divided in quantity. but if a term is contained between two others it is not necessarily a proportional mean between these num­ bers. In every case unity makes up part of the number. 991 E — 992A 2 The G reek word Metroryj? m eans ‘m edian’ (or m ediate in French) and here it can he 7 m anifested as a mean num ber. it is a term contained between them. just as the point has no size. nor equality in m ulti­ ple relationships. because unity m ultiplied by itself does not create like the other numbers: one times one is one. it is neither by m ultiplication nor by addition that it forms the line. the ratio of the sum again gives an equality. Thus the point is not a part of the line. to him who learns according to the true method.MUSIC 55 unresolvable and indivisible. nor is equality a part of the relationship. It can in fact happen that a num ber contained between two extremes might not be in proportion with them. those of quantity are so according to quantity. (Toulis) . but not all in the same manner. He says.

56

MUSIC

tained between 1 and 3, and 2, 3, 4, which are contained between 1 and 10, because 10 cannot be reached w ithout passing through 2, 3, 4 and yet none of these numbers is in proportion with the extremes, since the relationship of 1 to 2 is not equal to that of 2 to 3, and likewise also the relationship of 1 to 2, 3 or 4 is not equal to that of 2, 3 or 4 to 10. The proportional means between two numbers are, on the contrary, contained between these numbers: thus in the pro­ portion 1, 2, 4, whose ratio is double, the proportional mean 2 is contained between 1 and 4. ON PROPORTIONS (B E T W E E N TH REE NUMBERS) X X X III. Thrasyllus takes three principle proportions between three numbers into account: the arithm etic proportion, the g eom etric p ro p o rtio n , and the h arm onic p ro p o rtio n . T he arithm etic proportion is that in which the mean term surpasses one extrem e term by the same am ount as it is surpassed by the other ex­ treme, such as the proportion 1, 2, 3; the geom etric proportion is that in which the mean term contains one extrem e, such as the pro­ portion 3, 6, 12. The harm onic proportion between three numbers is that in which the mean num ber surpasses one extrem e num ber and is surpassed by the other, by the same fraction of the extrem e numbers, like the third, and the fourth, such is the proportion of the numbers 6, 8, 12. Thus each of the relationships can be considered in this way. 12 is the double of 6, 18 is its triple, 24 its quadruple; 9 is % of it and 8 is Vs of it; 9 is % of 8; 12 is Vs of 9, and 3A of 8 (the double of 6); 18 is the double of 9 and 27 is the 3 of 18: 8/e gives the consonance of A the fourth, 9A the consonance of the fifth and 12A the consonance of the octave; 1 gives and octave and a fifth, for 12 being the double 8/e of 6 forms the consonance of the octave and 18 being 3A of 12 is the consonance of the fifth: we have the relative numbers 6, 12, 18.28 “ A gives the consonance of the double octave; 9A gives the tone and “ A the fourth; “ A gives the fifth and 18A the octave. The ratio 27A« gives the fifth. The octave “ /« is com posed of the fifth 9A and the fourth 12A , or again the fifth “ A and the fourth 8A . 29 The octave 18A is composed
» ■% =

'* x >«, = 3.

" ' * = %x'K = *Kx% = 2.

MUSIC

57

of the fifth 1 2 and the fourth 12A ;30 the ratio “ Aa for the octave is 8/i composed of the ratio 24As for the fourth and the ratio 18A2 for the fifth.3 Finally the ratio 9A which is a fifth is composed of a tone 9A 1 and a fourth 8A 32 and the ratio 12A is thus a fifth, composed of a fourth 12A and a tone 9A .33 X XX IV. The leimma is in the relationship of the number 256 to the num ber 243. This is how the relationship is found: we take the sesquioctave relationship two times (the two terms of the first are m ultiplied by 9, the two terms of the second by 8), and triple the result. Then we join the sesquitertian relationship to it. The ses­ quioctave relationship being that of 9 to 8, we form with these two numbers two other sesquioctave relationships in the following manner: 9 x 9 = 8 1 ; 9 x 8 = 72; and 8 x 8 = 64; 81 is 9A ths of 72 and 72 is 9A ths of 64. If we triple these numbers, we have 8 1 x 3 = 243; 72 x 3 = 216 and 64 x 3 = 192. 4 rds of 192 is 256. This A num ber com pared with 243 gives the relationship of the leimma which is less than 1 + V isth.3 4 256 leimma v 243 tone ■ fourth ^ > 216 tone J 192

THE D IV ISIO N OF THE CANON X XX V. The division of the canon is made according to the quaternary 35 of the decad which is composed of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and which embraces the sesquitertian, sesquialter, double, tri­ ple and quadruple ratios (that is 4 , 3 , 2, 3, and 4). A A This is how Thrasyllus divided this canon. Taking half of the string he obtains the mese consonance of the octave which is in
30 ■ »/ » = 31 « / „ 32 • / . = 33 1 2 /8 = = % > • / .. X “ /• M /„ X > •/„ X */.

H /9 X %

3< The leim m a is less than 1 + */n th. The fraction ‘V»3 is actually less than ‘/ u , therefore 1 + ls/ 2«3 o r “ V 243 is less th an 1 + ‘/is th. “ T he “ tetraktys” o f the Pythagoreans — T he num ber 10 o r its parts 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. (Toulis)

58

MUSIC

double ratio, the tension being double for the higher pitched sounds, in the inverse direction of the movement. The inversion is such that, when the total length of the string is dim inished by the canon, the pitch is proportionately raised, and that when the length is increased the pitch is proportionately lowered, because the halflength of the proslam banom enos, which is the mese with respect to the total string, has a double tension toward the higher pitches, and the total string which is double has a half-tension on the side of the low sounds. The division of the string into three gives the hypate of the meses and the nete of the disjuncts, the nete pf the disjuncts being a fifth of the mese since the divisions are in the relationship of 2 to 3, and it is to the hypate (of the meses) in the relationship of an octave, since the divisions are as 1 to 2. The nete of the disjuncts gives with the proslam banom enos the consonance of the octave and a fifth, because from the proslam banom enos to mese there is one octave and, the intervals being prolonged up to the nete of the disjuncts, there is a fifth from this to the mese. From the mese to the hypate (of the meses) there is a fourth, and from the mese to the proslam banom enos there is an octave, the hy­ pate of the meses giving the fifth through the relationship to the proslam banom enos. The same distance of an octave is obtained by adding hypate (of the meses) to the mese, which is a fourth, to the interval from mese to the nete of the disjuncts, which is a fifth. The numbers of movements (that is to say vibrations) varies in the in­ verse direction from the division of the lengths (that is in the in­ verse direction of the length of the vibrating part). By dividing the string in fourths, the diatone of the hypates, also called the hyperhypate, and the nete of the hyperboles are ob­ tained. The nete of the hyperbole is to the nete of the disjuncts in the relationship of the fourth, to the mese in the relationship of the octave, to the hypate (of the meses) in the relationship of the oc­ tave and a fourth, to the hyperhypate in the relationship of the oc­ tave and a fifth, and to the proslam banom enos in the relationship of the double octave, in going toward the low tones. The hyperhypate is to the proslam banom enos in the relationship of the fourth, going toward the low tones, and to the mese in the relationship of the fifth, going toward the high tones; it is one tone below the hypate (o f the m eses) and the in terv a l from hyperhypate to the last cord (the proslam banom enos) is equal to

the conso­ 2/3 nance of the double octave. The /s ratio of the hypate of the meses to the same nete 8 s . one part. and here again the num ber of movements (vibrations) is in the inverse direction to the size of the divisions. which is the sesquialter relationship. The relationship of the mese to the nete of the hyperbole is ® = 2 which is the consonance of the octave.1 . two parts. From the mese to the nete of the disjuncts. which is the sesquitertian relationship which gives the conso­ nance of the fourth. The ratio of the mese to the nete of dis­ juncts equals 8/« = */*.. in such a way that there will be four parts bet. . .MUSIC 59 the interval of the fourth from the nete of the disjuncts to the nete of the hyperboles. there are two parts. hyperhypate js Spacecj by one division from the hypate 10 (of meses). The ratio of the hyperhypate to the nete is 9 = 3. three parts of the canon can be counted. The hyperhypate will be o given hypate jr jr by blocking off three parts at the beginning. then. and finally from the latter to the end of the canon. from there to the hypate of the meses. . the consonance of the octave and a fifth. and this completes the partitioning. it is spaced by one division from 12 proslambanomenos . and the /a relationship of the proslam banom enos to it is 1 = 4 . and from the latter to the mese. There is. there are 6 divisions. The interval of the hypate (of meses) to the nete 3 See note X II. the con­ sonance of the fifth. because if one divides the length of the canon into twelve appropriate parts. The hyperboles (nete of the hy­ perboles) is obtained by taking three parts of 11 the string. The ratio of the nete of the disjuncts to the nete of hyperboles is V s. three parts. a total of 12 divisions. the disjunct (nete of the disjuncts). three above the mese and three below it. from the beginning of the canon to the hyperhypate. . of meses r ween them. Between the hyperhypate and the nete of the hyperboles. . the conso­ / nance of the octave and a fourth. The hypate of meses will be given by blocking off four parts at the beginning of the canon and the nete of disjuncts in taking mese four parts at the other end of the canon. In fact.36 All of this will be made evident through the numbers. from there to the hyperbole one part. the nete o f hyperboles mese will be given by each half of the total nete o f disjuncts string..

The relationship of the hypate of the meses to the mese is 8 = 4A . W e then have 6. and 9 is 9A of 8. . we will have the trite of the disjuncts. If we prolong the diatone an eighth part of its length. and which is the same as the diatone of the conjuncts. the ratio of which is sesquioctave (9A). T hat of the com plete proslam banom enos to the mese is 1 /« = 2. The numbers of vibrations are subject to inverse pro­ portion. 9 and the excess of the interval 3A over the interval 4A is 9A But the interval 4A of the fourth is composed of two times 9A and a leimma. which is the double fifth (fifth of the fifth). the octave. T hat of the hyperhypate to A the same nete equals 9 . indeed if we extend the latter an eighth part of its length. we diminish by a ninth the length of the nete of the dis­ juncts. and which is lower by one tone than the nete of disjuncts. the ratio of the tone. the octave. The hyperhypate is to the hypate of 2 meses as 9 is to 8. which is a tone higher than the nete of the disjuncts. which is lower by one tone. The same string is to the hyperhypate as 12 is to 9. com plem ent of the consonance of the fourth through relationship to the nete of the hyperboles.* The rem ainder of the interval up to the nete of the dis­ juncts will be the leimma. the intervals must then be filled by tones and leimmas. which is also called the diatone. If on the contrary. this relationship equals 4A . This insertion begins at the nete of the hyper­ boles. the relationship is “ A = 3. the fourth. the consonance of the fourth. the ratio of which is sesquialter (S are A). found condensed in the canon. 8. T hat of the hyperhypate to the mese is 9A = 3A /« and gives the fifth. this augm ented by one eighth will give the paranete of disjuncts. And the re• See the Perfect System on page 148. we will have the trite of the hyperboles. and nete of conjuncts. we will have the diatone of the hyperboles. The relationship of the whole proslam banom enos to the hypate of the meses is 12A = S A (the fifth). A F or the com plete proslam banom enos.60 MUSIC of disjuncts equals 8 = 2. since the tone. which is lower by one tone than the diatone. X XX VI. one tone lower. Then if we prolong the nete of the conjuncts by one eighth of its length. The 3A ratio of the fifth is greater than the ratio 4A by one tone which is equal to 9A : let us take for exam ple the num ber 6 which is divisible by 2 and by 3: 4A of 6 equal 8 and 3A of 6 equal 9. the consonance of the octave and a fifth. we will have the chrom atic of the hyperboles. the consonance of the fourth the ratio of which is sesquitertian (4A) and the consonance of the fifth.

one obtains the chrom atic of the meses. It is then in so far as the mean is a m ean num ber th at it 37 See note X III. The proslam banom enos will have the value of 10368. If we prolong the param ese by one eighth. . which is higher by one tone. If one subtracts one ninth from the hypate of the meses. increased by an eighth. W e will find the numerical results by beginning with the nete of the hyperboles which we will suppose to be of 384 parts. and which com pletes the octave. Let us now go on to the ex­ planation of the other means and the mean numbers since. the diatone of the meses. we will have the hypate of the hypates. qf which we take successively % ths and the other fractions we have indi­ cated. gives the parhypate of the meses. one increases it by one eighth. we will have the mese. increased by an eighth. and in subtracting its ninth part from this. The mese. higher by one tone than the mese. In this way the whole im­ m utable system of the diatonic type and the chrom atic type are completed. which. and from there to the hypate of the meses there remains a leimma for the com plem ent of the consonance of the fourth with the mese. increased by one eighth gives the parhypate of the hypates. and if on the other hand. lower by one tone. If we dim inish the mese in the same m anner (by retracting a ninth of its length) we will have the param ese or chrom atic of the conjuncts. but every mean num ber is not a mean. and one of these parts is taken away in the inverse of what we have done for the high tones. will give the diatone of the meses. the hyperhypate is obtained. if the length of the proslam banom enos is divided into 9 parts.37 It is unnecessary to develop this in detail because anyone who has un­ derstood the foregoing will find it easy to calculate. The enharm onic system is derived from the diatonic system by removing the diatones that are heard two times in each octave and by dividing the half-tones in two. every mean is a mean number. higher by one tone than the proslam banom enos and term inating the tetracord of the hypates by the relationship of the leimma which it has with the parhypate. as we have said. W hen we put forth the elements of astronom y we will show how all of this applies to the system of the worlds. lower by one tone than the mese. Such is the division of the canon given by Thrasyllus. we will have the chrom atic of the disjuncts.MUSIC 61 m ainder of the interval up to the param ese will be the leimma. lower by one tone. R eciprocally.

18. p.62 MUSIC is necessary to understand the following. The decad in. Against the Christians (philosophy of the cynics). it is the principle of all the even numbers. 6: 8 Theologumena Arithm eticae IV . fact. as we have shown. It is for this reason that the form ula of their oath was: “ I swear by the one who has bestowed the tetraktys to the coming generations. G olden Verses o f Pythagoras. 47-48. Iam blicus. Plutarch. para. 3. + 3. But these numbers contain the consonance of the fourth in the sesquitertian (“A) relationship. as we have said. The im portance of the quaternary obtained by addi­ tion (that is to say 1. 1 Cf. 2. Commentary on the Dream o f Scipio. M acrobius. L ife o f Pythagoras. 4 is 10. etc. 38 The one who bestowed it was Pythagoras. II. of even and odd num­ bers. concerning means and mean numbers. in m ultiplication. They allow for the unification of odd and even because numbers are not only odd or even. + 4) is great in music because all the consonances are found in it. it is of these numbers that we have to speak. Opinions o f the Philosophers. unity is the first because. III. the odd numbers and of all the odd-even numbers. . I. Next comes three numbers from the odd as well as the even series. and its essence is simple. The Em poror Julien. para. Of these numbers. that of the octave in the double ratio and that of the double octave in the quadruple ratio. and it has been said that the tetraktys appears indeed to have been discovered by him. and in this way the im mutable diagram is completed. The first quaternary is the one of which we’ve just spoken: it is formed by addition of the first four numbers. For this reason. source of eternal nature. THE Q U A T E R N A R Y (OR TETRA K TYS) AN D THE DEC AD XXX V II. into our souls” . But it is not only for this reason that all Pythagoreans hold it in highest esteem: it is also because it seems to outline the entire nature of the universe. I. H O W M A N Y QUA TERN ARIES ( TETRA K TYS) A R E THERE? X X X V III. The second is formed by m ultiplication. Since. since the sum of the numbers 1. edited by Ast. all the relationships of the consonances are found in the quaternary of the decad. + 2. that of the fifth in sesquialter (Ya) relationship. starting from unity. constitutes the quaternary. XXV III and X X IX .

is that of the point in this one. . 36 be. being prime. The third of the order of even numbers is 4. cubic numbers). the even in double ratio. being equally equal (that is to say square numbers). The second num ber in the even and double (series) is 2 and in the odd and triple is 3. having lateral (or linear) :l!' P la to . in the preceding quaternary. 4 and 9. the odd in triple ratio.MUSIC 63 two quaternaries are taken. 8 and 27. and that of the numbers 2 and 3. The fourth terms. In this way. 2 and 3 have the side ratio. The fourth among the even numbers is 8. so that unity is odd and even sim ultaneously and belongs to both. growth procedes from the limit and the point up to the solid. the other by m ultiplication. geom etric and arithm etic ratios of which the harmony of the universe is composed. The ratios of the most perfect consonances are found in these numbers. and are consequently linear numbers. even the tone is included. of lim it and of point. one which is made by addition. and among the odd numbers. following the same propor­ tion. The second numbers. the first of the odd num­ bers being the num ber 3 which arises from unity being tripled. and these quaternaries en­ compass the musical. incomposite numbers. There are then two quaternaries of numbers. the other odd. However unity contains the principle of ratio. for the place taken by unity. in the Timaeus. and in the odd series.39 The last of these seven numbers is equal to the sum of all the pre­ ceding. after the limit and the point comes the side. the first of the even numbers being 2 which comes from unity doubled. 9. 27. The third terms. embraces the nature of all magnitudes. have the power of the squared surface. as we have 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 8 -1 . being equally equal equally (that is to say. and measured only by the unit. have the power of the cubic solid. by virtue of the numbers from this tetraktys. constitutes the soul. It is with these numbers that Plato.9 = 2 7 . then the surface and finally the solid. th e Tim aeus. one even. The third quaternary is that which. In fact.

See: “ M athem atics of the Cosm ic M ind. because it is composed of a single line without terminus. one with a curved surface. are the numbers 4 and 9. in such a way that fire is to air as 1 is to 2. The eighth contains faculties by which we are able to form judg­ ment on the preceding. for these are the elements which compose the nation. the icosahedron 40 the figure of water and the cube the figure of earth. are so (surface) in this one: Finally. water and earth. air corresponds to the num ber 2. 40 A solid having 20 surfaces. what. such is indeed the nature of the elements according to their fineness or density. fire. M an is principle and is thus. air. straight or circular. the line. The sixth is that of the created things. The other relationships are also equal (that is to say. and the circular to the odd. such as the cube and the pyramid. the seed being analogous to unity and to the point. The fourth quaternary is that of the simple bodies. The family corresponds to the number 2. the village to the num ber 3 and the city to the num ber 4. earth to the num ber 4. to w ater as 1 is to 3. A growth in length is analogous to the num­ ber 2 and to the line. and finally a growth in thickness is analogous to the num ber 4 and to the solid. The place occupied by unity in the quaternary of numbers is taken by fire in this one. having the power of the surface. and to earth as 1 is to 4. is here that of the line. the other with a plane surface.” by L. in the preceding are the numbers 8 and 27. and a growth in width is analogous to the num ber 3 and to the surface. like the sphere or the cylinder. 1972. which have the power of the cube and of which one is even and the other odd. There are two kinds of solids. in the preceding quaternary. the planar and the curved. . and it offers the same proportion as the quaternary of numbers. The fifth quaternary is that of the shapes of sim ple bodies. unity. the two types of surface. through the point. And what. the surface and the solid. and so forth for the others). for the pyramid is the figure of fire. is constituted by the solid in this one. and which are its intellectual part. A ll of these quaternaries are m aterial and perceptible.64 MUSIC power. This is the third tetraktys then. the straight line corresponding to the even num ber because it term inates at two points (the line and circle are given as examples here). the octahedron the figure of air. through its double form. that air is to w ater as 2 is to 3. The seventh quaternary is that of societies. the one having the property of constituting any m ag­ nitude. water to the num ber 3. G ordon Plum m er.

The tenth quaternary is that of the seasons of the year. the pyramid in the fifth. the tenth is that of the seasons. The ninth is the rational. summer. The first is that of the num­ bers which are formed by addition.MUSIC 65 namely: thought. the cube. opinion and feeling. A nd the perfect world which results from these quater­ naries is geom etrically. the em otional and the willful parts of the soul. since what is unity in the first and the second quaternary. The fourth is fire. m aturity and old age. 4. the cube. in its essence. the fourth is that of magnitudes. opinion is like the num ber 3. the ninth is that of the living thing. the line. the length. And certainly thought. the seventh is th at of societies. It is perfect because . containing in power the entire nature of number. harm onically and arithm etically arranged. the point is in the third. The fifth is the pyramid. m aturity and old age. and finally feeling is like the num ber 4 because it is quadruple. the em o­ tional and the willful. the height. the solid. the seed in the sixth. the fourth part is the body in which the soul resides. all the senses being m otivated through contact. fire in the fourth. They are proportional to one another. through the succession of which all things take birth. air. The tenth is spring. must be assim ilated to unity. and the body. the icosahedron. that is. the octahedron. water. winter. sum­ mer. The sixth is the seed. 3. the sur­ face. The eleventh is that of the ages: childhood. earth. and so forth with the others following the same proportion. the rational. science. The third is the point. the sense of touch being common to all. The ninth quaternary is that which composes the living things. the family. The eighth is thought. the width. the fifth is th at of simple bodies. the second is that of the num­ bers formed by m ultiplication. adolescence. adolescence. the village. because it is something between science and ignorance. spring. the side. the city. autum n. autum n and winter. the square. 2. sense. the eighth is that of the faculties of judg­ ment. because it is the science of all things. The second is unity. thought in the eighth. science. and the eleventh is that of the ages. every m agnitude and every body. the sixth is that of created things. w hether simple or composite. Thus the first quaternary is 1. man in the seventh. opi­ nion. The eleventh is childhood. There are thus eleven quaternaries. body and soul. the soul having three parts.science is the num ber 2. The seventh is man.

and every intelligible essence. m ultiplication and addition. 23: "the num ber three expresses the m u ltitu d e. since the sum of the four numbers 1. for all 1 the numbers less than this are not called m ultitude (or many) but one or one and other. . The Pythagoreans were no less wise in bringing all numbers back to the decad. since we do not count any num ber beyond ten: in going beyond ten we go back to the numbers 1 . from which it follows that the strongest numbers can be considered as having their ratio in the quaternary. 41 Cf. and thrice favored those who are at the limit of success. We call thrice woeful those who are at the limit of misfortune. com position and the relationship of one thing to another. The decad is. while three is called m ultitude. the soul. equality itself. in which are seen m atter and all that is perceptible. justice itself. and through which all things are assim ilated to number. It is im m uta­ ble and never departs from its own nature through m ultiplication (1 x 1 = 1).found in the quaternary. 2 . for we conceive each of these things as being one and as existing in itself. On Isis and Osiris. Everything that is intelligible and not yet created exists in it: the nature of ideas. which is the first num ber having a beginning. such as beauty itself. The num ber 2 added to unity produces 3. This is why the Pythagoreans used the oath whose form ula we have re­ ported. Opinions o f the Philosophers. 2. the beautiful and the good. I. a m iddle and an end. 3 and so on.66 MUSIC everything is part of it. 36. 3. 4 is equal to 10.however. Plutarch. This is why this num ber is the first to which the name multitude 4 applies. and it is itself a part of nothing else. the generation of motion. XLI. God himself. XLII. We make three libations to show that we ask everything which is good. The first increase. THE DECAD X X X I X . the first change from unity is made by the doubling of unity which becomes 2. It is indivisible and it is everything in power. III. PROPERTIES OF THE NUM BERS CONTAINED IN THE DECAD (T E T R A K TY S) XL.” See also. Unity is the principle of all things and the most dom inant of all that is: all things em anate from it and it em anates from nothing.

The num ber 4 is the image of the solid. and which causes all right angles to be equal to one another. the propor­ tional arithm etic mean being 5. XLIII. above. added to the first square number. the fifth. 3. and also that there are three types of angles. the fourth. The num ber 3 added to unity and to 2 gives 6 which is the first perfect number. 7 and 3. This is why it is 42 T he num ber four is the image o f the solid because the most elem entary of the solids is the trian g u lar pyram id which has 4 faces and 4 apexes. the right angle. whose property it is to be unique. XLV. This perfect number. 2 and 3. and it is the first square num ber among the even numbers. they are infinite in number. the fifth o f the octave and the double A. one obtains ten. It is for this reason that there are three types of triangles.MUSIC 67 The ternary num ber also represents the first nature of the plane because it is in a sense its image. if you add 9 and 1. by the same difference. well defined and composed of the equal and the sim ilar. that is to say equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. Thus. II. since they are either greater or smaller. VI. for unity is not a number. . A nd it com pletes the consonances which are 4 3A. the means of these numbers will be 5 according to arithm etic proportion. gives the decad. as we have shown. the equilateral. it com pletes all the con­ sonances. The num ber 5 is the mean term of (two numbers whose sum is) the decad. because if. being in the m iddle between the acute and the obtuse angles. 6 and 4. larger than one and sm aller than the other. 8 and 2. 1 4 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 This num ber is also the first which embraces the two types of numbers. Cf. As for all the other angles. as has been shown. and indetermined. the odd and the even. that is. and 4. the octave. octave. the sum will always be 10 and the mean term in arithm etic proportion will be 5. the isosceles and the scalene. which is greater than one of the ex­ tremes and less than the other. The num ber six is a perfect num ber because it is equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. by the addition of any two numbers. the first form of the plane being the triangle. for example. th at is. 4.42 XLIV. 2. This is shown in the diagram in which any addition of two opposite numbers gives 10.

3. . and its double. m ultiplied by another number. and less than the other extreme. in the first week the m oon appears divided in two. and is created by 2. and 5 m ultiplied by 2 produces 10. since 6 then contains one of the extremes. which fact moved the Pythagoreans to give it the name A thena. said Posidonius. 44 Timeaus 35 b. . 43 See note X IV . is en­ dowed with a rem arkable property: it is the only one which does not give birth to any num ber contained in the decad and which is not born out of any of them. XLVI. because this goddess was not born out of a m other and gave birth to none. being placed in the middle. . endows the soul with 7 n u m b ers. Day and night. A nother num ber of the decad. some create and some are created.e. 12. such as 3 and 5 which are not created by any com ­ bination of numbers. because the task of m arriage produces children sim ilar to their parents. for exam ple 4 m ultiplied by 2 creates 8. since 9 is greater than one of the extremes and less than the other by the same quantity. in the third it is again divided. Others are created but do not create.43 The harm onic mean is com ­ posed according to this primary number. six produces the geom etric proportion when. and in the fourth. and its double. is placed on the other. The m onth is composed of four weeks (four times seven days). Six also gives the arithm etic mean by taking 9. giving the geom etric proportion of the numbers 3. 12. 6. which is 3A rds of it. which is one-third of the extremes. and does not unite with anything. in the second it becomes full. and which is not pro­ duced by the m ultiplication of any number. 2. like 6 which is the product of 2 by 3. the num ber seven. . but which does not create any of the numbers in the decad. 12. 12. since in taking its fourthirds. by the same fraction of the ex­ tremes. . but which create: 3 produces 9. Seven is the only num ber which.68 MUSIC called that of marriage. it returns to meet the sun in order to begin a new m onth and to in­ crease during the following week. i. . is placed on one side. 8. Finally. and 12 which is its double. have the nature of the even and the odd. creates none of the numbers in the decad. half of it. one arrives at the harm onic proportion of the numbers 6. and m ultiplied by 2 produces 6. 12.. 3. This num ber did not arise from any union. 8. Eight is greater than one of the extremes. and is contained by the other in the same relationship. Am ong the numbers con­ tained in the decad. 6. Others create but are not created. P lato in the Timaeus.44 following nature.

A nd Evander relates that in Egypt. and this is also found in the oaths of Orpheus: By the creators of things forever immortal: fire and water. the sun reaches the o th er tropic o r equinox in the seventh month. Some people say that there are eight prin­ ciple gods in the universe. It is then also that a man acquires his full height. that is to say. even in three and four-day fevers. the great torch and the black night. that he acquires his stout­ ness. the moon and the sun.e. earth and heaven. and to Love. is found an in­ scription dedicated to King Saturn and Queen Rhea: “To the most ancient of all.” because the spheres of the world which turn 45 From one solstice o f the sun to the other and from one equinox to the other there are only six m onths. C hildren develop teeth starting from the seventh month afterb irth . in most straits. i. the king Osiris. the heart. and the planets are seven in number. at twenty eight. Sim ilarly seven months are counted from one equinox to the o th e r. i. e. and in all periodic fevers. the liver. four times seven cubits.46 XLVII. that the beard begins to grow. and often it is in the third period. Seven days are needed to diagnose illness. the lungs. the ebb-tide reverses direction seven times per day. at the age of twenty-one. the tongue. From one solstice of the sun to the other there are seven months. the spirit. It is necessary then to understand T h e o n ’s thought as follows: starting from one tropic o r from one equinox. There are seven viscera. the semen and puberty make their appearance at the age of fourteen. but it is only in the fourth period. as Empedocles insinuates in his Expiations. the sky and the earth. one of the im m ortal gods. the seventh day is always the most serious. Finally. Herophilus says that the intestine of man is 28 cubits long. Some think that the male foetus requires five weeks for its perfection. on a colum n. the night and the day. The number eight which is the first cube is composed of unity and the septenary.MUSIC 69 It is in seven weeks that the foetus appears to arrive at its perfec­ tion. It is also in the seventh month that the foetus can be born living. the spleen. Tim otheus also relates the proverb “ eight is all.45 The head has seven orifices. the father of all that is and all that will be. 4 See note X V. m onum ent to his magnificence and tribute of his life”. and the two kidneys. and fully produce their teeth in seven years. H .

3. Archytas. to which six others must be ad­ ded which are subcontrary to them.” XLVIII. in the harm onic m e a n . the fifth and the sixth. time or other). one even. He says that some give the other means the more general name of proportion. the other odd. write at length on this subject. Adrastus says that the geometric is the only one which is a true proportion. 6. the arithm etic. whereas it has no need of the others. Among the primary proportions themselves. There are several means : the geometric. which give the two first squares of 4 and 9. as he then demonstrates. triple. THE M ED IANS (TH E M EAN ) L. However. and so it is the first. a . in double. that is to say the geom etric proportions. The numerical mean contains and is contained by the same number of extremes. in his book On the Decade. of that which is in motion and that which is still. The number nine is the first square among the odd num­ bers: the two first numbers are 2 and 3. then. and in general m ultiple or sesquipartial ratio.70 MUSIC around the earth are eight in number. the harmonic. and Philolaus. XLIX The decad completes the series of numbers. whose terms are in double ratio. in his treatise On Nature.c = a : c . containing in itself the nature of both even and odd.b = ma. such as the proportion 12. of good and of evil. as we have said. Adrastus shows that the ratio of equality is the first in order and that it is an elem ent of all the ratios of which we have pre47 If a . is contained in one extrem e and contains the other in the same relationship (a : b = b : c). the mean term is less than one extrem e and greater than the other by the same part of the extrem es. the subcontrary.47 LI. for all the others have need of it.b : b . of all of these me­ dians. Let us return now to proportions and to the means. or any other numerical proportion: others have inexpressible and ir­ rational terms (size. weight. Finally. as Eratosthenes also says: “These eight spheres also harmonise together while making their revolutions around the earth. In the geom etric mean . the mean term. And. some have rational terms and relationships. and b-c = me.

of two times the second and of the third. following the order of the multiples. 9. the terms 1. a + b. therefore the square o f the m ean term is equal to the product o f the extrem es and the three new term s are in continuous proportion. in triple ratio. c. 1). for it is from it that all others take birth. T he square of the mean term is a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 and the product o f the extrem es is a'2 + 2 ab + ac. and finally another composed of the first. The first will be equal to the first. the second will be com ­ posed of the first and the second. and a + 2 b + c. and it is evident that it can only grow through the terms. first an equal one. Erathosthenes also says that every ratio increases either by an in­ terval or by terms: but equality has the property of not being susceptible to any interval. which are in double ratio. 25. . and in it that they are all resolved. in the sm allest possible three equal terms.” 48 Thus from the proportion whose terms are equal is born a pro­ portion in double ratio. we have b2 = ac. which are in quadruple ratio. 4. By the same method. in quintuple ratio. then another composed of the first and the second. one formed from the first alone. in three units. are the three terms given in continuous p roportion. which produces the proportion in quadruple ratio and so forth from the other multiples. three magnitudes with the propor­ tion found between them. with these numbers.MUSIC 71 viously spoken and of all the proportions they give. and that equality is the principle and the element of proportion. 3. then. and from the proportion in double ratio is born the proportion in triple ratio. the other composed of the first and the second. 16 will be formed. for example. and the terms will be 1. and the last composed of the first. W e have. b. 5. Taking. we will have the terms 1. if we take three other terms in the m anner which has been indicated. these new terms will again be in continuous propor­ tion. The three terms obtained follow ing A drastus’s rule are a. the third will be composed of the first. 48 If a. 2. of twice the second and the third. But b2 = ac by hypothesis. the proportion of equality (1. W ith these numbers. 1. that is to say. and so on to infinity. of two times the second and of the third. and with these. let us form the next one by the same method. if one takes three others formed from these. the terms 1. we will combine the terms and show that all m athem atics consists in the proportion of certain quantities. 4. Eratosthenes says that he will om it the dem onstrations but Adrastus shows that “ any three terms being given in continuous proportion.

. n2 + 2n + 1. 12. 1. for example. the triples will give the epitrite or sesquitertian relationship (1 + V3 ). 4.49 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 6 12 20 30 42 56 72 90 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 *a Being in general the continuous p roportion n 2. 3. We will deduce 4. 9. and if the largest term is placed first.72 MUSIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 If now the m ultiple proportions are arranged inversely. and the quadruples the sesquiquarten relationship (1 + V 4 ) . n. the double ratio proportion in three terms is given. 1. with these terms we form the next (pro­ portion) according to the method indicated. 16. The doubles will give in fact the hemiole or sesquialter relationship (1 + V2). We will always have the sesquipartial relationship (1 + Vn) corres­ ponding to the m ultiple (n). 6. If we have the same three terms in triple proportion. 9 from them which is a continuous proportion whose relationship is sesquialter. 20. 1 w hose ratio is n. we will deduce from them in the same m anner the three proportional terms in the sesquitertian ratio. If. and so forth. n2 + n. and the terms are added in the same manner. we obtain the terms in sesquiquarten ratio 16. W ith the quadruples. 9. the proportions in sesquipartial ratio will be obtained. the ratio is 1 + 1 / n . 25 and so forth. 2. The new continuous p ro ­ p ortion obtained by A drastus’s rule w ill be form ed from the term s n2.

by beginning with the largest term. so that from the mean of these proportions one can form others by the same method. 15. the pro­ portion in epim er ratio 1 + 4A will be found. And from the proportion in which the relationship is sesquiter­ tian (1 -I. by beginning with the sm allest term one obtains the proportion whose m ultisuperpartial ratio is 2 + V*: one takes 4. 49. one obtains by the m ethod indicated a proportion whose epim er ratio is 1 + 2 . 20. 9.4 9 . by beginning with the largest term. 9. 10. < + a st f )' : W e can om it most of these relationships as being not very necess­ ary. 6. the proportion in m ultisuperpartial ratio (2 + V«) will be deduced from it. LII. but we should however consider some of them. and again the epim er relationships. and by beginning with the sm allest term. if any proportion of three une­ . at 4. W ith the proportion in sesquiquartan ratio (1 + V 4 ) . 25. by beginning with the largest term. W e have. 4. The proportion 25. the sesquipartial relationships (1 + Vn) give us the epim er relationships (1 + — £ — ■ ) v m+ n ' and the m ultisuperpartial relationships (a + Vn). 21. 45. and beginning with the sm allest term. and one arrives by the same method. 6.MUSIC 73 In the same way. W ith the pro­ portion of the sesquialter ratio (1 + V*). the pro­ portion 16. 36. by A Adrastus’s method. In fact. 81. and. so also are they definitively resolved in it. Thus from the terms 16. in the terms 9. and ohe can continue in this way to infinity. we deduce 16. gives indeed 25. one will derive the proportion in epim er ratio (1 + 3A). 2 8 . we will have the proportion in m ultisuperpartial ratio 2 + Vs.Va). 12. give us other epim er polyepim er relationships. thus the proportion 9. in fact. gives 9. 81. In the same way that all these proportions and all their ratios are composed of the first ratio of equality. 25. 20. W e do not need to develop this subject further. which gives 16. 25. 16.

. prolonged to infinity on the same plane. the excess of the mean term over the sm allest term and finally for the third term. The m agnitude extended in two directions is a surface.74 MUSIC qual terms is given. we subtract the sm allest term from the middle term. without dimension. Among lines. The curved line is that which does not have this property. we will have the same sm aller term for the first term. the first of which is the point. which is a spot w ithout extension. following two dimensions. surface is the apparent limit of all solid bodies. and that they resolve themselves in equality. The m agnitude which has only one dimension and is divisible in only one m anner is the line. i SHAPES LI1I. Straight lines are parallel when. but only into the ratio of equality. and that in order to construct them it is necessary to start from equality. hav­ ing length and breadth. then for the second. W hen this break­ down is repeated. the surface is defined by lines and the line is defined by points. it coincides with it throughout its whole length. In fact. is the shortest of all lines having the same extremities. the sm allest and twice the m iddle term diminished by the smallest. between two given points. Now the solid is con­ tained and defined by surfaces. one will arrive at the proportion of equality which is the first origin of all proportions and which cannot itself be resolved into any other. Now the plane is in a straight surface such that if a straight line touches it at two points. they do not meet and always m aintain the same distance between them. If. and which is ex­ tended equally between all its points. which has length. next. It is not necessary for us to go further on this subject. width and height. the straight line is that which is direct and as though stretched. The proportion which will result from this breakdown will itself be the same that give birth to the new proportion. The same difference is found between the plane and the curved surface. we put the terms thus obtained in order. which is a length without width. length and breadth. that which remains from the largest. The magnitude having three dimensions is the solid. and from the largest. it is that which. being the limit of a line and holding the same place as unity does in numbers. Eratosthenes dem onstrates that all figures result from some pro­ portion. We will find the same results in the shapes.

I. some are equilateral in all directions. but whose height is less. one takes another homogenious term such that the excess of the first. comprised between sides which form right angles. Others are included under rectangles and are called rectangular parallelopipeds. and are called parallelopipeds. Those which have length and width equal. Those whose length is equal to the width. those which are contained between three sides are called trilateral. PROPERTIES OF THE M EANS We now have to speak in more detail of the means. Among the quadrilaterals. O f those. that is to say that the length. . Angles are right angles when a straight line. over this mean term. There is a mean when. as the first term is to itself or to one of the two others. pro­ perly speaking. R ectilinear shapes are those which surround straight lines. that is to say square bases. or as the sm allest is to one of the other two.MUSIC 75 Plane shapes are those in which all the lines are in the same plane. and among these rectangles those which have four equal sides are properly called squares. 5"S ee the definition o f H eterom ecic (unequilateral) numbers. meeting another straight line. between two homogeneous unequal terms. and non-rectilinear shapes do not have this property. X V II. and the parallelogram s which have right angles are called rectangles. are called beams. Among the solids. are called plinths. Those which are not in this category are called heteromecic (unequilateral). and those which are contained by a greater num ber of straight lines are called polygons. Each rectangular parallelogram is. some to the num ber of six. the theory of which is indispensible for understanding the writings of Plato. but whose height is larger. Among the plane and rectilinear shapes. is to the excess of the mean term over the smaller. Finally those which have three unequal dimensions are called scalene parallelopipeds. which is at the same time the larger. those which have opposite sides parallel are called parallelogram s. Those of four sides are called quad­ rilateral.'’0 LIV. forms two adja­ cent equal angles with it. are included under planar parallelogram s. the width and the height are equal and these are included under the equal squares and are called cubes.

being given three terms. 3. which dem onstrates the stated p ro ­ position. the extreme 6 is greater than 3 by half of 6. Such are the numbers 6.52 LVIII. as in the propor­ tion 1. are thus in double ratio. the 1 three num bers w hich give the geom etric m edian.b : b . if the extreme terms are added and the sum is m ultiplied by the mean term. a .be. and 2 is the double of the unit. and the excess of 6 over 3 is 3. These numbers. In particular. 3.1 is 1. in the pro­ portion formed of the numbers 2. Thus.c = a : c . 4. by hypothesis then.c = b : c. The geom etric mean. the difference 2 . and 6. In fact. now 6 x 2 = 12 whose double is 24. the num ber 2 is greater than 1 by one unit and is less than 3 by one unit. so that 3 + 1 = 4 . which is the triple of the unit. and likewise. 52 T he harm onic m edian is in general a . as in the proportion 3. and the difference 4 . we have (a + c) b = 2 ac.b : b . a number is found which is double the product of the extremes.5 1 LVII. the arithm etic mean is the one in which the mean term is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by the same number. and the square of 2 is also 4.be = b 2 . If we have a. and consequently ac = b2. for 2 x 2 = 4. b. This mean possesses the property that the product of the extremes is equal to the square of the mean term: thus in the preceding proportion. which is the double of the mean term 2. the first is to the third in the same relationship that the ex­ cess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). Therefore the product of the extremes is equal to the square of the mean term . This mean term has the property of being the half-sum of the extremes. 2. and 8 m ultiplied by the mean term 3 gives 24. Furtherm ore. . This proportion possesses the pro­ perty that the mean term is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by the same part of the extremes. 1. also called the proportion proper. and the other extreme 2 is less than 3 by half of 2. c. 2.2 is 2. In the product o f the extrem es being equal to the product o f the means. the product of the extremes is 4. The mean called “subcontrary to the harm onic” (mean) is the one in which the third term is to the first as the excess of 5 T heon habitually verifies the stated proposition in a sim ple m anner. LVI. com pared with one another.76 MUSIC LV. An harmonic proportion occurs when. Four is indeed the double of 2. Thus 6 + 2 = 8 . since 1 x 4 = 4 . which is the excess of 3 over 2. is the one in which the mean term is greater than one extrem e and is less than the other by a m ultiple or superpartial ratio (of the first term to the second or of the second to the third). from which it follows th at ac . 2: the extrem e 6 is the triple of 2.

is half of 2. and obtain 9. H O W THE M E A N TERM S OF THE M EAN S A R E FOUND LXI. is to 3. The extrem e 6 is indeed greater than 4 by 2. we take the excess of the larger 12. Now the extrem e 2 is half of 4. by 3. and the unit. being given three terms. the half of which is 3. the third is to the second as the excess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). or finally one takes half of the sum of the two given terms. If we propose to find the mean term. a condensed outline of these principles. LX. in which 6 is greater than 5 by one unit. Likewise if we add the extremes 12 and 6. in order to sum m arize the exposition of mathematics. be­ tween the numbers 12 and 6. W e have the sixth mean when. the sum is 18. This is how one finds the mean terms. ac­ cording to the m ethod of Pythagoras. in arithm etic proportion. half of the excess of the larger over the sm aller. 3 is half of 6. which is the arithm etic mean between the numbers 12 and 6. LIX. or one adds the halves of each of the two numbers given. The Pythagoreans have been much concerned with these six means and their subcontraries. 9. the excess of 4 over 1. which is added to the sm aller term 6. Such is the proportion formed of the numbers 5. In the arithm etic pro­ portion. being given three terms. and in which. the excess of the second (over the third). it is sufficient to have. the excess of the first term (over the second). 5. as the unit. 2. whose half. and 5 is greater than 3 by 2 units. 3. W e have the fifth mean when. finally. For us. . Now 2. 4. the second is to the first as the excess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). in the same relationship as 1 to 1 + ‘A . since it is greater than one and less than the other by 3 units. 4. which is the excess of 6 over 4. Such is the mean formed by the numbers 6. and 4 is greater than the other extreme 1. Such is the proportion formed of the numbers 6.MUSIC 77 the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). The extreme 5 is greater than 4 by one unit. one adds to the sm all term. over the sm aller 6. 1. the excess of the first num ber (over the second) is half of 2. the excess of the second num­ ber over the third. is the mean between the given numbers. and 4 is to 6 as 1 is to 1 + *A. and 4 is greater than the other extreme 2 by 2 units.

We are given two extremes in double ratio. of which the square root. The product is 144.78 MUSIC Here is how the mean term of a geom etric proportion is found: we take the square root of the product of the extremes. until it meets the semi-circle. therefore BD is the proportional mean bet­ ween AB and BC. It remains now to show how the mean term in harmonic propor­ tion is obtained. . taking AB and BC for the two terms. since it is inscribed in a semi-circle. between which we are to find the mean term in geometric proportion. is the mean term. such as 12 and 6. But if the num ber contained in the extremes is not a perfect square. if we join AD and DC. If. In the triangle ADC. and composed of whole units. the height is DB and the triangles which are part of it are sim ilar to the total triangle. In fact. We multiply the excess of the larger over the smaller. This is what it was necessary to demonstrate. each mean term found is rational and its length is com m ensurable with the ex­ tremes. the two numbers 24 and 6 are given. We place them in a straight line and on the sum AC describe a semi-circle. then from point B we lead the per­ pendicular BD to AC. in double ratio. I assert that BD will be the proportional geometric mean between the straight lines AB and BC. we multiply the given numbers by each other. Fig 1 Most often it is determined geom etrically whether it can be ex­ pressed in rational number or whether the ratio and the lengths are incommensurable. If the num ber contained in the extremes is squared. and consequently similar to each other. the mean term will only be commensurable with the extremes in power. we have a right angle at D. It is done in the following way. 12. for exam ­ ple. Thus the sides which contain the equal angles are proportional. and we have A B : B D = B D : BC. because 24 : 12 = 12 : 6.

by multiplying the excess of 12 over 4. half of which equals 72. added to the sm aller term 4. obtaining 8 which will be the sought-for mean. it remains for us to mention the elements of astronom y. W e divide this result by the sum of the extremes. which is a third. In fact 6 is greater than one extrem e and is less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. we have 32 as a pro­ duct.5 4 5See note X V I. 6. 3 54A fter the w ord ‘astronom y’ the transcriber o f the V enice ms. We therefore have the harm onic proportion of the numbers 12. W e have the harm onic proportion of the numbers 18. for the convenience of the readers of Plato. then add the quotient to the sm aller term. By this method it is necessary to m ultiply the excess by the sm aller term and to divide the product by the sum of the ex­ tremes. that is to say 8. gives 9 for the sought-for mean term. If the given extremes are in triple ratio. If we have. 6. of w hat is most necessary and useful in the portions of the m athem atical sciences of which we have spoken. This quotient 2. If now we divide 32 by the sum of the extremes which is 16. In order to find the harmonic mean between any two given une­ qual terms. and add the quotient 2 to the sm aller term 6. which is the half. or 24. 6. 4 . 9. The harmonic pro­ portion is then formed of the numbers 12.53 After this summary exposition. gives 6 for the harm onic mean between 12 and 4. then divide the product. we m ultiply the excess of the larger over the sm aller by itself: 1 2 x 1 2 is 144. since it is greater than one extreme and less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. for example. the two terms 12 and 4. The quotient of the division. by the smaller. one can also use the more general m ethod that we first dem onstrated. has added the words “ G lory to G od” . that is to say 18. 36. 8.The transcriber o f another ms. adds the words ‘end o f the present book by the help of G od’. such as 18 and 6.■ MUSIC 79 that is to say 6. by the sum of the extremes. (Toulis) . by the sm aller term 4. 6. for it is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by half of the extremes. added to the sm aller term. we obtain a quotient of 2.

.

from each part of the earth. But certainly from a spiritual point o f view a geocentric universe is a com plem entary concept. is placed in the middle. Further- I 'I t can be speculated th at the concept o f Earth as center of the universe is retained by the Pythagoreans for its philosophical and spiritual verity. and is in a certain sense verified by the theory o f relativity as applied to the m ovem ent o f celestial bodies. for inhabitants of the same place. while we assume the other half to be hidden by the earth and not able to be perceived. by recalling the summary notions transm itted to us by Adrastus. 1 T hat the earth is the • center of the universe and that it is but a point in relation­ ship to the size of the universe: this is what must be established before anything else. A precise exposition of this doctrine would require such lengthy consideration of so many writings that it would instead be sufficient to summarize here what we have to say. The sphericity of the world is again dem onstrated by reason of the fact that. which is itself a spheroid. all the celestial bodies rise and set and rise again at the same points. and always accom plish the same revolutions. We would say therefore that the w orld and the earth are spherical and the earth is the center of the world.PART THREE ASTRONOMY ON THE SPH ERICAL FORM OF THE E A R T H The entire world is a sphere and the earth. half of the sky is seen above us. not a contradiction to the heliocentric view. . as far as our senses can tell. and that it is only a point in it. This results from the fact that.

many of the stars which are seen rising and setting in the south dis­ appear. if we look at the extreme points of the sky. and the distances from earth to heaven would appear unequal. but it is visible in more southerly lands. A single lunar eclipse further shows this: it is produced in the same brief period of time. when one goes from south towards the north. Furtherm ore. another sm aller. It is again evident that the earth is convex from north to south: in fact for those going southward. every weighted body is carried naturally toward the center. one is setting while the other is rising. 3C ity o f C arie (Asia M inor. If we concede that certain parts of the earth are further 2from the constellation o f Argo. it must be spheri­ cal. A c­ cording to ancient lore. Because of the curved form of the earth. II. it would not produce this effect on earth: one of its parts would appear larger. instead of being spherical. and the sooner one will have seen a greater part. and the shadow that the earth projects moves according to a fixed order. it appears at different hours of the day. but for all those seeing it. and if diam etrically opposed stars describe a great circle. The further east­ ward one is. which are always visible for us in their movement around the pole. Canopus was the captain of M enelaus’ boat (brother of A gam em non and husband o f H elen) when they sailed against Troy. all the visual rays appear equal to us. the ris­ ing and setting of the same stars certainly prove this. On the contrary. and always rises higher and higher to the measure that one is further from the north. and later for those of the western regions. And first of all. other stars. have a rising and a setting. Thus the star called Canopus 2 is invisible in lands further north than Cnide 3. the sun does not illum inate the whole sur­ face of the earth at the same time.82 ASTRONOMY more. have for them a rising and a setting. They take place early for the inhabitants of eastern regions. one o f the most b rillian t stars in the southern hem isphere. situated in the region of the Bears. for the measure that they advance. entirely. many stars.) (Toulis) . become always visi­ ble. In the same way. Since the earth appears convex from all parts. the earth is spherical from east to west. and which used to have a rising and a setting. were a cone or a cylinder. the phenomenon taking place at night. always invisible for us in their movem ent around the pole which is hidden for us. or a pyramid or any other solid. the more advanced the hour will be that one sees it. while others. If the universe. and as many more of these are seen as one advances north­ wards.

to the point where equality of distance and pressure being obtained. the convexity of the surface of the sea masking the object. The surface of the w ater being presumed planar. and we draw the lines XA and XC to the extrem ities of this base. And often. since the fall of heavy bodies is always and every­ where made towards the center. Similarly. a tree. higher than point B. such as point X. W ater will flow therefore from points A and C towards the lower point B.ASTRONOMY 83 away from the center than others because of their size. a ship. until the latter point. It is evident that the two lines XA and XC are both longer than XB. If the different parts of the earth are equally far from the center. being higher and so overcom ing the convexity of the sea which was causing the obstacle. It can be physically and m athem atically dem onstrated that the surface of every body of still w ater must be spherical in form. m utually held in a clasp. all points of the sur­ face of the w ater will be at the same distance from X. W ater indeed tends to flow from higher towards lower levels. repelled and removed from the center. one no longer sees any­ thing. from the bridge of the ship neither earth nor any other vessel can be seen. we draw the perpendicular to the base XB. and consequently. such as a hill. a tower. everything being con­ stituted in equilibrium and repose like two wooden beams which m utually support each other or two athletes of the same force. This can be recognized in this manner: If. one observes an object from which one is separated by the sea. therefore . situated on the shore. and that the two points A and C are further from the center than point B. while sailing. it would be necessary that the sm all parts which encircle them be pressed. From the center of the earth. In addition. surrounded with new water would be as far from point X as A and B are. But the higher parts are further away from the center of the earth. then it must be concluded that the surface of the earth is spherical. then if one lowers one’s gaze towards the surface of the water. let us call ABC a straight line on this surface. all converge towards the same point and each falls vertically. or one sees a sm aller part of the object. it is necessary that its form be spheri­ cal. The surface of the sea and all tranquil waters are also spheri­ cal. and the lower parts are less so. but a sailor climbs up high on a mast pole and can see them. that is to say that angles which are always equal are made with the surface of the earth. III. or the earth itself.

The spherical A kind o f graphom eter. and Archimedes tells us that a cir cumference of a circle.84 ASTRONOMY w ater presents the spherical form and the en tire mass of the earth’s w ater is spherical.182 stades. the diam eter of our sphere would equal 200 m illet-grain diam eters or a little less.000 stades. Three times this number. . thus the relationship of a quarter o f the diam eter o f a grain of millet to this one-foot sphere is greater than the relationship of the height o f the highest m ountain to the diam eter o f the earth. has the value of three times and nearly a seventh of the circle’s diameter. It cannot be said that the height of m ountains or the depth of valleys would be contrary to this thesis and prove that the earth is not an exact sphere.000th part of a whole grain. The sphere having a diam eter of a quarter of the diam eter of a grain of m illet is the 64.0196 o f a yard) Toulis. (or . The height of the largest m ountain would therefore be equal to an eight-thousandth part of the total diam eter of the earth. the width of one finger being about equal to I 2 V2 diam eters of a grain of m illet. and 16 times 12 is 192. the vertical height of the highest m ountains above the lowest plane is 10 stades. 252. has an approxim ate length of 252.018 of the m eter. measured following the circum ­ ference of a great circle.000. And the relationship of the sphere having a quarter of the thickness of a grain of millet to the sphere of a foot in diam eter is greater than the relationship o f the sphere of 10 stades in height to the height o f the terrestial sphere. according to Erathosthenes and Dicearchus. in fact. The diam eter of the earth will then have the value of ap ­ proxim ately 80.000 stades. plus a seventh of this num ber gives. One quarter of the diam eter of a grain of m illet is then larger than the eight-thousandth part of a foot. Now. If we were to make a sphere one foot in diam eter. the finger has the value of 12 m illet-grain diameters. But we have seen that the height of the largest m ountain is nearly an eight-thousandth part o f the diam eter of the earth. A 5F inger — the sm allest o f the ancient G reek measures of length equal to 0. Erathosthenes indeed shows us that the circle of the earth. Since the foot has the value of 16 fingers 5. developed as a straight line. They have deduced this result from observations made with the dio p ter4 which allows the m easurem ent of heights according to cer­ tain intervals. since 40 times 200 is 8.

it would be much sm aller. and the whole earth as a sphere. and this quarter equals the area of the circle. is also equal to the relationship of 14 to 11. equals 4 times the surface of a quarter of the sphere.000 tim es 10. when the cube of the diam eter of the circle equals 14.000 or 10.then. expressed in the sm allest prim e terms.ASTRONOMY 85 m ountain of 10 stades in diam eter has the value of nearly 524 cubic stades. it is dem onstrated that the rectangle formed by the diam eter of a sphere and the circumference of a great circle. which is contained one and a h alf times in the cylinder. The square of the diam eter is to the area of the circle as 14 is to 11 7.043.Vs.6 Furtherm ore.000. thirds are 10. 8296 and the fraction u /a i. since the largest com m on m easure of these numbers is 7. in o u r form o f enum eration: 270. with respect to the earth. they will not therefore prevent the whole of earth and sea from truly being a sphere.ooo th of a grain of m illet in relation to a sphere of one foot in diam eter. is that of 14 to 11. A quarter of this circumference is 5 + V2. Both ratios give an ap p ro x im atio n o f the . 4350 first myriads. the circum scribed cylinder will equal 11 and the sphere 7 -I.297 an d “ />■ . w hether it be superim posed on a sphere of one foot in diam eter. T h e above n u m b er is w ritten.000 tim es 100.508. has the value.000. will not produce any difference in form. It is thus th at one finds volumes expressed in numbers of the ter­ restrial sphere and of the highest m ountain. the circum ­ ference is 22. or w hether it be picked up and placed in a hollow. according to Archimedes.000 units.000 units. seconds are 10. If a m ountain 10 stades high were a sphere. the square of the diam eter being 49. / the square of the diam eter being 98. Therefore. than & ». for the circum ference of the circle equals three times the diam eter plus a seventh part of this diam eter. But one such part of a grain of m illet. If the diam eter is seven.000 units. But m ountains are not spherical. the circle having this diam eter will be 77. and. and if we double this in order to make the V2 disappear. opened out as a straight line. as we see them. •First m yriads are 10. The highest m ountains of 10 stades have the same relationship with the earth. T h e ra tio o f 14 : 11 for finding the area o f the circle is a ttributed to A rchim edes. in cubic stades.025. the circle having this diam eter is 38 + 1 i . but can be derived as well from the ap p ro x im ately 7 : 1 1 ratio o f the vertical half-section of the G izeh pyram id. However the relationship of these numbers. they are much sm aller. 250 second myriads. 270 third myriads. Thus.

and the unknown size of its relation to the universe. 252....... and of earth’s central position as well as its size.....568 cubic stades. It is then evident that the whole earth is only a point with respect to the entire sphere of the sun and even more so with respect to the sphere of the stars. the square of the diameter. and all the stars carried by this sphere and all the points of the sky.788.... is always apparent to our eyes...502. and drawn from the poles of the universe as centers.. Furtherm ore.. A lthough we might say many other things about the form of the universe and of the earth.... If therefore there is necessarily a center for the ensemble of all spheres. .. all the points on earth appear to be this center. what has been dem onstrated by Adrastus in the m anner shown above will be sufficient for the exposition of w hat follows. the diam eter. Here is w hat he next says: ON THE C ELESTIAL CIRCLES V. 515...040 and 4A ths... one cannot observe any perceptible parallax... The product of this num ber by *Vs is equal to the volum e of the earth which therefore has the value in cubic stades of 270.124 square stades. Some of “F o r the rectification we have m ade o f the values of the different results. a fourteenth of this c u b e . de­ scribe parallel circles.043....153.025. They can in fact be taken for the center of the solar orbit......821. The earth is spherical and placed at the center of the world.....429. or nearly so....... 80.. is shown by the points of the sundials in every inhabited place on earth....... ....355...6.182 stades........ for in changing location. perpendicular to the axis.. straight lines drawn from any point at the extrem ities of the celestial sphere would not be equal... the cube. . T hat the volum e of the earth has no perceptible relationship with the expanse of the universe.508.... at the m iddle of which is fixed the earth. It is for this reason that half of the world..000 stades.. See note X V II.. but the circles described by the other points are innum erable... One can count the circles described by the stars.842........ 36.297 and “ A t8 IV... The celestial sphere turning around its im mobile poles and the axis which joins them. that is to say circles everywhere equidistant......... that it occupies but a point in this universe. If it were removed from this position it would not have half the sky above it and half below....86 ASTRONOMY The encircling of the earth therefore is valued...596...

and the other below is the invisible hemisphere. for other places in which one sees the sun rise and set ac­ cording to the general m ovement of the universe. If two stars are diam etrically opposed. moon. Phaethon. Evening — Bringer o f evening. on the opposite side. the durations of the day and night are equal when the sun describes this circle. O f these parts the one above the earth is the visible hemisphere. . the planet of Mars or as others claim of Hercules. (Toulis) l0l. which the planet of Saturn is called by some. and other planets move: Phenon. like the Sun. and is called the antarctic circle. The circle which is the boundary of our vision and divides the sky as a whole into two equal parts — the earth being the obsta­ cle from our viewpoint — is called the horizon. (Mercury) VII. Pyrois. There is one above us. The zodiac is in fact obliquely extended between these two circles. because on these corresponding regions of the earth. Between the equatorial circle and the two arctic circles there are the two tropics. It cuts the equatorial circle into two equal parts and is itself also divided by this circle at a point in Aries and at a point in Taurus. It is in this zone that the sun. and on the other side.ASTRONOMY 87 these circles have been given particular names which it is useful to know in order to take into account what happens in the heavens. around the always apparent and visible pole. the planet of Jupiter.1 and close to these planets Stilbon. VI.9 which is also called Venus or also Lucifer1 and 0 Hesperus. the tropic of winter. the tropic of summer. circles the pole which we never see. It is called the arctic circle. As it is also a great circle of the sphere. M orning — bringer o f dawn "2 . one w ho brings light. when one "Literally m eaning th e light-bringer. equal to the first. The one in the middle. because of the constellations of the Bears which it crosses. divides the whole sphere into two equal parts and is called the equator. sometimes moves near to one and some­ times to the other. The sun. situated for us on this side of the equatorial circle. “ the shiny one. Phosphorus. The zodiac is also a great circle.” 1 which is also called Hermes. which is a large circle. in its revolution. It touches each tropic at one point: the tropic of summer at a point in C ancer and the other tropic at a point in C apricorn. it also cuts the great circles such as the equator and the zodiac into two equal parts. is itself always invisi­ ble to us. there is an equality between the days and nights. A nother.

and one could find equal circles: the zodiac. Indeed. for us it is not fixed. it is not in our power to render them as this or that. nor the same meridian. which to us shows it changing in place. The zodiac is a circle given in size and position with respect to the sky. is hidden from us. it is said that surfaces. which passes through the two poles of the world.88 ASTRONOMY rises. and which is conceived as perpendicular to the horizon. IX. for they are the great circles of the celestial sphere. But those which it is in our power to render as this or that are not naturally given. which are fixed and exist by themselves. but they change in position according to the earth zones and are different in different locations on the earth. and the an tarctic circle the p arallel lim it of the alw ays invisible stars. lines and angles are given in size when equal sizes can be found. . called the m eridian. It is called m eridian because the sun cuts it at the m iddle of the day. Those which are naturally given. This is why they are always given. The horizon divides the m eridian into two equal parts. we cannot determ ine them. '“O ne w ould call the arctic circle in each location the p a ra lle l lim it o f the stars always visible in th a t place. The m eridian and the horizon are also given in size. they are given. being at the highest point of its course above the horizon. In fact we do not all have the same horizon nor the same zenith. and the tropic of sum m er being equal to the tropic of winter and reciprocally. they are always fixed. the other sets. that which is on the side of the invisible pole. VIII. It is sometimes called “ truncated” 12. the horizon and the m eridian being equal to the equatorial circle. given in size and position. Now the equatorial circle and the two tropics placed on either side of it a l­ ways have the same position. that is. because one of its parts. It is said that points and lines are ‘given’ in position when they a l­ ways occupy the same place. but in relation to us.1 but according to the differences in m ore 3 northerly or southerly zones. because of its obliquity in the universe. they are not given in either size or position. it is not given in position. are the equatorial circle and the cir­ cles situated on either side of it. The equatorial (circle) and the two tropics situated on either side of it are circles which are given and fixed in size and position. As for the arctic and the an­ tarctic circles which are neighbors of the poles. they are naturally so. they are seen to be larger or ‘*Colurc from K otoipo? truncated. For there is another great circle.

like the cylinder of a drum. But for the m iddle region of the earth. while accom plishing their course in the contrary direction to the m ovem ent of the universe. The sun. For. with the first sphere which is the largest. they are carried together by a uni­ que and sim ple circular movement. The two circles which define the width of the zodiac on either side are sm aller circles. m oon and other stars which are called errant are carried with the universe in the diurnal m ovem ent from east to west. each day they appear to have several other com plicated motions. nor of size or color. THE STARS XI. The circle in the m iddle of these signs is called the great circle which touches the two tropics at one point on each of them.ASTRONOMY 89 smaller. The anim al figures are imagined on the inside of this cylinder. through the obliquity of the zodiac. they go toward the zodiac signs which follow them (in the diurnal movem ent) and not to the zodiac signs which precede them. and cuts the equatorial circle into two equal parts. and m aintain the same order between each other and do not experience any change of form or movement. and it is sometimes said that the sphere is right because in this region of the earth all the parallel circles are per­ pendicular to the horizon. and sometimes further south. X. In addition. M ost of the stars are fixed. that is for the zone which is found on the equatorial line where one cannot live because of the heat. But apart from this movement. it is not the same: the two poles appear at the end of the horizon. Each of the other circles is a true circle term inated by a single line. . through a m ovem ent of their own. but the one called the zodiac shows a certain breadth. THE PLAN ETS XII. they are sometimes seen further north from the m iddle circle. carried along in the contrary direction of the universe in a course which is called m ovem ent in longititude. as if they were fixed to it and as if they were moved by it. They always have the same relative position on the sphere. they have a m ovem ent in latitude. from north to south and reciprocally. And within the breadth of the zodiac. just like the fixed stars. A tten­ tive observers see them moved from the tropic of summer to the tropic of w inter and reciprocally.

Mars and Jupiter about 5. the appearances and disap­ pearances which are called the risings and the settings. The moon and the sun each appear to deviate equally in latitude from the circle of the m iddle of the zodiac. as the ancient astronom ers have said. The other planets do not deviate equally from it. As for the length of the circle of the zodiac. the sun in a year having the approxim ate value of 365‘A days. Jupiter in about 12 years. travels it in 27Vsdays. since it is just about one degree out of 360. It is for this reason that the speed of their movem ent through the zodiacal signs appears unequal.90 ASTRONOMY some are lower down. are preceded and overtaken by it. others less so. Mars achieves its course in a little less than 2 years. appears first and rises in the eve­ ning. The conjunctions with the sun. Hermes covers about 8. Saturn. sometimes preceding it. Venus and Hermes travel in an unequal movement. and for Venus. since they are always seen beside it. since it is about 12 degrees. it is larger. they go faster when they appear larger because of their lesser distance from earth. from one fixed point to this same point. Venus and Hermes. after its conjunction with the sun. while it disappears and sets in the morning. having a more rapid m ovem ent than the sun towards the zodiacal signs which follow. but are more north­ ward in one sign. F or the moon. and they go less fast when they appear sm aller because of their greater distance. and more southward in another. sometimes they precede it. Jupiter and Mars. sometimes following it. They do not cover the same distance in space in the same am ount of time. and sometimes being closer to the earth in the depths of space. are not the same for all the planets. always appear near to it. Inversely. they vary in size. sometimes these two stars follow it. in fact. but with little difference in duration. that these planets always set in the evening and rise in the morning (after the conjunction). and Saturn nearly 3. which have a movem ent equal to that of the sun. sometimes they appear in the evening and disappear also in the evening. going towards the same zodiacal signs and not towards the preceding ones. that is to say. The distance covered on the zodiac is slight for the sun. Besides. the moon. sometimes they appear . and it can be said that they have the same speed as the sun. The moon. sometimes being further distant. XIII. which arrive less quickly than the sun at the following signs. and Saturn in a lit­ tle less than 30 years.

at every interval. these two stars are on the contrary always seen near the sun. being very close to a star in the west. Next is the setting pro­ duced by the diffusion of the brilliance of the star by the luminous rays of the sun. others in the evening. as with the rising of Canis Major. in the part of the sky diam etrically opposite. ceases to appear at its approach. causes that star to become invisible because of the radiance of its neighbor. when the sun rises. THE ORDER OF THE PLANETS A N D THE C ELESTIAL CONCERT XV.ASTRONOMY 91 at the earliest dawn and disappear with the day. at its beginning. (Toulis) . W hile the other planets are far from the sun. Venus is about 50 degrees to the east or to the west. i. i. either to the east or to the west. some occur in the morning. which is properly called a disappearance. that is. which is produced in the east after the setting of the sun. the setting is of the evening when the sun. that is to say among the phenom ena of appearance and disap­ pearance. The rising belongs to the evening when the star begins to appear after the setting of the sun. There still remains the rising called rising at “ night-edge” u . which in the preceding days was rising before the sun. up to the point where they are diam etrically opposite. There still remains the setting called again night-edge. the setting belongs to the morning when the star. at early dawn and early sunset. XIV. e. next. e. Hermes is about 20 degrees away from it. Here are the opinions of certain Pythagoreans relative to the position and the order of the spheres or circles on which the planets are moving. a star disappears in the part of the horizon diam etrically opposite. for their shining to begin to distinguish itself from the rays of the sun. properly and com ­ monly. Similarly. for the sun and the other stars. which is still properly a m anner of rising. that of l4“ N ight-edge” here applies to the early beginning and early end o f the night. It is called “ night-edge” because it oc­ curs at the edge of the night. Among the risings and the settings depending on the sun and its rays. Rising means several things. but at dawn. like the moon. The rising of the star belongs to the morning when the star preceeding the rays of the sun appears before it in the east. The circle of the moon is closest to the earth. Similarly the first setting is the descent below the horizon. about two thirds of a zodiacal sign. as we have said of the new moon. by their elevation above the horizon. First.

accomodating itself to the most intense heat. by the m ovement and speed of their revolutions. the sun. that the orbit of the sun occupies the m iddle place between the planets as being the heart of the universe and most able to com ­ mand. and finally. joy of mortals. is seventh. which contain six tones. shining star of Jupiter is sixth. in fact. represents a Siren to us. . above is the sun whose chariot is drawn by horses. The heavens. It is for this reason that A lexander thus expresses himself in the following verse: “The earth at the center gives the low sound of the hypate. and that of Saturn is last and closest to that of the distant stars. as to the most glacial cold. Jupiter diverges as much from Saturn as from the terrible Mars. brilliant star of the goddess of Cythera (Venus). because of the in­ tervals which separate them from one another. and Phenon. The seven spheres give the seven sounds of the lyre and produce a harmony (that is to say. and this position has five regions.92 ASTRONOMY Hermes is second above. They determ ine. from wintry to torrid. the inventor of the lyre. the celestial bodies which are distant from one another according to the proportions of consonant sounds. Hermes. then comes the moon which gives to nature such varying hue. The son of Jupiter. is fifth. occupying the fourth rung. next comes those of Mars and Jupiter. Venus differs from the dazzling sun by a trihemitone. the second is Stilbon. the crystal sphere gives the fourth in relation to it. star of Hermes.” According to the doctrine of Pythagoras. star of Saturn. the starry sphere gives the conjunct nete. Saturn is lowest by a half-tone. complete the octave. Hermes continues with a half-tone lower than Venus. the earth at the center gives the fifth with respect to the sun. create. Pyrois. star of the deadly Mars of Thrace. next comes Phosphorus. the sun placed in the middle of the errant stars gives the mese. the world being indeed harmoniously ordained. ‘the shining one’. near the distant stars. is one tone below. Phaeton. that of the sun is fourth. the divine moon is the nearest to the earth. then comes that of Venus. an octave). Here is a declaration of A lexander of Aetolia: “ The spheres rise higher and higher. the corres­ ponding harmonic sounds.

........” 1 5 In these verses A lexander has indicated the order for the spheres that he has determ ined................................ Eratosthenes................ but he does not assign the same order to them....................... and nearly all the rest.............. and places the seven sounds of the planets betw een the two..... as being lower than the others............ But all of this is unclear to those who are not initiated into music........ according to A lexander. then................... trihem itone \ Sphere of V e n u s............ I would answ er that it is not m elodious to have more than tw o half-tones following one another............ The hypate does not give the sound o f the fifth with the m ese. to the earth..\ Sphere o f S a tu rn ...... in a sim ilar manner......................... He attributes the sound o f the m ese to the sun. afid pass­ ing near the stars called “ errant” . since the song of that gender allow sfo rn eith eraco m p letetrih em ito n e interval. but that of the fourth............. A fter the moon which is above the earth............................ it renders absolutely no sound....<^ half tone f .............. tone 1 Sphere o f the E arth giving the h y p a te ...... The system does not conform to the diatonic type.........^ h alf tone I fourth Sphere o f J u p i t e r ............ still young. having invented the lyre..................... half tone | Sphere o f M a rs ..... It is evident that he arbitrarily imagined the intervals which separate them. include only six tones..... and that it gives the consonances of the oc­ tave.... tone / Sphere o f the sun giving the m ese. but with the nete of disjuncts..... he says th at the seven-stringed lyre... first rose up to the sky. however.. -4 ^ half tone > fourth Sphere o f the m o o n ....ASTRONOMY 93 having a seven-stringed lyre..... It is true that he attributes the sound of the hypate............. If it be said that the system is form ed o f the tw o genders.... the image of the universe............................ he was astonished that the har­ monies produced by the speeds of their revolutions was the same as l5This.. Sphere of H erm es... but being im m obile at the center.. H e says that in fact Mercury.................... is the o rd er o f the spheres and the intervals of the sounds made by these spheres: Sphere o f the stars.............. giving the n e te ............. the image of this divine w orld.............................. then he established the harmony of the w orld with nine sounds which.... he gives the second place to the sun...... Indeed... nor tw o half-tones one after the other.... the m elody does not include the unbroken tone.. and it is not with the nete o f the conjuncts that it gives the consonance of the octave......... exposes the harmony pro­ duced by the revolution of the stars.......... for in the chrom atic gender....... ............. Then he gives the sound of the con­ ju n ct nete to the sphere of the stars........................ N either is it chrom atic...... was constructed by Hermes........

This is what he says'6: “After each of these souls had passed seven days in the meadow. envelopes all the others. A fter the moon. and others put Venus. The shaft and the hook of this spindle were of diamond.. and some put Hermes beyond it. This explanation fares bet­ ter than that of Alexander. The m athem aticians establish neither this order nor a like order among the planets. at the end of the Republic. then Hermes. THE M Y T H OF P A M P H Y L IO N IN PLATO ’S REPUBLIC XVI. then Venus. the ends of its fastenings attached to heaven. They made still another day’s journey to arrive there. . These vertebra are none other than the spheres carrying the seven planets. It is for this reason that he made an eight-stringed lyre in­ cluding the consonances of the octave. straight like a pillar. speaking of the arrangem ent of the celestial bodies. He shows the order of these spheres with respect to the distance of each of the stars. they place the sun. and saw. in the middle of this luminous band.94 ASTRONOMY that of the lyre which he had constructed. Plato. this author appears to leave the earth immobile and determines that there are eight sounds produced by the starry sphere and by the seven spheres of the planets which he makes circle around the earth. They arrange the other planets in the order we have men­ tioned. but according to the description given by IK Plato. Republic X 616b. He adds that there is another spine-like axis with hollow vertebra nested one next to the other. This band is the link of heaven and embraces its whole circumference. “This is how it was made: in its form it resembled the spindlewheels of our world. quite similar to a rainbow but brighter and more pure. the spindle was formed of the same substance and of other precious materials.. he says that an axis traverses the celestial pole like a pillar. A t the extremities of this link was held the spindle of Necessity. The last sphere being that of the stars. they had to depart from it on the eighth and continue further through a four day journey to a place from which one could see a light extending over the whole surface of the sky and earth. like the undergirders of triremes (in order to pre­ vent the structure from falling apart). it is this which gives the oscilla­ tion to all the revolutions of the spheres. to their color and to the speed of their movement in the op­ posite direction to that of the universe. recounts a fable in which.In the epic verses. wishing to exhort justice and virtue..

The spindle turned on the knees of Necessity. sixth and fifth were less of an equal speed. the eighth.” The complete exterior spindle made its revolution in the same direction as the universe.7T he w ord “ Siriazein” . the seventh. that of the eighth (sphere of the moon) bor­ rowed its color and its brilliancy from the seventh. (Toulis) . There were.” This is what Plato says. the seven concentric spindles moved slowly in the opposite direction. we have constructed a sphere accord­ ing to his explanations. and they presented the continuous curved surface of a single spindle around the shaft passing through the center of the first. The movement of the eighth was the most rapid. eight spindle-wheels in all. Their circular rims could be seen from above. Also. like large vessels fitted one inside the other. then that of the sixth. meaning burning. Plato says. to be heard. The circular rim of this exterior spindle was the widest. He says that Sirens are seated on the circles. as it appeared to them. The color of the circles of the seventh and the fifth (Saturn and Hermes) was nearly the same and they were more yellow than the others. resulted a perfect harmony (that is to say a complete octave). from Sirius: a star th a t burns hotly — a burning s tar — also applies to the burning sun when the tw o words are used in conjunction like “T he Sirionic Sun” — w hen the word is used alone. the third and of the second. the third had only the fourth speed and the second had only the fifth. who turned with it and emitted one sound. the poets often call all the 7 . eight in number. a fourth and yet four more of them. therefore. it should be represented as containing in its hollow another smaller spindle-wheel. W e explain this passage in the Commen­ taries on the Republic. the fourth. Finally the sixth (Venus) occupied second place in brilliancy and whiteness. w hich is neither in the dictionaries nor in the Thesaurus o f H enri Estienne. the rim of the seventh (sphere of the sun) was of a very brilliant color. the fifth.1 O f the others.ASTRONOMY 95 Pamphylian. the movements of the seventh. thus some designate the planets themselves by the word “ Siriazein. that it would be useless work to wish to expose these phenom ena w ithout the images which speak to the eyes. the fourth which has a more rapid retrograde movement than the other spindles is third in speed. in the interior. that of the fourth (Mars) was slightly red. appears to be derived from the w ord “ Sirius” . and. shining. diminishing in width in that order. after Adrastus. On each of these circles a Siren was seated. placed one within the other. in fact. which itself received a third. it m eans either the star Sirius o r the flam ing burning heat o f any star. There was thus a third. always the same. the third (Jupiter) had a very white color. From all these sounds. “ The rim of the largest spindle (the sphere of the stars) was of different colors.” to b u rn .

Iphigenia at Aulis. but this is an appearance. Such are the sun and moon which never go towards the zodiac signs which precede. The l8A ratus. it is in reality the true movement of a star which goes to the east in consecutive zodiac signs. The contrary movement is an appropriate motion. says Adrastus. v 331. there are some which are always lagging behind. ac­ cording to Adrastus. the sounds and the accords are produced by their revolutions.” Others designate only particularly rem arkable and brilliant stars. XIX. from C ancer into Leo. and sometimes to move in retrograde motion. 9 v. The station is the apparent state of a planet which seems to stop and remain some time near one of the fixed stars. for example. . THE M O VEM EN TS OF THE PLANETS X VII. It all ap­ pears to be produced in this way. 6-7. XX. X V III. It is for this reason that they necessarily appear sometimes to stop. There are others which move towards the preceding zodiac signs and towards the following signs. according to the Pythagorean doctrine. As for the planets. R etrograde motion is the apparent return of a planet from its station in the opposite direction of its first movement. also these planets never have stations nor retrograde motion. this is not an appearance. Aratus uses the ‘condition’ “ Sirius” to indicate that one star in the constellation of the Dog burns with a lively flame IK and a tragic poet said of a planet.96 ASTRONOMY stars burning “ Siriuses” stars. Thus one reads in Ibycus: “flam ing as the ‘Siriuses’ which shine in the long night. but that. for example. from C ancer to Gemini. of a planet which seems always to go towards the signs which follow at the east. from which results a perfect harmony. XXI. but which are always seen going towards those which follow. 1Euripedes. these are all the other planets. “W hat then is this shining ‘Sirionic’ star which passes above our heads”? Some authors pretend that the stars cannot be taken for the Sirens. Forward m ovement is the apparent m otion of a planet which seems to go towards the preceding zodiac signs to the West. Phenomena. But according to Plato.

He says that the world. X X II. this is why the world has been arranged by the grace of a superior and benevolent cause. The motion of the planets is. A nd it is necessary that it be below. moves in a circular m ovement proper to its spherical form. to be carried back.ASTRONOMY 97 cause is that each planet moves below the stars in a circle or in a sphere of its own. vs. The m o­ tion of the planets has been diversely arranged for the calculation of time and for their return to the perigee and to the apogee. because of the superposition. and also that fire must occupy the opposite place from the etheric es­ sence which moves in a circle.”'20 Indeed there is nothing but generation and decay. And as Adrastus explains. growth and decline. The cir­ cular m otion of the stars is sim ple and unique. and that which is here only follows the motion of higher things incidentally. follow that which is lesser. circular. Between the two elements thus sepa­ rated. but these things are cer­ tainly thus because of that which is best. it is true. most blessed. Em pedocles. but ap­ pear to be neither simple and unique nor uniform and regular. This being 2Cf. And in the sublunar world. water and air. it is regular and uniform. in proportion. most beautiful. One would not say that that which is the most precious. and that this m otion has been initiated by a first propulsion. of the divine. all is change and m o­ tion. alteration in every kind and changing of place. In order th at the m otion of the universe which results from an ac­ tive force and from a divine cause. these are only the different hypotheses on the planets. must lie the others. are the cause of all these phenomena. and as the poet says: “ Here below one sees only wrath and killing and all the other evils. and seems to us. hypotheses rendered probable through their accord with the phenomena. in such a way that that which happens here below com pletely follows this motion. the non-engendered and incorruptible. The planets. It is indeed through these revolutions of the stars that come and go that all things in our world are also changed. m ortal and perishable. the eternal. be circular and always sim ilar to itself. it is necessary that the earth occupy the center around which the m otion is produced. says Adrastus. around us and up to us. in that it is composed of parts as numerous and as diverse as we have singled out. relative to the zodiacal zone which is above. 19 o r 21 0 .

by a simple motion which is appropriate to it. was the first to understand that the planets move accord­ ing to a regulated revolution. by Samson A rnold M ackey. if. an apparently varied and irregular motion. because the nature of things is profoundly changing and is subject to contrary forces. and in the rapid m otion which is appropriate to it. Norwich. it is still necessary that there be a change in all things here below. Here is w hat Adrastus says of the position of the circles or spheres. Their movem ent then will no longer appear varied and unequal. 1823 (W izards 1974) . the movements forward and the returns in height and in latitude. no vicissitudes here below. the tropic o f w inter. bring forth the different seasons and produce all transform ations and all genera­ tions and all alterations in our world.98 ASTRONOMY so. we imagine that the planets move below the im mobile (by hypothesis) zodiac. The m otion takes place around another axis. there would be no change. It is natural and necessary that. X X III. by chance. It takes the planets along with it and describes the parallels that the stars follow. fixed to the cir­ cles themselves or the spheres themselves whose m otion they follow. by a slow er m otion. But the solstices and the equinoxes. Pythagoras. like the fixed stars. the arrangem ent of all the bodies being universally the same. a position which saves the appearances. if the planets were conveyed following parallel circles by the same m o­ tion as the fixed stars. Change is made by the varied m otion of the planets. perpendicular to the zodiac which diverges from the axis o f the stars by the value o f the side of the regular penFo r an explanation o f the spiral precession o f the equinoxes as shown in the zodiacs of the tem ­ ple of D endera (now in the Louvre in Paris) see: Mythological Astronom y o f the Ancients D em on­ strated. but from which results. I say this will be evident. however. by thought. the equatorial circle and the tropic o f sum m er. under the zodiac oblique to the three parallel circles. A double m otion is the cause o f the apparent varied m ovem ent in both directions the starry sphere is conveyed from east to w est around the axis which passes through the poles. the planets. comes from the fact that. The variety presented by the revolutions of the planets. but also of the other planets. but will appear to be accom plished regularly as we have shown through the construction of P lato’s sphere. sim ple and equal. On the other hand. supposing the world to be immobile. In fact. they are conveyed through the zodiac. particularly the sun and the moon. are conveyed from setting to rising in unequal tim es. each of the other celestial bodies be conveyed uniform ly and regularly.

being on the spheres or the different circles by which they are carried. w ithout ever increasing or dim inishing in speed. By chance. B is at the beginning of Cancer. Let us take ABCD as the zodiac. . T his angle is not constant. but is carried along equally in always the same direction. A rie5 C ancer B O C a p ric o rn D F ig 3 C L ib ra 2. Adrastus says that the m otion is uniform when the spaces travelled in equal times are equal. as has been said above. W hat then is the cause of such an apparent behavior? The chief cause is that. but its variation is less th an a half-second p e r year.ASTRONOMY 99 tadecagon. and O as the center of this circle and of the universe. all the planets appear to us to have something irregular. which is at the same time the earth. which have nevertheless a sim ple movem ent of their own.T h e angle a t the cen ter o f the regular pentadecagon has a value o f a fifteenth of 360 o r 24. they appear to m ove on the zodiac as we have already said. However. and AC and BD will be two perpendicular diam eters passing through this point. THE M O V E M E N T OF THE SUN XXVI. The motion is regular when the moving object has neither a station nor a retrograde movement. the sun. then C is at the beginning of Libra and D is at the beginning of C apricorn. If point A is at the beginning of Aries. and certain of them even have some­ thing unruly in their movement. describe several and varied circles. the seven planets. This will become clear for us if we con­ sider the most brilliant and largest of these planets. The angle o f the tw o axes is then 24° according to T heon. It is now 23° 27’. XXV. 2 Plato calls the axis of the planets the ‘shaft of the 1 spindle’ and also the ‘spindle’. XXIV.

If we suppose that point O is at the interior of the solar circle. or an eccentric circle or an epicyclic circle. the appearances will be explained. from the autum n equinox to the winter /z solstice in 88 Ve days. or it will be on the circum ference itself. from the summer solstice to the autum n A equinox in 9 2 1 days. CD. BC. if point O is exterior there is an epicycle. having a regular and uniform course on its own circle. and one would not see the sun turn around the earth at all. in unequal times. that is to say point O. and its greatest is in Sagittarius. a circle around the center of the universe. and for this reason one can con­ sider as futile the discussions of m athem aticians who say that the planets are conveyed only on eccentric circles. we would still be em barrassed by this equality o f the angles at the center and by the sim ilitude o f the arcs. which is absurd. The point O will be interior to the circum fer­ ence. It is then clear th at the sun. to move irregularly. who look at it from point O of our circle ABCD.100 ASTRONOMY The sun is found at A at the spring equinox. Its slowest speed is on entering Gemini. . at C at the autum n equinox and at D at the winter solstice. it is said that the circle is ec­ centric. others only night time. Indeed it moves from the spring equinox to the summer solstice in 9 4 1 days. It travels irregularly. It is natural and necessary as we have said. for the sun would m eet the earth and then some of the ea rth ’s inhabitants would have only daytim e. T here would be neither rising nor setting. the four equal arcs AB. N ow it is im possible that the solar circum ference passes through the point O. It is therefore evident that the cause of this appearance is a different m ovem ent which does not occur around the center O. that all divine crea­ tions (the stars) have a uniform and regular motion. it would be divided in the same relationships by the diam eters AC and BD. will appear to us. If then this circle were to have the same center as that of the universe. and from the winter solstice to the spring equinox in 90Vs days. or it will be ex­ terior. DA. or on epicycles or around the same center as the starry sphere. but not at the center. W hichever hypothesis one chooses. It remains then to suppose the point O to be at the interior or at the exterior of the solar circle. so that it travels yearly the entire circle in approxim ately 365'A days. at B at the sum m er solstice. in Virgo and Pisces it has an average speed. W e will dem onstrate that the planets describe by chance these three kinds of circles.

Let us suppose first of all that the eccentric solar circle EFGH is situated in such a way as to have its center under the arc EF. in the space of 9474 days. in the space of 927a days which corresponds to the num ber of divisions in the arc. It will seem to us that it travelled the arc BC. it will appear to us at A. GH 88 Vs. It is evident that when the sun is at E. Then. at point M.ASTRONOMY 101 c THE EC C ENTRIC CIRCLE XX V I (1). There it will appear to us at B and it will seem to have ir­ regularly travelled by a num ber of days different (from a quarter of 365 74 days) the arc AB which is a quarter of the zodiac. the second in size of its own circle. regularly passing through the arc EF which is the largest of the four divisions of its own circle. it will be found at G and will still appear to us in C. to us that is who see it at a straight line from point O. a quarter of the zodiac. . FG 9272. and HE 9 0 7 s . Let us again suppose that the circle is divided into 36574 equal parts. irregularly. Likewise when it travels the arc FG. and that arc EF contains 9 4 7 a . as many days as there are divisions of the arc. in fewer days. equal to the preceding one. for example. it will a r­ rive at F.

but the arc Er and pG are equal. perpendicular to each other and joining FM and ME. in 88 Ve days.Let us now extend through point M the straight lines rp and qs. for the same reason. respectively parallel to the lines AC and BD. equal to the others and that it returned to A. Finally. The circle EFGH is therefore given in position and in size. But if. The line OM joins the centers of the universe and of the solar circle. the sun at V will be at its greatest distance from the earth. it < is evident that the arc EFG contains 187 parts and the arc G H E contains 178V» parts. pq. and returning to E. Such is the treatm ent by the eccentric circle. equal to the preceding arc. it will seem to us that in 90 and Vs days it tra­ velled the arc DA. “ Because 91 + + Vie is a q u arter o f 365 X • U . that the relationship of the line OM to MV is nearly that of 1 to 24. joining the centers O and M by a straight line. The position and size of circle EFGH is given. It is in this way that all the appearances will be explained. The latter seems to occur at 572 degrees of Sagittarius. as are the arcs qF and sH. when it travels HE in 90 and Vs days. in a fewer num ber of days. that is to say from M t to Ot is given and the triangle MtO is given in form. the number of days equal to the number of divisons of the arc. It will seem to us to have travelled the arc CD.102 ASTRONOMY Similarly. Thus. when it travels the arc GH. qr is repre­ sented by 91 divisions + + V ie2' . it appears to have its minimum size and speed. it will seem to travel the zodiacal circle irregularly. the num ber equal to the divisions of the arc. a treatm ent which saves (explains) all the phenom ena. we will have MV = MW. since M is the center of the circle EFGH. This phenom enon appears to be produced at about 5V2 degrees of Gemini. and extending this line to both sides. the sm allest of the four divi­ sions of the circle. it will be at H and it will appear to be in D to us who ob­ serve it from point O. because one of these points is at the greatest distance from the earth and the other at the smallest. It is for this reason that travelling its circle uniformly. Arriving at W. But the center O of the universe is also given in relation to the two points V and W. And with reason it appears to have an average size and speed when it oc­ cupies the same degrees in Pisces and in Virgo. The angle rMV is therefore 2 given. The circle EFGH is being divided into 365 V parts. each of the arcs sp. It is found by the consideration of the dis­ tances and sizes. furtherm ore. and for us who are at point O. and is equal to the angle OMt. it will be at its sm allest distance from the earth and it will appear to have its maximum size and speed.

W hen it travels through the arc FEH. The circle then moves. but would always produce day for those who are above the earth and always night for those who are below. let us draw lines OFV and OHN tangent to the circle EFGH. it is with an equal speed or a greater or lesser one. arriving at F. its setting. The circle EFGH will be either immobile or it will itself move while the sun turns around it. and when carried on to H it will appear to be at N. If it turns in the same direction. H e re is now the ex p lan a tio n acco rd in g to the epicycle. The starry sphere moves from rising B to meridian A. then from point A to D. it would appear to be at V and when at E it would appear to be at A. when it . In relationship to ourselves and in a single (diurnal) revolution of the universe. Then. it would appear to travel through all the signs. and in moving it is carried either in the same direction as the universe or in the opposite direction.ASTRONOMY 103 THE EPIC YC LE XX V I (2). This is contrary to the facts. The sun will al­ ways appear to come and go within the arc VAN of the zodiac. In fact. Supposing that it moves with the same speed. If it were im mobile it is clear that the sun would appear neither to rise nor to set. Again let us take the zodiac ABCD and the solar circle EFGH which is exterior to the center of the universe O. it will appear to de­ scribe the arc VAN towards the signs which precede.

It is then evident that the circle EFGH moves in the same direc­ tion as the universe with a lesser speed.104 ASTRONOMY travels the arc HGF. it will appear to move through the arc NAV towards the signs which follow. How then does this save (explain) the phenom ena? Taking M as the center o f the solar circle. transverses it in the space of one year. . or that it m oves in an inverse direction to that of the universe. This is why it appears to be left behind and to pass into the signs which follow. and the sun also achieves its revolution in the same am ount o f time. It is thus that it appears to pass into the signs which follow. However. regularly carried on the circle M rVW . so that it ap­ pears to have a movement of its own contrary to that of the universe.23 so that the center. above. A and that it is left behind because o f its slow er speed. The solar circle EFGH is not carried therefore in the same direc­ tion as the universe with the same speed. Furtherm ore it does not have a greater speed. XVIII. being in some way left behind. this is not what happens. from rising to setting. which appears to P lato as more probable. everything being conveyed each day in the same direc­ tion. which is not the case. because then it would appear to overtake the stars and travel through the zodiac in an inverse direction. and let us suppose that the circle E FG H is carried from east to w est at the sam e time as the universe. let us describe the circle M rVW from the center O with the radius OM . with a "Cf. that is from Aries to Pisces and Aquarius.

It will therefore be at point p and appear to us as being at s. its circle will be carried to XR and the sun. and since it will have described the arc E F . being carried on the circle MrVW in a m ovement contrary to that of the universe. It is clear that A will be at 5l i degrees o f Gem ini24. X X V I. from point H to point E and from point E to point F. and to be hastening to arrive at A. a q u arter of the circum ference o f the circle M rVW . a quarter of the circumference. arriving at E . Now. In addition. and the sun itself having described a sim ilar arc X R will return to E and will appear to be at A. less than a quarter of the zodiac. it will be furthest away from us. therefore C / will be at 5Vi degrees of Sagittarius. and to be slowly ap­ proaching point C. and th at the whole of the circle E FG H is carried to N pt. The cen ter r will next describe the arc rV . a quarter of its own circle. hav­ ing described a quarter of the circumference. the sun will move on the circle EFGH in the same direction as the universe and this would explain the phenomena. regularly conveyed in the same direction. but in the same direction as its own circle. a quarter of the cir­ cumference. It is therefore evident that in its move24See III. in the same direction as its own circle.ASTRONOMY 105 regular movement. Finally the center W. L et us suppose that point M. I assert that the circle EFGH. that is to say from E to F . The sun. larger than a quarter of the circumference. describing the arc W M . and the circles Np and yV will be formed and the sun will travel through the arc pt. a quarter of the circum ­ ference. that is to say. sometimes in the same direction as the universe and some­ times in the opposite direction. less than a quarter of the circumference. and to be rapidly moving from point A. the cen ter of the solar circle.will re-establish the circle HR on EFGH. T hen. Then also it will seem to have described an arc KDA of zodiac. arriving at V while appearing to us to be at C. L et us first of all suppose that it be carried in a m ovem ent contrary to that of the universe. 6) and from F to G and from G to H. . it will appear to have traversed the arc ABs which is greater than a quarter o f the zodiac. and seeming to have traversed the arc sC. the sun will be carried on the circle EFGH. A fter point V has traversed the quarter VW of the circumference. (Fig. while appearing to be at point K and seeming to have described the arc CK. and to be slowly coming from point C. will be at point R. describes by a regular m ovem ent the arc M r. will describe the arc EF of the circum ference o f the circle E F G H .

It will then be at i and appear to be at C. a quarter of the circumference of the concentric circle. and the sun moves on it in the same direction as the fixed stars. let us suppose that the center of the epicycle describes the arc Mr. and will therefore be at N and will appear to us to be at s. It remains to examine the case in which the epicycle has a move­ ment contrary to that of the universe. (Fig. greater than a quarter of the circumference. W hile the solar circle is carried on the circumference of the concentric circle MRVW in an inverse direction to that of the universe.) A Indeed. and if the circle iy .(saved. 7) Then the center r will describe a quarter of the circum ference rV and the sun will describe the sim ilar arc Np of the epicycle. But on the zodiac it will seem to have travelled the sm aller arc As at a low speed starting from point A. having travelled through an arc equal to a quarter of its own circle. This is. and that it carries the epicycle with it to Np. the sun therefore cannot move on the epicyle in the same direction as this circle and in an inverse direction to the universe. the arc of the zodiac sBC. the contrary of what is ob­ served. If V were transported to W.106 ASTRONOMY ment it will appear to have a greater speed in Gemini and a slower speed in Sagittarius. In this way the phenom ena will be explained. however. The sun will have to de­ scribe the arc sim ilar to EH on the epicycle. It would seem to have travelled at an increasing speed towards C. the arc VW being a quarter of the circumference.

One can find the size of the epicycle and the relationship of the distance betw een the centers to the diam eter EG of the epicycle EFG H . . In moving to p during the time that the epicycle passes from r to V. following this hypothesis. This relationship is the inverse of the preceding25 since it is equal to the relationship of 24 to 1. In this way A drastus shows that the phenom ena are explained by the tw o hypotheses. in passing from X to R while the epicycle passes from W to M. In this way. the sun. obtained by the consideration of the distances and sizes. transported in a contrary direction to that of the movement of its own circle.ASTRONOMY 107 were applied on the circle XR. the smallest distance is OV and the difference between these two distances is equal to the diam eter of the epicycle. ap­ pears to advance on the zodiac in a movement which is in some way coincident with its own. But on the other hand. the epicycle XR will return EFGH and the sun. larger than a quarter of the circumference. X X V I. will appear to accomplish its path on the zodiac slowly. all the phenom ena are explained. the sun. describing the sim ilar remaining arc XR will be reestablished at E. It would seem to have travelled the arc CDK of the zodiac. as if overtaking its own circle. If the center travels the remaining arc WM. H ipparchus m ade the rem ark that the reason why the 2 Cf. and to have passed rapidly from C to D. Similarly. and will appear to be at K. and to be slowly approaching A. It will appear to be at A and will seem to have travelled the arc KA sm aller than a quarter of the circum ­ ference. . the circle EFG H of the planet moving on a concentric circle which is MrVW. transported from V to y during the time that the epicycle passes from V to W. for the sun will appear to move more slowly and to be sm aller towards 5 V2 degrees of Gemini and to move more quickly and be larger towards the sam e degree of S agittarius. in describing the arc Vy sim ilar to the preceding one. for if it passes from point E to point H while the center o f the circle itself passes from M to r having a m ovem ent contrary (to that of its own circle) . which goes in the same direction as the epicycle. The greatest distance from the sun to the earth is O E. the sun. will be at X. 5 . (1). Such is the explanation using the epicycle. it will appear to increase speed in the zodiac. This in conform ity w ith the phenom ena. that o f the eccentric circles and that o f the epicycle.

in such a way that the point A is on the 5 V2 degree of Gemini and C is on the same degree of Sagittarius. V.108 ASTRONOMY same phenom ena follow from such different hypotheses. the hypothesis of the epicycle is also a consequence of that o f the eccentric circle. A drastus has shown that the hypothesis of the eccentric circle is a consequence of that of the epicycle. perpendicular to each other. I assert that if the center M uniformly travels the circum ference of the hom ocentric circle MrVW in a movement contrary to that of the universe. will also describe the eccentric circle equal to the concentric circle MrVW. and W. draw the circles Npt. is w orthy o f the attention of the m athem atician. and from the centers r. with the radius OM the circle MrVW . that of eccentric circles and that of concentric circles and of epicycles. Let us take the zodiac ABCD with O as the center of the universe. and EFGH the epicycle of the sun with M as its center. it will happen that the sun. iqy and X Rz perpendicu­ . Let us then draw the diameters of the zodiac AC and BD. and carrying with it the epicycle. travelling the epicycle EH G F at the same time in a uniform m ovement in the same direction as the universe. but I say further that. Let us de­ scribe from the center O.

ASTRONOMY 109 lar to the diam eter BD. will be the nearest. having consequently described the sim ilar arc iX of the eccentric circle. therefore it also equals sE and Os = iV and line Oi is com m on. this is w hat it was necessary to p ro v e. rV and the sun travels the similar arc Nt of the epicycle. But Ov = OM . on the epicycle E F G H . And finally let us draw the straight line NX. Both line Es and line si are there­ fore equal to the radius o f the arc VW.26 26A ssum ing th at the sun uniform ly describ es the epicycle in the direction of the diurnal m ovem ent. Thus the circle described from the center s with a radius equal to one of these lines will pass through points ENiX and be equal to the circle MrVW . It will therefore describe at the same time the remaining sim ilar arc XE of the eccentric circle. while point W travels the arc WM. Let us describe this circle and suppose that it be ENiX. therefore it will be at i and consequently describe the sim ilar arc Ni of the eccentric circle. at 5Vi degrees o f Saggitarius. and the point which is projected at C. and the sun at the same time will describe the sim ilar arc EH of the epicycle and will arrive at N and then from E to N . w hile the c e n te r o f the epicycle uniform ly describ es the concentric circle in the opposite d irectio n . sX are equal and perpendicular to each other. The center once more describes the quarter of the circum ference. will naturally describe the eccentric circle ENiX. Finally. at 5Vi degrees of Gemini. during the time that point V describes arc VW. will be the furthest point from earth . In fact. and will then be at X. but he does not d e m o n strate th a t the sun is on the eccentric circle at the interm ediary points. I assert that the sun. It will be eccentric. the sun describes an eccentric circle. The lines NX and rW are equal and parallel to each other. X. having travelled through the quarter En of the eccentric circle. it will also be equal to both line iV and ME. sN . and the point which is projected at A. N . It will be divided into four equal parts by the diam eters Ei and NX. Thus in travelling the whole epicycle uniform ly while the epicycle is carried on the concentric circle. the sun will travel the similar arc iy o f the epicycle. Therefore si = OV. T h eo n d em o n strates th at the sun is found on the eccentric circle at points E . moving as has been supposed. the center of the epicycle described the arc M r. therefore the four lines sE. Similarly. a qu arter of the circum ference. i. si. the sun having described the arc Xz will return to E. Lines Ns and sX are therefore respectively equal to the lines rO and OW which are the radii of the circle MrVW. But it has been shown that each of the lines Ns and sX is equal to the radius o f the circle. And since line Os is equal to rN . .

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The same proposition is dem onstrated in this manner: we have the zodiac ABCD and the solar epicycle EFH having its center on the circumference of the circle MrVW which is concentric around the center O of the universe. We also have point E, the point furthest from the earth, at 5 Va degrees of Gemini. I propose that the epicycle HE, being carried on the circumference of the circle MrVW by a uniform movement which is opposite to that of the universe, and the sun, travelling the epicycle EFH at the same time in a uniform movement which is opposite to that of the epicycle and consequently in the same direction as the universe, will then describe an eccentric circle equal to the concentric circle MrVW. Let us now suppose that the center M has described any arc Mr, and that the epicycle has arrived at pqX. The sun, starting from point E, that is to say from point q, will have described at the same time arc qp, sim ilar to arc Mr. Let us take the line OG, equal to the radius M E and draw the lines G p and Oq. Since the arc qp is sim ilar to the arc rM, the angle y is equal to the angle t. 27 Thus line pr is parallel to OG, and is also equal to it; the line pG is then equal and parallel to line rO. Now line O r is equal to line GE. Thus line Gp is equal to line GE. Therefore the circle described from the center G with radius GE, will pass through p and will be equal to the circle MrVW. Let us describe the circle EpNiW (from the center G, with Gp = GE for radius); this circle will be eccentric. Since pG is parallel to
27T heon designates the angle q rp by y and the angle rOM by t.

ASTRONOMY

qO, angle y will be equal to angle t, that is to say to pGE, the arc Ep is therefore sim ilar to arc pq (of the epicycle pqX). The sun, start­ ing from point E, will consequently describe the sim ilar arc Ep of the eccentric circle. One could likewise dem onstrate that it is al­ ways thus, so that the sun, having travelled the entire epicycle, pro­ pelling itself on a concentric circle, describes also a whole ec­ centric circle. This is what had to be demonstrated. The converse proposition can also be dem onstrated. Let us again take the zodiac ABCD whose diam eter is AC and whose center is O, and again the eccentric circle of the sun ENiW, point E being furthest from the center of the earth, under 5 V2 degrees of Gemini, and its center G on the line AO. 2 Let us describe from the center B O, with the radius GE, the circle MrVW , and from the center M with the radius ME, the circle EFH. It is clear that this will be the same as the epicycle. I propose then that the sun uniformly de­ scribes the circumference ENiW of the eccentric circle, and will consequently also describe the epicycle EFH carried uniformly at the same time on the concentric circle MrVW. Let us indeed suppose that the sun has described any arc Ep of the eccentric circle. Let us draw line pG and its parallel Oq. W e take rq equal to OG and draw pr. Since the lines Gp and Or are equal and parallel, lines GO, and pr will also be equal and parallel. But we have OG = ME, therefore rq = rp, thus the circle described from the center r with radius rq will pass through point p and will be the same as the epicycle EFH. Let us describe this circle pqX. Because of the parallelism of the lines (rp and OG) the angles t and y are equal But in circles, sim ilar arcs correspond to equal angles, and in equal circles, equal arcs correspond to equal angles, whether these angles be at the center or the circumference. Therefore, the arcs qp, Ep and M r are equal. Therefore, in the same time as the sun travels the arc Ep of the ec­ centric circle, the center M of the epicycle, describing the arc Mr, will carry the epicycle EFH to pqx, and the sun having travelled the arc Ep of the eccentric circle starting from point E, that is to say from point q, will describe the sim ilar arc qp of the epicycle. It can be dem onstrated that it is thus for the whole movement. Therefore, in travelling the entire eccentric circle, the sun also describes the entire epicycle. This is what it was necessary to demonstrate. X X V II. The same dem onstrations can be applied to the other planets. The sun appears to make all these movements, in both hy28R efer again to Fig. 9.

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potheses, with regularity, for the times of its return to the same longitude, to the same latitude, and to the same distance which produces the irregularity called anom aly, are so little different from each other that most m athem aticians regard them as equal 365 l/i days. Thus, when one attentively considers the time of the return in longitude during which the sun travels the zodiac, going from one point back to the same point, from one solstice to the same solstice, or from one equinox to the same equinox, it is very close to the time noted above, so that at the end of four years, the return to a point at the same longitude occurs at the same hour. As for the time of the anom aly after which the sun, at the point furthest from the earth, appears smallest and slowest in its move­ ment towards the following zodiac signs, or after which, at the point closest to the earth, it appears to have the largest diam eter and the greatest speed, it is close to 365 V2 days, so that at the end of two years the sun appears to return to the same distance at the same hour. Finally, the time of its return in latitude, the time after which, starting from the extreme north or south point, it returns to the same point in such a way as to give the same shadow-lengths on the sundials, is 365 Vs days. Consequently, it might be said that at the end of eight years, it will return at the same hour to the same point of latitude. X X V III. R egarding each of the other planets, we have said that their various times vary greatly, some are longer, some are shorter. The durations of the returns appears so much the more variable and changing in one hypothesis as in the next, that it is not in the same lapse of time that each planet travels its epicycle and the epicycle its concentric circle (in the zodiac): the movements are more rapid for some and slower for others by reason of the ine­ quality of the circles, of the inequality of the distances from the center o f the universe and of the differences of obliquity with respect to the circle of the middle of the zodiac signs, that is to say, o f the differences o f inclination and o f position. XXIX. As a result, it happens that for all the planets, the stations and the returns, whether towards the preceding zodiac signs or the following zodiac signs, do not occur in a sim ilar manner. One ob­ serves the phenom enon for the five planets, but in a m anner which is not absolutely similar. For the sun and the moon, it does not oc­ cur at all; indeed these two never appear to advance, nor to remain stationary, nor to retrogress. As we have said, the sun appears to be

ASTRONOMY 113 carried on its own circle in the same time as the epicycle on the concentric circle. than it itself travels the epicycle. XXX. I understand in addi­ tion that the concentric circle carries on its circumference the center M of the epicycle EFGH and that this epicycle which carries the planet to point E. not in the opposite direction from the universe. as it has been explained. Thus I understand that the concentric circle MNVW moves around O. I understand that the con­ centric circles. turns around the center M in the same direc­ tion as the universe. this circle ENiW. but carried in the same direc- . and that the epicycles carrying the planets also move around their own cen­ ters. (fig. or in the opposite direction if one considers the other planets. Considered in relation to the sun. It is clear that it m atters little for interpreting the phenom ena. In this way we can safely arrive at an explanation of these phenomena. carrying the centers of the epicycles. if the center H moves by itself. m 4 h G \ O V F ig 10 According to the other interpretation. ex­ plains the phenomena. and carrying the sun fixed at point E. we have the eccentric cir­ cle ENiW which has point H for its center. that the planets move on circles or whether the circles which carry these stars move around their own centers. whereas the epicycle of the moon is carried more rapidly on the concentric circle through the zodiac. in the opposite direction from the universe. if it is a question of the sun and the moon. w hether one says. move around their own centers in the direction contrary to the universe. moving uniformly in the space of one year around the center H. 10) which is its own center and that of the universe.

occurs at 5 V2 degrees of Gemini. carried to where point i is now. Between these two extreme points it will be found at the middle of the distance in Virgo and Pisces. If one takes the correct and particular times of each planet. In fact. C onsidering only the . In this way. in this position of the circle. will appear to us in Sagittarius at the sm allest distance from the earth. as has been said. carrying the fixed star on its circumference at point E. is the farthest from the earth. and the sm allest at the same degree of Sagittarius. where the sun is placed. the phenomena will be explained. and if each day it describes the circle Hqp equal to the circle in the other argument. seen under Gemini. All of this carries us too far away under the pretext of reconciling the argum ents o f m athem aticians. From the center O of the universe and from the radius OH. the sm allest and the mean distances from the earth. and that they can have their minimum. the point E. The largest. As for the other planets. let us imagine that one describes the circle Hpq. the sun will always present at the same respective places. and the m iddle at the same degree of Virgo and Pisces. then that the con­ centric circle equal to the epicycle of the hypothesis turns around the center O of the universe and that it carries with it the center H of the eccentric circle in a movement contrary to the universe and in a determ ined time.114 ASTRONOMY tion. the sm allest or the mean distance from the earth. it is at every place in the zodiac that they can be at the greatest. the point E of the eccentric circle. maximum or mean speed. but the circle turns around the center H. indeed. and finally that the eccentric circle ENiW moves in a different time around its center H.

Meteorology. some are larger. others sm aller. som e moving in the sam e direction as the universe. these m athem aticians investigated with ardour the principles and the hypotheses which would explain the phenom ena. other full ones are inside them. and the planets which are fixed there in the m anner of the stars.3 1 XXX I. Aristotle.ASTRONOMY 115 phenom ena and the planetary movements produced according to the course of things. W hat in fact concurs with natural science is that the stars are neither carried in the sam e m anner by certain circular or spiraling curves in a contrary m ovem ent to that of the universe. as we shall see a little further on. the spheres of the fifth body 34 move in the depths of the sky. but rather. 0 3lEpinom is p. 34This fifth body is the ether. .2S Thus they came to confirm the observed facts and to predict the coming phenomena. 3A risto tle. are carried by a sim ple m ovement but with unequal speeds depending on the location. Cf. B iot. and th at they neither turn nor revolve. P lato says so in the Epinomis. that the num erous fixed stars are carried on one and the same sphere. som e moving in the opposite direction. J o u rn a ld e s S a v a n ts. Through an effect which is the 2Cf. Chaldea and in Egypt. in carrying the various stars fixed to their circum ferences. 32Treatise On the Heavens. A ristotle. the Chaldeans with the aid of arithm etic methods. M e ta p h y sic s. X II. He again says in the X lth book33 that according to E udoxus and C allipus. 9.™ all by imperfect methods and w ithout a sufficient science of natural laws. 1 and Meteorology. some are hollow. 3 1073 b. nor do these circles rotate around their centers. after having observed them for a long time under favorable conditions in Babylonia. treatise On the H eavens II. in his treatise On the H eavens*1 speaks a great deal of the stars in general and shows that they neither move across the tranquil ether nor with the ether in any independent or separate way. the Egyptians by graphic methods. I. How could it indeed be that such bodies w ere attached to incorporeal circles? According to the phenom ena. Those who have studied astronom y with the Greeks have tried to do so by utilizing their principles and their observations. for it is necessary also to discuss the facts from the physical point of view. the exterior sphere. 1850. some are less high. V I. II. 987 a. 199. giving his own words. p. X I. U 3 Cf.I. and each planet is carried by several spheres. A ristotle. 3. the planets are put in m otion with the aid o f certain spheres. 7. some are higher.

Such is his opinion or that of the others (Eudoxus and Callippus). sometimes at a greater distance. if one wants to account for the phenom ena. sometimes more to the south of the circle which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac. sometimes more to the north. except to Saturn and Jupiter. there are some evidently solid spheres which. Each of the other planets is carried by four spheres. one supposed that in the intervals of the conferring spheres (that is to say those carrying the planets). it follows that they appear more or less far from earth. cause the conferring spheres they contact to turn in the opposite direction. A ristotle says that those before him supposed them each to be carried by several spheres. one of which produces the m ovement of the planet in height. one nevertheless saw the planets going in the opposite direction. sometimes more to the south. The second moves around the axis perpen­ dicular to the circle of the m iddle of the zodiac signs. By the latter. by their own movement. sometimes at a sm aller. sometimes more to the north. As we see them carried each day by the motion of the universe from east to west and passing through the consecutive zodiac signs in their course along the obliquity of the zodiac. He also thinks that. or else placed on other circles. are necessary for each of the planets. and only one to each of the others. It is by this sphere that each planet appears to execute a m ovem ent in longitude towards the zodiac signs that follow. The third rotates around the axis perpendicular to the circle. they appear to move variously and describe certain eccentric circles. also. Eudoxus says that the sun and the moon are supported on three spheres: the first is that of the fixed stars which rotate around the poles of the universe and forcibly draws all the others with it from the rising to the setting. each star appears to have its own movement in latitude. they appear to describe spirals in consequence of which the m athematicians. in the same way that with mechanical gears. sometimes higher. A ristotle says that C allippus added new spheres to the other planets. If one thought that it is natural that everything be carried in the same direction. oblique to that of the m iddle of the zodiac signs. think that they were transformed. that is to say two to the sun and the moon. sometimes lower. other lesser spheres than one of the spheres that carries the rotating ones. by their .116 ASTRONOMY consequence of all these movements. can. misled by the retrograde movement. wheels rotating around their axes.

it is time for a short elaboration on the figure which appears to us to be necessary for the construction of the spheres. some concentric. cause a turning and rotating in the opposite direction of the bodies adjacent and in con­ tact. others less so and in the opposite direction. some are carried more quickly. AE. around their own axes oblique to that of the sphere of the stars. which is the consequence of the m ovement of the spheres. because of the level which they occupy. that they appear to accom plish combined. Let us suppose that ABCD is a large cir­ cle and that it passes through the m iddle of the zodiac. AC and BD its two (perpendicular) diameters. carried along by the exterior sphere.ASTRONOMY 117 own m ovement and by the aid of geared teeth. is its thickness. A Let us take ABCD as the hollow sphere of the stars around the center O of the universe. irregular and varied movements. others eccentric or epicycles. W e have underneath the first. their place and their size. It is quite natural that all the spheres move in the same direction. For the understanding of what we say. the hollow sphere Eqst. Thus the stars that they carry are brought along by the simple and regular m ovement of the spheres and it is only through an effect. but by an appropri­ ate movement. XXX II. they describe several circles. then pXiR of a planet .

it can be seen that the sphere of the stars turns around the axis perpendicular to the plane of the equatorial circle. turning regularly around its own axis. equal to the concentric circle. it has travelled the entire sphere of the stars in this opposite direction. will have left the sphere of the stars behind. It is evident that in the time that the hollow sphere of the planet. Finally we have. It is also evident that the planet placed at point E on the solid sphere will describe (in the same am ount of time) the circle EGpF which becomes the epicycle of the concentric circle MNVW and turns in the same direction as the universe. A ll are carried regularly in the same direction by the simple movements from east to west. the hollow sphere of the planet turns more slowly and in the opposite direction. the center M of the solid sphere will travel the con­ centric circle MNVW. moving in the opposite direction. with the radius HE. in such a way that in a determ ined time.118 ASTRONOMY having the same center and Ep for thickness. carried in the same direction as the starry sphere. comes back to the same point. And now. and from the center H. w ith­ in this thickness. It will consequently also describe the eccentric circle ENiW. travelling in it in the direc­ tion contrary to that of the universe. appearing to be conveyed in the opposite direction and carrying along this solid sphere. the entire sphere of the stars. let us describe from the center O the circle MNVW having the radius OM. for the two hypotheses account for the phenomena. describe the circle ENVW. and obli­ que to that which passes through the middle of the zodiac. Taking M for the center of the sphere. in the same time that the hollow sphere of the planet will have tra­ velled. The solid sphere. and that which produces the m ovement of the planet in latitude alone turns in the opposite direction or in the same direction provided that it remains behind due to its slowness. the solid sphere EFpG carrying an errant star a t­ tached at point E. . or it is left behind as others would have it — we have said elsewhere that this is the most likely opinion — and it carries the solid sphere supporting the errant star. Further the sphere of the stars turns very rapidly. and ) that the hollow sphere of the planet turns around the axis perpen\ dicular to the circle producing the m ovement in latitude. or that it will have left it more or less behind. Let us divide the line Ei in two equal parts at point H. carrying the solid sphere. Let us first of all suppose that it returns in the same am ount of time. eccentric with regard to the universe.

that is to say at y and K. the planet appears sometimes further away and consequently . the center of the solid sphere will be at point V of the line OC and the planet it­ self will be seen at point C. It is produced towards the following zodiac signs. com plex and unequal. the center of the solid sphere being at point M of the line AO. and the planet itself being at the point E. as far as our senses can perceive them. since the times of its returns. are found to be equal to one another or nearly so — I speak of the duration of its returns to the same longitude. It will also ap­ pear to move in latitude and in proportion to the inclination of its plane on the circle which passes through the middle of the zodiac signs. All this is apparent for the sun. through sim ilar movements. because of the changing of the spheres into the op­ posite direction. A t the opposite point it will always be least far from the earth and will appear to move most rapidly: this is at point C of the zodiac. Such a m ovem ent of the planets and the spheres is naturally regu­ lar. it will be at point i. are the same as N and W which divide the eccentric circle ENiW and the con­ centric circle MNVW into two equal parts and appear in the zodiac between the points A and C at B and D. because of its slowness the planet appears to be left behind by the sphere of the fixed stars. or because of their lesser movement. and orderly. A single sphere moves in the opposite direction. It appears oblique to the zodiac and because of the rotation of the solid sphere around its own axis.ASTRONOMY It will therefore appear to observers at O to describe the zodiac ABCD. advancing towards the following zodiac signs in the op­ posite direction from the movement of the universe. to the same latitude. It is always at the same place that it will be the furthest from earth and that it will appear to move the most slowly: this is at point A of the zodiac. These points are F and G which. and to the same d istance— the sim ilar points of the two spheres are always found. However. simple. The hollow sphere turning in the opposite direction. either actually or by conse­ quence of a slower displacement. the axes of these spheres being respectively perpendicular to these planes. it is this which bears the solid sphere called the epicyle. It will have mean distances and mean movements at two places: when it is at the points which divide the epicycle EFpG and the concentric circle MNVW into two equal parts. but it is oblique to the zodiac and. at the same places and appear in the same zodiac signs. that is to say. the m otion appears varied.

as we have said. It evidently conforms to reason that there be an accord between the two hypotheses of the m athem aticians on the motions of the stars. and that the solid sphere in turn carries the star on its surface. Venus and Hermes. and sometimes nearer and consequently anim ated by a greater speed. the planets in their movements by chance do not even ap­ pear to describe circles. It could also be possible that there be a single hollow sphere common to the three stars and that the three solid spheres in its thickness have one and the same center. it is made following the epicyle and then it appears to be made following the eccentric. but ceaselessly changing place. th at of Herm es being larger. the sphere of the fixed stars and that of the solid spheres have their centers on the same straight line. therefore. around which would be that of . which was the object of H ipparchus’s adm iration. In a word. the movement appears unequal. to believe that each planet has its own hollow sphere which carries a solid sphere in its thickness. the sim ilar movements appear. In addition. anim ated at the same speed. It is necessary. the obliquity of the spheres not occurr­ ing at the same latitude. sometimes at one point. are not always made at the same places. and likewise the variable speeds will be produced in all the signs of the zodiac. sometimes at another. the sphere of the sun being the sm allest. and the times of the returns to the same longitude. to change place. X X X III. in the contrary direction. and the largest. but spirals. The hollow sphere remains behind that of the stars or goes in the opposite direction more or less rapidly. although accom plished on sim ilar points of the spheres. and that the hollow spheres of the three stars. The sm allest w ould be the truly solid sphere of the sun. that of the epicycle. since the m otion of its spheres is accom plished in exactly equal times. particu­ larly for the sun. and that of Venus being still larger. the sm allest and the mean distances. because the solid sphere of the planet does not return in the §ame time to the same position. For the other planets there is not the same exactitude. it is possible that each of these stars has two spheres of its own. so that their sim ilar movements. As for the Sun. travel in the same time. although they occur at the same points of the spheres. latitude and distance being unequal and variable.120 ASTRONOMY slower. and that of the eccentric circle: both accord by chance with w hat is in conform ity with the nature of things.

it is so to say the heart of the universe. fortuitous and m ortal. This is why these three stars are left behind on the zodiac. will be in the sun which is in som e way the heart of the universe and in w hich it is said the soul o f the world took birth in order to p enetrate and extend itself to its furthest ends. persuaded that the phenom enon was produced in this way. Hermes has a distance from the sun of at most twenty degrees on one or the other side of it at the setting and rising. X X X IV . both humans and alive. H ipparchus. w hereas the eccentric circle differs entirely from the circle which is in conform ity with nature and is rath er described by chance. essentially hot. the center of life is in the always warm and always moving heart. The center of our body is different: it is situated towards the navel. if we judge the largest. the one which a planet describes in its m ovem ent on this sphere. is different from the center of the body. is the w orld’s hearth. that is to say. that for the reasons explained. or execute a motion in longitude in the opposite direction to the diurnal movement and at the same speed without having other sim ilar motion. mutually passing each other and eclipsing each other. each of which is a consequence of the other. for us who are. the center of the body of the universal w orld will be the cold and im mobile earth. as we have said. like the sm allest.ASTRONOMY 121 Hermes. as with an anim al. because of its movement. Likewise. the cause of life and of all m ovement from one place to another. the source of our desires. F or the epicycle is a large circle o f the solid sphere. It is clear then. its size and the common course of the surrounding stars. and because of this the source of all the faculties of the soul. and Venus of 50 degrees at most. F or exam ­ ple. as a living thing. It will be understood that this position and this order are all the more true as the sun. most worthy and most divine things. m ost universal and m ost consistent with the nature of things. judging it as world and as a living thing. vaunts the hypothesis of the epicycle as his ow n and says that it is probable that all the celestial bodies are uniform ly placed with respect to the cen ter of . They always appear neighboring. the life center. but the cen ter o f the world. of the anim al. of the two hypotheses. and for the world. of our im agination and intelligence. F or in anim ate beings. then that of Venus would come after encircling the other two and filling up the whole thickness of the common hollow sphere. that of the epicycle appears m ost com m on.

] XXXV. Plato appears also to prefer the hypothesis o f the epicycle. but of circles which carry the planets. as he indicates at the end o f the Republic in imagining spindle-wheels inside one another. It is necessary to show how it is that several planets ap­ pear sometimes to advance. and the planets. But he himself. says Aristotle. placed on other circles. deceived by the retrograde m ovement thought they were transform ed into. He thinks that it is not of spheres. for they appear to do all these things. others less so. they appear to move diversely and to describe certain eccentric circles. H e hypothesizes that the epicycle of each planet moves on the concentric circle and that the planet moves on the epicycle. not knowing sufficient natural science. Through an effect which is the consequence of all these movements. Some are high­ er. and around the poles instead o f around the axes. are carried in a simple movement. He uses these term s in com ­ mon: he often says circles instead of spheres. which are fixed to them in the m anner of the stars. the spheres of the fifth body (the ether) move in the depths of the sky. they appear to describe the spirals follow ­ ing which. others sm aller. did not understand which is the true m ovement of the stars in accord with the nature of things. with other full ones inside them. m athem aticians. [According to the appearances. and which is the m ovem ent which is by chance and is but an appear­ ance. but of unequal speeds according to the location. or else.122 ASTRONOMY the world and that they are similarly united. sometimes to be stationary. . and some­ times in retrograde movement. some are larger. some are hollow.

th e n w h e n it tra v e ls the a rc FE. F ro m the p o in t w h ich w e o b se rv e . b ec au se the e picyc le o f e a c h o f th e m is alw a y s m o v in g to w a r d s the f o llo w in g signs. the line O M E A . such as O E. If. it w ill ag a in a d v a n c e . w h e th e r this m o v e m e n t be real. a n d the m o v e m e n ts f o rw a r d a n d b a c k w a r d o f ea ch p la n e t. are s o m e tim e s m a d e in o n e z o d ia c sign. a n d then . it w ill a p p e a r to be s ta tio n a ry a n d finally to m a k e a r e tr o g r a d e m o tio n . so m e tim e s in a n o t h e r a n d in d iffe ren t p arts o f the z o d ia c signs. a n d w h a t the d is p l a c e m e n t o f the epicyc le o r of the e c c e n tric circle is. O V N to the e p icy c le a n d th r o u g h the c e n te r M o f the epicycle. we ta k e the g r e a te st d ista n c e fro m the sta r to the e a rth . in the epicycle hypoth esis. D urin g the tim e it a p p r o a c h e s p o in t F. It is useful fo r o u r subject to k n o w w h a t the a v e r a g e d is ­ ta n c e o f a p la n e t is. o r w h e th e r the epicyc le is sim p ly left behind. T h e stations.ASTRONOMY 123 W e h a v e the z o d ia c A B C D a r o u n d p o in t O. r e tr o g r a d e m o v e m e n ts. N ext. Since we see in a str a ig h t line. let us d r a w the ta n g e n ts O F H . a n d E F G th e epicyc le o f a pla n et. the c e n te r o f the u nive rse . THE M E A N DISTANCES OF THE PLANETS X X X V I. it is c l e a r th a t th e s ta r F a p p e a r s to us to be at H. in a p p r o a c h in g p o in t V a n d in b e g in n in g to m o v e aw ay again. it w ill a p p e a r to us to describe the a rc H A to w a r d s the p re c e d in g signs o f the zodiac.

in whatever place this happens. and can itself hide all the stars except the m oon. we describe the concentric circle M NrW . For the hypothesis of the eccentric circles. When the planet carried by the eccentric circle arrives at E. it remains to speak briefly of conjunctions and occultations. OCCULTA TIONS AN D ECLIPSES XXX V II. If therefore. EV. w hen it is placed in a straight line betw een our view and these stars. and the mean distances will be at the points of intersection N and W of the eccentric and concentric circles in whatever place these points fall through the displacement of the eccentric circle. the center of which is H and O is the center of the universe. Hermes and Venus hide the stars which are beyond them when . then by being placed directly betw een them and ourselves. CONJUNCTIONS. disappearances and eclipses. M. it is clear that the moon being the planet closest approaching the earth. Let us take the line of the centers OH and extend it on both sides. first in approaching and drowning them in its light. from the center O the circle MNrW equal to the eccentric circle. it is clear that it is the concentric cir­ cle on which the epicycle of the other hypothesis is carried. and at a mean distance at the two points F and G on the intersec­ tion of the concentric circle and the epicycle. that the sphere of the stars is highest and that the planetary spheres are placed below in the order that we have indicated. it is clear that the mean distance will be OM. It is evident that there is an agreement between the two hypotheses: the greatest. from the center O and w ith the radius OM . de­ scribed from the center M with the radius ME. on the path of the epicycle. can pass in front o f all the planets and several stars and hides them from us. The sun can be hidden by the moon. and we find the middle. To fulfil the requirem ent of our subject. and it cannot be hidden by any o f them . and from the center M with the radius M E we draw the epicycle EFVG. let us take the ec­ centric circle ENrW. If we describe. as well as the distance between the largest and the smallest.124 ASTRONOMY such as OV. Since we naturally see in a straight line. it will be least far at point i. the sm allest and the mean distances are the same. it will be furthest away from us. it is evident that the star carried on the epicycle will be furthest away from us at point E and least far at point V. that is to say.

The circle of the sun appears conveyed as we have said 35 under that which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac signs on which it is a little inclined. in particular. will not seem to be eclipsed. If the conjunction of the sun and moon occurs near the nodes. the other descending. will be their common diameter. ECLIPSES OF THE SUN AN D MOON X X X V III. Mars som etim es eclipses the two planets which are above it. They even appear to eclipse each o ther when one of the tw o planets is higher than the other or because of their sizes. because the two planets turn around the sun. and the circle of the moon has an obli­ quity of ten degrees in latitude. so that it appears to be separated by five or six degrees to the north or to the south of the circle which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac signs. which is only a small star. their common intersection will be a straight line which touches the center of the two circles. but the latitude being different. one of the two stars will appear further north. and the sun is not eclipsed at every junction of the moon or neomenia. in some way. the other further south. it enters into the shadow of the earth. and H erm es. This line. the solar and the lunar. But if the monthly conjunction does not occur near a node. The moon disappears when. or the obliquity or position of their circles. and the sun not being hidden. This does not happen every month. “ See III. to be extended. If we suppose the planes of the two circles. one ascending.ASTRONOMY 125 they are similarly placed in a straight line betw een them and ourselves. or of twelve degrees as most m athem aticians think. . The extrem e points where the circles appear to be cut are called the nodes. Each planet eclipses in addition the stars underneath which it passes in its course. is the sun’s neighbor and is drow ned out by it and is rarely apparent. as Hipparchus has found. the two stars appear close to one another and to our eyes the moon will hide the sun which will be more fully eclipsed the more the moon covers it. because their circles are perceptibly inclined to one another. diam etrically opposite the sun. for it is separated from it by a half degree on each side. They are carried towards the following signs of the zodiac. in the same way that the moon is not eclipsed at all full m oons. The fact is not easy to observe. and Jupi­ ter can eclipse Saturn. X II. the longitude counted on the zodiac being the same for the two stars.

If the luminous body is larger. Let us now see w hat evidently happens for the moon. As this occurs at all the points it is evident that the sphere CD will produce an indefinite cylindrical shadow. on the contrary. such as W r and the illum inated . envelop an obscure region. The luminous rays which extend in a straight line. and CD the illum inated body. for the diam eter XN being larger than the diam eter GO. It is eclipsed. the shadow XMNV will have the form of an indefinite truncated cone. if two spherical bodies. the shadow pro­ duced is a cylinder that extends to infinity. Let us show how it happens that the eclipse does not take place each month. B D F Fig 15 If. are equal. and suppose them to be equal and spherical. one luminous and the other lit by the first. when it enters into the shadow of the earth.126 ASTRONOMY XXX IX. AB. therefore the diam eters AB and CD being equal and perpendicular to the tangents A C E and BDF. such as XN. such as GO and the illum inated body is larger. extended indefinitely. the luminous body. will not m eet each other. for exam ­ ple. Let us take. will move further and further apart from one another. and it will be thus in every case (total eclipse). extended indefinitely. it is clear that these rays will be parallel and that the lines C E and D F. as we have often said. the luminous body is sm aller. the luminous rays XM and NV. The rays of light such as AC and BD extend in a straight line.

that it will ex­ tend following a common diam eter of the sun and of the earth (that is to say following the line which joins their centers). and as it is sm aller and has no brilliancy by itself. it is clear that the shadow of the body pq. even at its maximum. the sun. that is to say. and the moon are exactly placed following a diam etrical line. T hat is what Adrastus says. is less than the width of the shadow projected by the earth. W hen the three cen­ ters are not totally in a straight line. the earth. W hen the centers of the sun.ASTRONOMY 127 body sm aller. the earth. will m eet at point s. As it does not enter into the shadow cone it would be known that there could be no eclipse. Fig 17 Through the consideration of the distances and of the diam eters of the sun and moon. there is a total eclipse. and it is said that it is eclipsed. and the moon being in a straight line. will have the form of a cone and will be finite. Dercyllides has not written on this . W hen the sun is at a node and the moon at another node. the m oon necessarily enters into the shadow of the earth. This phenom enon will be produced from every point. the sun and the moon do not pass through their nodes. and that the sun is much further away than the moon. that is following the same straight line as we have described it. there is not always a total eclipse. and that the diam eter of the moon. such as pq and both are spherical. It is then evident that the shadow of the earth will have the form of a cone. since the diam eter pq is smaller than the diam eter Wr. the moon penetrating to the m iddle of the shadow. But most often. and the moon will be further to the north or further to the south than the shadow of the earth. and that the volum e of the earth contains that of the m oon more than 27 times. at the time of the full moon. it becomes invisible. for the rays Wp and rq. extended in a straight line. pqs. H ipparchus shows that the volum e of the sun contains that of the earth about 1880 times.

Before all else. neither more nor less. The second principle is that the risings and the settings of the divine bodies are not made because these bodies light up and ex­ tinguish themselves successively. A naxim enes has show n that the m oon receives its light from the sun and the m anner in which it is eclipsed. and that one must not say that the world is infinite or our vision becom es lost. The first is that the com position of the world is or­ dered and governed by one sole principle and that reality is found at the bottom of things which exist or seem to exist. Thales was able to see that the eclipses of the sun and the returns of this star to the solstices do not always occur after the sam e lapse of time. however. there would be no order preserved in the universe. tells that O enopides36 found the first obliquity of the zodiac and recognized the existence of the great year. ASTRO N O M IC AL DISCO VERIES AN D THEIR AU TH O RS XL. also in astronomy it is convenient to establish hy­ potheses first in order to be able to speak of the movements of the planets. Here. According to him. Eudemus. and that the axis of the stars and that o f the planets are separated from one another by the side of the pentadecagon. it is necessary especially to consider principles which should serve in the study of mathematics. He then says that. The third princi­ ple is that there are seven planets. but that it has its limits. (Toulis) . that the planets move around the axis perpendicular to the zodiac. and consequently by an angle o f 24 degrees. O thers have added new discoveries to these: that the stars m ove around the immobile axis which passes through their poles. A S T R O N O M IC A L H Y P O T H E SE S XLI. A naxim ander m aintains that the earth is suspended in space and m oves around the center o f the world. is what he indi­ cates in the book in which he treats The Spindles with which the Re­ public o f Plato is Concerned. a truth 36The obliquity o f the zodiac is attributed to Pythagoras but O enopides claim s it as his ow n dis­ covery.128 ASTRONOMY subject in any convenient order. just as in geometry and in music it is im­ possible. he says. in his books On Astronomy. as everyone agrees. if their state were not eternal. without making hypotheses. to deduce the consequences of the principles.

in distance and in latitude. as we have said above. although we can be deceived on this point. For each sphere has a double surface. P ut­ ting aside anything disorderly and contrary to reason in such a movement. He adds that one should believe that the earth. in the interval between which the stars move following the epicycles and 3Cf. it results from the double movement of the planets. in longitude. the movement following the oblique circle must be re­ garded as first. in such a way that it is not by a consequence and not by an antecedent movement. He thinks that all that moves in the sky is carried around a unique center of movement and of the world. hearth of the house of the gods. he does not believe that the eccentric circles are the cause of the m ovement in depth. he energetically rejects. one side concave at the interior.H ejudges it so. the spiral movement is a consequence. For these things come about by chance. but since som e are in m ovem ent and others immobile. regular and uniform. it is necessary to find out that which is necessarily at rest in the universe and that which is in movement. Therefore. it is not first. that the planets are car­ ried slowly by a m ovement contrary to that of the fixed stars. 7 . adventitious and posterior. 247 A. He does not think that it is necessary to take spirals or the sim ilar lines of a meandering horse-path as the first cause of these move­ ments. are in movement. The first cause of the spiral movement is the movement which occurs following the oblique circle of the zodiac. im mobile by nature and by situation. as contrary to the bases of m athematics. Phaedrus.ASTRONOMY 129 resulting from long observation. according to Plato 37 remains in repose and that the planets move with the whole celestial vault which envelops them. in such a way that the interior movem ent is produced by the exterior movement. The fourth is the following: since it does not conform to reason that all things be in m ovem ent or th at they all be in repose. the other convex at the exterior. it is correct to believe. Next. that the planets de­ scribe the epicycles or the eccentric circles within the thickness of the concentric circles. In addition.. the opinion of those who believe that the bodies which appear to be in movement are at rest and that the bodies. He then says that the planets have a circular movement. The spiral movement is in fact.. This is why he believes that the different successive risings depend on a movement in longitude and he rejects the weak and facile reasons given by the seniors according to which the planets would be left behind. he says.

He agrees to add the 30 degrees comprising from the arctic circle to the tropic of summer. that.130 ASTRONOMY concentric circles. divides the world into two equal parts. and the planets around the axis perpendicular to the zodiacal circle. In summing them up. M eta p h ysics 8 . He reproaches those philosophers who. the move­ ments of the planets are irregular. according to our im pressions. 6 6 degrees are then counted from the tropic of summer to the pole of the fixed stars. He further says that. A fter having established all this. thus A ristotle . XLII. have proposed different spheres and spirals. 38 and among m athem ati­ cians Menaechmus and Callippus. The stars move around the im mobile axis which passes through the poles. Now the zodiac extends obliquely from the parallel of w inter to the parallel of summer. add several other spheres to their spheres and their circles. also divides the 180 degrees into two equal parts. and again the 24 degrees comprising from the equitorial circle to the tropic of w inter to which the 38Cf. He shows. it is necessary to add 24 degrees to this sum. There remain 12 degrees from the pole of the axis of the planets to the glacial arctic circle. uniform. harmonious. in a movement which causes them to describe the eccentric circles as an apparent consequence. following a very small num ber of circular. if 24 degrees are subtracted from it. but that in principle and in reality they are regular. then the 24 degrees comprising from the tropic of sum­ mer to the equitorial circle. these hypotheses account for the appearances. Indeed the zodiac being a great circle. then the axis of the planets is perpendicular to the zodiac. . according to Plato. p. and from the arctic cir­ cle to the pole of the sphere of the stars there are 36 degrees. as Hipparchus teaches. The two axes are separated by the value of the side of the pentadecagon (and consequently by an angle of 24 degrees). but 30 degrees are counted from the tropic of summer to the arctic circle. The m ovement is simple and natural for all: there is but a small num ber of displacem ents on the spheres ar­ ranged with order. The circumference of the universe being divided into 360 degrees. he thinks that the sky moves with all the stars around the im mobile earth. The axis of the zodiac itself being perpen­ dicular. for the entire arc of the zone is 36 degrees. 1073b. con­ sidering the stars as inanim ate. the rem ainder is 12. In order to com plete the 90 degrees which extend up to the pole of the sphere of the planets. the zodiacal circle separates it into 180 degrees on each side. concentric and independent movements.

are separate from one another by the value of the side of the pentadecagon inscribed in (a great circle of) the sphere.around w hich a leather strap or paper strip was w ound in the m ode o f a spiral. Since from an infinite time they pass in a circle parallel to the other. but this one is not as might be drawn on a cylinder from one end to the other. they unw ound the strap and sent the w ritten message by special dispatchers to the general concerned who then read it after w inding it around his staff of exact dim ensions as the one at headquarters. Then they w rote across the length of the staff w hatever message they w anted d ispatched to th eir generals a t w ar in far away lands. it is as though one were to wind a strap around a cylinder from one end to the other. any message so w ritten was m eaning­ less. going slowly. in order to go from one point A to another point B on the zodiac. representing the parallel circles and that the planets move on these parallels in the same direction as the sphere to the fixed stars. that of the stars and that of the planets. It was a way o f coding and decoding m ilitary and other classified data because to som eone who was not in possession o f this w ooden staff. It so happens that the planets describe spirals. We then have reason to say that the two axes. (Toulis) . The planets describe still another spiral. som etim es tow ards the tropic of w inter. such were the straps wound on the staffs of Sparta and on which the overseers39wrote their dispatches. A fter the w riting was dry. as they are carried by their own move­ ment from the tropic of summer to the tropic of winter and reciprocally. they will appear to us to describe a helix w ithout end. In other terms. XLIII. but are pulled around the sphere o f the fixed stars. B ecause of the incessant and continuous m ovem ent around the sphere on the parallel circles. som etim es tow ards the tropic o f sum m er. they do not pass in a straight line from one parallel to another.ASTRONOMY 131 zodiac is tangent. the path-w ay travelled will be similar to that which 39T he overseers w ere a body o f five lords in ancient Sparta w ho had jurisdiction over even the king. that is to say in consequence of their two movements in opposite directions from one another. but it becomes at the same time circular around the sphere of the fixed stars. But 24 degrees form a fifteenth of 360 degrees of the circumference of the universe. They used a w ooden staff of exact dim ensions. their mo­ tion does not only occur following a straight line of the zodiac. as they are rapidly pulled along each day in the opposite direction under the sphere of the stars. and this w ithout interruption and w ithout end. and again to that o f the first. if we suppose straight lines. in such a way that in passing from one parallel to another they describe spirals sim ilar to the tendrils of a vine. In fact. arranged in an infinite num ber. but as could be drawn on a plane surface. for 15 times 24 makes 360.

. 40 It so happens. All of this is very necessary and very useful for reading the works of Plato.132 ASTRONOMY would be made following straight lines extended to infinity. and after which look at astronomy. then. « Republic VII. stereometry and astronom y 42 — we are going therefore to show summarily what Thrasyllus exposes on this sub­ ject at the same time as our own previous work. that the planets describe two spirals. ‘"These figures are missing from the m anuscript. 4'See I. I. the other as on a plane surface. as the figures show . we have said that we were going to con­ sider instrum ental music. XLIV. one is around a cylinder. m athem atical music and the harmony of the spheres 41 and that we would report all that necessarily exists of harmony in the world. for Plato assigns the fifth step in m athem atics to this music of the spheres. p. 530 D. END OF T H E TRANSLATION OF TH E W ORKS OF THEON OF SMYRNA AS THEY H A V E COME DOWN TO US. However. 2 and II. after arithm etic.

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but proportions. furnished them w ith very sim ple and very ingenious procedures of c alcula­ tion... In com bining proportions by means o f m u ltiplication. Taking (a) and (b) as the two lines between which the two propor­ tional means are to be inserted. starting from their point of intersec'T h e ancient geom eters w ere not ab le to avail them selves o f the resources o f algebra which they did not know. the first mean x is the side of the double cube. of which one m oveable one. with the condition that the new altar be sim ilar to the first. goes back to the duplica­ tion of the cube of one edge. . 1892) Note I. Dupuis. w hich they m anaged w ith great facility. 5) The problem of the duplication of the altar. glided between the grooves of the two uprights FG. we draw two perpendicular lines AE and CD on which we take. KL and GH. parallel to the other fixed one. Mechanical solution o f Plato (Introduction p.NOTES — (by J. H ippocrates of Chio found that if two continuous proportional means x and y are inserts between the side (a) of a cube and the double (2 a) of this side. We have. o f d iv is io n . He em ployed an instrum ent formed of two rulers. they arrived a t conserving only one unknown in Questions which called for several. and M H perpen­ dicularly attached to it.Problem o f the duplication o f the cube. . in fact. even though they had no p articular notation. by definition: < x v a ^3 cixv 1 i ^ = y = 2a from which follows 2 i ^ = 2 and x" = 2a'! Plato first resolved the problem of the two proportional means. and in sim plifying the relationships of the final p roportion.

in-fol. in a com m entary on book II of the treatise On the Sphere and the Cylinder by A rchim edes . he says. Continuing in this way. There will come a m om ent in which there re­ mains only one tangible object. I again divide this one tangible ob­ ject into several parts which I throw away one by one. and at the same time turn the instrum ent on the surface of the figure until the edges of the two rulers again pass through points A and C.Oxonii M D C C X C II. — On the sophism. is w ithout parts and indivisible. 135 . as one. — Problem o f Achilles and the Tortoise. Archim edis quae supersunt om nia cum Eutocii Ascalonitae commentariis ex recensione Josephi Torelli Veronensis. that is to say. W e then separate the moving ruler more or less from the fixed one. as One. and we have: AB BD BD BE BE BC Thus BD and BE are two proportional means between AB and BC.. “One. and the edge of the other through point C.. It has been transm itted to us by Eutocios of Ascalon.. p. 2 Note II. is without parts and in­ divisible” (I. The reasoning of Theon is a sophism. This solution of Plato is m echanical. I have a tangible object. I always arrive at one. a geom eter of the V lth century. The two triangles ADE. One of the most celebrated sophisms is that of Z eno of Elea who lived in the Vth century before our era. and CDE being right triangles. until there remains no more than one object. It is stated as follows: *Cf. the extensions of the lines AB and BC pass at the same time through the apexes of the rectangle which forms the instrument. the height of each of them is the proportional mean between the segments of the hypotenuse. It is called Achilles. between a and b. therefore one. since it requires the utiliza­ tion of an instrument other than the ruler and the compass. AB = a and BC = b. Then we apply the instrum ent on the figure in such a way that the edge of one ruler passes through point A.136 NOTES tion. and I divide it into several parts which I successively throw away one by one. III).

l)n = n2 1and n(n 4. the latter advanced 0 . therefore they meet each other. and while Achilles travels this hundredth. travels Vsth of a stade. IX. he said. F rontera.” Lesson in Physics. who goes ten times slower. 1 of a stade. under the title: Edude sur les argu­ m ents de Zenon d'Elee contre le mouvem ent. V I. the infinite num ber of these suc­ cessive moments represents a finite time. the tortoise will advance by 0 . “ that the slower while he is travelling. two successive unequilaterals. will never be reached by the faster considering that the pursuer must. while Achilles was travelling the stade which sep­ arated him from the tortoise. the tortoise. br. will advance by 0. XVI). in the case of the uniform movement. first pass by the point from which the one who flees his pursuit started. of necessity. (606' + ) 4 W e do not insist upon it. 4 Note III — On unequilateral numbers (I. equal to 1 stade and V» th or *%ths of a stade. Let us take |(n . and so Achilles will never catch up with the tortoise. and the arithm etic mean between two numbers is larger than their geom etric mean. as Theon verifies. 1891. Paris. Therefore an infinite num ber of moments will pass before he reaches it.1) = n 2 + n.G .01 of a stade. the tortoise. Therefore. 4. the square contained 3 T he stadia has the value o f 185 metres. in 8e- . and that. plus the space which sep­ arated them. and while Achilles travels this tenth. who travels ten times slower. says Aristotle.n and n 2 + n is n2. In fact. Now n 2 is the arithm etic mean between n 2 . H achette. Will he catch up with it and at what distance?3 Z eno claim ed that Achilles would never reach the tortoise because. during the time he travels these *%ths of a stade. but we bring to the a tten tio n o f the philosophic reader the interesting work recently published M . and thus the slower will constantly preserve a certain advance. 0 0 1 and so forth.n and n 2 + n.NOTES 137 Achilles travels ten times faster than a tortoise which is one stade ahead o f him. This comes back to the affirm ation. The error of Z eno is evident. Z eno did not see that the sum of the spaces travelled during the infinite num ber of successive moments of the m ovement of Achilles and the tortoise represents a finite distance. The square contained between n 2 . for Achilles reaches the tortoise at a distance from its point of departure. now the space travelled by Achilles is then equal to the space travelled in the same tim e by the tortoise. do cto r o f sciences.

. 1 + 6 d. the first terms will be 1. but the subtraction of one unit gives the rem ainder 36n2 + 36n + 8 . But the geometric mean between two successive squares is an unequilateral. plus 2. If it is of the form 36n2 ± 24n + 4. W e have. (I. . 1 + 7 d . Finally. .1 is not so. Every num ber being a m ultiple of 6 or a m ultiple of 6 plus 1. 2 + d. 5 + lOd. 1 + d. If we take the successive sums of the terms. 4 + 6 d. 2. 6 n ± 1. Taking d as the rate of a progressing by difference beginning with unity. from which it follows that x = n (n + 1 ).On Polygonal Numbers (I. it is divisible by both 3 and 4 and con­ sequently 36n2 . 7 + 21d. 3. in fact x. XX). which is divisible by 4. an unequilateral number. — On Square Numbers. 8 + 28d. If.X X V II. starting from unity. 1 + 5d..138 NOTES between two successive unequilaterals is not the geom etric mean between these two numbers. the geom etric mean between two successive squares n 2 and (n + l ) 2. If it is of the form 36n. but the subtraction of one unit gives the rem ainder 36n2 ± 2 4 n + 3. Note V. Thus any square is of the form 36n2 36n2 ± 1 2 n + 1 36n2 ± 2 4 n + 4 or 36n2 + 36n + 9. it is divisible by 4 and not by 3 . X IX . 4. 1 + 2d. plus 3.) W e shall sum m arize this theory of polygonal numbers and add some explanations. If it is of the form 36n2 + 36n + 9. 5. 1 + 3d. but the subtraction of one unit gives the re­ m ainder 36n2 ± 12n which is divisible by both 3 and 4.we will obtain the following gnomons and polygonal numbers: . 1.. The term s of the second series are called polygonal numbers. or 6 n ± 3 . 3 + 3d. 3. if it is of the form 3 6 n ± 1 2 n + 1. Note IV. 6 . in the two series. it is divisible neither by 3 nor by 4. we give to d the successive values 1.. 6 n ± 2. it is divisible by 3 and not by 4. thus x 2 = n 2 (n + l ) 2. 6 + 15d. we will obtain the corresponding numbers 1. and those of the first series are called gnomons. 2. since the two factors differ by one unit.. which is divisible by 3. 1 + 4d. 4. plus 4 or plus 5 is of the form 6 n.

..... g n o m o n s.NOTES d = 1. . gnom ons. d = 4 .... o c to g o n s . gnom ons.. w e h a v e th e n these tw o th eorem s: 1. form a progression by difference. n. . n. h ex ag o n s. .... . . .. n. .. d = 2 . w e have: k = 1 + (n .. .. en d ec ag o n s. d = 9 . is the (n .. + [1 + ( n . d e c a g o n s. h e p ta g o n s. . .l)d] = n + d [ l + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 . n.. . 2. ....... g n o m o n s. quadrangulars. . n.l)th triangular number.. n.. n. gnom ons.. g n o m o n s. .. . d = 10. g n o m o n s. n. .. and o f which the rate is the (n . 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 3 6 5 9 7 12 9 15 11 18 13 21 15 24 17 27 19 30 21 33 4 5 10 15 7 9 16 25 10 13 22 35 13 17 28 45 16 21 34 55 19 25 40 65 22 29 46 75 25 33 52 85 28 37 58 95 31 41 64 105 6 21 11 36 16 51 21 66 26 81 31 96 36 1 11 41 126 46 141 51 156 7 28 13 49 19 70 25 91 31 112 37 133 43 154 49 175 55 196 61 217 8 36 15 64 22 92 29 120 36 148 43 176 50 204 57 232 64 260 71 288 9 45 17 81 25 117 33 153 41 189 49 225 57 261 65 297 73 333 81 369 10 55 19 100 28 145 37 190 46 235 55 280 64 325 73 370 82 415 91 460 11 66 21 121 31 176 41 231 51 286 61 341 71 396 81 451 91 506 101 561 139 12 78 23 144 34 210 45 276 56 342 67 408 78 474 89 540 100 606 1 11 672 By d es ig n a tin g the n th g n o m o n as K a n d th e n th p o ly g o n a l nu m b e r by j. p e n ta g o n s. The nth polygonal number equals n.l ) J fro m w h ic h it fo llo w s t h a t Now n (n ...1) j = n + 2 2 ’ the sum o f th e (n .. d = 5 .. .... . d = 8 . . gnom ons. triangulars.. . . d = 6 .l)th triangular number.... plus d times the (n .... . o f which the first term is n. (d) being the rate o f the progression o f the gnomons... d o d e c a g o n s.. n.. n..1) first n u m b e rs s ta rtin g fro m unity.. The polygonal numbers from the same row n. ...l ) d and j = 1 + (1 + d) + (1 + 2d) + (1 + 3d) + ( + 4d) + (1 + 5d) ..... d = 3 ..... ( n ... g n o m o n s... ... gnom ons. e n n eag o n s. d = 7 ....l ) t h t r ia n g u la r n u m b e r..

W e will obtain the following quadrangu­ lar figures (replacing the unity-marks with points): 4 9 16 25 36 The pentagonal numbers are given by the form ula j =n+ We will then obtain their representation by adding to n. for d = 2 . XIX). (See I. triangular figures result. XXV). The square numbers are so named because a square form can be given to the groups of unit-m arks of which these numbers are com­ posed.1 )st triangular number. if they are ar­ ranged one below the other with the addition of the gnomons decomposed into units. The figure of the square numbers can also be obtained by the for­ mula j = n + d n(n which. (See I. three times the (n . they can therefore be figured in the following manner: .140 NOTES The triangular numbers are so named because. then place on either side of this line the unity-marks of which the triangular num­ ber (n .l)st is composed. becomes W e shall write on a line the n units of the num ber n.

1). each of them equals n (2n .1 is first. in fact.l)st triangular number. therefore the perfect numbers are hexagonal and consequently triangular.l)st triangular number. for according to the general for­ mula (A) given above. that is to say those equal to the sum of their aliquot parts. Indeed the nth hexagonal num ber j = n (2n . It can. Thus .1). W e will have j = 2 k (2k+ 1 .1). are all hexagonal and consequently triangular.NOTES 141 12 22 35 W e will have hexagonal numbers by adding to n four times the (n . be dem onstrated that the nth hexagonal num ber is fequal to the ( 2 n . A nother thing to be noted is that the perfect numbers. Let us suppose that n = 2k. they can therefore be given in this form: It can be noted that the natural series of hexagonal numbers is equal to the series of triangular numbers of every other row. This is the form ula which gives the perfect numbers when the factor 2 k + 1 .

and the 3rd triang.691.056 = 2x3 4x7 16x31 64 x 127 4.3 Likewise. and the 1 3 1. having a square base.536th hexag.096 hexag.142 NOTES 6 = 28 = 496 = 8. the truncated pyramidal num ber will have the value of n(n + l)(n + 2 ) . and the 31 s t triang. and the 1 2 7 t h triang. the nth pyramidal number. and the 8 . is the sum of the first n triangular numbers. and the 7th triang. It can be shown to be equal to n(n + 1 ) (2 n + 1 ) 1 .2 8 7 th triang.128 = 33.(p 1 .144th hexag. 2.3 The truncated pyramidal num ber is obtained by evaluating the total pyramid and that which has been taken off and taking the difference between the two values. 3 1 ) p(p + 1 ) . The nth pyramidal number.589. XXX).536 x 131. 4th hexag. 64th hexag. 16th hexag.191 65. — On the Pyramidal numbers (I. 137.550.07 1st triang.438.336 = 8. 2.144 x 5 2 4 .2 8 7 is the 262.1 9 1 s t triang. is the sum of the first n square numbers.071 is the is the is the is the is the is the 2nd hexag. If we have a triangular trun­ cated pyramid whose lower base side has the value of n and the up­ per base p.328 = 262. and the 5 2 4 . 4. having a triangular base. 65.096 x 8.869. 2. Note VI. It is dem onstrated to be equal to n(n + 1 1 ) (n + 2 ) .

according to the rule given by Theon. Theon explains it thus: he first takes the side 1 and the diagonal 1 . com pleted by the addition of the double square of the sides and the squares of the diagonal numbers: sides 1 2= 1 5 = 2 12=5 29 = 12 70 = 2 9 169 = 7 0 diagonal double sqr.2x 2 = -1 . square of the numbers of the sides diagonal numbers 1 2 -1 1 2 9 8+ 1 8 3= 1 + 1x2 49 50-1 7 = 3 + 2x2 50 1 7 = 7 + 5x2 288 289 = 288 + 1 41 = 17 + 1 2 x 2 1682 1681 = 1682 . XXX I). . an infinity of other solutions can be concluded. that the difference be­ tween the square of the hypotenuse and the double square of the side of the right angle is only one unit. Now a 2 -2b 2 = ± 1 by hypothesis.1 etc + 1 + 3 + 7 + 17 + 41 + 99 This rule of Theon gives.NOTES 143 Note VII. in whole numbers. Therefore. that it gives in whole numbers the solutions of the equation y2 .2x 2 = ± 1. — On Lateral and Diagonal Numbers.2b are also a solution of it. that is to say. the resolution of the right isosceles triangle.1 9801 = 9800 + 1 99 =41 + 29 x 2 9800 239 = 9 9 + 70 x 2 57122 57121 = 57122 . and he determines the other diagonal numbers by adding twice the corresponding side to the preceding diagonal. But y = x = 1 is a first solution to the equa­ tion y 2 .1 say that x' = b + a and y' = a 4.2x ' 2 = 2b 2 . Let us suppose that y = a and x = b as a solution to the equation. with this condition. (I.2 x '2= ± 1. By this rule.a2.that we have a 2 . then he successively determines the other sides by adding the diagonal to the preceding side. therefore y '2. It can indeed be deduced that these two last relations y ' 2 . that is to say. The lateral and diagonal numbers are defined by their genera­ tion. the following table is ob­ tained.2b 2 = ± 1 .

(The tetractys) The num ber 10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 . Now 1 was the principle of numbers. C = 2A. therefore C is Vs rds of 3A nds of A. Therefore. for example. and the interval of C to A is a fifth. Let us again call A. for example. and 4 represented the first solid (the tetrahedron defined by its four apexes). Even though the interval of C to A is the product of the two intervals which it includes. Although the interval of C to B is the quotient of the interval of A to C by the interval of B to A. it is said to be the sum of these two intervals: thus the octave is said to be the sum of a fifth and a fourth. 2 represented the first line (the straight line which is defined by two of its points).144 NOTES Note VIII.) Let us call A. but the num ber which measures the oc­ tave is the product of the two numbers which measure the fourth and the fifth. from which it follows that x = 3A : 4A = 7s = one tone. C is Vs rds of B. — On the Perfection o f the Number Ten (I. W e will call the numbers corresponding to these three sounds as A. c as the numbers corresponding to these sounds and x as the interval between c and b. X X X X II). . in other words. B. and C three sounds such that the interval from B to A is. X III. Note IX. C. and B is 3A nds of A. the decad 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 symbolized all that exists. According to the preceding remark. three sounds such that the interval from A to B is. but the num ber which measures the tone is the quotient of the two numbers which measure the fifth and the fourth. 3 represented the first surface (the triangle defined by its three apexes). it is said that it is the difference between these two intervals. a fourth. — On the Addition and Subtraction o f the Consonances (II. b. Thus it is said that the tone is the excess of the fifth over the fourth. W e shall take a. a fifth and the interval from C to B a fourth. we have 3A = 4A x. B. B and C.

8 and 1. en­ compassed an extension of the human voice. In order to add a tone to this fifth. 1) P lato ’s musical diagram indeed contains the sounds correspond­ ing to the terms of the two progressions 1. 34 d— 35 d . The two ex5 C f. — On the Value o f the Half-Tone (II. The result is 27. X III. It was a descending series of two octaves. — The musical diagram o f Plato contains fo u r octaves.Timaeus. This h alf x is given by the equation x 2 = 9/s from which it follows that x =V%~ But it must be noted that the value of 1 + Vie = 1 /ie is closely approxim ated. the third. 9. H alf of the tone 1 + Vs is not 1 + V is. 16. he m ultiplies 24 by Vs. XXX V) The musical scale of the ancient Greeks. (II. It was formed of four sm all systems each composed of four sounds. the last term of P lato’s diagram. the fourth and the fifth octaves are respectively represented by 2. a fifth and a tone. 3. the extremes of which gave the fourth. 2 . 1. because we have. XIV). (II. 5 Note XI. 27 and stops at 27. as it is easy to verify: ( 2 56V>-9 . The first sound of the first octave being represented by 1 . which contains consequently four octaves plus a fifth and a tone.4 . the first sounds of the second. for 7 in calculating the square one obtains which differs only by V256 from the tone 9/ _ 9 x 3 2 8 x 32 _ 288 . X III.) These sm all systems were called tetracords because the sounds were given by the four-stringed lyre. 4. The fifth of this fifth octave is expressed by 16 x 3A = 24. 8 . The strings of the instrum ent and the sounds that they made bore the same name. described by Theon. 256 ^ [9 \ 2 4 3 J 8 therefore 243 8 Note XII. — On the Perfect Musical System form ed o f Two Octaves.256 The leimma is less than a half-tone. the governing consonance from which the others were derived (II.NOTES 145 Note X.

6 The second was the paranete. These two tetracords had a com m on string: the lowest string of the tetracord of the meses was at the same time the highest of the tetracord of the hypates. which is implying an addition. from index finger: the lichanos indicated the type which was diatonic. the neighbor o f the nete. 'k iya v o s indicator. the low est. The ninth was the lichanos of the mese 7 8N 17£77 fo r Nea^r). chromatic or enharmonic. the lowest string of the tetrachord of the hyperboles was at the same time the highest string of the tetrachord of the disjuncts. the two in­ term ediary ones were variable or mobile. which was lower by one tone and which was called the proslam banom enos. according to whether the interval from the sound o f this string to the sound o f the preceding string had the value o f a tone. the whole of four tetracords made only fourteen sounds. the strings were desig­ nated by names relating to their position in each tetracord. was separated from the first or highest o f the following tetrachord. The third was the mean tetracord. “ it is an added sound”. or third. was the third string of the disjunct tetrachord. The second was called the disjunct tetrachord or tetrachord of the disjuncts. it differed from it by one tone. or tetracord of the meses. which is at the extremity. or two tones. that is to say. The fourth and the fifth were the nete and the paranete of the dis­ juncts. The seventh and eighth were the paramese vapa/ueaxy. In order to com plete the two octaves. that is to say. a tone and a half. The highest was the nete of the hyperboles or the extreme. and the mese. because its last chord. or “ added string.T he fourth was called the tetracord of the lows or the hypates. as well as the third and the fourth. and The sixth.from m ost extreme. The first and the second tetracord having a common string. a fifteenth sound was added below the lowest sound of the tetracord of the hypates. they received different degrees of tension constituting three principal types of harmony: the diatonic. called the trite of the disjuncts which. The first tetracord was called the tetracord of the upper tones or hyperboles. that is to say. . the chrom atic and the enharmonic. .” In the same way that the tetracords were designed by names relat­ ing to their position in the musical scale. The third was called the trite of the hyperboles. The two first tetrachords had a com m on string.146 NOTES tremes of each tetracord were invariables or unmoving. or the neighbor of the mese.

that is to say the paranete of the hyperboles. diatonic. Finally the fifteenth was the proslam banom enos. of the dis­ juncts. the paranete of the disjuncts. The tw elfth was the hyperhypate. or enharm onic. of the meses or of the hypates. diatone. chrom atic and enharm onic. were also called. according to type. The second string of each tetrachord. the half-tone or leimma being equal to “ V ms. of the hyperboles. the lichanos of the meses and the hyperhypate. Xlxav0^ v v u t c o v . The following is a table of this perfect system. .NOTES 147 The tenth and eleventh were the parhypate and the hypate of the meses H a p v T m r r ] and vttcctt). viKpvnarj] or lichanos of the hypates. The thirteenth and the fourteenth were the parhypate of the hy­ pate and the hypate of the hypates. with indications of the successive intervals in the three types. chrom atic.

.............. l" '.L L L 1 1 (The conjunct tetrachord w hich Theon discusses on pp.... ................... 1 Lichanos or d i a t o n e ... form ed o f two octaves............................. J 1 Mese........ 1 " P a r h y p a t e .. H y p a te ................................... T r i t e .....■ 1 Hyperhypate or diatone ........ % P aram e se.... Tetracord fl 2 1st Tetrachord (hyperboles) Strings or sounds N e t e ................... 1 Paranete or d ia to n e.................... chromatic.....7 8 9 3rd Tetrachord (meses) • 10 J 1 12 4th Tetrachord (hypates) ■ 13 14 15 Nete of the disju n cts..................148 NOTES The Perfect System.) ...... ...... containing o f three types: diatonic.....*% >4 5 2nd Tetrachord (disjuncts)6 ................................. H y p a te ..................................... 1 P a r h y p a t e ............................. enharmonic............................. 60-61 is bounded by strings 5 and 8..... Types i% 2 f ' .................. vSi f ? ”% "vf-' -y4 l‘ A 2 1/ 74 \% 2 'A 1 1 V i 1% 2 w ■* V P roslam b anom enos.. 1 Paranete or diatone......

b ) so that this mean between the two numbers is obtained by divid­ ing the double product of these two numbers by their sum. and the other is such that it is greater than one extrem e and less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. X X X V I) The Probably Intentional Error o f Timaeus o f Locris. P lato next inserts between each term of the double progression and the harm onic mean which follows it. 3 . — The Musical Diagram o f Plato (II. which we call the arithm etic mean. He then says that God inserted two means between the successive terms of these two progressions. 8 and 1 . two terms such that the relationship of each of them to the preceding is also 9/s ths. 2. 2. the first of which having the ratio of 2 and the other the ratio of 3. the relationship of the arithm etic mean to the harm onic mean equals ®/s: this is the value of the tone. then x . 4. that is to say. or the product of the two numbers by their half-sum. This is called the harmonic mean. in order to explain the form ation of the soul of the world. therefore 2ab _ ab a -I. the following numbers are ob­ tained (read horizontally): 1 2 4 % % % 3 6 2 4 8 In this progression. 8 and con­ tinued until arriving at the term 27. 4. 9 . Plato. equals their half-sum. adm its that God first divided the essence into seven parts which were related to one another as the terms of the two progressions 1. 27. gives the results contained in the follow ing table: . in the Timaeus.a : b . of which one. as well as between the arithm etic mean and the following term.x = a : b.b y2 (a-t. By means of this double insertion.NOTES 149 ' Note XIII. This operation is m ade on the progression 1. if x is the mean inserted be­ tween a and b.

these num­ bers will be obtained (to be read horizontally): 1 3 9 % % 2% 2 6 18 3 9 27 . and all m ultiplied by this denom inator. 128 x 3 = 384. thus ob­ taining the following table: TABLE II 384 432 486 512 576 648 729 768 4535 v 768 864 972 1024 1152 1296 1458 1536 8302 1536 1728 1944 *2048 2304 2592 2916 3072 16604 j 3072 3456 3888 *4096 4608 5184 5832 *6144 6144 6912 7776 *8192 9216 10368 Total 29441 If one likewise inserts a harm onic mean and an arithm etic mean between the successive terms of the triple progression. they can be reduced to the sm allest common denom ina­ tor.150 NOTES TABLE I (to be read vertically) 1 % H arm onicl means J A rithm etic _____ means 81/6 4 2 % 8/S2 1 % 3 2% 2 %4 “ 4 4 % % *1 % 6 2% 243/3 2 8 9 * 3% 12 27/2 16 18 81/4 ________________ y3 % 27/ie * 24 27 243/l2 8 2 8 * 16 In order to substitute whole numbers for these which are mostly fractions.

in order to substitute whole num ber proportions for them. 3 to 9 and of 9 to 27 being those of the oc­ tave and the fifth. Thus the two following tables are obtained: Table IV Table III (to be read vertically) 3 2% " % 4 9 8/. and tripled the terms of 3 to 9 in order to have those of 9 to 27. p. Proclus 8 admits that Plato first filled the inter­ val of 1 to 3. . the sm allest common m ultiple of the denom inators. like those of the double progression. in order to have those of 3 to 9.rr< MHffi NOTES 151 The intervals of 1 to 3. 1 * 72% 4 384 1152 3456 Harmonic" icl means J— * -D 2A 7 * 4 % *% > 6 2A 1 8 9 12 2% “V ie * 2187/ l 2 8 18 ey4 A rithm etic means * ™/a 24 27 1296 3888 432 1458 *4374 486 1536 4608 512 5184 1728 576 1944 5832 648 729 *2187 *6561 2304 6912 768 864 2592 7776 8748 972 2916 1024 3072 9216 1152 3456 10368 Sum 76923 W e’ve placed an asterisk beside the terms of the triple progres­ sion (Tables III and IV) which are not part of the progression of doubles. and that he then tripled the terms obtained from 1 to 3. 1534. The operation thus effectuated gives the results which can be m ultiplied by 128 x 3 = 384. 193 and the follow ing from the edition de Bale. we find the following: (end of C hapter I). " Proclus in Timaeum. In the treatise On the Soul o f the World and on Nature which bears the name Timaeus of Locris. and the term s of the double progression (Tables I and II) which are not part of the progression of triples.

...695....... 108. p... 4.......29. 3. Therefore his diagram contains: 1..... p... and the divisions of the soul are themselves 114....... Sim on. 163............. 12 terms of the triple progression.... This first number found.... Paris — 1770..... A .... See A bbe Roussier.551 Thus.......... a term which he does not take into account... 1847..187 and finally...........695 given by Timaeus of Locris... Notices et extraits des m anuscrits de la Bibliothkque Royale... com prised of 1 x 384 to 8 x 384 that is to say........... the sum of which is 108.. p.................. from 384 to 3072 (Table II).... following the intentions of Plato..... J.....551 and not 114.... com prised of 9 x 384 to 27 x 384.......” Now the evident intention of P lato was to not go beyond 8 in the progression of doubles and 27 in the progression of triples. 1 M em oirsur la Musique des anciens..441 2...... V................ 2... Cousin..... a part equal to 384 units.....-J.... T ranslation o f the Oeuvres de Platon. 3. the musical diagram of P lato contains 35 terms... X V I........ Paris 1839.........-H .... t... All these terms arranged according to the intervals of tones and half-tones............. 551......... one does not go further in making the insertions than the cubes of 8 and 27 in the respective progressions 1........... from 3456 to 10368 (Table IV) which have the value o f .... which is not part of the double progression (see Tables IV and II).... Paris 1839...152 NOTES “ God made the soul first. 2e partie.. V incent. less by 6144 than the sum of 114.. .. since it is greater than 8 x 384 in the progression of doubles and does not take part in the triple progres­ sion......... which have the value of . X II..... Du commentaire du Timee de Platon par Proclus.9 5 T he e rro r o f Tim aeus o f Locris is reproduced by all the com m entators.... p.. are 36 in number and give a total sum equal to 1 14.. which do not take part in the triple progression.... in 4C...923 Sum..... and the sum of these 35 term s is 108..695 in number.... 335... If.. the diagram of Plato contains (22 + 1+12) or 35 different terms (and not 36)................. 9. 22 terms of the double progression....... The difference (6.... 27. 248 onw ards.... 176 onw ards etc..144) of the two results is the term 16 x 384 of the progression of doubles (Table II). 2............ 1 term of the triple progression including........ t.695... in -8 .. in 8e . that is to say....... by taking in the mixture which he had formed.... from 384 to 3072..76............ 8 and 1. which i s ....... There is then an error in the treatise bearing the name of Timaeus of Locris.... If it is counted it is necessary to count also the two terms 4096 and 8192 of the double progression.. it is easy to calculate the terms of the double progression and of the triple progression.....

“ If each of them are divided into units. The odd numbers were considered as m ale and the even numbers as female.NOTES 153 Knowing in what veneration the Pythagoreans held the tetraktys. it is because then the total num ber of terms would have been 38 instead of 36. that is 36. like 6144. 2.. “ the even will show an empty place at the middle. in other words equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. which are respectively the highest fifth and the lowest fourth of 6144 and which. Timaeus. — Why the Number Six was called that o f Marriage (II. The Creation o f the Soul. in order to com plete the great quaternary 36. they (the Pythagoreans) have the opinion that the even has more resem blance to the fem ale and the odd to the m ale:” (Questions romaines. and consequently. seems to have the adm irable quality that it is the sum of the first four even numbers and the first four odd num­ bers. xxx. . in the Tim aeus. ” (1 4.” says Plutarch (translation of Am yot). do not con­ stitute part of the terms inserted in the progression of triples. The num ber 35 was certainly endowed with perfection.This tetraktys.) W hile the Pythagorean philosophers wanted to find quaternaries everywhere. that is to say. . there where the odd always has the m iddle filled with one of its parts. If the Pseudo-Tim aeus did not also add to P lato’s diagram the two term s 4096 and 8192. being the product of the first even square by the first odd square. and for this reason. a harmony. we firmly believe th at the error of the Pseudo-Tim aeus was not in­ tentional. 288) .7 ) + (2 + 4 + 6 + 8 ) = 16 + 20 = 36 (from. Note XIV. would have added the term 6144 corresponding to the sound 16. it was itself a square.. CII. it was the product of the septenary num ber by the half-decad. the octave of the sound 8 which is the last term of the progres­ sion 1. The num ber 36 had another virtue if we listen to Plutarch: “ . for 6 = 1 + 2 + 3. p. . and furtherm ore its side 6 was a truly perfect number.3 + 5 4. to the 35 terms of P lato’s musical diagram. 3. 4. but the num ber 36 was still more perfect. XLV) It was also called m arriage because it is the product of the first even num ber 2 by the first odd num ber 3. celebrated by the Pythagoreans.

where a draw-bridge connects the island of Evea to the m ainland. (Toulis) . accord­ ing to most ancient authors: “There are particular tides in certain places. (See Eclogae physicae. 90 c) Lucian also says in the Pharsalia: “ the inconstant tides of the euripe drag the vessels of Chalcis towards Aulis. II.1 2 10 T his island can be reached by c ar from A thens after a tw o-hour drive. song V. X X X IX . article entitled: “On the Ebb-Tide of Evea” .a A fact verified now as it happens this present day and anyone can observe. but all is in continual ebb and flow.” (Natural History II.154 NOTES Note XV. . — On the Euripes (II. and nothing remains for a mom ent in the same sta te . " It is indeed im possible to control a row -boat at the m om ent the ebb-tide changes direction w hile in th e straits o f Evea. “ N either in things nor in argum ent is there anything true and stable. . that the euripes vary seven times per d ay. “ thus the flux occurs several times in the strait of Messina. and this inconsistency was very well known. like the euripe. XLVI). The most famous was that of Chalcis. and seven times per day in the Euripe near Evea. t. ed. at Tauromenius. between the island of Evea and Boeotia.” says Pliny. whose direction changed seven times per day. ” (Phaedo. 235-236) The superstitious idea attached to the num ber seven appears to explain T heon’s hypothesis.) The variations of the flux of the euripes were very irregular. The name euripes is given to the currents which are produced in channels or straits (narrows). c) 1 0 The com m entator of Stobea rightly attributed the alternative movements of the euripe of Chalcis to the effort of the waves to surm ount the channel. p 447. The effect of this phenom enon can be best observed from the w aterfront of the town of Chalkis.” 1 1 — (La Pharsalia. Heeren. . Plato says in the Phaedo. vs. so deadly to boat­ m en.

— The determination o f the harmonic mean between two numbers. a value equal to It is therefore general. we are surprised that he did not conclude from this equality the value of the harm onic mean. c. the first rule of Theon. The author having made the remark (II. Theon actually gives the second rule for the numbers in triple relation­ ship.b : b . the product of the sum of the extrem e numbers by the harm onic mean is equal to the double product of the ex­ trem e numbers. LVII) that in the har­ monic proportion. w hatever be the relationship of a to c. b. The second rule is translated by the form ula b = ^ ^ + c. being the three numbers which give the harm onic propor­ tion a .c = a : c. translated by the for­ mula b = + c. (II. this value is equal to only when a = c. LXI). a solution to be rejected. and when a = 3c. 18 and 6. a.NOTES 155 Note XVI. .

156 NOTES Note XVII. which expresses the volum e of / /u the sphere from the diam eter d.124 instead of 6. — On the Measure o f the Earth’s Volume (III.821 + % Thus the volum e of the earth.788. according to the measure of the arc of meridian made by Erathosthenes. M artin inexact values for d3. we have d 2 =6. myriads.427. in trying to reconstitute it. III) The passage is altered and the manuscripts have a blank gap at the end. Not only this frac­ tion is illusory.788.821. T he in co rrect num ber 7.297 monads and n A i. 0 4 3 .317.842.270. pp85 and 86 (of text). supposing that the relationship of the circumference to the diam eter is equal to “ A.941.502. has the value of 270 third. The diam eter d of the earth being equal to 80.153 . gave H.153. 250 second myriads.040 + 4A instead of 36.043.568 V14 d 3 = 36.0 2 5 . It is necessary that d 3 = 515. made an error of calculation.612 n A i d 3 = 2 7 0 . on the two or three first numbers of the result. H enri M artin. substituted for the correct figure 9.124. for 1 u d3 and for “ A of 1 d3. of the hundreds of thousands.429. 4. at the most.182 stades. but one can count.810.5 0 8 .350 myriads.355.341. evaluated in cubic stades. .991.596. It is the expression of this volume that we have restated.568 instead of 515.142. 2 9 7 4 ” Ai instead of 269. 8.

the fourth Mars. the sixth Venus. It results from P lato’s tale that of the eight concentric globes. The slightly yellow shade of the second and fifth is also that of Saturn and Hermes. The sphere of the fixed stars is indeed of varied color. the seventh the Sun. the second is that which bears Saturn. the sixth circle is given as the most brilliant following the sun. the eighth.NOTES 157 Note X V III. — On the Myth o f Pamphylian in Plato’s Republic. and the unequal widths of the colored edges correspond to the unequal separation of the planets in their course through the zodiac and sometimes beyond. since the stars have diverse nuances. . in its apparent course around the earth. The seventh circle. the first exterior one is that of the fixed stars. The whiteness of the third and the redness of the fourth perfectly characterize the aspects of Jupiter and of Mars. and the eighth the moon. An equal speed is attributed to Hermes. that of the moon borrows its light from it. indeed pulls along M ercury and Venus. the fifth Hermes. The colors and speeds of the spindle-wheels correspond to those of the stars which they carry. that of the sun. is very brilliant. The earth is at the center of the system. the third carries Jupiter. Finally. Venus and the Sun: the Sun. 616 B — 617 B. which is true of Venus. (Ill. XVI).

X a UJ .

1937. Paris. Staniland. 194? W ake. 1975. Oliver. Skinner. N Y C . S ecrets o f A ncient G eom etry. 1978. rp r W atson N eal A c a d e m ic . Philadelphia. T he A ryabhatiya o f A ryabhata.. M usurgia universalis. A utum n P ress. 1650. 1564. sive ars m agna consoni et dissoni. E. rpr W izards Bookshelf. 1876. (in. Scott. K enneth Sylvan. 1875. 1965. U . Ralston. H eath. L ondon. T r by R obert L aw lor from French. Gulielm us Silvius. in. H arvard U. T hes. N Y C . vicissitudine. L ondon. (translators) Surya Siddhanta. 1860. 1979. 415 pages. 2 vols. C rane-R ussak C o. C openhagen. K ey to the H ebrew E gyptian M ystery in the Source of M easures. A. 1973. N Y C . 1969. the above but a sam ple. N Y C . Schwaller de Lubicz. M anuscript o f 21 pages. W eiser. (translation o f technical astronom ical w ork o f 499 A . e tc. N Y C . ______ The M yth o f Invariance. International Science Pubs. A ntw erp. Thom as. rpr W eiser. Music. Pythagoras Source B ook and L ibrary. Taylor. for o v e r 40 m ore such listings) . copy in H oughton L ibrary. rp r W eiser. Burgess. L ondon. Rom e. G uthrie. Physics o f M usical Sounds. A thanasius. N ew H aven. propagatione. & W hitney. Paris. rp r Phoenix P ress (M anly Hall) L os A ngeles. Thom as L. W.D . C incinnati. Music: Its S ecret Influence T hroughout the Ages. v. Pythagorean triangle.32 1767) (K ircher w rote 23 incredible w orks . L 'A rch itectu re N aturelle. E rnest G .160 S U P P L E M E N T A L REA D IN G (Anonymous). 1934. 1976. N icholas H ays L td . 1875. 500 copies. W alter E. (50 copies in folio) T ran s­ lated from L atin m ss. ______ The Tem ple O f M an. T he Pythagorean Plato. C lark. w /su p p l. o f Chicago P ress. Autum n Press. sa c r. . a T ext Book o f H indu A stronom y. J . John. 1975. N Y C. M usical Tone and Color. N orth Y onkers.. N . — L iber philologicus de sono artificioso sive m usica. A. . 1816. antiq. 535 copies. _______ T h e M a th e m a tic a l P re a fa c e . 1930. C. Supplem ent. Taylor. L ondon. rpr AM S P ress. G reek A stronom y. B rook­ line. 1972. C hicago. ______ M edicina M entis: O r.) Dee. Published in quarterly periodical Shrine of Wisdom. B runts. 3 vols. N Y C . extraordinary. (see also: N ational U nion Catalog. B oulder. D. a Specim en o f Theological A rithm etic. Tons. Sham bhala. copy in Bibliotheque N ationale. C. pvt printing. 1978. ejusque prim a institutione. Brookline. N Y C. 1977. 1967. 1978. Cyril. M onas H ieroglyphica. rpr W izards B ookshelf. The Tem ple in M an. ______ L iber diacriticus m usurgia antiquo-m oderna in qua tam de varia utriusque m usicae ratione disputatur. M inneapolis. (m onthly periodical) C hicago. 1570. K ircher. 1975. George. 1946. & 1975.. tr by R obert L aw lor. 1894 (all d istroyed by fire). (1758-1835) T heoretic A rithm etic.) M cClain. 1919. a etate. 1896. 1933. 1932. Platonist P ress.Y . R.

has a value of 3 and nearly a seventh times this diameter. arithm etic is the most necessary. 12. 41. Archimedes. II. A naxim ander says that the earth is suspended in space and moves around the center of the world. Ill. 13. Adrastus. I. Ill. Aristoxenes. 12.4. 5. 22. 5. 14. in Roman numerals. Ill. 23. A rithm etic is a gift of God. I. Archytas. 18. I. 40. 24. 31. 50. 34. 4. 17. 13. O f all the sciences. . Anaxim enes has shown that the moon receives its light from the sun and in what m anner it is eclipsed. the second in ordinary numerals indicates the section. Ill. special treatise. 6. II. A lexander of A etolia. 8. Ill. I. indicates the book o f Theon. 16. According to Archimedes. Aristoxenians. 34. 15. A ntiphon. consonant intervals: the octave and the double octave. Ill. Intro. 2-32.39.Index Authors and principal m aterial cited in Theon The first number. 1. 22. 41. II. Ill. 5. II. A rithm etic. I. opened out as a straight line. 51. Aristotle. 19. Intro. 21. Ill. Aratus. 16. 3. 13. 31. a circumference of a cir­ cle. 40.

is different from the center of volume. the center is in the sun which is in some way the heart of the universe and the center of the volume is the cold and immobile earth. are sister sciences. of a half-tone. I. C olure or m eridian circle. Intro. 42. Plato. Canopus. B o m isq u e ( f r om “ Bw/u. III. III. II. II. IIepurxr). where this star begins to be visible. They used arith m etic m ethods for expl ai ni ng astronom ic phenom ena. 33.162 INDEX Astronom y. 31. III. Hypothesis of Astronom y. Ill. Ill. 111. 1-44. In anim ated bodies. 30. A stronom y is the science of the solid in movement. III. says Plato. C hrom atic type. Axis. Center. M easure of the circum ference according to Archimedes. and note IX. 30. F or the world. II. III. the others are found through it. the center of the body. Usefulness of Astronom y. 41. 13 I. It is composed by going from low to high. A ddition and Subtraction of consonances. as anim al. says that there is another axis than that of the stars.i. 23. 16. Why the chrom atic type is thus named. special treatise. 37. is the fourth. The m anner in which Astronom y has been treated by different peoples. 8. II. The first of all the consonances. the fifth. Callippus. followed by another half-tone and a com plete trihem itone. 3. Consonance. C h aldeans. O ther consonances. Consonance of the fourth. In­ tro. I. This other axis.o -k o ? ” s ma l l a l t a r ) r e c t a n g u l a r parallelopiped having three unequal sides. Circuit. by definition.41. 40. Astronom ical discoveries. 13 I. id. 29. Astronom y and harmony. 7. as world and anim al. Discovery of the numerical laws of con­ sonances. II. 6. The relationships which represent the con­ sonances are all found in the quaternary of the decad. id. 40. III. in the myth of the Pam phylian. according to the Pythagorean doctrine. makes an angle with the stellar zodiac equal to the angle to the center of the regular pentadecagon. 33. Ill. that is to say of the anim al. per­ pendicular to the zodiac. R atios of the consonances. Intro. the octave. Ill. II. id. For man the center of the anim ated creature is the heart and the center of volume is in the umbilicus. C ircum ference. 10. III. II. 2. . 12 I.

the circle of the earth m easured as a great circle has the value of nearly 252. and note VIII. Properties of the numbers contained in the decad II. and the diam eter of the earth is 80. 39. the moon is at the other node. 37. III. III. X X X IX . According to Eratosthenes. II. 40— 49. Duplication of the Cube. 1 and 4. A ll the cubic numbers are similar. The Aristoxenians considered the diesis m inor or quarter-tone as the sm allest appreciable interval. Diesis.. It is only a point in relation to the size of the Universe. III. The earth. and Note I on P lato’s solution. 54. Ill. and II. . the volum e of the earth contains that of the moon more than 27 times. Decad. 3. Dercyllides. I. III. Eclipse. O f the sun and of the moon. Earth. III. The A ristoxenian definition. 3. Pythagorean definition. Docide. rectangular parallelopiped having two equal sides with the third larger. The problem of the duplication of the Cube. It gives the fifth in relation to the sun. The Earth is a spheroid placed at the center of the world. 29. Diopter. The Pythagoreans brought back all the numbers to the decad. A uthor of the book The Spindles. They em ployed graphic methods in order to explain astronom ic phenom ena. III. 22. III. 39. III. I. id. Proofs of the sphericity of the earth. id. Intro.INDEX 163 Cube. entrance of the house of the gods. 15. I. is in repose. The volum e of the earth is cubic stades. Eclipse of the other planets. The decad is a perfect number. Total eclipse. the earth gives the low note of the hypate in the celestial concert. III. Ill. 32. and the planets move with the whole celestial vault which envelops them. II. referring to the spin­ dles of P lato’s Republic. 41. 38. 2. There is an eclipse of the moon when. It con­ stitutes the quaternary. Dicaerchus. 12.000 stades. According to Hipparchus. Egyptians. id. II. and note XVII. ( 8oxtssmall beam). 39.182 stades. the sun being at one node. 37. According to A lexander of A etolia. III. 30. See Duplication of the Cube. id. 3.

164

INDEX

Enharm onic type. In the enharm onic gender, the voice, starting from the lowest sound, progresses by a diesis (a quarter-tone), another diesis and a double tone, II, 11. Why the enharm onic gender is so named, II, 12. The enharm onic gender is very difficult and demands much art and study, id. Epicycle. The hypothesis of the circle of the epicycle, posed in order to explain the phenom ena, III, 26. This hypothesis is a consequence of that of the eccentric circle and reciprocally, id. Hipparchus boasts of the hypothesis of the epicycle as his own and poses in principle that the planet moves on the epicycle; III, 34. Plato also appears to prefer the hypothesis of the epicycle to th at of the eccentric, id. He thinks that it is not spheres but solid circles which carry the planets, id. Epinomis, dialogue of Plato. Intro. — II, 31— III. 30. Equality. Equality is the principle and elem ent of proportions, II, 51. Reciprocally, proportions are resolved in equality, II, 52. Equinoxial. Ill, 5. Eratosthenes. Intro. — II, 30, 3 1 , 4 7 , 51, 52, — III, 3, 15. Eudemus. W rote On Astronomy. III. 40. Eudoxus. II, 13 — III, 31. Euripes. The ebb and flow of the sea in straits. They are generally produced seven times per day, II, 46 and note XV. Evander, II, 47. Eccentric. The hypothesis of the eccentric circle posed in order to explain the appearances, III, 26 I. The hypothesis of the ec­ centric circle is a consequence of that of the epicycle and reciprocally, III, 26. According to Plato, hypothesis of the epicy­ cle is preferable to that of the eccentric, III, 34. Expiations, Treatise of Empedocles, II, 46. Figure. Definition of planar and rectilinear figures, II, 53. G nom on (arithm etic). The ratio of the gnomons, the sum of which gives a polygonal number, is always less by two units than the num ber of angles of the polygon, I, 20. G eneral definition of gnomons, X X III, 63. G nom on (astronomic). Astronom ic gnomons show that the earth is but a point in relation to the universe, III, 4. They also show the m ovem ent of the sun in latitude, III, 27. Gods. There are eight gods, masters of the Universe, II, 47.

INDEX

165

Gymnastic. Gymnastics should be taught to children. Intro. 21. Harm ony. Astronom y and harmony, according to Pythagorean doctrine, are sister sciences, Intro. — Defin. of harmony, II, 4. Lydian, Phrygian, Dorian harmony, id. C elestial harmony — according to the Pythagoreans, the stars by their movements produce sounds whose intervals are equal to those of an octave. Ill, 15. H erophilus. II, 46. Hipparchus, III, 16, 32, 34, 38, 39, 42. Hippasus of M etapontus II, 12 I. Horizon, definition, III, 7. Hypotheses. Hypotheses of astronom y, III, 41. Ibycus, III, 16. Initiation to the mysteries. Intro. Interval. Definition, II, 3. System of intervals, C onsonant and dis­ sonant intervals, II, 5. Difference between intervals and rela­ tionships II, 30. Jupiter, circles the zodiac in approxim ately 12 years, III, 12. It can eclipse Saturn, III, 37. Lasus of Herm ione. II, 12. Laws, dialogue of Plato. Intro. Laws, Num erical laws of sounds, determ ination of the laws with the harm onic canon; in striking two equal vases, one empty, the other successively filled with liquid to the half, to the third, and to the fourth; with flutes; with weights. I, 13. II, 12a. Leimma. According to Plato, the interval of the fourth contains two tones and a rem ainder (leim m a) which is in the ratio of 256 to 243; determ ination of this relationship, II, 14 and 34. The leimma is less than the half-tone, II, 14 and note XI. Ao-yos logos. How many meanings are given to this word, II, 17. According to P lato it is m ental thought, spoken discourse, the explanation of the elem ents of the universe and proportional reason. Line. Definition of the line, of the straight line, of the curved line, II, 53. Definition of straight parallel lines, id. Lucifer. Star of Venus, III, 6. Lybics. Lybic tales, II, 18.

166

INDEX

Lyre. On the eight-stringed lyre, the hypate, which is the lowest sound, and the nete, which is the highest sound, are accorded by opposition and give the same consonance, II, 6. Lysias. II, 18. Mars. C ircling the zodiac in a little less than two years, III, 12. It sometimes eclipses the two planets above it, III, 37. M athem atics, the utility of. Intro. The knowledge of mathem atics is not useless and w ithout fruit for the study of the other sciences, id. It is impossible to be perfectly happy without the study of mathematics, id. the order in which one should study mathem atics, I, 2. M ean. ixeaoTT]<;. The geom etric, the arithm etic and the harm onic m ean. II, 50. General definition of. II, 54. In the arithm etic m ean, the m ean term is equal to the half-sum o f the extrem es. II, 55. In the geom etric m ean the square o f the m ean term is equal to product o f the tw o extrem e term s. II, 56. In the harm onic m ean, the product of the m ean term by the sum o f the extrem es is equal to the double product of the extrem es. II, 57. The mean subcontrary to the harm onic. II, 58. Fifth mean. II, 59. Sixth m ean. II, 60. H ow to find the m ean term of a m eans w hen the o ther tw o term s are know n; determ ination o f the arithm etic m ean, the geom etric m ean and the harm onic m ean. II, 61. M enaechm us, III, 41. Hermes (Mercury) (god), lyre of Hermes, image of the harmony of the world, III, 15. Hermes (M ercury) (planet), rarely visible, III, 37. It is separated by about 20 degrees from the sun on both sides, that is to say about two-thirds of a sign, III, 13 and 33. The planets Hermes and Venus eclipse the stars which are directly above them; they can even eclipse one another, depending on w hether one of them is higher than the other, the two planets turn around the sun, III, 37. M eridian or colure, III, 8. Monad. Why it is so named, I, 3. It differs from that which is one, id. The monad is odd, I, 5. It is not a number, but the principle of numbers, I, 8. M oon. Its eclipses are not observed at the same hour at all places on earth, III, 2. It circles the zodiac in 27 l/s days, III, 12. The M oon, which is the planet closest to earth, eclipses the planets

I. P lanar numbers. 2 — There are three parts in music. id.. I. 5.. 19. id. III. II. Intro. III. The nodes move towards the following sign of the zodiac. Definition of regular movement. Node. Ill. 25. stereometry and astronomy. Com posite numbers. C elestial music. On evenly-odd numbers. and 39. I. I. M ovement. Triangular numbers. 13 I and Note X. On the num ber nine. In the natural series of num ­ bers. Com posite numbers to each other. descendent. the source and the reason of all things. that is to say. a fifth and a tone. 12. there is an eclipse of the sun. 2. Musical Diagram. 1 — 36. 38. I. But the m athem at­ ical principles of music are connected to the theory of abstract numbers and must come im mediately after arithm etic. 3. 8. On evenly-even numbers. geometry. it comes after arithm etic. U nequilateral numbers. On even and odd numbers. Prom ecic num­ bers. Special treatise. Musician. and cannot be eclipsed by any of them. towards the signs which follow them in their passage through the meridian. linear. that is to say. 44. id. M ovements of the nodes of its orbit. must occupy the fifth stage in the study of m athe­ matics. id.. III. 2. 44. Parallelogram m atic numbers.INDEX 167 and the stars under which it passes. I. the principle. I. G eneration of unequilateral numbers by the sum m ation of the successive even numbers beginning with two. id. id. ascendent. The philosopher alone can truly be a musician. II. I. 5. 38. The unequilateral numbers are necessarily even. I. 4 .The successive relationships of a term to that which preceded it are in a diminishing sequence. 19. I.. the numbers are. 17. 7. I. III. I. III. II. T hat of Aristoxenes contains only two octaves and a fifth. Usefulness of music. euthym etric and oddly-even. Intro. 1 and III. Prime numbers are also called incomposite. Music. 14. 10. solid numbers. 7. II. 1. I. id. I. III. Prim e numbers to each other. as it were. 38. 6. Sim ilar planar numbers. 35. Number. 24. I. Nine. If the m onthly conjunction of the sun and the moon occurs near the nodes. According to the Pythagorean doctrine. The sum of two successive . Eclipses of the moon. The musical diagram of Plato contains four oc­ taves. 18. Direct and retrograde movement. which results from the movement and concert of the stars. Definition of uniform movement. 13.

star of Jupiter. Square numbers. and squared and cubic from six in six. it includes two octaves. C ircular. 54. 25. Paraphone. and note II. Pentadecacord. spherical or recurrent numbers. Lateral and diagonal numbers. 20. 31. I. On One and the monad. One as One is w ithout parts and indivisible. 14. abundant and deficient num­ bers. the terms are squared from two in two. Name given by the Pythagoreans to the Universe con­ sidered as an anim ated W hole. Phenon. 3. 20. id. 6. 22. On the order in the universe and the disorder in the sublunar world. It is the sum of a fourth and a fifth. I.168 INDEX triangular numbers is a square. I. 47. II. 32. Observations. III. 6. 5. Parallelogram ic figure. 5. in the latter case. id. 28. I. Also given to the sun. 30. Peripatetians. their sides are of cubic numbers. III.. III. III. Heptagonal and octagonal numbers. cubic from three in three. I. and note VII. Order. their generation. II. . 14. II. Octave. lyre of 15 strings. II. id. the Egyptians. III. 53. Parallelogram . Definition of the parallelopiped and of the rec­ tangular and cubic parallelopipeds. 25. II. Parallelopiped. Also see note XII. In the progression of double and triple numbers beginning with unity. cited in a sermon of Orpheus. 20. I. 13. to the god of light and some­ times to Love. II. Pyram idal numbers. I. their generation. 15. Star of Saturn. I. Perfect. The Chaldeans. I. Phanes. and as cubes their sides are of square num­ bers. II. 15. 40. Oenopides. II. See note V. and the following. Students of A ristotle. 38. Parallelogram ic number. 24. One is the first of the odd numbers. C onsonant paraphonic interval: the fifth and the fourth. as squares. I. Pentagonal numbers. One. I. G eneration of perfect numbers. Perfect musical system formed of two octaves. Found the first obliquity of the zodiac and believed in the existence of a great year. Oath of the Pythagoreans. 18. II. Phaeto. 30 and note VI.

ac­ cording to the Pythagoreans: M oon. I. I. O rder according to certain m athem aticians. Hermes. to the same distance. the Sun. 31. 18. Each planet eclipses the stars beneath which it passes in its course. . 12. and a latitudinal m ovem ent from the summer tropic to the w inter tropic and reciprocally. Definition. 43. There is an agreem ent between the two hypotheses. 15. Station of the planets. 22. III. 41. in the opposite direction to the m ovement of the universe. by an effect which is the consequence of other movements. 41. Planets. III. The spheres of the seven planets give the seven sounds of the lyre and produce a har­ mony. III. M ovem ent of the planets by chance. The apparent spiral m ovem ent of the planets. Tim e of the return of the planets to the same longitude. a truth which results from long observation. 34. 43. They vary in apparent size. 37. 40. id. 6. Jupiter. 4 . Mean distance of the planets in the hypothesis of the epicycle and in that of the eccentric cir­ cle. 27 — 28. id. from East to West. The planets move around a perpendicular axis of the zodiac. III. id. id. Venus. Forward m ovem ent of the planets. id. an octave. 28. 49. III. They are carried with the universe in its diurnal m ovement. 16. id. dialogue of Plato. being further away or closer to the earth. 53. P lanar number. R etrogradation of the planets. — II. 24. There are seven planets. The planets move themselves on their own circuits. that is to say. 30. III. III. 22. III. III. III. All events here below follow the m ovem ent of the planets and all things change in the same time as that movement. II. he believes th at there are eight sounds produced by the starry sphere and by the seven spheres of the planets which he says turn around the earth.INDEX 169 Philebus. and Saturn. I. 30. The speed of their m ovem ent through the signs seems unequal. III. neither more nor less. 22. or the circuits which carry them move them around their own centers. 20. 21 and 35. III. that is to say. they also have a longitudinal m ovem ent. Mars. III. III. III. to the same latitude. Duration of their revolutions. 36. O rder of the distances of the planets. The order of the planets ac­ cording to Eratosthenes gives second place to the Sun. III. M ovem ent of the planets in the opposite direction to the diurnal movement. Philolaus. C o lo r of the planets. I. id. Plane. III. Sim ilar planar numbers. 29. 32. 4.

II. Point. length. id. II. sense): IX. neighborhood. II. Proportional Mean. 4. surface. 2. the quaternary form ed of two progressions. The. (The Tetraktys). A drastus’s rule for deducing any three term s in con­ tinuous proportion in as many continuous proportions as one wishes. the line forms the surface and the surface forms the volum e. pentagonal. See Pythagoreans. 3. — I. Q uadrilateral. 1. 2. The 1. 12. solid). 31. 1. 2. The. 54. 3. square. Intro. 30. 16. II. 3 8 . Poseidonius. 9. 12 I. Promecic number. 6. 1. III. the figures of the elem ents (pyramid. the . and 1. VII. V. — III. — II. 11. societies (M an. II. 46. I. I. height). Polygon. 46. Every proportional num ber is a mean number. II. 2. Definition. Definition. 44. the elements (fire. 4 quaternary. II. 30. the 1. Arithm etic. the parts of the anim al (the reasoning part of the soul. unity. Intro. 32. octahedron. C ontinuous and discontinuous pro­ portions. 21. Definition of the point. 18. the square and the cube. There are three classes of promecic numbers. icosahedron. 29 and II. 18 . 34. 51 and note. II. engendered things (seed. quaternary includes all the consonances. cube). Definition. 44.170 INDEX Plato. Plinthe. 53. In like manner. 12 I.. It is neither by m ultiplication nor by addition that the point forms a line. 23. Definition. II. Quaternary. 57. III. 4. 8 and 1. science. lost work of Eratosthenes. II. family. 46. 31. Pyrois. Platonist. Proportion. II. VI. 14. 3. that is to say. city). 15. 12. line. Pythagoras. the irascible. the side. but by continuous movement. II. II. 38.. opinion. Lost work of Aristotle. width. 53. — II. but every mean num ber is not a proportional mean. 5. I. 3 1 . 6.. — III. Intro. geom etric and harm onic propor­ tions. — III — 16. There are eleven quaternaries: I.33. 4. 27. 53. II. 61. see triangular. rectangular parallelopiped having two equal sides and the third side sm aller. 42. 60. the faculties of judgm ent (thought. Prom ecic figure. 59. hexagonal numbers. water. 21. IV. air. Polygonal number. 2. 53. V III. 22. 39. star of Mars. 4. earth). Pythagorean.. the magnitudes (point. 32. Pythagorean.

30. id. Definition. 28. 3. if the m ovem ent is rapid the sound produced is high. II. II. 16. R etrograde m otion of the planets. Com m on name given to any brilliant star (star or planet). II. adolescence. 53. id. 4. old age). id. W hat is the difference between the interval and the relationship. 29. 6. — III. III. Definition. 5. and 24.id. II. 22 and 25. III. 26. 2.. 45. 4. Ill. for the sesquitertian or epitrites it is */a. 53. of the quater­ nary (tetraktys) of Pythagoras. 22. maturity. Relationship. II. II.. the ages (childhood. 12. High. the sound produced is low. It happens in several ways. 16. II. The base of the sesquilateral relationships is 3A . the seasons. X. id. Dialogue of Plato. The air being struck and put into move­ ment. Sub-m ultiple and subsesquipartial relationships. 35. of the promecic rec­ tangle. Why the Pythagoreans called it M inerva (Athena). Sound. It is perfect. if it is slow. id. id. 22. Rectangle. 38. Seven. Rising of the stars. P lato and other authors thus designated the planets. Definition given by Thrasyllus. Seven days are necessary for the diag­ nosis of an illness. 53. II. Base of a relationship. M ulti-superpartial relation­ ship. The sounds belonging to . id. All the numbers can be con­ sidered as having their justification in the quaternary. II. In the series of numbers 1. 27. Saturn. id. medium and low sounds. 46. 39. Intro.INDEX 171 lustful. It is called the num­ ber of marriage. The terms of these quaternaries correspond to the numbers 1. II. Superpartial or sesquipartial relationship. II.. Hypopolyepim er relationship. id. I. Sounds differ from one another through tensions. II. On the num ber seven. The noise of thunder is not an enharm onic sound. the relationship of two successive terms unceasingly decreases. II. The . Epim er relationship. R elationship of num ber to num­ ber. 21. Circles the zodiac in a little less than thirty years. II. and note XIV. 14. Definition of the square rectangle. II. 2. Right angle. 16 and 34. III. 4. Six. II. Solid. M ultiple relationship. Republic. 2. It is impossible to find the relationship between two things which are not of the same species. 19. II. II. XI. III. On the num ber six. Enharm onic sound. and the body). 3. Sirens. II.

Square. 1. id. 26. A pparent m ovement of the planets in a spiral. and second in coming directly bet­ . I. or simply a relationship of num ber to number. the sun being as the heart of the universe. It circles the zodiac in about 365 V» days. III. id. A ll squares are sim ilar. III. Sphere. and note IV. 3. of the Oceans.. id. III. id. Ill. 14. Sun. Spiral. The various modes of the appearance and disappearance of the stars. 3. 11. 6. 12. III. III. The square which is neither divisible by three nor by four admits these two divisors after the subtraction of one unit. I. 25. 40. Sphericity of the Universe. 16. at the same distance which pro­ duces the inequality called anom aly. According to A lexander of A etolia in the celestial concert. first by drowning them in its light. 15. or become so after the subtraction of one unit. III. Sphere of Plato. The Pythagoreans believe that its orbit is in the m iddle of those of the other planets. that is to say. M ovem ent of the sun explained by an eccentric circle III. 2. Stars. Stilbon. Ill. III. 23. 20. The sun can be eclipsed by the m oon and can itself hide the other stars. 14 and 34. 22. the starry sphere gives the nete of the conjuncts in the celestial concert. The squares are divisible by three. Station of the planets. 19. they are also divisible by four. III.172 INDEX m odulation have certain m ultiple or sesquipartial relationships to one another. I. of the earth. Star of Hermes. The geom etric mean between two suc­ cessive numbers is a heterom ecic number. by an epicycle. 2. Ill. and gives the fourth in relation to the sun. 27. 15. I. id. III. Measure of its volume. According to A lexander of A etolia. 15. The visible stars are not the same in different countries. III. II. 29. The sounds which give the sharp or half-tone are in the rela­ tionship of 256 to 213. And equally equal number. 20 and 35. III. The sun has neither stationary nor retrograde movement. that two successive heterom ecics do not have one as the proportional mean. III. The reciprocal is not true. 25. Tim e taken by the sun to return to the same latitude. Starry sphere. the sun gives the mese. or become so after the subtraction of one unit. G eneration of square numbers by the addition of successive odd numbers beginning with unity.

I. Two. of the planar surface and the curved surface. reason for this perfec­ tion. 47. Three. Theon. 44. II. III. The. Timothy. Ill. 40. Thrasyllus. 14. 22. Thales. The num ber three. II. II. See Hermes. 6. XX. 13 and 33. the volum e of the sun would contain the earth about 1880 times. II. The geom etric mean between two successive squares is an unequilateral number. Definition. 19. How this relationship was determ ined. I. Definition of the surface. 35. Unity. II. id. According to Hipparchus. . III. 7 and 14. Definition.. 32. I. See Ternary. III. Definition. H ad w ritten Commentaries on the Republic. See monad. I. II. I. The fifth surpasses the fourth by a tone. 39. Term. 5. 16. Tetraktys. G eneration of unequilaterals by the addition of successive even numbers. I. 53. but the square contained between two successive unequilateral numbers is not their geom etric mean. and the sun is further away from the earth than the moon. 121. Tropics of summer and winter. 33. II. Dialogue of Plato. Deviates from the sun about 50 degrees to the east and to the west. Tone.INDEX 173 ween them and ourselves. The ancients found that the tone is in the ratio of 9 to 8. III. O rder in the universe and disorder in the sublunar world. 53. 36. 37. Two is the only even num ber which is prime. The tone cannot be divided into two equal parts. II. Venus.46. II. Timaeus. 13. see quaternary. 38. 15. II. II. 16. The ternary is a perfect number. Ternary. 2. Surface. Triangle. U nequilateral number. Ten. — III. See decad. Triangular numbers. Universe. starting with two. 8. III. III. and 16. The unequilaterals are necessarily even. id. 19 and 23. 42.

III. III. V alue of the tropical year. III. . 41. 1. III. Obliquity of the zodiac. Egyptian. W orld. 42. The center of the world as world and as creature is the sun which is in some way the heart of the universe. The world finite and ordered. G reat year. 60. like the lateral surface of a drum. moon and planets are carried in the zodiac. 38. The whole world is spherical. 12. Ill. II. III. III. III. 23. 40. Zodiac. III. 10.174 INDEX W riting. The zodiac has a certain breadth. Year. 22. M ovem ent has been given to it by a first motor. 6. The sun. 47.