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Platonic Philosopher

T r a n s l a t e d fr o m th e 1 8 9 2 G r e e k / F r e n c h e d i t i o n o f J. D upuis by

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edited and annotated by C hristos Toulis and others.

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6 .1 This study 5 leads to the investigation of the good and beautiful. according to the Pythagorean doctrine.. for taking possession of areas.” 1 In 2 the same writing he speaks of music because for the contem plation of all that exists. It is indeed impossible that the dialecticians who are so clever. all else is use­ less. 3 1 Republic V II. see fu rth er on. as if wishing to overhear secretly the conversation of their neighbor. 5 3 Id. But the clever arithm etician seeks in reflection for what numbers correspond to the consonances and form harmony. 526b. “Astronom y and H ar­ mony which. for the concentration and deploym ent o f ‘troops” . Republic V II. Preferring the authority of the ear to that of the spirit. strive in vain who seek to know 3 diatonic nuances and to com pare sounds by being satisfied by at­ tentively straining their ear and drawing as near as possible to the instrument. they seek the truth in the plucking of the strings and the turning of the keys of their instru­ ments. “Those who know how to calculate apply themselves successfully to all the sciences and even those who have a slower mind become more intelligent through this. are two sister sciences. 1 Further on. " Republic V II 526d. 531c. Any method. 1 Republic V II.. “ for encampments. Others doubt the existence of this sound. 2 1 Republic V II. 529a. two things are necessary.4 THEON’S same book. the art of calculation is very useful. 530d. 4 15 Republic V II.. praising 1 the same science he says that geometry pertains to surfaces. do not know how to account for the reason of things to themselves nor to others. for it is in reasoning according to them that we arrive at the contem plation of things. 1 Republic V II. but “ that astronom y has as its object the m ovem ent of the solid.11 No one will ar­ 1 rive at this if he does not take these sciences for guide. 10 Cf. 531a.” 1 In the same book he 0 again assures us that even in war.1 Some say that they hear a certain particular sound 4 between two sounds and that the interval is the sm allest that can be detected.” 1 Those therefore. section II. if it is general and extends to all the common properties of things through drawing tighter the bonds of their m utual affinities. which consequently obliges the soul to look upward and to bypass the things of the earth for the contem plation of those of the sky. will bear fruit according to the ardour and zeal with which one applies one’s self to it. and what ones are those which correspond to dissonances..

INTRODUCTION 5 In th e Epinomis. all discretion would be made impossible: the soul of the anim al deprived of reason would be incapable of any virtue. But he who will consider that there is som ething divine in the origin and the m ortality of man. p. Then passing to the description of the contrary. then he says that it is necessary to begin with astronom y. It is evident. this would already be much to concede. and unless he be a prophet. p. w ithout beauty. 976 e. Deprived of true reason he will never become wise. 19 Epinomis. as the source of all that is good. who knows how to distinguish neither two nor three. will never be able to give reason to anything. he will never know nor com ­ prehend for how many of our faculties and forces num ber is the source. and it is not less evi­ dent that number. 989b. who knows neither the even nor the odd. 977d. one is even more asham ed to do so in the eyes of the gods. for example. P lato comes again to A rithm etic which he calls a “ gift of G od” 1 and he says that no one would know how to 7 become virtuous w ithout it. and that person will recognize num ber in man. nothing which would not perish were the science of number withdrawn. “ I may say th at t’is not so m uch o ur luck as a god w ho preserves us by his gift o f it. he says. he says. who knows nothing of number. On the contrary. he continues thus: “No one will ever pursuade us that there could be a virtue for the human species greater or more noble than piety” 1 because it is through piety that he who has taken care to in­ 9 struct him self acquires the other virtues. and we will see that there is nothing which would sub­ sist. C ertainly the anim al. He next shows how one inspires piety towards the gods. one would be reasonably able to believe that this science is only necessary to the human species for objects of little im portance. without grace and ultim ately deprived of all perfections. Now he is a mendacious person who develops a false opinion of the gods and expresses it w ithout even having l7I believe” . could not be the cause of any “evil” . m oreover it would no longer have its essence. To consider only the arts. it is w ithout order. . “ If one were to remove numbers from humanity. because if one is ashamed to com m it false­ hood in the eyes of men. that music can only result from movements and sounds m easured by numbers. that which is devoid of num ­ ber lacks any sort of reason. sees w hat need he has of piety towards the gods.” 1 Let us pass in review everything which is related to the 8 other arts. knowing only through the senses and the memory.” Epinomis. 18 Epinomis. F urther on.

He is a citizen useless to the safety and prosperity of the State. “ that the person who is truly an astronom er is necessarily very wise. the best.”20 Now he who proposes to prepare the minds of men for these studies. not an astronom er in the m an­ ner of Hesiod who busies him self with observing the rising and set­ ting of the stars. as long as we do not know all the forms of tem perance. of courage. he is the corruptor of his own house. he will create a solid body Erqaei Iloiet ILwfjtaTa which is truly a divine and marvelous w ork. speaking of musical harmony. as for the one who abandons it. neither we nor the guardians whom we must educate. which suppose so much prelim inary knowledge. p. since he lives in extrem e ignorance.■ — W gM . 2 Epinomis. III. a com bination which makes evident the condition of surfaces. because it contains a com bination of numbers which are not sim ilar to one another by nature. must have himself been given fam iliarity with the m athem atical sciences since childhood and all during his youth.22 In the Laws. 990c. 689d. 23 Laws. also that of genera­ tion and the properties of the odd and even. as far as they con­ tribute to making known the nature of things. a problem o f which that o f the duplication o f the cube is but a particular case. Following this he m entions another experience and art which he calls stereometry: if someone. wishing to prove that the philosopher alone is a musician. he says that. separate from all m atter. “ the greatest and beautiful political harmony is wisdom. the knowledge of which all the genius of man finds it difficult to achieve. 1 22 Plato is undoubtedly alluding to this problem: “construct a rectangular parallelopiped sim ilar to a given rectangular parallelopiped which is to this solid in a given relationship”. the principal one is the science of abstract numbers. .”23 A nd in the third book of the Republic. One possesses it only to the extent that one lives according to right reason. making the product sim ilar (to another num­ ber) and dissim ilar to w hat it was. p. will m ultiply three numbers whose planes are as I already discussed. and how to recognize them or to recog20 Epinomis. we will never be musicians. he says. that is. astronomy. he says.2 There is an aspect 1 of this science which has been given the com pletely ridiculous name of geometry. 6 THEON’S studied the nature of the perceptible gods. 990a. but of those who scrutinize the revolutions of the seven planets. p. of generosity and of high mindedness and everything in the world w hich conform s to or is contrary to these virtues. And among these sciences. he says: “ By the im m ortal gods. “ Do you not know” .

im propriety or m oral corruption is essentially linked to a perver­ sion of reason. for music joins innocent pleasure to utility. harmony. this virtue which con­ sists in the good and honest ruling of our life. . unity within m ultiplicity. accord in harmony. III. always since the first years of his adolescence. that is to say that these perceptible things are the characteristics and the expression of intelligible things. He must realize that these ideas are found everywhere and are not to be taken lightly either in large things or in the small. of nobility of the soul and of temperance. he says. if. that is to say. He adds that the com pan­ ions of right reason are decency. and God also is the ar­ ranger of discordant things. honesty. p. cadence and accord. and as can be seen by the preceding. decency in song. confusion and discord in all that one does by oneself or by im itation. no person will know modesty. beauty. it puts order into the whole system. and his greatest work is to reconcile with one another things which were enemies. cadence in rhythm. follows right reason. by means of the laws of music and medicine. when he was taught music. he took on habits of decency and order. while he who is vicious and mean is a stranger to the Muses. even accord within discord. regarding them as being part of the same art and the same study. that beautiful eternal order which has a true existence. all these are the images of that beauty. or ideas. tem ­ perance and decency if he him self is immodest and intem perant. he is also the true philosopher. large or sm all. also define music as the perfect union of contrary things. It is impossible. F or music does not only coordinate rhythm and m odulation. But the things which com prise the em bellishm ent of human life. so that only he who has good m orals is a musician. for that 24 Republic. and its com pan­ ions are indecency. The Pythagoreans.INTRODUCTION nize th e ir images in those who possess them. says Plato. its end is to unite and to coordinate. for som eone to become a perfect musician who has not acquired all the habitudes of a good education. w ithout neglecting any of them . or to the corrupted use of reason. For.” 24 7 By these words and by the preceeding he proves the usefulness of music. It is also through music th at the harmony of things and the governm ent of the universe is m aintained. the true and sincere integrity of morals. whose feelings Plato often adopted. who does not have ideas of de­ cency. and shows that only the philosopher is truly a musician.402b. usage conforms to reason. Because it belongs to the philosopher to know ideas. On the other hand. th at accord.

the reasons for all the virtues we teach them. such as those of impure “ Republic. w ithout ever rejecting them. is seen in four of the elements belonging to humanity: mind. gymnastics. and no little care is necessary so that the wool takes the color in the best way.— nor by pain nor by fear and greed. that w hich is white. they begin by choosing from am ong the wools of various colors. family. p. tried by pain or pleasure. their feelings will remain indelible. Here again is what P lato says of m athem atics in the books of the Republic: “ The good man is he who. Then they make their preparation. It has indeed the power to bring order and union into the m ultitude. p. neglecting nothing in order that they receive. W e can again com pare philosophy to the initiation into things truly holy. the right ideas which have been given to him in his education. This color and this dye that we will have given them will not be rem ovable by any lye— by this I mean sensual pleasure.69d. But if. W hen our dyers w ant to dye wool purple. “ Cf. body. Phardo. says Plato. the colors are incorporated into the w ool. and thanks to this m ethod. on the contrary. I am going to tell you of som ething w hich appears to me to be sim ilar. always preserves. one knows w hatthappens and how the wools re­ tain little of their color.8 THEON’S which harmony is in the world. but there are some aspirants whom the harbinger of the path separates out. w hich com es off and disappears. geometry and arithm etic. and to the revelation of the authentic mysteries. IV . these four things have need of being well ordered and constituted. and State. consisting in these sciences which are as so much astringent medicine. after having pre­ viously adm inistered to them detergents and other preparations. more corrosive than any lye. more dangerous than any perversity and any habitude. and their brilliancy cannot be rem oved. neither with the aid o f lye nor otherwise. agitated by desire or by fear. like a dye. good legislation is in the State. . This is how they proceed. and tem perance is in the family.429d. the dyer does not take these precautions. their character will have been formed by education. because participation in the mysteries must not be indiscrim inately given to all those who desire it. It is necessary to proceed in the same way with our faculties.” 25 W e teach children music. Indeed. letters. 28 There are five parts in initation: the first is the prelim inary purification. Now the efficacy and use of this science.

According to Em pedocles. geometry. logical. 432. which is the end and the goal of the full vision.INTRODUCTION 9 hands. It is in absolutely the same m anner that the tradition of Platonic reason follows. which are arithm etic. 250c. or through hierophantism (interpretation of sacred things). or whose speech lacks prudence. or by some other priestly work. and which. stereometry. music and astronomy. either through the dadouchos (the torch bearing ceremonies). political and natural principles corresponds to initiation. edition M ullach. in order that he who has received the sacred things. The tradition of philosophical. Indeed one begins from childhood with a certain consistent purification in the study of appropriate m athem atical theories. Phaedrus. which is the crowning of all that has preceeded it. and to enjoy the felicity which consists of living in a fam iliar commerce with him. A fter this purification comes the tradition of sacred things (which is initiation proper). geometers. he says that the binding and the crowning of the head must be understood as the faculty which is given to the adept by those who have taught him. Finally the fifth stage. p. with true existence and with ideas. becomes capable in his turn of transm it­ ting the tradition to o th e rs. musicians or astronomers. to lead others to the same con­ tem plation. in so far as that is possible. but that is not 27 Empedocles. The fourth stage. 28 Cf.” And Plato also said one must seek purification in the five m athem atical sciences. He calls full vision28 the occupation of the spirit with intelligible things. according to Plato. The fifth stage is that consum m ate felicity which they begin to enjoy. is the binding of the head and the placem ent of the crowns. But from the fear that I might appear unable to stop presenting the reasons to praise these sciences. is to be a friend of the Diety. I am going to begin the explanation of the necessary theorems. “ identifies them with the Diety. all of which would be necessary for the readers in order to become perfect arithmeticians.27 “ it is necessary that he who wishes to submerge him self in the pure wave of the five fountains begins by purifying him self of his defilements. but even those who are not rejected must be subjected to certain purifications. Finally. .” One who wishes to dem onstrate the usefulness and the necessity of the m athem atical sciences could speak of it at even greater length than this. vs. In the third place comes the ceremony which is called the full vision (the highest degree of the initiation).

10 INTRODUCTION the goal sought by all those who wish to read the writings of Plato. It is sufficient that those who wish to approach our writings or those of P lato might have gone through the first elem ents of geometry. so that they may readily un­ derstand our explanations. what we say will be such that it can be understood even by those who are com pletely ignorant of mathematics. . here I will explain the theorems which are sufficient for understand­ ing the meaning of his writings. Indeed Plato him self did not wish that we continue to extrem e old age to draw geom etric figures or to sing songs. things which are appropriate for children and which are destined to prepare and purify their minds in order to make them capable of understanding philosophy. However.

The third. . place it) after arithm etic. W e have no need for a musical instru­ ment. But we must give m athem atics of music second place (that is to say. in order to facilitate our study. he speaks of celestial music which results from the movement.ARITHMETIC 11 ARITHM ETIC O N THE ORDER IN W HICH MA THEM A TICS M U ST BE STUDIED II. we will give them the second rung. the first science will be that of numbers. 530d — after having assigned the fourth rung to astronom y — Republic V II. we can only examine this harmony after having studied the numerical laws of sounds. called stereom e­ 29 P la to places music after astronom y — Republic V II. when he says that it is not necess­ ary to agitate the strings of an instrum ent (with hand to ear) like curious folk trying to overhear something. W hat we desire is to un­ derstand harmony and the celestial music. W hen P lato says that music occupies the fifth rung 29 (in the study of m athem atics). if one does not understand that which has its foundation in numbers and in reason. The second is that whose ob­ ject is surfaces and is called geometry. which is called arithm etic. the order and the concert of the stars which travel in space. as P lato wished. Then so that the numerical principles of music can be connected to the theory of abstract numbers. as P lato him self explains. 528e. since one can understand nothing of celestial music. W e are going to begin with the arithm etic theorem s which are very closely connected with the musical theorems which are transposed into numbers. According to the natural order.

the m ultitude will arise out of it. The fourth treats of solids in move­ ment and this is astronomy. Now. the source and the root of all things. a tangible unity. is diminished and reduced into parts sm aller than itself. indeed 4 and 2 as numbers surpass one. the numerical laws of music will come immediately after arithmetic. which. is without parts and indivisible. For example. is indivisible. divided into parts greater than its whole. if a body. or 5 and 1. the numbers are. it is the term inate quantity— the principle and element of numbers. 1. so to say. Indeed nothing can be divided into parts larger than itself. being divided. it will term inate at one. and in taking away each of these parts. But that which is one. is the study of solid objects. in the m anner of numbers. the principle. And it follows that this one is indivisible. . or a progression of the m ultitude beginning from and returning to the monad (through the successive addition or subtraction of one unit). we come again to one in such a way that that which is one. whose object is to con­ sider the m utual relations of the movements and intervals. Thus in our plan. The monad. As for the monad. remains firm and fixed: it is impossi­ ble to push division any further. as a number. If we divide a tangible body in several parts.1 . but if it is divided into 4 and 2. like six into 3 and 3. it is not possible to understand it before having grasped what is based on numbers.30 Every other number. yet it grows larger as a num­ ber because in place of that which was one there are now several. then. but following the natural order. is divided into six parts. Among tangible things. this music which con­ sists in studying the harmony of the worlds will come in fifth place. according to the doctrine of the Pythagoreans. and if we again divide this one into several parts. But it is called the 30 See note II after the translation. Num ber is a collection of monads. or into 4 and 2. 1. as one. As for music. 1. and if each part is then subtracted. the parts are greater than the unit. if that which is one is divided it is diminished in bodily size and as a result of the partitioning it is divided into parts sm aller than itself. 1. whatever these relations be. when disentangled from the m ultitude through subtraction and isolated from all number. into parts equal (in sum) to the whole. is also divided. these parts are equal to the unit.12 ARITHMETIC try. 1. THE ONE AN D THE MONAD III. what was one becomes several.

one times one is always one. and the one the principle of numbered things. in the same way that each existing thing is called one. posterity considers the m onad and the dyad as principles of numbers. the m onad is abstract. is the tetrad. Moreover. among tangible things. indeed in multiplying the m onad by itself we will always have the monad. For it is through this that it becomes the principle and the measure of things which are subordi­ nate to it. with a naive attitude. such as 5 horses. As num ber differs from that which is numbered. As for the one which is met among tangible things. and if we multiply even to infinity it will always remain the monad. They further claim that the m onad is the princi­ ple of all these numbers and that the one is free of all variety. the num erable quantity is found among tangible things. that the principle of three among tangible things is the triad. like the quantity 5 and the quantity 10 which are not com ­ posed of tangible bodies. as being a participant in the first essence and idea of that which is one. while the numbers are incorporeal. but of intelligible ones. whereas for the Pythagoreans. that is to say. it is called one in itself. but in so far as it is tangible. Archytas and Philolaus use the words one and monad interchangebly. it is not a certain quantity and a diversity with regard to another one. and sim ilarly for all other numbers. can most assuredly be divided to infinity. 5 men. The monad is then the principle of numbers. and as if the one which they call first were the more universal. for example. not so far as it is num ber or the principle of number. being tangible. The num ber indeed is an intelligible quan­ tity. But. M ost add the epithet “first” to the name m onad. but that which is one. being tangible. but is the one considered in itself. so that the monad which is intelligible does not adm it of division.” They say. as if they had a m onad which was not first. and they say that the m onad is the one.ARITHMETIC 13 monad because it remains im m utable and does not go beyond the limits of its nature. the principle of numbers consists in the series of successive terms through which the odd and even are conceived. one m an. Numbered things again differ from numbers in that they are corporeal. and the principle of all that which is four. it is called the monad because it is separated and placed alone outside the m ultitude of other numbers. However. can be divided to infinity. 5 oxen. as one horse. T hat which is one. 31 Thus according to Theon. the one concrete. .3 1 IV. the one which is found in numbers is not just any one. in the same way the monad differs from that which is one.

It is by virtue of a par­ ticipation in this essence that all things are called one. p. Initially the numbers are divided into two kinds: those which are called even and the others which are called odd. is something com pletely immutable. A ristotle says. unity is not even. This is why the name itself. as are the monads to which can be added another monad. 33A variation o f the word Mottos = unit or m onad here referred to as an adj. and the monad (unit) is necessarily either even or odd. the odd numbers. it is for this reason that it is called the unique one. It is one and not several.14 ARITHMETIC and were both the m onad and the one — for they also call it the one — and as if it were the first and intelligible essence which caused all the things that are one to be such. are those which can only be divided into unequal parts. Thus the monad and the one. not only does it not divide into two equal parts. Others place another difference between the one and the monad: the one does not change according to the substance. . does not specify what the object is nor of what species it partakes. now unity added to an even number gives an odd number. ’ vas = u n it (From E ■Epo<? = one) 34 O ne o f the lost works o f A ristotle. It does not change according to quantity either. 15a. one. Neither does it change according to quality. The even num­ bers are those which can be divided into two equal parts. the total will be even. because it is not composite. If you add an even num ber to another even number. being at the same time intelligible and tangible. Some have said that the first of the odd numbers is the monad (unit) for even is the opposite of odd. therefore again. such as two and four. However. he did not call them so after one. are in no way different from one another. Now it cannot be even since. And although Plato. This one which is distinguished from the monad of which it is the essence. in The Pythagorean34 that one participates 32 Philebus. but is applied to all things. but odd. is odd. like five and seven. and it is not the one which causes the monad or the odd numbers to change according to essence. but it does not even divide at all. on the contrary. The one then differs from the m onad in that it is defined and term inated. but after the m onad which is a participation in the one. and unlike the monads which are several. therefore unity. ODD AN D E V E N NUM BERS V. for it itself is monad. while the monads are indefinite and indeterminate. in the Philebus32 uses the expression “ the Units” 33.

11. The absolute prime numbers (incomposite) are those which no other number. 7. Some among the numbers are called absolute prim e or in­ composite numbers. 1 + 1% is sm aller than 1 4. Archytas also ap­ pears to have had this feeling.and other sim ilar num­ bers. 4. 5. each surpassing the preceeding one by a unit. 13. thus none of the numbers other than unity (m onad) can divide 3 in such a way that 3 could result from their m ultiplication. because it is not defined. they a l­ ways increase by an equal quantity. as is the Unit (or monad). A nd for this reason these numbers are called oddly35 Dyad = tw o /p a ir from G reek 8ua?. 1. As for the terms which follow in a continued series. On the other hand. PRIM E OR INCOMPOSITE NUM BERS VI. and one times 11 is 11. the quality of odd is attributed to that which is defined and well ordered. 17. and finally 1 + % is sm aller than 2. as also in the world. 5. can measure. euthym etric and oddly-odd. T riad = th re e /trin ity from G reek Tpias Cctyux rpto? = holy trinity) (Toulis) . unknown and disorderly to be attributed to the quality of even. except the unit. one times 7 is 7. And one would find that the ratio decreases in like m anner for the other numbers. 1 + Yt is sm aller than 1 + %. others are absolutely com posite and still others are composite in relation to each other. These are 3. This is why the dyad is called indefinite. added to an odd num ber it gives an even number. one times 5 is 5. that of 3 to 2 is sesquialter (1 + *4) finally that of 6 to 5 is sesquiquintan (1 + Y ). Likewise. 2. Indeed.ARITHMETIC 15 in both natures. because the lengths and the lines are only considered as a single dimension. These numbers are also called linear and euthymetric. linear. They are the only indivisible numbers. others are prim e in relation to each other but not absolute. Now the & relationship 1 + % is sm aller than 1 + Vi. which causes that which is indefinite. They have thus been given five different names: prime. which it would not be able to do if it did not participate in both natures... They are also called the oddly-odd numbers. It can thus be seen that the successive num­ bers are alternately odd and even.Vn. Indeed one times 3 is 3. But in the measure of the terms. 3. the ratio of the number 2 to unity is double. in the world also. 6. beginning with unity. The first idea of the odd is therefore the monad. This is why it is called odd-even. the first idea of the even is the indefinite dyad35. incomposite.

and 10 which is measured by 2 and 5. but other numbers also. and although even. the dyad measures 4 because 2 times 2 makes 4. cf. Because of this it is said that the num ber two has the nature of the odd numbers because it has the same property as the odd. The composite numbers which are the product of two numbers are called planar. 2 and 3 measure 6 because 2 times 3 and 3 times 2 make 6. it is not a number. For example. b = 0. and. Elem ents V II. Com posite numbers are those m easured by a num ber sm aller than themselves. As for the unit. length and width. Indeed one times two is two. it does not have a divisor greater than the unit. The num ber 2 is the only one among the even numbers which is sim ilar to the odd numbers in having only unity for its measure. one times 9 equals 9. Those which are called prim e in relation to one another. one times 8 equals 8. A ll the other even num ­ bers with the exception of 2 are likewise measured by numbers greater than the unit. Those which are the product of three numbers are called solids since they possess the third dimension. but not absolute. such as 8 and 6 which have 2 as their com m on denom inator. but the principle of number. are those which have unity for com m on measure. as for the number 2. for 2 times 3 equals 6 and 2 times 4 equals 8.’ . 36 E uclid calls num bers in the form (2a + 1) (2b + 1) oddly odd. Also. Such again are 6 and 9 which have 3 for their common denom inator.t it is the first num ber different from the unit. C om posite numbers in relation to one another are those which have a common denom inator. only odd numbers can be prim e and incomposite. and one times 10 equals 10. they are considered as having two dimensions. COMPOSITE NUM BERS VII. 9 which is m easured by 3. such as 8 which is measured by 2 and 4. for 3 times 2 equals 6 and 3 times 3 equals 9. but 1 + 1 = 2 is ‘not indefinite. 10. Finally the numbers resulting from the m ultiplication of one type of numbers by the other are called peripheral numbers. it is not indefinite. def. like 6 which is measured by 2 and 3.16 ARITHMETIC odd 36 for they are odd and unity which measures them is odd as well. it is not only unity which measures them. In­ deed the even numbers are not prim e or incomposite. Prim e num bers are included in this form ula by supposing that 2b + 1 = 1. that is to say. t Unity + u n ity = the indefinite dyad. although other numbers measure them if they are considered separately. They indeed have unity for com m on measure either in relation to one another or in relation to their prime factors: one times 3 equals 3.

def. its quarter. and still others are evenly-odd. we have 1 2 = 2 x 6 = 3 x 4 = 4 x 3 . and others are oddly-even. but if a larger divisor is used. Elements. and after this first division in equal parts. and 5 times 4. The oddly-even are those which result from the m ultiplication of any two numbers. Am ong the even numbers. when divided once by two. and those which follow in proceeding by a double progression. 38 T he evenly-odd num bers are then. This ratio applies also for the other num bers. its eighth. . the num bers in the form 2(2a + 1). 14 has 7. 32 is the product of the numbers 4 and 8 which are even. Indeed half of 6 is 3. 3. 8. it is a product o f two even numbers. 10 has the num ber 5. Such are 32. 2 has the unit. but 3 cannot be divided into equal parts. w ould then be num bers taking th e form (2a + 1) 4b. w hich T heon distinguishes from the evenly-odd. Elements.39 37Thus. (3) that none of its parts is homonymous to the odd num­ ber. (2) that all the parts be even down to the final unit. 9. 16. which is even. This is the sam e definition as th at o f E uclid. its half. they will not be divided equally any further. according to T heon. 64. and an odd num ber besides. according to T heon. The evenly-odd numbers are those measured by the num ber 2 and by any odd number.37 IX. Such. the half is considered as the binary number. and which consequently have odd halves when divided in equal parts. V II. for unity (which remains after the division by 2) is indivisi­ ble.ARITHMETIC 17 VARIOUS K IN D S OF E V E N NUM BERS VIII. 128. and the same for the quarter and the eighth (which are considered as the numbers 4 and 8). are divided by the number 2 into two even parts. 8. which respec­ tively have the value 3 times 4. 39 The oddly-even numbers. Such are the numbers 12 and 20. These parts are homonymous to the even numbers. and 4. the evenly-even num ber is a pow er o f 2. 4. Now. These numbers. A ccording to Euclid. is 2 times 7 or 14. one of which is odd and the other even. sometimes odd. It is to be observed th at a num ber is evenly-even when it combines these three conditions: (1) that it be created by two even numbers m ultiplied by each other. V II. for example. Cf. which when m ultiplied. Indeed. six has the num ber 3. cf. are partitioned into two odd parts. some are evenly-even. They are called evenly-odd because they are measured by the dyad. A ll its parts are even. the quotients are sometimes even. in dividing 12 successively by 2.38 X. def. Likewise we have 2 0 = 2 x 1 0 = 4 x 5 = 5 x 4 .

the principle of all numbers. the num ber which surpasses the odd num ber by one unit is even. Such is 6. 10. 7. w hich m eans of different length (€r^x><. Now. com posite numbers are unequally unequal when they result from the m ultiplication of two unequal numbers. Among these numbers. 20. 2 0 + 10 = 3 0 . 4 . 3 times 4 = 12. by m ultiplication and by addi­ tion. 2 times 3 = 6 . which is unequilateral. Now numbers are created in two ways. . 30 and so forth. 18. 8. 1 2 + 8 = 2 0 . through doubling itself. 8. so that the sums are the unequilateral numbers 6. being une­ quilateral and surpassing unity by one. for 2 times 2 is 4 and 3 times 3 is 9.from G reek 'ETepofjuiiiar. Such are the numbers 4 and 9. 4 times 5 = 40 U nequilateral . 6. 18. XII. since 2 times 3 is 6. 6. the first num­ ber being m ultiplied by the following. 3. 4. 16. X III. Thus these are the successive even numbers. 6. unity. 10. Indeed. being odd and tending to the production of the others. renders the even numbers which surpass the odd numbers unequilateral by one unit. 12. 10. The even numbers which are added to the even numbers which precede them produce unequilateral numbers. 5.+ /xtjktjs) o th er length 41 T he sum o f the term s o f the progression form ed by the natural series of even num bers 2. when they result from the m ultiplication of two equal numbers (the result is equally-equal. This is why the num ber 2. Among composite numbers. T heon never gives th e dem onstration o f the arithm etic theorem s w hich he states. On the contrary. 2. 12.18 ARITHMETIC ON E Q U A LLY-E Q U A L. some are equally-equal. 6 + 6 = 1 2 . that is square and planar. 2. 8. 14. 16. 9. UNEQUILA TERAL A N D 40 P A R A L L E LO G R A M A TIC NUM BERS XI. the dyad. and square). makes. those which have one side (factor) longer than the opposite by one unit are called unequilateral. 1..4 1 The same unequilateral numbers are also obtained by the m ultiplication of even and successive odd numbers. therefore it is an u nequilateral num ber by definition. we have 2 + 4 = 6. We have 1 times 2 = 2. 14. Through addition. 12.. 4. he verifies them w ith several exam ples.2N is in effect n(n + 1). thus unequilaterals are only comprised of even numbers.

5. which is square because 4 times 4 = 16. the mean between them is the une­ quilateral num ber 2. 9 . by m ultiplying any num ber by itself. 2. and so forth. 2. I assert that they have the heteromecis for a mean. Thus. 4 times 6. which yield 8. 3.. none of the factors go beyond their own limits. Such is therefore the creation of the square numbers by addition. The mean term s for the consecutive squares in geom etric proportion are the unequilateral numbers. 5 times 5 make 25. 9 . 6 times 8. the mean 2 con­ tains the extrem e 1 as many times as it is contained in the other ex­ trem e 4. . If we put 4. 3 . for it is equally equal. which is also square. 4 and 5 make 9. X VI. 7. 2 times 2 make 4.4 . One could continue this way to infinity. 7 . 9. if we take the series 1. 25. 9 and 7 make 16.1 is n2. the relationship of the mean 6 to the first extrem e is equal to the relationship of the second extrem e to 6 because the relationship of 6 to 4 is sesquialter (1 + %). the num ber 3 can only triple it­ self. XIV. 1 1 . the double of 1. 3 times 3 equals 9. which is again a square num ber because it is equally equal. 6 and 9 in a line. 5 x 5 = 25. and 4 the double of 2.1 and the sum of the term s of the progression. 3 x 3 = 9 . 2 is. 4. 5 times 6 = 3 0 . 5. The successive squares are thus 1.ARITHMETIC 19 20. 48.. but the consecutive unequilateral numbers do not have squares for their proportional means. The parallelogram m atic numbers are those which have one side greater than the other side by 2 units or greater. since 3 times 3 equals 9. Taking again the squares 4 and 9. The unequilateral numbers are given this name because the addition of unity to one of the sides make the first diversity of the sides. 24. The numbers created by the addition of the successive odd numbers are square. 1. each of them m ultiplied by itself gives a square: 1 x 1 = 1 .. 4 times 4 equals 16. 16 and 9 make 25.2 n . 2 x 2 = 4 . XV. 1 and 3 make 4 which is square. for the num ber 2 can only double itself. 5 . 4. 4 x 4 = 16. 1. indeed. Let us actually take the suc­ cessive squares 1 and 4. that is to say the num­ bers whose one side is longer than the other by one unit. like 2 times 4. 16.. 3.. taking the numbers 1. like the 42 In fact the nth odd num ber starting from th e unit is 2n . each odd num ber being successively added to the square obtained by the sum m ation of the preceeding odd numbers starting from unity 42 The creation also takes place through m ultiplication. such as 2 times 2 equals 4. Thus indeed in the series of odd numbers. their mean is the unequilateral 6. 8 times 10. 80 respec­ tively.

but 4 is not contained bet­ ween them according to a continuous geom etric progression in such a way that it would have the same ratio with the extremes. or by two units or by a larger number. do not remain in their own limits and do not in­ clude the squares. but it does not have the same ratio with the extremes. it has one side sometimes longer by one unit.20 ARITHMETIC relationship of 9 to 6. There are three classes of oblong numbers. either by one unit. and sometimes longer by m ore than one unit. 4. If we arrange 2. but it is not une­ quilateral. The num ber 2 is m ultiplied by 3. since 2 x 3 = 6 . for the ratio of 9 to 6 is sesquialter (1 + %). A num ber is also oblong when. they change in the m ultiplication. it would be necessary for the ratio of the first term to the mean to be equal to the ratio of the mean to the third term. An oblong num ber is a num ber form ed by any unequal numbers of which one is greater than the other. . 3 x 4 = 12. is contained between the successive unequilaterals 6 and 12. while th at of 12 to 9 is sesquitertian (1 + %). the created unequilateral numbers do not include the square numbers. is oblong. products of factors which differ by one unit. 4 will have a different ratio with each of the extremes. but if all unequilateral numbers are by that fact oblong. Indeed all unequilateral numbers are at the same time oblong so far as they have one side larger than the other. The unequilaterals on the contrary. Thus 2 and 6 are the successive unequilaterals between which is found the square 4. and 6 in a line. It is the same situation with the following unequilaterals. and 4 x 5 = 2 4 . since the latter is defined as: a num ber of which one side is longer than the other by one unit. the opposite is not true. and other sim ilar numbers. such as 6. Now none of the (first) factors stay within their own limits. Sim ilarly 9. Now in order for 4 to be a pro­ portional m ean. Such is 24 which has the value of 6 times 4. The same is so with the following squares. Furtherm ore. Thus 2 x 3 = 6 . for the num ber which has one side longer than the other by more than one unit. because the ratio of 4 to 2 is double whereas that of 6 to 4 is sesquialter (1 + %).43 OBLONG NUM BERS X V II. according to various m ultiplica­ tions. Such is 12 which results from 3 x 4 43 See note III. a square number. the number 3 is m ultiplied by 4 and 4 by 5.

but those which have a side greater than the others by a quantity larger than one unit have been called oblong numbers because of the greater difference of length between the sides. The figure which they form is unequilateral because it is 2 in length and 1 in width. The planar numbers are the numbers produced by the m ultiplication of the two numbers representing the length and the width. But in order to make clearer w hat we have just said. since its length is 3 and its width 2. pentagonal and in general. 40 is of this sort being the product of 10 by 4. If now 4 is added to 2. A nd first of all the successive even numbers. 1 and 1. A m ong these numbers there are those which are triangular. Thus the first even num ber 2 is at the same time unequilateral. if we add the four units to the first two. unequilateral. we will have the figure of the une­ quilateral num ber 6. X V III. T R IA N G U L A R NUMBERS. The unequilateral num­ ber is the one that receives the first alteration after the num ber form ed by equal factors. if. others which are quadrangular. Let us suppose that the first even num ber 2 be represented by two units. Numbers of this kind can only be oblong. with good reason. of 8 by 5 and of 20 by 2. so that when the sides are 3 and 4 the num ber 12 is unequilateral and when the sides are 2 and 6 it is oblong. added to each other.ARITHMETIC 21 and from 2 x 6. the sum will be 6. by placing them around them (at a right angle). A fter the num ber 2 comes the even num ber 4. a num ber is again oblong. by placing them around them (at a right angle). we will show it in the following way. produce the unequilaterals. This is why the numbers resulting from this first alteration of the sides have been called. it has one side longer than the other by more than one unit. the sum will be 12 . polygonal. which is again une­ quilateral. THE M ETHOD OF O BTAINING THEM A N D OTHER P O LYG O N A L N U M BERS I N G E N E R A L X IX . resulting from any kind of m ultiplica­ tion. If we add 6 units to the six first ones. since it has the value of 2 x 3 and the same occurs with following numbers to infinity. the first alteration being the addition of one unit given to one of the two sides. The triangular numbers are obtained in the m anner that we are going to indicate. Finally. A fter the num ber 4 comes the num ber 6. for it has the value of 1 x 2.

X X III. If 3 is added to this triangular number. 9. 7. but the evens and the odds. Next comes the odd num ber 3. which has 3 for both length and width. 4. 5. 1. whose length and width are both 4 and so forth to infinity. 9. 3. the odd numbers added together give the square num ­ bers. Next comes the odd number 7. becomes 36. (Toulis) 45 T he gnomons are here the successive odd numbers. to this add 6 and you will have 21. which. Now it is evident that these numbers are triangular according to the figure obtained by adding the successive gnomons46 to the first numbers. because if it is not so in act it is so in power. we will obtain the triangular numbers. 44 It is very pro b ab le th at gnomon here has the m eaning o f constant as the succession o f odd numbers can be taken as a constant. If this gnom on44 is added to the unity. being the principle of all numbers. to which if you add 7 you will have 28 which. the result is 10. See the general definition o f gnom on. in adding them together we form the triangular num ­ bers. a new square 9 is obtained.45 an equally equal square is obtained. 7. 6. . and by adding 4 to this. by adding no longer just the evens alone or the odds alone. Thus unity is the first square number. 46 In this case the gnom ons are th e natural series of numbers. 8. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Likewise. aug­ mented by 8. since 1 x 1 = 1 . In adding them in a continuous manner. because it has 2 for both length and width. 5. 10. the result is the triangular num ber 3. If this gnomon is added to the square 4. A nd this continues to infinity. 6 is obtained. The series of the even and odd numbers is 1. And 36 augm ented by 9 becomes 45. If the num ber 2 is ad ­ ded to it. If 5 is added to this you will have 15. The first is unity or monad. ad­ ded to the square 9 gives the square 16.22 ARITHMETIC and the figure will be unequilateral as its length is 4 and its width 3. 11. 3. The odd num ber which comes next is 5. Now the successive odd numbers are 1. the square numbers are ob­ tained. I l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 In turn. and this will continue to infinity through the addition of the even numbers. 2. Add 10 and you will have 55.

ARITHMETIC 23 The triangular numbers obtained by addition will then be 3. the square numbers are produced by the ad ­ dition of successive odd numbers. The odd numbers. 1 1 3 1 1 1 6 1 11 111 10 1 11 111 1111 15 1 11 111 1111 11111 36 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 111111 1111111 11111111 21 1 11 111 1111 11111 111111 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 111111 1111111 XX. just as the sim ple numbers are alternatively odd and even such as: 1. among the m ultiple num ­ bers starting from unity come the doubles. There is another order of polygonal numbers. 4. the triples and so forth. as cubes. 36. As we have said. Those which increase by 4 give the hexagons. . 36. If now the even and odd numbers are arranged in order. 45. 10. 16. the gnomons. their sides are of square numbers. which gives a polygon. when added to the square pre­ ceding it. indeed increase by 2. 21. given by the multiple numbers starting from the unit. 64. 28. as we have shown above. 9. is always less by 2 units than the num ber of angles in the figure. beginning with the unit. Furtherm ore. 55 and so forth. each of which is greater by 2 than the preceding. the following ones of 6 by 6 are both square and cubic. 81. the numbers which increase by the addition of 3. the term s are squares of two by two and cubics of three by three. and as squares. it will be seen that. 49. Indeed. form the pentagons. 15. 6. Likewise. always beginning with the unit. beginning with unity or the monad. will form the next square. 25. beginning with the unit. 100. in such a way that the rate of the gnomons. It so happens that they are alternately odd and even.

49 XXI. which is the case with 4... like 36.. 4 See note IV. If two terms are alternatively om itted. th eir roots 22 and 24.48 A square can be divisible both by 3 and 4. beginning with the unit.ta k e n tw o by tw o. 8. and both square and cubic in six by six. not in a proper sense.. 2 '2. 256. 2.. 48 Or..tak en 6 by 6 are both squares and cubic. This is followed by 32. the ones which are equally-equal are squares.. 16. 2 l2.. Let us arrange several numbers in double progression: 1. the term s 23. 26. 28. 64. 4. their roots 2 3 and 28. 2 \ 2H 2“. followed by 256 which is square. but by com parison with the space which they seem to measure. the square which is neither divisible by 3 nor by 4. Here is how we show that the m ulti­ ple numbers. 23. 24. are even. The first double is 2. The even square which becomes divisible by 3 after having been dim inished by one unit. since the exponent is a m ultiple of 3. 128. 2. since the exponents . then 8 which is cubic. or will become so when dim inished by one unit. and other sim ilar names..a re cubes and as cubes. it is the square dim inished by one unit w hich is also divisible by 3. Finally. which is the case with 9 . 2U . G iven the progression 1. admits these two divisors after the subtraction of one unit. Next comes 4 which is square.. 2 2.. are squares. triangular or square. 32. it will be found that the remaining terms are both square and cubic. are squares in two by two and cubes in three by three.th e term s 22.47 The squares have this property of being exactly divisible by 3. and the term s 26. 25. Among the numbers. Likewise in the quintuple progression and in the other m ultiple progressions. are unequilateral or oblong. In the triple progression a similar development of alternate squares is found.a re squares.. 2s. or solid numbers. is divisible by 3. They are also exactly divisible by 4 or will become so after the subtraction of one unit. Thus 4 is called a square number 47 N o tatio n in exponents m akes these facts evident.. which are unequally-unequal. * . then 16 which is again square.tak e n three by three are cubic. and one could continue this way to infinity.24 ARITHMETIC their sides are cubic numbers. They are given the names planar numbers. like 25.. the products of two factors are planes and those of three factors are solids. 24. 2 " \ 2 " . As squares. such as the squares of 25 and 49. And in all cases. the others.. which becomes divisible by 4 after having been dim inished by one unit. Next we have 128. after which comes 64 which is both square and cubic. The square. is divisible by 4.

51 and the sides of any triangle always have as many units as are contained in the last gnomon added to it. are 3 and 2. First of all let us take unity. when they are product of the m ultiplication of two numbers they are called planar and they are solid when they are the products of the m ultiplication of three numbers. for we have 6 : 3 = 4 : 2. quadrangular or polygonal numbers. all the successive numbers which serve to form the triangular. The same numbers representing lengths at one time can be taken as sides at another for the form ation of other numbers. but in power. which is not a triangle in fact. the first is the triangular number. unity also possesses the faculty of engendering the triangle. The length of one is to the length of the other as the width of one is to the width of the other. as are the other solids (rectangular parallelopipeds) having proportional sides. are 6 and 4. for in being as the seed of all numbers. those are sim ilar whose sides. the length and width. 6 is called unequilateral. whose sides.ARITHMETIC 25 because it measures a square space. (T oulis) . All cubes are similar. XXII. Now. Because the sum of the so S e e l. 51 N ote — See previous ex p lan atio n o f gnomon which in a ll probability is the word “ constant” here. Among the planar numbers. it gives birth to the triangle whose three sides contain as many units as has the added gnomon (constant) 2. Therefore the planar numbers 6 and 24 are similar. as we have already said. O f all planar and polygonal numbers. just as among planar rectilinear figures the first is the triangle. Let us take the unequilateral num ber 6. the squares are all sim ilar to each other. the length and width. When it is added to the number 2. in such a way that there is the same relationship between the length of one and the length of the other. and we have seen that it consists in adding to the num ber 1 the natural series of even and odd numbers. have the same relationship to one another. Gnom on is a guide if we take it literally. the width of one and the width of the other. or the numbers which comprise them. whose sides. X X III. and another planar num ber 24. Among the planar numbers which have unequal sides. are called “gnomons'’. In the preceding 50 we have discussed the creation of triangular numbers. and finally the height of one and the height of the other. and for a reason founded on a sim ilar analogy. X IX . and the entire triangle contains as is many units as contained in the gnomons added together.

in starting from unity.4. end with themselves. the sphere has the same property. The number 6 augmented by the gnomon 4 gives the triangle of 10 units. and 36 x 6 = 2 1 6 . Likewise. They are those which when squarely or cubically m ultiplied. and the triangle has the value of as many units as the added gnomons con­ tain. that is. The num ber 10 being augmented by the gnomon 5. the gnom on which has just been added is 4 and the whole triangle is composed of units of 4 gnomons. In fact. because it consists of a single line and it begins and ends at the same point. 1 + 3 = 4. because it is described by the revolution of a circle around a diam eter. T hat is to say. XXIV. As we have said52 the square numbers are created by the addition of odd numbers. that is to say according to two or three dimensions.26 ARITHMETIC gnomon 1 and the gnomon 2 is equal to 3. To the triangle 3 is then added the gnomon 3. 9 + 7 = 16. and the whole triangle becomes 6. These numbers are 5 and 6. 4 1 1 11 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 1111 1111 1111 1111 25 11111 11111 11111 11111 11111 Sec I. are called cir­ cular or spherical. spherical or recurrent. that is to say. there are two units to each of its sides. those which. for in adding 2 and 3 to unity we arrive at the number 6. Such also is the circle which comes back to the point at which it began. the sides of which have 4 units each. the numbers which through m ultiplication. . and it is in this m anner that the gnomons form the corresponding triangular num ­ bers. each side of which has 5 units. increase by 2. which is greater than the num ber 2 by one unit. 16 + 9 = 2 5 . XIX. 4 + 5 = 9. the circle coming back to the position from which it departed. that is 1 + 2 + 3 4. 6 x 6 = 36. 5 x 5 = 25: 25 x 5 = 125. as many units as there are of gnomons added together. being composed of 5 gnomons. XXV . Indeed. Some numbers are called circular. gives the triangle 15. so that the triangle is composed of three units. come back to the num ­ ber which had been their point of departure. Among solids. Its sides each have as many units as there are added gnomons.

15. The hexagonal numbers are those which are formed by the addition of numbers which increase by 4. starting from unity. The pentagonal numbers are those which are formed by the addition of the numbers which increase by 3. 7. 22.91 Here are their figures: 15 6 45 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 etc The other polygonal numbers are composed in the same manner. 4.9.25 from which result the hexagons 1. 19 and the polygons themselves are 1.45.ARITHMETIC 27 X X V I. 70 and so forth. starting from unity. 5.5.66. 51. 13. 10. 35. 12. 16. The gnomons are 1.13. Their gnomons are thus 1.21.6. Here is the figure for the pentagonal numbers: 5 1 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1111 1111 1111 35 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 11111 11111 11111 11111 11111 etc X X V II.28.17. The heptagons are those which are form ed by the addition of num­ .

the decagons by numbers increasing by 8. being equally equal deficients. Thus generally in all the polygons. 81 The octagons are sim ilarly composed of numbers which increase by 6 starting from unity. and which are unequally unequal unequally. some have equal sides (as when three equal numbers are m ultiplied with each other). 28 and 36 make 64. 6 and 10 make 16. others a sm aller third side. 6. 11. The sum of two successive triangles gives a square. 10 and 15 make 25. 21 and 28 make 49. are called altars. the enneagons by numbers increasing by 7 starting from unity . being equally equal exceedants. Among the latter. Those. some have all sides unequal while others have two sides equal and another unequal. 7. Those which have equal sides (being equally equal equally). 54 A square num ber n2 can be broken down into two triangular num bers. are called cubes. Among those which have two sides equal.54 XXIX. so that n(n+ 1) 2 . Those which have two sides equal and the third sm aller than the two others. one will have the quantity by which the numbers serving to form the polygon must increase. 15 and 21 make 36. which have all sides un­ equal. starting from unity.53 X X V III. 55. The gnomons are: 1. others have unequal sides. This 1 and 3 make 4. 3 and 6 make 9. 53 See note V. Finally those which have two equal sides and the third larger than the two others. are called beams. (n -l)n _ n2 2 ~ Thus the square num ber 25 is broken down into two triangular num bers. 34. likewise the union of two linear triangles gives the figure of a quadrangle. Among the solid numbers.28 ARITHMETIC bers increasing by 5. some have a larger third side. 21. 26 from which result the heptagons 1. the 5 "equal to 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 and the 4 n equal to 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 and indicated by the figure: . 18. 36 and 45 make 81. on the other hand. in removing two units from the num­ ber of angles. 16. The triangular numbers which follow. combined together also form squares. have been called plinths or squares. the nn and the ( n 1)n.

the side will become 5. and 55 See note V I. and the side will then have the value of 2 units. since this is what one calls (that which remains of) a triangle of which a straight line parallel to the base has separated off the upper p art. but one is less by one unit than the double of unity. 56 T h a t is to say th a t two tim es the square o f the side equals one tim es the square o f the diagonal. which is greater by one unit than the double square of 2. be in power the side and the diagonal. let us add the diagonal to the side. which is the principle of all. The square constructed on side 5 is 25. If to the diagonal 3 we add two sides. the diagonal will have the value of 3 units. for the units are in equality. it is thus that the relationship of the diagonal and the side is found within unity. Now. the square constructed on side 2 is 4. for the first side and the first diagonal. and the square of the diagonal is 9. because it is necessary that unity. one of which is the diagonal and the other the side. . Let us now add the diagonal to the side. that is to say. T he pyram idal num bers are those w hich m easure pyramids and truncated pyramids. for these are the numbers which harm onize figures. Now a truncated pyramid is (what remains of) a pyramid whose upper part has been taken away. and to the diagonal let us add two sides. so also we find that the relationships of lateral numbers and diagonal numbers are m anifested in numbers according to generative ratios. through analogy with the planar trapezoids. we will have 7 units. Just as the numbers have in power relationships with triangles. In the same way let us add to side 2 the diagonal 3. pentagons and other figures. Therefore since unity is the principle of all figures. that is to say one unit to unit. the square of the diagonal unit will be less by one unit than the double square of the side unit. Let us suppose for exam ple two units. for that which the side can do twice. tetragons.56 From this point on the diagonal becomes larger and the side sm aller. 2 units to unity. the diagonal can do once. according to the supreme generative ratio. Some have given the name trapezoid (solid) to such a figure.ARITHMETIC 29 P Y R A M ID A L NUM BERS X X X . that is 2 times 2.55 THE L A T E R A L A N D D IA G O N A L NUM BERS XXX I. but if we add two sides to the diagonal.

its quarter which is 7. IX . Inversely. A B U N D A N T NUM BERS AN D D EFICIENT NUMBERS. 1. The parts of 6 are in fact its half. and 4. which is the second perfect num ber. starting from unity. 1. 2. are sometimes larger by one unit than the doubles and sometimes sm aller by one unit. its 14th which is 2 and its 57 See note V II. 7. 36.30 ARITHMETIC that which is constructed on the diagonal 7 is 49. which is 14. 12 units are obtained. sometimes larger by one unit than the double of the square constructed on the side. as aliquot parts. Elements.In fact. the diagonals com pared to the sides in power. A ll the diagonals are then. and others deficient. m ultiplied by the last num ber added. 58 Cf. whose square (289) is larger by one unit than the double (288) of the square of 12. it has its half. such as 6. in such a way that these diagonals and these sides will always be expressible. Euclid. its third. XXX II. 3. This is how the perfect numbers are created: If we arrange the numbers in a progression by doubles. 4. If we now add the three successive doubles. in such a way th at the double does not err by excess or by default. and so forth in continuing the addition. with respect to the squares of the sides. The propor­ tion alternates: the square constructed on the diagonal will be sometimes sm aller. in­ deed. some are called perfect. and if two times the side 5 are added to the diagonal 7. 1. among numbers. . combined with each of them reestablishing equality. the product will be a per­ fect num ber. the sum is 3. 2. we will have 6 which is the first perfect num ber (since 1 + 2 + 3 = 6).57 PERFECT NUMBERS. what is lacking in the preceding diagonal is found in excess in the diagonal which follows in power. we will have 17. and if we m ultiply this sum by the last term added. the same unit.58 Let us then arrange the numbers in a progression by doubles. the sum. if the diagonal 7 is added to the side 5. Again. incom posite number. gives 28. Furtherm ore. and its sixth. which is less by one unit than the double (50) of the square 25. its seventh which is 4. and we add them until we obtain a prime. alternately by excess and by lack. 4. 16. Let us add 1 and 2. 8. double. which is 2. 2. which when added together make 6. others abundant. if we multiply this by the last num ber added. Those are called perfect which are equal to (the sum of) their aliquot parts.

Such is 12. a m iddle and an end. and it is both a line and a surface. a third 4. a quarter 3. because it is the first one which has a beginning. which we will speak of in its place. because the idea of the solid rests on three dimensions. The same is found with the num ber 10 which the Pythagoreans. The deficient number is the number whose aliquot parts added together give a sum less than the original number. Finally the num ber 3 is the first link and the power of the solid. a sixth 2 and a twelfth 1. 59 See note VIII. Such is 8. call perfect for another reason. which is greater than the original num ber 12. half of which is 6. The abundant num ber is the num ber whose aliquot parts added together make a sum larger than the original number.59 It is also said that the number 3 is perfect. However. each of the sides of which have the value of two units. all of these parts added together give the sum of 16. nevertheless. It is in fact an equilateral triangular number. and the eighth 1.ARITHMETIC 31 28th which is 1 (and we have 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 2 8 ). the quarter 2. . the half of which is 4.

W e will therefore consider these two harmonies. felicity in life. and we will not hesitate to relate w hat our predecessors have discovered. and harmony in nature. And after having finished our treatise on all mathem atics. and the intelligible har­ mony which consists in numbers. a musical work played by a large sym phony orchestra.32 MUSIC BOOK CONTAINING THE NUM ERICAL THEOREMS OF M USIC INTRODUCTION Since it is said that there are consonant numbers. the reason for this consonance cannot be found w ithout * arithm etic. o r literally symphony from the w ord 'Lviufxov'ia. L ater the word consonance had to be em ployed by E nglish/F rench peoples because they thought that the word symphony w ould be best suited to represent the idea o f a work of music. Desiring then to illustrate to those who wish to study P lato further w hat has been transm itted to us by our pre­ decessors. which is a misuse. This harmony. being truth in reason. accordance. and this harmony. we will add to it a dissertation on the harmony of the world. . we have judged it necessary to compose this com pen­ dium. This consonance1 has the greatest power. is more easily understood than perceptible har­ mony. I 1 The w ord sym phony should not be taken w ith its m odern m eaning o f the present. will not be found unless it is revealed first through numbers. i. In those days symphony m eant only one thing — agreem ent. learning about the one sensed through instruments. which is also intelligible. etc. nor to make more widely known the Pythagorean traditions which we have inherited w ithout ourselves claiming to have discovered the least part of it. e. which is diffused throughout the w orld.

MUSIC 33 WHA T IS SOUND AN D EN H ARM O N IC SOUND II. if it is high-pitched. The dissonants. like that which comes from the mese. the Dorian. the nete gave the highest sound. the fifth and the octave. Thrasyllus. As for the sounds. A nd the blow of the thunderbolt has m ade many a victim W ithout wounds that bleed. The high sounds are those which give the netes. Similarly. such as the tetracord. are intervals of sounds juxtaposed to each other such as the tone and the diesis (or half-tone). but only an enharm onic sound. It is therefore neither every voice nor every tension of sound which would be called sound. the hypate the lowest.2 WHA T IS IN TE R VAL A N D H A R M O N Y III. Now sound is said to be enharm onic when. it will no longer be a sound because it will no longer be enharm onic. Among the intervals. it would not be called enharm onic. the nete or the hypate. the Phrygian. others dissonant. the injuries from which are always fatal. if the sound is so low pitched that there can be none lower. and for that reason. These tw o sounds correspond to the tw o m i o f the sam e octave. it can have a still higher pitch. the mese corresponds to the la. The interval is defined as the relationship of sounds among each other. The consonant intervals are antiphonic. it can become still lower so th at the same sound is found to be median as well. and if it is low pitched. And a cer­ tain grouping. The anti­ phonic intervals or opposed sounds are consonant. such as the fourth. in discussing the perceptible harmony of instru­ ments. because depth 2 In th e o ctaco rd o r eight-stringed lyre. such are the Lydian. Harm ony is the order of systems. on the contrary. defined sound as a tension of the enharm onic sound. IV. or paraphonic such as the fifth and the fourth. If then we imagine a sound which is higher than all others. some are high. some are consonant. as enharm onic. the pentacord and the octacord. the low sounds those which give the hypates and the medium sounds those which give the interm ediate strings. others low and others medium pitched. is called a system of intervals. V. As Euripides the poet says. such as the octave and the double octave. . one never regards the violent noise of the thunderbolt.

.4 Let us examine. On the other hand. low if the m ovement is slow. some being higher. the opinion attributed to the Pythagoreans. strong if the m ovement is violent. and letters are the prim ary signs of language. in the end. in this regard. Every m odulation and every sound being a voice. . and into which it definitively resolves its e lf.34 MUSIC opposed to height produces a consonance. . indivisible and the shortest element. or according to none. In the same way. when the air is struck and put into movement. the student of A ristotle. do not deserve the name of sounds. it is high if the m ove­ ment is rapid. belong3 See footnote 1. and which. it is evident that in immobile air neither noise nor tone would exist. perceptible interval. verbs and nouns are the most im portant parts. and every voice being a noise and noise being a percussion of air which is broken by it. pentachords and oc­ tachords. These tensions are defined in different m anners. that which makes up the principle part of sound and of all melody are the systems called tetrachords. properly speaking. since discourse is com ­ posed of letters and. The speeds without relationship result in sounds w ithout rela­ tionship and dissonance. and paraphonic inter­ vals are consonant because the sounds are neither in unison nor dis­ sonant. The sounds are dissonant and not consonant whose interval is a tone or a diesis. sound is produced. On the contrary. others lower. which are composed of intervals which are themselves composed of sounds. weak if the m ovem ent is faint. but there is a sim ilar. because the tone and the diesis are the principle of consonance but they are not consonance itself. these sounds being the prim ary and indivisi­ ble elements of which all melody is composed. O N CONSONANCES3 VI. The speeds of these move­ ments occur according to certain relationships. resolves into letters. one must regard as true sounds. 4 The tension o f a sound is now called the height. and would more rightly be called noise. in his well known treatise On Harmony and Consonance. w hether written or spoken. The sounds differ from each other through tensions. . in discourse. Adrastus. the essential parts of verbs and nouns are the syllables com posed of letters. being elem en­ tary. says: Likewise.

on the eight-stringed lyre. causes the other strings to resonate by means of a certain affinity. were nevertheless retained. . the double octave an a the fourth. likewise in melody. the fifth and the octave. Among these concordant sounds. music having made progress. and also. beginning with the lowest sound and going up to the highest and in­ versely. those which have a particular relationship to each other. They form a consonance with each other when a sound which is produced by a string of an instrum ent. not ju st any letter com bined with any other letter produces a sylla­ ble or a word. F o r in the same way that in discourse.1 to n. w hether spoken or written. A nd when. And if any of the preceding consonances is added again to the oc­ tave. others are symphonic according to prim ary ratios and best known m ultiples. Next come the eighths which include these two consonances and which we call the diapason (octave). It is in accord by opposition with the last and highest which is that of the nete. more of them high than low. and according to superpartial ratios. larger or equal intervals. a range which is greater in some. with which it has the same consonance. it is not the com bination of just 5 T he superpartial o r sesquipartial relatio n sh ip is th a t in which the antecedent is g reater than the consequent by one unit. The fifths in turn give the fifth. but following certain deter­ mined modes which m ust be observed in different types of melody. the fourth. nor w ithout art and according to a single mode. when two sounds being produced at the same time result in a mixed sound which has a sweetness and a quite particular charm. This series of m odulations is not situated by chance. and the double octave.MUSIC ( 35 ing to m odulation. some are concordant only. such as the oc­ tave and the fourth. However. Indeed. several other consonances have been found: added to the consonance of the octave are sm aller. is produced. having been added to the ancient eight — the denom inations of the ancient consonances. for example. 4 to 3 and generally th a t of n 4. Of these sounds. in fact. like th a t o f 3 to 2. as far as a sound perceptible to the ear can be pro­ duced. whether m ultiple or superpartial5 or simply of num ber to number. and the sum of the two results in a new consonance. the first to form such a concor­ dance are the fourths that form a consonance with themselves. rendering more m ultiple sounds — a large num ­ ber of sounds. a kind of sympathy. the first sound is found to be the lowest. the octave and the fifth. less in others. T here is. a certain range that the sound can travel. and for this reason are called fourths. instrum ents were given a greater num ber of strings. and so forth. and is called the hypate.

which is composed of three intervals: half-tone. not because half of a sound is indicated. THE CH RO M ATIC A N D THE EN H ARM O N IC FORMS OF M E L O D Y IX. the extremities. THE TONE A N D THE H A L F TONE VII. in the same m anner that we call certain letters demi-vowels.MUSIC any sounds that produces the well ordered sound. and this higher conso­ nant sound will give. can not a t­ tain any interval other than that of a to n e . W hen a voice which is m odulated within the limits of its range goes from a lower sound to a higher sound. considered in the sesquioctave ratio (%). together with the first. passes to another sound. The interval of the tone is very easy to distinguish through the difference between the first and best known consonances: the fifth is greater than the fourth by one tone. in the same way that the principle measure of space which sur­ rounds all moving bodies is called the cubit. which we have t Theon is expounding the tetrachord theory o f A ristoxenus. since 9 is not divisible by 2. as we have just said. a tone. and continuing to m odulate. produces the interval appropriate to m odulation. It can ac­ tually be dem onstrated that the tone. but it is necessary that this com bination take place. producing the in­ terval of a half-tone. cannot be divided into two equal parts. .t This produces another m elodic sound which is apt to m odulation. The easiest part to appreciate and the measure of w hat is called the range of sound and of any sound interval. The half-tone is not designated as such because it is the half of the tone in the way that the half-cubit is the half division of the cubit as m aintained by Aristoxenes. is called tone. and these four sounds. going through the interval of a tone. This consonance. in its turn. the consonance of the fourth. that is to say the lowest and the highest. any more than can any other sesquipartial. it then. A m odulation of this type is called the tetrachord system. or which. but because it does not com pletely compose the sound itself. O N THE DIATONIC. form a consonance. VIII. but because it is a musical in­ terval less than the tone. and another tone. following the law of defined modes.

The Pythagoreans call w hat is now called the half-tone. either because. . is then composed of two tones and a half­ tone. the d iesis. according to M acrobius. th a t is to say. II. by progression through a diesis. and proceeding with m odula­ tion. the com plem ent of the first tetrachord. with the lowest. and then passes on to a third. starting from the lowest note. The diatonic type. 4. because it diverges from the first.. This m odulation is very difficult. produces another after this. and passing through a half-tone. 7 P lato . as taken by Plato. and which.. W hen the voice produces a first sound.6 Aristoxenes says that the enharm onic type is so-called because it is the best. followed by a half-tone and a com plete trihem itone.” M acrobius. at the beginning o f the second century. again passing through a half-tone. rises to a higher sound. This type of m odulation is called diatonic. and it can produce no other sound than that which limits this tetrachord in rising towards the higher sounds. This is the type in which.“diatonum (genus) mundanael musicae doctrina Platonis adscribitur. 7 " Now. it goes up by two tones. CONCERNING THE DIESIS XII. it can observe no other interval than that of a com plete trihem itone. XI. There is a third type of m odulation which is called enhar­ monic. and as he said himself. noble and m ore natural. X. In som nium Scipionis.MUSIC 37 said is called the fourth. on the other hand. This m odulation is made then by a half-tone. expressing sad affections and violent passions. and consider it the sm allest ap­ preciable interval. in the ordinary sense. or because of the vigour and firm character which it manifests. the voice m odulates the tetrachord. it requires much art and study and is only acquired through long practice. The disciples of A ristoxenes call the quarter-tone or half of the half-tone the diesis minor. is simple. also assigned the d iatonic type to the harm ony of the spheres:. then another diesis and a double tone. gives the consonance of the fourth. and this type of m odulation is called chrom atic. and this caused him to give it the nam e which applies to everything w ell-ordained. and it changes color.

9 It is Pythagoras. but which then were called diesis. the consonance will follow the in­ dicated relationship. we say. let us content ourselves with the dem onstration which. C halcidius. with that produced by three parts of the string. the sound produced by the whole string will form. p. and the relationship is sesquitertian. or by the more fam iliar m ethod of suspending weights from them. 191. F or the moment. 9 T he relationship o f 256 to 243 is also called leim m a and is the excess o f the fourth over the double tone.38 MUSIC TYPES Diatonic Chrom atic half-tone INTERVALS tone tone trihem itone ditone half-tone half-tone Enharm onic diesisdiesis THE D ISC O V E R Y OF THE N U M ERICAL LA WS OF CONSONANCES X lla. and those which give the half-tone. In Timaeum Platonis. W ith the sound pro8 Cf. and those which give the double octave are in quadruple ratio. by greater or less intensity of breath. Paris. or by the weight of disks or the level of the w ater in vases. all things otherwise being equal.8 The sounds which produce the fourth are in sesquitertian (%) relationship to each other. th at is 4 a : (Vs)'2 = 4 3 x ‘“/si = 256/ m3. those which give the tone are in sesquioctave (%) ratio. Didot. who appears to have dis­ covered these relationships. those which produce the fifth are in sesquialter (%) ratio. X L IV . Among the other concordant sounds. is obtained by stringlengths. in what is called the harm onic canon. The sounds which give the octave and fifth are in triple ratio. and for wind instrum ents by the diam eter of the cavity. / / . through the length and thickness of strings as well as through the tension applied to them by the turning of a peg. are in the relationship of the num ber 256 to the num ber 243. since it is equal to 2 + %. If we divide a stretched string into four equal parts on the harm onic canon. It is Pythagoras who appears to have first found that the consonant sounds are in relationship to one another. W hatever the m ethod chosen from among those we have just cited. the accord of the fourth. those which produce the octave and fourth are in the rela­ tionship of 8 to 3 which is polyepim er.

Again leaving one vessel empty and filling the other up to one quarter. then they were both struck. 3. others by lengths. since the relationship is quadruple. the consonance of the fourth was ob­ tained. the relationship of the empty spaces was 2 to 1 for the octave. Furtherm ore. the interval of one tone. and 4 ).1 0 Some prefer to obtain these consonances by weights. includes all the consonances. it will form the accord of the octave. 1. One does not use a single string in every case as in the harm onic canon. obtaining with half of one and the entire other ia This is the tetractys (in GreekTerpajcTv?) and it was the nam e Pythagoreans gave to the num ­ ber 10 since it is the product o f l + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10.) . 3 to 2 for the fifth. the octave. and the double octave. 4. with regard to the sound produced by a quarter of the string. and 4 to 3 for the fourth. one was left empty and the other filled half way with a liquid. the latter of the Pythagorean school. a third of a vase was filled. The same relationships as we have seen are obtained by the divi­ sion of strings. (Toulis.3. observed the rapidity and slowness of the motions of li­ quids created in vessels. for the relationship is sesquialter and. The quaternary. the fifth. but two equally stretched strings in unison. %. It is said that Lasus of Herm ione and the disciples of Hippasus of M etapontus. with the sound produced by 8 parts of the string. 2. Taking several sim ilar vessels of the same capacity. ses­ quialter. for the relationship is 3. which are the sesquitertian. and others by numbered movements. with the sound produced by half of the string. 2. %. For the accord of the fifth. and the relationship is double. If we divide the string into 9 equal parts. the sound produced by the whole string will give. since it contains those of the fourth. thus obtaining the consonance of the octave. the consonance of the fifth. the accord of the double octave will be produced. the sound produced by three parts of the string will give. for the relationship is sesquioctave. W ith the sound produced by a quarter of the string. then striking them. the octave and fifth.MUSIC 39 duced by two parts or half of the string. it will give the conso­ nance of the octave and a fifth. double. which is helpful in the calculation of the consonances into numbers. H alf of one of these strings was plucked by pressing in the m iddle of it with a finger. and yet others by the capacity of the vessels. triple and quadruple ratios (that is to say.

one blows into the whole flute. if with a flute divided into two equal parts. for it is said that the sound should always be sim ilar to itself and not ad­ mit the least difference. one will have the consonance of the fourth. pierced in the m anner of a flute. In the same way. and the other. because it strikes and penetrates the air in a more continuous and quick manner. leaving the other one whole. . is slow. the high. and this cause produces the same conso­ nances in a single flute. due to the distance of the holes.40 MUSIC string. a rapid m otion corresponding to a high pitched sound. W hen they were plucked in thirds only. and a slow m otion corresponding to a low pitched sound. the octave. nor be composed of different tensions of lowness or highness. A sim ilar experim ent has been made on the flute and the same relationships were found. the two other thirds and the entire string gave the accord of the fifth. XIII. If the flute is divided into three. is rapid. in determ ining the consonances of these cords. The schools of Eudoxus and A rchytas thought that the relation­ ship of consonances could be expressed by numbers. If it is divided into four. this is why among tones. one. the low. Those who have measured consonances with weights. Tone is the resting of the sound on a single intonation. In fact. of equal thickness and of equal diam eter. suspended the weights from two strings in the rela­ tionships which we have m entioned and that had been obtained by the length of the strings. But sounds are in part high pitched and in part low pitched. they also recognized that these relationships express m otion. one of which is two times longer than the other. a quarter of one of the two cords was plucked. and one takes three parts at the top and one at the bottom . because it is m ore retarded. The cause of this must be attributed to the velocity and to the slowness of the m otion. two thirds being taken from the tongue end and one third from the far end. If then one blows into two pipes. to obtain the consonance of the fourth. and one blows into the whole flute and into the two thirds. in blowing into the whole flute and into the three quarters. the lower tone coming from the longer pipe and the higher tone coming from the shorter pipe. one will hear the accord of the fifth. then up to the hole which divides it into two parts one will hear the consonance of the octave. the air which escapes from the tube which is two times less long has a double speed and results in the consonance of the octave.

It is clear that the ratio 2 is composed of % and % and is resolved into the same numbers. It is evident that the com positions and the divisions of consonances have the same relationship and harmony to one another as the com positions and the divisions of the numbers which measure the consonances. the ratio ‘2 ’ of 12 to 6 breaks down into two. 1 Likewise if one adds to this the 1 sesquitertian ratio of 12 to 9. since it is composed of three tones and a half. 1 2 As the consonance of the octave is in double ratio and the conso­ nance of the fourth is in sesquitertian ratio (%). Likewise. THE R E LA TIONSHIP OF THE A D D ITIO N A N D SU BTRAC TIO N OF CONSONANCES X llla . such as 9 to 6. = 'V . the rem ainder is the sesquioctave ratio of 9 to 8. the ses­ quitertian relationship (%) of 12 to 9. that we judge the size of the intervals with our ear and that the ratios confirm the testimony of our senses. = Vi. th at of the fourth is sesquitertian (%) and that of the fifth is sesquialter (%). In fact. 8. as we have de­ scribed them. As the fifth surpasses the consonance of the fourth by one tone. :1 . 12 T h at is % x » /. and the sesquialter relation­ ship (%) of 9 to 6. since 4 is to 3 in the sesquitertian relation­ ship and the double of 4 is 8. 1 T h at is 2 x Vs = */s = 2 + Vs. 12. He says. W e will explain presently how the sounds which have a half-tone interval between them. are in the relationship of 256 to 243. Thus the octave is composed of the fifth and the fourth and is divided into the fifth and the fourth. one subtracts the sesquitertian ratio of 8 to 6. the tone being in the sesquioctave relationship (%). and 12 is the double of 6: one has the numbers 6. Let us return now to what A drastus has said on the subject of these instrum ents which were prepared according to certain relationships for the purpose of discovering the consonances. Thus 8 is % of 6 and 12 is % of 8. the sesquialter ratio of 12 to 8 will be com pleted. in fact.MUSIC 41 This then is w hat was essential for us to relate concerning the dis­ covery (of the numerical laws) of consonances. the sum of the two give the ratio of 8 to 3. one finds that the sesquialter rela­ tionship (%) also surpasses the sesquitertian relationship (%) by the sesquioctave ratio (%). 1 3 " T h a t is % : % = %. Now the ratio of the octave is double. as we have already explained. if from a sesquialter ratio.

the relationship of 8 to 6 is sesquitertian and the triple of 8 is 24.1 4 8 octave = 2 V V 4_______ __ 3_ fourth = % / 18__________ 9 octave = 2 V my I 6 fifth = % * octave and fourth = 2 + % octave and fifth = 3 The double octave is sim ilarly in quadruple ratio. says Adrastus. which are necessarily com posed of harmony. and th at besides. = 3.42 MUSIC The octave plus a fifth being in triple ratio. the same relationships will always be found result­ ing in the com position of consonances. on the contrary. 1 “ See note X. the triple ratio added to the sesquitertian ratio gives the quadruple ratio. according to what we have said at the beginning. In the same way. which gives the triple ratio for the relationship of 18 to 6 . considering the natural things and the soul. since it is com ­ posed of two double ratios: the double of 6 is 12 and the double of 12 is 24 which is the quadruple of 6. since Aristoxenus lim ited the extension of the diagram which represents the different modes to the double octave and the fifth. the sesquialter rela­ tionship added to two indeed gives this ratio. . However. 1 5 P lato carried the diatonic type and the extension of this system up to the fourth octave with an additional fifth and one tone. extends the " T h at is •/. 1 If it 6 is objected. I respond in answer to this that these latter. % rds of which are 24 which is the quadruple of 6. 1 See note IX. = '■/. and the moderns have the pentedecacord (the 15 string lyre) whose most considerable extention contains only the double octave (with one additional tone). and that of the fourth is sesquitertian (%) and it is of both that the double octave is composed. One can push these notions as far as one likes. or rather. the listeners would no longer be able to distinguish easily the sounds. considering only the practical point of view. P lato. that it is not necessary to push this calculation so far. It is therefore correct that the quadruple consonance is seen here. which is the quadruple of 6. the ratio of the octave and the fifth is 3. since the triple of 6 is 18. for the relationship of 9 to 6 is sesquialter and the relationship of 18 to 9 is double. x '• /. have determ ined things in this m anner because they were pursuaded that even those who com pete for the singing prize cannot raise their voices above these limits.

result from the dim inution of the breath. It is evident.MUSIC 43 calculation up to the solid numbers (8 and 27) and joins the terms by two means. although this would not appear to be so for certain tensions. according to this. Indeed. They also. and he ex­ tended harmony to this point. for the lengths and thicknesses of the strings. by the name of Zeus. is the fourth. a force less than the suspended weight. of two strings equal in length and thickness and sim ilar in all other ways. for in these instrum ents the lowest sounds result from their length and the size of the holes which allow for the release of a greater quantity of air which is subse­ quently put into motion. the fifth is only separated from the fourth by the interval of one tone. in order to be able to em brace com pletely every­ thing th at the solid body of the world is made up of. This is in agreem ent with the train of thought. . can go on to infinity. on the contrary. says Plato. THE L E I M M A XIV . slowing the movement. The same thing is found with the wind instruments. the largest num ber must be attributed to the greatest force. the one which sustains the greater weight will produce the highest pitched sound because of the greater tension. is sufficient in itself to retain its own harmony and consonance. since the greatest weight. The first of all the consonances. Because of this. consequently gives a greater force to the higher sound by itself which has. producing a very strong tension. since it is composed of these two consonances. which by nature. as in the trum pet and in the organ of the voice in which the feeble and tem pered sounds have (also) a greater force of their own. cause them to be weak and prevent them from vibrating easily and from rapidly striking the surrounding air. th at a lower sound possessing by itself a greater force than the suspended weight. In addition. It is then evident that the lowest sounds have their appropriate force according to the largest number. The tone can be defined as the interval which separates the fifth from the fourth. since it is through it th at the others are found. One finds that the octave is the sum of the fourth and the fifth. for exam ple to the tension which is made by the suspension of weights. he says that it is suitable to attribute the largest num­ bers to the lowest sounds.

7 2 . gives 64 and 9 x 8 gives 72. suspended weights and in several other ways. since 6 is not divisible by 8 and one must take % ths of it. some say it is a perfect half-tone. 192. and it is necess­ ary to take % ths of % ths. or 256. vessels. it would not follow to then take % ths of 9. gives the ear a sensation of something fixed and well deter­ mined. which is that of 256 to 243 and the difference in this ratio is the num ber 13. . finally.. 216. that is to say by a ses­ quioctave interval (%). 8 1 x 3 = 243. They found that the tone is in sesquioctave ratio (%). Aristoxenus says that it is com ­ posed of two and a half perfect tones.8 1 . T im aeus 36B . it is known that the first term would not be 6 . 7 2 x 3 = 2 1 6 . As for the interval called the half-tone. with­ out taking into account the half-tone or the diesis.1 7 This is the m ethod which was used to find this relationship. Commentary on the dream o f Scipio. the bottom sesquioctaves the second sesquioctaves the third sesquioctaves 8. which comes after this. They dem onstrated this with disks. and he adds that this rem ainder (leimma) does not have a name. 243. 1. The first interval (con­ tained in the fourth) is thus the tone. 9) 64. strings. 17. 9) 64. P lutarch. 216. since the fourth which is in sesquitertian relationship is greater than the double tone. and others that it is a leimma (a remainder). pipes.9 6 4 . 81. in reaching this in­ terval. 243. while Plato says that this in­ terval is two tones and a rem ainder (leimma). 72. A fter 243 let us take 192 x%. is not then com pleted by a tone. 81. W e take therefore the bottom sesquioctave 8 and 9. 9 m ultiplied by itself. N either would it be 8 . II.44 MUSIC The ancients took the tone as the first interval of the voice. W e have then ( 8 . the voice. for if % ths of 8 are 9. 72. 18 O ne m ultiplies by 3 in o rd er to be ab le to take 4 rds o f the first term to obtain the num ber A which corresponds to the consonance o f the fourth. If now each of these numbers is m ultiplied 18 by 3 we have 64 x 3 = 192. gives 81. Macrobius . The consonance of the fourth which is in sesquitertian ratio (%). but that it is in a num­ ber to number relationship. On the Creation o f the Soul in theTim aeus 16. 17 Cf. so that we have ( 8 . now 8 m ultiplied by itself. It was always the relationship of 8 to 9 which allowed the ear to discern the interval of a tone. and we will have the series of the following terms. The ear can again grasp with precision the following inter­ val. 192. Everyone agrees that the interval of the fourth is greater than two tones and less than three tones.

See Pg. is added. 19 It is. is less than the half-tone. Between these two terms are found two sesquioctaves. the num ber th at P lato said must be the leimma. See note XI. 243 leimma = 25% »3 256 leimma = 25% 43 . with 512. 192 ________ 216 tone = % ____ tone = % fourth = % There are some who chose the num ber 384 for the first term. of which the difference is 13. and the related num bers in T ab le II on pg. they have the product 384. a rela­ tionship which is itself less than Vie. because the tone being 1 + %. the half-tone will be half of 1 + %. in order to be able to take the series of %ths two times. however. t They m ultiply the term 6 by 8 . and in m ultiplying this num ber again by 8 . which gives 48. or 256. 148. 384 432 486 512 tone = % tone = % fourth = % Some say th at these numbers are not conveniently selected. that is to say 1+ . gives the relationship of the leimma. since 512 is the double of 256 and 486 is the double of 243. But nothing pre­ vents us from finding in other numbers the same relationship which exists between 256 and 243.MUSIC 45 If %rds of 192. for P lato did not take a determ ined num ber but only th at ratio of the number. the consonance of the fourth (%) will be com pleted by two tones and the leimma of which we have spoken. strings 4 to 11. t In the com plete octave scale there are tw o consecutive tetrachords. although some believe it possible judging this question not 19 The h a lf o f the tone (1 + %) is not 1 + Ms but hence not a num ber in T heon’s sense. 150 for the standard G reek octave. impossible to divide the ratio 1 + % into two equal parts. Now. It is manifest that this interval o f the numbers 256 and 243. %rds of which is equal to 512. for 384 x % = 432 and 432 x % = 486 which. Now the relationship which exists between 256 and 243 is the same as that between 512 and 486. 1 % «3 is a relationship which is less than Vis. con­ sidering th at the excess of the fourth term over the third is not 13.

nor in perceptible and visible intervals. this interval being expressed by whatever numbers. here is how the tone has been found. and then. we would say that it is necessary to consider it as belong­ ing to the fourth. for it is the leimma which makes the fourth less than two and a half perfect tones. If it is asked. neither in numbers. since 9 is %ths of 8 . pg. 20 The difference of the terms which is the unit . 44) for T heon is m aking a fine distinction A ristoxenus considered irrelevant to the ear. as we have just shown. Through the act of the division itself. and 9 and the excess of the interval % over the interval % is %. It is evident that the tone cannot be divided into two equal parts. 53. and the fifth in the relationship of %. to which consonance it belongs. The fourth being in the relationship of %. 8 .46 MUSIC by reasoning but by ear. t T he two and a h alf perfect tones o f T heon are not those of A ristoxenus (pg. there are then three things: the two divisions and the part subtracted by the bridge. See II X X IX . even when our senses do not give us evidence of it. Sometimes we grasp the tone by the operation of the intelligence.f However. for unity is not divisible. the base sesquioctave % has the indivisi­ ble unit as the difference between its terms. the base of the sesquioctave interval being the relationship of 9 to 8 . and we know that it can never be divided into two equal parts. XV. is assuredly not divisible. and cannot be so thin that in partitioning the tone. the difference between the terms cannot always be divided into two equal parts: thus the difference of 27 between the terms of the relationship of 216 to 243 is not susceptible to division into two equal parts. some sm all part " T he base o f a relationship is this relationship reduced to its most sim ple expression. concerning the leimma. and sometimes. regardless of its construction. In partitioning. of which % rds equals 8 and % nds equals 9. it is the same in all other things. XVI. but into two numbers which are 13 and 14. It is as in the harm onic canon: the bridge of a stringed instrum ent which is perceptible has. we perceive it by the ear in sounds. finally. a part of that which is divided is found to be destroyed. as the product of the cut when one cuts something with a saw. We have 6 . As in certain tangible things some parti­ cles are lost. To begin with. and some­ times we look for it in numbers and intervals. . This tension was given the name of tone. W hen a cut is made. This num ber is 6 . the first num ber divisible by both 2 and 3 has been taken. a certain width. Thus there will always be a certain part of the tone which will be absorbed. it would intercept absolutely nothing from the end of the first part and from the beginning of the second.

in trying to retain the same quantity. I produce two half-tones instead of one single tone. If. number. and it is in vain that we would wish to reproduce the same sound twice by splitting the sound. And neither in sounds does one find the splitting of the tone into two equal parts:+ for if. the lowest cannot be simi­ lar to the highest. for example. or to pluck a string twice in the exact manner.MUSIC 47 is perm anently lost. you will find the length of all the parts put together is less than the length of the object before division: Likewise. The word \ 0 y 0 9 is taken to have several meanings by the students of Aristotle. We should speak now of the harmony which is contained in numbers and to explain what the term is which. The same thing will oc­ cur if one wishes to plunge his finger the same way twice into a li­ quid. t The argum ent here depends on knowing that the first sem itone is 256 : 243 and the second is % H . ON THE VARIOUS MEANINGS OF THE WORD \ 0 y 0 5 (logos) X V III. W e would give some resonance. you will find that after the cutting the developm ent will be less. but this half-tone is neither equal nor sim ilar to that which is found between the first sound and the second. in adjoining them by the ends. you measure and you next divide it into several parts. you will not be able to prevent. by three emissions of the sound. one might conceive that it could be divided into two equal parts. there will always be more or less a difference of force applied. It is as if one wished to make two punctures perfectly similar. before dividing the shaft of a lance or a reed or any other long object. for example. if you divide a string into several parts and you cut it. XVII. the third sound is higher than the second and it is one tone higher than the first. gravity. and if you wish to once more stretch all the parts. but there will always be a difference. shows the property of w hat is spoken of. going up two intervals. W ith regard to the ideal tone. the language which the moderns call oral. power. a part of the string being lost. although im per­ ceptible to the ear. or into ink or honey or bitumen. mass. This is why the two half-tones will never be complete. size. while it seems to be above the second by only a half-tone.« % 4 3 = « 8% 0 4 1 . after having heard a tone followed by another tone. in everything.

It is this ratio that we propose now to seek. fluids with fluids. the chenice (a measure of volum e for dry things) and the cotyle (a measure of volum e for liquids). and sound with sound. according to Plato. and the ratio of proportion. The relationship of proportion or ratio is also called this. tim e with time. The name Xo-yo? is also given to the eulogy. The ratio of form is also called this as well as the seminal ratio and many others. X X. the white and the sweet or the hot. essence with essence. and it is in this sense that we say: taking account of something. W e call ‘term s’ homogenous things or things of the same species. It also has the meaning of the explanation of the elements of the Universe: the recognition of things which honor and are honored. the syllogism and induc­ tion. the word \ 0 7 0 5 is used with four different meanings: for m ental thought w ithout words. numbers with numbers. It is impossible. and fables. color with color. but one can com pare things of the same species with one another. surfaces with surfaces. indeed all things of the same species. says Adrastus. for the explana­ tion of the elements of the universe.___________________________________ 48 MUSIC and m ental reasoning w ithout the emission of voice are both desig­ nated in this way. since it is to this that it applies. m otion with m otion. W hen we examine what relationship exists between the talent and the mine. to the tale and to the proverb. taken for the purpose of being com pared with each other. The calculation of bankers is also called \ 0 y 0 5 . dry things with dry things. the definition of things which explains their essence (reason). the tales of Lybius. . solids with solids. we are saying that they are terms of the same species. such as lengths with lengths. as is the discourse of Demosthenes and Lysias in their w ritten works (speech). THE RA TIO OF PROPOR TION XIX . weights with weights. The ratio of proportion of two terms of the same species is a certain relationship that these terms have to each other. to find a rela­ tionship between two things which are not of the same species: thus one cannot com pare the cubit (a measure of length) and the mine (a measure of weight). and it is in this sense that it is said that there is a rela­ tionship of one thing to another thing. such as the double. liquids with liquids. But. for discourse pro­ ceeding from the mind and expressed by the voice. or the triple. or not taking account of it (word of honor).

and others are neutral. The m ultiple ratios which represent the consonances are the dou­ ble ratio. Such are the relationships which com pare the same quantity. the quadruple ratio in the double octave. the subsesquialter (V 3). the triple ratio and the quadruple ratio: the sesquipartial ratios are the sesquialter ratio (V 2 = 1 + ‘A). X XI. The proportion is the relationship of ratios with each other as 2 is to 1 and 8 is to 4. It is the same with other homogenous things. the triple ratio in the consonance of the oc­ tave plus the fifth. O p­ posite to these ratios are the sub-double ('A). and the relationship of 256 to 243 is a leimma. and it prevails over all others as being elementary. lesser. 22 Cf. but also the epim er and the polyepim er and other ratios which we will clearly explain later on. and the others are foreign to it. being consonances. The fourth is com ­ 21 Cf. Among the neutral ratios are the ses­ quioctave ratio (1 + Vs) and the ratio of 256 to 243 which are not consonances but are also not beyond consonance. the ses­ quialter (1 + V 2) in the fifth. Among relationships that are less than unity . As for the sesquioctave ratio (1 + Vs). Among the relationships that are larger than unity. 22 In arithm etic there are ratios of numbers. The equal rela­ tionship is one and always the same. others are subsesquipartial and others are neutral. others are sesquipartials. . the sub-quadruple (*/<). as we have seen above. not only m ultiples and superpartials. Am ong the neutral ones. V. the sesquitertian (1 + VO in the fourth. is found in the conso­ nance of the octave 21. II. such as 1 com pared to 1. the sub-sesquiter­ tian (3A). 10 to 10. The double ratio. some are m ultiples (that is to say integers). X II and X III. the sub-triple (VO. some are subm ultiple. it is one tone. there is the sesquioc­ tave ratio (9/s = 1 + Vs) and the relationship of 256 to 243. It remains the same for the inverse relationships. R elationships are greater. the sub-sesqioctave (% ) and the relationship of 243 to 256. 100 to 100. or equal. since the tone and the leimma are the principles of consonance and have the vir­ tue of com pleting it w ithout. XXII. Am ong these ratios. II. some represent consonances.MUSIC 49 because they are both weights. and the sesquitertian ratio (Vs = 1 + Vs). however. or 2 to 2.

there are the sub-m ultiples. because it surpasses it by one unit which is a third of 3. the third of the triple te r m . a particular denom ination. such as "A. and the others are inverse relationships larger than unity. the fifth of three tones and a leimma. and so forth. it measures it two times. others polyepimer. Thus according to the principles of arithm etic. THE SU PERPARTIAL OR SESQ U IPARTIAL RELATIO N SH IP XXIV. is called sesquitertian. Each sesquipartial relationship is given. and among the relationships sm aller than unity. others are neutral. the one . others m ultisuperpartial. Thus the num ber 4 is ses­ quipartial in relationship to 3. when the sm aller term ex­ actly measures the larger without there remaining any part left over. Thus the one which is greater than unity by half of the sm aller term. The relationship which is greater than unity by one third of the sm aller term. receives a denom ination corresponding to the m ultiple ratio: it is called the half of the double term.50 MUSIC posed of two tones and a leimma. 3 indeed contains one times 2. and so forth. plus unity which is half of 2. that is. that is to say when the larger term is greater than the sm aller by a certain quantity which is a part of it. if it measures it four times the relationship is quadruple. after the designation of the fraction. and others epimer. . while others are sesquipartial. third. 6 contains one times 4. for example. while others are sub-sesquipartial.. The relationship is m ultiple when the larger term con­ tains the sm aller several times. if it measures it three times. the relationship is triple. and the ratio is called half. but the relation­ ships of proportion must precede them. X X III. the sm aller term as part of the larger. has been called sesquialter since the larger quantity contains the whole of the sm aller plus a half of it. Reciprocally. as Adrastus teaches. such as 3/z and %. The larger term is given the name of the num ber of times the sm aller measures it: if. the octave of one fifth and one fourth. the relationship is double. there are m ultiple relationships. plus 2 which is half of 4. Likewise 6 surpasses 4 by 2 units which is half of 4. The relationship is called sesquipartial when the larger term contains the sm aller term plus a part of the sm aller term one time.

T he truth is th at a statem ent follow ed or preceeded by this exclam ation “ by Z eu s” was the ultim ate. as in the relationship of 19 to 12 24. Similarly. (Toulis) 44 In fact we have "A = 1 + 5 = 1 + 3 + V« = 1 + *A + 'A A A 7A = 1 + 3A = 1 + *A + 'A = 1 + V* + 'A ‘Via = 1 + 7 . T he French tran slato r does not m ention it in French.MUSIC 51 which is greater than unity by a fourth. Perhaps he thought including ex ­ clam ations w ould be beyond the scope o f his work. or again. either sim i­ lar parts or different parts. A). In the same way again the relationship of 3 to 4 is called sub-sesquitertian. by analogy. as in the relationship of 7 to 4. sim ilar as two-thirds. THE EPIM ER R E LA TIONSHIP XXV. Thus the num ber 5 contains 3 plus two-thirds of 3. It is not a colloquialism as I assume M r. other epim er relationships can be recognized which are greater than unity by two. the num ber 8 contains 5 and three-fifths of 5. sesquisixtan (1 + Ve). the third and the quarter. and sesquiseptan (1 + *A) are found. next comes the triple. Inversely. and in continuing in the same manner. som ething beyond any doubt. the relation­ ships called sesquiquintan (1 + Vs). The parts are different when the largest term contains the sm allest and in addition. three or a greater num ber of parts. the first and largest is the sesquialter relationship(l + X because the fraction V 2 is the first. then the quadruple. Am ong the sesquipartial relationships. as in the relationship of 11 to 6. all of which are sesquipartials. the relation­ ship of 2 to 3 is called sub-sesquialter. its half and its third. the num ber 7 contains 5 plus two-fifths of 5. Am ong the m ultiple relationships. two-fifths. the largest and the one which most closely approaches the whole. and so on. by Zeus 23. Dupuis inferred and consequently censored it out of his transla­ tion. always proceeding by diminishing. the relationships of the sm aller terms to the larger terms are called sub-sesquipartial. is called sesquiquartan. A relationship is called epimer when the larger term con­ tains the sm aller one tim e plus several other parts of it. the first and sm allest is the double. for in the same way that the relationship of 3 to 2 is called sesquialter. then the ses­ quiquartan relationship (1 + 'A) and so forth indefinitely. or its half and its quarter. such as 5A or 10/s. 23 This exclam ation “ by Z eus” actually exists in the ancient G reek text as met.2 = 1 + Via + Via = 1 + ‘A + ‘A . etc. also in a previous page. Then comes the sesquitertian relationship (1 + V 3 ) . and so forth in­ creasing indefinitely.

is the one which is obtained by taking. along with two or several parts of the latter. whether they be sim ilar or different. They occur in every case where. but 4 times 3 are 12. X X V III. 2 times 3 and in addition. Thus the relationship 26 to 8 is m ultisuperpartial because 3 times 8 does not give 26 com pletely. of the two proposed num­ bers. the ratio of the sm aller term to the larger. Also it is said that the relation­ ship of 7 to 3 is bisesquitertian. but there is a rem ainder formed of several parts of the sm aller number. the relationship of 11 to 4 is double with three-quarters in excess 074 = 2 + 3A = 2 + V>+ 74). and this takes place each time that the sm aller num ber does not exactly measure the larger. likewise the rela­ tionship of 11 to 3 is triple with two-thirds in excess (3 + V 3 ) . To the polyepim er relationship is opposed the hypo-polyepim er relationship (the inverse relationship). Thus 8 con­ tains 2 times 3 and in excess. It is easy to find many other polyepim er relationships. the relationship of 9 to 4 is bisesquiquartan. The relationship is called m ultisuperpartial or multisesquipartial when the larger term contains the sm aller two or more times plus a part of this sm aller term. but comes to 24 rather than 26. Again likewise. in the preceding relationship. Likewise 9 contains 2 times 4 and the fourth of 4 in addition. 7 contains in this way. THE M U LTISU PERP ARTIAL AN D POLYEPIM ER RELATIO N SH IPS XXV I. O ther m ultisuperpartial relationships are recognized in the same manner. as in the relationship of 14 to 3. A relationship is called polyepim er when the larger term contains the sm aller two times or more. and the relationship is called double with two-thirds in excess (2 + V3). 10 contains 3 times 3 along with the third of 3. since 3 does not exactly measure 14. and of 14 there re­ mains 2 which is two parts of three and which is called two-thirds. two-thirds of 3. X X V II. and the relationship is called trisesquitertian.52 MUSIC whether these parts be sim ilar or not. but when the larger gives a rem ainder which is at the same time a rem ainder of the smaller. A ratio of num ber to num ber is w hat takes place when the larger has none of the relationships we have spoken of with the . a third of 3. the sm aller does not measure the larger exactly. Inversely the hypepim er rela­ tionship. and there is a rem ainder of 2 which is a quarter of 8.

The same observations can be made of other relationships. II. Between unequal terms. It is the same with other m ultiple relationships and superpartial relationships. X X V .25 It is evident that the ratio of the sm aller numbers to the larger numbers is in the inverse. Cf. com posite terms.MUSIC 53 sm aller. while the relationship simply links hom ogenious terms to one another. while the relationship is varied and inverse from one term to the other: thus 2 to 1 and 1 to 2 have only a single and indentical interval. It borrows its name from the first relationships. the relationship of 2 to 1 25 T he relationship o f 256 to 243 is epim er. the first and the basic of the sesquialter relationships is %. for the sesquiter­ tian relationship it is 4 . As will be shown. THE DIFFERENCE B E T W E E N THE IN TE R VAL A N D THE R E LA TIONSHIP XXX . those which are expressed in the sm allest numbers and prim ary to each other are called “firsts” or the basic of all the relationships of a sim ilar (or equal) species. and 6 to 3 and so forth indefinitely. A A There is an infinite num ber of equivalent relationships expressed in larger. O f all the relationships which we have discussed in detail. the rela­ tionship which is 256 to 243. This is why there is no interval between equal terms. but there is a rela­ tionship between them which is that of equality. the interval of one to the other is unique and identical. which measures the leimma. for the sesquiquarten relationship it is 5 . since we have: 2“ A<a = 1 + “ /« » = 1 + ’/it* + V243 + */»«• = 1 + V 2 7 + V»i + '/mj. like the relationships of 4 to 2. for after this the dou­ ble relationships are expressed in larger and com posite numbers. The interval and the relationship differ in that the interval is contained between hom ogenious and unequal terms. In the same way the first and the basic of the triple relationships is the relationship 3 to 1. . and the triple relationships expressed in larger and com posite numbers go on to infinity. reduced to its sm allest terms. so th a t the larger term contains the sm aller one tim e and in addi­ tion. THE FOUND A TION OF R E LA TIONSHIPS X X IX . as has been shown. Thus the first and the basic of the dou­ ble relationships is the relationship of 2 to 1. several different parts o f it. but there are two different relationships. it is a relationship of num ber to number.

1 in double ratio form a continuous proportion. 3. This is evident: for each species there is a certain elem ent or principle which belongs to it. XX X I The proportion is a sim ilarity or identity of several rela­ tionships. of quality. form a continous proportion. in the Platonist also said that the interval and the relationship are not the same thing. Every proportion is indeed composed of ratios and the principle of the ratio is equality. However this principle is necessarily . 2. A fter the proportion formed of equal terms. because the relationship is a specific connection of two magnitudes to each other. since 6 is to 3 as 4 is to 2. 6. The same thing is observed with other m ultiple relationships. because of the repetition of the mean term. while these things differ only by a single interval. 4. 4. that is to say a sim ilarity of ratios in several terms. By this it is evident that the relationship is a different thing than the inter­ val. Eratosthenes says that the ratio is the principle which gives birth to the proportion and it is also the prim ary cause of the creation of all orderly things. of position or in any other way. or that the intelligible differs from the known in the same relationship as the perceptible differs from opinion. 15. while it itself does not resolve into any of the others. and the terms 9. into which all the others are resolved. Eratosthenes. form a discontinuous proportion. The same would be found of proportions having other relationships. and the continuous proportion is in a certain way a four term proportion. which takes place when the relationship of the first term to the second is equal to the relationship of the second to the third or to the rela­ tionship to two other terms. whereas the relationship of 1 to 2 is a half. the three sm allest terms. because 4 is to 2 as 2 is to 1.54 MUSIC being double. whether of size. 4. The explanation is the same when the relationships are sesquipartial: thus the numbers are 9. because the half and the double do not form the same relation­ ship while they do form the same interval. 6. 10. The first proportion is called con­ tinuous and the second is called discontinuous. as when it is said that the perceptible is to the intelligible in the same relationship as opinion is to scientific knowledge. and it exists between different and also not different things. A t least three terms are necessary for a continuous proportion. in sesquialter relationship (1 + V2). and the discontinuous requires at least four terms. 2 form a dis­ continuous proportion. and the numbers 6.

MUSIC 55 unresolvable and indivisible. but if a term is contained between two others it is not necessarily a proportional mean between these num­ bers. Thus the elem ent of quantity is the unit. indeed in the Epinomis™ that it is necessary that every figure. nor is equality a part of the relationship. it is a term contained between them. just as the point has no size. And each thing is indivisible and whole as it is an elem ent of a composed or mixed thing. like 2 which is conM Epinomis. while by addition it increases to infinity. those of quality are so according to quality. for it can increase only by the repetition of it­ self. And this uniqueness will be apparent to whomever com prehends correctly w hat we teach: he will understand that a single bond naturally unites all things. that of m agnitude is the point. For unity cannot be divided in quantity. but not all in the same manner. 991 E — 992A 2 The G reek word Metroryj? m eans ‘m edian’ (or m ediate in French) and here it can he 7 m anifested as a mean num ber. The cause of what we have just said is that equality has no in­ terval. The elements of substance are therefore indivisible according to substance. every com bina­ tion of numbers. Num ber is born out of the unit. nor the point in size. in the same way th at the line forms a surface and the surface a solid. but by a continuous movement.27 For if a num ber is a proportional mean between two others. to him who learns according to the true method. A mean num ber differs from a mean proportion. Similarly the ratio of equality does not increase by addition. those of quantity are so according to quantity. because unity m ultiplied by itself does not create like the other numbers: one times one is one. for if one adds several equal relationships in order. He says. and every astronom ical revolution manifest the uniqueness of proportion. relationship and proportion out of equality. Plato seems to believe that the connecting elem ent of m athem at­ ics is unique and that it consists in proportion. that of relationship and of proportion is equality. the ratio of the sum again gives an equality. As for the point. X X X II. it is neither by m ultiplication nor by addition that it forms the line. the line out of the point. Thus the point is not a part of the line. In every case unity makes up part of the number. for anything that can be broken down and divided is called a bond and not an element. (Toulis) . every harmonic group. nor equality in m ulti­ ple relationships. It can in fact happen that a num ber contained between two extremes might not be in proportion with them.



tained between 1 and 3, and 2, 3, 4, which are contained between 1 and 10, because 10 cannot be reached w ithout passing through 2, 3, 4 and yet none of these numbers is in proportion with the extremes, since the relationship of 1 to 2 is not equal to that of 2 to 3, and likewise also the relationship of 1 to 2, 3 or 4 is not equal to that of 2, 3 or 4 to 10. The proportional means between two numbers are, on the contrary, contained between these numbers: thus in the pro­ portion 1, 2, 4, whose ratio is double, the proportional mean 2 is contained between 1 and 4. ON PROPORTIONS (B E T W E E N TH REE NUMBERS) X X X III. Thrasyllus takes three principle proportions between three numbers into account: the arithm etic proportion, the g eom etric p ro p o rtio n , and the h arm onic p ro p o rtio n . T he arithm etic proportion is that in which the mean term surpasses one extrem e term by the same am ount as it is surpassed by the other ex­ treme, such as the proportion 1, 2, 3; the geom etric proportion is that in which the mean term contains one extrem e, such as the pro­ portion 3, 6, 12. The harm onic proportion between three numbers is that in which the mean num ber surpasses one extrem e num ber and is surpassed by the other, by the same fraction of the extrem e numbers, like the third, and the fourth, such is the proportion of the numbers 6, 8, 12. Thus each of the relationships can be considered in this way. 12 is the double of 6, 18 is its triple, 24 its quadruple; 9 is % of it and 8 is Vs of it; 9 is % of 8; 12 is Vs of 9, and 3A of 8 (the double of 6); 18 is the double of 9 and 27 is the 3 of 18: 8/e gives the consonance of A the fourth, 9A the consonance of the fifth and 12A the consonance of the octave; 1 gives and octave and a fifth, for 12 being the double 8/e of 6 forms the consonance of the octave and 18 being 3A of 12 is the consonance of the fifth: we have the relative numbers 6, 12, 18.28 “ A gives the consonance of the double octave; 9A gives the tone and “ A the fourth; “ A gives the fifth and 18A the octave. The ratio 27A« gives the fifth. The octave “ /« is com posed of the fifth 9A and the fourth 12A , or again the fifth “ A and the fourth 8A . 29 The octave 18A is composed
» ■% =

'* x >«, = 3.

" ' * = %x'K = *Kx% = 2.



of the fifth 1 2 and the fourth 12A ;30 the ratio “ Aa for the octave is 8/i composed of the ratio 24As for the fourth and the ratio 18A2 for the fifth.3 Finally the ratio 9A which is a fifth is composed of a tone 9A 1 and a fourth 8A 32 and the ratio 12A is thus a fifth, composed of a fourth 12A and a tone 9A .33 X XX IV. The leimma is in the relationship of the number 256 to the num ber 243. This is how the relationship is found: we take the sesquioctave relationship two times (the two terms of the first are m ultiplied by 9, the two terms of the second by 8), and triple the result. Then we join the sesquitertian relationship to it. The ses­ quioctave relationship being that of 9 to 8, we form with these two numbers two other sesquioctave relationships in the following manner: 9 x 9 = 8 1 ; 9 x 8 = 72; and 8 x 8 = 64; 81 is 9A ths of 72 and 72 is 9A ths of 64. If we triple these numbers, we have 8 1 x 3 = 243; 72 x 3 = 216 and 64 x 3 = 192. 4 rds of 192 is 256. This A num ber com pared with 243 gives the relationship of the leimma which is less than 1 + V isth.3 4 256 leimma v 243 tone ■ fourth ^ > 216 tone J 192

THE D IV ISIO N OF THE CANON X XX V. The division of the canon is made according to the quaternary 35 of the decad which is composed of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and which embraces the sesquitertian, sesquialter, double, tri­ ple and quadruple ratios (that is 4 , 3 , 2, 3, and 4). A A This is how Thrasyllus divided this canon. Taking half of the string he obtains the mese consonance of the octave which is in
30 ■ »/ » = 31 « / „ 32 • / . = 33 1 2 /8 = = % > • / .. X “ /• M /„ X > •/„ X */.

H /9 X %

3< The leim m a is less than 1 + */n th. The fraction ‘V»3 is actually less than ‘/ u , therefore 1 + ls/ 2«3 o r “ V 243 is less th an 1 + ‘/is th. “ T he “ tetraktys” o f the Pythagoreans — T he num ber 10 o r its parts 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. (Toulis)



double ratio, the tension being double for the higher pitched sounds, in the inverse direction of the movement. The inversion is such that, when the total length of the string is dim inished by the canon, the pitch is proportionately raised, and that when the length is increased the pitch is proportionately lowered, because the halflength of the proslam banom enos, which is the mese with respect to the total string, has a double tension toward the higher pitches, and the total string which is double has a half-tension on the side of the low sounds. The division of the string into three gives the hypate of the meses and the nete of the disjuncts, the nete pf the disjuncts being a fifth of the mese since the divisions are in the relationship of 2 to 3, and it is to the hypate (of the meses) in the relationship of an octave, since the divisions are as 1 to 2. The nete of the disjuncts gives with the proslam banom enos the consonance of the octave and a fifth, because from the proslam banom enos to mese there is one octave and, the intervals being prolonged up to the nete of the disjuncts, there is a fifth from this to the mese. From the mese to the hypate (of the meses) there is a fourth, and from the mese to the proslam banom enos there is an octave, the hy­ pate of the meses giving the fifth through the relationship to the proslam banom enos. The same distance of an octave is obtained by adding hypate (of the meses) to the mese, which is a fourth, to the interval from mese to the nete of the disjuncts, which is a fifth. The numbers of movements (that is to say vibrations) varies in the in­ verse direction from the division of the lengths (that is in the in­ verse direction of the length of the vibrating part). By dividing the string in fourths, the diatone of the hypates, also called the hyperhypate, and the nete of the hyperboles are ob­ tained. The nete of the hyperbole is to the nete of the disjuncts in the relationship of the fourth, to the mese in the relationship of the octave, to the hypate (of the meses) in the relationship of the oc­ tave and a fourth, to the hyperhypate in the relationship of the oc­ tave and a fifth, and to the proslam banom enos in the relationship of the double octave, in going toward the low tones. The hyperhypate is to the proslam banom enos in the relationship of the fourth, going toward the low tones, and to the mese in the relationship of the fifth, going toward the high tones; it is one tone below the hypate (o f the m eses) and the in terv a l from hyperhypate to the last cord (the proslam banom enos) is equal to

1 . and here again the num ber of movements (vibrations) is in the inverse direction to the size of the divisions. The /s ratio of the hypate of the meses to the same nete 8 s . The hyperhypate will be o given hypate jr jr by blocking off three parts at the beginning. the disjunct (nete of the disjuncts). three parts of the canon can be counted. The relationship of the mese to the nete of the hyperbole is ® = 2 which is the consonance of the octave. Between the hyperhypate and the nete of the hyperboles. in such a way that there will be four parts bet. From the mese to the nete of the disjuncts. and this completes the partitioning. from there to the hyperbole one part. the conso­ 2/3 nance of the double octave. from there to the hypate of the meses. The interval of the hypate (of meses) to the nete 3 See note X II. The hyperboles (nete of the hy­ perboles) is obtained by taking three parts of 11 the string. the conso­ / nance of the octave and a fourth. then. one part. which is the sesquialter relationship. . because if one divides the length of the canon into twelve appropriate parts. . The ratio of the mese to the nete of dis­ juncts equals 8/« = */*. In fact.. the nete o f hyperboles mese will be given by each half of the total nete o f disjuncts string. . and finally from the latter to the end of the canon. . and from the latter to the mese. it is spaced by one division from 12 proslambanomenos . from the beginning of the canon to the hyperhypate. There is. The ratio of the hyperhypate to the nete is 9 = 3. three above the mese and three below it. two parts. the con­ sonance of the fifth. there are two parts. a total of 12 divisions.MUSIC 59 the interval of the fourth from the nete of the disjuncts to the nete of the hyperboles. The hypate of meses will be given by blocking off four parts at the beginning of the canon and the nete of disjuncts in taking mese four parts at the other end of the canon. of meses r ween them. and the /a relationship of the proslam banom enos to it is 1 = 4 . three parts.. which is the sesquitertian relationship which gives the conso­ nance of the fourth.36 All of this will be made evident through the numbers. . the consonance of the octave and a fifth. hyperhypate js Spacecj by one division from the hypate 10 (of meses). The ratio of the nete of the disjuncts to the nete of hyperboles is V s. there are 6 divisions.

which is also called the diatone. 8. we will have the chrom atic of the hyperboles. and 9 is 9A of 8. T hat of the com plete proslam banom enos to the mese is 1 /« = 2. the consonance of the octave and a fifth. which is lower by one tone than the diatone. com plem ent of the consonance of the fourth through relationship to the nete of the hyperboles. we will have the trite of the disjuncts. the fourth. X XX VI. This insertion begins at the nete of the hyper­ boles. The hyperhypate is to the hypate of 2 meses as 9 is to 8. 9 and the excess of the interval 3A over the interval 4A is 9A But the interval 4A of the fourth is composed of two times 9A and a leimma. since the tone. The relationship of the hypate of the meses to the mese is 8 = 4A . found condensed in the canon. .60 MUSIC of disjuncts equals 8 = 2. The 3A ratio of the fifth is greater than the ratio 4A by one tone which is equal to 9A : let us take for exam ple the num ber 6 which is divisible by 2 and by 3: 4A of 6 equal 8 and 3A of 6 equal 9. the consonance of the fourth the ratio of which is sesquitertian (4A) and the consonance of the fifth. we will have the trite of the hyperboles. this augm ented by one eighth will give the paranete of disjuncts. The numbers of vibrations are subject to inverse pro­ portion. the ratio of which is sesquioctave (9A). the octave. If we prolong the diatone an eighth part of its length. the consonance of the fourth. the octave. And the re• See the Perfect System on page 148. the ratio of which is sesquialter (S are A). which is the double fifth (fifth of the fifth). and which is lower by one tone than the nete of disjuncts. and which is the same as the diatone of the conjuncts. Then if we prolong the nete of the conjuncts by one eighth of its length. this relationship equals 4A . which is lower by one tone. The same string is to the hyperhypate as 12 is to 9. we diminish by a ninth the length of the nete of the dis­ juncts. A F or the com plete proslam banom enos. T hat of the hyperhypate to A the same nete equals 9 . the ratio of the tone. the intervals must then be filled by tones and leimmas. T hat of the hyperhypate to the mese is 9A = 3A /« and gives the fifth. indeed if we extend the latter an eighth part of its length. W e then have 6. the relationship is “ A = 3. one tone lower. If on the contrary. which is a tone higher than the nete of the disjuncts.* The rem ainder of the interval up to the nete of the dis­ juncts will be the leimma. The relationship of the whole proslam banom enos to the hypate of the meses is 12A = S A (the fifth). and nete of conjuncts. we will have the diatone of the hyperboles.

increased by an eighth. higher by one tone than the mese. . every mean is a mean number. In this way the whole im­ m utable system of the diatonic type and the chrom atic type are completed. one obtains the chrom atic of the meses. we will have the hypate of the hypates. The proslam banom enos will have the value of 10368. we will have the mese. Such is the division of the canon given by Thrasyllus. but every mean num ber is not a mean. which is higher by one tone. R eciprocally. one increases it by one eighth. increased by one eighth gives the parhypate of the hypates. lower by one tone. W hen we put forth the elements of astronom y we will show how all of this applies to the system of the worlds. If we prolong the param ese by one eighth. If we dim inish the mese in the same m anner (by retracting a ninth of its length) we will have the param ese or chrom atic of the conjuncts. increased by an eighth. will give the diatone of the meses. lower by one tone than the mese. if the length of the proslam banom enos is divided into 9 parts. the diatone of the meses. W e will find the numerical results by beginning with the nete of the hyperboles which we will suppose to be of 384 parts. gives the parhypate of the meses.37 It is unnecessary to develop this in detail because anyone who has un­ derstood the foregoing will find it easy to calculate. and if on the other hand. It is then in so far as the mean is a m ean num ber th at it 37 See note X III. and in subtracting its ninth part from this. The mese. we will have the chrom atic of the disjuncts. and one of these parts is taken away in the inverse of what we have done for the high tones. If one subtracts one ninth from the hypate of the meses. which. as we have said. and which com pletes the octave.MUSIC 61 m ainder of the interval up to the param ese will be the leimma. and from there to the hypate of the meses there remains a leimma for the com plem ent of the consonance of the fourth with the mese. qf which we take successively % ths and the other fractions we have indi­ cated. the hyperhypate is obtained. Let us now go on to the ex­ planation of the other means and the mean numbers since. The enharm onic system is derived from the diatonic system by removing the diatones that are heard two times in each octave and by dividing the half-tones in two. higher by one tone than the proslam banom enos and term inating the tetracord of the hypates by the relationship of the leimma which it has with the parhypate. lower by one tone.

Commentary on the Dream o f Scipio. + 4) is great in music because all the consonances are found in it. edited by Ast. G olden Verses o f Pythagoras. Opinions o f the Philosophers. But it is not only for this reason that all Pythagoreans hold it in highest esteem: it is also because it seems to outline the entire nature of the universe. The im portance of the quaternary obtained by addi­ tion (that is to say 1. etc. 4 is 10. + 3. Against the Christians (philosophy of the cynics). source of eternal nature. H O W M A N Y QUA TERN ARIES ( TETRA K TYS) A R E THERE? X X X V III. 3. They allow for the unification of odd and even because numbers are not only odd or even. all the relationships of the consonances are found in the quaternary of the decad. 18. The second is formed by m ultiplication. and in this way the im mutable diagram is completed. and its essence is simple. para. as we have said. as we have shown. that of the fifth in sesquialter (Ya) relationship. the odd numbers and of all the odd-even numbers. that of the octave in the double ratio and that of the double octave in the quadruple ratio. of even and odd num­ bers. The Em poror Julien. starting from unity. L ife o f Pythagoras. II. The first quaternary is the one of which we’ve just spoken: it is formed by addition of the first four numbers. It is for this reason that the form ula of their oath was: “ I swear by the one who has bestowed the tetraktys to the coming generations. constitutes the quaternary. para.62 MUSIC is necessary to understand the following. But these numbers contain the consonance of the fourth in the sesquitertian (“A) relationship. 2. . III. I. 38 The one who bestowed it was Pythagoras. For this reason. I. into our souls” . it is the principle of all the even numbers. in m ultiplication. The decad in. 1 Cf. Of these numbers. unity is the first because. since the sum of the numbers 1. + 2. XXV III and X X IX . and it has been said that the tetraktys appears indeed to have been discovered by him. Plutarch. 6: 8 Theologumena Arithm eticae IV . fact. Since. M acrobius. Iam blicus. concerning means and mean numbers. p. THE Q U A T E R N A R Y (OR TETRA K TYS) AN D THE DEC AD XXX V II. Next comes three numbers from the odd as well as the even series. it is of these numbers that we have to speak. 47-48.

the first of the even numbers being 2 which comes from unity doubled. in the preceding quaternary. one even. following the same propor­ tion. being prime. incomposite numbers. by virtue of the numbers from this tetraktys. as we have 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 8 -1 . geom etric and arithm etic ratios of which the harmony of the universe is composed. The fourth among the even numbers is 8. have the power of the cubic solid. growth procedes from the limit and the point up to the solid. It is with these numbers that Plato. after the limit and the point comes the side. There are then two quaternaries of numbers. of lim it and of point. and among the odd numbers. cubic numbers). the other by m ultiplication. even the tone is included. 27. embraces the nature of all magnitudes. 8 and 27. in the Timaeus.MUSIC 63 two quaternaries are taken. the other odd. the first of the odd num­ bers being the num ber 3 which arises from unity being tripled. and in the odd series.9 = 2 7 . The fourth terms. and that of the numbers 2 and 3. The second numbers. However unity contains the principle of ratio. the even in double ratio. is that of the point in this one. being equally equal (that is to say square numbers). The ratios of the most perfect consonances are found in these numbers. then the surface and finally the solid. The second num ber in the even and double (series) is 2 and in the odd and triple is 3. and are consequently linear numbers. for the place taken by unity. 36 be. constitutes the soul.39 The last of these seven numbers is equal to the sum of all the pre­ ceding. 4 and 9. . so that unity is odd and even sim ultaneously and belongs to both. 9. The third terms. being equally equal equally (that is to say. the odd in triple ratio. and these quaternaries en­ compass the musical. The third quaternary is that which. and measured only by the unit. th e Tim aeus. having lateral (or linear) :l!' P la to . one which is made by addition. In fact. have the power of the squared surface. The third of the order of even numbers is 4. 2 and 3 have the side ratio. In this way.

A growth in length is analogous to the num­ ber 2 and to the line. and the circular to the odd. The sixth is that of the created things.” by L. 40 A solid having 20 surfaces. are the numbers 4 and 9. having the power of the surface. in the preceding are the numbers 8 and 27. The place occupied by unity in the quaternary of numbers is taken by fire in this one. water to the num ber 3. through the point. for the pyramid is the figure of fire. M an is principle and is thus. The other relationships are also equal (that is to say. water and earth. the two types of surface. that air is to w ater as 2 is to 3. air. This is the third tetraktys then. is constituted by the solid in this one. air corresponds to the num ber 2. A ll of these quaternaries are m aterial and perceptible. through its double form. and finally a growth in thickness is analogous to the num ber 4 and to the solid. for these are the elements which compose the nation. straight or circular. And what. G ordon Plum m er. in the preceding quaternary. the straight line corresponding to the even num ber because it term inates at two points (the line and circle are given as examples here). and to earth as 1 is to 4. to w ater as 1 is to 3. what. the one having the property of constituting any m ag­ nitude. one with a curved surface. 1972. in such a way that fire is to air as 1 is to 2. The family corresponds to the number 2. the octahedron the figure of air. the other with a plane surface. unity. . earth to the num ber 4. fire. such as the cube and the pyramid. the line. and it offers the same proportion as the quaternary of numbers. the village to the num ber 3 and the city to the num ber 4. are so (surface) in this one: Finally. and a growth in width is analogous to the num ber 3 and to the surface.64 MUSIC power. because it is composed of a single line without terminus. the surface and the solid. which have the power of the cube and of which one is even and the other odd. There are two kinds of solids. and which are its intellectual part. The seventh quaternary is that of societies. the planar and the curved. The eighth contains faculties by which we are able to form judg­ ment on the preceding. the seed being analogous to unity and to the point. such is indeed the nature of the elements according to their fineness or density. The fifth quaternary is that of the shapes of sim ple bodies. the icosahedron 40 the figure of water and the cube the figure of earth. and so forth for the others). The fourth quaternary is that of the simple bodies. See: “ M athem atics of the Cosm ic M ind. is here that of the line. like the sphere or the cylinder.

the second is that of the num­ bers formed by m ultiplication. The sixth is the seed. all the senses being m otivated through contact. the side. The tenth quaternary is that of the seasons of the year. fire in the fourth. body and soul. opinion and feeling. autum n. the cube. and the body. sense. The ninth is the rational. the height. the city. m aturity and old age. harm onically and arithm etically arranged. the square. The tenth is spring. adolescence. 3. spring. the cube. the village.science is the num ber 2. the tenth is that of the seasons. the length. the pyramid in the fifth. the fourth is that of magnitudes. the seventh is th at of societies. It is perfect because . earth. the em o­ tional and the willful. the solid. winter. the family. the ninth is that of the living thing. the rational.MUSIC 65 namely: thought. the em otional and the willful parts of the soul. The first is that of the num­ bers which are formed by addition. air. The third is the point. 4. and so forth with the others following the same proportion. The ninth quaternary is that which composes the living things. the sur­ face. the octahedron. adolescence. the line. The fifth is the pyramid. The second is unity. thought in the eighth. A nd the perfect world which results from these quater­ naries is geom etrically. The eleventh is that of the ages: childhood. summer. the point is in the third. m aturity and old age. and the eleventh is that of the ages. opinion is like the num ber 3. The fourth is fire. the icosahedron. that is. in its essence. man in the seventh. Thus the first quaternary is 1. the sixth is that of created things. The eighth is thought. opi­ nion. through the succession of which all things take birth. the fifth is th at of simple bodies. containing in power the entire nature of number. the width. because it is the science of all things. must be assim ilated to unity. There are thus eleven quaternaries. science. the eighth is that of the faculties of judg­ ment. water. And certainly thought. since what is unity in the first and the second quaternary. science. autum n and winter. sum­ mer. because it is something between science and ignorance. and finally feeling is like the num ber 4 because it is quadruple. 2. The eleventh is childhood. the seed in the sixth. the fourth part is the body in which the soul resides. the soul having three parts. every m agnitude and every body. They are proportional to one another. w hether simple or composite. The seventh is man. the sense of touch being common to all.

This is why this num ber is the first to which the name multitude 4 applies. 4 is equal to 10. The decad is. m ultiplication and addition.” See also. com position and the relationship of one thing to another. God himself. PROPERTIES OF THE NUM BERS CONTAINED IN THE DECAD (T E T R A K TY S) XL. Opinions o f the Philosophers. We call thrice woeful those who are at the limit of misfortune. 23: "the num ber three expresses the m u ltitu d e. such as beauty itself. It is indivisible and it is everything in power. . On Isis and Osiris. which is the first num ber having a beginning. a m iddle and an end.66 MUSIC everything is part of it. the first change from unity is made by the doubling of unity which becomes 2. for all 1 the numbers less than this are not called m ultitude (or many) but one or one and other. equality itself. for we conceive each of these things as being one and as existing in itself. We make three libations to show that we ask everything which is good. Unity is the principle of all things and the most dom inant of all that is: all things em anate from it and it em anates from nothing. I. and every intelligible essence. the soul.found in the quaternary. THE DECAD X X X I X . and through which all things are assim ilated to number. 36. 3 and so on. Plutarch. The num ber 2 added to unity produces 3. and thrice favored those who are at the limit of success. It is im m uta­ ble and never departs from its own nature through m ultiplication (1 x 1 = 1). XLII.however. 3. 2 . the generation of motion. Everything that is intelligible and not yet created exists in it: the nature of ideas. XLI. from which it follows that the strongest numbers can be considered as having their ratio in the quaternary. III. 41 Cf. the beautiful and the good. and it is itself a part of nothing else. The first increase. since we do not count any num ber beyond ten: in going beyond ten we go back to the numbers 1 . The Pythagoreans were no less wise in bringing all numbers back to the decad. 2. justice itself. since the sum of the four numbers 1. in which are seen m atter and all that is perceptible. This is why the Pythagoreans used the oath whose form ula we have re­ ported. while three is called m ultitude.

the sum will always be 10 and the mean term in arithm etic proportion will be 5. as we have shown. that is to say equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. well defined and composed of the equal and the sim ilar. 3. the first form of the plane being the triangle. above. 8 and 2. The num ber 5 is the mean term of (two numbers whose sum is) the decad. th at is. XLIII. that is. The num ber 4 is the image of the solid. the fifth. since they are either greater or smaller.42 XLIV. whose property it is to be unique. 2. by the same difference. by the addition of any two numbers. It is for this reason that there are three types of triangles. and also that there are three types of angles. and it is the first square num ber among the even numbers. This is why it is 42 T he num ber four is the image o f the solid because the most elem entary of the solids is the trian g u lar pyram id which has 4 faces and 4 apexes. the means of these numbers will be 5 according to arithm etic proportion. 7 and 3. the octave. as has been shown. and indetermined. Thus. for unity is not a number. because if. for example. larger than one and sm aller than the other. and which causes all right angles to be equal to one another. This perfect number. The num ber 3 added to unity and to 2 gives 6 which is the first perfect number. 4. if you add 9 and 1. gives the decad. Cf. The num ber six is a perfect num ber because it is equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. 1 4 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 This num ber is also the first which embraces the two types of numbers.MUSIC 67 The ternary num ber also represents the first nature of the plane because it is in a sense its image. 2 and 3. which is greater than one of the ex­ tremes and less than the other. 6 and 4. the odd and the even. added to the first square number. the propor­ tional arithm etic mean being 5. . XLV. one obtains ten. and 4. they are infinite in number. the fourth. being in the m iddle between the acute and the obtuse angles. it com pletes all the con­ sonances. octave. the right angle. the isosceles and the scalene. II. the fifth o f the octave and the double A. VI. As for all the other angles. A nd it com pletes the consonances which are 4 3A. the equilateral. This is shown in the diagram in which any addition of two opposite numbers gives 10.

A nother num ber of the decad. such as 3 and 5 which are not created by any com ­ bination of numbers. it returns to meet the sun in order to begin a new m onth and to in­ crease during the following week. Six also gives the arithm etic mean by taking 9. 6. 12. one arrives at the harm onic proportion of the numbers 6. and 5 m ultiplied by 2 produces 10. in the second it becomes full. in the first week the m oon appears divided in two. because this goddess was not born out of a m other and gave birth to none. Day and night. Am ong the numbers con­ tained in the decad. Finally. and is created by 2. creates none of the numbers in the decad. but which create: 3 produces 9. 2. six produces the geom etric proportion when. since 9 is greater than one of the extremes and less than the other by the same quantity. 8. 44 Timeaus 35 b. . The m onth is composed of four weeks (four times seven days).e. and less than the other extreme. i.. . and m ultiplied by 2 produces 6. some create and some are created. since in taking its fourthirds. m ultiplied by another number.43 The harm onic mean is com ­ posed according to this primary number. being placed in the middle. 3. 43 See note X IV . 12. which fact moved the Pythagoreans to give it the name A thena. by the same fraction of the ex­ tremes. P lato in the Timaeus. 8. and 12 which is its double. Eight is greater than one of the extremes. have the nature of the even and the odd. and does not unite with anything. is placed on the other. which is 3A rds of it. which is one-third of the extremes. 12. is placed on one side. 6. This num ber did not arise from any union. for exam ple 4 m ultiplied by 2 creates 8. because the task of m arriage produces children sim ilar to their parents.44 following nature. Seven is the only num ber which. Others are created but do not create. . in the third it is again divided. 12. and in the fourth. the num ber seven. but which does not create any of the numbers in the decad. and is contained by the other in the same relationship. half of it. and its double. . Others create but are not created. and which is not pro­ duced by the m ultiplication of any number. . said Posidonius. since 6 then contains one of the extremes. like 6 which is the product of 2 by 3. XLVI. endows the soul with 7 n u m b ers. 12. and its double. giving the geom etric proportion of the numbers 3. is en­ dowed with a rem arkable property: it is the only one which does not give birth to any num ber contained in the decad and which is not born out of any of them.68 MUSIC called that of marriage. 3. .

46 XLVII. and to Love. is found an in­ scription dedicated to King Saturn and Queen Rhea: “To the most ancient of all. the king Osiris. H . the lungs. e. i. and often it is in the third period. It is necessary then to understand T h e o n ’s thought as follows: starting from one tropic o r from one equinox. It is also in the seventh month that the foetus can be born living. 4 See note X V. as Empedocles insinuates in his Expiations. the father of all that is and all that will be.MUSIC 69 It is in seven weeks that the foetus appears to arrive at its perfec­ tion. the night and the day. the great torch and the black night. on a colum n. that he acquires his stout­ ness.e. Sim ilarly seven months are counted from one equinox to the o th e r. The number eight which is the first cube is composed of unity and the septenary. the heart. and the two kidneys. at twenty eight. and this is also found in the oaths of Orpheus: By the creators of things forever immortal: fire and water. From one solstice of the sun to the other there are seven months. It is then also that a man acquires his full height. Tim otheus also relates the proverb “ eight is all. at the age of twenty-one. even in three and four-day fevers. four times seven cubits. m onum ent to his magnificence and tribute of his life”. the semen and puberty make their appearance at the age of fourteen. in most straits. that the beard begins to grow. that is to say. i. the moon and the sun. and in all periodic fevers. Herophilus says that the intestine of man is 28 cubits long. the sun reaches the o th er tropic o r equinox in the seventh month. A nd Evander relates that in Egypt. Finally. the tongue. one of the im m ortal gods. the ebb-tide reverses direction seven times per day. and the planets are seven in number. There are seven viscera. earth and heaven.” because the spheres of the world which turn 45 From one solstice o f the sun to the other and from one equinox to the other there are only six m onths.45 The head has seven orifices. Some people say that there are eight prin­ ciple gods in the universe. C hildren develop teeth starting from the seventh month afterb irth . the liver. the sky and the earth. the spleen. but it is only in the fourth period. Seven days are needed to diagnose illness. the spirit. the seventh day is always the most serious. Some think that the male foetus requires five weeks for its perfection. and fully produce their teeth in seven years.

to which six others must be ad­ ded which are subcontrary to them. of that which is in motion and that which is still. weight. The number nine is the first square among the odd num­ bers: the two first numbers are 2 and 3. the subcontrary. time or other). in double. whereas it has no need of the others. and Philolaus. of good and of evil. the mean term is less than one extrem e and greater than the other by the same part of the extrem es. And. such as the proportion 12. He says that some give the other means the more general name of proportion. Among the primary proportions themselves. is contained in one extrem e and contains the other in the same relationship (a : b = b : c).b : b .b = ma. and so it is the first.47 LI. 3. In the geom etric mean .” XLVIII. in his treatise On Nature. as we have said. the fifth and the sixth. one even. However. triple. a . and in general m ultiple or sesquipartial ratio. Archytas. THE M ED IANS (TH E M EAN ) L. Adrastus shows that the ratio of equality is the first in order and that it is an elem ent of all the ratios of which we have pre47 If a . or any other numerical proportion: others have inexpressible and ir­ rational terms (size. some have rational terms and relationships. as Eratosthenes also says: “These eight spheres also harmonise together while making their revolutions around the earth. in the harm onic m e a n . whose terms are in double ratio. for all the others have need of it. the mean term. containing in itself the nature of both even and odd. and b-c = me. There are several means : the geometric. Adrastus says that the geometric is the only one which is a true proportion. which give the two first squares of 4 and 9. Finally. the arithm etic. as he then demonstrates. Let us return now to proportions and to the means. The numerical mean contains and is contained by the same number of extremes. in his book On the Decade. that is to say the geom etric proportions. the harmonic. write at length on this subject.c = a : c . of all of these me­ dians.70 MUSIC around the earth are eight in number. XLIX The decad completes the series of numbers. the other odd. then. 6.

and a + 2 b + c. b. for it is from it that all others take birth. and in it that they are all resolved. then another composed of the first and the second. c. if one takes three others formed from these. of two times the second and of the third. and that equality is the principle and the element of proportion. which are in quadruple ratio. and from the proportion in double ratio is born the proportion in triple ratio. in triple ratio. the terms 1. are the three terms given in continuous p roportion. By the same method. But b2 = ac by hypothesis. a + b.MUSIC 71 viously spoken and of all the proportions they give. W e have. that is to say. 9. which produces the proportion in quadruple ratio and so forth from the other multiples. and the last composed of the first. three magnitudes with the propor­ tion found between them. one formed from the first alone. we have b2 = ac. therefore the square o f the m ean term is equal to the product o f the extrem es and the three new term s are in continuous proportion. of twice the second and the third. first an equal one. with these numbers. and with these. of two times the second and of the third. The three terms obtained follow ing A drastus’s rule are a. if we take three other terms in the m anner which has been indicated. the other composed of the first and the second. the second will be com ­ posed of the first and the second. in the sm allest possible three equal terms. the third will be composed of the first.” 48 Thus from the proportion whose terms are equal is born a pro­ portion in double ratio. in quintuple ratio. 4. 25. Erathosthenes also says that every ratio increases either by an in­ terval or by terms: but equality has the property of not being susceptible to any interval. in three units. and the terms will be 1. following the order of the multiples. and finally another composed of the first. we will combine the terms and show that all m athem atics consists in the proportion of certain quantities. The first will be equal to the first. let us form the next one by the same method. 1. 5. Taking. for example. Eratosthenes says that he will om it the dem onstrations but Adrastus shows that “ any three terms being given in continuous proportion. W ith these numbers. and so on to infinity. 4. these new terms will again be in continuous propor­ tion. 2. then. 16 will be formed. . 3. the proportion of equality (1. T he square of the mean term is a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 and the product o f the extrem es is a'2 + 2 ab + ac. which are in double ratio. 1). 48 If a. and it is evident that it can only grow through the terms. the terms 1. we will have the terms 1.

W ith the quadruples. We will always have the sesquipartial relationship (1 + Vn) corres­ ponding to the m ultiple (n). 4. 2. 16. If. the double ratio proportion in three terms is given. the proportions in sesquipartial ratio will be obtained. and so forth. 1 w hose ratio is n. n2 + n.72 MUSIC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 If now the m ultiple proportions are arranged inversely. 6. 9 from them which is a continuous proportion whose relationship is sesquialter. we will deduce from them in the same m anner the three proportional terms in the sesquitertian ratio. 3. The new continuous p ro ­ p ortion obtained by A drastus’s rule w ill be form ed from the term s n2.49 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 6 12 20 30 42 56 72 90 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 *a Being in general the continuous p roportion n 2. with these terms we form the next (pro­ portion) according to the method indicated. 12. 9. 1. n. . 25 and so forth. the ratio is 1 + 1 / n . and the quadruples the sesquiquarten relationship (1 + V 4 ) . We will deduce 4. 9. 1. the triples will give the epitrite or sesquitertian relationship (1 + V3 ). for example. The doubles will give in fact the hemiole or sesquialter relationship (1 + V2). and the terms are added in the same manner. we obtain the terms in sesquiquarten ratio 16. and if the largest term is placed first. n2 + 2n + 1. 20. If we have the same three terms in triple proportion.

10. W ith the proportion in sesquiquartan ratio (1 + V 4 ) .4 9 . by beginning with the sm allest term one obtains the proportion whose m ultisuperpartial ratio is 2 + V*: one takes 4. 25. < + a st f )' : W e can om it most of these relationships as being not very necess­ ary. 20. 81. W e have. 15. 9. so also are they definitively resolved in it. and. W ith the pro­ portion of the sesquialter ratio (1 + V*). thus the proportion 9. so that from the mean of these proportions one can form others by the same method. by beginning with the largest term. 16. 25. 9. one will derive the proportion in epim er ratio (1 + 3A). and ohe can continue in this way to infinity. but we should however consider some of them. gives 9. give us other epim er polyepim er relationships. and by beginning with the sm allest term. and beginning with the sm allest term. 20. 4. In fact. which gives 16. the proportion in m ultisuperpartial ratio (2 + V«) will be deduced from it. gives indeed 25. 45. and one arrives by the same method. we will have the proportion in m ultisuperpartial ratio 2 + Vs. by beginning with the largest term. Thus from the terms 16. the pro­ portion in epim er ratio 1 + 4A will be found. the sesquipartial relationships (1 + Vn) give us the epim er relationships (1 + — £ — ■ ) v m+ n ' and the m ultisuperpartial relationships (a + Vn).MUSIC 73 In the same way. 49. 6. 6. in the terms 9. W e do not need to develop this subject further. In the same way that all these proportions and all their ratios are composed of the first ratio of equality. and again the epim er relationships. 81. we deduce 16. 21. if any proportion of three une­ . in fact. by A Adrastus’s method. LII. one obtains by the m ethod indicated a proportion whose epim er ratio is 1 + 2 . at 4.Va). 36. And from the proportion in which the relationship is sesquiter­ tian (1 -I. 25. 12. by beginning with the largest term. the pro­ portion 16. The proportion 25. 2 8 .

and which is ex­ tended equally between all its points. we put the terms thus obtained in order. i SHAPES LI1I. the sm allest and twice the m iddle term diminished by the smallest. which is a length without width. hav­ ing length and breadth. without dimension. surface is the apparent limit of all solid bodies. it coincides with it throughout its whole length. The m agnitude which has only one dimension and is divisible in only one m anner is the line. they do not meet and always m aintain the same distance between them. the straight line is that which is direct and as though stretched. Now the solid is con­ tained and defined by surfaces. The m agnitude extended in two directions is a surface. prolonged to infinity on the same plane. being the limit of a line and holding the same place as unity does in numbers. but only into the ratio of equality. width and height. Now the plane is in a straight surface such that if a straight line touches it at two points. following two dimensions. the first of which is the point. The proportion which will result from this breakdown will itself be the same that give birth to the new proportion. The same difference is found between the plane and the curved surface. The curved line is that which does not have this property. we subtract the sm allest term from the middle term. In fact. one will arrive at the proportion of equality which is the first origin of all proportions and which cannot itself be resolved into any other.74 MUSIC qual terms is given. If. then for the second. it is that which. . The magnitude having three dimensions is the solid. and that in order to construct them it is necessary to start from equality. the surface is defined by lines and the line is defined by points. which is a spot w ithout extension. we will have the same sm aller term for the first term. Eratosthenes dem onstrates that all figures result from some pro­ portion. is the shortest of all lines having the same extremities. and that they resolve themselves in equality. Straight lines are parallel when. Among lines. between two given points. and from the largest. length and breadth. It is not necessary for us to go further on this subject. next. the excess of the mean term over the sm allest term and finally for the third term. We will find the same results in the shapes. W hen this break­ down is repeated. that which remains from the largest. which has length.

or as the sm allest is to one of the other two. and among these rectangles those which have four equal sides are properly called squares. Those which have length and width equal. 5"S ee the definition o f H eterom ecic (unequilateral) numbers. pro­ perly speaking. and non-rectilinear shapes do not have this property. as the first term is to itself or to one of the two others. that is to say square bases. X V II. meeting another straight line. comprised between sides which form right angles. those which have opposite sides parallel are called parallelogram s. are called plinths. Angles are right angles when a straight line. the width and the height are equal and these are included under the equal squares and are called cubes. one takes another homogenious term such that the excess of the first. Those of four sides are called quad­ rilateral. the theory of which is indispensible for understanding the writings of Plato.MUSIC 75 Plane shapes are those in which all the lines are in the same plane. Those whose length is equal to the width. PROPERTIES OF THE M EANS We now have to speak in more detail of the means. Among the plane and rectilinear shapes. but whose height is larger. forms two adja­ cent equal angles with it. Each rectangular parallelogram is. Others are included under rectangles and are called rectangular parallelopipeds. are included under planar parallelogram s. but whose height is less. O f those. and are called parallelopipeds. R ectilinear shapes are those which surround straight lines. . There is a mean when. which is at the same time the larger. are called beams. and those which are contained by a greater num ber of straight lines are called polygons. some are equilateral in all directions. over this mean term. Those which are not in this category are called heteromecic (unequilateral). is to the excess of the mean term over the smaller. and the parallelogram s which have right angles are called rectangles. those which are contained between three sides are called trilateral.'’0 LIV. some to the num ber of six. Among the quadrilaterals. Finally those which have three unequal dimensions are called scalene parallelopipeds. that is to say that the length. I. Among the solids. between two homogeneous unequal terms.

c = b : c. the product of the extremes is 4. in the pro­ portion formed of the numbers 2. 2. and the difference 4 .be. which is the double of the mean term 2. Therefore the product of the extremes is equal to the square of the mean term . b. a number is found which is double the product of the extremes. are thus in double ratio. Such are the numbers 6. as in the propor­ tion 1. This mean term has the property of being the half-sum of the extremes. 52 T he harm onic m edian is in general a . This proportion possesses the pro­ perty that the mean term is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by the same part of the extremes. a . These numbers.be = b 2 . In the product o f the extrem es being equal to the product o f the means. the 1 three num bers w hich give the geom etric m edian.c = a : c . This mean possesses the property that the product of the extremes is equal to the square of the mean term: thus in the preceding proportion. Thus 6 + 2 = 8 . c.2 is 2. if the extreme terms are added and the sum is m ultiplied by the mean term. being given three terms. Furtherm ore. we have (a + c) b = 2 ac. In particular. and 6. 2. by hypothesis then. and 8 m ultiplied by the mean term 3 gives 24.b : b . Four is indeed the double of 2. 3. which is the excess of 3 over 2. and the other extreme 2 is less than 3 by half of 2. 3.52 LVIII. also called the proportion proper. 2: the extrem e 6 is the triple of 2. as in the proportion 3. . is the one in which the mean term is greater than one extrem e and is less than the other by a m ultiple or superpartial ratio (of the first term to the second or of the second to the third). com pared with one another. the num ber 2 is greater than 1 by one unit and is less than 3 by one unit.76 MUSIC LV.b : b . which dem onstrates the stated p ro ­ position. which is the triple of the unit. LVI. and likewise. and the square of 2 is also 4. and 2 is the double of the unit. In fact. 4. since 1 x 4 = 4 . Thus. 1.5 1 LVII. and the excess of 6 over 3 is 3. The mean called “subcontrary to the harm onic” (mean) is the one in which the third term is to the first as the excess of 5 T heon habitually verifies the stated proposition in a sim ple m anner. the arithm etic mean is the one in which the mean term is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by the same number. An harmonic proportion occurs when. and consequently ac = b2. the first is to the third in the same relationship that the ex­ cess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third).1 is 1. from which it follows th at ac . the extreme 6 is greater than 3 by half of 6. for 2 x 2 = 4. If we have a. now 6 x 2 = 12 whose double is 24. so that 3 + 1 = 4 . The geom etric mean. the difference 2 .

. W e have the sixth mean when. half of the excess of the larger over the sm aller. being given three terms. whose half. and 4 is greater than the other extreme 2 by 2 units. 3 is half of 6. The extrem e 6 is indeed greater than 4 by 2. 4. 3. 9. which is added to the sm aller term 6. the excess of 4 over 1. and obtain 9. the half of which is 3. 2. and the unit. or finally one takes half of the sum of the two given terms. The extreme 5 is greater than 4 by one unit. 1. Likewise if we add the extremes 12 and 6. This is how one finds the mean terms. ac­ cording to the m ethod of Pythagoras.MUSIC 77 the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). it is sufficient to have. since it is greater than one and less than the other by 3 units. LIX. is to 3. in arithm etic proportion. over the sm aller 6. the third is to the second as the excess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). in order to sum m arize the exposition of mathematics. the excess of the first term (over the second). and 4 is to 6 as 1 is to 1 + *A. in which 6 is greater than 5 by one unit. the excess of the second (over the third). Such is the proportion formed of the numbers 5. is half of 2. which is the excess of 6 over 4. LX. a condensed outline of these principles. we take the excess of the larger 12. For us. Now 2. W e have the fifth mean when. the excess of the second num­ ber over the third. Such is the proportion formed of the numbers 6. Such is the mean formed by the numbers 6. which is the arithm etic mean between the numbers 12 and 6. as the unit. If we propose to find the mean term. the sum is 18. by 3. the second is to the first as the excess of the first (over the second) is to the excess of the second (over the third). H O W THE M E A N TERM S OF THE M EAN S A R E FOUND LXI. 4. or one adds the halves of each of the two numbers given. 5. one adds to the sm all term. and 5 is greater than 3 by 2 units. finally. is the mean between the given numbers. in the same relationship as 1 to 1 + ‘A . be­ tween the numbers 12 and 6. the excess of the first num ber (over the second) is half of 2. being given three terms. The Pythagoreans have been much concerned with these six means and their subcontraries. and in which. Now the extrem e 2 is half of 4. In the arithm etic pro­ portion. and 4 is greater than the other extreme 1.

. and consequently similar to each other. The product is 144. the two numbers 24 and 6 are given. In the triangle ADC. then from point B we lead the per­ pendicular BD to AC. if we join AD and DC. because 24 : 12 = 12 : 6. Thus the sides which contain the equal angles are proportional. If. and composed of whole units. and we have A B : B D = B D : BC. for exam ­ ple. If the num ber contained in the extremes is squared. taking AB and BC for the two terms. is the mean term. In fact. until it meets the semi-circle. we multiply the given numbers by each other. since it is inscribed in a semi-circle. in double ratio. But if the num ber contained in the extremes is not a perfect square. between which we are to find the mean term in geometric proportion. We are given two extremes in double ratio. It is done in the following way. 12. This is what it was necessary to demonstrate. each mean term found is rational and its length is com m ensurable with the ex­ tremes. the mean term will only be commensurable with the extremes in power.78 MUSIC Here is how the mean term of a geom etric proportion is found: we take the square root of the product of the extremes. Fig 1 Most often it is determined geom etrically whether it can be ex­ pressed in rational number or whether the ratio and the lengths are incommensurable. I assert that BD will be the proportional geometric mean between the straight lines AB and BC. It remains now to show how the mean term in harmonic propor­ tion is obtained. of which the square root. such as 12 and 6. the height is DB and the triangles which are part of it are sim ilar to the total triangle. We place them in a straight line and on the sum AC describe a semi-circle. therefore BD is the proportional mean bet­ ween AB and BC. we have a right angle at D. We multiply the excess of the larger over the smaller.

we obtain a quotient of 2. of w hat is most necessary and useful in the portions of the m athem atical sciences of which we have spoken. for example. such as 18 and 6. In order to find the harmonic mean between any two given une­ qual terms. by the sum of the extremes. gives 6 for the harm onic mean between 12 and 4. added to the sm aller term.■ MUSIC 79 that is to say 6. it remains for us to mention the elements of astronom y. for the convenience of the readers of Plato. adds the words ‘end o f the present book by the help of G od’.5 4 5See note X V I. 6. 36. which is the half.The transcriber o f another ms. half of which equals 72. This quotient 2. obtaining 8 which will be the sought-for mean. that is to say 18. or 24. 4 . If the given extremes are in triple ratio. has added the words “ G lory to G od” . added to the sm aller term 4. The quotient of the division. which is a third. W e have the harm onic proportion of the numbers 18. 8. gives 9 for the sought-for mean term. the two terms 12 and 4. one can also use the more general m ethod that we first dem onstrated. then add the quotient to the sm aller term. 6. 6. we have 32 as a pro­ duct.53 After this summary exposition. by multiplying the excess of 12 over 4. we m ultiply the excess of the larger over the sm aller by itself: 1 2 x 1 2 is 144. W e divide this result by the sum of the extremes. and add the quotient 2 to the sm aller term 6. We therefore have the harm onic proportion of the numbers 12. The harmonic pro­ portion is then formed of the numbers 12. since it is greater than one extreme and less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. then divide the product. 3 54A fter the w ord ‘astronom y’ the transcriber o f the V enice ms. by the sm aller term 4. In fact 6 is greater than one extrem e and is less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. 9. for it is greater than one extreme and is less than the other by half of the extremes. If we have. by the smaller. If now we divide 32 by the sum of the extremes which is 16. that is to say 8. 6. (Toulis) . By this method it is necessary to m ultiply the excess by the sm aller term and to divide the product by the sum of the ex­ tremes.


as far as our senses can tell. half of the sky is seen above us. But certainly from a spiritual point o f view a geocentric universe is a com plem entary concept. all the celestial bodies rise and set and rise again at the same points. 1 T hat the earth is the • center of the universe and that it is but a point in relation­ ship to the size of the universe: this is what must be established before anything else. and always accom plish the same revolutions. Further- I 'I t can be speculated th at the concept o f Earth as center of the universe is retained by the Pythagoreans for its philosophical and spiritual verity. while we assume the other half to be hidden by the earth and not able to be perceived. not a contradiction to the heliocentric view. from each part of the earth. This results from the fact that. We would say therefore that the w orld and the earth are spherical and the earth is the center of the world. and is in a certain sense verified by the theory o f relativity as applied to the m ovem ent o f celestial bodies. and that it is only a point in it.PART THREE ASTRONOMY ON THE SPH ERICAL FORM OF THE E A R T H The entire world is a sphere and the earth. . which is itself a spheroid. is placed in the middle. for inhabitants of the same place. by recalling the summary notions transm itted to us by Adrastus. The sphericity of the world is again dem onstrated by reason of the fact that. A precise exposition of this doctrine would require such lengthy consideration of so many writings that it would instead be sufficient to summarize here what we have to say.

If we concede that certain parts of the earth are further 2from the constellation o f Argo. and later for those of the western regions. In the same way. and if diam etrically opposed stars describe a great circle. 3C ity o f C arie (Asia M inor. And first of all. A c­ cording to ancient lore. A single lunar eclipse further shows this: it is produced in the same brief period of time. and the distances from earth to heaven would appear unequal. have for them a rising and a setting. On the contrary. Furtherm ore. were a cone or a cylinder. one o f the most b rillian t stars in the southern hem isphere. the earth is spherical from east to west. and as many more of these are seen as one advances north­ wards. which are always visible for us in their movement around the pole. Because of the curved form of the earth. many stars. it appears at different hours of the day. but for all those seeing it. Canopus was the captain of M enelaus’ boat (brother of A gam em non and husband o f H elen) when they sailed against Troy. if we look at the extreme points of the sky. when one goes from south towards the north. Since the earth appears convex from all parts. The further east­ ward one is. and the sooner one will have seen a greater part. but it is visible in more southerly lands. They take place early for the inhabitants of eastern regions. Thus the star called Canopus 2 is invisible in lands further north than Cnide 3. or a pyramid or any other solid. situated in the region of the Bears. the sun does not illum inate the whole sur­ face of the earth at the same time. all the visual rays appear equal to us. one is setting while the other is rising. while others. another sm aller. it would not produce this effect on earth: one of its parts would appear larger.82 ASTRONOMY more. and always rises higher and higher to the measure that one is further from the north. If the universe. always invisible for us in their movem ent around the pole which is hidden for us. other stars.) (Toulis) . the ris­ ing and setting of the same stars certainly prove this. for the measure that they advance. and the shadow that the earth projects moves according to a fixed order. it must be spheri­ cal. entirely. II. become always visi­ ble. the phenomenon taking place at night. every weighted body is carried naturally toward the center. the more advanced the hour will be that one sees it. and which used to have a rising and a setting. have a rising and a setting. many of the stars which are seen rising and setting in the south dis­ appear. It is again evident that the earth is convex from north to south: in fact for those going southward. instead of being spherical.

all converge towards the same point and each falls vertically. and consequently. This can be recognized in this manner: If. to the point where equality of distance and pressure being obtained. If the different parts of the earth are equally far from the center. and the lower parts are less so. therefore . it is necessary that its form be spheri­ cal. since the fall of heavy bodies is always and every­ where made towards the center.ASTRONOMY 83 away from the center than others because of their size. It is evident that the two lines XA and XC are both longer than XB. a tree. until the latter point. higher than point B. or one sees a sm aller part of the object. The surface of the w ater being presumed planar. a tower. while sailing. from the bridge of the ship neither earth nor any other vessel can be seen. a ship. such as a hill. situated on the shore. Similarly. such as point X. W ater will flow therefore from points A and C towards the lower point B. but a sailor climbs up high on a mast pole and can see them. The surface of the sea and all tranquil waters are also spheri­ cal. then if one lowers one’s gaze towards the surface of the water. But the higher parts are further away from the center of the earth. m utually held in a clasp. it would be necessary that the sm all parts which encircle them be pressed. let us call ABC a straight line on this surface. surrounded with new water would be as far from point X as A and B are. one no longer sees any­ thing. we draw the perpendicular to the base XB. being higher and so overcom ing the convexity of the sea which was causing the obstacle. In addition. and that the two points A and C are further from the center than point B. then it must be concluded that the surface of the earth is spherical. or the earth itself. It can be physically and m athem atically dem onstrated that the surface of every body of still w ater must be spherical in form. From the center of the earth. that is to say that angles which are always equal are made with the surface of the earth. And often. III. repelled and removed from the center. one observes an object from which one is separated by the sea. W ater indeed tends to flow from higher towards lower levels. everything being con­ stituted in equilibrium and repose like two wooden beams which m utually support each other or two athletes of the same force. all points of the sur­ face of the w ater will be at the same distance from X. and we draw the lines XA and XC to the extrem ities of this base. the convexity of the surface of the sea masking the object.

Erathosthenes indeed shows us that the circle of the earth. They have deduced this result from observations made with the dio p ter4 which allows the m easurem ent of heights according to cer­ tain intervals. If we were to make a sphere one foot in diam eter.018 of the m eter.000 stades. has an approxim ate length of 252. 252.000. One quarter of the diam eter of a grain of m illet is then larger than the eight-thousandth part of a foot. The sphere having a diam eter of a quarter of the diam eter of a grain of m illet is the 64. But we have seen that the height of the largest m ountain is nearly an eight-thousandth part o f the diam eter of the earth.000 stades. And the relationship of the sphere having a quarter of the thickness of a grain of millet to the sphere of a foot in diam eter is greater than the relationship o f the sphere of 10 stades in height to the height o f the terrestial sphere. The spherical A kind o f graphom eter.182 stades. in fact. The height of the largest m ountain would therefore be equal to an eight-thousandth part of the total diam eter of the earth. (or . The diam eter of the earth will then have the value of ap ­ proxim ately 80.000th part of a whole grain. and 16 times 12 is 192. has the value of three times and nearly a seventh of the circle’s diameter. Since the foot has the value of 16 fingers 5. Now. It cannot be said that the height of m ountains or the depth of valleys would be contrary to this thesis and prove that the earth is not an exact sphere.0196 o f a yard) Toulis. plus a seventh of this num ber gives. and Archimedes tells us that a cir cumference of a circle. thus the relationship of a quarter o f the diam eter o f a grain of millet to this one-foot sphere is greater than the relationship of the height o f the highest m ountain to the diam eter o f the earth. A 5F inger — the sm allest o f the ancient G reek measures of length equal to 0. according to Erathosthenes and Dicearchus. the diam eter of our sphere would equal 200 m illet-grain diam eters or a little less. developed as a straight line. Three times this number. the finger has the value of 12 m illet-grain diameters. since 40 times 200 is 8.84 ASTRONOMY w ater presents the spherical form and the en tire mass of the earth’s w ater is spherical. . the width of one finger being about equal to I 2 V2 diam eters of a grain of m illet. measured following the circum ­ ference of a great circle. the vertical height of the highest m ountains above the lowest plane is 10 stades.

and the whole earth as a sphere.297 an d “ />■ .000. the circle having this diam eter will be 77. as we see them. A quarter of this circumference is 5 + V2. equals 4 times the surface of a quarter of the sphere. they are much sm aller. thirds are 10. which is contained one and a h alf times in the cylinder. 250 second myriads. 4350 first myriads. than & ». the circum ­ ference is 22. is that of 14 to 11. seconds are 10.043. is also equal to the relationship of 14 to 11. has the value. Both ratios give an ap p ro x im atio n o f the .508. If a m ountain 10 stades high were a sphere.000 tim es 100.ASTRONOMY 85 m ountain of 10 stades in diam eter has the value of nearly 524 cubic stades.then. 8296 and the fraction u /a i. Thus. in o u r form o f enum eration: 270. according to Archimedes. But m ountains are not spherical. with respect to the earth. 270 third myriads. It is thus th at one finds volumes expressed in numbers of the ter­ restrial sphere and of the highest m ountain. they will not therefore prevent the whole of earth and sea from truly being a sphere. but can be derived as well from the ap p ro x im ately 7 : 1 1 ratio o f the vertical half-section of the G izeh pyram id. since the largest com m on m easure of these numbers is 7.000 units. w hether it be superim posed on a sphere of one foot in diam eter. •First m yriads are 10. the circle having this diam eter is 38 + 1 i . will not produce any difference in form. the circum scribed cylinder will equal 11 and the sphere 7 -I. and this quarter equals the area of the circle. or w hether it be picked up and placed in a hollow.000 units. / the square of the diam eter being 98.000 or 10. T h e ra tio o f 14 : 11 for finding the area o f the circle is a ttributed to A rchim edes. However the relationship of these numbers. and if we double this in order to make the V2 disappear.000 tim es 10.Vs. The square of the diam eter is to the area of the circle as 14 is to 11 7. in cubic stades. The highest m ountains of 10 stades have the same relationship with the earth. it would be much sm aller. when the cube of the diam eter of the circle equals 14.025. T h e above n u m b er is w ritten.ooo th of a grain of m illet in relation to a sphere of one foot in diam eter. for the circum ference of the circle equals three times the diam eter plus a seventh part of this diam eter.000. If the diam eter is seven. the square of the diam eter being 49. But one such part of a grain of m illet. expressed in the sm allest prim e terms. and. opened out as a straight line. it is dem onstrated that the rectangle formed by the diam eter of a sphere and the circumference of a great circle.000 units. Therefore.6 Furtherm ore.

429.153.... and the unknown size of its relation to the universe. is always apparent to our eyes... or nearly so. for in changing location.. Some of “F o r the rectification we have m ade o f the values of the different results......508..... .842...86 ASTRONOMY The encircling of the earth therefore is valued...297 and “ A t8 IV..... and drawn from the poles of the universe as centers. de­ scribe parallel circles.. the diam eter.000 stades. a fourteenth of this c u b e . ..... what has been dem onstrated by Adrastus in the m anner shown above will be sufficient for the exposition of w hat follows... A lthough we might say many other things about the form of the universe and of the earth....... at the m iddle of which is fixed the earth.. It is for this reason that half of the world..355.. 80.... and of earth’s central position as well as its size.... Furtherm ore... The earth is spherical and placed at the center of the world. See note X V II....502. T hat the volum e of the earth has no perceptible relationship with the expanse of the universe. straight lines drawn from any point at the extrem ities of the celestial sphere would not be equal.040 and 4A ths.. 36..... If therefore there is necessarily a center for the ensemble of all spheres.182 stades... but the circles described by the other points are innum erable.. is shown by the points of the sundials in every inhabited place on earth.821..568 cubic stades... If it were removed from this position it would not have half the sky above it and half below..124 square stades. .. and all the stars carried by this sphere and all the points of the sky.... It is then evident that the whole earth is only a point with respect to the entire sphere of the sun and even more so with respect to the sphere of the stars..... The product of this num ber by *Vs is equal to the volum e of the earth which therefore has the value in cubic stades of 270...... the square of the diameter. perpendicular to the axis.043.. all the points on earth appear to be this center... 252.. Here is w hat he next says: ON THE C ELESTIAL CIRCLES V... They can in fact be taken for the center of the solar orbit....... the cube.6. 515.....596. one cannot observe any perceptible parallax.788....025.... that it occupies but a point in this universe. The celestial sphere turning around its im mobile poles and the axis which joins them. One can count the circles described by the stars. that is to say circles everywhere equidistant...

(Toulis) l0l. it also cuts the great circles such as the equator and the zodiac into two equal parts. equal to the first. The zodiac is in fact obliquely extended between these two circles. and on the other side. Pyrois. If two stars are diam etrically opposed. the tropic of summer. The zodiac is also a great circle. The sun. is itself always invisi­ ble to us. the durations of the day and night are equal when the sun describes this circle. It is called the arctic circle. the tropic of winter. one w ho brings light. and is called the antarctic circle. The one in the middle. when one "Literally m eaning th e light-bringer. the planet of Mars or as others claim of Hercules. Phosphorus. on the opposite side. which the planet of Saturn is called by some. As it is also a great circle of the sphere. and other planets move: Phenon. because of the constellations of the Bears which it crosses. There is one above us. (Mercury) VII. VI. . sometimes moves near to one and some­ times to the other.” 1 which is also called Hermes. circles the pole which we never see. for other places in which one sees the sun rise and set ac­ cording to the general m ovement of the universe. like the Sun. Between the equatorial circle and the two arctic circles there are the two tropics.9 which is also called Venus or also Lucifer1 and 0 Hesperus. and the other below is the invisible hemisphere.1 and close to these planets Stilbon. divides the whole sphere into two equal parts and is called the equator. M orning — bringer o f dawn "2 . there is an equality between the days and nights. A nother. It touches each tropic at one point: the tropic of summer at a point in C ancer and the other tropic at a point in C apricorn. which is a large circle. around the always apparent and visible pole. It is in this zone that the sun.ASTRONOMY 87 these circles have been given particular names which it is useful to know in order to take into account what happens in the heavens. It cuts the equatorial circle into two equal parts and is itself also divided by this circle at a point in Aries and at a point in Taurus. in its revolution. Phaethon. “ the shiny one. situated for us on this side of the equatorial circle. the planet of Jupiter. moon. The circle which is the boundary of our vision and divides the sky as a whole into two equal parts — the earth being the obsta­ cle from our viewpoint — is called the horizon. because on these corresponding regions of the earth. Evening — Bringer o f evening. O f these parts the one above the earth is the visible hemisphere.

But those which it is in our power to render as this or that are not naturally given. The horizon divides the m eridian into two equal parts. but they change in position according to the earth zones and are different in different locations on the earth. In fact we do not all have the same horizon nor the same zenith. they are seen to be larger or ‘*Colurc from K otoipo? truncated. given in size and position. IX. they are naturally so. The equatorial (circle) and the two tropics situated on either side of it are circles which are given and fixed in size and position. being at the highest point of its course above the horizon. because of its obliquity in the universe. lines and angles are given in size when equal sizes can be found. called the m eridian. The zodiac is a circle given in size and position with respect to the sky. they are not given in either size or position. VIII. For there is another great circle. the horizon and the m eridian being equal to the equatorial circle. It is said that points and lines are ‘given’ in position when they a l­ ways occupy the same place. It is sometimes called “ truncated” 12. and one could find equal circles: the zodiac. is hidden from us. and the tropic of sum m er being equal to the tropic of winter and reciprocally. for they are the great circles of the celestial sphere. which are fixed and exist by themselves. they are always fixed. it is not in our power to render them as this or that. The m eridian and the horizon are also given in size. It is called m eridian because the sun cuts it at the m iddle of the day. This is why they are always given. for us it is not fixed. that which is on the side of the invisible pole. but in relation to us. nor the same meridian. '“O ne w ould call the arctic circle in each location the p a ra lle l lim it o f the stars always visible in th a t place. because one of its parts. and the an tarctic circle the p arallel lim it of the alw ays invisible stars. that is. are the equatorial circle and the cir­ cles situated on either side of it. it is said that surfaces. Now the equatorial circle and the two tropics placed on either side of it a l­ ways have the same position. Indeed. we cannot determ ine them. . which passes through the two poles of the world. the other sets.1 but according to the differences in m ore 3 northerly or southerly zones. As for the arctic and the an­ tarctic circles which are neighbors of the poles. and which is conceived as perpendicular to the horizon. they are given. it is not given in position. Those which are naturally given. which to us shows it changing in place.88 ASTRONOMY rises.

they have a m ovem ent in latitude. Each of the other circles is a true circle term inated by a single line. THE PLAN ETS XII. they are sometimes seen further north from the m iddle circle. The two circles which define the width of the zodiac on either side are sm aller circles.ASTRONOMY 89 smaller. with the first sphere which is the largest. as if they were fixed to it and as if they were moved by it. In addition. and m aintain the same order between each other and do not experience any change of form or movement. and it is sometimes said that the sphere is right because in this region of the earth all the parallel circles are per­ pendicular to the horizon. from north to south and reciprocally. and sometimes further south. and cuts the equatorial circle into two equal parts. The circle in the m iddle of these signs is called the great circle which touches the two tropics at one point on each of them. they are carried together by a uni­ que and sim ple circular movement. And within the breadth of the zodiac. through a m ovem ent of their own. it is not the same: the two poles appear at the end of the horizon. The anim al figures are imagined on the inside of this cylinder. A tten­ tive observers see them moved from the tropic of summer to the tropic of w inter and reciprocally. just like the fixed stars. THE STARS XI. m oon and other stars which are called errant are carried with the universe in the diurnal m ovem ent from east to west. that is for the zone which is found on the equatorial line where one cannot live because of the heat. X. They always have the same relative position on the sphere. nor of size or color. For. carried along in the contrary direction of the universe in a course which is called m ovem ent in longititude. But for the m iddle region of the earth. But apart from this movement. . but the one called the zodiac shows a certain breadth. like the cylinder of a drum. M ost of the stars are fixed. they go toward the zodiac signs which follow them (in the diurnal movem ent) and not to the zodiac signs which precede them. each day they appear to have several other com plicated motions. The sun. while accom plishing their course in the contrary direction to the m ovem ent of the universe. through the obliquity of the zodiac.

90 ASTRONOMY some are lower down. Hermes covers about 8. travels it in 27Vsdays. sometimes being further distant. and sometimes being closer to the earth in the depths of space. are not the same for all the planets. they vary in size. in fact. Mars and Jupiter about 5. Venus and Hermes. but with little difference in duration. the appearances and disap­ pearances which are called the risings and the settings. and Saturn in a lit­ tle less than 30 years. The moon. Jupiter and Mars. and Saturn nearly 3. and they go less fast when they appear sm aller because of their greater distance. since it is just about one degree out of 360. after its conjunction with the sun. since it is about 12 degrees. The moon and the sun each appear to deviate equally in latitude from the circle of the m iddle of the zodiac. since they are always seen beside it. The other planets do not deviate equally from it. from one fixed point to this same point. As for the length of the circle of the zodiac. Inversely. sometimes these two stars follow it. the moon. Jupiter in about 12 years. which have a movem ent equal to that of the sun. sometimes following it. They do not cover the same distance in space in the same am ount of time. It is for this reason that the speed of their movem ent through the zodiacal signs appears unequal. others less so. Saturn. sometimes they appear . sometimes they appear in the evening and disappear also in the evening. that is to say. which arrive less quickly than the sun at the following signs. always appear near to it. Besides. The conjunctions with the sun. sometimes they precede it. having a more rapid m ovem ent than the sun towards the zodiacal signs which follow. and it can be said that they have the same speed as the sun. sometimes preceding it. they go faster when they appear larger because of their lesser distance from earth. appears first and rises in the eve­ ning. as the ancient astronom ers have said. and more southward in another. are preceded and overtaken by it. and for Venus. it is larger. the sun in a year having the approxim ate value of 365‘A days. while it disappears and sets in the morning. F or the moon. going towards the same zodiacal signs and not towards the preceding ones. Venus and Hermes travel in an unequal movement. The distance covered on the zodiac is slight for the sun. Mars achieves its course in a little less than 2 years. but are more north­ ward in one sign. XIII. that these planets always set in the evening and rise in the morning (after the conjunction).

next. THE ORDER OF THE PLANETS A N D THE C ELESTIAL CONCERT XV. Rising means several things. the setting belongs to the morning when the star. i. which is properly called a disappearance. for their shining to begin to distinguish itself from the rays of the sun. that is. being very close to a star in the west. Similarly the first setting is the descent below the horizon. There still remains the rising called rising at “ night-edge” u . The rising belongs to the evening when the star begins to appear after the setting of the sun. in the part of the sky diam etrically opposite. ceases to appear at its approach. which is produced in the east after the setting of the sun. that of l4“ N ight-edge” here applies to the early beginning and early end o f the night. when the sun rises. but at dawn. by their elevation above the horizon. up to the point where they are diam etrically opposite. properly and com ­ monly. the setting is of the evening when the sun. at every interval. There still remains the setting called again night-edge. The rising of the star belongs to the morning when the star preceeding the rays of the sun appears before it in the east. Similarly. like the moon. which in the preceding days was rising before the sun. e. that is to say among the phenom ena of appearance and disap­ pearance. Next is the setting pro­ duced by the diffusion of the brilliance of the star by the luminous rays of the sun. i. as with the rising of Canis Major. at early dawn and early sunset. about two thirds of a zodiacal sign. XIV. First. causes that star to become invisible because of the radiance of its neighbor. these two stars are on the contrary always seen near the sun.ASTRONOMY 91 at the earliest dawn and disappear with the day. at its beginning. It is called “ night-edge” because it oc­ curs at the edge of the night. e. W hile the other planets are far from the sun. Venus is about 50 degrees to the east or to the west. others in the evening. a star disappears in the part of the horizon diam etrically opposite. (Toulis) . as we have said of the new moon. Here are the opinions of certain Pythagoreans relative to the position and the order of the spheres or circles on which the planets are moving. for the sun and the other stars. Hermes is about 20 degrees away from it. either to the east or to the west. some occur in the morning. which is still properly a m anner of rising. Among the risings and the settings depending on the sun and its rays. The circle of the moon is closest to the earth.

the earth at the center gives the fifth with respect to the sun. Phaeton. then comes that of Venus. which contain six tones. The heavens. because of the in­ tervals which separate them from one another. Hermes. The seven spheres give the seven sounds of the lyre and produce a harmony (that is to say. Jupiter diverges as much from Saturn as from the terrible Mars. above is the sun whose chariot is drawn by horses. The son of Jupiter. . and Phenon. accomodating itself to the most intense heat. represents a Siren to us. star of the deadly Mars of Thrace. star of Hermes. star of Saturn. Saturn is lowest by a half-tone. ‘the shining one’. near the distant stars. the inventor of the lyre. the sun placed in the middle of the errant stars gives the mese. an octave). shining star of Jupiter is sixth. the second is Stilbon. from wintry to torrid. the sun. that of the sun is fourth. by the m ovement and speed of their revolutions. is one tone below. next comes Phosphorus. complete the octave. Hermes continues with a half-tone lower than Venus. Here is a declaration of A lexander of Aetolia: “ The spheres rise higher and higher. the starry sphere gives the conjunct nete. occupying the fourth rung. Venus differs from the dazzling sun by a trihemitone. and that of Saturn is last and closest to that of the distant stars. the celestial bodies which are distant from one another according to the proportions of consonant sounds. Pyrois.92 ASTRONOMY Hermes is second above. the world being indeed harmoniously ordained. that the orbit of the sun occupies the m iddle place between the planets as being the heart of the universe and most able to com ­ mand. create. in fact. the corres­ ponding harmonic sounds. as to the most glacial cold. then comes the moon which gives to nature such varying hue. They determ ine. the divine moon is the nearest to the earth. It is for this reason that A lexander thus expresses himself in the following verse: “The earth at the center gives the low sound of the hypate. is seventh. joy of mortals. and this position has five regions. the crystal sphere gives the fourth in relation to it. and finally. next comes those of Mars and Jupiter. is fifth.” According to the doctrine of Pythagoras. brilliant star of the goddess of Cythera (Venus).

........................................... The system does not conform to the diatonic type................ but that of the fourth. still young............. he says th at the seven-stringed lyre....... but being im m obile at the center.. It is true that he attributes the sound of the hypate........ in a sim ilar manner............. tone 1 Sphere o f the E arth giving the h y p a te ..... and places the seven sounds of the planets betw een the two............. I would answ er that it is not m elodious to have more than tw o half-tones following one another........ to the earth.... nor tw o half-tones one after the other.....ASTRONOMY 93 having a seven-stringed lyre. he was astonished that the har­ monies produced by the speeds of their revolutions was the same as l5This............ Indeed............ it renders absolutely no sound..... and it is not with the nete o f the conjuncts that it gives the consonance of the octave.. exposes the harmony pro­ duced by the revolution of the stars... having invented the lyre................. and nearly all the rest. Then he gives the sound of the con­ ju n ct nete to the sphere of the stars................. But all of this is unclear to those who are not initiated into music..... A fter the moon which is above the earth........... If it be said that the system is form ed o f the tw o genders...... trihem itone \ Sphere of V e n u s... then he established the harmony of the w orld with nine sounds which... It is evident that he arbitrarily imagined the intervals which separate them. half tone | Sphere o f M a rs . the m elody does not include the unbroken tone.... for in the chrom atic gender...... afid pass­ ing near the stars called “ errant” .................. as being lower than the others................. but with the nete of disjuncts... N either is it chrom atic...........................” 1 5 In these verses A lexander has indicated the order for the spheres that he has determ ined... Sphere of H erm es.............. he gives the second place to the sun......... then.................................................... was constructed by Hermes........ and that it gives the consonances of the oc­ tave..... Eratosthenes........ He attributes the sound o f the m ese to the sun.. the image of this divine w orld......\ Sphere o f S a tu rn .. however...... -4 ^ half tone > fourth Sphere o f the m o o n .............................. tone / Sphere o f the sun giving the m ese.. since the song of that gender allow sfo rn eith eraco m p letetrih em ito n e interval. include only six tones....... but he does not assign the same order to them..... ..^ h alf tone I fourth Sphere o f J u p i t e r .............................. giving the n e te ...... The hypate does not give the sound o f the fifth with the m ese................. H e says that in fact Mercury.............<^ half tone f .. first rose up to the sky...... the image of the universe...... is the o rd er o f the spheres and the intervals of the sounds made by these spheres: Sphere o f the stars....... according to A lexander......

at the end of the Republic. THE M Y T H OF P A M P H Y L IO N IN PLATO ’S REPUBLIC XVI.94 ASTRONOMY that of the lyre which he had constructed. like the undergirders of triremes (in order to pre­ vent the structure from falling apart). the spindle was formed of the same substance and of other precious materials. This is what he says'6: “After each of these souls had passed seven days in the meadow. they place the sun.. It is for this reason that he made an eight-stringed lyre in­ cluding the consonances of the octave. they had to depart from it on the eighth and continue further through a four day journey to a place from which one could see a light extending over the whole surface of the sky and earth. to their color and to the speed of their movement in the op­ posite direction to that of the universe. A t the extremities of this link was held the spindle of Necessity. in the middle of this luminous band.In the epic verses.. but according to the description given by IK Plato. A fter the moon. Republic X 616b. Plato. They arrange the other planets in the order we have men­ tioned. He adds that there is another spine-like axis with hollow vertebra nested one next to the other. it is this which gives the oscilla­ tion to all the revolutions of the spheres. he says that an axis traverses the celestial pole like a pillar. wishing to exhort justice and virtue. straight like a pillar. speaking of the arrangem ent of the celestial bodies.. the ends of its fastenings attached to heaven. These vertebra are none other than the spheres carrying the seven planets. this author appears to leave the earth immobile and determines that there are eight sounds produced by the starry sphere and by the seven spheres of the planets which he makes circle around the earth. then Venus. envelopes all the others. The m athem aticians establish neither this order nor a like order among the planets. and saw. and some put Hermes beyond it. then Hermes. This explanation fares bet­ ter than that of Alexander. The shaft and the hook of this spindle were of diamond. quite similar to a rainbow but brighter and more pure. The last sphere being that of the stars. They made still another day’s journey to arrive there. He shows the order of these spheres with respect to the distance of each of the stars. . and others put Venus. recounts a fable in which. This band is the link of heaven and embraces its whole circumference. “This is how it was made: in its form it resembled the spindlewheels of our world.

W e explain this passage in the Commen­ taries on the Republic. and. On each of these circles a Siren was seated. therefore. always the same. who turned with it and emitted one sound. a fourth and yet four more of them. from Sirius: a star th a t burns hotly — a burning s tar — also applies to the burning sun when the tw o words are used in conjunction like “T he Sirionic Sun” — w hen the word is used alone. the eighth. the seven concentric spindles moved slowly in the opposite direction. shining.1 O f the others. Also. the movements of the seventh. it should be represented as containing in its hollow another smaller spindle-wheel.” This is what Plato says. From all these sounds. then that of the sixth. the fourth. the rim of the seventh (sphere of the sun) was of a very brilliant color. the fourth which has a more rapid retrograde movement than the other spindles is third in speed. which itself received a third. the seventh. The spindle turned on the knees of Necessity. w hich is neither in the dictionaries nor in the Thesaurus o f H enri Estienne.” to b u rn . Plato says. The color of the circles of the seventh and the fifth (Saturn and Hermes) was nearly the same and they were more yellow than the others. the third and of the second.7T he w ord “ Siriazein” . to be heard. and they presented the continuous curved surface of a single spindle around the shaft passing through the center of the first. Finally the sixth (Venus) occupied second place in brilliancy and whiteness. like large vessels fitted one inside the other. the fifth. eight spindle-wheels in all. we have constructed a sphere accord­ ing to his explanations. in the interior. eight in number. as it appeared to them. The circular rim of this exterior spindle was the widest. in fact. “ The rim of the largest spindle (the sphere of the stars) was of different colors. The movement of the eighth was the most rapid. resulted a perfect harmony (that is to say a complete octave). meaning burning. it m eans either the star Sirius o r the flam ing burning heat o f any star. There was thus a third.” The complete exterior spindle made its revolution in the same direction as the universe. (Toulis) . sixth and fifth were less of an equal speed. the third (Jupiter) had a very white color. that of the fourth (Mars) was slightly red. after Adrastus. the poets often call all the 7 . placed one within the other. There were. Their circular rims could be seen from above. that of the eighth (sphere of the moon) bor­ rowed its color and its brilliancy from the seventh.ASTRONOMY 95 Pamphylian. appears to be derived from the w ord “ Sirius” . the third had only the fourth speed and the second had only the fifth. diminishing in width in that order. He says that Sirens are seated on the circles. thus some designate the planets themselves by the word “ Siriazein. that it would be useless work to wish to expose these phenom ena w ithout the images which speak to the eyes.

but this is an appearance. R etrograde motion is the apparent return of a planet from its station in the opposite direction of its first movement. The station is the apparent state of a planet which seems to stop and remain some time near one of the fixed stars. but that. It is for this reason that they necessarily appear sometimes to stop. 9 v. says Adrastus. . v 331. ac­ cording to Adrastus. for example. this is not an appearance. from which results a perfect harmony. Such are the sun and moon which never go towards the zodiac signs which precede. “W hat then is this shining ‘Sirionic’ star which passes above our heads”? Some authors pretend that the stars cannot be taken for the Sirens. Phenomena.96 ASTRONOMY stars burning “ Siriuses” stars. The contrary movement is an appropriate motion. The l8A ratus.” Others designate only particularly rem arkable and brilliant stars. XXI. it is in reality the true movement of a star which goes to the east in consecutive zodiac signs. 1Euripedes. But according to Plato. As for the planets. It all ap­ pears to be produced in this way. 6-7. for example. according to the Pythagorean doctrine. from C ancer to Gemini. THE M O VEM EN TS OF THE PLANETS X VII. Thus one reads in Ibycus: “flam ing as the ‘Siriuses’ which shine in the long night. Aratus uses the ‘condition’ “ Sirius” to indicate that one star in the constellation of the Dog burns with a lively flame IK and a tragic poet said of a planet. XX. also these planets never have stations nor retrograde motion. of a planet which seems always to go towards the signs which follow at the east. there are some which are always lagging behind. XIX. and sometimes to move in retrograde motion. the sounds and the accords are produced by their revolutions. these are all the other planets. Forward m ovement is the apparent m otion of a planet which seems to go towards the preceding zodiac signs to the West. from C ancer into Leo. X V III. but which are always seen going towards those which follow. There are others which move towards the preceding zodiac signs and towards the following signs. Iphigenia at Aulis.

around us and up to us. says Adrastus. One would not say that that which is the most precious. The cir­ cular m otion of the stars is sim ple and unique.ASTRONOMY 97 cause is that each planet moves below the stars in a circle or in a sphere of its own. And as Adrastus explains. are the cause of all these phenomena. circular. but ap­ pear to be neither simple and unique nor uniform and regular. but these things are cer­ tainly thus because of that which is best. water and air. in proportion. growth and decline. it is true. this is why the world has been arranged by the grace of a superior and benevolent cause. moves in a circular m ovement proper to its spherical form. follow that which is lesser. these are only the different hypotheses on the planets. The m o­ tion of the planets has been diversely arranged for the calculation of time and for their return to the perigee and to the apogee. This being 2Cf. the non-engendered and incorruptible. most blessed. Em pedocles. of the divine. hypotheses rendered probable through their accord with the phenomena. relative to the zodiacal zone which is above. and as the poet says: “ Here below one sees only wrath and killing and all the other evils. In order th at the m otion of the universe which results from an ac­ tive force and from a divine cause. m ortal and perishable. It is indeed through these revolutions of the stars that come and go that all things in our world are also changed. alteration in every kind and changing of place. and that this m otion has been initiated by a first propulsion. And in the sublunar world. in that it is composed of parts as numerous and as diverse as we have singled out. in such a way that that which happens here below com pletely follows this motion. The planets. the eternal. it is necessary that the earth occupy the center around which the m otion is produced. He says that the world. to be carried back. Between the two elements thus sepa­ rated. because of the superposition. vs. A nd it is necessary that it be below. X X II. all is change and m o­ tion.”'20 Indeed there is nothing but generation and decay. and seems to us. 19 o r 21 0 . and also that fire must occupy the opposite place from the etheric es­ sence which moves in a circle. must lie the others. most beautiful. The motion of the planets is. it is regular and uniform. and that which is here only follows the motion of higher things incidentally. be circular and always sim ilar to itself.

It takes the planets along with it and describes the parallels that the stars follow. the arrangem ent of all the bodies being universally the same. it is still necessary that there be a change in all things here below. sim ple and equal. but will appear to be accom plished regularly as we have shown through the construction of P lato’s sphere. a position which saves the appearances. But the solstices and the equinoxes. if the planets were conveyed following parallel circles by the same m o­ tion as the fixed stars. particularly the sun and the moon. Pythagoras. was the first to understand that the planets move accord­ ing to a regulated revolution. no vicissitudes here below. however. by Samson A rnold M ackey. are conveyed from setting to rising in unequal tim es. comes from the fact that. 1823 (W izards 1974) . On the other hand. the equatorial circle and the tropic o f sum m er. The m otion takes place around another axis. like the fixed stars. the tropic o f w inter. A double m otion is the cause o f the apparent varied m ovem ent in both directions the starry sphere is conveyed from east to w est around the axis which passes through the poles. there would be no change. bring forth the different seasons and produce all transform ations and all genera­ tions and all alterations in our world. I say this will be evident. In fact. the planets. supposing the world to be immobile. Change is made by the varied m otion of the planets. Norwich. by chance. by a simple motion which is appropriate to it. Their movem ent then will no longer appear varied and unequal. because the nature of things is profoundly changing and is subject to contrary forces. they are conveyed through the zodiac. under the zodiac oblique to the three parallel circles. but also of the other planets. each of the other celestial bodies be conveyed uniform ly and regularly. if. by thought. we imagine that the planets move below the im mobile (by hypothesis) zodiac. It is natural and necessary that. The variety presented by the revolutions of the planets.98 ASTRONOMY so. the movements forward and the returns in height and in latitude. but from which results. an apparently varied and irregular motion. perpendicular to the zodiac which diverges from the axis o f the stars by the value o f the side of the regular penFo r an explanation o f the spiral precession o f the equinoxes as shown in the zodiacs of the tem ­ ple of D endera (now in the Louvre in Paris) see: Mythological Astronom y o f the Ancients D em on­ strated. and in the rapid m otion which is appropriate to it. Here is w hat Adrastus says of the position of the circles or spheres. by a slow er m otion. fixed to the cir­ cles themselves or the spheres themselves whose m otion they follow. X X III.

which have nevertheless a sim ple movem ent of their own. By chance. T his angle is not constant.ASTRONOMY 99 tadecagon. However. XXV. but its variation is less th an a half-second p e r year. B is at the beginning of Cancer. Adrastus says that the m otion is uniform when the spaces travelled in equal times are equal. but is carried along equally in always the same direction. describe several and varied circles. and O as the center of this circle and of the universe. as has been said above. and certain of them even have some­ thing unruly in their movement. the seven planets. which is at the same time the earth.T h e angle a t the cen ter o f the regular pentadecagon has a value o f a fifteenth of 360 o r 24. all the planets appear to us to have something irregular. If point A is at the beginning of Aries. It is now 23° 27’. . The motion is regular when the moving object has neither a station nor a retrograde movement. W hat then is the cause of such an apparent behavior? The chief cause is that. w ithout ever increasing or dim inishing in speed. This will become clear for us if we con­ sider the most brilliant and largest of these planets. XXIV. Let us take ABCD as the zodiac. 2 Plato calls the axis of the planets the ‘shaft of the 1 spindle’ and also the ‘spindle’. and AC and BD will be two perpendicular diam eters passing through this point. The angle o f the tw o axes is then 24° according to T heon. THE M O V E M E N T OF THE SUN XXVI. being on the spheres or the different circles by which they are carried. A rie5 C ancer B O C a p ric o rn D F ig 3 C L ib ra 2. they appear to m ove on the zodiac as we have already said. then C is at the beginning of Libra and D is at the beginning of C apricorn. the sun.

DA. a circle around the center of the universe. . The point O will be interior to the circum fer­ ence. the four equal arcs AB. it would be divided in the same relationships by the diam eters AC and BD. and its greatest is in Sagittarius. others only night time. It is natural and necessary as we have said. or it will be on the circum ference itself. which is absurd. If we suppose that point O is at the interior of the solar circle. BC. in unequal times. or on epicycles or around the same center as the starry sphere.100 ASTRONOMY The sun is found at A at the spring equinox. it is said that the circle is ec­ centric. who look at it from point O of our circle ABCD. Indeed it moves from the spring equinox to the summer solstice in 9 4 1 days. from the summer solstice to the autum n A equinox in 9 2 1 days. and one would not see the sun turn around the earth at all. the appearances will be explained. CD. Its slowest speed is on entering Gemini. will appear to us. and from the winter solstice to the spring equinox in 90Vs days. that is to say point O. or an eccentric circle or an epicyclic circle. It remains then to suppose the point O to be at the interior or at the exterior of the solar circle. at C at the autum n equinox and at D at the winter solstice. N ow it is im possible that the solar circum ference passes through the point O. we would still be em barrassed by this equality o f the angles at the center and by the sim ilitude o f the arcs. in Virgo and Pisces it has an average speed. T here would be neither rising nor setting. It travels irregularly. that all divine crea­ tions (the stars) have a uniform and regular motion. having a regular and uniform course on its own circle. If then this circle were to have the same center as that of the universe. W hichever hypothesis one chooses. for the sun would m eet the earth and then some of the ea rth ’s inhabitants would have only daytim e. from the autum n equinox to the winter /z solstice in 88 Ve days. W e will dem onstrate that the planets describe by chance these three kinds of circles. and for this reason one can con­ sider as futile the discussions of m athem aticians who say that the planets are conveyed only on eccentric circles. to move irregularly. but not at the center. if point O is exterior there is an epicycle. at B at the sum m er solstice. or it will be ex­ terior. It is then clear th at the sun. so that it travels yearly the entire circle in approxim ately 365'A days. It is therefore evident that the cause of this appearance is a different m ovem ent which does not occur around the center O.

FG 9272. at point M.ASTRONOMY 101 c THE EC C ENTRIC CIRCLE XX V I (1). in the space of 927a days which corresponds to the num ber of divisions in the arc. GH 88 Vs. regularly passing through the arc EF which is the largest of the four divisions of its own circle. a quarter of the zodiac. it will appear to us at A. in fewer days. it will a r­ rive at F. It will seem to us that it travelled the arc BC. Likewise when it travels the arc FG. to us that is who see it at a straight line from point O. . There it will appear to us at B and it will seem to have ir­ regularly travelled by a num ber of days different (from a quarter of 365 74 days) the arc AB which is a quarter of the zodiac. the second in size of its own circle. It is evident that when the sun is at E. it will be found at G and will still appear to us in C. Let us suppose first of all that the eccentric solar circle EFGH is situated in such a way as to have its center under the arc EF. irregularly. Let us again suppose that the circle is divided into 36574 equal parts. and HE 9 0 7 s . equal to the preceding one. for example. as many days as there are divisions of the arc. and that arc EF contains 9 4 7 a . Then. in the space of 9474 days.

because one of these points is at the greatest distance from the earth and the other at the smallest. in 88 Ve days. The circle EFGH is therefore given in position and in size. respectively parallel to the lines AC and BD. it will be at its sm allest distance from the earth and it will appear to have its maximum size and speed. the sm allest of the four divi­ sions of the circle. And with reason it appears to have an average size and speed when it oc­ cupies the same degrees in Pisces and in Virgo. The angle rMV is therefore 2 given. and returning to E. each of the arcs sp. But the center O of the universe is also given in relation to the two points V and W. in a fewer num ber of days. The line OM joins the centers of the universe and of the solar circle. as are the arcs qF and sH. It will seem to us to have travelled the arc CD. The position and size of circle EFGH is given.Let us now extend through point M the straight lines rp and qs. It is for this reason that travelling its circle uniformly.102 ASTRONOMY Similarly. pq. the num ber equal to the divisions of the arc. it will seem to travel the zodiacal circle irregularly. perpendicular to each other and joining FM and ME. for the same reason. “ Because 91 + + Vie is a q u arter o f 365 X • U . it appears to have its minimum size and speed. and extending this line to both sides. when it travels HE in 90 and Vs days. and is equal to the angle OMt. that the relationship of the line OM to MV is nearly that of 1 to 24. a treatm ent which saves (explains) all the phenom ena. equal to the preceding arc. the number of days equal to the number of divisons of the arc. joining the centers O and M by a straight line. Thus. it will seem to us that in 90 and Vs days it tra­ velled the arc DA. The latter seems to occur at 572 degrees of Sagittarius. the sun at V will be at its greatest distance from the earth. Such is the treatm ent by the eccentric circle. that is to say from M t to Ot is given and the triangle MtO is given in form. But if. The circle EFGH is being divided into 365 V parts. but the arc Er and pG are equal. equal to the others and that it returned to A. it < is evident that the arc EFG contains 187 parts and the arc G H E contains 178V» parts. Finally. since M is the center of the circle EFGH. Arriving at W. It is found by the consideration of the dis­ tances and sizes. furtherm ore. This phenom enon appears to be produced at about 5V2 degrees of Gemini. qr is repre­ sented by 91 divisions + + V ie2' . and for us who are at point O. we will have MV = MW. It is in this way that all the appearances will be explained. when it travels the arc GH. it will be at H and it will appear to be in D to us who ob­ serve it from point O.

its setting. The starry sphere moves from rising B to meridian A. and in moving it is carried either in the same direction as the universe or in the opposite direction. it would appear to be at V and when at E it would appear to be at A. In relationship to ourselves and in a single (diurnal) revolution of the universe. Supposing that it moves with the same speed. arriving at F. it will appear to de­ scribe the arc VAN towards the signs which precede. Again let us take the zodiac ABCD and the solar circle EFGH which is exterior to the center of the universe O. If it turns in the same direction. W hen it travels through the arc FEH. when it . If it were im mobile it is clear that the sun would appear neither to rise nor to set. and when carried on to H it will appear to be at N. The sun will al­ ways appear to come and go within the arc VAN of the zodiac. it is with an equal speed or a greater or lesser one. This is contrary to the facts. Then.ASTRONOMY 103 THE EPIC YC LE XX V I (2). let us draw lines OFV and OHN tangent to the circle EFGH. In fact. The circle EFGH will be either immobile or it will itself move while the sun turns around it. it would appear to travel through all the signs. then from point A to D. H e re is now the ex p lan a tio n acco rd in g to the epicycle. but would always produce day for those who are above the earth and always night for those who are below. The circle then moves.

because then it would appear to overtake the stars and travel through the zodiac in an inverse direction. It is then evident that the circle EFGH moves in the same direc­ tion as the universe with a lesser speed. It is thus that it appears to pass into the signs which follow. which appears to P lato as more probable. it will appear to move through the arc NAV towards the signs which follow. being in some way left behind. . transverses it in the space of one year. above. However. A and that it is left behind because o f its slow er speed. How then does this save (explain) the phenom ena? Taking M as the center o f the solar circle.104 ASTRONOMY travels the arc HGF.23 so that the center. This is why it appears to be left behind and to pass into the signs which follow. everything being conveyed each day in the same direc­ tion. let us describe the circle M rVW from the center O with the radius OM . with a "Cf. or that it m oves in an inverse direction to that of the universe. this is not what happens. which is not the case. XVIII. Furtherm ore it does not have a greater speed. regularly carried on the circle M rVW . The solar circle EFGH is not carried therefore in the same direc­ tion as the universe with the same speed. so that it ap­ pears to have a movement of its own contrary to that of the universe. from rising to setting. that is from Aries to Pisces and Aquarius. and let us suppose that the circle E FG H is carried from east to w est at the sam e time as the universe. and the sun also achieves its revolution in the same am ount o f time.

Finally the center W. L et us suppose that point M. a q u arter of the circum ference o f the circle M rVW . it will be furthest away from us. and to be hastening to arrive at A. sometimes in the same direction as the universe and some­ times in the opposite direction. I assert that the circle EFGH. and the sun itself having described a sim ilar arc X R will return to E and will appear to be at A. and th at the whole of the circle E FG H is carried to N pt. and seeming to have traversed the arc sC. that is to say from E to F . (Fig. describes by a regular m ovem ent the arc M r. a quarter of the cir­ cumference. the sun will move on the circle EFGH in the same direction as the universe and this would explain the phenomena. being carried on the circle MrVW in a m ovement contrary to that of the universe. A fter point V has traversed the quarter VW of the circumference. and to be slowly ap­ proaching point C. will be at point R. a quarter of its own circle. therefore C / will be at 5Vi degrees of Sagittarius. It is therefore evident that in its move24See III. arriving at V while appearing to us to be at C. that is to say. less than a quarter of the zodiac. a quarter of the circum ­ ference. The sun. its circle will be carried to XR and the sun. Then also it will seem to have described an arc KDA of zodiac.ASTRONOMY 105 regular movement. from point H to point E and from point E to point F. The cen ter r will next describe the arc rV . arriving at E . describing the arc W M .will re-establish the circle HR on EFGH. the cen ter of the solar circle. and the circles Np and yV will be formed and the sun will travel through the arc pt. Now. . the sun will be carried on the circle EFGH. and to be slowly coming from point C. a quarter of the circumference. regularly conveyed in the same direction. while appearing to be at point K and seeming to have described the arc CK. less than a quarter of the circumference. larger than a quarter of the circumference. it will appear to have traversed the arc ABs which is greater than a quarter o f the zodiac. will describe the arc EF of the circum ference o f the circle E F G H . in the same direction as its own circle. L et us first of all suppose that it be carried in a m ovem ent contrary to that of the universe. In addition. and to be rapidly moving from point A. X X V I. hav­ ing described a quarter of the circumference. It will therefore be at point p and appear to us as being at s. and since it will have described the arc E F . but in the same direction as its own circle. T hen. It is clear that A will be at 5l i degrees o f Gem ini24. 6) and from F to G and from G to H.

let us suppose that the center of the epicycle describes the arc Mr. But on the zodiac it will seem to have travelled the sm aller arc As at a low speed starting from point A. having travelled through an arc equal to a quarter of its own circle. This is.(saved. and the sun moves on it in the same direction as the fixed stars. and will therefore be at N and will appear to us to be at s. The sun will have to de­ scribe the arc sim ilar to EH on the epicycle. It would seem to have travelled at an increasing speed towards C. It will then be at i and appear to be at C. greater than a quarter of the circumference. W hile the solar circle is carried on the circumference of the concentric circle MRVW in an inverse direction to that of the universe. the contrary of what is ob­ served. the sun therefore cannot move on the epicyle in the same direction as this circle and in an inverse direction to the universe. If V were transported to W.) A Indeed. however.106 ASTRONOMY ment it will appear to have a greater speed in Gemini and a slower speed in Sagittarius. the arc of the zodiac sBC. In this way the phenom ena will be explained. 7) Then the center r will describe a quarter of the circum ference rV and the sun will describe the sim ilar arc Np of the epicycle. and if the circle iy . a quarter of the circumference of the concentric circle. It remains to examine the case in which the epicycle has a move­ ment contrary to that of the universe. the arc VW being a quarter of the circumference. (Fig. and that it carries the epicycle with it to Np.

describing the sim ilar remaining arc XR will be reestablished at E. But on the other hand. the epicycle XR will return EFGH and the sun. all the phenom ena are explained. It will appear to be at A and will seem to have travelled the arc KA sm aller than a quarter of the circum ­ ference.ASTRONOMY 107 were applied on the circle XR. in describing the arc Vy sim ilar to the preceding one. obtained by the consideration of the distances and sizes. the sun. and will appear to be at K. that o f the eccentric circles and that o f the epicycle. Such is the explanation using the epicycle. the sun. In moving to p during the time that the epicycle passes from r to V. for if it passes from point E to point H while the center o f the circle itself passes from M to r having a m ovem ent contrary (to that of its own circle) . This relationship is the inverse of the preceding25 since it is equal to the relationship of 24 to 1. . Similarly. (1). and to be slowly approaching A. In this way. If the center travels the remaining arc WM. in passing from X to R while the epicycle passes from W to M. larger than a quarter of the circumference. for the sun will appear to move more slowly and to be sm aller towards 5 V2 degrees of Gemini and to move more quickly and be larger towards the sam e degree of S agittarius. . will appear to accomplish its path on the zodiac slowly. This in conform ity w ith the phenom ena. One can find the size of the epicycle and the relationship of the distance betw een the centers to the diam eter EG of the epicycle EFG H . transported in a contrary direction to that of the movement of its own circle. the circle EFG H of the planet moving on a concentric circle which is MrVW. It would seem to have travelled the arc CDK of the zodiac. following this hypothesis. H ipparchus m ade the rem ark that the reason why the 2 Cf. transported from V to y during the time that the epicycle passes from V to W. it will appear to increase speed in the zodiac. the sun. will be at X. In this way A drastus shows that the phenom ena are explained by the tw o hypotheses. as if overtaking its own circle. the smallest distance is OV and the difference between these two distances is equal to the diam eter of the epicycle. X X V I. ap­ pears to advance on the zodiac in a movement which is in some way coincident with its own. which goes in the same direction as the epicycle. 5 . The greatest distance from the sun to the earth is O E. and to have passed rapidly from C to D.

Let us then draw the diameters of the zodiac AC and BD. Let us take the zodiac ABCD with O as the center of the universe. and W. but I say further that. in such a way that the point A is on the 5 V2 degree of Gemini and C is on the same degree of Sagittarius. draw the circles Npt. iqy and X Rz perpendicu­ . is w orthy o f the attention of the m athem atician. and EFGH the epicycle of the sun with M as its center. and carrying with it the epicycle.108 ASTRONOMY same phenom ena follow from such different hypotheses. Let us de­ scribe from the center O. V. with the radius OM the circle MrVW . it will happen that the sun. I assert that if the center M uniformly travels the circum ference of the hom ocentric circle MrVW in a movement contrary to that of the universe. and from the centers r. A drastus has shown that the hypothesis of the eccentric circle is a consequence of that of the epicycle. travelling the epicycle EH G F at the same time in a uniform m ovement in the same direction as the universe. perpendicular to each other. that of eccentric circles and that of concentric circles and of epicycles. will also describe the eccentric circle equal to the concentric circle MrVW. the hypothesis of the epicycle is also a consequence of that o f the eccentric circle.

N . The lines NX and rW are equal and parallel to each other. But it has been shown that each of the lines Ns and sX is equal to the radius o f the circle. at 5Vi degrees of Gemini. having consequently described the sim ilar arc iX of the eccentric circle. It will be divided into four equal parts by the diam eters Ei and NX. sN . therefore the four lines sE. will be the furthest point from earth . and the point which is projected at C. In fact. Thus in travelling the whole epicycle uniform ly while the epicycle is carried on the concentric circle. si.ASTRONOMY 109 lar to the diam eter BD. during the time that point V describes arc VW. . on the epicycle E F G H . while point W travels the arc WM. therefore it will be at i and consequently describe the sim ilar arc Ni of the eccentric circle. X. it will also be equal to both line iV and ME. But Ov = OM . therefore it also equals sE and Os = iV and line Oi is com m on. rV and the sun travels the similar arc Nt of the epicycle. And finally let us draw the straight line NX. Finally.26 26A ssum ing th at the sun uniform ly describ es the epicycle in the direction of the diurnal m ovem ent. It will be eccentric. and the sun at the same time will describe the sim ilar arc EH of the epicycle and will arrive at N and then from E to N . and the point which is projected at A. w hile the c e n te r o f the epicycle uniform ly describ es the concentric circle in the opposite d irectio n . at 5Vi degrees o f Saggitarius. Therefore si = OV. Thus the circle described from the center s with a radius equal to one of these lines will pass through points ENiX and be equal to the circle MrVW . sX are equal and perpendicular to each other. will be the nearest. but he does not d e m o n strate th a t the sun is on the eccentric circle at the interm ediary points. Let us describe this circle and suppose that it be ENiX. a qu arter of the circum ference. this is w hat it was necessary to p ro v e. i. Both line Es and line si are there­ fore equal to the radius o f the arc VW. moving as has been supposed. I assert that the sun. Lines Ns and sX are therefore respectively equal to the lines rO and OW which are the radii of the circle MrVW. the sun describes an eccentric circle. The center once more describes the quarter of the circum ference. the center of the epicycle described the arc M r. the sun having described the arc Xz will return to E. will naturally describe the eccentric circle ENiX. T h eo n d em o n strates th at the sun is found on the eccentric circle at points E . the sun will travel the similar arc iy o f the epicycle. It will therefore describe at the same time the remaining sim ilar arc XE of the eccentric circle. Similarly. having travelled through the quarter En of the eccentric circle. and will then be at X. And since line Os is equal to rN .



The same proposition is dem onstrated in this manner: we have the zodiac ABCD and the solar epicycle EFH having its center on the circumference of the circle MrVW which is concentric around the center O of the universe. We also have point E, the point furthest from the earth, at 5 Va degrees of Gemini. I propose that the epicycle HE, being carried on the circumference of the circle MrVW by a uniform movement which is opposite to that of the universe, and the sun, travelling the epicycle EFH at the same time in a uniform movement which is opposite to that of the epicycle and consequently in the same direction as the universe, will then describe an eccentric circle equal to the concentric circle MrVW. Let us now suppose that the center M has described any arc Mr, and that the epicycle has arrived at pqX. The sun, starting from point E, that is to say from point q, will have described at the same time arc qp, sim ilar to arc Mr. Let us take the line OG, equal to the radius M E and draw the lines G p and Oq. Since the arc qp is sim ilar to the arc rM, the angle y is equal to the angle t. 27 Thus line pr is parallel to OG, and is also equal to it; the line pG is then equal and parallel to line rO. Now line O r is equal to line GE. Thus line Gp is equal to line GE. Therefore the circle described from the center G with radius GE, will pass through p and will be equal to the circle MrVW. Let us describe the circle EpNiW (from the center G, with Gp = GE for radius); this circle will be eccentric. Since pG is parallel to
27T heon designates the angle q rp by y and the angle rOM by t.


qO, angle y will be equal to angle t, that is to say to pGE, the arc Ep is therefore sim ilar to arc pq (of the epicycle pqX). The sun, start­ ing from point E, will consequently describe the sim ilar arc Ep of the eccentric circle. One could likewise dem onstrate that it is al­ ways thus, so that the sun, having travelled the entire epicycle, pro­ pelling itself on a concentric circle, describes also a whole ec­ centric circle. This is what had to be demonstrated. The converse proposition can also be dem onstrated. Let us again take the zodiac ABCD whose diam eter is AC and whose center is O, and again the eccentric circle of the sun ENiW, point E being furthest from the center of the earth, under 5 V2 degrees of Gemini, and its center G on the line AO. 2 Let us describe from the center B O, with the radius GE, the circle MrVW , and from the center M with the radius ME, the circle EFH. It is clear that this will be the same as the epicycle. I propose then that the sun uniformly de­ scribes the circumference ENiW of the eccentric circle, and will consequently also describe the epicycle EFH carried uniformly at the same time on the concentric circle MrVW. Let us indeed suppose that the sun has described any arc Ep of the eccentric circle. Let us draw line pG and its parallel Oq. W e take rq equal to OG and draw pr. Since the lines Gp and Or are equal and parallel, lines GO, and pr will also be equal and parallel. But we have OG = ME, therefore rq = rp, thus the circle described from the center r with radius rq will pass through point p and will be the same as the epicycle EFH. Let us describe this circle pqX. Because of the parallelism of the lines (rp and OG) the angles t and y are equal But in circles, sim ilar arcs correspond to equal angles, and in equal circles, equal arcs correspond to equal angles, whether these angles be at the center or the circumference. Therefore, the arcs qp, Ep and M r are equal. Therefore, in the same time as the sun travels the arc Ep of the ec­ centric circle, the center M of the epicycle, describing the arc Mr, will carry the epicycle EFH to pqx, and the sun having travelled the arc Ep of the eccentric circle starting from point E, that is to say from point q, will describe the sim ilar arc qp of the epicycle. It can be dem onstrated that it is thus for the whole movement. Therefore, in travelling the entire eccentric circle, the sun also describes the entire epicycle. This is what it was necessary to demonstrate. X X V II. The same dem onstrations can be applied to the other planets. The sun appears to make all these movements, in both hy28R efer again to Fig. 9.



potheses, with regularity, for the times of its return to the same longitude, to the same latitude, and to the same distance which produces the irregularity called anom aly, are so little different from each other that most m athem aticians regard them as equal 365 l/i days. Thus, when one attentively considers the time of the return in longitude during which the sun travels the zodiac, going from one point back to the same point, from one solstice to the same solstice, or from one equinox to the same equinox, it is very close to the time noted above, so that at the end of four years, the return to a point at the same longitude occurs at the same hour. As for the time of the anom aly after which the sun, at the point furthest from the earth, appears smallest and slowest in its move­ ment towards the following zodiac signs, or after which, at the point closest to the earth, it appears to have the largest diam eter and the greatest speed, it is close to 365 V2 days, so that at the end of two years the sun appears to return to the same distance at the same hour. Finally, the time of its return in latitude, the time after which, starting from the extreme north or south point, it returns to the same point in such a way as to give the same shadow-lengths on the sundials, is 365 Vs days. Consequently, it might be said that at the end of eight years, it will return at the same hour to the same point of latitude. X X V III. R egarding each of the other planets, we have said that their various times vary greatly, some are longer, some are shorter. The durations of the returns appears so much the more variable and changing in one hypothesis as in the next, that it is not in the same lapse of time that each planet travels its epicycle and the epicycle its concentric circle (in the zodiac): the movements are more rapid for some and slower for others by reason of the ine­ quality of the circles, of the inequality of the distances from the center o f the universe and of the differences of obliquity with respect to the circle of the middle of the zodiac signs, that is to say, o f the differences o f inclination and o f position. XXIX. As a result, it happens that for all the planets, the stations and the returns, whether towards the preceding zodiac signs or the following zodiac signs, do not occur in a sim ilar manner. One ob­ serves the phenom enon for the five planets, but in a m anner which is not absolutely similar. For the sun and the moon, it does not oc­ cur at all; indeed these two never appear to advance, nor to remain stationary, nor to retrogress. As we have said, the sun appears to be

moving uniformly in the space of one year around the center H. turns around the center M in the same direc­ tion as the universe. XXX. I understand that the con­ centric circles. if it is a question of the sun and the moon. as it has been explained. that the planets move on circles or whether the circles which carry these stars move around their own centers. In this way we can safely arrive at an explanation of these phenomena. this circle ENiW. It is clear that it m atters little for interpreting the phenom ena. and that the epicycles carrying the planets also move around their own cen­ ters. carrying the centers of the epicycles. move around their own centers in the direction contrary to the universe. Considered in relation to the sun. or in the opposite direction if one considers the other planets. if the center H moves by itself. w hether one says. we have the eccentric cir­ cle ENiW which has point H for its center. in the opposite direction from the universe. 10) which is its own center and that of the universe. but carried in the same direc- . (fig.ASTRONOMY 113 carried on its own circle in the same time as the epicycle on the concentric circle. not in the opposite direction from the universe. whereas the epicycle of the moon is carried more rapidly on the concentric circle through the zodiac. Thus I understand that the concentric circle MNVW moves around O. ex­ plains the phenomena. m 4 h G \ O V F ig 10 According to the other interpretation. and carrying the sun fixed at point E. than it itself travels the epicycle. I understand in addi­ tion that the concentric circle carries on its circumference the center M of the epicycle EFGH and that this epicycle which carries the planet to point E.

seen under Gemini. carrying the fixed star on its circumference at point E. maximum or mean speed. and the sm allest at the same degree of Sagittarius. let us imagine that one describes the circle Hpq. the sun will always present at the same respective places. will appear to us in Sagittarius at the sm allest distance from the earth. the sm allest or the mean distance from the earth. In this way. In fact. carried to where point i is now. If one takes the correct and particular times of each planet. and the m iddle at the same degree of Virgo and Pisces. C onsidering only the . occurs at 5 V2 degrees of Gemini. and that they can have their minimum. but the circle turns around the center H. indeed. the point E of the eccentric circle. the phenomena will be explained. as has been said. Between these two extreme points it will be found at the middle of the distance in Virgo and Pisces. and if each day it describes the circle Hqp equal to the circle in the other argument. where the sun is placed. it is at every place in the zodiac that they can be at the greatest. All of this carries us too far away under the pretext of reconciling the argum ents o f m athem aticians. is the farthest from the earth. The largest. the sm allest and the mean distances from the earth. As for the other planets.114 ASTRONOMY tion. in this position of the circle. and finally that the eccentric circle ENiW moves in a different time around its center H. then that the con­ centric circle equal to the epicycle of the hypothesis turns around the center O of the universe and that it carries with it the center H of the eccentric circle in a movement contrary to the universe and in a determ ined time. From the center O of the universe and from the radius OH. the point E.

1850. . Aristotle. the planets are put in m otion with the aid o f certain spheres. and each planet is carried by several spheres. 3. II. 987 a. Chaldea and in Egypt. B iot. U 3 Cf. X II. some are hollow. M e ta p h y sic s. 32Treatise On the Heavens. How could it indeed be that such bodies w ere attached to incorporeal circles? According to the phenom ena. 34This fifth body is the ether. A ristotle. som e moving in the sam e direction as the universe. 199. He again says in the X lth book33 that according to E udoxus and C allipus. I. 9. Through an effect which is the 2Cf. the exterior sphere. some are less high. the Chaldeans with the aid of arithm etic methods. V I. others sm aller. Those who have studied astronom y with the Greeks have tried to do so by utilizing their principles and their observations.3 1 XXX I. but rather. Meteorology. that the num erous fixed stars are carried on one and the same sphere. in carrying the various stars fixed to their circum ferences. P lato says so in the Epinomis.™ all by imperfect methods and w ithout a sufficient science of natural laws. the spheres of the fifth body 34 move in the depths of the sky. and th at they neither turn nor revolve. W hat in fact concurs with natural science is that the stars are neither carried in the sam e m anner by certain circular or spiraling curves in a contrary m ovem ent to that of the universe. as we shall see a little further on. 3 1073 b. and the planets which are fixed there in the m anner of the stars. som e moving in the opposite direction. some are larger. 1 and Meteorology. A ristotle. some are higher.2S Thus they came to confirm the observed facts and to predict the coming phenomena. 3A risto tle. other full ones are inside them. giving his own words. 7. X I.ASTRONOMY 115 phenom ena and the planetary movements produced according to the course of things. 0 3lEpinom is p. nor do these circles rotate around their centers. after having observed them for a long time under favorable conditions in Babylonia. the Egyptians by graphic methods. treatise On the H eavens II. J o u rn a ld e s S a v a n ts. for it is necessary also to discuss the facts from the physical point of view. these m athem aticians investigated with ardour the principles and the hypotheses which would explain the phenom ena. are carried by a sim ple m ovement but with unequal speeds depending on the location. Cf. in his treatise On the H eavens*1 speaks a great deal of the stars in general and shows that they neither move across the tranquil ether nor with the ether in any independent or separate way. p.I.

one supposed that in the intervals of the conferring spheres (that is to say those carrying the planets). oblique to that of the m iddle of the zodiac signs. misled by the retrograde movement. A ristotle says that those before him supposed them each to be carried by several spheres. By the latter. it follows that they appear more or less far from earth. A ristotle says that C allippus added new spheres to the other planets. each star appears to have its own movement in latitude. they appear to move variously and describe certain eccentric circles. The third rotates around the axis perpendicular to the circle. also. can. sometimes more to the south of the circle which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac. The second moves around the axis perpen­ dicular to the circle of the m iddle of the zodiac signs. are necessary for each of the planets. wheels rotating around their axes. It is by this sphere that each planet appears to execute a m ovem ent in longitude towards the zodiac signs that follow. if one wants to account for the phenom ena. Such is his opinion or that of the others (Eudoxus and Callippus).116 ASTRONOMY consequence of all these movements. there are some evidently solid spheres which. by their . sometimes at a greater distance. Each of the other planets is carried by four spheres. they appear to describe spirals in consequence of which the m athematicians. think that they were transformed. that is to say two to the sun and the moon. sometimes higher. Eudoxus says that the sun and the moon are supported on three spheres: the first is that of the fixed stars which rotate around the poles of the universe and forcibly draws all the others with it from the rising to the setting. by their own movement. sometimes more to the south. sometimes more to the north. cause the conferring spheres they contact to turn in the opposite direction. He also thinks that. If one thought that it is natural that everything be carried in the same direction. sometimes more to the north. sometimes lower. in the same way that with mechanical gears. or else placed on other circles. except to Saturn and Jupiter. and only one to each of the others. sometimes at a sm aller. one of which produces the m ovement of the planet in height. other lesser spheres than one of the spheres that carries the rotating ones. one nevertheless saw the planets going in the opposite direction. As we see them carried each day by the motion of the universe from east to west and passing through the consecutive zodiac signs in their course along the obliquity of the zodiac.

some are carried more quickly. the hollow sphere Eqst. then pXiR of a planet . carried along by the exterior sphere. others eccentric or epicycles. XXX II. others less so and in the opposite direction. AC and BD its two (perpendicular) diameters. It is quite natural that all the spheres move in the same direction. around their own axes oblique to that of the sphere of the stars. is its thickness. AE. their place and their size. A Let us take ABCD as the hollow sphere of the stars around the center O of the universe. but by an appropri­ ate movement. irregular and varied movements. they describe several circles. W e have underneath the first.ASTRONOMY 117 own m ovement and by the aid of geared teeth. because of the level which they occupy. which is the consequence of the m ovement of the spheres. that they appear to accom plish combined. For the understanding of what we say. Let us suppose that ABCD is a large cir­ cle and that it passes through the m iddle of the zodiac. cause a turning and rotating in the opposite direction of the bodies adjacent and in con­ tact. Thus the stars that they carry are brought along by the simple and regular m ovement of the spheres and it is only through an effect. it is time for a short elaboration on the figure which appears to us to be necessary for the construction of the spheres. some concentric.

carrying the solid sphere. or that it will have left it more or less behind. Let us first of all suppose that it returns in the same am ount of time. and from the center H. in the same time that the hollow sphere of the planet will have tra­ velled. Taking M for the center of the sphere. travelling in it in the direc­ tion contrary to that of the universe.118 ASTRONOMY having the same center and Ep for thickness. describe the circle ENVW. And now. let us describe from the center O the circle MNVW having the radius OM. It will consequently also describe the eccentric circle ENiW. appearing to be conveyed in the opposite direction and carrying along this solid sphere. . equal to the concentric circle. and ) that the hollow sphere of the planet turns around the axis perpen\ dicular to the circle producing the m ovement in latitude. carried in the same direction as the starry sphere. w ith­ in this thickness. and that which produces the m ovement of the planet in latitude alone turns in the opposite direction or in the same direction provided that it remains behind due to its slowness. Further the sphere of the stars turns very rapidly. eccentric with regard to the universe. A ll are carried regularly in the same direction by the simple movements from east to west. moving in the opposite direction. Finally we have. Let us divide the line Ei in two equal parts at point H. turning regularly around its own axis. the center M of the solid sphere will travel the con­ centric circle MNVW. in such a way that in a determ ined time. will have left the sphere of the stars behind. the hollow sphere of the planet turns more slowly and in the opposite direction. with the radius HE. comes back to the same point. for the two hypotheses account for the phenomena. it has travelled the entire sphere of the stars in this opposite direction. and obli­ que to that which passes through the middle of the zodiac. It is also evident that the planet placed at point E on the solid sphere will describe (in the same am ount of time) the circle EGpF which becomes the epicycle of the concentric circle MNVW and turns in the same direction as the universe. the solid sphere EFpG carrying an errant star a t­ tached at point E. the entire sphere of the stars. or it is left behind as others would have it — we have said elsewhere that this is the most likely opinion — and it carries the solid sphere supporting the errant star. it can be seen that the sphere of the stars turns around the axis perpendicular to the plane of the equatorial circle. It is evident that in the time that the hollow sphere of the planet. The solid sphere.

that is to say at y and K. It appears oblique to the zodiac and because of the rotation of the solid sphere around its own axis. simple. A t the opposite point it will always be least far from the earth and will appear to move most rapidly: this is at point C of the zodiac. as far as our senses can perceive them. it will be at point i. However. and to the same d istance— the sim ilar points of the two spheres are always found. since the times of its returns. the center of the solid sphere being at point M of the line AO. the planet appears sometimes further away and consequently . The hollow sphere turning in the opposite direction. and the planet itself being at the point E. advancing towards the following zodiac signs in the op­ posite direction from the movement of the universe. All this is apparent for the sun. A single sphere moves in the opposite direction. it is this which bears the solid sphere called the epicyle. either actually or by conse­ quence of a slower displacement. It is produced towards the following zodiac signs. com plex and unequal. These points are F and G which. It is always at the same place that it will be the furthest from earth and that it will appear to move the most slowly: this is at point A of the zodiac. Such a m ovem ent of the planets and the spheres is naturally regu­ lar. through sim ilar movements. are the same as N and W which divide the eccentric circle ENiW and the con­ centric circle MNVW into two equal parts and appear in the zodiac between the points A and C at B and D. to the same latitude. because of the changing of the spheres into the op­ posite direction. It will have mean distances and mean movements at two places: when it is at the points which divide the epicycle EFpG and the concentric circle MNVW into two equal parts. or because of their lesser movement. that is to say. the center of the solid sphere will be at point V of the line OC and the planet it­ self will be seen at point C. the m otion appears varied.ASTRONOMY It will therefore appear to observers at O to describe the zodiac ABCD. the axes of these spheres being respectively perpendicular to these planes. and orderly. It will also ap­ pear to move in latitude and in proportion to the inclination of its plane on the circle which passes through the middle of the zodiac signs. because of its slowness the planet appears to be left behind by the sphere of the fixed stars. but it is oblique to the zodiac and. at the same places and appear in the same zodiac signs. are found to be equal to one another or nearly so — I speak of the duration of its returns to the same longitude.

and likewise the variable speeds will be produced in all the signs of the zodiac. to change place. the sm allest and the mean distances. as we have said. although they occur at the same points of the spheres. sometimes at one point. X X X III. are not always made at the same places. around which would be that of .120 ASTRONOMY slower. It is necessary. it is possible that each of these stars has two spheres of its own. the planets in their movements by chance do not even ap­ pear to describe circles. but ceaselessly changing place. and that of Venus being still larger. It evidently conforms to reason that there be an accord between the two hypotheses of the m athem aticians on the motions of the stars. the movement appears unequal. although accom plished on sim ilar points of the spheres. since the m otion of its spheres is accom plished in exactly equal times. and the largest. and that the hollow spheres of the three stars. so that their sim ilar movements. the sphere of the fixed stars and that of the solid spheres have their centers on the same straight line. the obliquity of the spheres not occurr­ ing at the same latitude. anim ated at the same speed. which was the object of H ipparchus’s adm iration. therefore. In a word. Venus and Hermes. th at of Herm es being larger. the sim ilar movements appear. because the solid sphere of the planet does not return in the §ame time to the same position. but spirals. In addition. latitude and distance being unequal and variable. The hollow sphere remains behind that of the stars or goes in the opposite direction more or less rapidly. particu­ larly for the sun. and that the solid sphere in turn carries the star on its surface. The sm allest w ould be the truly solid sphere of the sun. It could also be possible that there be a single hollow sphere common to the three stars and that the three solid spheres in its thickness have one and the same center. sometimes at another. As for the Sun. and that of the eccentric circle: both accord by chance with w hat is in conform ity with the nature of things. to believe that each planet has its own hollow sphere which carries a solid sphere in its thickness. and sometimes nearer and consequently anim ated by a greater speed. For the other planets there is not the same exactitude. it is made following the epicyle and then it appears to be made following the eccentric. the sphere of the sun being the sm allest. in the contrary direction. that of the epicycle. and the times of the returns to the same longitude. travel in the same time.

Likewise. most worthy and most divine things. of the anim al. The center of our body is different: it is situated towards the navel. if we judge the largest. Hermes has a distance from the sun of at most twenty degrees on one or the other side of it at the setting and rising. fortuitous and m ortal. as a living thing. m ost universal and m ost consistent with the nature of things. because of its movement. F or exam ­ ple. like the sm allest. or execute a motion in longitude in the opposite direction to the diurnal movement and at the same speed without having other sim ilar motion. w hereas the eccentric circle differs entirely from the circle which is in conform ity with nature and is rath er described by chance. persuaded that the phenom enon was produced in this way. It will be understood that this position and this order are all the more true as the sun. that for the reasons explained. and Venus of 50 degrees at most. of the two hypotheses. but the cen ter o f the world. essentially hot. for us who are. is different from the center of the body. both humans and alive. that is to say. judging it as world and as a living thing. F or in anim ate beings. its size and the common course of the surrounding stars. They always appear neighboring. It is clear then. is the w orld’s hearth. the cause of life and of all m ovement from one place to another. and for the world. and because of this the source of all the faculties of the soul. F or the epicycle is a large circle o f the solid sphere. the one which a planet describes in its m ovem ent on this sphere. mutually passing each other and eclipsing each other. H ipparchus. the center of the body of the universal w orld will be the cold and im mobile earth. it is so to say the heart of the universe. as we have said. then that of Venus would come after encircling the other two and filling up the whole thickness of the common hollow sphere. X X X IV . vaunts the hypothesis of the epicycle as his ow n and says that it is probable that all the celestial bodies are uniform ly placed with respect to the cen ter of . of our im agination and intelligence. the source of our desires. This is why these three stars are left behind on the zodiac.ASTRONOMY 121 Hermes. as with an anim al. the life center. will be in the sun which is in som e way the heart of the universe and in w hich it is said the soul o f the world took birth in order to p enetrate and extend itself to its furthest ends. the center of life is in the always warm and always moving heart. each of which is a consequence of the other. that of the epicycle appears m ost com m on.

and which is the m ovem ent which is by chance and is but an appear­ ance. Plato appears also to prefer the hypothesis o f the epicycle. which are fixed to them in the m anner of the stars. but of unequal speeds according to the location. they appear to move diversely and to describe certain eccentric circles. Through an effect which is the consequence of all these movements. He uses these term s in com ­ mon: he often says circles instead of spheres. sometimes to be stationary. says Aristotle. and around the poles instead o f around the axes. for they appear to do all these things. they appear to describe the spirals follow ­ ing which. But he himself. . others sm aller. and some­ times in retrograde movement.] XXXV. are carried in a simple movement. [According to the appearances. did not understand which is the true m ovement of the stars in accord with the nature of things. deceived by the retrograde m ovement thought they were transform ed into. placed on other circles. some are hollow. H e hypothesizes that the epicycle of each planet moves on the concentric circle and that the planet moves on the epicycle. Some are high­ er. m athem aticians. others less so. It is necessary to show how it is that several planets ap­ pear sometimes to advance. with other full ones inside them. or else. He thinks that it is not of spheres. the spheres of the fifth body (the ether) move in the depths of the sky. and the planets. some are larger. as he indicates at the end o f the Republic in imagining spindle-wheels inside one another.122 ASTRONOMY the world and that they are similarly united. not knowing sufficient natural science. but of circles which carry the planets.

a n d E F G th e epicyc le o f a pla n et. THE M E A N DISTANCES OF THE PLANETS X X X V I. in a p p r o a c h in g p o in t V a n d in b e g in n in g to m o v e aw ay again. a n d then . such as O E. w h e th e r this m o v e m e n t be real. a n d the m o v e m e n ts f o rw a r d a n d b a c k w a r d o f ea ch p la n e t. are s o m e tim e s m a d e in o n e z o d ia c sign. it w ill a p p e a r to be s ta tio n a ry a n d finally to m a k e a r e tr o g r a d e m o tio n . N ext. it w ill ag a in a d v a n c e . D urin g the tim e it a p p r o a c h e s p o in t F. b ec au se the e picyc le o f e a c h o f th e m is alw a y s m o v in g to w a r d s the f o llo w in g signs. r e tr o g r a d e m o v e m e n ts. If. it is c l e a r th a t th e s ta r F a p p e a r s to us to be at H. the c e n te r o f the u nive rse . in the epicycle hypoth esis. so m e tim e s in a n o t h e r a n d in d iffe ren t p arts o f the z o d ia c signs. the line O M E A .ASTRONOMY 123 W e h a v e the z o d ia c A B C D a r o u n d p o in t O. O V N to the e p icy c le a n d th r o u g h the c e n te r M o f the epicycle. Since we see in a str a ig h t line. we ta k e the g r e a te st d ista n c e fro m the sta r to the e a rth . th e n w h e n it tra v e ls the a rc FE. o r w h e th e r the epicyc le is sim p ly left behind. It is useful fo r o u r subject to k n o w w h a t the a v e r a g e d is ­ ta n c e o f a p la n e t is. it w ill a p p e a r to us to describe the a rc H A to w a r d s the p re c e d in g signs o f the zodiac. T h e stations. a n d w h a t the d is p l a c e m e n t o f the epicyc le o r of the e c c e n tric circle is. let us d r a w the ta n g e n ts O F H . F ro m the p o in t w h ich w e o b se rv e .

it will be furthest away from us. It is evident that there is an agreement between the two hypotheses: the greatest. CONJUNCTIONS. and at a mean distance at the two points F and G on the intersec­ tion of the concentric circle and the epicycle. EV. can pass in front o f all the planets and several stars and hides them from us. it is clear that the mean distance will be OM. When the planet carried by the eccentric circle arrives at E. from the center O the circle MNrW equal to the eccentric circle. w hen it is placed in a straight line betw een our view and these stars. it is clear that it is the concentric cir­ cle on which the epicycle of the other hypothesis is carried. it is evident that the star carried on the epicycle will be furthest away from us at point E and least far at point V. Let us take the line of the centers OH and extend it on both sides. it remains to speak briefly of conjunctions and occultations. and we find the middle. Since we naturally see in a straight line. that the sphere of the stars is highest and that the planetary spheres are placed below in the order that we have indicated. from the center O and w ith the radius OM . and it cannot be hidden by any o f them . on the path of the epicycle. let us take the ec­ centric circle ENrW. the sm allest and the mean distances are the same. To fulfil the requirem ent of our subject. If we describe. and can itself hide all the stars except the m oon. de­ scribed from the center M with the radius ME. the center of which is H and O is the center of the universe.124 ASTRONOMY such as OV. M. OCCULTA TIONS AN D ECLIPSES XXX V II. as well as the distance between the largest and the smallest. For the hypothesis of the eccentric circles. it will be least far at point i. and from the center M with the radius M E we draw the epicycle EFVG. that is to say. we describe the concentric circle M NrW . disappearances and eclipses. in whatever place this happens. and the mean distances will be at the points of intersection N and W of the eccentric and concentric circles in whatever place these points fall through the displacement of the eccentric circle. The sun can be hidden by the moon. it is clear that the moon being the planet closest approaching the earth. then by being placed directly betw een them and ourselves. If therefore. first in approaching and drowning them in its light. Hermes and Venus hide the stars which are beyond them when .

They even appear to eclipse each o ther when one of the tw o planets is higher than the other or because of their sizes. the solar and the lunar. ECLIPSES OF THE SUN AN D MOON X X X V III. in particular. diam etrically opposite the sun. will not seem to be eclipsed. and the circle of the moon has an obli­ quity of ten degrees in latitude. . one of the two stars will appear further north. but the latitude being different. “ See III. The fact is not easy to observe. in some way. as Hipparchus has found. their common intersection will be a straight line which touches the center of the two circles. in the same way that the moon is not eclipsed at all full m oons. will be their common diameter. The circle of the sun appears conveyed as we have said 35 under that which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac signs on which it is a little inclined. If we suppose the planes of the two circles. They are carried towards the following signs of the zodiac. one ascending. because their circles are perceptibly inclined to one another. the other further south. But if the monthly conjunction does not occur near a node. is the sun’s neighbor and is drow ned out by it and is rarely apparent. and the sun is not eclipsed at every junction of the moon or neomenia. which is only a small star. and Jupi­ ter can eclipse Saturn. the two stars appear close to one another and to our eyes the moon will hide the sun which will be more fully eclipsed the more the moon covers it. If the conjunction of the sun and moon occurs near the nodes. for it is separated from it by a half degree on each side. The moon disappears when. The extrem e points where the circles appear to be cut are called the nodes. This line. the other descending. so that it appears to be separated by five or six degrees to the north or to the south of the circle which passes through the m iddle of the zodiac signs. it enters into the shadow of the earth. and H erm es. to be extended. the longitude counted on the zodiac being the same for the two stars. or the obliquity or position of their circles. This does not happen every month. because the two planets turn around the sun. or of twelve degrees as most m athem aticians think. X II. and the sun not being hidden. Mars som etim es eclipses the two planets which are above it. Each planet eclipses in addition the stars underneath which it passes in its course.ASTRONOMY 125 they are similarly placed in a straight line betw een them and ourselves.

the luminous body is sm aller. the shadow XMNV will have the form of an indefinite truncated cone. The rays of light such as AC and BD extend in a straight line. one luminous and the other lit by the first. on the contrary. when it enters into the shadow of the earth. the shadow pro­ duced is a cylinder that extends to infinity. the luminous rays XM and NV. the luminous body. such as W r and the illum inated . for exam ­ ple. such as GO and the illum inated body is larger. such as XN. it is clear that these rays will be parallel and that the lines C E and D F. AB. therefore the diam eters AB and CD being equal and perpendicular to the tangents A C E and BDF. It is eclipsed. As this occurs at all the points it is evident that the sphere CD will produce an indefinite cylindrical shadow. and it will be thus in every case (total eclipse). will move further and further apart from one another. and suppose them to be equal and spherical. if two spherical bodies. Let us take. Let us show how it happens that the eclipse does not take place each month. will not m eet each other. If the luminous body is larger. for the diam eter XN being larger than the diam eter GO.126 ASTRONOMY XXX IX. and CD the illum inated body. B D F Fig 15 If. envelop an obscure region. Let us now see w hat evidently happens for the moon. are equal. extended indefinitely. extended indefinitely. The luminous rays which extend in a straight line. as we have often said.

As it does not enter into the shadow cone it would be known that there could be no eclipse. there is not always a total eclipse. pqs. extended in a straight line. and the moon will be further to the north or further to the south than the shadow of the earth. and it is said that it is eclipsed. W hen the sun is at a node and the moon at another node. W hen the centers of the sun. is less than the width of the shadow projected by the earth. that is following the same straight line as we have described it. since the diam eter pq is smaller than the diam eter Wr. the earth. at the time of the full moon. such as pq and both are spherical.ASTRONOMY 127 body sm aller. the moon penetrating to the m iddle of the shadow. H ipparchus shows that the volum e of the sun contains that of the earth about 1880 times. there is a total eclipse. it is clear that the shadow of the body pq. that is to say. will have the form of a cone and will be finite. the earth. for the rays Wp and rq. and the moon are exactly placed following a diam etrical line. the m oon necessarily enters into the shadow of the earth. and that the volum e of the earth contains that of the m oon more than 27 times. will m eet at point s. the sun. This phenom enon will be produced from every point. and as it is sm aller and has no brilliancy by itself. Dercyllides has not written on this . that it will ex­ tend following a common diam eter of the sun and of the earth (that is to say following the line which joins their centers). It is then evident that the shadow of the earth will have the form of a cone. it becomes invisible. the sun and the moon do not pass through their nodes. Fig 17 Through the consideration of the distances and of the diam eters of the sun and moon. and that the diam eter of the moon. and that the sun is much further away than the moon. T hat is what Adrastus says. even at its maximum. and the moon being in a straight line. But most often. W hen the three cen­ ters are not totally in a straight line.

(Toulis) . is what he indi­ cates in the book in which he treats The Spindles with which the Re­ public o f Plato is Concerned. A naxim enes has show n that the m oon receives its light from the sun and the m anner in which it is eclipsed. just as in geometry and in music it is im­ possible. but that it has its limits. According to him. that the planets move around the axis perpendicular to the zodiac. if their state were not eternal. and that one must not say that the world is infinite or our vision becom es lost. however. in his books On Astronomy. tells that O enopides36 found the first obliquity of the zodiac and recognized the existence of the great year. it is necessary especially to consider principles which should serve in the study of mathematics. there would be no order preserved in the universe. Before all else. as everyone agrees. A S T R O N O M IC A L H Y P O T H E SE S XLI. a truth 36The obliquity o f the zodiac is attributed to Pythagoras but O enopides claim s it as his ow n dis­ covery.128 ASTRONOMY subject in any convenient order. The second principle is that the risings and the settings of the divine bodies are not made because these bodies light up and ex­ tinguish themselves successively. A naxim ander m aintains that the earth is suspended in space and m oves around the center o f the world. to deduce the consequences of the principles. The third princi­ ple is that there are seven planets. He then says that. and consequently by an angle o f 24 degrees. neither more nor less. Eudemus. also in astronomy it is convenient to establish hy­ potheses first in order to be able to speak of the movements of the planets. Thales was able to see that the eclipses of the sun and the returns of this star to the solstices do not always occur after the sam e lapse of time. and that the axis of the stars and that o f the planets are separated from one another by the side of the pentadecagon. he says. without making hypotheses. Here. The first is that the com position of the world is or­ dered and governed by one sole principle and that reality is found at the bottom of things which exist or seem to exist. ASTRO N O M IC AL DISCO VERIES AN D THEIR AU TH O RS XL. O thers have added new discoveries to these: that the stars m ove around the immobile axis which passes through their poles.

it is necessary to find out that which is necessarily at rest in the universe and that which is in movement. one side concave at the interior. it is not first. For each sphere has a double surface. He thinks that all that moves in the sky is carried around a unique center of movement and of the world. The spiral movement is in fact. He then says that the planets have a circular movement. in such a way that the interior movem ent is produced by the exterior movement. He does not think that it is necessary to take spirals or the sim ilar lines of a meandering horse-path as the first cause of these move­ ments.ASTRONOMY 129 resulting from long observation. the movement following the oblique circle must be re­ garded as first. This is why he believes that the different successive risings depend on a movement in longitude and he rejects the weak and facile reasons given by the seniors according to which the planets would be left behind. according to Plato 37 remains in repose and that the planets move with the whole celestial vault which envelops them. hearth of the house of the gods. as we have said above. in the interval between which the stars move following the epicycles and 3Cf. it is correct to believe. regular and uniform. The first cause of the spiral movement is the movement which occurs following the oblique circle of the zodiac. he does not believe that the eccentric circles are the cause of the m ovement in depth. Phaedrus.. he says. that the planets de­ scribe the epicycles or the eccentric circles within the thickness of the concentric circles. that the planets are car­ ried slowly by a m ovement contrary to that of the fixed stars. the opinion of those who believe that the bodies which appear to be in movement are at rest and that the bodies. 247 A. For these things come about by chance. but since som e are in m ovem ent and others immobile. adventitious and posterior. in such a way that it is not by a consequence and not by an antecedent movement. Therefore. He adds that one should believe that the earth. Next.H ejudges it so. im mobile by nature and by situation. as contrary to the bases of m athematics. The fourth is the following: since it does not conform to reason that all things be in m ovem ent or th at they all be in repose. P ut­ ting aside anything disorderly and contrary to reason in such a movement. it results from the double movement of the planets. in distance and in latitude. the other convex at the exterior. In addition. 7 . in longitude. the spiral movement is a consequence. are in movement. he energetically rejects.. although we can be deceived on this point.

also divides the 180 degrees into two equal parts. according to Plato. as Hipparchus teaches. A fter having established all this. then the 24 degrees comprising from the tropic of sum­ mer to the equitorial circle. In summing them up. and again the 24 degrees comprising from the equitorial circle to the tropic of w inter to which the 38Cf. harmonious. The m ovement is simple and natural for all: there is but a small num ber of displacem ents on the spheres ar­ ranged with order. that. He reproaches those philosophers who. these hypotheses account for the appearances. Indeed the zodiac being a great circle. divides the world into two equal parts. In order to com plete the 90 degrees which extend up to the pole of the sphere of the planets. M eta p h ysics 8 . thus A ristotle . and from the arctic cir­ cle to the pole of the sphere of the stars there are 36 degrees. but that in principle and in reality they are regular. XLII. p. There remain 12 degrees from the pole of the axis of the planets to the glacial arctic circle. he thinks that the sky moves with all the stars around the im mobile earth. add several other spheres to their spheres and their circles. it is necessary to add 24 degrees to this sum. He further says that. uniform. 1073b. The two axes are separated by the value of the side of the pentadecagon (and consequently by an angle of 24 degrees). con­ sidering the stars as inanim ate. the move­ ments of the planets are irregular. . but 30 degrees are counted from the tropic of summer to the arctic circle. and the planets around the axis perpendicular to the zodiacal circle. The axis of the zodiac itself being perpen­ dicular. 38 and among m athem ati­ cians Menaechmus and Callippus. the rem ainder is 12. concentric and independent movements. The circumference of the universe being divided into 360 degrees. He shows. in a movement which causes them to describe the eccentric circles as an apparent consequence. Now the zodiac extends obliquely from the parallel of w inter to the parallel of summer. He agrees to add the 30 degrees comprising from the arctic circle to the tropic of summer. then the axis of the planets is perpendicular to the zodiac. have proposed different spheres and spirals. the zodiacal circle separates it into 180 degrees on each side. if 24 degrees are subtracted from it. following a very small num ber of circular. for the entire arc of the zone is 36 degrees.130 ASTRONOMY concentric circles. according to our im pressions. 6 6 degrees are then counted from the tropic of summer to the pole of the fixed stars. The stars move around the im mobile axis which passes through the poles.

In fact. they will appear to us to describe a helix w ithout end. They used a w ooden staff of exact dim ensions. as they are carried by their own move­ ment from the tropic of summer to the tropic of winter and reciprocally. and again to that o f the first. for 15 times 24 makes 360. It was a way o f coding and decoding m ilitary and other classified data because to som eone who was not in possession o f this w ooden staff. but are pulled around the sphere o f the fixed stars. (Toulis) . in order to go from one point A to another point B on the zodiac.around w hich a leather strap or paper strip was w ound in the m ode o f a spiral. but this one is not as might be drawn on a cylinder from one end to the other. such were the straps wound on the staffs of Sparta and on which the overseers39wrote their dispatches. arranged in an infinite num ber. The planets describe still another spiral. som etim es tow ards the tropic o f sum m er. We then have reason to say that the two axes. that of the stars and that of the planets. if we suppose straight lines. it is as though one were to wind a strap around a cylinder from one end to the other. going slowly. are separate from one another by the value of the side of the pentadecagon inscribed in (a great circle of) the sphere. But 24 degrees form a fifteenth of 360 degrees of the circumference of the universe.ASTRONOMY 131 zodiac is tangent. any message so w ritten was m eaning­ less. but as could be drawn on a plane surface. they do not pass in a straight line from one parallel to another. as they are rapidly pulled along each day in the opposite direction under the sphere of the stars. their mo­ tion does not only occur following a straight line of the zodiac. som etim es tow ards the tropic of w inter. In other terms. they unw ound the strap and sent the w ritten message by special dispatchers to the general concerned who then read it after w inding it around his staff of exact dim ensions as the one at headquarters. A fter the w riting was dry. B ecause of the incessant and continuous m ovem ent around the sphere on the parallel circles. Then they w rote across the length of the staff w hatever message they w anted d ispatched to th eir generals a t w ar in far away lands. but it becomes at the same time circular around the sphere of the fixed stars. in such a way that in passing from one parallel to another they describe spirals sim ilar to the tendrils of a vine. that is to say in consequence of their two movements in opposite directions from one another. It so happens that the planets describe spirals. Since from an infinite time they pass in a circle parallel to the other. XLIII. representing the parallel circles and that the planets move on these parallels in the same direction as the sphere to the fixed stars. the path-w ay travelled will be similar to that which 39T he overseers w ere a body o f five lords in ancient Sparta w ho had jurisdiction over even the king. and this w ithout interruption and w ithout end.

‘"These figures are missing from the m anuscript. for Plato assigns the fifth step in m athem atics to this music of the spheres. the other as on a plane surface. 530 D. stereometry and astronom y 42 — we are going therefore to show summarily what Thrasyllus exposes on this sub­ ject at the same time as our own previous work. END OF T H E TRANSLATION OF TH E W ORKS OF THEON OF SMYRNA AS THEY H A V E COME DOWN TO US. p. m athem atical music and the harmony of the spheres 41 and that we would report all that necessarily exists of harmony in the world. that the planets describe two spirals. « Republic VII. 2 and II. 4'See I.132 ASTRONOMY would be made following straight lines extended to infinity. as the figures show . one is around a cylinder. after arithm etic. However. I. All of this is very necessary and very useful for reading the works of Plato. . and after which look at astronomy. then. 40 It so happens. XLIV. we have said that we were going to con­ sider instrum ental music.



of which one m oveable one. He em ployed an instrum ent formed of two rulers. with the condition that the new altar be sim ilar to the first.Problem o f the duplication o f the cube.. furnished them w ith very sim ple and very ingenious procedures of c alcula­ tion. w hich they m anaged w ith great facility. and in sim plifying the relationships of the final p roportion. Mechanical solution o f Plato (Introduction p. We have. parallel to the other fixed one. even though they had no p articular notation. Dupuis. glided between the grooves of the two uprights FG. we draw two perpendicular lines AE and CD on which we take. Taking (a) and (b) as the two lines between which the two propor­ tional means are to be inserted. 1892) Note I. and M H perpen­ dicularly attached to it. . starting from their point of intersec'T h e ancient geom eters w ere not ab le to avail them selves o f the resources o f algebra which they did not know. o f d iv is io n . but proportions.NOTES — (by J. the first mean x is the side of the double cube. KL and GH.. goes back to the duplica­ tion of the cube of one edge. H ippocrates of Chio found that if two continuous proportional means x and y are inserts between the side (a) of a cube and the double (2 a) of this side. 5) The problem of the duplication of the altar. in fact. . they arrived a t conserving only one unknown in Questions which called for several. In com bining proportions by means o f m u ltiplication. by definition: < x v a ^3 cixv 1 i ^ = y = 2a from which follows 2 i ^ = 2 and x" = 2a'! Plato first resolved the problem of the two proportional means.

I have a tangible object.Oxonii M D C C X C II. p. Archim edis quae supersunt om nia cum Eutocii Ascalonitae commentariis ex recensione Josephi Torelli Veronensis.. 135 . 2 Note II. is w ithout parts and indivisible. — On the sophism. The reasoning of Theon is a sophism. There will come a m om ent in which there re­ mains only one tangible object. One of the most celebrated sophisms is that of Z eno of Elea who lived in the Vth century before our era. and I divide it into several parts which I successively throw away one by one. in-fol. that is to say. therefore one. as One. a geom eter of the V lth century. since it requires the utiliza­ tion of an instrument other than the ruler and the compass.136 NOTES tion.. until there remains no more than one object. I again divide this one tangible ob­ ject into several parts which I throw away one by one. “One. This solution of Plato is m echanical. as one. III). The two triangles ADE. Continuing in this way. the extensions of the lines AB and BC pass at the same time through the apexes of the rectangle which forms the instrument. is without parts and in­ divisible” (I. and CDE being right triangles. Then we apply the instrum ent on the figure in such a way that the edge of one ruler passes through point A. the height of each of them is the proportional mean between the segments of the hypotenuse. and the edge of the other through point C. in a com m entary on book II of the treatise On the Sphere and the Cylinder by A rchim edes . and we have: AB BD BD BE BE BC Thus BD and BE are two proportional means between AB and BC. AB = a and BC = b. I always arrive at one.. It has been transm itted to us by Eutocios of Ascalon. he says. W e then separate the moving ruler more or less from the fixed one. and at the same time turn the instrum ent on the surface of the figure until the edges of the two rulers again pass through points A and C. between a and b. It is called Achilles. — Problem o f Achilles and the Tortoise. It is stated as follows: *Cf.

and while Achilles travels this hundredth. he said. 4 Note III — On unequilateral numbers (I.l)n = n2 1and n(n 4. Now n 2 is the arithm etic mean between n 2 . do cto r o f sciences. IX. while Achilles was travelling the stade which sep­ arated him from the tortoise. and the arithm etic mean between two numbers is larger than their geom etric mean. V I. Therefore. F rontera. first pass by the point from which the one who flees his pursuit started. The error of Z eno is evident. plus the space which sep­ arated them. will advance by 0. and that.NOTES 137 Achilles travels ten times faster than a tortoise which is one stade ahead o f him. and so Achilles will never catch up with the tortoise. under the title: Edude sur les argu­ m ents de Zenon d'Elee contre le mouvem ent. 4. the tortoise. Z eno did not see that the sum of the spaces travelled during the infinite num ber of successive moments of the m ovement of Achilles and the tortoise represents a finite distance. 1 of a stade. the infinite num ber of these suc­ cessive moments represents a finite time. therefore they meet each other.G . In fact. who goes ten times slower. Therefore an infinite num ber of moments will pass before he reaches it.n and n 2 + n. equal to 1 stade and V» th or *%ths of a stade.01 of a stade. two successive unequilaterals. the square contained 3 T he stadia has the value o f 185 metres. says Aristotle. in the case of the uniform movement. and while Achilles travels this tenth.1) = n 2 + n. This comes back to the affirm ation. now the space travelled by Achilles is then equal to the space travelled in the same tim e by the tortoise. The square contained between n 2 . Paris. during the time he travels these *%ths of a stade. who travels ten times slower. Let us take |(n . Will he catch up with it and at what distance?3 Z eno claim ed that Achilles would never reach the tortoise because. the tortoise. as Theon verifies. but we bring to the a tten tio n o f the philosophic reader the interesting work recently published M . “ that the slower while he is travelling. for Achilles reaches the tortoise at a distance from its point of departure. 0 0 1 and so forth. of necessity. the tortoise will advance by 0 . XVI). (606' + ) 4 W e do not insist upon it.” Lesson in Physics. br. and thus the slower will constantly preserve a certain advance. 1891. will never be reached by the faster considering that the pursuer must. travels Vsth of a stade. the latter advanced 0 . in 8e- . H achette.n and n 2 + n is n2.

1 is not so. 6 . 1 + 5d. Note V. 1 + 7 d . and those of the first series are called gnomons. 5. 3. 1 + 3d. in the two series. Taking d as the rate of a progressing by difference beginning with unity.. plus 2. starting from unity. 1 + d. from which it follows that x = n (n + 1 ).. 4 + 6 d. in fact x. Every num ber being a m ultiple of 6 or a m ultiple of 6 plus 1.we will obtain the following gnomons and polygonal numbers: . 4. it is divisible by 4 and not by 3 .138 NOTES between two successive unequilaterals is not the geom etric mean between these two numbers. If. If we take the successive sums of the terms. Finally. 1 + 4d. thus x 2 = n 2 (n + l ) 2. 1 + 6 d. If it is of the form 36n2 ± 24n + 4. 6 n ± 1. But the geometric mean between two successive squares is an unequilateral. an unequilateral number. the first terms will be 1. 1 + 2d. but the subtraction of one unit gives the rem ainder 36n2 + 36n + 8 . — On Square Numbers. which is divisible by 3. 6 + 15d. The term s of the second series are called polygonal numbers. 7 + 21d. we give to d the successive values 1. but the subtraction of one unit gives the re­ m ainder 36n2 ± 12n which is divisible by both 3 and 4. 3. if it is of the form 3 6 n ± 1 2 n + 1. 8 + 28d. but the subtraction of one unit gives the rem ainder 36n2 ± 2 4 n + 3. since the two factors differ by one unit. (I. Thus any square is of the form 36n2 36n2 ± 1 2 n + 1 36n2 ± 2 4 n + 4 or 36n2 + 36n + 9. 1. or 6 n ± 3 . plus 3. it is divisible by both 3 and 4 and con­ sequently 36n2 . the geom etric mean between two successive squares n 2 and (n + l ) 2.X X V II. 5 + lOd. it is divisible by 3 and not by 4. XX). W e have.On Polygonal Numbers (I. 2. which is divisible by 4. we will obtain the corresponding numbers 1..) W e shall sum m arize this theory of polygonal numbers and add some explanations. 3 + 3d. plus 4 or plus 5 is of the form 6 n. 2.. If it is of the form 36n. it is divisible neither by 3 nor by 4. 2 + d. .. X IX . 4. If it is of the form 36n2 + 36n + 9. 6 n ± 2. . Note IV.

... gnom ons. h e p ta g o n s. . d e c a g o n s. g n o m o n s. d = 2 . . triangulars. . is the (n .... n. d = 10. d o d e c a g o n s....... quadrangulars. . ...l ) J fro m w h ic h it fo llo w s t h a t Now n (n ... .l)th triangular number. w e h a v e th e n these tw o th eorem s: 1. . 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 3 6 5 9 7 12 9 15 11 18 13 21 15 24 17 27 19 30 21 33 4 5 10 15 7 9 16 25 10 13 22 35 13 17 28 45 16 21 34 55 19 25 40 65 22 29 46 75 25 33 52 85 28 37 58 95 31 41 64 105 6 21 11 36 16 51 21 66 26 81 31 96 36 1 11 41 126 46 141 51 156 7 28 13 49 19 70 25 91 31 112 37 133 43 154 49 175 55 196 61 217 8 36 15 64 22 92 29 120 36 148 43 176 50 204 57 232 64 260 71 288 9 45 17 81 25 117 33 153 41 189 49 225 57 261 65 297 73 333 81 369 10 55 19 100 28 145 37 190 46 235 55 280 64 325 73 370 82 415 91 460 11 66 21 121 31 176 41 231 51 286 61 341 71 396 81 451 91 506 101 561 139 12 78 23 144 34 210 45 276 56 342 67 408 78 474 89 540 100 606 1 11 672 By d es ig n a tin g the n th g n o m o n as K a n d th e n th p o ly g o n a l nu m b e r by j. . e n n eag o n s.. n. d = 7 .l ) t h t r ia n g u la r n u m b e r. .. ... and o f which the rate is the (n ... en d ec ag o n s. ..l ) d and j = 1 + (1 + d) + (1 + 2d) + (1 + 3d) + ( + 4d) + (1 + 5d) ... g n o m o n s.... gnom ons. .. + [1 + ( n ...... d = 8 . g n o m o n s. . h ex ag o n s.. d = 3 . . gnom ons.NOTES d = 1. .. d = 5 .. .. n.1) first n u m b e rs s ta rtin g fro m unity. 2.l)d] = n + d [ l + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 . The polygonal numbers from the same row n. form a progression by difference. d = 4 .. g n o m o n s. o f which the first term is n.l)th triangular number. ... o c to g o n s ...... plus d times the (n .. n. (d) being the rate o f the progression o f the gnomons.1) j = n + 2 2 ’ the sum o f th e (n . ... d = 6 . n. n. n.. g n o m o n s... gnom ons. The nth polygonal number equals n.. . w e have: k = 1 + (n . . n... . ..... . ( n . .. n.. d = 9 . p e n ta g o n s........ n. gnom ons..

1 )st triangular number. W e will obtain the following quadrangu­ lar figures (replacing the unity-marks with points): 4 9 16 25 36 The pentagonal numbers are given by the form ula j =n+ We will then obtain their representation by adding to n. three times the (n . The figure of the square numbers can also be obtained by the for­ mula j = n + d n(n which.140 NOTES The triangular numbers are so named because. (See I. then place on either side of this line the unity-marks of which the triangular num­ ber (n . XIX). (See I. for d = 2 . they can therefore be figured in the following manner: . if they are ar­ ranged one below the other with the addition of the gnomons decomposed into units. becomes W e shall write on a line the n units of the num ber n.l)st is composed. triangular figures result. XXV). The square numbers are so named because a square form can be given to the groups of unit-m arks of which these numbers are com­ posed.

for according to the general for­ mula (A) given above.l)st triangular number. W e will have j = 2 k (2k+ 1 .1).1). that is to say those equal to the sum of their aliquot parts.1 is first.1). A nother thing to be noted is that the perfect numbers. therefore the perfect numbers are hexagonal and consequently triangular. Indeed the nth hexagonal num ber j = n (2n . This is the form ula which gives the perfect numbers when the factor 2 k + 1 .l)st triangular number. It can. are all hexagonal and consequently triangular.NOTES 141 12 22 35 W e will have hexagonal numbers by adding to n four times the (n . Thus . they can therefore be given in this form: It can be noted that the natural series of hexagonal numbers is equal to the series of triangular numbers of every other row. be dem onstrated that the nth hexagonal num ber is fequal to the ( 2 n . each of them equals n (2n . Let us suppose that n = 2k. in fact.

It is dem onstrated to be equal to n(n + 1 1 ) (n + 2 ) .144th hexag.336 = 8.1 9 1 s t triang. 3 1 ) p(p + 1 ) . The nth pyramidal number. 4th hexag.869. — On the Pyramidal numbers (I.691. and the 1 2 7 t h triang.589.3 The truncated pyramidal num ber is obtained by evaluating the total pyramid and that which has been taken off and taking the difference between the two values. having a square base.056 = 2x3 4x7 16x31 64 x 127 4. and the 5 2 4 .07 1st triang.3 Likewise. and the 1 3 1.144 x 5 2 4 .536 x 131.550.438. 2.128 = 33. 2.328 = 262. 137. and the 3rd triang.(p 1 . 2. having a triangular base. the nth pyramidal number. and the 31 s t triang. Note VI.096 hexag. and the 8 . 16th hexag.2 8 7 th triang. is the sum of the first n square numbers.191 65.071 is the is the is the is the is the is the 2nd hexag.536th hexag.142 NOTES 6 = 28 = 496 = 8. XXX). is the sum of the first n triangular numbers. 4. 64th hexag. and the 7th triang. the truncated pyramidal num ber will have the value of n(n + l)(n + 2 ) . It can be shown to be equal to n(n + 1 ) (2 n + 1 ) 1 .096 x 8.2 8 7 is the 262. If we have a triangular trun­ cated pyramid whose lower base side has the value of n and the up­ per base p. 65.

then he successively determines the other sides by adding the diagonal to the preceding side. . com pleted by the addition of the double square of the sides and the squares of the diagonal numbers: sides 1 2= 1 5 = 2 12=5 29 = 12 70 = 2 9 169 = 7 0 diagonal double sqr.a2.2x 2 = ± 1. Theon explains it thus: he first takes the side 1 and the diagonal 1 . square of the numbers of the sides diagonal numbers 1 2 -1 1 2 9 8+ 1 8 3= 1 + 1x2 49 50-1 7 = 3 + 2x2 50 1 7 = 7 + 5x2 288 289 = 288 + 1 41 = 17 + 1 2 x 2 1682 1681 = 1682 . that it gives in whole numbers the solutions of the equation y2 .2x ' 2 = 2b 2 . Let us suppose that y = a and x = b as a solution to the equation.1 say that x' = b + a and y' = a 4. Therefore. with this condition.2b 2 = ± 1 .NOTES 143 Note VII. — On Lateral and Diagonal Numbers. the following table is ob­ tained. It can indeed be deduced that these two last relations y ' 2 . that is to say.1 9801 = 9800 + 1 99 =41 + 29 x 2 9800 239 = 9 9 + 70 x 2 57122 57121 = 57122 . an infinity of other solutions can be concluded. (I. Now a 2 -2b 2 = ± 1 by hypothesis.2x 2 = -1 .2 x '2= ± 1. The lateral and diagonal numbers are defined by their genera­ tion. that is to say.that we have a 2 .2b are also a solution of it.1 etc + 1 + 3 + 7 + 17 + 41 + 99 This rule of Theon gives. But y = x = 1 is a first solution to the equa­ tion y 2 . the resolution of the right isosceles triangle. that the difference be­ tween the square of the hypotenuse and the double square of the side of the right angle is only one unit. in whole numbers. By this rule. XXX I). and he determines the other diagonal numbers by adding twice the corresponding side to the preceding diagonal. according to the rule given by Theon. therefore y '2.

b. and C three sounds such that the interval from B to A is. C = 2A. B. but the num ber which measures the tone is the quotient of the two numbers which measure the fifth and the fourth. Now 1 was the principle of numbers. but the num ber which measures the oc­ tave is the product of the two numbers which measure the fourth and the fifth. — On the Addition and Subtraction o f the Consonances (II. a fourth. (The tetractys) The num ber 10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 . Let us again call A. for example. C is Vs rds of B. According to the preceding remark. and 4 represented the first solid (the tetrahedron defined by its four apexes). 3 represented the first surface (the triangle defined by its three apexes). W e will call the numbers corresponding to these three sounds as A. Thus it is said that the tone is the excess of the fifth over the fourth.) Let us call A. and B is 3A nds of A.144 NOTES Note VIII. B and C. . the decad 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 symbolized all that exists. Even though the interval of C to A is the product of the two intervals which it includes. X X X X II). from which it follows that x = 3A : 4A = 7s = one tone. Note IX. it is said to be the sum of these two intervals: thus the octave is said to be the sum of a fifth and a fourth. in other words. Although the interval of C to B is the quotient of the interval of A to C by the interval of B to A. B. Therefore. we have 3A = 4A x. X III. 2 represented the first line (the straight line which is defined by two of its points). therefore C is Vs rds of 3A nds of A. it is said that it is the difference between these two intervals. three sounds such that the interval from A to B is. and the interval of C to A is a fifth. W e shall take a. a fifth and the interval from C to B a fourth. for example. C. c as the numbers corresponding to these sounds and x as the interval between c and b. — On the Perfection o f the Number Ten (I.

the first sounds of the second. H alf of the tone 1 + Vs is not 1 + V is. 9. 1. (II. as it is easy to verify: ( 2 56V>-9 . which contains consequently four octaves plus a fifth and a tone. In order to add a tone to this fifth. described by Theon. the extremes of which gave the fourth. 5 Note XI. 27 and stops at 27. — On the Perfect Musical System form ed o f Two Octaves. 4.) These sm all systems were called tetracords because the sounds were given by the four-stringed lyre. — The musical diagram o f Plato contains fo u r octaves. a fifth and a tone.NOTES 145 Note X. It was a descending series of two octaves. the fourth and the fifth octaves are respectively represented by 2.Timaeus. 2 . This h alf x is given by the equation x 2 = 9/s from which it follows that x =V%~ But it must be noted that the value of 1 + Vie = 1 /ie is closely approxim ated. en­ compassed an extension of the human voice.256 The leimma is less than a half-tone. X III. 1) P lato ’s musical diagram indeed contains the sounds correspond­ ing to the terms of the two progressions 1.4 . 3. 8 . 16. the last term of P lato’s diagram. because we have. 34 d— 35 d . The strings of the instrum ent and the sounds that they made bore the same name. the governing consonance from which the others were derived (II. 8 and 1. 256 ^ [9 \ 2 4 3 J 8 therefore 243 8 Note XII. The two ex5 C f. The result is 27. — On the Value o f the Half-Tone (II. XXX V) The musical scale of the ancient Greeks. It was formed of four sm all systems each composed of four sounds. (II. XIV). for 7 in calculating the square one obtains which differs only by V256 from the tone 9/ _ 9 x 3 2 8 x 32 _ 288 . X III. the third. The fifth of this fifth octave is expressed by 16 x 3A = 24. The first sound of the first octave being represented by 1 . he m ultiplies 24 by Vs.

that is to say. 'k iya v o s indicator.146 NOTES tremes of each tetracord were invariables or unmoving. The two first tetrachords had a com m on string. or the neighbor of the mese. which was lower by one tone and which was called the proslam banom enos.” In the same way that the tetracords were designed by names relat­ ing to their position in the musical scale. . that is to say. These two tetracords had a com m on string: the lowest string of the tetracord of the meses was at the same time the highest of the tetracord of the hypates. according to whether the interval from the sound o f this string to the sound o f the preceding string had the value o f a tone. which is at the extremity. “ it is an added sound”. or third. which is implying an addition. was separated from the first or highest o f the following tetrachord. the neighbor o f the nete. a fifteenth sound was added below the lowest sound of the tetracord of the hypates. the whole of four tetracords made only fourteen sounds. that is to say. they received different degrees of tension constituting three principal types of harmony: the diatonic. the strings were desig­ nated by names relating to their position in each tetracord.T he fourth was called the tetracord of the lows or the hypates. chromatic or enharmonic. The ninth was the lichanos of the mese 7 8N 17£77 fo r Nea^r). . or tetracord of the meses. the low est. from index finger: the lichanos indicated the type which was diatonic. In order to com plete the two octaves. or “ added string. the two in­ term ediary ones were variable or mobile. and the mese. a tone and a half. called the trite of the disjuncts which. because its last chord. as well as the third and the fourth. or two tones. and The sixth.from m ost extreme. The first tetracord was called the tetracord of the upper tones or hyperboles. The third was the mean tetracord. the chrom atic and the enharmonic. was the third string of the disjunct tetrachord. The fourth and the fifth were the nete and the paranete of the dis­ juncts. The third was called the trite of the hyperboles. The seventh and eighth were the paramese vapa/ueaxy. The second was called the disjunct tetrachord or tetrachord of the disjuncts. it differed from it by one tone. The highest was the nete of the hyperboles or the extreme. The first and the second tetracord having a common string. the lowest string of the tetrachord of the hyperboles was at the same time the highest string of the tetrachord of the disjuncts. 6 The second was the paranete.

diatone. according to type. The thirteenth and the fourteenth were the parhypate of the hy­ pate and the hypate of the hypates. chrom atic and enharm onic. the paranete of the disjuncts. viKpvnarj] or lichanos of the hypates. chrom atic. The second string of each tetrachord. the half-tone or leimma being equal to “ V ms. were also called.NOTES 147 The tenth and eleventh were the parhypate and the hypate of the meses H a p v T m r r ] and vttcctt). of the meses or of the hypates. of the hyperboles. The tw elfth was the hyperhypate. diatonic. the lichanos of the meses and the hyperhypate. or enharm onic. . with indications of the successive intervals in the three types. Xlxav0^ v v u t c o v . that is to say the paranete of the hyperboles. The following is a table of this perfect system. of the dis­ juncts. Finally the fifteenth was the proslam banom enos.

........................148 NOTES The Perfect System... chromatic..) ....................... 1 Lichanos or d i a t o n e ... T r i t e ...................................................7 8 9 3rd Tetrachord (meses) • 10 J 1 12 4th Tetrachord (hypates) ■ 13 14 15 Nete of the disju n cts.... ............ containing o f three types: diatonic.......... 1 " P a r h y p a t e ........... form ed o f two octaves....... .......... l" '.................■ 1 Hyperhypate or diatone .................... vSi f ? ”% "vf-' -y4 l‘ A 2 1/ 74 \% 2 'A 1 1 V i 1% 2 w ■* V P roslam b anom enos............. Types i% 2 f ' ................ % P aram e se....... H y p a te .............................................. Tetracord fl 2 1st Tetrachord (hyperboles) Strings or sounds N e t e ..........L L L 1 1 (The conjunct tetrachord w hich Theon discusses on pp......... enharmonic...................*% >4 5 2nd Tetrachord (disjuncts)6 ... 1 Paranete or d ia to n e....... 1 Paranete or diatone......... 60-61 is bounded by strings 5 and 8..... 1 P a r h y p a t e .............. H y p a te ........... J 1 Mese.....

9 . This is called the harmonic mean. therefore 2ab _ ab a -I. equals their half-sum. if x is the mean inserted be­ tween a and b.b ) so that this mean between the two numbers is obtained by divid­ ing the double product of these two numbers by their sum. and the other is such that it is greater than one extrem e and less than the other by the same fraction of the extremes. two terms such that the relationship of each of them to the preceding is also 9/s ths. the following numbers are ob­ tained (read horizontally): 1 2 4 % % % 3 6 2 4 8 In this progression. 3 . 4. X X X V I) The Probably Intentional Error o f Timaeus o f Locris. adm its that God first divided the essence into seven parts which were related to one another as the terms of the two progressions 1. He then says that God inserted two means between the successive terms of these two progressions.b y2 (a-t. the relationship of the arithm etic mean to the harm onic mean equals ®/s: this is the value of the tone. 2. 8 and con­ tinued until arriving at the term 27. in the Timaeus.x = a : b. Plato. 4. which we call the arithm etic mean. 8 and 1 . P lato next inserts between each term of the double progression and the harm onic mean which follows it. By means of this double insertion. as well as between the arithm etic mean and the following term. 27. in order to explain the form ation of the soul of the world. the first of which having the ratio of 2 and the other the ratio of 3.a : b . that is to say. 2. — The Musical Diagram o f Plato (II. of which one. This operation is m ade on the progression 1. then x . gives the results contained in the follow ing table: .NOTES 149 ' Note XIII. or the product of the two numbers by their half-sum.

these num­ bers will be obtained (to be read horizontally): 1 3 9 % % 2% 2 6 18 3 9 27 .150 NOTES TABLE I (to be read vertically) 1 % H arm onicl means J A rithm etic _____ means 81/6 4 2 % 8/S2 1 % 3 2% 2 %4 “ 4 4 % % *1 % 6 2% 243/3 2 8 9 * 3% 12 27/2 16 18 81/4 ________________ y3 % 27/ie * 24 27 243/l2 8 2 8 * 16 In order to substitute whole numbers for these which are mostly fractions. thus ob­ taining the following table: TABLE II 384 432 486 512 576 648 729 768 4535 v 768 864 972 1024 1152 1296 1458 1536 8302 1536 1728 1944 *2048 2304 2592 2916 3072 16604 j 3072 3456 3888 *4096 4608 5184 5832 *6144 6144 6912 7776 *8192 9216 10368 Total 29441 If one likewise inserts a harm onic mean and an arithm etic mean between the successive terms of the triple progression. they can be reduced to the sm allest common denom ina­ tor. 128 x 3 = 384. and all m ultiplied by this denom inator.

and tripled the terms of 3 to 9 in order to have those of 9 to 27. 1 * 72% 4 384 1152 3456 Harmonic" icl means J— * -D 2A 7 * 4 % *% > 6 2A 1 8 9 12 2% “V ie * 2187/ l 2 8 18 ey4 A rithm etic means * ™/a 24 27 1296 3888 432 1458 *4374 486 1536 4608 512 5184 1728 576 1944 5832 648 729 *2187 *6561 2304 6912 768 864 2592 7776 8748 972 2916 1024 3072 9216 1152 3456 10368 Sum 76923 W e’ve placed an asterisk beside the terms of the triple progres­ sion (Tables III and IV) which are not part of the progression of doubles. we find the following: (end of C hapter I). like those of the double progression. The operation thus effectuated gives the results which can be m ultiplied by 128 x 3 = 384. the sm allest common m ultiple of the denom inators. Thus the two following tables are obtained: Table IV Table III (to be read vertically) 3 2% " % 4 9 8/. " Proclus in Timaeum. in order to have those of 3 to 9. Proclus 8 admits that Plato first filled the inter­ val of 1 to 3. In the treatise On the Soul o f the World and on Nature which bears the name Timaeus of Locris. 3 to 9 and of 9 to 27 being those of the oc­ tave and the fifth. and the term s of the double progression (Tables I and II) which are not part of the progression of triples.rr< MHffi NOTES 151 The intervals of 1 to 3. 193 and the follow ing from the edition de Bale. in order to substitute whole num ber proportions for them. 1534. . and that he then tripled the terms obtained from 1 to 3. p.

.. Notices et extraits des m anuscrits de la Bibliothkque Royale. since it is greater than 8 x 384 in the progression of doubles and does not take part in the triple progres­ sion......... 1847....... V.923 Sum...... in 4C..... 3... from 384 to 3072... Du commentaire du Timee de Platon par Proclus. All these terms arranged according to the intervals of tones and half-tones...187 and finally..... See A bbe Roussier.......... t........ from 384 to 3072 (Table II)...9 5 T he e rro r o f Tim aeus o f Locris is reproduced by all the com m entators............. A ..... 12 terms of the triple progression....... less by 6144 than the sum of 114...... This first number found....... a term which he does not take into account......... p..695. 551... X II.. the musical diagram of P lato contains 35 terms.. 335... one does not go further in making the insertions than the cubes of 8 and 27 in the respective progressions 1.695 given by Timaeus of Locris. and the divisions of the soul are themselves 114. the diagram of Plato contains (22 + 1+12) or 35 different terms (and not 36)..... If. 108..... 2......551 Thus.. If it is counted it is necessary to count also the two terms 4096 and 8192 of the double progression. 2. 22 terms of the double progression.... Paris — 1770... X V I. T ranslation o f the Oeuvres de Platon... Cousin. it is easy to calculate the terms of the double progression and of the triple progression.. in 8e ... 8 and 1... com prised of 1 x 384 to 8 x 384 that is to say...695..... 2e partie.. 3....-J.551 and not 114. Paris 1839..... p... 4. Therefore his diagram contains: 1.... which is not part of the double progression (see Tables IV and II). p.... which i s . t...... which have the value of ... are 36 in number and give a total sum equal to 1 14. The difference (6... following the intentions of Plato... in -8 ....... V incent....144) of the two results is the term 16 x 384 of the progression of doubles (Table II)... and the sum of these 35 term s is 108....695 in number...... com prised of 9 x 384 to 27 x 384..................... 163....... 1 M em oirsur la Musique des anciens..... There is then an error in the treatise bearing the name of Timaeus of Locris....... Sim on... the sum of which is 108..... 248 onw ards...........76....... 176 onw ards etc.....29... Paris 1839... 1 term of the triple progression including.... 27... 9....152 NOTES “ God made the soul first................ from 3456 to 10368 (Table IV) which have the value o f ........” Now the evident intention of P lato was to not go beyond 8 in the progression of doubles and 27 in the progression of triples.............. a part equal to 384 units....... . that is to say................. by taking in the mixture which he had formed.441 2...... J. p......-H .................. which do not take part in the triple progression.......

that is to say.7 ) + (2 + 4 + 6 + 8 ) = 16 + 20 = 36 (from. which are respectively the highest fifth and the lowest fourth of 6144 and which. a harmony. xxx. Note XIV. 3. “ the even will show an empty place at the middle. we firmly believe th at the error of the Pseudo-Tim aeus was not in­ tentional. 4. and for this reason. CII. in other words equal to the sum of its aliquot parts. being the product of the first even square by the first odd square. would have added the term 6144 corresponding to the sound 16. it was the product of the septenary num ber by the half-decad. . The Creation o f the Soul.This tetraktys. ” (1 4.) W hile the Pythagorean philosophers wanted to find quaternaries everywhere.. in order to com plete the great quaternary 36. seems to have the adm irable quality that it is the sum of the first four even numbers and the first four odd num­ bers. . and furtherm ore its side 6 was a truly perfect number. p. The num ber 35 was certainly endowed with perfection. that is 36. for 6 = 1 + 2 + 3. . If the Pseudo-Tim aeus did not also add to P lato’s diagram the two term s 4096 and 8192. “ If each of them are divided into units. it is because then the total num ber of terms would have been 38 instead of 36. and consequently. 2. — Why the Number Six was called that o f Marriage (II. The num ber 36 had another virtue if we listen to Plutarch: “ . it was itself a square. The odd numbers were considered as m ale and the even numbers as female. celebrated by the Pythagoreans. they (the Pythagoreans) have the opinion that the even has more resem blance to the fem ale and the odd to the m ale:” (Questions romaines. in the Tim aeus.NOTES 153 Knowing in what veneration the Pythagoreans held the tetraktys. like 6144.” says Plutarch (translation of Am yot). do not con­ stitute part of the terms inserted in the progression of triples. but the num ber 36 was still more perfect.3 + 5 4. 288) .. the octave of the sound 8 which is the last term of the progres­ sion 1. XLV) It was also called m arriage because it is the product of the first even num ber 2 by the first odd num ber 3. to the 35 terms of P lato’s musical diagram. Timaeus. there where the odd always has the m iddle filled with one of its parts.

90 c) Lucian also says in the Pharsalia: “ the inconstant tides of the euripe drag the vessels of Chalcis towards Aulis. whose direction changed seven times per day.a A fact verified now as it happens this present day and anyone can observe. that the euripes vary seven times per d ay. “ thus the flux occurs several times in the strait of Messina. The name euripes is given to the currents which are produced in channels or straits (narrows). . article entitled: “On the Ebb-Tide of Evea” . c) 1 0 The com m entator of Stobea rightly attributed the alternative movements of the euripe of Chalcis to the effort of the waves to surm ount the channel. and nothing remains for a mom ent in the same sta te . 235-236) The superstitious idea attached to the num ber seven appears to explain T heon’s hypothesis. like the euripe. X X X IX . where a draw-bridge connects the island of Evea to the m ainland. song V. ed. so deadly to boat­ m en. II. Plato says in the Phaedo. between the island of Evea and Boeotia. The effect of this phenom enon can be best observed from the w aterfront of the town of Chalkis. (See Eclogae physicae. (Toulis) .” says Pliny. and this inconsistency was very well known.154 NOTES Note XV. vs.) The variations of the flux of the euripes were very irregular. but all is in continual ebb and flow. accord­ ing to most ancient authors: “There are particular tides in certain places. ” (Phaedo. Heeren. at Tauromenius. t.1 2 10 T his island can be reached by c ar from A thens after a tw o-hour drive. and seven times per day in the Euripe near Evea.” (Natural History II. “ N either in things nor in argum ent is there anything true and stable. " It is indeed im possible to control a row -boat at the m om ent the ebb-tide changes direction w hile in th e straits o f Evea.” 1 1 — (La Pharsalia. XLVI). . p 447. . — On the Euripes (II. The most famous was that of Chalcis.

a. the product of the sum of the extrem e numbers by the harm onic mean is equal to the double product of the ex­ trem e numbers. translated by the for­ mula b = + c. . LVII) that in the har­ monic proportion. a solution to be rejected. Theon actually gives the second rule for the numbers in triple relation­ ship. 18 and 6.b : b . the first rule of Theon. w hatever be the relationship of a to c. (II. we are surprised that he did not conclude from this equality the value of the harm onic mean.c = a : c. LXI). — The determination o f the harmonic mean between two numbers. a value equal to It is therefore general. and when a = 3c. b. The author having made the remark (II.NOTES 155 Note XVI. this value is equal to only when a = c. being the three numbers which give the harm onic propor­ tion a . c. The second rule is translated by the form ula b = ^ ^ + c.

which expresses the volum e of / /u the sphere from the diam eter d.350 myriads.429. for 1 u d3 and for “ A of 1 d3.0 2 5 . Not only this frac­ tion is illusory.317. substituted for the correct figure 9.341. It is necessary that d 3 = 515. 0 4 3 .596.043. T he in co rrect num ber 7.842. evaluated in cubic stades. on the two or three first numbers of the result.568 instead of 515.788. 250 second myriads.142. pp85 and 86 (of text). has the value of 270 third.821.502.156 NOTES Note XVII. in trying to reconstitute it.297 monads and n A i.941.427. 2 9 7 4 ” Ai instead of 269. H enri M artin.568 V14 d 3 = 36.153.124 instead of 6.821 + % Thus the volum e of the earth. It is the expression of this volume that we have restated. . The diam eter d of the earth being equal to 80. supposing that the relationship of the circumference to the diam eter is equal to “ A. of the hundreds of thousands. 8. myriads. M artin inexact values for d3. 4.991. III) The passage is altered and the manuscripts have a blank gap at the end.182 stades. made an error of calculation. gave H.040 + 4A instead of 36. at the most.810.270. but one can count. according to the measure of the arc of meridian made by Erathosthenes.355. we have d 2 =6. — On the Measure o f the Earth’s Volume (III.124.788.153 .5 0 8 .612 n A i d 3 = 2 7 0 .

is very brilliant. An equal speed is attributed to Hermes. Venus and the Sun: the Sun. — On the Myth o f Pamphylian in Plato’s Republic. (Ill. in its apparent course around the earth. the fourth Mars. XVI). the sixth circle is given as the most brilliant following the sun. The seventh circle. the fifth Hermes. The slightly yellow shade of the second and fifth is also that of Saturn and Hermes. Finally. indeed pulls along M ercury and Venus. The earth is at the center of the system. that of the sun. and the eighth the moon. since the stars have diverse nuances. . 616 B — 617 B. The whiteness of the third and the redness of the fourth perfectly characterize the aspects of Jupiter and of Mars. It results from P lato’s tale that of the eight concentric globes. the eighth. the sixth Venus. the first exterior one is that of the fixed stars. the seventh the Sun. the third carries Jupiter. which is true of Venus. the second is that which bears Saturn. and the unequal widths of the colored edges correspond to the unequal separation of the planets in their course through the zodiac and sometimes beyond. The sphere of the fixed stars is indeed of varied color.NOTES 157 Note X V III. that of the moon borrows its light from it. The colors and speeds of the spindle-wheels correspond to those of the stars which they carry.

X a UJ .

The Tem ple in M an. 1876. 1978. o f Chicago P ress. W alter E. N Y C . 1894 (all d istroyed by fire). Music: Its S ecret Influence T hroughout the Ages. 1933. rp r W eiser. Oliver. N orth Y onkers. rpr AM S P ress. M onas H ieroglyphica. Sham bhala. B rook­ line. v. Staniland. 1564. Published in quarterly periodical Shrine of Wisdom. L ondon. K ircher. K enneth Sylvan. a etate. Rom e. B oulder. rpr W izards B ookshelf. C. Philadelphia. Schwaller de Lubicz. (1758-1835) T heoretic A rithm etic. M anuscript o f 21 pages. & W hitney. e tc. rpr W izards Bookshelf. E rnest G . Scott. T hes. A utum n P ress. N Y C. sa c r.) M cClain. 1972. 1969. 535 copies. (in. 1975. A ntw erp. 1979. Tons. 1976. . 1937. Brookline. a Specim en o f Theological A rithm etic. S ecrets o f A ncient G eom etry.32 1767) (K ircher w rote 23 incredible w orks . vicissitudine. rpr W eiser. 1570. C lark. N Y C . 1973. D. ______ L iber diacriticus m usurgia antiquo-m oderna in qua tam de varia utriusque m usicae ratione disputatur. ejusque prim a institutione. ______ M edicina M entis: O r.. ______ The M yth o f Invariance. U . T he A ryabhatiya o f A ryabhata. Platonist P ress. Autum n Press. Ralston. 1875. 1978. extraordinary. 1975. Skinner. N icholas H ays L td . Burgess. N Y C . C openhagen. (50 copies in folio) T ran s­ lated from L atin m ss. A thanasius. Supplem ent. 1932.) Dee.D . 1934. & 1975. W eiser. H arvard U. for o v e r 40 m ore such listings) . N Y C . C rane-R ussak C o. 1965. 1967. copy in H oughton L ibrary. M inneapolis. propagatione. W. _______ T h e M a th e m a tic a l P re a fa c e . (see also: N ational U nion Catalog. 2 vols. 1816. sive ars m agna consoni et dissoni. T r by R obert L aw lor from French. B runts. Thom as L. Gulielm us Silvius. rp r W atson N eal A c a d e m ic . Pythagorean triangle. pvt printing. Physics o f M usical Sounds. w /su p p l. copy in Bibliotheque N ationale. 1978. T he Pythagorean Plato. L ondon. ______ The Tem ple O f M an. antiq. 500 copies. a T ext Book o f H indu A stronom y. Taylor. Paris. H eath. 1650. 3 vols. N . Paris. K ey to the H ebrew E gyptian M ystery in the Source of M easures. G reek A stronom y. Music. R. the above but a sam ple. N ew H aven. Cyril. (translation o f technical astronom ical w ork o f 499 A . C. 1896. 1930. E. (translators) Surya Siddhanta. J . rp r Phoenix P ress (M anly Hall) L os A ngeles.. G uthrie. 1975. L ondon.160 S U P P L E M E N T A L REA D IN G (Anonymous). 1977. 194? W ake. (m onthly periodical) C hicago. 1946. 1860. International Science Pubs. Thom as. M usical Tone and Color. L ondon. Pythagoras Source B ook and L ibrary. — L iber philologicus de sono artificioso sive m usica. M usurgia universalis. George. John. N Y C. . A. C incinnati.Y . L 'A rch itectu re N aturelle. tr by R obert L aw lor. 415 pages. C hicago. 1919. N Y C . 1875.. N Y C . A. Taylor. in.

8. Archytas. 22. in Roman numerals. Aristoxenes. A lexander of A etolia. special treatise. II. Intro. I. A rithm etic is a gift of God. Ill. indicates the book o f Theon. has a value of 3 and nearly a seventh times this diameter. I. I. Aratus. 41. 5. 23. Aristoxenians. O f all the sciences. a circumference of a cir­ cle. II. A rithm etic.4. consonant intervals: the octave and the double octave. 14. Archimedes. 34. 31. arithm etic is the most necessary. 5. 31. Adrastus. . 1. 4. 18. 13. 51. 40. II. 50. the second in ordinary numerals indicates the section. Intro. 19. Ill. 6. I. I. Anaxim enes has shown that the moon receives its light from the sun and in what m anner it is eclipsed. Ill. 15. A naxim ander says that the earth is suspended in space and moves around the center of the world.Index Authors and principal m aterial cited in Theon The first number. opened out as a straight line. Ill. 17. Ill. 16. 16. 22. Ill. 21. According to Archimedes. 13. 5. 12. 34. 13. 2-32. 12. Ill. 41. 40. Aristotle. Ill. A ntiphon. 24. II.39. 3.

C hrom atic type. Intro. O ther consonances. C olure or m eridian circle. Ill. the center is in the sun which is in some way the heart of the universe and the center of the volume is the cold and immobile earth. 7. Canopus. 13 I. II. 6. II. Ill. Usefulness of Astronom y. by definition. III. 8. as world and anim al. 41. makes an angle with the stellar zodiac equal to the angle to the center of the regular pentadecagon. . C h aldeans. Why the chrom atic type is thus named. Hypothesis of Astronom y. I. 30. 2. I.i. 16. II. Intro. 23. the fifth. It is composed by going from low to high. III. 13 I. The m anner in which Astronom y has been treated by different peoples. III. II. III. id. Discovery of the numerical laws of con­ sonances. Center. They used arith m etic m ethods for expl ai ni ng astronom ic phenom ena. F or the world. III. of a half-tone. 10. Plato. 40. In­ tro. Ill. In anim ated bodies. is the fourth. is different from the center of volume. 30. Axis. are sister sciences. This other axis. Circuit. A ddition and Subtraction of consonances. Callippus. IIepurxr). Consonance of the fourth.162 INDEX Astronom y. followed by another half-tone and a com plete trihem itone. B o m isq u e ( f r om “ Bw/u. C ircum ference. II. 31. 40. The first of all the consonances. per­ pendicular to the zodiac. III. III. where this star begins to be visible. II. R atios of the consonances. Astronom y and harmony. says Plato. the octave. 1-44. the center of the body.41. Ill. says that there is another axis than that of the stars. 111. 29. special treatise. A stronom y is the science of the solid in movement. 12 I. Consonance. according to the Pythagorean doctrine. id. that is to say of the anim al. For man the center of the anim ated creature is the heart and the center of volume is in the umbilicus. 33. as anim al. The relationships which represent the con­ sonances are all found in the quaternary of the decad. M easure of the circum ference according to Archimedes. and note IX. in the myth of the Pam phylian. Astronom ical discoveries. the others are found through it. 37. id. II.o -k o ? ” s ma l l a l t a r ) r e c t a n g u l a r parallelopiped having three unequal sides. 33. 42. 3.

Proofs of the sphericity of the earth. 30. the moon is at the other node. 3. The decad is a perfect number. The Earth is a spheroid placed at the center of the world. and note VIII. A ll the cubic numbers are similar. Eclipse of the other planets. 37. II. 39. 3. II.. According to Eratosthenes. The earth. Pythagorean definition. 12. 54. 32. Diesis. III. I. The volum e of the earth is cubic stades. Egyptians. entrance of the house of the gods. Total eclipse.INDEX 163 Cube. and Note I on P lato’s solution. It is only a point in relation to the size of the Universe. III. O f the sun and of the moon. They em ployed graphic methods in order to explain astronom ic phenom ena. I. 37. See Duplication of the Cube. 41. According to Hipparchus. There is an eclipse of the moon when. According to A lexander of A etolia. A uthor of the book The Spindles.000 stades. III. 39. and the diam eter of the earth is 80. The Pythagoreans brought back all the numbers to the decad. 15. III. is in repose. 38. Decad. and the planets move with the whole celestial vault which envelops them. 40— 49. III. Diopter. Intro. III. id. Properties of the numbers contained in the decad II. The Aristoxenians considered the diesis m inor or quarter-tone as the sm allest appreciable interval. 22. the sun being at one node.182 stades. III. 1 and 4. The A ristoxenian definition. 29. Dicaerchus. It con­ stitutes the quaternary. and II. referring to the spin­ dles of P lato’s Republic. 3. . ( 8oxtssmall beam). 39. rectangular parallelopiped having two equal sides with the third larger. id. Ill. Docide. the earth gives the low note of the hypate in the celestial concert. III. II. III. III. Earth. The problem of the duplication of the Cube. 2. X X X IX . id. and note XVII. the volum e of the earth contains that of the moon more than 27 times. I. Duplication of the Cube. Eclipse. It gives the fifth in relation to the sun. Ill. id. Dercyllides. the circle of the earth m easured as a great circle has the value of nearly 252.



Enharm onic type. In the enharm onic gender, the voice, starting from the lowest sound, progresses by a diesis (a quarter-tone), another diesis and a double tone, II, 11. Why the enharm onic gender is so named, II, 12. The enharm onic gender is very difficult and demands much art and study, id. Epicycle. The hypothesis of the circle of the epicycle, posed in order to explain the phenom ena, III, 26. This hypothesis is a consequence of that of the eccentric circle and reciprocally, id. Hipparchus boasts of the hypothesis of the epicycle as his own and poses in principle that the planet moves on the epicycle; III, 34. Plato also appears to prefer the hypothesis of the epicycle to th at of the eccentric, id. He thinks that it is not spheres but solid circles which carry the planets, id. Epinomis, dialogue of Plato. Intro. — II, 31— III. 30. Equality. Equality is the principle and elem ent of proportions, II, 51. Reciprocally, proportions are resolved in equality, II, 52. Equinoxial. Ill, 5. Eratosthenes. Intro. — II, 30, 3 1 , 4 7 , 51, 52, — III, 3, 15. Eudemus. W rote On Astronomy. III. 40. Eudoxus. II, 13 — III, 31. Euripes. The ebb and flow of the sea in straits. They are generally produced seven times per day, II, 46 and note XV. Evander, II, 47. Eccentric. The hypothesis of the eccentric circle posed in order to explain the appearances, III, 26 I. The hypothesis of the ec­ centric circle is a consequence of that of the epicycle and reciprocally, III, 26. According to Plato, hypothesis of the epicy­ cle is preferable to that of the eccentric, III, 34. Expiations, Treatise of Empedocles, II, 46. Figure. Definition of planar and rectilinear figures, II, 53. G nom on (arithm etic). The ratio of the gnomons, the sum of which gives a polygonal number, is always less by two units than the num ber of angles of the polygon, I, 20. G eneral definition of gnomons, X X III, 63. G nom on (astronomic). Astronom ic gnomons show that the earth is but a point in relation to the universe, III, 4. They also show the m ovem ent of the sun in latitude, III, 27. Gods. There are eight gods, masters of the Universe, II, 47.



Gymnastic. Gymnastics should be taught to children. Intro. 21. Harm ony. Astronom y and harmony, according to Pythagorean doctrine, are sister sciences, Intro. — Defin. of harmony, II, 4. Lydian, Phrygian, Dorian harmony, id. C elestial harmony — according to the Pythagoreans, the stars by their movements produce sounds whose intervals are equal to those of an octave. Ill, 15. H erophilus. II, 46. Hipparchus, III, 16, 32, 34, 38, 39, 42. Hippasus of M etapontus II, 12 I. Horizon, definition, III, 7. Hypotheses. Hypotheses of astronom y, III, 41. Ibycus, III, 16. Initiation to the mysteries. Intro. Interval. Definition, II, 3. System of intervals, C onsonant and dis­ sonant intervals, II, 5. Difference between intervals and rela­ tionships II, 30. Jupiter, circles the zodiac in approxim ately 12 years, III, 12. It can eclipse Saturn, III, 37. Lasus of Herm ione. II, 12. Laws, dialogue of Plato. Intro. Laws, Num erical laws of sounds, determ ination of the laws with the harm onic canon; in striking two equal vases, one empty, the other successively filled with liquid to the half, to the third, and to the fourth; with flutes; with weights. I, 13. II, 12a. Leimma. According to Plato, the interval of the fourth contains two tones and a rem ainder (leim m a) which is in the ratio of 256 to 243; determ ination of this relationship, II, 14 and 34. The leimma is less than the half-tone, II, 14 and note XI. Ao-yos logos. How many meanings are given to this word, II, 17. According to P lato it is m ental thought, spoken discourse, the explanation of the elem ents of the universe and proportional reason. Line. Definition of the line, of the straight line, of the curved line, II, 53. Definition of straight parallel lines, id. Lucifer. Star of Venus, III, 6. Lybics. Lybic tales, II, 18.



Lyre. On the eight-stringed lyre, the hypate, which is the lowest sound, and the nete, which is the highest sound, are accorded by opposition and give the same consonance, II, 6. Lysias. II, 18. Mars. C ircling the zodiac in a little less than two years, III, 12. It sometimes eclipses the two planets above it, III, 37. M athem atics, the utility of. Intro. The knowledge of mathem atics is not useless and w ithout fruit for the study of the other sciences, id. It is impossible to be perfectly happy without the study of mathematics, id. the order in which one should study mathem atics, I, 2. M ean. ixeaoTT]<;. The geom etric, the arithm etic and the harm onic m ean. II, 50. General definition of. II, 54. In the arithm etic m ean, the m ean term is equal to the half-sum o f the extrem es. II, 55. In the geom etric m ean the square o f the m ean term is equal to product o f the tw o extrem e term s. II, 56. In the harm onic m ean, the product of the m ean term by the sum o f the extrem es is equal to the double product of the extrem es. II, 57. The mean subcontrary to the harm onic. II, 58. Fifth mean. II, 59. Sixth m ean. II, 60. H ow to find the m ean term of a m eans w hen the o ther tw o term s are know n; determ ination o f the arithm etic m ean, the geom etric m ean and the harm onic m ean. II, 61. M enaechm us, III, 41. Hermes (Mercury) (god), lyre of Hermes, image of the harmony of the world, III, 15. Hermes (M ercury) (planet), rarely visible, III, 37. It is separated by about 20 degrees from the sun on both sides, that is to say about two-thirds of a sign, III, 13 and 33. The planets Hermes and Venus eclipse the stars which are directly above them; they can even eclipse one another, depending on w hether one of them is higher than the other, the two planets turn around the sun, III, 37. M eridian or colure, III, 8. Monad. Why it is so named, I, 3. It differs from that which is one, id. The monad is odd, I, 5. It is not a number, but the principle of numbers, I, 8. M oon. Its eclipses are not observed at the same hour at all places on earth, III, 2. It circles the zodiac in 27 l/s days, III, 12. The M oon, which is the planet closest to earth, eclipses the planets

13 I and Note X. I.. 7. 2. I. I. III.. ascendent. I. Ill. M ovement. 8. 1 and III. T hat of Aristoxenes contains only two octaves and a fifth. I. 1. I. a fifth and a tone. Definition of uniform movement. 4 . 18. Prom ecic num­ bers.. I. id. 44.. 10. Intro. 38. 2. it comes after arithm etic. Music. id. III. On even and odd numbers. The musical diagram of Plato contains four oc­ taves. According to the Pythagorean doctrine. id. The nodes move towards the following sign of the zodiac. 17. Sim ilar planar numbers. 25. G eneration of unequilateral numbers by the sum m ation of the successive even numbers beginning with two. Musical Diagram. I. Com posite numbers. C elestial music. Special treatise. linear. On evenly-even numbers. 44. III. Direct and retrograde movement. III. M ovements of the nodes of its orbit. II. I. The unequilateral numbers are necessarily even. 1 — 36. id. and cannot be eclipsed by any of them. 5. 19. towards the signs which follow them in their passage through the meridian. 6. Prim e numbers to each other. But the m athem at­ ical principles of music are connected to the theory of abstract numbers and must come im mediately after arithm etic. id. 7. Triangular numbers. must occupy the fifth stage in the study of m athe­ matics. II. Intro. stereometry and astronomy. III. the principle. id. Parallelogram m atic numbers. II. I. Com posite numbers to each other. P lanar numbers. Definition of regular movement. 19. geometry. 24. 14. III. 38. Node. id. The sum of two successive . I. In the natural series of num ­ bers. there is an eclipse of the sun. U nequilateral numbers. Musician. 35. Number. descendent. and 39. that is to say. euthym etric and oddly-even. solid numbers. The philosopher alone can truly be a musician. II. I. Prime numbers are also called incomposite. I. 12. which results from the movement and concert of the stars. Eclipses of the moon. 5. I. On the num ber nine. 2 — There are three parts in music.INDEX 167 and the stars under which it passes. 38. I. the numbers are. as it were. that is to say. On evenly-odd numbers. the source and the reason of all things.The successive relationships of a term to that which preceded it are in a diminishing sequence. 3. If the m onthly conjunction of the sun and the moon occurs near the nodes. Nine. Usefulness of music. 13.

II. 20. 31. Paraphone. 54. 15. 24. Pyram idal numbers. III. On the order in the universe and the disorder in the sublunar world. Observations. as squares. I. One as One is w ithout parts and indivisible. Perfect musical system formed of two octaves. One. Perfect. 6. I. and note II. Also see note XII. 13. Parallelopiped. It is the sum of a fourth and a fifth. 20. Parallelogram ic figure. II. I. III. I. id. it includes two octaves. and as cubes their sides are of square num­ bers. 5. II. in the latter case. 18. III. the Egyptians. 28. 30 and note VI. and note VII. II. spherical or recurrent numbers. . C ircular. See note V. The Chaldeans. On One and the monad. the terms are squared from two in two. id. III. 6. Name given by the Pythagoreans to the Universe con­ sidered as an anim ated W hole. 40. G eneration of perfect numbers.. Students of A ristotle. III. I. cited in a sermon of Orpheus. 20. Phaeto. I. their generation. 22. 14. Also given to the sun. 5. In the progression of double and triple numbers beginning with unity. id. Parallelogram . Pentagonal numbers.168 INDEX triangular numbers is a square. Pentadecacord. 25. 47. I. Octave. II. Phanes. to the god of light and some­ times to Love. I. 3. Order. abundant and deficient num­ bers. and the following. 38. Definition of the parallelopiped and of the rec­ tangular and cubic parallelopipeds. II. I. 30. Peripatetians. Parallelogram ic number. Found the first obliquity of the zodiac and believed in the existence of a great year. Oath of the Pythagoreans. I. and squared and cubic from six in six. Oenopides. Star of Saturn. II. 32. their sides are of cubic numbers. Phenon. their generation. 25. II. I. cubic from three in three. One is the first of the odd numbers. Heptagonal and octagonal numbers. C onsonant paraphonic interval: the fifth and the fourth. Square numbers. 53. star of Jupiter. Lateral and diagonal numbers. lyre of 15 strings. 15. 14. II.

Definition. III. Hermes. 40. 34. 37. 32. 18. id. in the opposite direction to the m ovement of the universe. 20. to the same distance. 15. They are carried with the universe in its diurnal m ovement. id. III. that is to say. 21 and 35. a truth which results from long observation. M ovem ent of the planets by chance. that is to say. . 29. Venus. 22. M ovem ent of the planets in the opposite direction to the diurnal movement. an octave. III.INDEX 169 Philebus. Forward m ovem ent of the planets. III. id. and a latitudinal m ovem ent from the summer tropic to the w inter tropic and reciprocally. or the circuits which carry them move them around their own centers. O rder of the distances of the planets. from East to West. — II. by an effect which is the consequence of other movements. 4. P lanar number. 28. 16. id. dialogue of Plato. 31. 30. III. All events here below follow the m ovem ent of the planets and all things change in the same time as that movement. O rder according to certain m athem aticians. Jupiter. C o lo r of the planets. 4 . id. III. Duration of their revolutions. They vary in apparent size. to the same latitude. 22. and Saturn. Planets. 43. III. id. There are seven planets. Mars. III. There is an agreem ent between the two hypotheses. 41. III. Sim ilar planar numbers. 12. I. III. Plane. The order of the planets ac­ cording to Eratosthenes gives second place to the Sun. I. III. 6. Tim e of the return of the planets to the same longitude. ac­ cording to the Pythagoreans: M oon. 27 — 28. 24. The speed of their m ovem ent through the signs seems unequal. III. 53. Each planet eclipses the stars beneath which it passes in its course. R etrogradation of the planets. III. III. he believes th at there are eight sounds produced by the starry sphere and by the seven spheres of the planets which he says turn around the earth. The spheres of the seven planets give the seven sounds of the lyre and produce a har­ mony. Mean distance of the planets in the hypothesis of the epicycle and in that of the eccentric cir­ cle. I. Philolaus. The planets move around a perpendicular axis of the zodiac. they also have a longitudinal m ovem ent. III. 43. III. id. neither more nor less. the Sun. III. Station of the planets. 30. being further away or closer to the earth. The apparent spiral m ovem ent of the planets. 41. 22. The planets move themselves on their own circuits. I. 49. 36. II.

Quaternary. square. 16. There are eleven quaternaries: I. 4.. 42. water. 59. 11. — III. II. II. the magnitudes (point.170 INDEX Plato. 12 I. height). 57. 61. opinion. 39. 1. 18. cube). 2. id. 3. but by continuous movement. the . 29 and II. — II. icosahedron. Pyrois. In like manner. 30. Definition. — I. see triangular. Pythagorean. unity. 4 quaternary. (The Tetraktys). I. 23. Poseidonius. pentagonal. 4. Intro. 21. — III — 16. Lost work of Aristotle. hexagonal numbers. 60. Prom ecic figure. 5. the side. Arithm etic. The. 31. 1. The 1. 44. 30. lost work of Eratosthenes. Promecic number. neighborhood. II. II. II. II. V. engendered things (seed. — III. family. IV. solid). 32. 18 . 2.. the faculties of judgm ent (thought. 51 and note. II. It is neither by m ultiplication nor by addition that the point forms a line. Q uadrilateral. 2. 46. 6. 2. 3. Point. the elements (fire. VI. Pythagorean. and 1. II. The. 3. but every mean num ber is not a proportional mean. 3 8 . II. Polygonal number. geom etric and harm onic propor­ tions. 1. the quaternary form ed of two progressions. societies (M an. Proportional Mean. Definition. 12. 15. 46. the square and the cube. 4. city). Definition. the figures of the elem ents (pyramid. 12 I. line. quaternary includes all the consonances. 32.. 9. 53. Every proportional num ber is a mean number. Intro. science. C ontinuous and discontinuous pro­ portions. A drastus’s rule for deducing any three term s in con­ tinuous proportion in as many continuous proportions as one wishes. III. 6. 27. I. Definition. width. — II. the 1. octahedron. 12. Definition of the point. Platonist. Polygon. II. 8 and 1. air. III. the parts of the anim al (the reasoning part of the soul. 53. II. length. 21. Proportion. 31. See Pythagoreans.33. the line forms the surface and the surface forms the volum e. II. 34. II. 54. the irascible. 14. 53. rectangular parallelopiped having two equal sides and the third side sm aller. II. 46. There are three classes of promecic numbers. 2. 44. 4. V III. 38. 22. Intro. earth). star of Mars. I. VII. Pythagoras. 53. Plinthe. that is to say. surface. 3 1 .. sense): IX.

. id. id. II. Saturn. II. In the series of numbers 1. id. id. medium and low sounds. M ulti-superpartial relation­ ship. II. XI. Rising of the stars. and 24. 38. adolescence. id. Base of a relationship. Sound. II. The sounds belonging to .. 21. if the m ovem ent is rapid the sound produced is high. the ages (childhood. 3. 46. It is called the num­ ber of marriage. 22. On the num ber six. 28. id. Definition. 16. Ill. Why the Pythagoreans called it M inerva (Athena). 6. 39. II. Definition given by Thrasyllus. for the sesquitertian or epitrites it is */a. 16 and 34. II. III. 30. Superpartial or sesquipartial relationship. the sound produced is low. 2. 4. Circles the zodiac in a little less than thirty years. 4. All the numbers can be con­ sidered as having their justification in the quaternary. 5. Sounds differ from one another through tensions. R etrograde m otion of the planets. Seven days are necessary for the diag­ nosis of an illness. II. II. and the body). II. 22. 53. Epim er relationship. 4.INDEX 171 lustful. M ultiple relationship. Republic. 26. 29. old age). Rectangle. id. — III. II. of the promecic rec­ tangle. P lato and other authors thus designated the planets. Dialogue of Plato. 53. Definition of the square rectangle. of the quater­ nary (tetraktys) of Pythagoras. II. 16. 19. II. 3. Intro. II. 45. Definition. II. II. 2. 12. the relationship of two successive terms unceasingly decreases. Hypopolyepim er relationship. III. X. and note XIV. 22 and 25. II. Right angle. Six.id. II. III. if it is slow. R elationship of num ber to num­ ber. Enharm onic sound. id. II. III. The air being struck and put into move­ ment. maturity. It is perfect. It is impossible to find the relationship between two things which are not of the same species. 35. II. 53. The terms of these quaternaries correspond to the numbers 1. the seasons. W hat is the difference between the interval and the relationship. Seven. Solid. It happens in several ways. The base of the sesquilateral relationships is 3A . On the num ber seven. Sirens. id. I. 14.. 27. Com m on name given to any brilliant star (star or planet). The noise of thunder is not an enharm onic sound. 2. High. Sub-m ultiple and subsesquipartial relationships. The . Relationship.

15. id. of the Oceans. Spiral. id. 11. 26. The squares are divisible by three. 15.. And equally equal number. 12. III. 29. that is to say. III. and gives the fourth in relation to the sun. III. The sun can be eclipsed by the m oon and can itself hide the other stars. or become so after the subtraction of one unit. III. Star of Hermes. 2. 3. III. 40. they are also divisible by four. 20. A pparent m ovement of the planets in a spiral. Sphere of Plato. The visible stars are not the same in different countries. or simply a relationship of num ber to number. 1. Ill. 15. III. III. The reciprocal is not true. Station of the planets. Tim e taken by the sun to return to the same latitude. id. the starry sphere gives the nete of the conjuncts in the celestial concert. at the same distance which pro­ duces the inequality called anom aly.172 INDEX m odulation have certain m ultiple or sesquipartial relationships to one another. of the earth. Square. first by drowning them in its light. The Pythagoreans believe that its orbit is in the m iddle of those of the other planets. Ill. Starry sphere. A ll squares are sim ilar. 6. and note IV. I. 2. III. 19. G eneration of square numbers by the addition of successive odd numbers beginning with unity. Stilbon. The geom etric mean between two suc­ cessive numbers is a heterom ecic number. The sun has neither stationary nor retrograde movement. 14 and 34. I. 23. Sphere. 27. The various modes of the appearance and disappearance of the stars. 14. the sun being as the heart of the universe. III. the sun gives the mese. 25. Sun. III. I. III. III. 22. I. II. or become so after the subtraction of one unit. that two successive heterom ecics do not have one as the proportional mean. and second in coming directly bet­ . The square which is neither divisible by three nor by four admits these two divisors after the subtraction of one unit. id. Sphericity of the Universe. id. 20 and 35. Measure of its volume. Ill. According to A lexander of A etolia in the celestial concert. The sounds which give the sharp or half-tone are in the rela­ tionship of 256 to 213. 3. 16. According to A lexander of A etolia. It circles the zodiac in about 365 V» days. by an epicycle. Stars. 25. M ovem ent of the sun explained by an eccentric circle III.

Surface. 16. 44. See monad. Tone. The unequilaterals are necessarily even. 7 and 14. 16. and the sun is further away from the earth than the moon. Deviates from the sun about 50 degrees to the east and to the west. Ternary. See Hermes. 32. Triangle. and 16. II. The ancients found that the tone is in the ratio of 9 to 8. 36. The. II. Tetraktys. 35. . Term. Venus. Theon. reason for this perfec­ tion. id. The num ber three. Ten. Triangular numbers. Three. II. 14. 19. 38. Definition. but the square contained between two successive unequilateral numbers is not their geom etric mean. III. Dialogue of Plato. starting with two. III.INDEX 173 ween them and ourselves. Definition. I. II. Two. 19 and 23. Timaeus. According to Hipparchus. 8. 13. The fifth surpasses the fourth by a tone. The ternary is a perfect number. Definition. I. Timothy. See Ternary. 47. How this relationship was determ ined. The tone cannot be divided into two equal parts. id. of the planar surface and the curved surface. — III. O rder in the universe and disorder in the sublunar world. U nequilateral number. I. Ill. the volum e of the sun would contain the earth about 1880 times. Thales. II. III. 39. XX. I. III. 6.46. Thrasyllus. 13 and 33. 40. G eneration of unequilaterals by the addition of successive even numbers. II. II. II. Universe. II. III. I. 5. 53. I. 33. II. III. The geom etric mean between two successive squares is an unequilateral number. Tropics of summer and winter. 15. 53. H ad w ritten Commentaries on the Republic. 22. II. 121. 2. see quaternary.. Unity. 42. 37. Definition of the surface. See decad. Two is the only even num ber which is prime.

III. 6. G reat year. Zodiac. The sun. III. . The whole world is spherical. III. The world finite and ordered. III. 12. II. III. 60. III. Year. 22. 47. Egyptian. 40. Ill. Obliquity of the zodiac. 41.174 INDEX W riting. III. 38. 42. W orld. The zodiac has a certain breadth. V alue of the tropical year. 23. 1. The center of the world as world and as creature is the sun which is in some way the heart of the universe. 10. M ovem ent has been given to it by a first motor. moon and planets are carried in the zodiac. like the lateral surface of a drum. III.